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Sample records for cultivated soybean glycine

  1. Replenishment of Cultivated Soybean Varietes Market (Glycine hispida Maxim, Moench..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Безручко

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There provided ways of using valuable protein crop, soybean, as well as its production worldwide growth rates during recent years, possibility and necessity of attaching to the crop a strategic importance in our State and the tasks and outlooks of soybeanrecourses generation. A complete description of new soybean varieties listed in the Register of Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine has also been provided.

  2. Characterization of storage proteins in wild (Glycine soja) and cultivated (Glycine max) soybean seeds using proteomic analysis.

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    Natarajan, Savithiry S; Xu, Chenping; Bae, Hanhong; Caperna, Thomas J; Garrett, Wesley M

    2006-04-19

    A combined proteomic approach was applied for the separation, identification, and comparison of two major storage proteins, beta-conglycinin and glycinin, in wild (Glycine soja) and cultivated (Glycine max) soybean seeds. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) with three different immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips was an effective method to separate a large number of abundant and less-abundant storage proteins. Most of the subunits of beta-conglycinin were well-separated in the pH range 3.0-10.0, while acidic and basic glycinin polypeptides were well-separated in pH ranges 4.0-7.0 and 6.0-11.0, respectively. Although the overall distribution pattern of the protein spots was similar in both genotypes using pH 3.0-10.0, variations in number and intensity of protein spots were better resolved using a combination of pH 4.0-7.0 and pH 6.0-11.0. The total number of storage protein spots detected in wild and cultivated genotypes was approximately 44 and 34, respectively. This is the first study reporting the comparison of protein profiles of wild and cultivated genotypes of soybean seeds using proteomic tools.

  3. Genetic structure and diversity of cultivated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) landraces in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yinghui; Guan, Rongxia; Liu, Zhangxiong; Ma, Yansong; Wang, Lixia; Li, Linhai; Lin, Fanyun; Luan, Weijiang; Chen, Pengyin; Yan, Zhe; Guan, Yuan; Zhu, Li; Ning, Xuecheng; Smulders, M.J.M.; Li, W.; Piao, Rihua; Cui, Yanhua; Yu, Zhongmei; Guan, Min; Chang, Ruzhen; Hou, Anfu; Shi, Ainong; Zhang, Bo; Zhu, Shenlong; Qiu, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese genebank contains 23,587 soybean landraces collected from 29 provinces. In this study, a representative collection of 1,863 landraces were assessed for genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in order to provide useful information for effective management and utilization. A total o

  4. Genetic structure and diversity of cultivated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) landraces in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yinghui; Guan, Rongxia; Liu, Zhangxiong; Ma, Yansong; Wang, Lixia; Li, Linhai; Lin, Fanyun; Luan, Weijiang; Chen, Pengyin; Yan, Zhe; Guan, Yuan; Zhu, Li; Ning, Xuecheng; Smulders, M.J.M.; Li, W.; Piao, Rihua; Cui, Yanhua; Yu, Zhongmei; Guan, Min; Chang, Ruzhen; Hou, Anfu; Shi, Ainong; Zhang, Bo; Zhu, Shenlong; Qiu, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese genebank contains 23,587 soybean landraces collected from 29 provinces. In this study, a representative collection of 1,863 landraces were assessed for genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in order to provide useful information for effective management and utilization. A total o

  5. Environmental Association Analyses Identify Candidates for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Glycine soja, the Wild Progenitor of Cultivated Soybeans.

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    Anderson, Justin E; Kono, Thomas J Y; Stupar, Robert M; Kantar, Michael B; Morrell, Peter L

    2016-04-07

    Natural populations across a species range demonstrate population structure owing to neutral processes such as localized origins of mutations and migration limitations. Selection also acts on a subset of loci, contributing to local adaptation. An understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation to local environmental conditions is a fundamental goal in basic biological research. When applied to crop wild relatives, this same research provides the opportunity to identify adaptive genetic variation that may be used to breed for crops better adapted to novel or changing environments. The present study explores an ex situ conservation collection, the USDA germplasm collection, genotyped at 32,416 SNPs to identify population structure and test for associations with bioclimatic and biophysical variables in Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of Glycine max (soybean). Candidate loci were detected that putatively contribute to adaptation to abiotic stresses. The identification of potentially adaptive variants in this ex situ collection may permit a more targeted use of germplasm collections.

  6. Assessing the effects of cultivating genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant varieties of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) on populations of field arthropods.

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    Imura, Osamu; Shi, Kun; Iimura, Keiji; Takamizo, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the effects of cultivating two genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybean varieties (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) derived from Event 40-3-2 and a Japanese conventional variety on arthropods under field conditions, with weed control using glyphosate and conventional weed control for two years. Plant height and dry weight of the conventional variety were significantly larger than those of the GM varieties, but the GM varieties bore more pods than the conventional variety. We found arthropods of nine taxonomic orders (Araneae, Acari, Thysanoptera, Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera) on the plants. The arthropod incidence (number per plant unit weight pooled for each taxonomic order) on the soybean stems and leaves generally did not differ significantly between the GM and conventional varieties. However, the incidence of Thysanoptera and total incidence (all orders combined) were greater on the GM variety in the second year. The weed control regimes had no significant influence on the arthropod incidence on the soybean stems and leaves. The number of flower-inhabiting Thysanoptera (the dominant arthropod in the flowers) was not significantly different between the GM and conventional varieties. Asphondylia yushimai (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) was more numerous on the pods of the GM variety in both years. Neither the soybean variety nor the weed control regime significantly affected the density of soil macro-organisms. However, the glyphosate weed control affected arthropods between the rows of plants by decreasing the abundances of Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, and diversity of arthropods. © ISBR, EDP Sciences, 2011.

  7. Mapping and validation of a dominant salt tolerance gene in the cultivated soybean(Glycine max) variety Tiefeng 8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongxia; Guan; Jiangang; Chen; Jinghan; Jiang; Guangyu; Liu; Ying; Liu; Lei; Tian; Lili; Yu; Ruzhen; Chang; Li-juan; Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Salt is an abiotic stress factor that strongly affects soybean growth and production. A single dominant gene has been shown to confer salt tolerance in the soybean cultivar Tiefeng 8.The objective of the present study was to genetically map the salt-tolerance gene in an F2:3population and a recombinant inbred line(RIL) population derived from a cross between two cultivated soybeans, Tiefeng 8(tolerant) and 85-140(sensitive). The F2:3families and RILs were treated with 200 mmol L-1Na Cl to evaluate salt tolerance. The F2:3population showed 1(42 tolerant): 2(132 segregating): 1(65 sensitive) segregation, indicating a single dominant gene for salt tolerance in Tiefeng 8. A sequence-characterized amplified region(SCAR) marker from a previously identified random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD)marker and four insertion/deletion polymorphism(In Del) markers were developed within the mapping region. Using these markers along with SSR markers, the salt-tolerance gene was mapped within 209 kb flanked by SCAR marker QS08064 and SSR marker Barcsoyssr31301 on chromosome 3. Three markers that cosegregated with the salt tolerance gene and SCAR marker QS08064 were used to genotype 35 tolerant and 23 sensitive soybean accessions. These markers showed selection efficiencies of 76.2% to94.2%. The results indicate that these markers will be useful for marker-assisted breeding and facilitating map-based cloning of the salt tolerance gene in soybean.

  8. The essence of NAC gene family to the cultivation of drought-resistant soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivars.

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    Hussain, Reem M; Ali, Mohammed; Feng, Xing; Li, Xia

    2017-02-28

    The NAC gene family is notable due to its large size, as well as its relevance in crop cultivation - particularly in terms of enhancing stress tolerance of plants. These plant-specific proteins contain NAC domain(s) that are named after Petunia NAM and Arabidopsis ATAF1/2 and CUC2 transcription factors based on the consensus sequence they have. Despite the knowledge available regarding NAC protein function, an extensive study on the possible use of GmNACs in developing soybean cultivars with superior drought tolerance is yet to be done. In response to this, our study was carried out, mainly through means of phylogenetic analysis (rice and Arabidopsis NAC genes served as seeding sequences). Through this, 139 GmNAC genes were identified and later grouped into 17 clusters. Furthermore, real-time quantitative PCR was carried out on drought-stressed and unstressed leaf tissues of both sensitive (B217 and H228) and tolerant (Jindou 74 and 78) cultivars. This was done to analyze the gene expression of 28 dehydration-responsive GmNAC genes. Upon completing the analysis, it was found that GmNAC gene expression is actually dependent on genotype. Eight of the 28 selected genes (GmNAC004, GmNAC021, GmNAC065, GmNAC066, GmNAC073, GmNAC082, GmNAC083 and GmNAC087) were discovered to have high expression levels in the drought-resistant soybean varieties tested. This holds true for both extreme and standard drought conditions. Alternatively, the drought-sensitive cultivars exhibited lower GmNAC expression levels in comparison to their tolerant counterparts. The study allowed for the identification of eight GmNAC genes that could be focused upon in future attempts to develop superior soybean varieties, particularly in terms of drought resistance. This study revealed that there were more dehydration-responsive GmNAC genes as (GmNAC004, GmNAC005, GmNAC020 and GmNAC021) in addition to what were reported in earlier inquiries. It is important to note though, that discovering such

  9. Hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) under field conditions in Japan.

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    Mizuguti, Aki; Ohigashi, Kentaro; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Kaga, Akito; Kuroda, Yosuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of information about natural hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) is required for risk assessment evaluation and to establish biosafety regulations in Japan. This is particularly important in areas where wild relatives of cultivated soybean are grown (i.e. East Asia including Japan). To collect information on temporal and spatial factors affecting variation in hybridization between wild and GM soybean, a two year hybridization experiment was established that included one wild soybean and five GM soybean cultivars with different maturity dates. Hybridization frequencies ranged from 0 to 0.097%. The maximum hybridization frequency (0.097%) was obtained from wild soybean crossed with GM soybean cv. AG6702RR, which were adjacently cultivated with wild soybean, with 25 hybrids out of 25 741 seedlings tested. Cultivar AG6702RR had the most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Ten hybrids out of 25 741 were produced by crossing with cv. AG5905RR, which had the second most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Most hybrids were found where GM and wild soybeans were adjacently cultivated, whereas only one hybrid was detected from wild soybean plants at 2 m, 4 m and 6 m from a pollen source (GM soybean). Differences in flowering phenology, isolation distance and presence of buffer plants accounted for half of the variation in hybridization frequency in this study. Temporal and spatial isolation will be effective strategies to minimize hybridization between GM and wild soybean.

  10. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

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    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  11. Population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean (Glycine soja) based on microsatellite variation.

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    Kuroda, Y; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Vaughan, D A

    2006-04-01

    The research objectives were to determine aspects of the population dynamics relevant to effective monitoring of gene flow in the soybean crop complex in Japan. Using 20 microsatellite primers, 616 individuals from 77 wild soybean (Glycine soja) populations were analysed. All samples were of small seed size ( 10 km) events among populations, and spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed that populations within a radius of 100 km showed a close genetic relationship to one another. When analysis of graphical ordination was applied to compare the microsatellite variation of wild soybean with that of 53 widely grown Japanese varieties of cultivated soybean (Glycine max), the primary factor of genetic differentiation was based on differences between wild and cultivated soybeans and the secondary factor was geographical differentiation of wild soybean populations. Admixture analysis revealed that 6.8% of individuals appear to show introgression from cultivated soybeans. These results indicated that population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean is (i) strongly affected by the founder effect due to seed dispersal and inbreeding strategy, (ii) generally well differentiated from cultivated soybean, but (iii) introgression from cultivated soybean occurs. The implications of the results for the release of transgenic soybeans where wild soybeans grow are discussed.

  12. Comparative mapping of the wild perennial Glycine latifolia and soybean (G. max) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine.

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    Chang, Sungyul; Thurber, Carrie S; Brown, Patrick J; Hartman, Glen L; Lambert, Kris N; Domier, Leslie L

    2014-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chromosomes were examined by aligning SNP-containing sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean production.

  13. Analysis of resource use efficiency among soybean ( Glycine max ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of resource use efficiency among soybean ( Glycine max ) farmers in ... Resource-use efficiency revealed that quantity of seed, farm size, herbicide and ... making loans accessible to farmers and reasonable market price of soybean ...

  14. Comparative analysis of complete plastid genomes from wild soybean (Glycine soja) and nine other Glycine species

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    Khan, Abdul Latif; Aaqil Khan, Muhammad; Muhammad Imran, Qari; Kang, Sang-Mo; Al-Hosni, Khdija; Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Ko Eun; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The plastid genomes of different plant species exhibit significant variation, thereby providing valuable markers for exploring evolutionary relationships and population genetics. Glycine soja (wild soybean) is recognized as the wild ancestor of cultivated soybean (G. max), representing a valuable genetic resource for soybean breeding programmes. In the present study, the complete plastid genome of G. soja was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing and then compared it for the first time with previously reported plastid genome sequences from nine other Glycine species. The G. soja plastid genome was 152,224 bp in length and possessed a typical quadripartite structure, consisting of a pair of inverted repeats (IRa/IRb; 25,574 bp) separated by small (178,963 bp) and large (83,181 bp) single-copy regions, with a 51-kb inversion in the large single-copy region. The genome encoded 134 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes, and 39 transfer RNA genes, and possessed 204 randomly distributed microsatellites, including 15 forward, 25 tandem, and 34 palindromic repeats. Whole-plastid genome comparisons revealed an overall high degree of sequence similarity between G. max and G. gracilis and some divergence in the intergenic spacers of other species. Greater numbers of indels and SNP substitutions were observed compared with G. cyrtoloba. The sequence of the accD gene from G. soja was highly divergent from those of the other species except for G. max and G. gracilis. Phylogenomic analyses of the complete plastid genomes and 76 shared genes yielded an identical topology and indicated that G. soja is closely related to G. max and G. gracilis. The complete G. soja genome sequenced in the present study is a valuable resource for investigating the population and evolutionary genetics of Glycine species and can be used to identify related species. PMID:28763486

  15. Molecular analysis and physicochemical properties of electrophoretic variants of wild soybean Glycine soja storage proteins.

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    Fukuda, Takako; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Kanazawa, Akira; Abe, Jun; Shimamoto, Yoshiya; Hiemori, Miki; Tsuji, Hideaki; Tanisaka, Takatoshi; Utsumi, Shigeru

    2005-05-04

    Cultivated soybeans (Glycine max) are derived from wild soybeans (Glycine soja) and can be crossed with them to produce fertile offspring. The latter exhibit greater genetic variation than the former, suggesting a possibility that wild soybeans contain storage proteins with properties different from and better than those of cultivated soybeans. To identify a wild soybean suitable for breeding a new soybean cultivar, we analyzed seed proteins from 390 lines of wild soybeans by electrophoresis. We found some lines containing electrophoretic variants of glycinin and beta-conglycinin subunits: one line containing a small alpha' subunit of beta-conglycinin and two and five lines containing small A3 and large A4 polypeptides of glycinin, respectively. Beta-Conglycinin and glycinin containing such variant subunits exhibited solubility and emulsifying ability similar to those of the predominant types of wild and cultivated soybeans. Glycinins containing small A3 and large A4 gave a shoulder derived from the start of denaturation at a temperature 4 degrees C lower than that of glycinin from the predominant types of wild and cultivated soybeans, although their thermal denaturation midpoint temperatures were very similar to each other. Cloning and sequencing of the predominant and variant subunit cDNAs revealed that the small alpha' and the small A3 lacked 24 amino acid residues in the extension region and four amino acid residues in the hypervariable region, respectively, and that the large A4 did not have an insert corresponding to the difference in the electrophoretic mobility but Arg279 and Gln305 were replaced by glutamine and histidine, respectively, in the hypervariable region. These suggest that small differences even in the hypervariable region can affect the thermal stability, as well as the electrophoretic mobilities, of the proteins.

  16. Complete nucleotide sequences of seven soybean mosaic viruses (SMV), isolated from wild soybeans (Glycine soja) in China.

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    Chen, Yun-Xia; Wu, Mian; Ma, Fang-Fang; Chen, Jian-Qun; Wang, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a devastating plant virus classified in the family Potyviridae, and known to infect cultivated soybeans (Glycine max). In this study, seven new SMVs were isolated from wild soybean samples and analyzed by whole-genome sequencing. An updated SMV phylogeny was built with the seven new and 83 known SMV genomic sequences. Results showed that three northeastern SMV isolates were distributed in clade III and IV, while four southern SMVs were grouped together in clade II and all contained a recombinant BCMV fragment (~900 bp) in the upstream part of the genome. This work revealed that wild soybeans in China also act as important SMV hosts and play a role in the transmission and diversity of SMVs.

  17. Metabolic Profiles Reveal Changes in Wild and Cultivated Soybean Seedling Leaves under Salt Stress.

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    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Dongshuang; Li, Mingxia; Shi, Lianxuan

    2016-01-01

    Clarification of the metabolic mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in plants will allow further optimization of crop breeding and cultivation to obtain high yields in saline-alkali land. Here, we characterized 68 differential metabolites of cultivated soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) under neutral-salt and alkali-salt stresses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics, to reveal the physiological and molecular differences in salt tolerance. According to comparisons of growth parameters under the two kinds of salt stresses, the level of inhibition in wild soybean was lower than in cultivated soybean, especially under alkali-salt stress. Moreover, wild soybean contained significantly higher amounts of phenylalanine, asparagine, citraconic acid, citramalic acid, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid under neutral-salt stress, and higher amounts of palmitic acid, lignoceric acid, glucose, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid under alkali-salt stress, than cultivated soybean. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of wild soybean to salt tolerance was mainly based on the synthesis of organic and amino acids, and the more active tricarboxylic acid cycle under neutral-salt stress. In addition, the metabolite profiling analysis suggested that the energy generation from β-oxidation, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle plays important roles under alkali-salt stress. Our results extend the understanding of mechanisms involved in wild soybean salt tolerance and provide an important reference for increasing yields and developing salt-tolerant soybean cultivars.

  18. Metabolic Profiles Reveal Changes in Wild and Cultivated Soybean Seedling Leaves under Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    Full Text Available Clarification of the metabolic mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in plants will allow further optimization of crop breeding and cultivation to obtain high yields in saline-alkali land. Here, we characterized 68 differential metabolites of cultivated soybean (Glycine max and wild soybean (Glycine soja under neutral-salt and alkali-salt stresses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-based metabolomics, to reveal the physiological and molecular differences in salt tolerance. According to comparisons of growth parameters under the two kinds of salt stresses, the level of inhibition in wild soybean was lower than in cultivated soybean, especially under alkali-salt stress. Moreover, wild soybean contained significantly higher amounts of phenylalanine, asparagine, citraconic acid, citramalic acid, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid under neutral-salt stress, and higher amounts of palmitic acid, lignoceric acid, glucose, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid under alkali-salt stress, than cultivated soybean. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of wild soybean to salt tolerance was mainly based on the synthesis of organic and amino acids, and the more active tricarboxylic acid cycle under neutral-salt stress. In addition, the metabolite profiling analysis suggested that the energy generation from β-oxidation, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle plays important roles under alkali-salt stress. Our results extend the understanding of mechanisms involved in wild soybean salt tolerance and provide an important reference for increasing yields and developing salt-tolerant soybean cultivars.

  19. Vegetable soybean (Glycine max) tolerance to pyroxasulfone

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    If registered for use on vegetable soybean, pyroxasulfone would fill an important gap in weed management systems in the crop. In order to determine the potential crop injury risk of pyroxasulfone on vegetable soybean, the objective of this work was to quantify vegetable soybean tolerance to pyroxasu...

  20. Interaction of Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines and Heterodera glycines in Sudden Death Syndrome of Soybean.

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    Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    ABSTRACT Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean is caused by the soilborne Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines (synonym F. virguliforme). In a sequential approach, two multifactor factorial-design microplot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of fungal infestation levels and soil moisture on both root necrosis and foliar SDS severity, and the interaction between F. solani f. sp. glycines and Heterodera glycines in fumigated versus nonfumigated soil. In 2003, soybean cv. Spencer was grown in nonfumigated or methyl bromide-fumigated soil and infested with increasing levels of F. solani f. sp. glycines, either under rainfall or irrigated after growth stage V6/R1. In 2004, interactions between F. solani f. sp. glycines and H. glycines were explored in a factorial inoculation design in fumigated or nonfumigated soil, planted to Williams 82 or Cyst-X20-18. In both years, higher levels of foliar SDS severity and root necrosis were found in F. solani f. sp. glycines-infested soils with H. glycines than in soils without the nematode on the soybean cultivars susceptible to both pathogens. Both natural infestations of H. glycines in 2003 and artificially amended populations of H. glycines in 2004 contributed to higher foliar SDS severity. More severe foliar SDS symptoms always were associated with more root necrosis, but elevated levels of root necrosis did not predict severe leaf symptoms. In contrast to the critical role of H. glycines, increasing fungal infestation levels had no significant effects on increasing either foliar SDS symptoms or root necrosis. Effects of moisture regime and fungal infestation levels also were examined in factorial greenhouse and growth chamber experiments. High soil moisture resulted in higher levels of SDS root necrosis. In the greenhouse, root necrosis increased at a higher rate in low soil moisture than the rate in high soil moisture. The two pathogens acted as a complex and the disease development was strongly dependent on

  1. A single origin and moderate bottleneck during domestication of soybean (Glycine max): implications from microsatellites and nucleotide sequences.

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    Guo, Juan; Wang, Yunsheng; Song, Chi; Zhou, Jianfeng; Qiu, Lijuan; Huang, Hongwen; Wang, Ying

    2010-09-01

    Background and Aims It is essential to illuminate the evolutionary history of crop domestication in order to understand further the origin and development of modern cultivation and agronomy; however, despite being one of the most important crops, the domestication origin and bottleneck of soybean (Glycine max) are poorly understood. In the present study, microsatellites and nucleotide sequences were employed to elucidate the domestication genetics of soybean. Methods The genomes of 79 landrace soybeans (endemic cultivated soybeans) and 231 wild soybeans (G. soja) that represented the species-wide distribution of wild soybean in East Asia were scanned with 56 microsatellites to identify the genetic structure and domestication origin of soybean. To understand better the domestication bottleneck, four nucleotide sequences were selected to simulate the domestication bottleneck. Key Results Model-based analysis revealed that most of the landrace genotypes were assigned to the inferred wild soybean cluster of south China, South Korea and Japan. Phylogeny for wild and landrace soybeans showed that all landrace soybeans formed a single cluster supporting a monophyletic origin of all the cultivars. The populations of the nearest branches which were basal to the cultivar lineage were wild soybeans from south China. The coalescent simulation detected a bottleneck severity of K' = 2 during soybean domestication, which could be explained by a foundation population of 6000 individuals if domestication duration lasted 3000 years. Conclusions As a result of integrating geographic distribution with microsatellite genotype assignment and phylogeny between landrace and wild soybeans, a single origin of soybean in south China is proposed. The coalescent simulation revealed a moderate genetic bottleneck with an effective wild soybean population used for domestication estimated to be approximately 2 % of the total number of ancestral wild soybeans. Wild soybeans in Asia, especially in

  2. Comparison of 'Fayette' Soybean, Aldicarb, and Experimental Nematicides for Management of Heterodera glycines on Soybean.

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    Noel, G R

    1987-10-01

    The efficacies of Heterodera glycines-resistant 'Fayene' soybean and aldicarb for managing H. glycines were compared to the experimental nematicides DS-47187 10F, DS-47357 10F, DS-48145 10F, DS-48165 10F, DS-46995 10F and 5G, and DS-38697 5G during 1981-83. Yield of Fayette was greater than yield of the H. glycines-susceptible cultivar treated with nematicide in 1981 and 1983. Yield of aldicarb-treated soybean was greater than yield of soybean treated with experimental nematicides in 1983. There were no yield differences in 1982. Fewer white females were recovered from Fayette 5 weeks after planting than from soybean treated with nematicides in 1981 and 1982, but not in 1983. Fewer white females were recovered from aldicarb-treated soybean than from experimental nematicide-treated soybean in 1983 but not in 1981 and 1982. In 1983 numbers of first generation white females at 5 weeks and the ratio of those white females to gravid cysts at planting were negatively correlated with soybean yield when soybean was severely damaged by the nematode, but the ratio of final eggs and second-stage juveniles to initial eggs and second-stage juveniles was not correlated with yield.

  3. Identification of a major QTL allele from wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) for increasing alkaline salt tolerance in soybean.

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    Tuyen, D D; Lal, S K; Xu, D H

    2010-07-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories, sodic (alkaline) and saline. Our previous studies showed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 (Glycine soja) from the Kinki area of Japan was tolerant to NaCl salt, and the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for NaCl salt tolerance was located on soybean linkage group N (chromosome 3). Further investigation revealed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 also had a higher tolerance to alkaline salt stress. In the present study, an F(6) recombinant inbred line mapping population (n = 112) and an F(2) population (n = 149) derived from crosses between a cultivated soybean cultivar Jackson and JWS156-1 were used to identify QTL for alkaline salt tolerance in soybean. Evaluation of soybean alkaline salt tolerance was carried out based on salt tolerance rating (STR) and leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value) after treatment with 180 mM NaHCO(3) for about 3 weeks under greenhouse conditions. In both populations, a significant QTL for alkaline salt tolerance was detected on the molecular linkage group D2 (chromosome 17), which accounted for 50.2 and 13.0% of the total variation for STR in the F(6) and the F(2) populations, respectively. The wild soybean contributed to the tolerance allele in the progenies. Our results suggest that QTL for alkaline salt tolerance is different from the QTL for NaCl salt tolerance found previously in this wild soybean genotype. The DNA markers closely associated with the QTLs might be useful for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both alkaline and saline stresses.

  4. 野生大豆(Glycine soya)光合生理学研究进展%Advances in Studies on Photosynthetic Physiology of Wild Soybean (Glycine soya)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马爽; 宗婷; 邵帅; 孟昭来; 周妍; 石连旋

    2012-01-01

    野生大豆是栽培大豆的近缘野生物种,具有较强的抗逆性和适应能力,可利用野生大豆资源拓宽大豆遗传基础、改良栽培大豆.近年来,国内外野生大豆研究已经取得了一定的进步.本文从光合生理学的角度,综述了近年来野生大豆的研究进展,旨为我国野生大豆科研和生产提供参考.%Wild soybean (Glycine soya), the wild relatives of cultivated soybean species with a strong resistance and adaptability, can be used to broaden the soybean genetic basis and improved cultivated soybean. After development for many years, researches on wild soybean have made some progress at home and abroad. The recent progress on the studies of wild soybean were reviewed from the perspective of photosynthetic physiology, which aims to provide a reference to research and production of wild soybean in China.

  5. Identification of microRNAs in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Hu, Zheng; Zhang, Hui

    2009-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing by directing target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Currently, hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in plants, but no report has been published of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb). We constructed a small-RNA library consisting of 2 880 sequences with high quality, in which 1 347 were 19-24 nt in length. By utilizing the miRNA, Rfam and domesticated soybean expressed sequence tag database, we have analyzed and predicted the secondary structure of these small RNAs. As a result, 15 conserved miRNA candidates belonging to eight different families and nine novel miRNA candidates comprising eight families were identified in wild soybean seedlings. All these miRNA candidates were validated by northern blot and the novel candidates expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, putative target genes were predicted for novel miRNA candidates and two of them were verified by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments. These results provided useful information for miRNA research in wild soybean and plants.

  6. Identification of MicroRNAs in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Chen; Zheng Hu; Hui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing by directing target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Currently, hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in plants, but no report has been published of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb). We constructed a small-RNA library consisting of 2 880 sequences with high quality,in which 1 347 were 19-24 nt in length. By utilizing the miRNA, Rfam and domesticated soybean expressed sequence tag database, we have analyzed and predicted the secondary structure of these small RNAs. As a result, 15 conserved miRNA candidates belonging to eight different families and nine novel miRNA candidates comprising eight families were identified in wild soybean seedlings. All these miRNA candidates were validated by northern blot and the novel candidates expressed In a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, putative target genes were predicted for novel miRNA candidates and two of them were verified by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments. These results provided useful information for miRNA research in wild soybean and plants.

  7. Genotype Response of Soybean (Glycine max) Whole Plants and Hairy Roots to Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium solani f. sp. Glycines, a soilborne fungus, infects soybean roots and causes sudden death syndrome. The response of 13 soybean genotypes to the pathogen infection was tested with potted greenhouse grown plants and with cultured hairy roots. The taproots of all genotypes grown plants measure...

  8. A Global Analysis of the Polygalacturonase Gene Family in Soybean (Glycine max)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Sun, Xia; Shi, Xinyi; Zhai, Hong; Tian, Changen; Kong, Fanjiang; Liu, Baohui; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the pectin hydrolytic enzymes involved in various developmental and physiological processes such as seed germination, organ abscission, pod and anther dehiscence, and xylem cell formation. To date, no systematic analysis of polygalacturonase incorporating genome organization, gene structure, and expression profiling has been conducted in soybean (Glycine max var. Williams 82). In this study, we identified 112 GmPG genes from the soybean Wm82.a2v1 genome. These genes were classified into three groups, group I (105 genes), group II (5 genes), and group III (2 genes). Fifty-four pairs of duplicate paralogous genes were preferentially identified from duplicated regions of the soybean genome, which implied that long segmental duplications significantly contributed to the expansion of the GmPG gene family. Moreover, GmPG transcripts were analyzed in various tissues using RNA-seq data. The results showed the differential expression of 64 GmPGs in the tissue and partially redundant expression of some duplicate genes, while others showed functional diversity. These findings suggested that the GmPGs were retained by substantial subfunctionalization during the soybean evolutionary processes. Finally, evolutionary analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in wild and cultivated soybeans revealed that 107 GmPGs had selected site(s), which indicated that these genes may have undergone strong selection during soybean domestication. Among them, one non-synonymous SNP of GmPG031 affected floral development during selection, which was consistent with the results of RNA-seq and evolutionary analyses. Thus, our results contribute to the functional characterization of GmPG genes in soybean. PMID:27657691

  9. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to

  10. Influences of Temperature Regime on Germination of Seed of Wild Soybean ( Glycine soja)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Fang-lei; JIANG Wu; ZHENG Yue-ping; XU Hang-lin; LI Li-qing; LU Hong-fei

    2011-01-01

    As an important plant species with high protein contents, wild soybean ( Glycine soja), has drawn much attention and appeared to be useful for the genetic improvement of soybean germplesms.Since temperature is one of the numerous environmental factors affecting the germination of most plants, an experimental study was carried out to determine the effect of temperature on germination of wild soybean ( G.soja)seeds.Germination test was conducted by setting up thirty-six constant and alternating temperature regimes, ranging from 5 to 40 ℃ ( 16 h night/8 h day).Responses in germination rate to these temperature regimes were then used to construct a quadratic response surface, giving estimated germination rates with confidence intervals at P ≤ 0.05.The results showed that germination capacity was significantly greater while exposed to constant temperatures of 25 ℃, and under the alternating temperature regime the optimum temperature occurred at the 20/25,25/25, 25/30 ℃ regime ( 16 h/8 h) with the amplitude widened from 0 to 5 ℃.Together with regional monthly climate data, these results could be used to improve and promote the cultivation of wild soybean ( G.soja), making it available to develop the location-specific optimum seeding time and to apply weed-control treatments.

  11. Genetic Analysis of Seed Isoflavones, Protein, and Oil Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-13

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important crop in the US and worldwide. It has numerous health benefits because of its...for protein, oil, and isoflavones contents in three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of soybean . We have achieved 100% of the goals. We have...Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued

  12. Pathogenicity of diaporthe spp. isolates recovered from soybean (glycine max) seeds in Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) caused by Diaporthe longicolla (Hobbs) J.M. Santos, Vrandecic & A.J.L. Phillips has been documented as part of a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fungal disease complex that affects the quality of soybean seed. In 2006, 16 isolates of Diaporthe were recovered from soybean...

  13. Metabolic and Transcriptional Reprogramming in Developing Soybean (Glycine max Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Grene

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max seeds are an important source of seed storage compounds, including protein, oil, and sugar used for food, feed, chemical, and biofuel production. We assessed detailed temporal transcriptional and metabolic changes in developing soybean embryos to gain a systems biology view of developmental and metabolic changes and to identify potential targets for metabolic engineering. Two major developmental and metabolic transitions were captured enabling identification of potential metabolic engineering targets specific to seed filling and to desiccation. The first transition involved a switch between different types of metabolism in dividing and elongating cells. The second transition involved the onset of maturation and desiccation tolerance during seed filling and a switch from photoheterotrophic to heterotrophic metabolism. Clustering analyses of metabolite and transcript data revealed clusters of functionally related metabolites and transcripts active in these different developmental and metabolic programs. The gene clusters provide a resource to generate predictions about the associations and interactions of unknown regulators with their targets based on “guilt-by-association” relationships. The inferred regulators also represent potential targets for future metabolic engineering of relevant pathways and steps in central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in soybean embryos and drought and desiccation tolerance in plants.

  14. Genetic diversity in domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor (Glycine soja) for simple sequence repeat and single-nucleotide polymorphism loci

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ying-Hui Li; Wei Li; Chen Zhang; Liang Yang; Ru-Zhen Chang; Brandon S. Gaut; Li-Juan Qiu

    2010-01-01

    .... In this study, we genotyped a sample of 303 accessions of domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor Glycine soja with 99 microsatellite markers and 554 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers...

  15. Major QTLs associated with green stem disorder insensitivity of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Shimada, Shinji; Hajika, Makita; Hirata, Kaori; Takahashi, Koji; Nagaya, Taiko; Hamaguchi, Hideo; Maekawa, Tomiya; Sayama, Takashi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Ishimoto, Masao; Tanaka, Junichi

    2014-12-01

    Green stem disorder (GSD) is one of the most serious syndromes affecting soybean (Glycine max) cultivation in Japan. In GSD, stems remain green even when pods mature. When soybean plants develop GSD, seed surfaces are soiled by tissue fluid and seed quality is deteriorated during machine harvesting. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for GSD insensitivity using recombinant inbred lines (RILs; n = 154) derived from a cross between an insensitive line ('Touhoku 129') and a sensitive leading cultivar ('Tachinagaha') during a 6-year evaluation. Three effective QTLs were detected. The influences of these QTLs were in the following order: qGSD1 (LG_H) > qGSD2 (LG_F) > qGSD3 (LG_L). At these three QTLs, 'Touhoku 129' genotypes exhibited more GSD insensitivity than 'Tachinagaha' genotypes. The lower incidence of GSD for 'Touhoku129' was attributable primarily to these three QTLs because RILs harboring a 'Touhoku 129' genotype at the three QTLs exhibited a GSD incidence similar to that of 'Touhoku 129.' Although a limitation of this study is that only one mapping population was evaluated, this QTL information and the flanking markers of these QTLs would be effective tools for resolving GSD in soybean breeding programs.

  16. Regeneration of Transgenic Soybean (Glycine max) Plants from Electroporated Protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, S K; Dhir, S; Savka, M A; Belanger, F; Kriz, A L; Farrand, S K; Widholm, J M

    1992-05-01

    Transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) plants were regenerated from calli derived from protoplasts electroporated with plasmid DNA-carrying genes for a selectable marker, neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35-Svedberg unit promoter, linked with a nonselectable mannityl opine synthesis marker. Following electroporation and culture, the protoplast-derived colonies were subjected to kanamycin selection (50 micrograms per milliliter) beginning on day 15 for 6 weeks. Approximately, 370 to 460 resistant colonies were recovered from 1 x 10(6) electroporated protoplasts, giving an absolute transformation frequency of 3.7 to 4.6 x 10(-4). More than 80% of the kanamycin-resistant colonies showed NPTII activity, and about 90% of these also synthesized opines. This indicates that the linked marker genes were co-introduced and co-expressed at a very high frequency. Plants were regenerated from the transformed cell lines. Southern blot analysis of the transformed callus and leaf DNA demonstrated the integration of both genes. Single-plant assays performed with different plant parts showed that both shoot and root tissues express NPTII activity and accumulate opines. Experiments with NPTII and mannityl opine synthesis marker genes on separate plasmids resulted in a co-expression rate of 66%. These results indicate that electroporation can be used to introduce both linked and unlinked genes into the soybean to produce transformed plants.

  17. Interactions of Heterodera glycines, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Soybean in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H E; Hetrick, B A; Todd, T C

    1994-12-01

    The impact of naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on soybean growth and their interaction with Heterodera glycines were evaluated in nematode-infested and uninfested fields in Kansas. Ten soybean cultivars from Maturity Groups III-V with differential susceptibility to H. glycines were treated with the fungicide benomyl to suppress colonization by naturally occurring mycorrhizal fungi and compared with untreated control plots. In H. glycines-infested soil, susceptible cultivars exhibited 39% lower yields, 28% lower colonization by mycorrhizal fungi, and an eightfold increase in colonization by the charcoal rot fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina, compared with resistant cultivars. In the absence of the nematode, susceptible cultivars exhibited 10% lower yields than resistant cultivars, root colonization of resistant vs. susceptible soybean by mycorrhizal fungi varied with sampling date, and there were no differences in colonization by M. phaseolina between resistant and susceptible cultivars. Benomyl application resulted in 19% greater root growth and 9% higher seed yields in H. glycines-infested soil, but did not affect soybean growth and yield in the absence of the nematode. Colonization of soybean roots by mycorrhizal fungi was negatively correlated with H. glycines population densities due to nematode antagonism to the mycorrhizal fungi rather than suppression of nematode populations. Soybean yields were a function of the pathogenic effects of H. glycines and M. phaseolina, and, to a lesser degree, the stimulatory effects of mycorrhizal fungi.

  18. Row Spacing in Relation to Competition for Limited Resources in Soybean (Glycine Max L.Merrill)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-bing; S J Herbert; JIN Jian; M Hashemi; WANG Guang-hua

    2004-01-01

    Growing soybeans in different row-spacings introduces competition. Competition begins when the immediate supply of a single necessary factor falls below the combined demands of all plants. This paper reviews the main competition factors of genotypes, light, water, nutrients and weed in responses to row spacings for the past four decades. It demonstrated that responses of soybean genotypes to row width differ among cultivars, which depend on seasonal rainfall and irrigation. Determinate types produce more yield in narrow-rows, and cultivars with lodging resistance should be adopted in narrow-spacings, but indeterminate soybean should also be used to optimize yields in certain system. Narrow-compared with wide-row soybean (Glycine max) cultivation increases light interception (LI) and dominant components for the increase come from LAI, light extinction coefficients and branch types. Water use efficiency (WUE) and evapotranspiration are not influenced by row spacing, but seed yield could be increased if irrigation is applied. Nutrient uptake is significantly affected by row spacing, seed yields and uptake of N, P, K in plants increases with decreasing row spacing, and the effects depend on the fertilizer levels. Other factors rather than row spacing affect nitrogen fixation. Weed density, peak time and periodicity of weed emergence are not affected by row spacing, but better complementary weed control by the herbicides at the used doses can be obtained in narrow spacing due to the reduced weed number and dry weight. More researches are required to investigate the physiological responses, nutrient and water uptake and translocation, light utilization at different layers of canopy and soil environment changes in different row-spacings.

  19. RNA-Seq Atlas of Glycine max: a guide to the soybean transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    A first analysis of the Glycine max (L.) Merr. (soybean) transcriptome using next generation sequencing technology and RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) is presented. This analysis will provide an important resource for understanding transcription and gene co-regulatory networks in soybean, the most economic...

  20. Physiological responses of three soybean species (Glycine soja, G. gracilis, and G. max cv. Melrose) to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoran; Song, Jinhui; Dong, Lijun; Wang, Di; Zhang, Shuling; Liu, Jianfeng

    2017-04-04

    Understanding the mechanism for salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja) can help researchers improve that trait in cultivated soybean lines. We analyzed the effects of excess NaCl on the growth, physiology, and ion distribution in three soybean species: wild G. soja (W8), semi-wild G. gracilis (SW18), and the cultivated salt-sensitive G. max (cv. Melrose). These comparisons revealed that, under salt stress, shoot and root lengths and biomass (either shoot or root dry weights) were significantly higher for the W8 genotype than for the other two. Most of the morphological parameters for roots from the W8 plants were also increased, including total length, specific root length, and surface area. However, the average root diameter for W8 was significantly lower than that of either SW18 or 'Melrose' soybeans. In response to salinity, photosynthesis was suppressed to a greater extent in 'Melrose' than in W8. The relatively higher tolerance shown by W8 plants was also associated with lower levels of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and relative electrical conductivity, but higher activities by superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, as well as more free proline and glycine betaine. In addition, the W8 plants contained less Na(+) and Cl(-), but more K(+), and they had a higher K(+)/Na(+) ratio in their leaves and roots when compared with either SW18 or 'Melrose' plants. Therefore, the W8 genotype performs better in terms of seedling growth, photosynthetic characteristics, and physiological indexes. These findings provide guidance for developing new soybean cultivars with improved tolerance to salt stress. Our data also contribute to the knowledge base for plant salt tolerance as a tool for increasing the yields of other crops in high-salinity soils.

  1. Nutrient Management practices for enhancing Soybean (Glycine max L. production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARID A. HELLAL

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available percent protein and 19 percent oil in the seeds. The magnitude of soybean yield losses due to nutrient deficiency also varies among the nutrients. Deficiencies of N, P, Fe, B and S nutrients may cause yield losses up to 10 %, 29-45 %, 22-90 %, 100 % and 16-30 %, respectively, in soybean depending on soil fertility, climate and plant factors. Soil salinity is one of the major limiting factors of soybean production in semiarid regions, and chloride salinity has a more depressive effect on yield than sulphate salinity. The goal of nutrient management is to maximize soybean productivity while minimizing environmental consequences. Balanced and timely nutrient management practices applied for soybean contributes to sustainable growth of yield and quality, influences plant health and reduces environmental risks. Balanced nutrition with mineral fertilizers can assist in integrated pest management to reduce damage from infestations of pests and diseases and save inputs required to control them. Balanced fertilization generates higher profits for the farmers, not necessarily through reduced inputs. The role of education and extension in delivering the upto-date knowledge on nutrient management is crucial, challenging, and continuous. La soya (Glycine max L., es el cultivo de legumbres más importante en el mundo. La magnitud de las pérdidas en el rendimientode la soya debido a deficiencias varía dependiendo de los nutrientes. Las deficiencias de N, P, Fe, B y S pueden causar pérdidas en rendimiento de hasta 10 %, 29-45 %, 22-90 %, 100 % y 16-30 %, respectivamente, en la soya dependiendo de la fertilidad del suelo, clima y factores intrínsecos a las plantas. La textura de los suelos utilizados en el cultivo de soya varía entre arenosa y arcillosa. La salinidad del suelo es uno de los mayores factores limitantes en la producción del cultivo en regiones semiáridas, y la salinidad por cloro tiene un mayor efecto en la disminución del

  2. QTL affecting fitness of hybrids between wild and cultivated soybeans in experimental fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yosuke; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Yano, Hiroshi; Takada, Yoshitake; Kato, Shin; Vaughan, Duncan

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fitness of hybrids between wild soybean (Glycine soja) and cultivated soybean (Glycine max). Seed dormancy and seed number, both of which are important for fitness, were evaluated by testing artificial hybrids of G. soja × G. max in a multiple-site field trial. Generally, the fitness of the F1 hybrids and hybrid derivatives from self-pollination was lower than that of G. soja due to loss of seed dormancy, whereas the fitness of hybrid derivatives with higher proportions of G. soja genetic background was comparable with that of G. soja. These differences were genetically dissected into QTL for each population. Three QTLs for seed dormancy and one QTL for total seed number were detected in the F2 progenies of two diverse cross combinations. At those four QTLs, the G. max alleles reduced seed number and severely reduced seed survival during the winter, suggesting that major genes acquired during soybean adaptation to cultivation have a selective disadvantage in natural habitats. In progenies with a higher proportion of G. soja genetic background, the genetic effects of the G. max alleles were not expressed as phenotypes because the G. soja alleles were dominant over the G. max alleles. Considering the highly inbreeding nature of these species, most hybrid derivatives would disappear quickly in early self-pollinating generations in natural habitats because of the low fitness of plants carrying G. max alleles.

  3. Soybean Planting Date and Maturity Effects on Heterodera glycines and Macrophomina phaseolina in Southeastern Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, T C

    1993-12-01

    Heterodera glycines reproduction and damage potential were evaluated for H. glycines-resistant and -susceptible soybean cultivars from maturity groups (MG) III, IV, and V on two planting dates in each of two years (1990-1991). Infection by H. glycines reduced yields of late-planted susceptible cultivars to a lesser degree than early planted cultivars in 1990 but not in 1991. The MG V susceptible cultivar yielded better than earlier-maturing susceptible cultivars even when yields of resistant cultivars were similar across maturity groups. Soybean yields were a function of nematode densities on roots in 1990, and nematode soil densities and root colonization by the charcoal rot fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina, in 1991. Harvest densities of H. glycines were lower for late-planted than for early-planted susceptible soybeans in 1990; however, nematode population increase was more rapid on roots of late-planted soybeans in 1991. Soybean maturity group did not have a significant effect on nematode populations in either year of the study, but colonization rates of M. phaseolina were lower for MG V cultivars than for earlier-maturing cultivars. Delayed soybean planting and cultivar maturity selection do not appear to be viable management options for H. glycines in southeastern Kansas.

  4. Identification of wild soybean (Glycine soja) TIFY family genes and their expression profiling analysis under bicarbonate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Luo, Xiao; Chen, Qin; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-02-01

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja L. G07256) exhibits a greater adaptability to soil bicarbonate stress than cultivated soybean, and recent discoveries show that TIFY family genes are involved in the response to several abiotic stresses. A genomic and transcriptomic analysis of all TIFY genes in G. soja, compared with G. max, will provide insight into the function of this gene family in plant bicarbonate stress response. This article identified and characterized 34 TIFY genes in G. soja. Sequence analyses indicated that most GsTIFY proteins had two conserved domains: TIFY and Jas. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that these GsTIFY genes could be classified into two groups. A clustering analysis of all GsTIFY transcript expression profiles from bicarbonate stress treated G. soja showed that there were five different transcript patterns in leaves and six different transcript patterns in roots when the GsTIFY family responds to bicarbonate stress. Moreover, the expression level changes of all TIFY genes in cultivated soybean, treated with bicarbonate stress, were also verified. The expression comparison analysis of TIFYs between wild and cultivated soybeans confirmed that, different from the cultivated soybean, GsTIFY (10a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10f, 11a, and 11b) were dramatically up-regulated at the early stage of stress, while GsTIFY 1c and 2b were significantly up-regulated at the later period of stress. The frequently stress responsive and diverse expression profiles of the GsTIFY gene family suggests that this family may play important roles in plant environmental stress responses and adaptation.

  5. In Vitro Regeneration Potential of Seven Commercial Soybean Cultivars (Glycine max L. for Use in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojková Jana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed to evaluate in vitro regeneration potential of seven commercial soybean varieties Bohemians, Cardiff, Gallec, Merlin, Moravians, Naya and Silensia (Glycine max L. cultivated in Central Europe. Our results showed the half-seeds could be effectively used as an explant source for all tested cultivars. The regeneration was initiated on the media containing growth regulators 1.67 mg.l-1 BAP and 0.25 mg.l-1 GA3. Within the first five days culture, green chlorophyll-containing explants were observed with frequency from 18.3% to 55.9%. Two weeks later, the explants responded by production of calli with the efficiency up to 83.0%. First shoots appeared after 2–3 weeks of subculture on the media. The soybean regeneration showed to be genotype-dependent with variable efficiencies from 5.7% (cv. Naya to 37.7% (cv. Gallec. The cultivars Cardiff, Merlin and Gallec appear to be the most promising candidates for further biotechnological use. Application of antioxidants such as L-cysteine, dithiothreitol and sodium thiosulfate does not have effect on the explant regeneration for the first five days.

  6. Long-Term Effect of Crop Rotation on Soybean in a Field Infested with Meloidogyne arenaria and Heterodera glycines

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, D. B.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Carden, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    Previous cropping sequence (corn-soybean vs. soybean-soybean) and aldicarb effects on soybean yield and nematode numbers at harvest for soybean cultivars with various combinations of nematode resistance were determined in 1988 in a sandy loam soil infested with Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and Heterodera glycines races 3 and 4 at Elberta, Alabama. Yield and nematode numbers differed among cultivars with 'Leflore' having the highest yield. Aldicarb treatment resulted in increased soybean yield ...

  7. Soybean cultivation for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs): The effect of hydroponic system and nitrogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A.; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the plant species selected within the European Space Agency (ESA) Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project for hydroponic cultivation in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSSs), because of the high nutritional value of seeds. Root symbiosis of soybean with Bradirhizobium japonicum contributes to plant nutrition in soil, providing ammonium through the bacterial fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two hydroponic systems, Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) and cultivation on rockwool, and two nitrogen sources in the nutrient solution, nitrate (as Ca(NO3)2 and KNO3) and urea (CO(NH2)2), on root symbiosis, plant growth and seeds production of soybean. Plants of cultivar 'OT8914', inoculated with B. japonicum strain BUS-2, were grown in a growth chamber, under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivation on rockwool positively influenced root nodulation and plant growth and yield, without affecting the proximate composition of seeds, compared to NFT. Urea as the sole source of N drastically reduced the seed production and the harvest index of soybean plants, presumably because of ammonium toxicity, even though it enhanced root nodulation and increased the N content of seeds. In the view of large-scale cultivation for space colony on planetary surfaces, the possibility to use porous media, prepared using in situ resources, should be investigated. Urea can be included in the nutrient formulation for soybean in order to promote bacterial activity, however a proper ammonium/nitrate ratio should be maintained.

  8. Genetic diversity in domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor (Glycine soja) for simple sequence repeat and single-nucleotide polymorphism loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Hui; Li, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Yang, Liang; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Gaut, Brandon S; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2010-10-01

    • The study of genetic diversity between a crop and its wild relatives may yield fundamental insights into evolutionary history and the process of domestication. • In this study, we genotyped a sample of 303 accessions of domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor Glycine soja with 99 microsatellite markers and 554 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. • The simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci averaged 21.5 alleles per locus and overall Nei's gene diversity of 0.77. The SNPs had substantially lower genetic diversity (0.35) than SSRs. A SSR analyses indicated that G. soja exhibited higher diversity than G. max, but SNPs provided a slightly different snapshot of diversity between the two taxa. For both marker types, the primary division of genetic diversity was between the wild and domesticated accessions. Within taxa, G. max consisted of four geographic regions in China. G. soja formed six subgroups. Genealogical analyses indicated that cultivated soybean tended to form a monophyletic clade with respect to G. soja. • G. soja and G. max represent distinct germplasm pools. Limited evidence of admixture was discovered between these two species. Overall, our analyses are consistent with the origin of G. max from regions along the Yellow River of China.

  9. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean (Glycine max)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pednekar, Mrinal, E-mail: mrinal1854@yahoo.co.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Das, Amit K. [Department of Food Engineering, CFTRI, Mysore 570020, Karnataka (India); Rajalakshmi, V; Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-04-15

    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  10. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean ( Glycine max)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pednekar, Mrinal; Das, Amit K.; Rajalakshmi, V.; Sharma, Arun

    2010-04-01

    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  11. Distinctive Metabolism of Flavonoid between Cultivated and Semiwild Soybean Unveiled through Metabolomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dae-Yong; Kang, Young-Gyu; Yun, Bohyun; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Myoyeon; Park, Jun Seong; Lee, John Hwan; Hong, Young-Shick

    2016-07-27

    Soybeans are an important crop for agriculture and food, resulting in an increase in the range of its application. Recently, soybean leaves have been used not only for food products but also in the beauty industry. To provide useful and global metabolite information on the development of soy-based products, we investigated the metabolic evolution and cultivar-dependent metabolite variation in the leaves of cultivated (Glycine max) and semiwild (G. gracilis) soybean, through a (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach, as they grew from V (vegetative) 1 to R (reproductive) 7 growth stages. The levels of primary metabolites, such as sucrose, amino acids, organic acids, and fatty acids, were decreased both in the G. gracilis and G. max leaves. However, the secondary metabolites, such as pinitol, rutin, and polyphenols, were increased while synthesis of glucose was elevated as the leaves grew. When metabolite variations between G. gracilis and G. max are compared, it was noteworthy that rutin and its precursor, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, were found only in G. gracilis but not in G. max. Furthermore, levels of pinitol, proline, β-alanine, and acetic acid, a metabolite related to adaptation toward environmental stress, were different between the two soybean cultivars. These results highlight their distinct metabolism for adaptation to environmental conditions and their intrinsic metabolic phenotype. This study therefore provides important information on the cultivar-dependent metabolites of soybean leaves for better understanding of plant physiology toward the development of soy-based products.

  12. Evaluation of protein extraction methods suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) worldwide. In this study, three different protein extraction methods including phenol/ammonium acetate (phenol method), thiourea/urea solublization (lysis method) and trichloroaceti...

  13. Population Dynamics of Heterodera glycines and Soybean Response in Soils Treated with Selected Nematicides and Herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D P; Corbin, F T; Nelson, L A

    1983-07-01

    Two field experiments were conducted in two locations to determine the effects of the nematicides aldicarb, phenamiphos, and ethoprop and/or the herbicides alachlor, linuron, or metribuzin on the population dynamics of Heterodera glycines and soybean growth and yield. Population densities of H. glycines were greater, at some time during the growing season, in several treatments with alachlor alone and in combination with nematicides. Numbers of H. glycines at harvest were greater in plots treated with aldicarb than in those treated with ethoprop or phenamiphos. The numbers in aldicarb treated plots were generally reduced when plots also received a herbicide. Soybean yields were negatively correlated with numbers of H. glycines eggs and juveniles in early to mid season but positively correlated with late season population densities.

  14. Genetic Analysis of Parasitism in the Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera Glycines

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, K; Opperman, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    A genetic analysis of parasitic ability in the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines was performed. To identify and characterize genes involved in parasitism, we developed three highly inbred H. glycines lines, OP20, OP25 and OP50, for use as parents for controlled crosses. Through these crosses, we have identified genes in the inbred parents that control reproduction of the nematode on hosts that carry resistance genes. These genes, designated as ror-* for reproduction on a resistant hos...

  15. Seed Transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in White Soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Eui-Joon; Park, Jungho; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Chang-Seok; Lee, Sukchan

    2017-08-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infection of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been reported, but soybean (Glycine max) has not previously been identified as a TYLCV host. Five cultivars of white soybean were agro-inoculated using an infectious TYLCV clone. At 30 days post-inoculation, they showed infection rates of 25% to 100%. Typical TYLCV symptoms were not observed in any inoculated plants. To examine whether TYLCV was transmitted in soybean seeds, DNA was isolated from bundles of five randomly selected seeds from TYLCV-inoculated soybean plants and amplified with a TYLCV-specific primer set. With the exception of one bundle, all bundles of seeds were verified to be TYLCV-infected. Virus dissemination was also confirmed in three of the 14 bunches. Viral replication was also identified in seeds and seedlings. This is the first report demonstrating that soybean is a TYLCV host, and that TYLCV is a seed-transmissible virus in white soybean.

  16. Global Pattern of Gene Expression of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines Within Soybean Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatnaparat, Tiyakhon; Prathuangwong, Sutruedee; Lindow, Steven E

    2016-06-01

    To better understand the behavior of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, the causal agent of bacterial pustule of soybean within its host, its global transcriptome within soybean leaves was compared with that in a minimal medium in vitro, using deep sequencing of mRNA. Of 5,062 genes predicted from a draft genome of X. axonopodis pv. glycines, 534 were up-regulated in the plant, while 289 were down-regulated. Genes encoding YapH, a cell-surface adhesin, as well as several others encoding cell-surface proteins, were down-regulated in soybean. Many genes encoding the type III secretion system and effector proteins, cell wall-degrading enzymes and phosphate transporter proteins were strongly expressed at early stages of infection. Several genes encoding RND multidrug efflux pumps were induced in planta and by isoflavonoids in vitro and were required for full virulence of X. axonopodis pv. glycines, as well as resistance to soybean phytoalexins. Genes encoding consumption of malonate, a compound abundant in soybean, were induced in planta and by malonate in vitro. Disruption of the malonate decarboxylase operon blocked growth in minimal media with malonate as the sole carbon source but did not significantly alter growth in soybean, apparently because genes for sucrose and fructose uptake were also induced in planta. Many genes involved in phosphate metabolism and uptake were induced in planta. While disruption of genes encoding high-affinity phosphate transport did not alter growth in media varying in phosphate concentration, the mutants were severely attenuated for growth in soybean. This global transcriptional profiling has provided insight into both the intercellular environment of this soybean pathogen and traits used by X. axonopodis pv. glycines to promote disease.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyou Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean cyst nematode (SCN is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc. accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5, a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30 were identified, with ten SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Chunying; Davis, Eric L; Wang, Jinshe; Griffin, Joshua D; Kofsky, Janice; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5), a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30) were identified, with 10 SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL) rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction.

  19. Screening of Soybean Cultivars Glycine max (L. Merrill under Sodium Chloride Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Yuniati

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most serious and widespread agricultural problems resulting in losses of yield. Generally, as land is more intensively cultivated, the salinity problem becomes more severe. A high concentration of NaCl greatly reduces growth of both the shoot and the root. One strategy available to cope with saline soil is to choose salt-tolerance crops or to select salt-tolerance cultivars within a crop. Experiments were conducted to asses the performance of ten cultivars soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill to salt stress at germination and seedling stages. Salinity treatments were begun by adding 70, 80, 90, and 100 mM NaCl to the basal nutrient solution. According to germination percentage, fresh weight/dry weight ratios, and the percentage of dead apical buds we suggest that Wilis, Malabar and Sindoro were tolerant lines, Genjah Jepang, Lokan, and Tidar were moderate and the sensitive lines were Lumut, Yellow Biloxy, Si Cinang and Sriyono.

  20. Assessment of soybean (Glycine max vigour by the seed leachate conductivity assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Knypl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conductivity of seed leachates is inversely correlated with germination and growth of soybean, Glycine max (L. Merr., at low temperatures. It is concluded that the seed leachate conductivity assay can be employed to assess soybean seed vigour. Cold tolerance of soybean can markedly be enhanced by increasing the hydration level of the seeds to at least 20% by means of exposure of the seeds to HRH (water saturated atmosphere for 4 days. It is suggested that increased vigour following HRH exposure is due to re-establishment of the cell membrane integrity in the course of exposure.

  1. Physiological changes in soybean (Glycine max) Wuyin9 in response to N and P nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gan, YB; Stulen, [No Value; van Keulen, H; Kuiper, PJC

    2002-01-01

    Phosphor-us deficiency is a very common problem in the acid soil of central China. Previous research has shown that starter N and N topdressing at the flowering stage (RI) increased soybean (Glycine max) yield and N 2 fixation (Gan et al., 1997, 2000). However, there is little information available

  2. Physiological changes in soybean (Glycine max) Wuyin9 in response to N and P nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gan, Y.; Stulen, I.; Keulen, van H.; Kuiper, P.J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus deficiency is a very common problem in the acid soil of central China. Previous research has shown that starter N and N topdressing at the flowering stage (RI) increased soybean (Glycine max) yield and N2 fixation (Gan et al., 1997, 2000). However, there is little information available co

  3. Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang

    2011-01-01

    The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred) soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the length×width×thickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 9000–8600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon) and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun). Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia. PMID:22073186

  4. Genetic diversity in soybean genotypes with resistance to Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oliveira Nogueira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity among soybean genotypes inoculated with Heteroderaglycines race 3. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse. In two performance tests of morphological characteristics andresistance to the pathogen, 27 soybean genotypes were assessed. The coefficient of genotypic determination was estimated by themethod of analysis of variance and the genetic diversity analyzed based on dendrograms and optimization method. The estimatedcoefficients of determination indicated a predominantly genetic origin of the genotypic differences in the traits. The genetic variabilitywas maintained in the superior genotypes, which can be used in breeding programs for resistance to soybean cyst nematode

  5. Genomic expression profiling of mature soybean (Glycine max pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Mohan B

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen, the male partner in the reproduction of flowering plants, comprises either two or three cells at maturity. The current knowledge of the pollen transcriptome is limited to the model plant systems Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa which have tri-cellular pollen grains at maturity. Comparative studies on pollen of other genera, particularly crop plants, are needed to understand the pollen gene networks that are subject to functional and evolutionary conservation. In this study, we used the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip® to perform transcriptional profiling on mature bi-cellular soybean pollen. Results Compared to the sporophyte transcriptome, the soybean pollen transcriptome revealed a restricted and unique repertoire of genes, with a significantly greater proportion of specifically expressed genes than is found in the sporophyte tissue. Comparative analysis shows that, among the 37,500 soybean transcripts addressed in this study, 10,299 transcripts (27.46% are expressed in pollen. Of the pollen-expressed sequences, about 9,489 (92.13% are also expressed in sporophytic tissues, and 810 (7.87% are selectively expressed in pollen. Overall, the soybean pollen transcriptome shows an enrichment of transcription factors (mostly zinc finger family proteins, signal recognition receptors, transporters, heat shock-related proteins and members of the ubiquitin proteasome proteolytic pathway. Conclusion This is the first report of a soybean pollen transcriptional profile. These data extend our current knowledge regarding regulatory pathways that govern the gene regulation and development of pollen. A comparison between transcription factors up-regulated in soybean and those in Arabidopsis revealed some divergence in the numbers and kinds of regulatory proteins expressed in both species.

  6. Interference of Selected Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotypes in Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Chandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. has become difficult to control in row crops due to selection for biotypes that are no longer controlled by acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides and/or glyphosate. Early season interference in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] for 40 days after emergence by three glyphosate-resistant (GR and three glyphosate-susceptible (GS Palmer amaranth biotypes from Georgia and North Carolina was compared in the greenhouse. A field experiment over 2 years compared season-long interference of these biotypes in soybean. The six Palmer amaranth biotypes reduced soybean height similarly in the greenhouse but did not affect soybean height in the field. Reduction in soybean fresh weight and dry weight in the greenhouse; and soybean yield in the field varied by Palmer amaranth biotypes. Soybean yield was reduced 21% by Palmer amaranth at the established field density of 0.37 plant m−2. When Palmer amaranth biotypes were grouped by response to glyphosate, the GS group reduced fresh weight, dry weight, and yield of soybean more than the GR group. The results indicate a possible small competitive disadvantage associated with glyphosate resistance, but observed differences among biotypes might also be associated with characteristics within and among biotypes other than glyphosate resistance.

  7. Determinants of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] production system in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Carmelle Zoundji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to analyze the soybean production system in Benin. Data were collected from 324 soybean producers selected from the three major soybean-producing agro-ecological areas i.e. agro-ecological zone 3 (southern Borgou, agro-ecological zone 4 (West Atacora and agro-ecological zone 5 (Cotton zone of the Centre of Benin. A participatory research approach with group discussions followed by individual interviews was carried out for extracting the information from respondents. Information mainly referred to the socio-demographic characteristics of soybean producers, production practices, extent of yields and constraints. Descriptive statistics were then used to analyze the data. Ordered Probit regression was further carried out to assess the determinants of soybean yield levels in Benin. Results of this study revealed that soybean producers of the three agro ecological zones have most of the common demographic characteristics. They equally revealed that farmers do not follow correct soybean cropping practices. Improved seeds, plant density, fertilizers, fallow, and sex of farmers have significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.001 influenced the yields of soybean in Benin. Within the context of sustainable agricultural production practices, it is recommended to develop appropriate technologies for soybean cultivation. The extension services should focus more on the appropriate combination of input resources which are found to contribute more to the soybean production

  8. Intersubgeneric hybridization between Glycine max and G. tomentella: production of F₁, amphidiploid, BC₁, BC₂, BC₃, and fertile soybean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R J; Nelson, R L

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes methods for unlocking genetic treasure from wild perennial Glycine species of Australia for soybean improvement. The genetic resources of the ca. 26 species of the genus Glycine subgenus Glycine have not been exploited to broaden the genetic base of soybean (Glycine max; 2n = 40). The objectives of this study were to develop methods for producing F1, amphidiploid, BC1, BC2, BC3, and fertile soybean plants from crosses of soybean and the genus Glycine subgenus Glycine species, in order to utilize the subgenus Glycine germplasm in soybean breeding. Soybean cultivars were hybridized with six accessions of 78-chromosome G. tomentella as well as one accession each of 40-chromosome G. tomentella, G. argyrea and G. latifolia. They were chosen because they exhibit resistance to soybean rust. We were successful in producing fertile soybean from soybean cv. 'Dwight' and 78-chromosome G. tomentella accession PI 441001, while other hybrids were discontinued either at F1 or amphidiploid stage. The F1 seeds aborted prior to reaching maturity, so developing seeds from 19 to 21 day old pods were cultured aseptically in various media formulations. Seed maturation and multiple embryo generation media were developed. F1 plants with shoots and roots (2n = 59) were transplanted to pots in greenhouse. Amphidiploid (2n = 118) plants were backcrossed to 'Dwight'. BC1 (2n = 79) plants were propagated through in vitro and 43 mature BC2F1 seeds were harvested. Fifteen surviving BC2F1 plants were morphologically distinct, sterile, and had chromosome numbers ranging 2n = 56-59. Chromosome numbers of the BC3F1 plants ranged 2n = 40-49. Derived fertile soybeans were first planted in the field in 2008 and are being evaluated for yield, resistance to pathogens and pests and tolerance to salt through material transfer agreement.

  9. Characterization of a Chitin Synthase Encoding Gene and Effect of Diflubenzuron in Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bansal, M. A. Rouf Mian, Omprakash Mittapalli, Andy P. Michel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitin synthases are critical enzymes for synthesis of chitin and thus for subsequent growth and development in insects. We identified the cDNA of chitin synthase gene (CHS in Aphis glycines, the soybean aphid, which is a serious pest of soybean. The full-length cDNA of CHS in A. glycines (AyCHS was 5802 bp long with an open reading frame of 4704 bp that encoded for a 1567 amino acid residues protein. The predicted AyCHS protein had a molecular mass of 180.05 kDa and its amino acid sequence contained all the signature motifs (EDR, QRRRW and TWGTR of chitin synthases. The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR analysis revealed that AyCHS was expressed in all major tissues (gut, fat body and integument; however, it had the highest expression in integument (~3.5 fold compared to gut. Interestingly, the expression of AyCHS in developing embryos was nearly 7 fold higher compared to adult integument, which probably is a reflection of embryonic molts in hemimetabolus insects. Expression analysis in different developmental stages of A. glycines revealed a consistent AyCHS expression in all stages. Further, through leaf dip bioassay, we tested the effect of diflubenzuron (DFB, Dimilin ®, a chitin-synthesis inhibitor, on A. glycines' survival, fecundity and body weight. When fed with soybean leaves previously dipped in 50 ppm DFB solution, A. glycines nymphs suffered significantly higher mortality compared to control. A. glycines nymphs feeding on diflubenzuron treated leaves showed a slightly enhanced expression (1.67 fold of AyCHS compared to nymphs on untreated leaves. We discussed the potential applications of the current study to develop novel management strategies using chitin-synthesis inhibitors and using RNAi by knocking down AyCHS expression.

  10. Nodulin gene expression during soybean (Glycine max) nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloudemans, T.; Vries, de S.; Bussink, H.J.; Malik, N.S.A.; Franssen, H.; Louwerse, J.; Bisseling, T.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro translation products of total RNA isolated from soybean nodules at successive stages of nodule development were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In that way the occurrence of over 20 mRNAs specifically transcribed from nodulin genes was detected. The nodulin genes could be

  11. Nodulin gene expression during soybean (Glycine max) nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloudemans, T.; Vries, de S.; Bussink, H.J.; Malik, N.S.A.; Franssen, H.; Louwerse, J.; Bisseling, T.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro translation products of total RNA isolated from soybean nodules at successive stages of nodule development were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In that way the occurrence of over 20 mRNAs specifically transcribed from nodulin genes was detected. The nodulin genes could be d

  12. The mitochondrial genome of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Tracey; Farrugia, Daniel; Barrett, Jeff; Chitwood, David J; Rowe, Janet; Subbotin, Sergei; Dowton, Mark

    2011-07-01

    We sequenced the entire coding region of the mitochondrial genome of Heterodera glycines. The sequence obtained comprised 14.9 kb, with PCR evidence indicating that the entire genome comprised a single, circular molecule of approximately 21-22 kb. The genome is the most T-rich nematode mitochondrial genome reported to date, with T representing over half of all nucleotides on the coding strand. The genome also contains the highest number of poly(T) tracts so far reported (to our knowledge), with 60 poly(T) tracts ≥ 12 Ts. All genes are transcribed from the same mitochondrial strand. The organization of the mitochondrial genome of H. glycines shows a number of similarities compared with Radopholus similis, but fewer similarities when compared with Meloidogyne javanica. Very few gene boundaries are shared with Globodera pallida or Globodera rostochiensis. Partial mitochondrial genome sequences were also obtained for Heterodera cardiolata (5.3 kb) and Punctodera chalcoensis (6.8 kb), and these had identical organizations compared with H. glycines. We found PCR evidence of a minicircular mitochondrial genome in P. chalcoensis, but at low levels and lacking a noncoding region. Such circularised genome fragments may be present at low levels in a range of nematodes, with multipartite mitochondrial genomes representing a shift to a condition in which these subgenomic circles predominate.

  13. Fungi Associated with Females and Cysts of Heterodera glycines in a Florida Soybean Field

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Senyu; Dickson, D. W.; Kimbrough, J. W.; McSorley, R.; Mitchell, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fungal colonization was determined for females and cysts of Heterodera glycines on soybean roots or in rhizosphere soil from a Florida soybean field. A total of 1,620 females and cysts were examined in 1991, and 1,303 were examined in 1992. More than 35 species of fungi were isolated from females and cysts. The frequency of fungi colonizing white and yellow females was low, but a high frequency of fungi was encountered in brown cysts, which increased with time of exposure of the cysts to the ...

  14. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hidetoshi; Shimada, Hiroshi; Horak, Michael J; Ahmad, Aqeel; Baltazar, Baltazar M; Perez, Tim; McPherson, Marc A; Stojšin, Duška; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA) in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible.

  15. Changes in RNA Splicing in Developing Soybean (Glycine max Embryos

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    Delasa Aghamirzaie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing soybean seeds accumulate oils, proteins, and carbohydrates that are used as oxidizable substrates providing metabolic precursors and energy during seed germination. The accumulation of these storage compounds in developing seeds is highly regulated at multiple levels, including at transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. RNA sequencing was used to provide comprehensive information about transcriptional and post-transcriptional events that take place in developing soybean embryos. Bioinformatics analyses lead to the identification of different classes of alternatively spliced isoforms and corresponding changes in their levels on a global scale during soybean embryo development. Alternative splicing was associated with transcripts involved in various metabolic and developmental processes, including central carbon and nitrogen metabolism, induction of maturation and dormancy, and splicing itself. Detailed examination of selected RNA isoforms revealed alterations in individual domains that could result in changes in subcellular localization of the resulting proteins, protein-protein and enzyme-substrate interactions, and regulation of protein activities. Different isoforms may play an important role in regulating developmental and metabolic processes occurring at different stages in developing oilseed embryos.

  16. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (mucuna deeringiana) and soybean (glycine max)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Patricia Chaparro Acuña; Jesús Humberto Gil González; Iván Darío Aristizábal Torres

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa flour (Mucuna deeringiana) and soybean flour (Glycine max) were determined. Oil absorption capacity was higher in vitabosa. Water absorption capacity was higher in soy and it was affected by the change in the ionic strength of the medium. Emulsifying Activity (EA) decreased with increasing concentration of flour, while Emulsifying Stability (ES) showed an increased. EA and ES of flours have more ionic strength in the range ...

  17. Variation in Efficacy of Isolates of the Fungus ARF Against the Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera glycines

    OpenAIRE

    Timper, P.; Riggs, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    An unnamed fungus, designated ARF, that parasitizes eggs and sedentary stages of cyst nematodes is a potential biological control agent of Heterodera glycines. The objectives of this study were to determine whether ARF isolates differ in their ability to suppress nematode numbers in soil and to compare the efficacy of ARF in heat-treated and native soil. The effectiveness of 11 ARF isolates was compared by introducing homogenized mycelium into heat-treated soil. Soybean seedlings were transpl...

  18. QTL associated with horizontal resistance to soybean cyst nematode in Glycine soja PI464925B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Shawn M J; Shelp, Barry J; Anderson, Terry R; Welacky, Tom W; Rajcan, Istvan

    2007-02-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe; SCN) is the primary disease responsible for yield loss of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Resistant cultivars are an effective management tool; however, the sources currently available have common resistant genes. Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc., the wild ancestor of domesticated soybean, represents a diverse germplasm pool with known SCN resistance. The objectives of this research were to: (1) determine the genetic variation and inheritance of SCN resistance in a G. max ('S08-80') x G. soja (PI464925B) F (4:5) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population; and (2) identify and evaluate quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with SCN resistance. Transgressive segregation for resistance was observed, although neither parent was resistant to the Chatham and Ruthven SCN isolates. Broad sense heritability was 0.81 for the Ruthven and 0.91 for the Chatham isolate. Root dry weight was a significant covariate that influenced cyst counts. One RIL [female index (FI) = 5.2 +/- 1.11] was identified as resistant to the Chatham isolate (FI soja, were identified on linkage groups I, K, and O, and individually explained 8, 7 and 5% (LOD = 2.1-2.7) of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. Significant epistatic interactions were found between pairs of SSR markers that individually may or may not have been associated with SCN resistance, which explained between 10 and 15% of the total phenotypic variation. Best-fit regression models explained 21 and 31% of the total phenotypic variation in the RIL population to the Chatham and Ruthven isolates, respectively. The results of this study help to improve the understanding of the genetic control of SCN resistance in soybean caused by minor genes resulting in horizontal resistance. The incorporation of the novel resistance QTL from G. soja could increase the durability of SCN-resistance in soybean cultivars, especially if major gene resistance breaks down.

  19. SoyNet: a database of co-functional networks for soybean Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eiru; Hwang, Sohyun; Lee, Insuk

    2017-01-04

    Soybean (Glycine max) is a legume crop with substantial economic value, providing a source of oil and protein for humans and livestock. More than 50% of edible oils consumed globally are derived from this crop. Soybean plants are also important for soil fertility, as they fix atmospheric nitrogen by symbiosis with microorganisms. The latest soybean genome annotation (version 2.0) lists 56 044 coding genes, yet their functional contributions to crop traits remain mostly unknown. Co-functional networks have proven useful for identifying genes that are involved in a particular pathway or phenotype with various network algorithms. Here, we present SoyNet (available at www.inetbio.org/soynet), a database of co-functional networks for G. max and a companion web server for network-based functional predictions. SoyNet maps 1 940 284 co-functional links between 40 812 soybean genes (72.8% of the coding genome), which were inferred from 21 distinct types of genomics data including 734 microarrays and 290 RNA-seq samples from soybean. SoyNet provides a new route to functional investigation of the soybean genome, elucidating genes and pathways of agricultural importance. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. DL-β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

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    Yunpeng Zhong

    Full Text Available Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, chitinase (CHI, and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA.

  1. Chemical and mechanical weed control in soybean (Glycine max

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    Weber, Jonas Felix

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the possibility of chemical and mechanical weed control strategies in soybean. Soybean field experiments were carried out in 2013 and 2014 in Southern Germany. Five treatments including common herbicide mixtures and four mechanical weed control treatments, implementing a harrow and a hoe, were tested at different locations. In the herbicide experiments two treatments were applied by PRE emergence herbicides (metribuzin, clomazone, dimethenamid and metribuzin, flufenacet, clomazone and another two treatments were sprayed with a combination of PRE + POST emergence herbicides (metribuzin, flufenacet, thifensulfuron and pendimethalin, thifensulfuron, bentazone, cycloxydim. Furthermore, a POST herbicide treatment was implemented (thifensulfuron, bentazone, thifensulfuron and fluazifop-P-butyl. In the mechanical weed control experiments, treatments were: three times hoeing, PRE emergence harrowing plus three times hoeing, hoeing and harrowing in rotation or three times harrowing. In both experiments an untreated control was included. A 90% weed control efficacy and 23% yield increase was observed in the POST herbicide treatment. PRE + POST treatments resulted in 92% to 99% weed control efficiency and 15% yield increase compared to the untreated control. In the mechanical weed control experiments the combination of PRE emergence harrowing and POST emergence hoeing resulted in 82% weed control efficiency and 34% higher yield compared to the untreated control. Less weed control efficiency (72% was observed in the harrow treatment, leading to 20% higher yield compared to the control. The suitability of both strategies for implementation in “Integrated Weed Management” has been investigated.

  2. Contributions of Fusarium virguliforme and Heterodera glycines to the disease complex of sudden death syndrome of soybean.

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    Andreas Westphal

    Full Text Available Sudden death syndrome (SDS of soybean caused by Fusarium virguliforme spreads and reduces soybean yields through the North Central region of the U.S. The fungal pathogen and Heterodera glycines are difficult to manage.The objective was to determine the contributions of H. glycines and F. virguliforme to SDS severity and effects on soybean yield. To quantify DNA of F. virguliforme in soybean roots and soil, a specific real time qPCR assay was developed. The assay was used on materials from soybean field microplots that contained in a four-factor factorial-design: (i untreated or methyl bromide-fumigated; (ii non-infested or infested with F. virguliforme; (iii non-infested or infested with H. glycines; (iv natural precipitation or additional weekly watering. In years 2 and 3 of the trial, soil and watering treatments were maintained. Roots of soybean 'Williams 82' were collected for necrosis ratings at the full seed growth stage R6. Foliar symptoms of SDS (area under the disease progress curve, AUDPC, root necrosis, and seed yield parameters were related to population densities of H. glycines and the relative DNA concentrations of F. virguliforme in the roots and soil. The specific and sensitive real time qPCR was used. Data from microplots were introduced into models of AUDPC, root necrosis, and seed yield parameters with the frequency of H. glycines and F. virguliforme, and among each other. The models confirmed the close interrelationship of H. glycines with the development of SDS, and allowed for predictions of disease risk based on populations of these two pathogens in soil.The results modeled the synergistic interaction between H. glycines and F. virguliforme quantitatively in previously infested field plots and explained previous findings of their interaction. Under these conditions, F. virguliforme was mildly aggressive and depended on infection of H. glycines to cause highly severe SDS.

  3. Contributions of Fusarium virguliforme and Heterodera glycines to the Disease Complex of Sudden Death Syndrome of Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Andreas; Li, Chunge; Xing, Lijuan; McKay, Alan; Malvick, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Background Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean caused by Fusarium virguliforme spreads and reduces soybean yields through the North Central region of the U.S. The fungal pathogen and Heterodera glycines are difficult to manage. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective was to determine the contributions of H. glycines and F. virguliforme to SDS severity and effects on soybean yield. To quantify DNA of F. virguliforme in soybean roots and soil, a specific real time qPCR assay was developed. The assay was used on materials from soybean field microplots that contained in a four-factor factorial-design: (i) untreated or methyl bromide-fumigated; (ii) non-infested or infested with F. virguliforme; (iii) non-infested or infested with H. glycines; (iv) natural precipitation or additional weekly watering. In years 2 and 3 of the trial, soil and watering treatments were maintained. Roots of soybean ‘Williams 82’ were collected for necrosis ratings at the full seed growth stage R6. Foliar symptoms of SDS (area under the disease progress curve, AUDPC), root necrosis, and seed yield parameters were related to population densities of H. glycines and the relative DNA concentrations of F. virguliforme in the roots and soil. The specific and sensitive real time qPCR was used. Data from microplots were introduced into models of AUDPC, root necrosis, and seed yield parameters with the frequency of H. glycines and F. virguliforme, and among each other. The models confirmed the close interrelationship of H. glycines with the development of SDS, and allowed for predictions of disease risk based on populations of these two pathogens in soil. Conclusions/Significance The results modeled the synergistic interaction between H. glycines and F. virguliforme quantitatively in previously infested field plots and explained previous findings of their interaction. Under these conditions, F. virguliforme was mildly aggressive and depended on infection of H. glycines to cause highly

  4. The effect of co-cultivation and selection parameters on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Chinese soybean varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-Jun; Wei, Zhi-Ming; Huang, Jian-Qiu

    2008-03-01

    In the present study, an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation system was developed for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] based on the examinations of several factors affecting plant transformation efficiency. Increased transformation efficiencies were obtained when the soybean cotyledonary node were inoculated with the Agrobacterium inoculum added with 0.02% (v/v) surfactant (Silwet L-77). The applications of Silwet L-77 (0.02%) during infection and L-cysteine (600 mg l(-1)) during co-cultivation resulted in more significantly improved transformation efficiency than each of the two factors alone. The optimized temperature for infected explant co-cultivation was 22 degrees C. Regenerated transgenic shoots were selected and produced more efficiently with the modified selection scheme (initiation on shoot induction medium without hygromycin for 7 days, with 3 mg l(-1) hygromycin for 10 days, 5 mg l(-1) hygromycin for another 10 days, and elongation on shoot elongation medium with 8 mg l(-1) hygromycin). Using the optimized system, we obtained 145 morphologically normal and fertile independent transgenic plants in five important Chinese soybean varieties. The transformation efficacies ranged from 3.8 to 11.7%. Stable integration, expression and inheritance of the transgenes were confirmed by molecular and genetic analysis. T(1) plants were analyzed and transmission of transgenes to the T(1 )generation in a Mendelian fashion was verified. This optimized transformation system should be employed for efficient Agrobacterium-mediated soybean gene transformation.

  5. HERITABILITAS, NISBAH POTENSI, DAN HETEROSIS KETAHANAN KEDELAI (Glycine max [L.] Merrill TERHADAP SOYBEAN MOSAIC VIRUS

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    Nyimas Sa’diyah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heritability, potential ratio, and heterosis of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill resistance to soybean mosaic virus. The use of soybean cultivars with resistance to SMV is a way for controlling soybean mosaic disease. The objective of this research was to estimate the disease severity, the narrow sense heritability, potential ratio and heterosis of resistance character and number of pithy pods, number of healthy seeds, and healthy seeds weight per plant of ten F1 populations of soybean crossing result to SMV infection. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in two replications. Observed characters were disease severity, number of pithy pods, number of healthy seeds, and healthy seeds weight per plant. The result of this research showed that 1 the crossing combinations those which were resistant to SMV (lower disease severity were Yellow Bean x Tanggamus, Tanggamus x Orba, and Tanggamus x Taichung, 2 the narrow sense heritability of disease severity was included in medium criteria, 3 number of pithy pods belonged to high criteria, and 4 number of healthy seeds and healthy seeds weight per plant were included in low criteria. The crossing combinations that had low estimation value of heterosis and heterobeltiosis of resistance to SMV infection were Yellow Bean x Taichung, Bean x Tanggamus and Tanggamus x B3570. Disease severity or resistance to SMV is influenced by genetic and environmental factors.

  6. Fine-scale phylogenetic structure and major events in the history of the current wild soybean (Glycine soja) and taxonomic assignment of semi-wild type (Glycine gracilis Skvortz.) within the Chinese subgenus Soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Jing; Li, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Wild and cultivated species of soybeans have coexisted for 5000 years in China. Despite this long history, there is very little information on the genetic relationship of Glycine soja and G. max. To gain insight into the major events in the history of the subgenus Soja, we examined 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of a large number of accessions (910). The results showed no significant differences between wild and semi-wild soybeans in genetic diversity but significant differences between G. soja and G. max. Ancestry and cluster analyses revealed that semi-wild soybeans should belong to the wild category and not to G. max. Our results also showed that differentiation had occurred not only among G. soja, G. gracilis, and G. max but also within G. soja and within G. gracilis. Glycine soja had 3 clear genetic categories: typical small-seeded (≤2.0 g 100-seed weight), dual-origin middle-seeded (2.0-2.5 g), and large-seeded plants (2.51-3.0 g). These last were genetically close to G. gracilis, their defining some traits having been acquired mainly by introgression from soybeans. Small-seeded G. gracilis (3.01-3.5 g) were genetically different from larger seeded ones (from 3.51 to 4.0 to over 10 g). Seed size predominated over seed coat color in evolutionary degree. Typical and large-seeded G. soja were found to have 0.7% and 12% introgressive cultivar genes, respectively. The genetic boundary of G. gracilis was at the range of 2.51-3.0 g of G. soja. In the great majority of wild accessions, traits such as white flowers, gray pubescences, no-seed bloom, and colored seed coats were likely introgressive from domesticated soybeans.

  7. Complete Plastome Sequences from Glycine syndetika and Six Additional Perennial Wild Relatives of Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman-Broyles, Sue; Bombarely, Aureliano; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Doyle, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Organelle sequences have a long history of utility in phylogenetic analyses. Chloroplast sequences when combined with nuclear data can help resolve relationships among flowering plant genera, and within genera incongruence can point to reticulate evolution. Plastome sequences are becoming plentiful because they are increasingly easier to obtain. Complete plastome sequences allow us to detect rare rearrangements and test the tempo of sequence evolution. Chloroplast sequences are generally considered a nuisance to be kept to a minimum in bacterial artificial chromosome libraries. Here, we sequenced two bacterial artificial chromosomes per species to generate complete plastome sequences from seven species. The plastome sequences from Glycine syndetika and six other perennial Glycine species are similar in arrangement and gene content to the previously published soybean plastome. Repetitive sequences were detected in high frequencies as in soybean, but further analysis showed that repeat sequence numbers are inflated. Previous chloroplast-based phylogenetic trees for perennial Glycine were incongruent with nuclear gene–based phylogenetic trees. We tested whether the hypothesis of introgression was supported by the complete plastomes. Alignment of complete plastome sequences and Bayesian analysis allowed us to date putative hybridization events supporting the hypothesis of introgression and chloroplast “capture.” PMID:25155272

  8. Cerium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles alter the nutritional value of soil cultivated soybean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Zhao, Lijuan; Diaz, Baltazar Corral; Ge, Yuan; Priester, John H; Holden, Patricia Ann; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine nutrient elements in soybean (Glycine max) plants cultivated in farm soil amended with nCeO2 at 0-1000 mg kg(-1) and nZnO at 0-500 mg kg(-1). Digested samples were analyzed by ICP-OES/MS. Compared to control, pods from nCeO2 at 1000 mg kg(-1) had significantly less Ca but more P and Cu, while pods from 100 mg kg(-1)nZnO had more Zn, Mn, and Cu. Plants treated with nZnO showed significant correlations among Zn, P, and S in pods with Zn in roots. Correlations among pod Zn/root Zn was r = 0.808 (p ≤ 0.01) and pod P/root P was r = 0.541 (p ≤ 0.05). The correlation among pod S/root S was r = -0.65 (p ≤ 0.01). While nCeO2 treatments exhibited significant correlations between pod Ca/root Ca (r = 0.645, p ≤ 0.05). The data suggest that nCeO2 and nZnO alter the nutritional value of soybean, which could affect the health of plants, humans, and animals.

  9. NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR ENHANCING SOYBEAN (Glycine max L. PRODUCTION

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    FARID A. HELLAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La soya (Glycine max L., es el cultivo de legumbres más importante en el mundo. La magnitud de las pérdidas en el rendimiento de la soya debido a deficiencias varía dependiendo de los nutrientes. Las deficiencias de N, P, Fe, B y S pueden causar pérdidas en rendimiento de hasta 10 %, 29-45 %, 22-90 %, 100 % y 16-30 %, respectivamente, en la soya dependiendo de la fertilidad del suelo, clima y factores intrínsecos a las plantas. La textura de los suelos utilizados en el cultivo de soya varía entre arenosa y arcillosa. La salinidad del suelo es uno de los mayores factores limitantes en la producción del cultivo en regiones semiáridas, y la salinidad por cloro tiene un mayor efecto en la disminución del rendimiento que la salinidad por sulfatos. Los granos de soya son una gran fuente de energía que contienen 40 % de proteína y 19 % de aceite. El éxito del manejo de nutrientes es maximizar la productividad del cultivo mientras se minimizan los impactos ambientales. Las prácticas de manejo de nutrientes balan- ceadas y reguladas en el tiempo contribuyen a un crecimiento sostenido del rendimiento y la calidad, influencian la salud de las plantas y reducen los riesgos ambientales. Una nutrición balanceada con fertilizantes minerales puede ayudar en el manejo integrado de plagas para reducir los daños causados por las infestaciones de pestes y enfermedades y reducir los insumos requeridos para su control. Una fertilización balanceada genera mayores ganancias para los agricultores, no necesariamente por reducción de los insumos. El papel de la educación y la extensión en la difusión del conocimiento actual sobre manejo de nutrientes es crucial, desafiante y continuo.

  10. Physiological mechanisms for high salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja) from Yellow River Delta, China: photosynthesis, osmotic regulation, ion flux and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Kun; Shao, Hongbo; Zhao, Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Glycine soja (BB52) is a wild soybean cultivar grown in coastal saline land in Yellow River Delta, China. In order to reveal the physiological mechanisms adapting to salinity, we examined photosynthesis, ion flux, antioxidant system and water status in Glycine soja under NaCl treatments, taking a cultivated soybean, ZH13, as control. Upon NaCl exposure, higher relative water content and water potential were maintained in the leaf of BB52 than ZH13, which might depend on the more accumulation of osmotic substances such as glycinebetaine and proline. Compared with ZH13, activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and contents of ascorbate, glutathione and phenolics were enhanced to a higher level in BB52 leaf under NaCl stress, which could mitigate the salt-induced oxidative damage in BB52. Consistently, lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde content was lower in BB52 leaf. Photosynthetic rate (Pn) was decreased by NaCl stress in BB52 and ZH13, and the decrease was greater in ZH13. The decreased Pn in BB52 was mainly due to stomatal limitation. The inhibited activation of rubisco enzyme in ZH13 due to the decrease of rubisco activase content became an important limiting factor of Pn, when NaCl concentration increased to 200 mM. Rubisco activase in BB52 was not affected by NaCl stress. Less negative impact in BB52 derived from lower contents of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the tissues, and non-invasive micro-test technique revealed that BB52 roots had higher ability to extrude Na(+) and Cl(-). Wild soybean is a valuable genetic resource, and our study may provide a reference for molecular biologist to improve the salt tolerance of cultivated soybean in face of farmland salinity.

  11. Physiological mechanisms for high salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja from Yellow River Delta, China: photosynthesis, osmotic regulation, ion flux and antioxidant capacity.

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    Peng Chen

    Full Text Available Glycine soja (BB52 is a wild soybean cultivar grown in coastal saline land in Yellow River Delta, China. In order to reveal the physiological mechanisms adapting to salinity, we examined photosynthesis, ion flux, antioxidant system and water status in Glycine soja under NaCl treatments, taking a cultivated soybean, ZH13, as control. Upon NaCl exposure, higher relative water content and water potential were maintained in the leaf of BB52 than ZH13, which might depend on the more accumulation of osmotic substances such as glycinebetaine and proline. Compared with ZH13, activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and contents of ascorbate, glutathione and phenolics were enhanced to a higher level in BB52 leaf under NaCl stress, which could mitigate the salt-induced oxidative damage in BB52. Consistently, lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde content was lower in BB52 leaf. Photosynthetic rate (Pn was decreased by NaCl stress in BB52 and ZH13, and the decrease was greater in ZH13. The decreased Pn in BB52 was mainly due to stomatal limitation. The inhibited activation of rubisco enzyme in ZH13 due to the decrease of rubisco activase content became an important limiting factor of Pn, when NaCl concentration increased to 200 mM. Rubisco activase in BB52 was not affected by NaCl stress. Less negative impact in BB52 derived from lower contents of Na(+ and Cl(- in the tissues, and non-invasive micro-test technique revealed that BB52 roots had higher ability to extrude Na(+ and Cl(-. Wild soybean is a valuable genetic resource, and our study may provide a reference for molecular biologist to improve the salt tolerance of cultivated soybean in face of farmland salinity.

  12. Laboratory testing and molecular analysis of the resistance of wild and cultivated soybeans to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner

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    Xiaoyi Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying a superior soybean variety with high defoliator resistance is important to avoid yield loss. Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hübner is one of the major defoliators of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the effect of H. armigera larvae on ED059, a wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc., and three cultivated soybean varieties: Tianlong 2, PI 535807, and PI 533604, in choice and no-choice assays. The percentage of ED059 leaflets consumed by H. armigera was lower than that of the three cultivated soybeans. Larvae that fed on ED059 exhibited low weight gain and high mortality rate. Waldbauer nutritional indices suggested that ED059 reduced the growth, consumption, and frass production of H. armigera larvae. Larvae that fed on ED059 showed lower efficiency of conversion of ingested and of digested food than those that fed on Tianlong 2 and PI 533604. However, they showed statistically similar consumption index and approximate digestibility compared with those fed on the three cultivated soybeans. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that 24 h after insect attack, ED059 had higher transcript levels of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor 3, Cysteine proteinase inhibitor 2, and Nerolidol synthase 1 but a lower transcript level of Pathogenesis-related protein 1 than Tianlong 2. The gene expression results were consistent with the presence of higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA and transcript levels of the JA biosynthesis enzyme allene oxide cyclase 3 in ED059 than in Tianlong 2. Our findings indicate that ED059 is a superior soybean line with strong insect resistance that may be mediated via the JA pathway.

  13. Laboratory testing and molecular analysis of the resistance of wild and cultivated soybeans to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera(Hübner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyi; Wang; Haifeng; Chen; Aihua; Sha; Rong; Zhou; Zhihui; Shang; Xiaojuan; Zhang; Chanjuan; Zhang; Limiao; Chen; Qingnan; Hao; Zhonglu; Yang; Dezhen; Qiu; Shuilian; Chen; Xinan; Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Identifying a superior soybean variety with high defoliator resistance is important to avoid yield loss. Cotton bollworm(Helicoverpa armigera Hübner) is one of the major defoliators of soybean(Glycine max [L.] Merr.) worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the effect of H. armigera larvae on ED059, a wild soybean(Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.), and three cultivated soybean varieties: Tianlong 2, PI 535807, and PI 533604, in choice and no-choice assays. The percentage of ED059 leaflets consumed by H. armigera was lower than that of the three cultivated soybeans. Larvae that fed on ED059 exhibited low weight gain and high mortality rate.Waldbauer nutritional indices suggested that ED059 reduced the growth, consumption, and frass production of H. armigera larvae. Larvae that fed on ED059 showed lower efficiency of conversion of ingested and of digested food than those that fed on Tianlong 2 and PI 533604.However, they showed statistically similar consumption index and approximate digestibility compared with those fed on the three cultivated soybeans. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that 24 h after insect attack, ED059 had higher transcript levels of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor 3, Cysteine proteinase inhibitor 2, and Nerolidol synthase 1 but a lower transcript level of Pathogenesis-related protein 1 than Tianlong 2. The gene expression results were consistent with the presence of higher levels of jasmonic acid(JA) and transcript levels of the JA biosynthesis enzyme allene oxide cyclase 3 in ED059 than in Tianlong 2. Our findings indicate that ED059 is a superior soybean line with strong insect resistance that may be mediated via the JA pathway.

  14. THE EFFECT OF SOME RHIZOBACTERIAN STRAINS ON SOLUBLE PROTEINS CONTENT IN SOYBEANS (GLYCINE MAX L. MERR.

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    Marius Stefan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Now it is an accepted fact that plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR can increase the productivity of several crops. The main objective of the present study was to find if there are any differences in protein content in the seeds of soybean (Glycine max L. MERR.. Using spectrophotometric methods for analyzing the protein contents and electrophoretic methods for qualitative analysis it was observed that no major modifications occur in protein spectrum. Looking at the quantitative side there was a small improvement in protein quantity.

  15. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hidetoshi; Shimada, Hiroshi; Horak, Michael J.; Ahmad, Aqeel; Baltazar, Baltazar M.; Perez, Tim; McPherson, Marc A.; Stojšin, Duška; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA) in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (< 2%) caused by Lepidopteran insects. A separate experiment using five levels of simulated defoliation (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%) was conducted to assess the impact on pod and seed production and time to maturity of wild soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible. PMID:26963815

  16. Identification of SNPs in RNA-seq data of two cultivars of Glycine max (soybean) differing in drought resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Oliveira Vidal; Leandro Costa do Nascimento; Jorge Maurício Costa Mondego; Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães Pereira; Marcelo Falsarella Carazzolle

    2012-01-01

    The legume Glycine max (soybean) plays an important economic role in the international commodities market, with a world production of almost 260 million tons for the 2009/2010 harvest. The increase in drought events in the last decade has caused production losses in recent harvests. This fact compels us to understand the drought tolerance mechanisms in soybean, taking into account its variability among commercial and developing cultivars. In order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (...

  17. Identification of candidate genes involved in early iron deficiency chlorosis signaling in soybean (Glycine max) roots and leaves

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron is an essential micronutrient for all living things, required in plants for photosynthesis, respiration and metabolism. A lack of bioavailable iron in soil leads to iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC), causing a reduction in photosynthesis and interveinal yellowing of leaves. Soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown in high pH soils often suffer from IDC, resulting in substantial yield losses. Iron efficient soybean cultivars maintain photosynthesis and have higher yields under IDC...

  18. Greenhouse Evaluation of Selected Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to North Carolina Populations of Heterodera glycines, Rotylenchulus reniformis, and Meloidogyne Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E L; Koenning, S R; Burton, J W; Barker, K R

    1996-12-01

    Selected soybean genotypes were evaluated for resistance to North Carolina populations of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines, the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita races 3 and 4, M. arenaria races 1 and 2, M. javanica, and the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis in two greenhouse tests. Populations of cyst nematode used in the first test were cultures from field samples originally classified as races 1-5, and those used in the second test included inbred cyst lines that corresponded to races 1, 3, and 4. The original race classification of some cyst populations shifted after repeated culture on susceptible 'Lee 68' soybean. Most of the cyst-resistant soybean cultivars tested were susceptible to M. arenaria and M. javanica. Exceptionally large galls were induced by M. arenaria on roots of Asgrow 5979, Hartwig, and CNS soybean. Hartwig soybean and PI 437654 were resistant to all cultured field populations of cyst nematodes in a first greenhouse test. In the second test, cyst indices of 11.3% and 19.4% were observed on roots of PI 437654 and Hartwig, respectively, when infected with an inbred line (OP50) of H. glycines corresponding to race 4. The cyst-resistant soybean germplasm tested, including Hartwig and PI 437654, supported only low numbers of reniform nematodes. The most severe soybean root necrosis observed, however, was associated with reniform nematode infection.

  19. Inheritance of salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) accession PI483463.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Vuong, Tri D; Nguyen, Henry T

    2009-01-01

    Tolerant soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) cultivars aid in reducing salt damage in problem fields. New genes are important to reduce losses from salt injury. Objectives of this study were to determine inheritance of salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) PI483463 and to test allelism of tolerance genes from genotypes PI483463 and S-100, a common ancestor of southern in US cultivars. Tolerant (T) PI483463 was crossed to sensitive (S) cultivar Hutcheson to study inheritance. PI483463 (T) was crossed with S-100 (T) to test for allelism. Parents, F(1) plants, F(2) populations, and F(2:3) lines were assayed in a 100 mM salt solution to determine tolerance. F(2) from T x S cross segregated 3(T):1 (S) and the F(2:3) lines responded 1 (T): 2 (segregating):1 (S). F(2) plants from PI483463 (T) x S-100 (T) segregated 15 (T):1 (S) indicating different genes from the 2 sources. Results showed that G. soja line PI483463 had a single dominant gene for salt tolerance, which was different than the gene in G. max line S-100. The symbol, Ncl2, was designated for this new salt tolerance allele.

  20. Genetic analysis of parasitism in the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, K; Opperman, C H

    1997-08-01

    A genetic analysis of parasitic ability in the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines was performed. To identify and characterize genes involved in parasitism, we developed three highly inbred H. glycines lines, OP20, OP25 and OP50, for use as parents for controlled crosses. Through these crosses, we have identified genes in the inbred parents that control reproduction of the nematode on hosts that carry resistance genes. These genes, designated as ror-* for reproduction on a resistant host, segregate in a normal Mendelian fashion as independent loci. Host range tests of F1 generation progeny indicated that at least one parasitism gene in both the OP20 and OP50 lines for host PI 88788 was dominant. Parasitism genes in OP50 for hosts "Peking" and PI 90763 are recessive. Two types of single female descent populations, a single backcrossed BC1F2-derived and a double backcrossed BC2F1-derived, were established on the susceptible soybean cultivar "Lee 68." Host range tests for parasitism in these lines demonstrated the presence of two independent genes in OP50, one for host PI 88788 designated ror-1 and one for host PI 90763 designated ror-2. OP20 carries two independent genes for parasitism on PI 88788, designated as alleles kr3 and kr4.

  1. Soybean Glycine Max L Merill Promiscuity Reaction To Indigenous Bradyrhizobia inoculation In Some Ghanaian Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanuel Y. Klogo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For many tropical countries particularly in Africa Biological Nitrogen Fixation BNF continues to be the most promising alternative or supplement to the use of chemical Nitrogen fertilizers for sustainable Agriculture. In contrast to cowpea that nodulate profusely in tropical soilswith the naturally occurring bradyrhizobia nodulation and nitrogen fixation in the American-type soybean in similar environments has largely depended on inoculating bradyrhizobia into the soil. The development of the Tropical Glycine Cross TGx soybean varieties by IITA has made it possible for these promiscuous varieties to nodulate with the naturally occurring strains belonging to the cowpea Bradyrhizobiumspp. The Most Probable Number MPN technique was used to determine the bradyrhizobial population in these soils. Eighty four Bradyrhizobium isolates obtained from randomly selected nodules on soybean were assessed for effectiveness in nitrogen fixation. Three of the most effective isolates were used in inoculation studies carried out in the greenhouse atthe University of Ghana-Legonon three promiscuous soybean varieties Anidaso TGx 813-6D TGx 1903-8F and TGx 1448-2E and a non- promiscuous genotype Davis in three Ghanaian soil series Toje Chromic cambisols Chichiwere Dystricfluvisol and Bekwai Ferric acrisols. There were tremendous inoculation responses in these soils for both the promiscuous and non-promiscuous cultivars with even the promiscuous ones responding better to inoculation than the non-promiscuous Davis. Inoculation gave rise to significant increases in nodule number nodule dry weight shoot dry weight and total nitrogen accumulation compared to the uninoculated control even intheChichiwere soil series which harboured the highestpopulation of indigenous bradyrhizobia suggesting that the populations of the naturally occurring bradyrhizobia in these soils were either not highly competitive or sufficient for optimum nodulation and nitrogen fixation. For

  2. Allelic differentiation of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K J; Takahata, Y; Kono, Y; Kaizuma, N

    2008-08-01

    Soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI) has several polymorphic types, which are controlled by co-dominant multiple alleles at a single locus. Of these types, Tia and Tib are predominant types, and there are nine differences in amino acids between Tia and Tib. Recently, an intermediate transitional type (Tibi5) between them was detected. However, other transitional types have not been detected despite surveys of many cultivated and wild soybeans. One of the reasons why other transitional variants have not been found is inferred to be due to the difficulty of the detection of SKTI protein variants by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To detect novel variants of SKTI, nucleotide sequence analysis in addition to PAGE was carried out. Four new variants were found from many Japanese wild soybeans. Of these variants, three (designated as Tiaa1, Tiaa2, Tiab1) were detected through gene sequence analysis on wild soybeans having the same electrophoretic mobility as Tia, and one (Tig) was detected through PAGE. The Tig variant showed a slightly lower electrophoretic mobility than Tic. The nucleotide sequences of Tig were identical to those of Tib except for one T-->C transitional mutation at position +340. The sequences of Tiaa1 and Tiaa2 genes were identical to those of Tia with the exception of a G-->A mutation at position +376 and a T-->C mutation at +404, respectively. The sequence of Tiab1 differed from Tia by three nucleotides: C-->A at position +331, T-->C at +459 and A-->G at +484. Of the three nucleotide changes, two were common to Tiab1, Tibi5 and Tib, suggesting that Tiab1 is an intermediate transitional type between Tia and Tib. Our results suggest that Tib type has been differentiated through a series of mutations from Tia before the domestication of cultivated soybean.

  3. Effects of phosphorus on nutrient uptake and rhizosphere acidification of soybean (Glycine max L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pot experiment was conducted to examine how application of KH2PO4 (0-165 mg·kg-1 P) to affect nutrient ion uptake and rhizosphere acidification of soybean (Glycine max L.) grown in greenhouse for 90 days. When supplied of 82 and 165 mg·kg-1 P,soybeans showed excessive poison. Under all kinds of P levels, the K, Ca, Na and Mg concents in plant tissues were as below order:K was nodules > roots > pods > shoots; Ca was shoots > roots > nodules > pods; Na was roots > nodules > pods > shoots and Mg was shoots > nodules > roots > pods. K concent in plant tisssues had greater effect on rhizosphere acidification than other cations in this experiment irrespective of P supply, and was significantly negative to pH. Na concentration was significantly positive to pH. Excessive P supply induced rhizosphere acidification, pH decreased as P supply increased from 82 to 165 mg·kg-1. Ash alkalinity in shoots and roots was significantly positively correlated with rhizosphere pH irrespective of P supply. All these results suggested that P supply affected nutrient uptake, induced ash alkalinity to increase and rhizosphere pH to decrease in soybean.

  4. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (mucuna deeringiana and soybean (glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Chaparro Acuña

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa flour (Mucuna deeringiana and soybean flour (Glycine max were determined. Oil absorption capacity was higher in vitabosa. Water absorption capacity was higher in soy and it was affected by the change in the ionic strength of the medium. Emulsifying Activity (EA decreased with increasing concentration of flour, while Emulsifying Stability (ES showed an increased. EA and ES of flours have more ionic strength in the range between 0.0 and 0.4 M, but it is reduced afterwards with the higher concentration of NaCl. Foaming stability varied with the concentration of flour solution reaching maximum values of 39 and 33% for vitabosa and soybean, respectively at 10% flour concentration.Vitabosa had the best foaming capacity (56% to 0.6 M compared with soybeans (47% to 0.4 M. Maximum capacity of gelation was observed in vitabosa at 10% flour concentration. Increases in ionic strength of the flour solution, at low salt concentrations (<0.4 M, improved the gelation of flours.

  5. Potential of marker selection to increase prediction accuracy of genomic selection in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yansong; Reif, Jochen C; Jiang, Yong; Wen, Zixiang; Wang, Dechun; Liu, Zhangxiong; Guo, Yong; Wei, Shuhong; Wang, Shuming; Yang, Chunming; Wang, Huicai; Yang, Chunyan; Lu, Weiguo; Xu, Ran; Zhou, Rong; Wang, Ruizhen; Sun, Zudong; Chen, Huaizhu; Zhang, Wanhai; Wu, Jian; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Luan, Xiaoyan; Fu, Yashu; Guo, Tai; Han, Tianfu; Zhang, Mengchen; Sun, Bincheng; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Weiyuan; Wu, Cunxiang; Sun, Shi; Yuan, Baojun; Zhou, Xinan; Han, Dezhi; Yan, Hongrui; Li, Wenbin; Qiu, Lijuan

    Genomic selection is a promising molecular breeding strategy enhancing genetic gain per unit time. The objectives of our study were to (1) explore the prediction accuracy of genomic selection for plant height and yield per plant in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], (2) discuss the relationship between prediction accuracy and numbers of markers, and (3) evaluate the effect of marker preselection based on different methods on the prediction accuracy. Our study is based on a population of 235 soybean varieties which were evaluated for plant height and yield per plant at multiple locations and genotyped by 5361 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. We applied ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction coupled with fivefold cross-validations and evaluated three strategies of marker preselection. For plant height, marker density and marker preselection procedure impacted prediction accuracy only marginally. In contrast, for grain yield, prediction accuracy based on markers selected with a haplotype block analyses-based approach increased by approximately 4 % compared with random or equidistant marker sampling. Thus, applying marker preselection based on haplotype blocks is an interesting option for a cost-efficient implementation of genomic selection for grain yield in soybean breeding.

  6. Genetic divergence in a soybean (Glycine max) diversity panel based on agro-morphological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconato, M B; Pereira, E M; Silva, F M; Bizari, E H; Pinheiro, J B; Mauro, A O; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2016-11-21

    Owing to the narrow genetic basis of soybean (Glycine max), the incorporation of new sources of germplasm is indispensable when searching for alleles that contribute to a greater diversity of varieties. The alternative is plant introduction, which may increase genetic variability within breeding programs. Multivariate techniques are important tools to study genetic diversity and allow the precise elucidation of variability in a set of genotypes of interest. The agro-morphological traits of 93 soybean accessions from various continents were analyzed in order to assess the genetic diversity present, and to highlight important traits. The experimental design was incomplete blocks (Alpha lattice, 8 x 12) with three replicates. Nine agro-morphological traits were analyzed, and principal component analysis and cluster analysis were performed, the latter by Ward's method. The dendrogram obtained contained eight subgroups, confirming the genetic diversity among the accessions and revealing similarities between 11 national genotypes. The geographical origin of the accessions was not always related to the clusters. The traits evaluated, and the methods used, facilitated the distinction and characterization of genotypes between and within groups, and could be used in Brazilian soybean breeding programs.

  7. NR2B GENE EXPRESSION CHANGE IN WISTAR RAT PRACTICING AEROBIC EXERCISE COMPARING TO SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX OR PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI INTAKES AND SOYBEAN AND PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI COMPOSITION INTAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Murniati Tarawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship between nutrition and brain memory. Methods: This study was an experimental laboratory study conducted during the period of June 2011 to July 2012 at the Biomedical and Biochemistry laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. The subjects were 56 8-week-old male Wistar rats weighing approximately 200–250 grams which were divided into 8 groups with different treatments. The treatment groups received no exercise or exercise and soybean (Glycine max, Phyllanthus niruri, or combination of both. Results: NR2B gene expression changes found is described as follows: (1 without practicing exercise (3.8 and after exercise (4.6; (2 Glycine max minus exercise (2.86 and Glycine max and exercise (3.17; (3 Phyllanthus niruri minus exercises (4.7 and Phyllanthus niruri and exercise (4.9; and (4 Glycine max and Phyllanthus niruri combination minus exercise (3.14 and Glycine max and Phyllanthus niruri combination and exercise (4.83. Conclusions: This study determines that exercises and Phyllanthus niruri intake enhance NR2B gene expressions. Glycine max inhibits the NR2B gene expressions. Glycine max and Phyllanthus niruri combination, both with and without practicing exercises, enhance NR2B gene expressions. Therefore, practicing exercise and Phyllanthus niruri intake might cause brain cell apoptosis while Glycine max intake inhibits brain cell apoptosis.

  8. Genetic Diversity and Evolutionary Tendency Detected by Isozyme, RFLP and RAPD Markers in the Wild and Cultivated Soybean in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A large numbers of samples of wild soybean accessions and cultivated soybean landraces from various areas in China were analyzed by isozyrme, cytoplasmic DNA RFLP and nuclear DNA RAPD markers in order to reveal their genetic diversity. Greater comprehensive genetic diversity was detected in wild soybean than in cultivated soybean. The genetic plentifulness and the genetic dispersion of wild soybean were 180 (95. 2%) and 0. 2891 while those of cultivated soybean were 154(81.5%) and 0. 2091,respectively. On the most loci, especially on isozyme loci Idh1, Aph, Idh2,and Dia, cytoplasmic DNA RFLP loci cp Ⅰ , cp Ⅲ, mt Ⅳ a and mt Ⅳ b, and nuclear RAPD loci OPAP4-8, OPAP5-1, OPAP9-8 and OPAP20-8, the wild soybeans djffered remarkably from the cultivated ones in allele frequency. These markers could be used in further study on the evolution and origin of the cultivated soybean.

  9. Genetic Diversity and Evolutionary Tendency Detected by Isozyme, RFLP and RAPD Markers in the Wild and Cultivated Soybean in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Donghe; Gao Zhong; Gai Junyi; Zhang Zhiyong; Chen Shouyi; Fukushi Hirofurm; Kitajirma Shunji; Abe Jun; Shimamoto Yoshiya

    2000-01-01

    A large numbers of samples of wild soybean accessions and cultivated soybean landraces from various areas in China were analyzed by isozyrme, cytoplasmic DNA RFLP and nuclear DNA RAPD markers in order to reveal their genetic diversity. Greater comprehensive genetic diversity was detected in wild soybean than in cultivated soybean. The genetic plentifulness and the genetic dispersion of wild soybean were 180 (95. 2%) and 0. 2891 while those of cultivated soybean were 154(81.5%) and 0. 2091,respectively. On the most loci, especially on isozyme loci Idh1, Aph, Idh2,and Dia, cytoplasmic DNA RFLP loci cp Ⅰ , cp Ⅲ, mt Ⅳ a and mt Ⅳ b, and nuclear RAPD loci OPAP4-8, OPAP5-1, OPAP9-8 and OPAP20-8, the wild soybeans djffered remarkably from the cultivated ones in allele frequency. These markers could be used in further study on the evolution and origin of the cultivated soybean.

  10. Nitrate and ammonium influxes in soybean (Glycine max) roots : Direct comparison of N-13 and N-15 tracing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarkson, DT; Gojon, A; Saker, LR; Wiersema, PK; Purves, JV; Tillard, P; Arnold, GM; Paans, AJM; Vaalburg, W; Stulen, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    We compared influxes and internal transport in soybean plants (Glycine max cv. Kingsoy) of labelled N from external solutions where either ammonium or nitrate was labelled with the stable isotope N-15 and the radioactive isotope N-13. The objective was to see whether mass spectrometric determination

  11. Identification of candidate genes involved in early iron deficiency chlorosis signaling in soybean (Glycine max) roots and leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for all living things, required in plants for photosynthesis, respiration and metabolism. A lack of bioavailable iron in soil leads to iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC), causing a reduction in photosynthesis and interveinal yellowing of leaves. Soybeans (Glycine ma...

  12. Nitrate and ammonium influxes in soybean (Glycine max) roots : Direct comparison of N-13 and N-15 tracing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarkson, DT; Gojon, A; Saker, LR; Wiersema, PK; Purves, JV; Tillard, P; Arnold, GM; Paans, AJM; Vaalburg, W; Stulen, [No Value

    We compared influxes and internal transport in soybean plants (Glycine max cv. Kingsoy) of labelled N from external solutions where either ammonium or nitrate was labelled with the stable isotope N-15 and the radioactive isotope N-13. The objective was to see whether mass spectrometric

  13. Enhanced single seed trait predictions in soybean (Glycine max) and robust calibration model transfer with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single seed near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy predicts soybean (Glycine max) seed quality traits of moisture, oil, and protein. We tested the accuracy of transferring calibrations between different single seed NIR analyzers of the same design by collecting NIR spectra and analytical trait...

  14. Microbiome diversity of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) with extensive superinfection of Arsenophonus and Wolbachia in native and invasive populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interaction among insects and microbes can lead to either symbiotic cooperation which could promote ecological and evolutionary adaptation, or a parasitic relationship through reproductive manipulation. We characterized the microbiome of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), with the long-term goa...

  15. Phenotypic Characterization and Genetic Dissection of Growth Period Traits in Soybean (Glycine max Using Association Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangxiong Liu

    Full Text Available The growth period traits are important traits that affect soybean yield. The insights into the genetic basis of growth period traits can provide theoretical basis for cultivated area division, rational distribution, and molecular breeding for soybean varieties. In this study, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS was exploited to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTL for number of days to flowering (ETF, number of days from flowering to maturity (FTM, and number of days to maturity (ETM using 4032 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers with 146 cultivars mainly from Northeast China. Results showed that abundant phenotypic variation was presented in the population, and variation explained by genotype, environment, and genotype by environment interaction were all significant for each trait. The whole accessions could be clearly clustered into two subpopulations based on their genetic relatedness, and accessions in the same group were almost from the same province. GWAS based on the unified mixed model identified 19 significant SNPs distributed on 11 soybean chromosomes, 12 of which can be consistently detected in both planting densities, and 5 of which were pleotropic QTL. Of 19 SNPs, 7 SNPs located in or close to the previously reported QTL or genes controlling growth period traits. The QTL identified with high resolution in this study will enrich our genomic understanding of growth period traits and could then be explored as genetic markers to be used in genomic applications in soybean breeding.

  16. Purification and antifungal activity of a basic 34 kDa beta-1,3-glucanase from soybean hypocotyls inoculated with Phytophthora sojae f. sp. glycines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S Y; Hwang, B K

    1997-06-30

    Inoculation of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Jangyup) hypocotyls with Phytophthora sojae f. sp. glycines results in a marked accumulation of some pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. A basic beta-1,3-glucanase (34 kDa) was purified from soybean hypocotyls infected by an incompatible race of P. sojae f. sp. glycines using CM-cellulose cation exchange chromatography and Bio-gel P-60 gel filtration. The purified soybean beta-1,3-glucanase cross-reacted with polyclonal antibody raised against a tomato beta-1,3-glucanase. The activity of beta-1,3-glucanase was much higher in the infected soybean hypocotyls than the healthy ones. The beta-1, 3-glucanase purified from soybean inhibited spore germination and hyphal growth of the chitin-negative fungus P. sojae f. sp. glycines, but did not show any antifungal activity against the chitin-containing fungi Alternaria mali, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Magnaporthe grisea.

  17. The Utilization of Soybean Wild Relatives: How Can It Be Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. & Zucc.) is the progenitor of soybean and is native to China, Taiwan, Japan, eastern Russia and the Korean peninsula. Research has repeatedly demonstrated that wild soybean is more genetically diverse than the cultivated soybean. There are 26 perennial Glycine species tha...

  18. Genetic variations of glycinin subunit genes among cultivated and wild type soybean species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Glycinin is a predominant storage protein in most soybean accessions. It is a hexamer constituted by five major subunits, which can be classified into two groups. Group Ⅰ contains Gl, G2 and G3, and Group Ⅱ contains G4 and G5. The genes encoding these subunits have been designated from Gyl to Gy5, respectively. In the present study, Gyl genomic fragments were cloned from wild accessions of subgenera Glycine glycine, Glycine soja and a cultivar of Glycine max. Their sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared. The residues critical for assembling of G1 subunits from the wild perennial accession were conservative. The Gy4 fragments were cloned from two wild perennial accessions and compared with that from subgenus Soja. The intron 3 of Gy4 had abundant variations between the subgenera G. Soja and G. Glycine as well as within the subgenus G. Glycine. Abundant variations existed in the disordered regions 3 and 4 of G4 subunits from two wild perennial accessions. The genomic organization of glycinin genes was analyzed in 19 accessions from subgenera Soja and Glycine. The hybridization patterns were identical among the accessions of subgenus Soja. On the contrary, abundant polymorphisms existed between the accessions from subgenus Glycine. These results indicated that glycinin genes have high degree of conservation within subgenus Soja but more variations within subgenus Glycine.

  19. Vitamin E levels in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) expressing a p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate gene from oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Catherine M; Launis, Karen L; Traber, Maret G; Ward, Dennis P

    2014-04-16

    The enzyme p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is ubiquitous in plants and functions in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, resulting in the formation of homogentisate. Homogentisate is the aromatic precursor of all plastoquinones and tocochromanols, including tocopherols and tocotrienols. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been genetically modified to express the gene avhppd-03 that encodes the protein AvHPPD-03 derived from oat (Avena sativa L.). The AvHPPD-03 isozyme has an inherent reduced binding affinity for mesotrione, a herbicide that inhibits the wild-type soybean HPPD enzyme. Expression of avhppd-03 in soybean plants confers a mesotrione-tolerant phenotype. Seeds from three different avhppd-03-expressing soybean events were quantitatively assessed for content of eight vitamin E isoforms. Although increased levels of two tocopherol isoforms were identified for each of the three soybean events, they were within, or not substantially different from, the ranges of these isoforms found in nontransgenic soybean varieties. The increases of these tocopherols in the avhppd-03-expressing soybean events may have a slight benefit with regard to vitamin E nutrition but, given the commercial processing of soybeans, are unlikely to have a material impact on human nutrition with regard to vitamin E concentrations in soybean oil.

  20. Generation and characterization of two novel low phytate mutations in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Feng-Jie; Zhao, Hai-Jun; Ren, Xue-Liang; Zhu, Shen-Long; Fu, Xu-Jun; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2007-11-01

    Phytic acid (PA, myo-inositol 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hexakisphosphate) is important to the nutritional quality of soybean meal. Organic phosphorus (P) in PA is indigestible in humans and non-ruminant animals, which affects nutrition and causes P pollution of ground water from animal wastes. Two novel soybean [(Glycine max L. (Merr.)] low phytic acid (lpa) mutations were isolated and characterized. Gm-lpa-TW-1 had a phytic acid P (PA-P) reduction of 66.6% and a sixfold increase in inorganic P (Pi), and Gm-lpa-ZC-2 had a PA-P reduction of 46.3% and a 1.4-fold increase in Pi, compared with their respective non-mutant progenitor lines. The reduction of PA-P and increase of Pi in Gm-lpa-TW-1 were molar equivalent; the decrease of PA-P in Gm-lpa-ZC-2, however, was accompanied by the increase of both Pi and lower inositol phosphates. In both mutant lines, the total P content remained similar to their wild type parents. The two lpa mutations were both inherited in a single recessive gene model but were non-allelic. Sequence data and progeny analysis indicate that Gm-lpa-TW-1 lpa mutation resulted from a 2 bp deletion in the soybean D: -myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (MIPS1 EC 5.5.1.4) gene 1 (MIPS1). The lpa mutation in Gm-lpa-ZC-2 was mapped on LG B2, closely linked with microsatellite loci Satt416 and Satt168, at genetic distances of approximately 4.63 and approximately 9.25 cM, respectively. Thus this mutation probably represents a novel soybean lpa locus. The seed emergence rate of Gm-lpa-ZC-2 was similar to its progenitor line and was not affected by seed source and its lpa mutation. However, Gm-lpa-TW-1 had a significantly reduced field emergence when seeds were produced in a subtropic environment. Field tests of the mutants and their progenies further demonstrated that the lpa mutation in Gm-lpa-ZC-2 does not negatively affect plant yield traits. These results will advance understanding of the genetic, biochemical and molecular control of PA synthesis in soybean. The

  1. Calcium ion involvement in growth inhibition of mechanically stressed soybean (Glycine max) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    A 40-50% reduction in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Century 84] hypocotyl elongation occurred 24 h after application of mechanical stress. Exogenous Ca2+ at 10 mM inhibited growth by 28% if applied with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 to the zone of maximum hypocotyl elongation. La3+ was even more inhibitory than Ca2+, especially above 5 mM. Treatment with ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) alone had no effect on growth of non-stressed seedlings at the concentrations used but negated stress-induced growth reduction by 36% at 4 mM when compared to non-treated, stressed controls. Treatment with EDTA was ineffective in negating stress-induced growth inhibition. Calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium, chlorpromazine, and 48/80 also negated stress-induced growth reduction by 23, 50, and 35%, respectively.

  2. Cellulase and xylanase productions by isolated Amazon Bacillus strains using soybean industrial residue based solid-state cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck Júlio X.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, a large amount of a fibrous residue is generated as result of soybean (Glycine max protein production. This material, which is rich in hemicellulose and cellulose, can be used in solid state cultivations for the production of valuable metabolites and enzymes. In this work, we studied the bioconversion of this residue by bacteria strains isolated from water and soil collected in the Amazon region. Five strains among 87 isolated bacteria selected for their ability to produce either celullases or xylanases were cultivated on the aforementioned residue. From strain BL62, identified as Bacillus subtilis, it was obtained a preparation showing the highest specific cellulase activity, 1.08 UI/mg protein within 24 hours of growth. Concerning xylanase, the isolate BL53, also identified as Bacillus subtilis, showed the highest specific activity for this enzyme, 5.19 UI/mg protein within 72 hours of cultivation. It has also been observed the production of proteases that were associated with the loss of cellulase and xylanase activities. These results indicated that the selected microorganisms, and the cultivation process, have great biotechnological potential.

  3. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH activity in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. under flooding stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Rizal and Shanta Karki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sowing time of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. often coincides with the early onset of rainy season. Germinating seedsencounter a transient to prolonged period of water-logging that causes anoxia (absence of oxygen and hypoxia (insufficientoxygen resulting in poor germination. This reduces crop stability and yield. One of the factors responsible for flood tolerance isactivity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH during flood. The effect of ADH activity during flooding and difference in floodtolerance level were investigated using two soybean cultivars, Peking and Tamahomare, and their F9 recombinant inbred lines(RILs. Tamahomare showed higher ADH activity than Peking. There was a great variation in ADH activity among the RILs.QTL analysis detected five QTLs for ADH activity (qAas1-5 on five linkage groups, LG_A2, D1a, F, K and L. The QTL qAas4was close to a QTL for shoot damage and conductivity of germinating seeds after flooding treatment.

  4. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Weili; Jiang, Yuqian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, soybean seeds and sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) were exposed to radiation doses up to 3.0 kGy. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were germinated, and then germination rate, sprouts length, vitamin C content, antioxidants and visual and olfactory quality were determined after irradiation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the germination rate and sprouts length between the control and 0.3 kGy treated soybeans, however, the reductions in sprouts length of the 1.0 kGy and 3.0 kGy treated samples were quite significant with reductions of 20.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Irradiated sprouts had similar visual and olfactory quality as the non-irradiated one. Therefore, irradiation of seeds alone would have limited value in terms of commercial use due to reduced germination and length of sprouts. However, irradiation of sprouts at doses up to 3.0 kGy was feasible to enhance microbial safety of sprouts.

  5. Isoflavones profiling of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms and their correlations with metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Eun-Hye; Park, Inmyoung; Yu, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jung Dae; Lee, Young-Sang; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill-Min

    2014-06-15

    The isoflavone diversity (44 varieties) of the soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, from China, Japan, and Korea was examined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The profiles of 12 isoflavones identified from the grains were subjected to data-mining processes, including partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), Pearson's correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Although PLS-DA did not reveal significant differences among extracts of soybean from 3 countries, the results clearly show that the variation between varieties was low. The CS02554 variety was separate from the others in the first 2 principal components of PLS-DA. HCA of these phytochemicals resulted in clusters derived from closely related biochemical pathways. Daidzin, genistin, and glycitin contents were significantly correlated with their respective malonyl glycoside contents. Daidzein content correlated positively with genistein content (r=0.8189, P<0.0001). The CS02554 variety appears to be a good candidate for future breeding programs, as it contains high levels of isoflavone compounds. These results demonstrate the use of metabolite profiling combined with chemometrics as a tool for assessing the quality of food and identifying metabolic links in biological systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthetic apatite nanoparticles as a phosphorus fertilizer for soybean (Glycine max)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

    2014-07-01

    Some soluble phosphate salts, heavily used in agriculture as highly effective phosphorus (P) fertilizers, cause surface water eutrophication, while solid phosphates are less effective in supplying the nutrient P. In contrast, synthetic apatite nanoparticles could hypothetically supply sufficient P nutrients to crops but with less mobility in the environment and with less bioavailable P to algae in comparison to the soluble counterparts. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the fertilizing effect of synthetic apatite nanoparticles on soybean (Glycine max). The particles, prepared using one-step wet chemical method, were spherical in shape with diameters of 15.8 +/- 7.4 nm and the chemical composition was pure hydroxyapatite. The data show that application of the nanoparticles increased the growth rate and seed yield by 32.6% and 20.4%, respectively, compared to those of soybeans treated with a regular P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2). Biomass productions were enhanced by 18.2% (above-ground) and 41.2% (below-ground). Using apatite nanoparticles as a new class of P fertilizer can potentially enhance agronomical yield and reduce risks of water eutrophication.

  7. Spatiotemporal deep imaging of syncytium induced by the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Mina; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Kurihara, Daisuke; Suzaki, Takuya; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Maruyama, Daisuke; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2017-03-25

    Parasite infections cause dramatic anatomical and ultrastructural changes in host plants. Cyst nematodes are parasites that invade host roots and induce a specific feeding structure called a syncytium. A syncytium is a large multinucleate cell formed by cell wall dissolution-mediated cell fusion. The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a major soybean pathogen. To investigate SCN infection and the syncytium structure, we established an in planta deep imaging system using a clearing solution ClearSee and two-photon excitation microscopy (2PEM). Using this system, we found that several cells were incorporated into the syncytium; the nuclei increased in size and the cell wall openings began to be visible at 2 days after inoculation (DAI). Moreover, at 14 DAI, in the syncytium developed in the cortex, there were thickened concave cell wall pillars that resembled "Parthenon pillars." In contrast, there were many thick board-like cell walls and rarely Parthenon pillars in the syncytium developed in the stele. We revealed that the syncytia were classified into two types based on the pattern of the cell wall structures, which appeared to be determined by the position of the syncytium inside roots. Our results provide new insights into the developmental process of syncytium induced by cyst nematode and a better understanding of the three-dimensional structure of the syncytium in host roots.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a novel phytase gene (Sphyl) from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li GUO; Jiaojiao WANG; Kai XIAO

    2008-01-01

    A novel phytase gene Sphyl was isolated based on screening a cDNA library which was constructed from germinated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Kefeng 6) cotyledon. The full-length cDNA of Sphyl was 1644 bp predicated to encode 547 amino acids including an N terminal signal peptide of 27 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indi-cated that Sphyl had high similarities with the phytase genes from Medicago truncatula and rice, and acid phosphatase genes from M. truncatula and Arabidopsis. Prokaryotic expression of Sphyl in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) showed that the induced protein had high phytase activities. The tran-scripts of Sphyl could be detected in various tissues, such as cotyledons, leaves, stems and roots of seedlings. The phytase activities in the above tissues were in accordance with their corresponding Sphyl transcripts. The transcripts of Sphyl in cotyledons showed an increasing trend from 5 to 30 days after germination, suggesting that Sphyl had involved the hydrolyses of the organic phosphorus compounds in seeds from the stages of early seed germination to young seedlings in soybean. Therefore, it was speculated that Sphyl played an important role during the seed germination and the growth of the seedlings by releasing inorganic phosphorus (P) from phosphorus reserve in seeds.

  9. Leaf temperature of soybean grown under elevated CO2 increases Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae)population growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bridget F. O'Neill; Arthur R. Zangerl; Evan H. DeLucia; Clare Casteel; Jorge A. Zavala; May R. Berenbaum

    2011-01-01

    Plants grown under elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) experience physiological changes that influence their suitability as food for insects.To determine the effects of living on soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus) grown under elevated CO2,population growth of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) was determined at the SoyFACE research site at the University of Illinois,Urbana-Champaign,Illinois,USA,grown under elevated (550μL/L) and ambient (370μL/L) levels of CO2.Growth of aphid populations under elevated CO2 was significantly greater after 1 week,with populations attaining twice the size of those on plants grown under ambient levels of CO2.Soybean leaves grown under elevated levels of CO2 were previously demonstrated at SoyFACE to have increased leaf temperature caused by reduced stomatal conductance.To separate the increased leaf temperature from other effects of elevated CO2,air temperature was lowered while the CO2 level was increased,which lowered overall leaf temperatures to those measured for leaves grown under ambient levels of CO2.Aphid population growth on plants grown under elevated CO2 and reduced air temperature was not significantly greater than on plants grown under ambient levels of CO2.By increasing Glycine max leaf temperature,elevated CO2 may increase populations of Aphis glycines and their impact on crop productivity.

  10. Pod and seed mycoflora on transgenic and conventional soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] cultivars in Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, D A; Baird, R E; Trevathan, L E; Watson, C E; Scruggs, M L

    2004-02-01

    A 2-year (1999-2000) study was conducted at Starkville and Stoneville, MS to determine if the occurrence of the mycoflora varied on Roundup Ready (transgenic) compared to conventional soybean (Glycine max) cultivars. A total of 7,658 fungal isolates were identified from the pod and seed tissues of four cultivars compared at growth stages R6 and R8. Ninety-nine percent of all fungi isolated were mitosporic fungi and ascomycetes. In both years, total fungal isolates from the two locations were greater from the pod (65%) than from seed (33%) tissues. Isolation frequency from conventional cultivars was 54% compared to 46% for the transgenic cultivars. The most common fungi identified that are reported pathogens of soybean included Alternaria, Cercospora, Cladosporium, Diaporthe, Fusarium and Verticillium spp. When main effects and interactions were compared among the frequency data for the fungal genera, significant differences occurred, but consistent trends were not noted. Isolation frequencies of Diaporthe spp. during the R6 growth stage, were significantly greater on the conventional than on the transgenic cultivars in both years of the study, but only at Starkville. Isolation frequencies from samples taken during the R8 growth stage were similar at both locations in 1999 and 2000. Fusarium spp. isolated at R6 and R8 growth stages from pod and seed tissues were significantly greater on conventional than on transgenic cultivars in 2000. Even though frequencies were often significantly different between the transgenic and conventional cultivars, the data was not consistent between locations, pod and seed tissues, or growth stages. The pod and seed mycoflora of transgenic and conventional soybean cultivars was, therefore, similar in Mississippi.

  11. Effects of glyphosate on the mineral content of glyphosate-resistant soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O; Reddy, Krishna N; Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James V

    2012-07-11

    There are conflicting claims as to whether treatment with glyphosate adversely affects mineral nutrition of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops. Those who have made claims of adverse effects have argued links between reduced Mn and diseases in these crops. This article describes experiments designed to determine the effects of a recommended rate (0.86 kg ha(-1)) of glyphosate applied once or twice on the mineral content of young and mature leaves, as well as in seeds produced by GR soybeans (Glycine max) in both the greenhouse and field using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the greenhouse, there were no effects of either one application (at 3 weeks after planting, WAP) or two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves sampled at 6, 9, and 12 WAP and in harvested seed. Se concentrations were too low for accurate detection in leaves, but there was also no effect of glyphosate applications on Se in the seeds. In the field study, there were no effects of two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves at either 9 or 12 WAP. There was also no effect on Se in the seeds. There was no difference in yield between control and glyphosate-treated GR soybeans in the field. The results indicate that glyphosate does not influence mineral nutrition of GR soybean at recommended rates for weed management in the field. Furthermore, the field studies confirm the results of greenhouse studies.

  12. Establishment of a Core Collection for the Chinese annual wild soybean (Glycine Soja)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Limei; DONG Yingshan; LIU Bao; HAO Shui; WANG Kejing; LI Xianghua

    2005-01-01

    With more than 6000 accessions collected from across China, the Chinese National Crop Gene Bank (CNCGB) holds the largest collection of annual wild soybean (Glycine Soja) germplasm in the world. To facilitate the management and utilization of these germplasm collections, it is important to establish a Core Collection. This study compares five sampling strategies, namely random, constant, proportional, logarithmic and genetic diversity-based, to establish a Core Collection for the annual wild soybean germplasm. Among the strategies evaluated, the genetic diversity-based was found to be the simplest and most efficient. Using hierarchical classification and cluster analysis, in the genetic diversity diversity-based strategy, 652 accessions, accounting for 10.65% of the total 6172 accessions, were selected out to represent the total accessions. The established Core Collection has the following features: (i) the 21 descriptors observed in the entire collection were compared by the Core Collection, all 18 quality characters of entire collection were preserved by core collection, and coincidence rate of average was 98.4%; (ii) the variant of 13 descriptors of the two collections was very similar, with the coincidence index being 0.96; (iii) the coincidence rate of genetic diversity between the two collections was 81.38% DNA alleles; (iv) the geographic distribution pattern of core collection was the same as the entire collection; (v) molecular marker analysis by 20 SSR primer pairs on 299 accessions showed that the Core Collection covered 83.64% of the entire collection. It thus is concluded that the established Core Collection is representative and will be a valuable entry point for better evaluation and more efficient utilization of the genetic resources available in the annual wild soybean germplasm bank.

  13. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma costaricanum' a novel phytoplasma associated with an emerging disease in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-M; Bottner-Parker, K D; Zhao, Y; Villalobos, W; Moreira, L

    2011-12-01

    A novel phytoplasma, designated strain SoyST1c1, associated with a newly emerging disease in soybean (Glycine max), known as soybean stunt (SoyST), was found in 2002 in a soybean plantation in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. The same phytoplasma, or a very closely related strain, also infected sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) with purple vein syndrome (SwPPV) and passion fruit vine (Passiflora edulis) with bud proliferation disease (PasFBP) in the same region. Sequence analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences (GenBank accession nos FJ226068-FJ226073 and HQ225624-HQ225635) indicated that all three affected plants were infected by phytoplasmas that shared <97.5% sequence similarity with previously described phytoplasmas. The SoyST-causing phytoplasma represents a new taxon, most closely related to phytoplasma group 16SrI and 16SrXII strains. Virtual RFLP analysis indicated that the SoyST-causing phytoplasma and its closely related strains represent a novel 16Sr group, designated 16SrXXXI. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from the new phytoplasma strains, those previously described as 'Candidatus Phytoplasma spp.' and other distinct, as yet unnamed, phytoplasmas indicated that the SoyST-causing phytoplasma represents a distinct lineage within the aster yellows/stolbur branch on the phylogenetic tree. On the basis of its unique 16S rRNA gene sequence and biological properties, strain SoyST1c1 represents a novel taxon, for which the name 'Candidatus Phytoplasma costaricanum' is proposed with SoyST1c1 as the reference strain.

  14. Physiological Response of Soybean (Glycine max to Foliar Application of Methanol Under Different Soil Moistures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Paknejad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many cultivated area are situated in arid zone, where crop photosynthesis and productivity has limited by drought. Thus any treatment, such as methanol, that improve plant water relation and reduce stress impacts, could be benefit. Approach: In order to investigate effects of methanol application on some physiological properties of soybean under low water stress, a factorial experiment was done at Research Field of Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Islamic Azad University-Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran, during 2008, based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factor was different levels of methanol equal to 0 (control, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 volumetric percentage (v/v, which were used as foliar applications at three times during growth season of soybean, with 15 days intervals. The second factor was water stress conditions in two levels, based on depletion of 40 and 70% of available soil moisture. Some traits such as Grain Yield, Relative Water Content (RWC, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and chlorophyll content were measured, one day before and after the third methanol application. Results: Chlorophyll content (Chl, GY, Electrolytes Leakage at second sampling, photochemical capacity of PSII (Fv/Fm, maximum and variable fluorescence (Fm and Fv, respectively were affected by water stress significantly (p0 and Electrolytes Leakage were increased. Methanol foliar application influenced significantly (pConclusion: It seems applying methanol on water stressed soybean plants can reduce harmful effects of drought and improve plant potential to cope with stress.

  15. Hydroponic cultivation improves the nutritional quality of soybean and its products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Mariantonella; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2012-01-11

    Hydroponic cultivation allows the control of environmental conditions, saves irrigation water, increases productivity, and prevents plant infections. The use of this technique for large commodities such as soybean is not a relevant issue on fertile soils, but hydroponic soybean cultivation could provide proteins and oil in adverse environmental conditions. In this paper, the compositions of four cultivars of soybean seeds and their derivates, soy milk and okara, grown hydroponically were compared to that of the same cultivar obtained from soil cultivation in an open field. Besides proximal composition, the concentrations of phytic acid and isoflavones were monitored in the seeds, soy milk, and okara. Results demonstrated that, independent from the cultivar, hydroponic compared to soil cultivation promoted the accumulation of fats (from 17.37 to 21.94 g/100 g dry matter) and total dietary fiber (from 21.67 to 28.46 g/100 g dry matter) and reduced isoflavones concentration (from 17.04 to 7.66 mg/kg dry matter), whereas protein concentration was unaffected. The differences found in seed composition were confirmed in the respective okara products, but the effect of cultivation system was not significant looking at the soy milk composition. Data showed that hydroponic cultivation improved the nutritional quality of soybean seeds with regard to fats and dietary fiber. They also suggest that specific cultivars should be selected to obtain the desired nutritional features of the soybean raw material depending on its final destination.

  16. Reduced Fitness of Virulent Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes May Influence the Longevity of Resistance Genes in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenhorst, Adam J; McCarville, Michael T; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable use of insect resistance in crops require insect resistance management plans that may include a refuge to limit the spread of virulence to this resistance. However, without a loss of fitness associated with virulence, a refuge may not prevent virulence from becoming fixed within a population of parthenogenetically reproducing insects like aphids. Aphid-resistance in soybeans (i.e., Rag genes) prevent outbreaks of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), yet four biotypes defined by their capacity to survive on aphid-resistant soybeans (e.g., biotype-2 survives on Rag1 soybean) are found in North America. Although fitness costs are reported for biotype-3 on aphid susceptible and Rag1 soybean, it is not clear if virulence to aphid resistance in general is associated with a decrease in fitness on aphid susceptible soybeans. In laboratory assays, we measured fitness costs for biotype 2, 3 and 4 on an aphid-susceptible soybean cultivar. In addition, we also observed negative cross-resistance for biotype-2 on Rag3, and biotype-3 on Rag1 soybean. We utilized a simple deterministic, single-locus, four compartment genetic model to account for the impact of these findings on the frequency of virulence alleles. When a refuge of aphid susceptible was included within this model, fitness costs and negative cross-resistance delayed the increase of virulence alleles when virulence was inherited recessively or additively. If virulence were inherited additively, fitness costs decreased the frequency of virulence. Combined, these results suggest that a refuge may prevent virulent A. glycines biotypes from overcoming Rag genes if this aphid-resistance were used commercially in North America.

  17. Glycine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, John R.; Oddershede, Jens; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of the use of precise ion accelerators for medical purposes, it becomes ever more important to understand the interaction of biomolecules with fast ions.  Glycine is both a protein component and a model biomolecule, and is thus an important test system.    In this report, we discu...

  18. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins of Several Perennial Glycine Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Oehrle, Nathan W; Liu, Shanshan; Krishnan, Hari B

    2016-11-16

    Perennial Glycine species, distant relatives of soybean, have been recognized as a potential source of new genetic diversity for soybean improvement. The subgenus Glycine includes around 30 perennial species, which are well-adapted to drought conditions and possess resistance to a number of soybean pathogens. In spite of the potential of the perennial Glycine species for soybean improvement, very little is known about their storage proteins and their relationship with cultivated soybean seed proteins. We have examined the seed protein composition of nine perennial Glycine species by one- and two-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) gel electrophoresis. The relationship between cultivated soybean and perennial soybean seed proteins was examined by immunoblot analyses using antibodies raised against G. max β-conglycinin, glycinin A3 subunit, lipoxygenase, leginsulin, Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor. Additionally, we have measured the trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities from cultivated soybean and perennial Glycine species and have found marked differences between them. Our 2-D gel and immunoblot analyses demonstrate significant differences in the protein composition and size heterogeneities of the 7S and 11S seed storage proteins of soybean and perennial Glycine species. Perennial Glycine species accumulated a 45 kDa protein that was not detected in G. max and G. soja. This unique 45 kDa protein was immunologically related to the A3 glycinin subunit of G. max. The results of our studies suggest that even though the seed proteins of wild perennial Glycine species and G. max are immunologically related, their genes have diverged from each other during the course of evolution.

  19. Effect of fungicides and bioagents on number of microorganisms in soil and yield of soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAURAV MISHRA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mishra G, Kumar N, Giri K, Pandey S, Kumar R. 2014. Effect of fungicides and bioagents on number of microorganisms in soil and yield of soybean (Glycine max. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 45-48. In field experiments, the effect of selected fungicides and bioagents on number of soil microorganisms and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merill was investigated. The results showed that some of the crop protections preparations applied in the experiment (as seed dressing increased the populations of the examined microorganisms after the harvest of crops. Maximum counts of bacteria were recorded with Thiomethaxam at 3 g kg-1 while Pseudomonas at 3 g kg-1 showed the highest population of fungi, Actinomycetes, B. japonicum, PSB and Pseudomonas. The highest straw and grain yields of 3241.6 and 1439.4 kg ha-1, respectively, were recorded with Pseudomonas at 3 g kg-1.

  20. Variation in Efficacy of Isolates of the Fungus ARF Against the Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera glycines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, P; Riggs, R D

    1998-12-01

    An unnamed fungus, designated ARF, that parasitizes eggs and sedentary stages of cyst nematodes is a potential biological control agent of Heterodera glycines. The objectives of this study were to determine whether ARF isolates differ in their ability to suppress nematode numbers in soil and to compare the efficacy of ARF in heat-treated and native soil. The effectiveness of 11 ARF isolates was compared by introducing homogenized mycelium into heat-treated soil. Soybean seedlings were transplanted into pots containing fungus-infested soil and inoculated with H. glycines. After 30 or 60 days, the number of nematodes and the percentage of parasitized eggs were determined. Three isolates (907, 908, and TN14), which were previously reported to be weak egg parasites in vitro, consistently suppressed nematode numbers by 50% to 100%. Of the isolates previously reported to be aggressive egg parasites, four (903, BG2, MS3, and TN12) reduced nematode numbers by 56% to 69% in at least one experimental trial, but the other four had no effect on nematode numbers. When the efficacy of isolate TN14 was tested in heat-treated and native soil, nematode suppression was greater in the heat-treated soil in only one of two trials. In both soil treatments, nematode numbers were reduced by more than 60%. We conclude that virulence toward nematode eggs in vitro is a poor indicator of effectiveness of an ARF isolate in soil, and that the presence of soil microbes may reduce, but does not completely inhibit, activity of isolate TN14.

  1. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Biological Activities of the Essential Oil and Extract of the Seeds of Glycine max (Soybean) from North Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Somayeh; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Tajbakhsh, Mahmood; Baharfar, Robabeh

    2017-04-01

    Glycine max (L.) Merrill (soybean) is a major leguminous crop, cultivated globally as well as in Iran. This study examines the chemical composition of soybean essential oil, and evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of seeds on various plant pathogens that commonly cause irreparable damages to agricultural crops. The essential oil of soybean seeds was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 14 microorganisms, including three gram-positive, five gram-negative bacteria, and six fungi, using disk diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration technique. The soybean seeds were also subjected to screening for possible antioxidant activity by using catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Forty components were identified, representing 96.68% of the total oil. The major constituents of the oil were carvacrol (13.44%), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (9.15%), p-allylanisole (5.65%), p-cymene (4.87%), and limonene (4.75%). The oil showed significant activity against Pseudomonas syringae subsp. syringae, Rathayibacter toxicus with MIC = 25 µg/mL, and Pyricularia oryzae with MIC = 12.5 µg/mL. In addition, the free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil was determined with an IC50 value of 162.35 µg/mL. Our results suggest that this plant may be a potential source of biocide, for economical and environmentally friendly disease control strategies. It may also be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  2. Effect of N fertilizer top-dressing at various reproductive stages on growth, N-2 fixation and yield of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gan, YB; Stulen, [No Value; van Keulen, H; Kuiper, PJC

    2003-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is one of the most important food and cash crops in China and a key protein source for the farmers in northern China. Previous experiments in both the field and greenhouse have shown that N-2 fixation alone cannot meet the N requirement for maximizing soybean yield,

  3. Effect of N fertilizer top-dressing at various reproductive stages on growth, N2 fixation and yield of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gan, Y.B.; Stulen, I.; Kuiper, P.J.C.; Keulen, van H.

    2003-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is one of the most important food and cash crops in China and a key protein source for the farmers in northern China. Previous experiments in both the field and greenhouse have shown that N2 fixation alone cannot meet the N requirement for maximizing soybean yield, a

  4. Ensifer shofinae sp. nov., a novel rhizobial species isolated from root nodules of soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen Hao; Yang, Sheng Hui; Li, Zhao Hu; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin; Chen, Wen Feng

    2017-04-01

    Two bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of soybean were characterized phylogenetically as members of a distinct group in the genus Ensifer based on 16S rRNA gene comparisons. They were also verified as a separated group by the concatenated sequence analyses of recA, atpD and glnII (with similarities ≤93.9% to the type strains for defined species), and by the average nucleotide identities (ANI) between the whole genome sequence of the representative strain CCBAU 251167(T) and those of the closely related strains in Ensifer glycinis and Ensifer fredii (90.5% and 90.3%, respectively). Phylogeny of symbiotic genes (nodC and nifH) grouped these two strains together with some soybean-nodulating strains of E. fredii, E. glycinis and Ensifer sojae. Nodulation tests indicated that the representative strain CCBAU 251167(T) could form root nodules with capability of nitrogen fixing on its host plant and Glycine soja, Cajanus cajan, Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus vulgaris and Astragalus membranaceus, and it formed ineffective nodules on Leucaena leucocephala. Strain CCBAU 251167(T) contained fatty acids 18:1 ω9c, 18:0 iso and 20:0, differing from other related strains. Utilization of l-threonine and d-serine as carbon source, growth at pH 6.0 and intolerance of 1% (w/v) NaCl distinguished strain CCBAU 251167(T) from other type strains of the related species. The genome size of CCBAU 251167(T) was 6.2Mbp, comprising 7,581 predicted genes with DNA G+C content of 59.9mol% and 970 unique genes. Therefore, a novel species, Ensifer shofinae sp. nov., is proposed, with CCBAU 251167(T) (=ACCC 19939(T)=LMG 29645(T)) as type strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hari B; Natarajan, Savithiry S; Bennett, John O; Sicher, Richard C

    2011-05-01

    The xylem, in addition to transporting water, nutrients and metabolites, is also involved in long-distance signaling in response to pathogens, symbionts and environmental stresses. Xylem sap has been shown to contain a number of proteins including metabolic enzymes, stress-related proteins, signal transduction proteins and putative transcription factors. Previous studies on xylem sap have mostly utilized plants grown in controlled environmental chambers. However, plants in the field are subjected to high light and to environmental stress that is not normally found in growth chambers. In this study, we have examined the protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown cultivated soybean plants. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of xylem sap from determinate, indeterminate, nodulating and non-nodulating soybean cultivars revealed similar protein profiles consisting of about 8-10 prominent polypeptides. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soybean xylem sap resulted in the visualization of about 60 distinct protein spots. A total of 38 protein spots were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS. The most abundant proteins present in the xylem sap were identified as 31 and 28 kDa vegetative storage proteins. In addition, several proteins that are conserved among different plant species were also identified. Diurnal changes in the metabolite profile of xylem sap collected during a 24-h cycle revealed that asparagine and aspartate were the two predominant amino acids irrespective of the time collected. Pinitol (D-3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) was the most abundant carbohydrate present. The possible roles of xylem sap proteins and metabolites as nutrient reserves for sink tissue and as an indicator of biotic stress are also discussed.

  6. Diallel analysis for mineral element absorption in tropical adapted soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spehar, C R

    1995-04-01

    The Brazilian tropical adapted soybeans contains, in addition to superior morphological characters, genetic factors for tolerance to cultivation in acidic, mineral-stressed soils. However, the selection process for these hindrances has been empirical, and information on the genetics of mineral element uptake by the plant is necessary. The objective of this investigation was to identify the mode of inheritance for the absorption of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminium, manganese, zinc and copper in a 9 × 9 diallel cross. General combining ability (GCA) was higher than specific combining ability (SCA), with the exception of copper, manganese and zinc, indicating predominantly additive effects. The ratios of GCA/SCA varied between 3.4 (calcium) and 8.5 (magnesium). The regression of covariance (Wr) on variance (Vr) showed that the additive-dominance model explained the genetic differences in this germ plasm. However, the detection of overdominance could be related to possible heterozygosity in the parental varieties for mineral absorption. Broad-sense heritability values were higher than narrow sense heritability values for aluminium, iron, potassium, calcium and magnesium, being in the range of 67.9-86.9% and 42.0-56.6%, respectively. This is an indication that soybeans can be further improved to efficient utilisation of nutrients and to tolerate toxic factors in the soil.

  7. Determination of the variations in levels of phenolic compounds in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) sprouts infected by anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Han; Jeong, Sung Woo; Cho, Young Ah; Park, Semin; Kim, Yun-Hi; Bae, Dong Won; Chung, Jong Il; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Park, Soo-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han; Jin, Jong Sung; Shin, Sung Chul

    2013-09-01

    Soybean sprouts (Kongnamool) are one of the most popular and nutritive traditional vegetables in East Asia. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most serious diseases of soybean sprouts. In order to obtain basic information for breeding and/or selecting soybean genotypes with increased natural defense against anthracnose, phenolic compounds were profiled for healthy and infected soybean (Glycine max Merr.) sprouts by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Tryptophan and eight phenolic compounds (daidzin, genistin, malonyldaidzin, malonylgenistin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein and coumestrol) were determined from healthy and inoculated sprouts. Total identified phenolic content was 40.02 ± 0.03 mg kg⁻¹, 99.4% of which was isoflavones. The monitoring suggested that de novo induced glycitein appeared to act as a phytoalexin in the defence mechanism of the soybean sprouts against C. gloeosporioides, and constitutively formed seven phenolic components that functioned as phytoanticipins in the diseased soybean sprouts. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Evaluation of Probiotic Diversity from Soybean (Glycine max) Seeds and Sprouts Using Illumina-Based Sequencing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yali; Zhang, Miaomiao; Deng, Zujun; Cao, Lixiang

    2017-07-24

    There is increasing interest in the use of plant probiotics as environmental-friendly and healthy biofertilizers. The study aimed at selecting for novel probiotic candidates of soybean (Glycine max). The bacteriome and mycobiome of soybean sprouts and seeds were analyzed by Illumina-based sequencing. Seeds contained more diverse bacteria than those in sprouts. The seeds contained similar fungal diversity with sprouts. Total 15 bacterial OTUs and 4 fungal OTUs were detected in seeds and sprouts simultaneously, suggesting that the sprouts contained bacterial and fungal taxa transmitted from seeds. The Halothiobacillus was the most dominant bacterial genus observed and coexisted in seeds and sprouts. The OTUs belonged to Ascomycota were the most dominant fungal taxa observed in seeds and sprouts. Halothiobacillus was firstly identified as endophytic probiotics of soybean. The results suggested that sprouts might contain diverse plant probiotics of mature plants and Illumina-based sequencing can be used to screen for probiotic candidates.

  9. Effect of Hypergravity and Phytohormones on Isoflavonoid Accumulation in Soybean ( Glycine max. L.) Callus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Peter J.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Musgrave, Mary E.; McKeon-Bennett, Michelle; Moane, Siobhán

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential interaction between gravity and growth hormones on isoflavonoid accumulation. Soybean callus ( Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. `Acme') was grown in the dark for 16 days at 22 °C in a growth medium supplemented with four different combinations of phytohormones and subjected to 4- g and 8- g forces simulated in a centrifuge and 1- g in an adjacent stationary control. Isoflavonoid aglycones and their glycoside concentrations (daidzein, genistein, daidzin, 6″-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl daidzein, genistin, 6″-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl genistein) were determined in the resulting tissues. Although gravity had no significant impact on callus growth, increasing gravity reduced isoflavonoid accumulation in three out of the four phytohormone-supplemented culture media. The ratio of the auxin naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) to the cytokinin benzylaminopurine (BAP) was found to have profound effect on both callus growth and isoflavonoid accumulation. The cytokinin BAP promoted callus tissue growth, but reduced callus isoflavonoid suggesting the isoflavonoid accumulation was not keeping pace with the cell growth in the elevated concentration of BAP. On the other hand, NAA had little or no effect on callus growth, but greatly enhanced isoflavonoid accumulation. Interactive effects of gravity and hormone on isoflavonoid accumulation were evident and its implication to the mechanism by which gravity exerts the effect on plant secondary metabolites is discussed.

  10. SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX UREASE: STEADY STATE KINETICS, STABILITY AND THERMAL INACTIVATION STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The soybean (Glycine max urease was characterized with respect to kinetic parameters, stability studies and thermal inactivation. The stability temperature and stability pH of the purified urease was found to be 4 °C and 7.6, respectively. The optimum pH and optimum temperature were 7.0 oC and 65 oC, respectively. The energy of activation (Ea was 15.40 kJ/mol. Further, the Km and Vmax were determined by Lineweaver Burk plot and the values were 2.70 ± 0.10 mM and 2.85 x102 µmol NH3/min/mg protein,respectively. Thermal inactivation studies at 65 oC, revealed the mono-phasic kinetics, which indicated the loss in activity in single phase. However, at higher temperatures (70 oC, 75 oC and 77 oC, the kinetic pattern was mainly bi-phasic. At 80 oC, there was complete loss in activity thereby showing the denaturation of enzyme. Thermal inactivation studies strongly support the oligomeric nature of urease.

  11. Effect of tillage system on yield and weed populations of soybean ( Glycin Max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Z; Firouzi, Saeed; Aminpanah, Hashem; Sadeghnejhad, Hamid R

    2016-03-01

    Field experiment was conducted at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan Province, Iran, to determine the effects of tillage system and weed management regime on yield and weed populations in soybean ( Glycin max L.). The experimental design was a split plot where the whole plot portion was a randomized complete block with three replicates. Main plots were tillage system: 1- No-till row crop seeding, 2- No-till seed drilling, 3- Tillage with disc harrow and drill planting, 4- Tillage with chisel packer and drill planting. The subplots were weed management regimes: 1-Weed control with herbicide application, 2- Hand weeding, 3- Herbicide application plus hand weeding, and 4- Non-weeding. Results indicated that the main effects of tillage system and weed management regime were significant for seed yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, weed density and biomass, while their interaction were significant only for weed density, weed biomass, and seed number per pod. The highest grain yields (3838 kg ha-1) were recorded for No-till row crop seeding. The highest seed yield (3877 kg ha-1) also was recorded for weed control with herbicide and hand weeding treatment, followed by hand weeding (3379 kg ha-1).

  12. Factors underlying genotypic differences in the induction of photosynthesis in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleh, Mochamad Arief; Tanaka, Yu; Nomoto, Yuko; Iwahashi, Yu; Nakashima, Keiichiro; Fukuda, Yasuko; Long, Stephen P; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Crop leaves are subject to continually changing light levels in the field. Photosynthetic efficiency of a crop canopy and productivity will depend significantly on how quickly a leaf can acclimate to a change. One measure of speed of response is the rate of photosynthesis increase toward its steady state on transition from low to high light. This rate was measured for seven genotypes of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. After 10 min of illumination, cultivar 'UA4805' (UA) had achieved a leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn ) of 23.2 μmol · m(-2)  · s(-1) , close to its steady-state rate, while the slowest cultivar 'Tachinagaha' (Tc) had only reached 13.0 μmol · m(-2)  · s(-1) and was still many minutes from obtaining steady state. This difference was further investigated by examining induction at a range of carbon dioxide concentrations. Applying a biochemical model of limitations to photosynthesis to the responses of Pn to intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci ), it was found that the speed of apparent in vivo activation of ribulose-1:5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was responsible for this difference. Sequence analysis of the Rubisco activase gene revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms that could relate to this difference. The results show a potential route for selection of cultivars with increased photosynthetic efficiency in fluctuating light.

  13. Effect of tillage system on yield and weed populations of soybean ( Glycin Max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Z. Hosseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan Province, Iran, to determine the effects of tillage system and weed management regime on yield and weed populations in soybean ( Glycin max L.. The experimental design was a split plot where the whole plot portion was a randomized complete block with three replicates. Main plots were tillage system: 1- No-till row crop seeding, 2- No-till seed drilling, 3- Tillage with disc harrow and drill planting, 4- Tillage with chisel packer and drill planting. The subplots were weed management regimes: 1-Weed control with herbicide application, 2- Hand weeding, 3- Herbicide application plus hand weeding, and 4- Non-weeding. Results indicated that the main effects of tillage system and weed management regime were significant for seed yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, weed density and biomass, while their interaction were significant only for weed density, weed biomass, and seed number per pod. The highest grain yields (3838 kg ha-1 were recorded for No-till row crop seeding. The highest seed yield (3877 kg ha-1 also was recorded for weed control with herbicide and hand weeding treatment, followed by hand weeding (3379 kg ha-1.

  14. Suppression of extracellular invertase inhibitor gene expression improves seed weight in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaofei; Su, Tao; Han, Mei; Wei, Lai; Wang, Weiwei; Yu, Zhiyuan; Xue, Yongguo; Wei, Hongbin; Du, Yejie; Greiner, Steffen; Rausch, Thomas; Liu, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Cell wall invertase (CWI) and vacuolar invertase (VI) play multiple functions in plant growth. As well as depending on transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, there is growing evidence that CWI and VI are also subject to post-translational control by small inhibitory proteins. Despite the significance of this, genes encoding inhibitors, their molecular and biochemical properties, and their potential roles in regulating seed production have not been well documented in soybean (Glycine max). In this study, two invertase inhibitor isoforms, GmCIF1 and GmC/VIF2, were characterized to possess inhibitory activities in vitro via heterologous expression. Transcript analyses showed that they were predominantly expressed in developing seeds and in response to ABA. In accordance with this, surveys of primary targets showed subcellular localizations to the apoplast in tobacco epidermis after expressing YFP-fusion constructs. Investigations using RNAi transgenic plants demonstrated marked elevations of CWI activities and improvements in seed weight in conjunction with higher accumulations of hexoses, starch, and protein in mature seeds. Further co-expression analyses of GmCIF1 with several putative CWI genes corroborated the notion that GmCIF1 modulation of CWI that affects seed weight is mainly contingent on post-translational mechanisms. Overall, the results suggest that post-translational elevation of CWI by silencing of GmCIF1 expression orchestrates the process of seed maturation through fine-tuning sucrose metabolism and sink strength.

  15. Regeneration of transformed shoots from electroporated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, S K; Dhir, S; Sturtevant, A P; Widholm, J M

    1991-06-01

    Stable transformation of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) protoplasts isolated from immature cotyledons was achieved following electroporation with plasmid DNA carrying chimeric genes encoding ß-glucuronidase (GUS) and hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Transformed colonies were stringently selected by growing 15-day-old protoplast-derived cells in the presence of 40 μg/ml of hygromycin-B for 6 weeks. Over 93% of the resistant cells and colonies exhibited GUS activity, indicating that the two marker genes borne on a single plasmid were co-introduced and co-expressed at a very high freguency. This transformation procedure reproducibly yields transformants at frequencies of 2.9-6.8 × 10(-4) (based on the number of protoplasts electroporated) or 23.0% (based on the number of control microcalli formed) counted after 6 weeks of selection. After repeated subculturing on regeneration medium, shoots were induced from 8.0% of the transformed calli. Southern hybridization confirmed the presence of both the GUS and hygromycin genes in the transformed calli and shoots.

  16. Effect of Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 inoculation on nodulation, nitrogen fixation and yield of soybean (Glycine max) genotypes in gray terrace soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Faridul; Bhuiyan, M A H; Alam, Sadia Sabrina; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Kim, Pil Joo; Lee, Yong Bok

    2015-01-01

    Soybean plants require high amounts of nitrogen, which are mainly obtained from biological nitrogen fixation. A field experiment was conducted by soybean (Glycine max) genotypes, growing two varieties (Shohag and BARI Soybean6) and two advanced lines (MTD10 and BGM02026) of soybean with or without Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 inoculation. Soybean plants of all genotypes inoculated with Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 produced greater nodule numbers, nodule weight, shoot and root biomass, and plant height than non-inoculated plants. Similarly, inoculated plants showed enhanced activity of nitrogenase (NA) enzyme, contributing to higher nitrogen fixation and assimilation, compared to non-inoculated soybean plants in both years. Plants inoculated with Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 also showed higher pod, stover, and seed yield than non-inoculated plants. Therefore, Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 established an effective symbiotic relationship with a range of soybean genotypes and thus increased the nodulation, growth, and yield of soybean grown in gray terrace soils in Bangladesh.

  17. Yields and Yield Components of Maize (Zea Mays L. and Soybean (Glycine Max as Affected by Different Tillage Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvaternjak Ivka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the experiment station of the Krizevci College of Agriculture, yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L. and soybean (Glycine max grown in rotation under five different methods of tillage were investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different tillage methods on yield and yield components of maize and soybean. The results and the determined number of plants per hectare of maize and soybean show that more favorable conditions for germination are in variants where ploughing performed in the autumn (variants C, D and E. During a four-year study, the minimum number of plants per hectare of maize and soybean was found in variant A. The dry season in panicle stage of maize in 2006 has lowered yields compared to 2008, and the drought in 2007 during the seed-filling period reduced the yield and the 1000 kernel weight of soybean compared with 2009 in all variants of tillage methods. The highest grain yield of maize was recorded in variant B. During 2006, with the unfavorable weather conditions, the lowest grain yield of maize was recorded in variant E with intensive tillage treatment. The highest yield of soybean was recorded in variant E, but there were no statistically significant differences compared to variants with the reduction of additional tillage interventions (variant B, C and D. With respect to maize grain and soybean seed yield, variant A was the lowest. Considering the achieved yields of maize grain, there is a possibility of reducing additional tillage interventions, whilst for achieving higher yield of soybean seed intensive tillage is recommended.

  18. The Effects of Soybean Cultivation on Soil Nitrogen Dynamics in the Southeast of Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, A. S.; Davidson, E. A.; Hayhoe, S.; Porder, S.; Neill, C.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities, including agricultural expansion, have greatly changed the nitrogen dynamics in tropical systems. The expanding soybean frontier in Brazil is a reality, and investigations of the processes driving N dynamics in these systems are needed to minimize environmental impacts and promote sustainability of agricultural systems. In order to understand the effects of soybean cultivation on the nitrogen cycle, we investigated physical and chemical properties of soils, soil N stocks, and soil δ15N in old growth forest, pasture, and along a chronosequence of soybean fields (2, 5, and 6 year-old) in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, which is at the southern limit of the Amazon forest. An increase in N stocks in the first 10cm depth of soil was observed along the following sequence of land-uses: pasture, soybean, and forest. We also observed differences in physical and chemical soil properties between forest and soybean sites. There was no difference in the soil δ15N among the chronosequence of soybean fields, although values were lower than the values found in the pasture and higher than those found in the forest soil. These preliminary results showed a pattern of nitrogen accumulation in the soil along the chronosequence of soybean fields, indicating a possible return to the levels of N cycling occurring in the forest soil before the conversion to pasture and soybean

  19. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Sun

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

  20. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja) Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Chen, Chao; Qin, Zhiwei; Yang, Kejun; Shen, Yang; Meiping, Zhang; Mingyang, Cong; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

  1. Environmental and Historical Determinants of Patterns of Genetic Differentiation in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shui-Lian; Wang, Yun-Sheng; Li, De-Zhu; Yi, Ting-Shuang

    2016-03-08

    Wild soybean, the direct progenitor of cultivated soybean, inhabits a wide distribution range across the mainland of East Asia and the Japanese archipelago. A multidisciplinary approach combining analyses of population genetics based on 20 nuclear microsatellites and one plastid locus were applied to reveal the genetic variation of wild soybean, and the contributions of geographical, environmental factors and historic climatic change on its patterns of genetic differentiation. High genetic diversity and significant genetic differentiation were revealed in wild soybean. Wild soybean was inferred to be limited to southern and central China during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and experienced large-scale post-LGM range expansion into northern East Asia. A substantial northward range shift has been predicted to occur by the 2080s. A stronger effect of isolation by environment (IBE) versus isolation by geographical distance (IBD) was found for genetic differentiation in wild soybean, which suggested that environmental factors were responsible for the adaptive eco-geographical differentiation. This study indicated that IBE and historical climatic change together shaped patterns of genetic variation and differentiation of wild soybean. Different conservation measures should be implemented on different populations according to their adaptive potential to future changes in climate and human-induced environmental changes.

  2. Loci and candidate gene identification for resistance to Phytophthora sojae via association analysis in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lihong; Guo, Na; Niu, Jingping; Wang, Zili; Cui, Xiaoxia; Sun, Jutao; Zhao, Tuanjie; Xing, Han

    2016-06-01

    Phytophthora sojae is an oomycete soil-borne plant pathogen that causes the serious disease Phytophthora root rot in soybean, leading to great loss of soybean production every year. Understanding the genetic basis of this plant-pathogen interaction is important to improve soybean disease resistance. To discover genes or QTLs underlying naturally occurring variations in soybean P.sojae resistance, we performed a genome-wide association study using 59,845 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified from re-sequencing of 279 accessions from Yangtze-Huai soybean breeding germplasm. We used two models for association analysis. The same strong peak was detected by both two models on chromosome 13. Within the 500-kb flanking regions, three candidate genes (Glyma13g32980, Glyma13g33900, Glyma13g33512) had SNPs in their exon regions. Four other genes were located in this region, two of which contained a leucine-rich repeat domain, which is an important characteristic of R genes in plants. These candidate genes could be potentially useful for improving the resistance of cultivated soybean to P.sojae in future soybean breeding.

  3. Vermiculite's strong buffer capacity renders it unsuitable for studies of acidity on soybean (Glycine max L.) nodulation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrasumunar, Arief; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2013-11-14

    Vermiculite is the most common soil-free growing substrate used for plants in horticultural and scientific studies due to its high water holding capacity. However, some studies are not suitable to be conducted in it. The described experiments aimed to test the suitability of vermiculite to study the effect of acidity on nodulation and growth of soybean (Glycine max L.). Two different nutrient solutions (Broughton & Dilworth, and modified Herridge nutrient solutions) with or without MES buffer addition were used to irrigate soybean grown on vermiculite growth substrates. The pH of nutrient solutions was adjusted to either pH 4.0 or 7.0 prior its use. The nodulation and vegetative growth of soybean plants were assessed at 3 and 4 weeks after inoculation. The unsuitability of presumably inert vermiculite as a physical plant growth substrate for studying the effects of acidity on soybean nodulation and plant growth was illustrated. Nodulation and growth of soybean grown in vermiculite were not affected by irrigation with pH-adjusted nutrient solution either at pH 4.0 or 7.0. This was reasonably caused by the ability of vermiculite to neutralise (buffer) the pH of the supplied nutrient solution (pH 2.0-7.0). Due to its buffering capacity, vermiculite cannot be used as growth support to study the effect of acidity on nodulation and plant growth.

  4. Analysis of embryo, cytoplasm and maternal effects on fatty acid components in soybean (Glycine max Merill.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Hailong; LI Wenxia; LI Wenbin

    2007-01-01

    The quality of oil determined by the constituents and proportion of fatty acid components,and the understanding of heredity of fatty acid components are of importance to breeding good quality soybean varieties.Embryo,cytoplasmic and maternal effects and genotype×environment interaction effects for quality traits of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill.] seeds were analyzed using a general genetic model for quantitative traits of seeds with parents,F1 and F2,of 20 crosses from a diallel mating design of five parents planted in the field in 2003 and 2004 in Harbin,China.The interaction effects of palmitic,stearic,and linoleic acid contents were larger than the genetic main effects,while the genetic main effects were equal to interaction effects for linolenic and oleic acid content.Among all kinds of genetic main effects,the embryo effects were the largest for palmitic,stearic,and linoleic acids,while the cytoplasm effects were the largest for oleic and linolenic acids.Among all kinds of interaction effects,the embryo interaction effects were the largest for fatty acids.The sum of additive and additive× environment effects were larger than that of dominance and dominance×environment effects for the linolenic acid content,but not for other quality traits.The general heritabilities were the main parts of heritabilities for palmitic and oleic acid contents,but the interaction was more important for stearic,linoleic,and linolenic acid contents.For the general heritability,maternal and cytoplasm heritabilities were the main components for palmitic,oleic,and linolenic acid contents.It was shown for the interaction heritabilities that the embryo interaction heritabilities were more important for oleic and linolenic acid contents,while the maternal interaction heritabilities were more important for linoleic acid content.Among selection response components,the maternal and cytoplasm general responses and/or interaction responses were more important for palmitic

  5. Environmental versus geographical effects on genomic variation in wild soybean (Glycine soja) across its native range in northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, Larry J; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Song, Qijian; Mujacic, Ibro; Luo, Yan; Chen, Charles Y; Li, Changbao; Kjemtrup, Susanne; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how various evolutionary factors interact to affect the population structure of diverse species, especially those of ecological and/or agricultural importance such as wild soybean (Glycine soja). G. soja, from which domesticated soybeans (Glycine max) were derived, is widely distributed throughout diverse habitats in East Asia (Russia, Japan, Korea, and China). Here, we utilize over 39,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in 99 ecotypes of wild soybean sampled across their native geographic range in northeast Asia, to understand population structure and the relative contribution of environment versus geography to population differentiation in this species. A STRUCTURE analysis identified four genetic groups that largely corresponded to the geographic regions of central China, northern China, Korea, and Japan, with high levels of admixture between genetic groups. A canonical correlation and redundancy analysis showed that environmental factors contributed 23.6% to population differentiation, much more than that for geographic factors (6.6%). Precipitation variables largely explained divergence of the groups along longitudinal axes, whereas temperature variables contributed more to latitudinal divergence. This study provides a foundation for further understanding of the genetic basis of climatic adaptation in this ecologically and agriculturally important species.

  6. Population structure and domestication revealed by high-depth resequencing of Korean cultivated and wild soybean genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeong, Namhee; Kim, Jiwoong; Lee, Woo Kyu; Lee, Yun-Gyeong; Lee, Sang-Heon; Yoon, Woongchang; Kim, Jin-Hyun; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Kim, Namshin; Jeong, Soon-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of soybean as a major crop, genome-wide variation and evolution of cultivated soybeans are largely unknown. Here, we catalogued genome variation in an annual soybean population by high-depth resequencing of 10 cultivated and 6 wild accessions and obtained 3.87 million high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after excluding the sites with missing data in any accession. Nuclear genome phylogeny supported a single origin for the cultivated soybeans. We identified 10-fold longer linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the wild soybean relative to wild maize and rice. Despite the small population size, the long LD and large SNP data allowed us to identify 206 candidate domestication regions with significantly lower diversity in the cultivated, but not in the wild, soybeans. Some of the genes in these candidate regions were associated with soybean homologues of canonical domestication genes. However, several examples, which are likely specific to soybean or eudicot crop plants, were also observed. Consequently, the variation data identified in this study should be valuable for breeding and for identifying agronomically important genes in soybeans. However, the long LD of wild soybeans may hinder pinpointing causal gene(s) in the candidate regions.

  7. Supraoptimal carbon dioxide effects on growth of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Siegriest, L. M.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    In tightly closed environments used for human life support in space, carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressures can reach 500 to 1000 Pa, which may be supraoptimal or toxic to plants used for life support. To study this, soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cvs. McCall and Pixie] were grown for 90 days at 50, 100, 200, and 500 Pa partial pressure CO2 (500, 1000, 2000, and 5000 ppm). Plants were grown using recirculating nutrient film technique with a 12-h photoperiod, a 26 degrees C/20 degrees C thermoperiod, and approximately 300 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Seed yield and total biomass were greatest at 100 Pa for cv. McCall, suggesting that higher CO2 levels were supraoptimal. Seed yield and total biomass for cv. Pixie showed little difference between CO2 treatments. Average stomatal conductance of upper canopy leaves at 50 Pa CO2 approximately 500 Pa > 200 Pa > 100 Pa. Total water use over 90 d for both cultivars (combined on one recirculating system) equalled 822 kg water for 100 Pa CO2, 845 kg for 50 Pa, 879 kg for 200 Pa, and 1194 kg for 500 Pa. Water use efficiences for both cultivars combined equalled 3.03 (g biomass kg-1 water) for 100 Pa CO2, 2.54 g kg-1 for 200 Pa, 2.42 g kg-1 for 50 Pa, and 1.91 g kg-1 for 500 Pa. The increased stomatal conductance and stand water use at the highest CO2 level (500 Pa) were unexpected and pose interesting considerations for managing plants in a tightly closed system where CO2 concentrations may reach high levels.

  8. Determination of Genetic Polymorphism Among Soybean (Glycine max. L. Merrill Cultivars Developed in Recent Years through RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine PAKYÜREK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotype or cultivar identification is the first step to ensure plant breeder’s rights. If registered cultivars or germplasms were not distinguished by any mechanism, then seed production or novel varieties could not be controlled. The RAPD markers are chosen to distinguish seven soybean ( Glycine max. L. Merrill cultivars from each other  and to assign the polymorphisms among of them in this study. Eight primers were used and DNA fingerprinting of all cultivars were determined with that primers. According to that fingerprinting all cultivars were distingusihed from each other in DNA banding pattern. Using these markers results, similarity index in between soybean cultivars were calculated. Dwight and Maverick were the most similar cultivars ( These two cultivars were similar at 0,70 point to each other. In addition that Maverick and Defiance cultivars have shown the highest polymorphism rate ( These two cultivars were similar at 0,39 point each other. .

  9. Integration of the draft sequence and physical map as a framework for genomic research in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is a model for the legume research community due to its importance as a crop, a well populated genetic map, and the availability of a genome sequence. Even though a whole genome shotgun sequence and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries are available, a high-resolution chromosome-b...

  10. Identification of SNPs in RNA-seq data of two cultivars of Glycine max (soybean differing in drought resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Oliveira Vidal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The legume Glycine max (soybean plays an important economic role in the international commodities market, with a world production of almost 260 million tons for the 2009/2010 harvest. The increase in drought events in the last decade has caused production losses in recent harvests. This fact compels us to understand the drought tolerance mechanisms in soybean, taking into account its variability among commercial and developing cultivars. In order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes up-regulated during drought stress, we evaluated suppression subtractive libraries (SSH from two contrasting cultivars upon water deprivation: sensitive (BR 16 and tolerant (Embrapa 48. A total of 2,222 soybean genes were up-regulated in both cultivars. Our method identified more than 6,000 SNPs in tolerant and sensitive Brazilian cultivars in those drought stress related genes. Among these SNPs, 165 (in 127 genes are positioned at soybean chromosome ends, including transcription factors (MYB, WRKY related to tolerance to abiotic stress.

  11. Identification of SNPs in RNA-seq data of two cultivars of Glycine max (soybean) differing in drought resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; do Nascimento, Leandro Costa; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella

    2012-06-01

    The legume Glycine max (soybean) plays an important economic role in the international commodities market, with a world production of almost 260 million tons for the 2009/2010 harvest. The increase in drought events in the last decade has caused production losses in recent harvests. This fact compels us to understand the drought tolerance mechanisms in soybean, taking into account its variability among commercial and developing cultivars. In order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes up-regulated during drought stress, we evaluated suppression subtractive libraries (SSH) from two contrasting cultivars upon water deprivation: sensitive (BR 16) and tolerant (Embrapa 48). A total of 2,222 soybean genes were up-regulated in both cultivars. Our method identified more than 6,000 SNPs in tolerant and sensitive Brazilian cultivars in those drought stress related genes. Among these SNPs, 165 (in 127 genes) are positioned at soybean chromosome ends, including transcription factors (MYB, WRKY) related to tolerance to abiotic stress.

  12. Effects of inoculation with organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria on soybean (Glycine max) growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Yang; Duan, Man-Li

    2017-05-01

    Three different organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria (OPMB) strains were inoculated to soil planted with soybean (Glycine max), and their effects on soybean growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity were investigated. Inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens Z4-1 and Brevibacillus agri L7-1 increased organic phosphorus degradation by 22% and 30%, respectively, compared with the control at the mature stage. Strains P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 significantly improved the soil alkaline phosphatase activity, average well color development, and the soybean root activity. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could persist in the soil at relative abundances of 2.0%-6.4% throughout soybean growth. Thus, P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could potentially be used in organic-phosphorus-mineralizing biofertilizers. OPMB inoculation altered the genetic structure of the soil bacterial communities but had no apparent influence on the carbon source utilization profiles of the soil bacterial communities. Principal components analysis showed that the changes in the carbon source utilization profiles of bacterial community depended mainly on the plant growth stages rather than inoculation with OPMB. The results help to understand the evolution of the soil bacterial community after OPMB inoculation.

  13. [Characterization and subcellular localization of two SBP genes and their response to abiotic stress in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Wang, Shuang; Huang, Liyan; Ma, Hongyu; Shu, Yingjie; He, Xiaoling; Ma, Hao

    2014-11-01

    High temperature and humidity stress during seed growth and development of spring soybean can result in seed deterioration in South China. We isolated two genes (GmSBP and GmSBPL) encoding putative SBP proteins from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) to study their biological functions and response to abiotic stress,. The two SBP proteins are hydrophilic and incomplete membrane ones. Real-time quantitative (RT-PCR) analysis reveals that the expression of the two genes in the developing seeds of the seed deterioration resistant cultivar Xiangdou No. 3 and sensitive cultivar Ningzhen No. 1 was significantly affected by high temperature and humidity treatment. Meanwhile, the levels of sucrose and soluble sugar in the developing seeds of both cultivars were also affected under high temperature and humidity stress. During seed growth and development, the expression of the two genes as well as the levels of sucrose and soluble sugar reached the highest at 30 days after flower. GmSBP2 and GmSBPL were found to be differentially expressed in different soybean tissues. Sub-cellular localization indicated that two genes were located in cytoplasm and cell membrane. Our results indicate that GmSBP2 and GmSBPL might be involved in the response to abiotic stress, which will enrich our understanding of pre-harvest seed deterioration and resistance in soybean from one side.

  14. Biodegradation of glyphosate in rhizospheric soil cultivated with Glycine max, Canavalia ensiformis e Stizolobium aterrimum Biodegradação de glyphosate em solo rizosférico de Glycine max, Canavalia ensiformis e Stizolobium aterrimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of glyphosate was evaluated in rhizospheric soil cultivated with Glycine max (soybean, var. BRS245-RR, Canavalia ensiformis and Stizolobium aterrimum. After these species were cultivated for 60 days, soil samples were collected, placed in flasks and treated with 14C-glyphosate. After 30 days of incubation, the total release rate of C-CO2 was determined along with microbial biomass (MBC, metabolic quotient (qCO2, and degradation percentage of the radio-labeled glyphosate released as 14C-CO2. A higher mass of rhizosphere-associated microorganisms was verified in the soil samples from pots cultivated with soybean, regardless of glyphosate addition. However, in the presence of the herbicide, this characteristic was the most negatively affected. Microorganisms from the C. ensiformis rhizosphere released a lower amount of 14C-CO2, while for those originated from S. aterrimum, the amount released reached 1.3% more than the total carbon derived from the respiratory activity. The rhizospheric soil from S. aterrimum also presented higher glyphosate degradation efficiency per microbial biomass unit. However, considering qCO2, the microbiota of the rhizospheric soil cultivated with soybean was more efficient in herbicide degradation.Avaliou-se neste trabalho a degradação de glyphosate em solo rizosférico proveniente do cultivo de Glycine max (soja var. BRS245-RR, Canavalia ensiformis e Stizolobium aterrimum. Para isso, após o cultivo, em vasos, das citadas espécies por 60 dias, coletaram-se amostras de solo, as quais foram acondicionadas em frascos e tratadas com 14C-glyphosate. Após 32 dias de incubação, foram determinados a taxa de desprendimento total de C-CO2, a biomassa microbiana (MBC, o quociente metabólico (qCO2 e a porcentagem de degradação do glyphosate radiomarcado liberado na forma de 14C-CO2. Verificou-se a maior massa de microrganismos associados à rizosfera em amostras de solo proveniente de vasos cultivados com a

  15. Glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible soybean (Glycine max) and canola (Brassica napus) dose response and metabolism relationships with glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandula, Vijay K; Reddy, Krishna N; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O; Poston, Daniel H

    2007-05-02

    Experiments were conducted to determine (1) dose response of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (non-GR) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and canola (Brassica napus L.) to glyphosate, (2) if differential metabolism of glyphosate to aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) is the underlying mechanism for differential resistance to glyphosate among GR soybean varieties, and (3) the extent of metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in GR canola and to correlate metabolism to injury from AMPA. GR50 (glyphosate dose required to cause a 50% reduction in plant dry weight) values for GR (Asgrow 4603RR) and non-GR (HBKC 5025) soybean were 22.8 kg ae ha-1 and 0.47 kg ha-1, respectively, with GR soybean exhibiting a 49-fold level of resistance to glyphosate as compared to non-GR soybean. Differential reduction in chlorophyll by glyphosate was observed between GR soybean varieties, but there were no differences in shoot fresh weight reduction. No significant differences were found between GR varieties in metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA, and in shikimate levels. These results indicate that GR soybean varieties were able to outgrow the initial injury from glyphosate, which was previously caused at least in part by AMPA. GR50 values for GR (Hyola 514RR) and non-GR (Hyola 440) canola were 14.1 and 0.30 kg ha-1, respectively, with GR canola exhibiting a 47-fold level of resistance to glyphosate when compared to non-GR canola. Glyphosate did not cause reduction in chlorophyll content and shoot fresh weight in GR canola, unlike GR soybean. Less glyphosate (per unit leaf weight) was recovered in glyphosate-treated GR canola as compared to glyphosate-treated GR soybean. External application of AMPA caused similar injury in both GR and non-GR canola. The presence of a bacterial glyphosate oxidoreductase gene in GR canola contributes to breakdown of glyphosate to AMPA. However, the AMPA from glyphosate breakdown could have been metabolized to nonphytotoxic metabolites before causing injury

  16. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of soluble trehalase gene in Aphis glycines, a migratory pest of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Raman; Mian, M A Rouf; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Michel, Andy P

    2013-06-01

    In insects, the enzyme trehalase plays a crucial role in energy metabolism, chitin synthesis and possibly during plant-insect interactions. We have characterized a soluble trehalase gene (Tre-1) from cDNA of Aphis glycines, a serious migratory pest of soybean. The full-length cDNA of Tre-1 in A. glycines (AyTre-1) was 2550 bp long with an open reading frame of 1770 bp that encoded for a 589 amino acid residues protein. Sequence assessment and phylogenetic analysis of the putative protein suggested that the selected cDNA belongs to soluble trehalase group. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis in different tissues and developmental stages revealed peak mRNA levels of AyTre-1 in the gut (compared with other tissues assayed) and highest expression in the second instar compared with the other developmental stages assayed. Interestingly, a significantly increased expression of AyTre-1 (1.9-fold, P < 0.05) was observed in the alate morphs compared with that in apterate morphs. However, there was no significant difference in AyTre-1 expression in A. glycines-nymphs fed with resistant and susceptible plants. Expression patterns identified in this study provide a platform to investigate the role of AyTre-1 in physiological activities such as flight and feeding in A. glycines. The characterization of soluble trehalase gene may help to develop novel strategies to manage A. glycines using trehalase inhibitors and using RNA interference for knock-down of AyTre-1 expression.

  17. Identification and colonization of endophytic fungi from soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril under different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Chapaval Pimentel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 297 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1728 leaf and stem fragments collected about twenty and forty days after germination from soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril plants grown in the field and a greenhouse. The fungi belonged to eight groups, six dematiaceous genera (Alternaria, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, Curvularia, Drechslera and Scopulariopsis and the non-dematiaceous genera Acremonium, Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Paecilomyces and Penicillium along with some Mycelia sterilia.. There were qualitative and quantitative differences in the type and number of isolates obtained from greenhouse and field-grown plants, with more isolates being obtained from the latter. No difference was found in the number of fungi isolated from leaves and stems irrespective of where the plants was grown. For was field-grown plants, the number of isolates decreased as the plants aged and more fungi were found in tissues near the soil, while for greenhouse-grown plants the number of isolates increased as the plants aged but in this case no more fungi were isolated from those tissues nearer the soil. These results could have biotechnological relevance for the biological control of pests or plant growth promotion.A partir de 1728 fragmentos de hastes e folhas de soja (Glycine max (L. Merril. provenientes de plantas do campo e de casa de vegetação, coletadas cerca de 20 e 40 dias após a germinação das sementes, 297 fungos endofíticos foram isolados. Os gêneros encontrados foram: Alternaria, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Chaetomium, Scopulariopsis, Drechslera (todos dematiáceos além de Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Acremonium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces e Mycelia sterilia. Foram detectadas diferenças qualitativas e quantitativas entre os isolados, em relação a micobiota de hospedeiros provenientes do campo e de casa de vegetação com maior frequência de fungos isolados de plantas no campo em comparação com as de casa de vegeta

  18. Estimating soybean cultivated area using multi-source remotely sensed data (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M.; Stehman, S.; Adusei, B.; King, L. M.; Noel, J.; Ernst, C. L.; Potapov, P.

    2013-12-01

    National-scale soybean cultivated area is estimated using a probability-based sampling method and the integrated use of MODIS, Landsat and RapidEye data. The study areas include the United States, Brazil and Argentina, which combined account for over 80% of global soybean production. Indicator maps of percent soybean using MODIS are used to stratify agricultural regions into strata of high, medium and low soybean cover. Within each stratum, 40km by 40km samples are analyzed using time-series Landsat and peak growing season RapidEye data. Per pixel maps of soybean/no soybean are made per sample block and per stratum means calculated. A regression estimator is then run using the per block mapped estimate versus a current year MODIS estimate. Initial results for the United States for 2011 result in an area estimate of 215,000km2 (SE=6,000 km2). Comparison of our 30m Landsat soy classification with the NASS Cropland Data Layer (CDL) soybean map shows a strong overall agreement of 91.3% and a good linear relationship of y=.67x +.75 across all samples. CDL soybean area estimate over the same block population yields 275,000km2 (SE=9,000 km2). Our independently-derived 5m RapidEye classified soybean product was compared to both our Landsat characterizations as well as the CDL map. The Landsat classification had balanced commission and omission errors in terms of agreement with RapidEye, and a resulting 1:1 relationship. The CDL overestimated soybean compared to RapidEye with more commission than omission errors and a 1.14:1 ratio. Results for Argentina and Brazil will also be presented and indicate a robust method for estimating cultivated area of crop type that can be replicated for major growing regions globally. Discrepancies with national statistics are expected and must be validated, for example using field data or other information such as the RapidEye or other higher spatial resolution data sets.

  19. Evaluation of replacement intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. under weed infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bagheri Shirvan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. JK with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. with weed interference, an experiment was performed in randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications at a field located 10 km of Shirvan during year of 2011. The treatments were included 75% soybean: 25%sweet basil, 50%soybean: 50% sweet basil, 25% soybean: 75% sweet basil, 75% soybean: 25% borage, 50% soybean: 50% borage and 25% soybean: 75% borage under weed infestation, in addition sole cropping of plants under weed control and weed interference. Intercropped plants had more success in reduction of weed density and biomass compared to monoculture. Soybean50: sweet basil50, reduced the weed density by 47.95% and 52.9%, and reduced the weed biomass by 68.91% and 61.87% more than sweet basil and soybean pure stand, respectively. Investigation of dry matter accumulation showed that increasing of plant proportion in intercropping caused increasing of plant dry matter. The height of soybean and borage was increased in intercropping and weed interference, while the highest height of sweet basil was observed in monoculture at second harvest. Biological and economical yield of soybean in intercropping with sweet basil was higher than intercropping with borage. The highest harvest index was related to 50:50 soybean: sweet basil ratio. In this ratio, the harvest index increased 4.9% compared to soybean monoculture. Yield of sweet basil and borage decreased with increasing of soybean rows in intercropping. Based on area-time equivalent ratio, soybean 75% with sweet basil and borage 25% (based on borage seed yield had 3% and 4% advantage compared to monoculture.

  20. Calcium oxalate crystal production and density at different phenological stages of soybean plants (Glycine max L.) from the southeast of the Pampean Plain, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, N; Benvenuto, M L; Osterrieth, M

    2016-11-01

    Glycine max L. (soybean) is one of the major crops of the world. Although the process of biomineralisation has been reported in some organs of soybean, we now report the description and quantification of calcium oxalate crystals in vegetative and reproductive organs of soybean during its life cycle, as they act as an important source of calcium to the soil, once the harvesting is finished. Through diaphanisation, cross-sectioning, optical and scanning electron microscopy analysis of the organs, morphology, size and location of the crystals were identified. In addition, crystal density (n° crystals·mm(-2) ) and the input of crystals to soil (n° crystals·ha(-1) ) were calculated. Soybean produced prismatic calcium oxalate crystals in vegetative and reproductive organs, generally associated with vascular bundles, resulting in a potencial transfer to the soil of 81.4 x 10(7) crystals·ha(-1) throughout its life cycle. Pods were the organs with higher calcium oxalate crystal production (1112.7 ± 384.6 crystals·mm(-2) ), but with the smaller size (12.3 ± 2.1 μm long). However, cotyledons were the organs that produce the larger crystals (21.3 ± 3.5 μm long), but in lesser amounts (150.9 ± 64.4 crystals·mm(-2) ). In leaves, although crystal size did not differ from vegetative to reproductive stage (14.5 ± 4.2 and 14.5 ± 4 μm in length, respectively), the crystal density increased (293.2 and 409 crystals·mm(-2) , respectively). These results will contribute to knowledge of the amount of calcium oxalate crystals involved in the process of Ca recycling through cultivated vegetation in fields from humid plains at medium latitudes, which therefore have biological, botanical, biogeochemical and pedological relevance. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Floral biology and behavior of Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera in soybean (Glycine max L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainer César Chiari

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the pollination by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera, the floral biology and to observe the hoarding behavior in the soybean flowers (Glycine max Merril, var. BRS-133. The treatments were constituted of demarcated areas for free visitation of insects, covered areas by cages with a honeybee colony (A. mellifera and also covered areas by cage without insects visitation. All areas had 24 m² (4m x 6m. The soybean flowers stayed open for a larger time (82.82 ± 3.48 hours in covered area without honeybees. The stigma of the flowers was also more receptive (P=0.0021 in covered area without honeybees (87.3 ± 33.0% and at 10:42 o'clock was the schedule of greater receptivity. The pollen stayed viable in all treatments, the average was 99.60 ± 0.02%, which did not present differences among treatments. The percentage of abortion of the flowers was 82.91% in covered area without honeybees, this result was superior (P=0.0002 to the 52.66% and 53.95% of the treatments uncovered and covered with honeybees, respectively. Honeybees were responsible for 87.7% of the pollination accomplished by the insects. The medium amounts of total sugar and glucose measured in the nectar of the flowers were, 14.33 ± 0.96 mg/flower and 3.61 ± 0.36 mg/ flower, respectively, not showing differences (PEste experimento teve como objetivos avaliar a polinização realizada por abelhas Apis mellifera, estudar a biologia floral e observar o comportamento de coleta nas flores de soja (Glycine max L. Merril, variedade BRS-133 plantadas na região de Maringá-PR. Os tratamentos constituíram de áreas demarcadas de livre visitação por insetos, áreas cobertas por gaiolas, com uma colônia de abelhas (A. mellifera no seu interior e plantas também cobertas por gaiola que impedia a visitação por insetos. Todas as áreas possuíam 24 m² (4 m x 6 m. As flores de soja permaneceram abertas por um tempo maior (82,82 ± 3,48 horas no

  2. Genetic Improvement and Germplasm Study of Soybean in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gai Junyi

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 Soybean production,utilization nd genetic improvement in China Soybean production in china Soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr.] has itsorigin in China. Gai and Guo (2001) traced thehistory of soybean production in ancient China,among the "Five Crops" or "Nine Crops",soybean and millet were most important foodcrops, which were recorded in ancient Chineseliterature, such as the Book of Poems (Shi-Jin),a collection of songs before the written time in6th century B.C. It is believed that soybeans were cultivated as early as in Yan and Huang Empires about 5000 Years ago.

  3. Integration of the Draft Sequence and Physical Map as a Framework for Genomic Research in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jungmin; Abernathy, Brian; Nelson, William; Grant, David; Wu, Xiaolei; Nguyen, Henry T; Stacey, Gary; Yu, Yeisoo; Wing, Rod A; Shoemaker, Randy C; Jackson, Scott A

    2012-03-01

    Soybean is a model for the legume research community because of its importance as a crop, densely populated genetic maps, and the availability of a genome sequence. Even though a whole-genome shotgun sequence and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are available, a high-resolution, chromosome-based physical map linked to the sequence assemblies is still needed for whole-genome alignments and to facilitate map-based gene cloning. Three independent G. max BAC libraries combined with genetic and gene-based markers were used to construct a minimum tiling path (MTP) of BAC clones. A total of 107,214 clones were assembled into 1355 FPC (FingerPrinted Contigs) contigs, incorporating 4628 markers and aligned to the G. max reference genome sequence using BAC end-sequence information. Four different MTPs were made for G. max that covered from 92.6% to 95.0% of the soybean draft genome sequence (gmax1.01). Because our purpose was to pick the most reliable and complete MTP, and not the MTP with the minimal number of clones, the FPC map and draft sequence were integrated and clones with unpaired BES were added to build a high-quality physical map with the fewest gaps possible (http://soybase.org). A physical map was also constructed for the undomesticated ancestor (G. soja) of soybean to explore genome variation between G. max and G. soja. 66,028 G. soja clones were assembled into 1053 FPC contigs covering approximately 547 Mbp of the G. max genome sequence. These physical maps for G. max and its undomesticated ancestor, G. soja, will serve as a framework for ordering sequence fragments, comparative genomics, cloning genes, and evolutionary analyses of legume genomes.

  4. Modulation of Isoflavonoid Composition of Rhizopus oryzae Elicited Soybean (Glycine max) Seedlings by Light and Wounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, S.; Gruppen, H.; Madzora, B.; Vincken, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The isoflavonoid profile of soybean was altered in different ways by stimulation of defense response upon germination. The combination of simultaneous germination and induction by Rhizopus oryzae increased the total isoflavonoid content of soybeans over 2-fold. Pterocarpans became the predominant

  5. [Promotion of transformation frequency of soybean (Glycine max L.) protoplasts using poly-L-ornithine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, X R; Wei, Z M

    1999-12-01

    The foreign Bt gene was transferred into protoplasts of soybean using PEG and PLO methods, respectively. The result indicated that the transformation frequency of PLO method was about 0.1% higher than PEG method. The PCR and Southern blotting analysis of the regeneration plants confirmed the integration of foreign gene into the genome of soybean.

  6. Isolation and characterization of "GmScream" promoters that regulate highly expressing soybean (Glycine max Merr.) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; McHale, Leah K; Finer, John J

    2015-12-01

    To increase our understanding of the regulatory components that control gene expression, it is important to identify, isolate and characterize new promoters. In this study, a group of highly expressed soybean (Glycine max Merr.) genes, which we have named "GmScream", were first identified from RNA-Seq data. The promoter regions were then identified, cloned and fused with the coding region of the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene, for introduction and analysis in different tissues using 3 tools for validation. Approximately half of the GmScream promoters identified showed levels of GFP expression comparable to or higher than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S (35S) promoter. Using transient expression in lima bean cotyledonary tissues, the strongest GmScream promoters gave over 6-fold higher expression than the 35S promoter while several other GmScream promoters showed 2- to 3-fold higher expression. The two highest expressing promoters, GmScreamM4 and GmScreamM8, regulated two different elongation factor 1A genes in soybean. In stably transformed soybean tissues, GFP driven by the GmScreamM4 or GmScreamM8 promoter exhibited constitutive high expression in most tissues with preferentially higher expression in proliferative embryogenic tissues, procambium, vascular tissues, root tips and young embryos. Using deletion analysis of the promoter, two proximal regions of the GmScreamM8 promoter were identified as contributing significantly to high levels of gene expression.

  7. Meta-Analyses of QTLs Associated with Protein and Oil Contents and Compositions in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Kyujung; McHale, Leah K

    2017-06-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a valuable and nutritious crop in part due to the high protein meal and vegetable oil produced from its seed. Soybean producers desire cultivars with both elevated seed protein and oil concentrations as well as specific amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Numerous studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed composition traits, but validation of these QTLs has rarely been carried out. In this study, we have collected information, including genetic location and additive effects, on each QTL for seed contents of protein and oil, as well as amino acid and fatty acid compositions from over 80 studies. Using BioMercator V. 4.2, a meta-QTL analysis was performed with genetic information comprised of 175 QTLs for protein, 205 QTLs for oil, 156 QTLs for amino acids, and 113 QTLs for fatty acids. A total of 55 meta-QTL for seed composition were detected on 6 out of 20 chromosomes. Meta-QTL possessed narrower confidence intervals than the original QTL and candidate genes were identified within each meta-QTL. These candidate genes elucidate potential natural genetic variation in genes contributing to protein and oil biosynthesis and accumulation, providing meaningful information to further soybean breeding programs.

  8. Enhanced Single Seed Trait Predictions in Soybean (Glycine max) and Robust Calibration Model Transfer with Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacisalihoglu, Gokhan; Gustin, Jeffery L; Louisma, Jean; Armstrong, Paul; Peter, Gary F; Walker, Alejandro R; Settles, A Mark

    2016-02-10

    Single seed near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy predicts soybean (Glycine max) seed quality traits of moisture, oil, and protein. We tested the accuracy of transferring calibrations between different single seed NIR analyzers of the same design by collecting NIR spectra and analytical trait data for globally diverse soybean germplasm. X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) was used to collect seed density and shape traits to enhance the number of soybean traits that can be predicted from single seed NIR. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression gave accurate predictive models for oil, weight, volume, protein, and maximal cross-sectional area of the seed. PLS models for width, length, and density were not predictive. Although principal component analysis (PCA) of the NIR spectra showed that black seed coat color had significant signal, excluding black seeds from the calibrations did not impact model accuracies. Calibrations for oil and protein developed in this study as well as earlier calibrations for a separate NIR analyzer of the same design were used to test the ability to transfer PLS regressions between platforms. PLS models built from data collected on one NIR analyzer had minimal differences in accuracy when applied to spectra collected from a sister device. Model transfer was more robust when spectra were trimmed from 910 to 1679 nm to 955-1635 nm due to divergence of edge wavelengths between the two devices. The ability to transfer calibrations between similar single seed NIR spectrometers facilitates broader adoption of this high-throughput, nondestructive, seed phenotyping technology.

  9. Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R; Echazarreta-González, C; Roubik, D W; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y B

    2014-02-07

    Using precise pollen species determination by conventional microscopic methods, accompanied by molecular genetic markers, we found bees collect GMO (genetically modified) soybean pollen and incorporate it in Yucatan honey. Honey comb samples from Las Flores, Campeche, Mexico, often contained soybean pollen. Pollen in honey was analyzed in nine samples; six contained substantial soy pollen and two tested positive for soybean GMO. Our analyses confirm field observations that honey bees, Apis mellifera, gather soybean pollen and nectar. The resultant risk for honey production in the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico is evident in wholesale price reduction of 12% when GMO products are detected and honey consignments are rejected. Although this affects only 1% of current export honey (2011-2013) GMO soybean is an unacknowledged threat to apiculture and its economics in one of the world's foremost honey producing areas.

  10. Environmental assessment of organic soybean (Glycine max.) imported from China to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Yu-Hui, Qiao; Van, Luo

    2010-01-01

    Growing global trade with organic products has increased the demand for environmental impact assessments during both production and transport. Environmental hotspots of organic soybeans produced in China and imported to Denmark were identified in a case study using a life cycle assessment approach....... Furthermore, environmental impacts of organic and conventional soybeans at farm gate were compared in the case study. The total global warming potential (GWP) per ton organic soybeans imported to Denmark revealed that 51% came from transportation and 35% from the farm level. Comparing organic and conventional...... soybean at farm gate showed that GWP, non-renewable energy use, acidification and eutrophication was lower per ton organic soybeans, whereas land use was slightly higher....

  11. Genetic mapping of telomere-associated sequences in soybean ( Glycine max )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰; 张德水; 张劲松; 陈受宜

    2001-01-01

    Two telomere-associated sequences (TAS), named STAS8 and STAS10, were cloned from soybean genomic DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Southern analysis showed that they were sequences with moderate copy number in soybean genome. Sequence analysis demonstrated that STAS10 had tandemly arrayed con sensus sequences of TTTAGGG and TIAGGG . The mapping of these two TAS was performed with a population of F8 re combinant inbred line using restriction fragment length polymorphisms(RFLP). Seven out of nine polymorphic fragments were mapped to the most distal position of five linkage groups, Dla, F, G2, H and Q of soybean, and the other two loci were closely linked and mapped to two interstitial positions within linkage group D1a. The mapping of TAS in soybean is essential for completeness of a molecular genetic map of soybean.`

  12. Confidence interval estimation for an empirical model quantifying the effect of soil moisture and plant development on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, we address uncertainty analysis for a model, presented in a companion paper, quantifying the effect of soil moisture and plant development on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf conductance. To achieve this we present several methods for confidence interval estimation. Estimation ...

  13. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation.

  14. Sampling strategy for wild soybean (Glycine soja) populations based on their genetic diversity and fine-scale spatial genetic structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Weiyue; ZHOU Taoying; ZHONG Ming; LU Baorong

    2007-01-01

    A total of 892 individuals sampled from a wild soybean population in a natural reserve near the Yellow River estuary located in Kenli of Shandong Province (China) were investigated.Seventeen SSR (simple sequence repeat) primer pairs from cultivated soybeans were used to estimate the genetic diversity of the population and its variation pattern versus changes of the sample size (sub-samples),in addition to investigating the fine-scale spatial genetic structure within the population.The results showed relatively high genetic diversity of the population with the mean value of allele number (A) being 2.88,expected heterozygosity (He) 0.431,Shannon diversity index (/) 0.699,and percentage of polymorphic loci (P) 100%.Sub-samples of different sizes (ten groups) were randomly drawn from the population and their genetic diversity was calculated by computer simulation.The regression model of the four diversity indexes with the change of sample sizes was computed.As a result,27-52 individuals can reach 95% of total genetic variability of the population.Spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed that the genetic patch size of this wild soybean population is about 18 m.The study provided a scientific basis for the sampling strategy of wild soybean populations.

  15. Soybean (Glycine max L.) N-Turnover Effects on Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    on account of its exceptional food value. Nowadays of planted area, it comes fifth after wheat, rice, maize and barley. World soya production is twice as great as that of all other grain legumes. It is a legume able to fix the atmospheric nitrogen it needs for growth through the agency of specific (Rhisobium japonicum) bacteria (Haberlandt 1878, Kurnik et al. 1987, Bódis et al. 1988). Soya is an exelent preparatory crop. It improves soil structure, it leaves considerable residues of nitrogen for the following crop (Walter et al. 1970, Marcus-Wuner 1983, Márton et al. 1990, Németh 1995): it is a first-class entry for winter wheat. It is harvested in good time to allow cultivations for winter wheat and also leaves the ground in good condition for direct drilling. It is a good break crop in cereal rotations, limiting the build-up of fungal diseases. Soya is a reliable crop, tolerant of temporary water excess, more tolerant of cold than sorghum at shooting and flowering and it is more drought resistant than maize. Soya is demanding crop and responds well to physical and chemical soil improvement. The grain of present-day varieties contains on average 40-43 % protein and 21 % oil in dry matter. The various uses for soybeans can be summarised thus: a; whole grain, ground or unground after cooking, for human and animal foods, b; oil in human nutrition, c; special oilseed cakes for human diet (low-fat flour) and on a larger scale, for animal nutrition as a complement to forages and cereals. In the subject of much soybean research has been to find means of improving yields (Norman 1963, Walter et al. 1970, Caldwell 1973, Hinson and Hartwig 1977, Mengel and Kirkby 1982, Marcus-Wuner 1983, Márton et al. 1990, Németh 1995). Among the means for yield improvement fertilizers (nitrogen) occupy a prime position. The nitrogen is indispensable to the plant, being a yield and an essential constituent of amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids (Fauconnier 1986). Soya uses some 300

  16. Effect of mycorrhizae, Thiobacillus and sulfur nutrition on the chemical composition of soybean [Glycine max (L.)] Merr. seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavian, S R; Pirdashti, H; Ramzanpour, M R; Andarkhor, A A; Shahsavari, A

    2008-03-15

    A field experiment carried out in a calcareous soil with a low available phosphorus to evaluate effectiveness of biofertilizers, mycorrhizae (Glomus intraradices) and Thiobacillus sp. inoculation individually or in combination on seed yield, oil, protein and some elements (P, Fe, Mn, Zn) concentration in two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars. The applied treatments were different fertilizers with 6 levels (including: NP (control, 12 kg N ha(-1) as urea, 46 kg P2O5 ha(-1) as triple super phosphate); NPK (NP + 75 kg K2O ha(-1) as potassium sulphate); NPKS [NPK+ S (100 kg S ha(-1))]; NPKST (NPKS + seed inoculation with Thiobacillus bacteria); NPKM (NPK + Seed inoculation with mycorrhizae fungi) and NPKSTM (NPKS + seed inoculation with Thiobacillus and mycorrhizae) and two cultivars (JK and 032). Before planting, soybean seeds were inoculated by Bradyrhizobium japonicum in all treatments. Results showed that combined inoculation of biofertilizers increased yield, however the highest yield was observed in treatment NPKST. Increasing oil content (percentage) was more pronounced in treatments NPKM, while most protein content (percentage) increasing was observed in NPKS and NPKM. Fe and Zn concentrations were unaffected significantly by fertilizer treatments, but NPKSTM showed significantly higher value of seed's Mn concentration compared to treatments NP and NPK. Although no significant difference was observed in terms ofP concentration of 032 line among fertilizer treatments, JK cultivar and NPKSTM caused a significant increasing in P concentration compared to NP, NPKS and NPKM. Present results suggested that applying biofertilizers i.e., mycorrhizae and Thiobacillus increased soybean yield compared to control (NP). Overall, this study demonstrated that soybean seed yield and its chemical composition could be affected by biofertilizer inoculation.

  17. RNA-Seq analysis of differential gene expression responding to different rhizobium strains in soybean (Glycine max roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songli eYuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The root nodule symbiosis (RNS between legume plants and rhizobia is the most efficient and productive source of nitrogen fixation, and has critical importance in agriculture and mesology. Soybean (Glycine max, one of the most important legume crops in the world, establishes a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with different types of rhizobia, and the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean greatly depends on the symbiotic host-specificity. Although it has been reported that rhizobia use surface polysaccharides, secretion proteins of the type-three secretion systems and nod factors to modulate host range, the host control of nodulation specificity remains poorly understood. In this report, the soybean roots of two symbiotic systems (Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 113-2-soybean and Sinorhizobium fredii USDA205-soybeanwith notable different nodulation phenotypes and the control were studied at five different post-inoculation time points (0.5h, 7-24h, 5d, 16d and 21d by RNA-seq (Quantification. The results of qPCR analysis of 11 randomly-selected genes agreed with transcriptional profile data for 136 out of 165 (82.42% data points and quality assessment showed that the sequencing library is of quality and reliable. Three comparisons (control vs 113-2, control vs USDA205 and USDA205 vs 113-2 were made and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs between them were analyzed. The number of DEGs at 16 days post-inoculation (dpi was the highest in the three comparisons, and most of the DEGs in USDA205 vs 113-2 were found at 16 dpi and 21 dpi. 44 go function terms in USDA205 vs 113-2 were analyzed to evaluate the potential functions of the DEGs, and 10 important KEGG pathway enrichment terms were analyzed in the three comparisons. Some important genes induced in response to different strains (113-2 and USDA205 were identified and analyzed, and these genes primarily encoded soybean resistance proteins, NF-related proteins, nodulins and immunity

  18. Population Variance and Diversity of Endophytic Fungi in Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merril)/

    OpenAIRE

    JM Dalal; NS Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Present investigation was carried out to study variation in endophytic fungal population colonizing soybean. Endophytic population was assessed at different growth stages of soybean (C.V. JS-335) viz., vegetative and reproductive stages. A 182 (28.88 %) isolates were obtained from vegetative growth stages (V1-V5) and 448 (71.11 %) from reproductive growth stages. As plant grows the endophytic population increases progressively however, at the onset of reproductive stages viz., R1-R8 the endop...

  19. Nutrients Limiting Soybean (glycine max l) Growth in Acrisols and Ferralsols of Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ludy Keino; Frederick Baijukya; Wilson Ng'etich; Otinga, Abigael N.; Okalebo, John R.; Ruth Njoroge; John Mukalama

    2015-01-01

    Low soybean yields in western Kenya have been attributed to low soil fertility despite much work done on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) nutrition leading to suspicion of other nutrient limitations. To investigate this, a nutrient omission trial was set up in the greenhouse at the University of Eldoret-Kenya to diagnose the nutrients limiting soybean production in Acrisols from Masaba central and Butere sub-Counties, and Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu and Khwisero sub-locations) and Butul...

  20. Metabolomic Discrimination of Near Isogenic Low and High Phytate Soybean [GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERR. Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Kastl, Christin

    2014-01-01

    Phytate is the major storage form of phosphorus in seeds of soybeans. Because phytate chelates mineral cations including calcium, iron, and zinc, these mixed salts are often excreted by non-ruminant animals such as humans, swine, poultry, and fish. While this causes iron and zinc deficiencies, phytate is also considered a water pollutant due to the excess phosphorus excreted in animal waste. These negative environmental and nutritional effects, create a need for low phytate soybeans. While ...

  1. A virus-induced gene silencing method to study soybean cyst nematode parasitism in Glycine max

    OpenAIRE

    Kandoth, Pramod K; Heinz, Robert; Yeckel, Greg; Gross, Nathan W; Juvale, Parijat S; Hill, John; Whitham, Steven A.; Baum, Thomas J.; Mitchum, Melissa G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vectors have been developed and used in soybean for the functional analysis of genes involved in disease resistance to foliar pathogens. However, BPMV-VIGS protocols for studying genes involved in disease resistance or symbiotic associations with root microbes have not been developed. Findings Here we describe a BPMV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetic studies in soybean roots. We use this method for anal...

  2. Process Optimization of Tempeh Protein Isolate from Soybean (Glycine Max Merr and Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrul Bahar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of ‘tempeh’ (fermented soybean protein isolates in Indonesia is still very low. It is necessary to increase the production with the alternative materials which is make by soybean and cowpea mixture. The utilization of this soybean cake (tempeh as protein isolate raw material is expecting benefits both of soybean and cowpea component which can complement each other. Protein’s content of protein isolates should be a minimum of 90% (db. Therefore, it is necessary to find the precipitation pH and the optimum level of purification in order to get tempeh protein isolate with high protein content. The analytical method used descriptive analysis. The optimal process of tempeh protein isolates from soybean and cowpea mixture conducted with pH 5 and pH 4 precipitation, the oil extraction was carried out at the beginning of the process (before extraction of protein and before the drying stage. The result showed that the tempeh protein isolate of soybean and cowpea mixing have 75.12% (db protein content. It was increasing in 20.67% to 50.16% from previous research.

  3. Ectopic expression of a soybean phytase in developing seeds of Glycine max to improve phosphorus availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiera, Joseph M; Finer, John J; Grabau, Elizabeth A

    2004-12-01

    A transgenic approach was used to alter soybean seed phytate content by expressing a soybean phytase gene (GmPhy) during seed development to degrade accumulating phytic acid (IP6). An expression vector containing the soybean phytase cDNA controlled by the seed-specific beta-conglycinin promoter (alpha'-subunit) was used to transform embryogenic soybean cultures. Plants from four independent transgenic lines were analyzed for transgene integration and seed IP6 levels. The reduction in IP6 levels in transgenic seeds compared to control 'Jack' soybeans ranged from 12.6 to 24.8 as determined by HPLC. A low copy transformant was propagated to the T4 generation and examined in more detail for phytase expression and enzyme activity during seed development. Expression of phytase mRNA and phytase activity increased during seed development, consistent with the use of an embryo-specific promoter. Ectopic phytase expression during seed development offers potential as an effective strategy for reducing phytate content in soybean seed.

  4. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  5. Quantitative trait loci mapping of pubescence density and flowering time of insect-resistant soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko Komatsu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of antibiosis resistance to common cutworm (Spodoptera litura Fabricius in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. has progressed significantly, but the immediate cause remains unknown. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis of pubescence density and plant development stage because these factors are assumed to be the immediate cause of resistance to cutworm. The QTLs for pubescence appeared to be identical to the previously detected the Pd1 and Ps loci controlling pubescence density. We found no candidate loci for flowering time QTLs, although one could be identical to the gene governing the long-juvenile trait or to the E6 loci controlling maturity. None of the QTLs overlapped with the QTLs for antibiosis resistance.

  6. Optimization of ultrasonic assisted extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var) sprouts using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jixiang; Xin, Can; Zhao, Ya; Feng, Bing; He, Congfen; Dong, Yinmao; Fang, Yun; Wei, Shaomin

    2013-01-16

    Response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var) sprouts. Three influencing factors: liquid-solid ratio, period of ultrasonic assisted extraction and extraction temperature were investigated in the ultrasonic aqueous extraction. Then Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction process focused on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the antioxidants with respect to the above influencing factors. The best combination of each significant factor was determined by RSM design and optimum pretreatment conditions for maximum radical-scavenging capacity were established to be liquid-solid ratio of 29.19:1, extraction time of 32.13 min, and extraction temperature of 30 °C. Under these conditions, 67.60% of DPPH radical-scavenging capacity was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 66.36%.

  7. Optimization of Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants from Black Soybean (Glycine max var Sprouts Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM using a central composite design (CCD was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var sprouts. Three influencing factors: liquid-solid ratio, period of ultrasonic assisted extraction and extraction temperature were investigated in the ultrasonic aqueous extraction. Then Response Surface Methodology (RSM was applied to optimize the extraction process focused on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the antioxidants with respect to the above influencing factors. The best combination of each significant factor was determined by RSM design and optimum pretreatment conditions for maximum radical-scavenging capacity were established to be liquid-solid ratio of 29.19:1, extraction time of 32.13 min, and extraction temperature of 30 °C. Under these conditions, 67.60% of DPPH radical-scavenging capacity was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 66.36%.

  8. Chemical composition and lipoxygenase activity in soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.) submitted to gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Érica Amanda de; Broetto, Fernando; Bressan, Dayanne F.; Sartori, Maria M. P.; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2014-05-01

    Soybeans are an important food due to their functional and nutritional characteristics. However, consumption by western populations is limited by the astringent taste of soybeans and their derivatives which results from the action of lipoxygenase, an enzyme activated during product processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and specific activity of lipoxygenase in different soybean cultivars. Soybeans were stored in plastic bags and irradiated with doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy. The chemical composition (moisture, protein, lipids, ashes, crude fiber, and carbohydrates) and lipoxygenase specific activity were determined for each sample. Gamma irradiation induced a small increase of protein and lipid content in some soybean cultivars, which did not exceed the highest content of 5% and 26%, respectively, when compared to control. Lipoxygenase specific activity decreased in the three cultivars with increasing gamma irradiation dose. In conclusion, the gamma irradiation doses used are suitable to inactivate part of lipoxygenase while not causing expressive changes in the chemical composition of the cultivars studied.

  9. Expression and purification of intact and functional soybean (Glycine max) seed ferritin complex in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiangbai; Tang, Bo; Li, Jie; Xu, Qian; Fang, Shentong; Hua, Zichun

    2008-02-01

    Soybean seed ferritin is essential for human iron supplementation and iron deficiency anemia prevention because it contains abundant bioavailable iron and is frequently consumed in the human diet. However, it is poorly understood in regards its several properties, such as iron mineralization, subunit assembly, and protein folding. To address these issues, we decided to prepare the soybean seed ferritin complex via a recombinant DNA approach. In this paper, we report a rapid and simple Escherichia coli expression system to produce the soybean seed ferritin complex. In this system, two subunits of soybean seed ferritin, H-2 and H-1, were encoded in a single plasmid, and optimal expression was achieved by additionally coexpressing a team of molecular chaperones, trigger factor and GroEL-GroES. The His-tagged ferritin complex was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography, and an intact ferritin complex was obtained following His-tagged enterokinase (His-EK) digestion. The purified ferritin complex synthesized in E. coli demonstrated some reported features of its native counterpart from soybean seed, including an apparent molecular weight, multimeric assembly, and iron uptake activity. We believe that the strategy described in this paper may be of general utility in producing other recombinant plant ferritins built up from two types of subunits.

  10. Restoration potential of sedge meadows in hand-cultivated soybean fields in northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Middleton, Beth; Jiang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Sedge meadows can be difficult to restore from farmed fields if key structural dominants are missing from propagule banks. In hand-cultivated soybean fields in northeastern China, we asked if tussock-forming Carex and other wetland species were present as seed or asexual propagules. In the Sanjiang Plain, China, we compared the seed banks, vegetative propagules (below-ground) and standing vegetation of natural and restored sedge meadows, and hand-cultivated soybean fields in drained and flooded conditions. We found that important wetland species survived cultivation as seeds for some time (e.g. Calamogrostis angustifolia and Potamogeton crispus) and as field weeds (e.g. C. angustifolia and Phragmites australis). Key structural species were missing in these fields, for example, Carex meyeriana. We also observed that sedge meadows restored without planting or seeding lacked tussock-forming sedges. The structure of the seed bank was related to experimental water regime, and field environments of tussock height, thatch depth, and presence of burning as based on Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling analysis. To re-establish the structure imposed by tussock sedges, specific technologies might be developed to encourage the development of tussocks in restored sedge meadows.

  11. Soybean cultivar selection for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs) - Hydroponic cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, R.; Buonomo, R.; De Micco, V.; Aronne, G.; Palermo, M.; Barbieri, G.; De Pascale, S.

    2012-12-01

    Four soybean cultivars ('Atlantic', 'Cresir', 'Pr91m10' and 'Regir'), selected through a theoretical procedure as suitable for cultivation in BLSS, were evaluated in terms of growth and production. Germination percentage and Mean Germination Time (MGT) were measured. Plants were cultivated in a growth chamber equipped with a recirculating hydroponic system (Nutrient Film Technique). Cultivation was performed under controlled environmental conditions (12 h photoperiod, light intensity 350 μmol m-2 s-1, temperature regime 26/20 °C light/dark, relative humidity 65-75%). Fertigation was performed with a standard Hoagland solution, modified for soybean specific requirements, and EC and pH were kept at 2.0 dS m-1 and 5.5 respectively. The percentage of germination was high (from 86.9% in 'Cresir' to 96.8% in 'Regir')and the MGT was similar for all the cultivars (4.3 days). The growing cycle lasted from 114 in 'Cresir' to 133 days on average in the other cultivars. Differences in plant size were recorded, with 'Pr91m10' plants being the shortest (58 vs 106 cm). Cultivars did not differ significantly in seed yield (12 g plant-1) and in non edible biomass (waste), water consumption and biomass conversion efficiency (water, radiation and acid use indexes). 'Pr91m10' showed the highest protein content in the seeds (35.6% vs 33.3% on average in the other cultivars). Results from the cultivation experiment showed good performances of the four cultivars in hydroponics. The overall analysis suggests that 'Pr91m10' could be the best candidate for the cultivation in a BLSS, coupling the small plant size and the good yield with high resource use efficiency and good seed quality.

  12. Comprehensive phenolic composition analysis and evaluation of Yak-Kong soybean (Glycine max) for the prevention of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charles C; Dudonné, Stéphanie; Dubé, Pascal; Desjardins, Yves; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Ji Seung; Kim, Jong-Eun; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Chang Yong

    2017-11-01

    Yak-Kong (YK) (Glycine max), a small black soybean cultivar with a green embryo, was evaluated for functional constituents with a focus on atherosclerosis prevention. In comparison to common yellow and black soybean cultivars, YK contains significantly higher concentrations of antioxidants, particularly in its seed coat. A comprehensive phenolic composition analysis revealed that proanthocyanidins were the major phenolic group in YK. In contrast to other proanthocyanidin-rich foods, YK was rich in bioavailable proanthocyanidins (with a degree of polymerization ≤3) specifically with A-type dimers. Significant concentrations of phloridzin and coumestrol were also exclusively found in YK seed coat and the embryo, respectively. Extracts of both the proanthocyanidin-rich seed coat and isoflavonoid-rich embryo of YK attenuated adhesion of THP-1 to LPS-stimulated human umbilical vascular endothelial cells, suggesting that they are important sources of coronary heart disease-preventive phenolics. YK has promising potential for further development as a functional food source targeted at atherosclerosis prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum enhances the organic and fatty acids content of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís R; Pereira, Maria J; Azevedo, Jessica; Mulas, Rebeca; Velazquez, Encarna; González-Andrés, Fernando; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-15

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important food crops for human and animal consumption, providing oil and protein at relatively low cost. The least expensive source of nitrogen for soybean is the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic association with soil bacteria, belonging mainly to the genus Bradyrhizobium. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the inoculation of G. max with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on the metabolite profile and antioxidant potential of its seeds. Phenolic compounds, sterols, triterpenes, organic acids, fatty acids and volatiles profiles were characterised by different chromatographic techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated against DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. Inoculation with B. japonicum induced changes in the profiles of primary and secondary metabolites of G. max seeds, without affecting their antioxidant capacity. The increase of organic and fatty acids and volatiles suggest a positive effect of the inoculation process. These findings indicate that the inoculation with nodulating B. japonicum is a beneficial agricultural practice, increasing the content of bioactive metabolites in G. max seeds owing to the establishment of symbiosis between plant and microorganism, with direct effects on seed quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Rapid determination of fatty acids in soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] by FT-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-ming; Han, Fen-xia; Yan, Shu-rong; Yang, Hua; Tetsuo, Sato

    2008-06-01

    Current breeding programs dealing with fatty acid (FA) concentrations in soybean [Glycine max (L. ) Merr.] require large numbers for gas chromatographic analyses, thus it is important to develop a method for rapid determination of fatty acid by Near-Infrared Reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) in soybeans. The objective of this work was to study the potential of fourier-transform near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) to estimate the fatty acid concentrations in Chinese soybean varieties. One hundred and eight of soybean cultivars or lines (the calibration set: 64; the external validation set: 44) were scanned within 4000-12500 cm(-1) of wavenumbers using a standard sample cup by NIRS machinery, and analyzed the fatty acids by gas chromatograph (GC) methods. Equations were developed using partial least squares (PLS) regression and cross validation for multivariate calibration in this study. The optimal spectral region was selected from 6101.9 to 5446.5 cm(-1) based on the OPUS 5.0 software. Cross validation results showed that major FA components such as oleic acid (R2(CV) = 0.94), linoleic acid (R2(CV) = 0.87), linolenic acid (R2(CV) = 0.85), and total saturates (R2(CV) = 0.88) were accurately determined by the proposed equations as compared with the reference data obtained by the GC method. External validation results also demonstrated that equation for oleic acid had the highest predictive ability R(2)val = 0.91), root mean square error of predication (RMSEP) value was 2.47 g x kg(-1) dry weight, the ratios of RMSEP to the standard deviation (SD) was 0.29, which was usable for quality assurance application. Moreover, equations for palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and total saturates were predicted with the determination coefficients ranging from 0.66 to 0.76, RMSEP values from 0.37 to 2.74 g x kg(-1) dry weight, and RMSEP/SD values from 0.47 to 0.53, which could be used for sample screening. Therefore, we confirmed that a

  15. Glyphosate effects on the gene expression of the apical bud in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling-Xue; Jin, Long-Guo; Guo, Yong; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2013-08-09

    Glyphosate is a broad spectrum, non-selective herbicide which has been widely used for weed control. Much work has focused on elucidating the high accumulation of glyphosate in shoot apical bud (shoot apex). However, to date little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the sensitivity of shoot apical bud to glyphosate. Global gene expression profiling of the soybean apical bud response to glyphosate treatment was performed in this study. The results revealed that the glyphosate inhibited tryptophan biosynthesis of the shikimic acid pathway in the soybean apical bud, which was the target site of glyphosate. Glyphosate inhibited the expression of most of the target herbicide site genes. The promoter sequence analysis of key target genes revealed that light responsive elements were important regulators in glyphosate induction. These results will facilitate further studies of cloning genes and molecular mechanisms of glyphosate on soybean shoot apical bud. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ESTIMATION OF SOYBEAN SEED (Glycine max L. Merr DETERIORATION DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Noviana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ing the behavior and deterioration of soybean seed and to predict seed viability during storage in controlled conditions. The experiment used completely randomized design with two levels of variety which nested in storage period with four replications. Two varieties were Dering-1 and Detam 2 that storage in controlled condition at temperature of 19 up to 22 °C and 64 up to 67 percent of relative humidity for six months. The seeds were evaluated for moisture content, protein, peroxide value, electrical conductivity and seed viability. During the deterioration the moisture content, peroxide, electrical conductivity increased while protein content and germination declined. Deterioration model of soybeans can be used to predict the decline of soybean seeds during the controlled storage.

  17. Nutrients Limiting Soybean (glycine max l) Growth in Acrisols and Ferralsols of Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keino, Ludy; Baijukya, Frederick; Ng'etich, Wilson; Otinga, Abigael N; Okalebo, John R; Njoroge, Ruth; Mukalama, John

    2015-01-01

    Low soybean yields in western Kenya have been attributed to low soil fertility despite much work done on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) nutrition leading to suspicion of other nutrient limitations. To investigate this, a nutrient omission trial was set up in the greenhouse at the University of Eldoret-Kenya to diagnose the nutrients limiting soybean production in Acrisols from Masaba central and Butere sub-Counties, and Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu and Khwisero sub-locations) and Butula sub-Counties and to assess the effect of liming on soil pH and soybean growth. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with ten treatments viz; positive control (complete), negative control (distilled water), complete with lime, complete with N, minus macronutrients P, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S) and with, micro-nutrients boron (B), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) omitted. Visual deficiency symptoms observed included interveinal leaf yellowing in Mg omission and N addition and dark green leaves in P omission. Nutrients omission resulted in their significantly low concentration in plant tissues than the complete treatment. Significantly (P≤ 0.05) lower shoot dry weights (SDWs) than the complete treatment were obtained in different treatments; omission of K and Mg in Masaba and Shikhulu, Mg in Khwisero, K in Butere and, P, Mg and K in Butula. Nitrogen significantly improved SDWs in soils from Kakamega and Butula. Liming significantly raised soil pH by 9, 13 and 11% from 4.65, 4.91 and 4.99 in soils from Masaba, Butere and Butula respectively and soybean SDWs in soils from Butere. The results show that, poor soybean growth was due to K, Mg and P limitation and low pH in some soils. The results also signify necessity of application of small quantities of N for initial soybean use.

  18. Nutrients Limiting Soybean (glycine max l Growth in Acrisols and Ferralsols of Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludy Keino

    Full Text Available Low soybean yields in western Kenya have been attributed to low soil fertility despite much work done on nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P nutrition leading to suspicion of other nutrient limitations. To investigate this, a nutrient omission trial was set up in the greenhouse at the University of Eldoret-Kenya to diagnose the nutrients limiting soybean production in Acrisols from Masaba central and Butere sub-Counties, and Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu and Khwisero sub-locations and Butula sub-Counties and to assess the effect of liming on soil pH and soybean growth. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with ten treatments viz; positive control (complete, negative control (distilled water, complete with lime, complete with N, minus macronutrients P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg and sulphur (S and with, micro-nutrients boron (B, molybdenum (Mo, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu and zinc (Zn omitted. Visual deficiency symptoms observed included interveinal leaf yellowing in Mg omission and N addition and dark green leaves in P omission. Nutrients omission resulted in their significantly low concentration in plant tissues than the complete treatment. Significantly (P≤ 0.05 lower shoot dry weights (SDWs than the complete treatment were obtained in different treatments; omission of K and Mg in Masaba and Shikhulu, Mg in Khwisero, K in Butere and, P, Mg and K in Butula. Nitrogen significantly improved SDWs in soils from Kakamega and Butula. Liming significantly raised soil pH by 9, 13 and 11% from 4.65, 4.91 and 4.99 in soils from Masaba, Butere and Butula respectively and soybean SDWs in soils from Butere. The results show that, poor soybean growth was due to K, Mg and P limitation and low pH in some soils. The results also signify necessity of application of small quantities of N for initial soybean use.

  19. Warming decreases photosynthates and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] in the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia Zhang; Lili Zhu; Mengyang Yu; Mingxing Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the responses of field crops such as soybean to climate warming is critical for economic development and adaptive management of food security. A field warming experiment was conducted using infrared heaters to investigate the responses of soybean phenology, photosynthetic characteristics, and yield to climate warming in the North China Plain. The results showed that 0.4 °C and 0.7 °C increases in soybean canopy air and soil temperature advanced anthesis stage by 3.8 days and shortened the length of entire growth stage by 4.5 days. Warming also decreased the leaf photosynthetic rate by 6.6%and 10.3%at the anthesis and seed filling stages, respectively, but increased the leaf vapor pressure deficit by 9.4%, 15.7%, and 14.1% at the anthesis, pod setting, and seed filling stages, respectively. However, leaf soluble sugar and starch were decreased by 25.6% and 20.5%, respectively, whereas stem soluble sugar was reduced by 12.2%at the anthesis stage under experimental warming. The transportation amount of leaf soluble sugar and contribution rate of transportation amount to seed weight were reduced by 58.2%and 7.7%, respectively, under warming. As a result, warming significantly decreased 100-seed weight and soybean yield by 20.8% and 45.0%, respectively. Our findings provide better mechanistic under-standing of soybean yield response to climate warming and could be helpful for forecasting soybean yield under future climate warming conditions.

  20. THE PERFORMANCE OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX (L. MERRILL UNDER VARYING WEEDING REGIMES IN SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. ODELEYE

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, in 1999 and 2001, to study the performance of two soybean cultivars subjected to varying weeding regimes, viz: no weeding, weeding at 2 and 4 weeks after sowing (WAS, 2 and 6 WAS and 2 and 8 WAS. The experiments were a factorial combination of variety and weeding regimes in randomized complete block design with four replications. Data were taken at maturity on some vegetative, dry matter and yield parameters. The competing weeds were also identified, sampled, dried and weighed. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and means separated by LSD (P=0.05. Results showed that weeds did not adversely affect the performance of the two soybean varieties at 2 WAS. In addition, two weedings were adequate for the two soybean varieties but the interval of weeding was absolutely important in yield determination. The growth stage when these weeds prove to be harmful competition on soybeans, as evidenced from the results of this study, was between 4 and 6 WAS. The results also showed that plots left unwedded inevitably had the highest yield reduction in both varieties. On the other hand, plots weeded at 2 and 6 WAS showed the best performance in all aspects for both varieties of soybean, than other weeding regimes. It is clear from this study, therefore, that weeding at 2 and 6 WAS ensured that most parts of vegetative and reproductive stages were weed-free, so that in conclusion, weeding soybean crop twice is appropriate using the 2 and 6 WAS sequence, for optimum performance in south west Nigeria.

  1. Modeling and analysis of soybean (Glycine max. L Cu/Zn, Mn and Fe superoxide dismutases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramana Gopavajhula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1 is an important metal-containing antioxidant enzyme that provides the first line of defense against toxic superoxide radicals by catalyzing their dismutation to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. SOD is classified into four metalloprotein isoforms, namely, Cu/Zn SOD, Mn SOD, Ni SOD and Fe SOD. The structural models of soybean SOD isoforms have not yet been solved. In this study, we describe structural models for soybean Cu/Zn SOD, Mn SOD and Fe SOD and provide insights into the molecular function of this metal-binding enzyme in improving tolerance to oxidative stress in plants.

  2. Influence of pulsed magnetic field on soybean (Glycine max L.) seed germination, seedling growth and soil microbial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kumari, Bollipo Dyana Ranjitha

    2013-08-01

    The effects of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) treatment of soybean (Glycine max L. cv CO3) seeds were investigated on rate of seed germination, seedling growth, physico-chemical properties of seed leachates and soil microbial population under laboratory conditions. Seeds were exposed to PMF of 1500 nT at 0.1, 1.0 10.0 and 100.0 Hz for 5 h per day for 20 days, induced by enclosure coil systems. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. All PMF treatments significantly increased the rate of seed germination, while 10 and 100 Hz PMFs showed the most effective response. The 1.0 and 10 Hz PMFs remarkably improved the fresh weight of shoots and roots, leaf area and plant height from seedlings from magnetically-exposed seeds compared to the control, while 10 Hz PMF increased the total soluble sugar, total protein and phenol contents. The leaf chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll were higher in PMF (10 and 100 Hz) pretreated plants, as compared to other treatments. In addition, activities of alpha-amylase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, nitrate reductase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase were increased, while beta-amylase and protease activities were declined in PMF (10 Hz)-exposed soybean plants. Similarly, the capacity of absorbance of water by seeds and electrical conductivity of seed leachates were significantly enhanced by 10 Hz PMF exposure, whereas PMF (10 Hz) pretreated plants did not affect the microbial population in rhizosphere soil. The results suggested the potential of 10 Hz PMF treatment to enhance the germination and seedling growth of soybean.

  3. Whole-genome sequencing and intensive analysis of the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Sunghoon; Van, Kyujung; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Jeong, Soon-Chun; Choi, Ik-Young; Kim, Dae-Soo; Lee, Yong-Seok; Park, Daeui; Ma, Jianxin; Kim, Woo-Yeon; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Kyung-A; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Kil Hyun; Shin, Jin Hee; Jang, Young Eun; Kim, Kyung Do; Liu, Wei Xian; Chaisan, Tanapon; Kang, Yang Jae; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jackson, Scott A; Bhak, Jong; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2010-12-21

    The genome of soybean (Glycine max), a commercially important crop, has recently been sequenced and is one of six crop species to have been sequenced. Here we report the genome sequence of G. soja, the undomesticated ancestor of G. max (in particular, G. soja var. IT182932). The 48.8-Gb Illumina Genome Analyzer (Illumina-GA) short DNA reads were aligned to the G. max reference genome and a consensus was determined for G. soja. This consensus sequence spanned 915.4 Mb, representing a coverage of 97.65% of the G. max published genome sequence and an average mapping depth of 43-fold. The nucleotide sequence of the G. soja genome, which contains 2.5 Mb of substituted bases and 406 kb of small insertions/deletions relative to G. max, is ∼0.31% different from that of G. max. In addition to the mapped 915.4-Mb consensus sequence, 32.4 Mb of large deletions and 8.3 Mb of novel sequence contigs in the G. soja genome were also detected. Nucleotide variants of G. soja versus G. max confirmed by Roche Genome Sequencer FLX sequencing showed a 99.99% concordance in single-nucleotide polymorphism and a 98.82% agreement in insertion/deletion calls on Illumina-GA reads. Data presented in this study suggest that the G. soja/G. max complex may be at least 0.27 million y old, appearing before the relatively recent event of domestication (6,000∼9,000 y ago). This suggests that soybean domestication is complicated and that more in-depth study of population genetics is needed. In any case, genome comparison of domesticated and undomesticated forms of soybean can facilitate its improvement.

  4. Evolution and structural diversification of Nictaba-like lectin genes in food crops with a focus on soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holle, Sofie; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J M

    2017-03-01

    The Nictaba family groups all proteins that show homology to Nictaba, the tobacco lectin. So far, Nictaba and an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue have been shown to be implicated in the plant stress response. The availability of more than 50 sequenced plant genomes provided the opportunity for a genome-wide identification of Nictaba -like genes in 15 species, representing members of the Fabaceae, Poaceae, Solanaceae, Musaceae, Arecaceae, Malvaceae and Rubiaceae. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships between the different species were explored. Furthermore, this study included domain organization analysis, searching for orthologous genes in the legume family and transcript profiling of the Nictaba -like lectin genes in soybean. Using a combination of BLASTp, InterPro analysis and hidden Markov models, the genomes of Medicago truncatula , Cicer arietinum , Lotus japonicus , Glycine max , Cajanus cajan , Phaseolus vulgaris , Theobroma cacao , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum tuberosum , Coffea canephora , Oryza sativa , Zea mays, Sorghum bicolor , Musa acuminata and Elaeis guineensis were searched for Nictaba -like genes. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using RAxML and additional protein domains in the Nictaba-like sequences were identified using InterPro. Expression analysis of the soybean Nictaba -like genes was investigated using microarray data. Nictaba -like genes were identified in all studied species and analysis of the duplication events demonstrated that both tandem and segmental duplication contributed to the expansion of the Nictaba gene family in angiosperms. The single-domain Nictaba protein and the multi-domain F-box Nictaba architectures are ubiquitous among all analysed species and microarray analysis revealed differential expression patterns for all soybean Nictaba-like genes. Taken together, the comparative genomics data contributes to our understanding of the Nictaba -like gene family in species for which the occurrence of Nictaba domains had not

  5. Transient Nod factor-dependent gene expression in the nodulation-competent zone of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Satomi; Reid, Dugald E; Lorenc, Michał T; Stiller, Jiri; Edwards, David; Gresshoff, Peter M; Ferguson, Brett J

    2012-10-01

    All lateral organ development in plants, such as nodulation in legumes, requires the temporal and spatial regulation of genes and gene networks. A total mRNA profiling approach using RNA-seq to target the specific soybean (Glycine max) root tissues responding to compatible rhizobia [i.e. the Zone Of Nodulation (ZON)] revealed a large number of novel, often transient, mRNA changes occurring during the early stages of nodulation. Focusing on the ZON enabled us to discard the majority of root tissues and their developmentally diverse gene transcripts, thereby highlighting the lowly and transiently expressed nodulation-specific genes. It also enabled us to concentrate on a precise moment in early nodule development at each sampling time. We focused on discovering genes regulated specifically by the Bradyrhizobium-produced Nod factor signal, by inoculating roots with either a competent wild-type or incompetent mutant (nodC(-) ) strain of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Collectively, 2915 genes were identified as being differentially expressed, including many known soybean nodulation genes. A number of unknown nodulation gene candidates and soybean orthologues of nodulation genes previously reported in other legume species were also identified. The differential expression of several candidates was confirmed and further characterized via inoculation time-course studies and qRT-PCR. The expression of many genes, including an endo-1,4-β-glucanase, a cytochrome P450 and a TIR-LRR-NBS receptor kinase, was transient, peaking quickly during the initiation of nodule ontogeny. Additional genes were found to be down-regulated. Significantly, a set of differentially regulated genes acting in the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthesis pathway was discovered, suggesting a novel role of GAs in nodulation. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. INFLUENCE OF SULPHUR AND ZINC FERTILIZATION ON YIELD, YIELD COMPONENTS AND QUALITY TRAITS OF SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRATIBHA CHOUDHARY

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was carried out using factorial CRBD with four replications during Kharif 2012 to investigate S and Zn application effects on soybean (Glycine max L. yield, yield attributing traits and quality parameters. The experiment comprised four levels of sulphur (0, 20, 40 and 60 ppm and zinc (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 ppm. Cultivar PK 1024 was used as the test crop. The results revealed that all these mentioned parameters were significantly affected by the addition of sulphur and zinc doses. Highest grain yield 14.59 and 14.25 g pot-1 were obtained when S (40 ppm and Zn (5 ppm were applied individually. The highest yield (15.30 g pot-1 and the yield attributes viz; plant height (43.5 cm, branches plant-1 (6.7, capsule plant-1 (13.0, grains capsule-1 (3.2, 100-grain weight (9.96 g were also obtained for the treatment combination of 40 ppm S and 5 ppm Zn. On the other hand content and uptake of Zn increased up to 40 ppm S and thereafter decreases at 60 ppm S level. Contents of S increased with increase in S doses up to 60 ppm. However the values at 40 and 60 ppm were statistically at par. Zinc content increased up to 20 ppm S and thereafter decreased. Highest protein (38.64% and oil (21.54% content was observed due to application of 60 ppm S, while 5 ppm Zn gave the highest protein (38.42% and oil (20.90% content of soybean grain. Therefore, it was concluded that application of 60 ppm S and 5 ppm Zn should be used for improvement of yield and quality traits of soybean grain.

  7. Agricultural impacts of glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B

    2011-06-08

    In the 2009/2010 growing season, Brazil was the second largest world soybean producer, followed by Argentina. Glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) are being cultivated in most of the soybean area in South America. Overall, the GRS system is beneficial to the environment when compared to conventional soybean. GRS resulted in a significant shift toward no-tillage practices in Brazil and Argentina, but weed resistance may reduce this trend. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil and South America is related to weed resistance due to use of glyphosate. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. Five weed species, in order of importance, Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist, Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist, Lolium multiflorum Lam., Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman, and Euphorbia heterophylla L., have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil. Conyza spp. are the most difficult to control. A glyphosate-resistant biotype of Sorghum halepense L. has evolved in GRS in Argentina and one of D. insularis in Paraguay. The following actions are proposed to minimize weed resistance problem: (a) rotation of GRS with conventional soybeans in order to rotate herbicide modes of action; (b) avoidance of lower than recommended glyphosate rates; (c) keeping soil covered with a crop or legume at intercrop intervals; (d) keeping machinery free of weed seeds; and (d) use of a preplant nonselective herbicide plus residuals to eliminate early weed interference with the crop and to minimize escapes from later applications of glyphosate due to natural resistance of older weeds and/or incomplete glyphosate coverage.

  8. Effects of Cowpea mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus on six Soybean (Glycine max L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Taiye H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was carried out to determine the comparative pathogenic response of six cultivars of soybean; TGx 1844-18E, TGx 1448-2E, TGx 1910-8F, TGx 1019-2EN, TGx 1910-8F and TGx 1876-4E to single and mixed infections with cowpea mottle virus and cucumber mosaic virus. The experiment was conducted in the screenhouse at the crop production pavilion, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara state Nigeria. The results of the experiment revealed that all soybean cultivars were susceptible to single and mixed infection of the two viruses but to seemingly different extent. The single infection with cowpea mottle virus (CMeV, however, caused the most severe symptoms on the soybean cultivars. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV alone was not as severe as the CMeV. The mixed infection of CMeV and CMV did not cause higher severity than CMeV alone indicating that there was little or no synergistic effect between the two viruses on soybean.

  9. Morpho-physiological parameters affecting iron deficiency chlorosis response in soybean (Glycine max L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) leads to severe leaf chlorosis, low photosynthetic rates, and yield reductions of several million metric tons each year. In order to devise breeding and genetic transformation programs that aim at generating high-yielding and IDC-tolerant soybean lines, it is necessar...

  10. Variation in quality of individual seeds within a seed lot of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illipronti, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed at increasing insight into the sources of variation in quality attributes of individual seeds within a soybean seed lot, into the relations between physical attributes and performance of seeds in seed tests and in controlled seed production

  11. Introduction of exogenous wild soybean DNA into cultivated soybean and RAPD molecular verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢纬武; 王斌; 雷勃钧; 李希臣; 卢翠华; 钱华; 周思君

    1995-01-01

    The exogenous total DNA of the wild high-protein soybean was transferred to cultivatedsoybean through the pollen tube channel and the genomic variation of the transformed progeny was detected bythe method of RAPD(Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA).Distinguished variations were found in one of the 7 transformed plants of the first generation(D1),ofwhich the traits of fruition,outward appearance,leaf shape and flower colour were almost identical withthose of the recipient parent;of which grain weight,seed coat colour and stem strength were situated betweenthe two parents;and there were greatly more pods per plant and 12.5% higher content of protein in seedsthan that of the recipient parent.All the properties have been invariably inherited for 3 generations.Through RAPD analysis of the genomes of the donor,the recipient and the transformed progeny(D3)as agroup,DNA polyrnorphisms were found in amplified products by 24 of 150 primers.The results prove thatthe exogenous DNA caused the distinct variance of the genome.The authors infer that the homogeneousrecombination of large exogenous DNA is the main cause for the variance.

  12. SEED VIGOR TESTING OF SOME DOMESTIC SOYBEAN CULTIVARS (Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Andrić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed ageing is an important cause of low vigor and bad field emergence, especially in adverse seedbed conditions. Therefore, in this investigation, soybean seed vigor was tested by four laboratory tests (germination energy GE, standard germination SG, cold test CT, electrical conductivity EC and in field trial, as well (early planting dates Epd and optimal planting dates Opd. The soybean seed of 5 cultivars from Agricultural Institute Osijek, produced in the 3 years (1999., 2000., 2001. was used in the investigation. The seed was stored in a warehouse conditions for 6, 18 or 30 months prior to testing. Tested soybean seed showed significant differences in seed vigor influenced by seed age, seed treatment with fungicide (Vitavax 200 FF, cultivar and planting date. High quality seed with GE and SG over 85%,performed quite well in both planting dates, as well as seeds with the CT over 70% or with EC under 42 μScm-1g-1. On the contrary, considering seed with reduced vigor there is a very great possibility of reduced FE especially in Epd. However, seed treatment with fungicide and sowing in optimal seedbed conditions can significantly contribute to improvement of soybean seed performance and stand establishment. Correlation analyses showed that all tested seed vigor parameters were significantly connected (sign. level 99%. At early planting, the strongest correlation was established between the field emergence and CT (untreated seed, r=0.949** and for treated seed r=0.951** whereas in optimal planting date was between the field emergence and SG (for untreated seed r=0. 938** and for treated seed r=0.942**. Laboratory seed health testing showed significant differences in fungal disease intensity influenced by fungicide seed treatment, cultivar and seed age. Total seed infection and infection with Fusarium spp. was adversely correlated with all vigor parameters. All tested vigor parameters of soybean seed had influence on grain yield indirectly by

  13. Meiotic behavior of several Brazilian soybean varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Bione Nilton Cesar Pires; Pagliarini Maria Suely; Toledo José Francisco Ferraz de

    2000-01-01

    Despite the importance of soybeans little cytogenetic work has traditionally been done, due to the small size and apparent similarity of the chromosomes. Fifteen soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] varieties adapted for cultivation in two distinct regions of Brazil were analyzed cytogenetically. A low frequency of meiotic abnormalities was noted in all varieties, although they were not equally affected. Irregular chromosome segregation, chromosome stickiness, cytoplasmic connections between ce...

  14. INFLUENCE of BACILLUS SUBTILIS on THE HETERODERA GLYCINES ECLOSION, ORIENTATION and INFECTION IN SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo,Fábio Fernando de; SILVA,JOÃO FLÁVIO VELOSO; Araújo,Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de

    2002-01-01

    A utilização de microrganismos para fins de controle biológico de doenças em plantas tem sido muito estudada no mundo. No caso do nematóide de cisto da soja (Heterodera glycines), uma das principais doenças da soja, o controle biológico é de grande importância devido à ausência de controle químico eficiente. Para se estudar o efeito de Bacilllus subtilis sobre H. glycines, foram conduzidos alguns experimentos de casa de vegetação e laboratório. Nos trabalhos de laboratório, verificou-se, em c...

  15. From forest to waste: Assessment of the Brazilian soybean chain, using nitrogen as a marker.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smaling, E.M.A.; Roscoe, R.; Lesschen, J.P.; Bouwman, A.F.; Comunello, E.

    2008-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is a booming crop in Brazil. In 2004, the export value was equivalent to 10 billion US $, covering over 10% of total Brazilian exports. Three-quarters of total production leaves the country, mainly to China and the European Union (EU). Soybean cultivation in Brazil is expected

  16. Selection of Rhizobium strain from Wonogiri, Central Java on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. on the sand sterile medium in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI PURWANINGSIH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the selection of Rhizobium strain from Wonogiri, Central Java on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. on the sand sterile medium in green house. The aim of the experiment the selection and potency of the Rhizobium strain to increase the growth of soybean. The experiment was carried out in green house condition in Microbiology Division, Research Center for Biology-LIPI with sterile sand medium. The research design was Completely Randomized Design with three replications for each treatment. The Rhizobium strains used were 1 W (isolated from bean, Vigna radiata, 2 W (isolated from soybean, 3 W (isolated from bean, 4 W (isolated from soybean, 5 W (isolated from soybean, 6 W (isolated from peanut, Arachis hypogaea, 7 W (isolated from peanut, 8 W (isolated from peanut, the controls were uninoculated with Rhizobium strain and without urea fertilizer (K1, uninoculated and with urea fertilizer equal 100 kg/ha (K2. The plants were harvested after 50 days, the variable of investigation were the dry weight of canopy, roots, nodules root, total plants, number of nodules and ‘symbiotic capacity”. The results showed that all of experiment plant which be inoculated with Rhizobium able to form nodule. Strain of 2 W (isolated from soybean has given the best effects on the growth of soybean.

  17. Inoculation with an enhanced N2 -fixing Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain (USDA110) does not alter soybean (Glycine max Merr.) response to elevated [CO2 ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Heath, Katy D; Burke, Patricia V; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that inoculation of soybean (Glycine max Merr.) with a Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain (USDA110) with greater N2 fixation rates would enhance soybean response to elevated [CO2 ]. In field experiments at the Soybean Free Air CO2 Enrichment facility, inoculation of soybean with USDA110 increased nodule occupancy from 5% in native soil to 54% in elevated [CO2 ] and 34% at ambient [CO2 ]. Despite this success, inoculation with USDA110 did not result in greater photosynthesis, growth or seed yield at ambient or elevated [CO2 ] in the field, presumably due to competition from native rhizobia. In a growth chamber experiment designed to study the effects of inoculation in the absence of competition, inoculation with USDA110 in sterilized soil resulted in nodule occupation of >90%, significantly greater (15) N2 fixation, photosynthetic capacity, leaf N and total plant biomass compared with plants grown with native soil bacteria. However, there was no interaction of rhizobium fertilization with elevated [CO2 ]; inoculation with USDA110 was equally beneficial at ambient and elevated [CO2 ]. These results suggest that selected rhizobia could potentially stimulate soybean yield in soils with little or no history of prior soybean production, but that better quality rhizobia do not enhance soybean responses to elevated [CO2 ].

  18. Effects of potassium deifciency on photosynthesis and photo-protection mechanisms in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-guang; ZHAO Xin-hua; JIANG Chun-ji; LI Chun-hong; CONG Shan; WU Di; CHEN Yan-qiu; YU Hai-qiu; WANG Chun-yan

    2015-01-01

    Potassium is an important nutrient element requiring high concentration for photosynthetic metabolism. The potassium deifciency in soil could inhibit soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) photosynthesis and result in yield reduction. Research on the photosynthetic variations of the different tolerant soyben varieties should provide important information for high yield tolerant soybean breeding program. Two representative soybean varieties Tiefeng 40 (tolerance to K+ deifciency) and GD8521 (sensitive to K+deifciency) were hydroponical y grown to measure the photosynthesis, chlorophyl lfuorescence parameters and Rubisco activity under different potassium conditions. With the K-deifciency stress time extending, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) of GD8521 were signiifcantly decreased under K-deifciency condition, whereas the intercel ular CO2 concentration (Ci) was signiifcantly increased. As a contrast, the variations of Tiefeng 40 were almost little under K-deifciency condition, which indicated tolerance to K+deifciency variety could maintain higher efifcient photosynthesis. On the 25th d after treatment, the minimal lfuorescence (F0) of GD8521 was signiifcantly increased and the maximal lfuorescence (Fm), the maximum quantum efifciency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), actual photochemical efifciency of PSII (ΦPSI ), photochemical quenching (qP), and electron transport rate of PSII (ETR) were signiifcantly decreased under K+deifciency condition. In addition, the Rubisco content of GD8521 was signiifcantly decreased in leaves. It is particularly noteworthy that the chlorophyl lfuorescence parameters and Rubisco content of Tiefeng 40 were unaffected under K+deifciency condition. On the other hand, the non-photochemical quenching (qN) of Tiefeng 40 was signiifcantly increased. The dry matter weight of Tiefeng 40 was little affected under K+deifciency condition. Results indicated that Tiefeng 40 could avoid or relieve the

  19. Barcode System for Genetic Identification of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] Cultivars Using InDel Markers Specific to Dense Variation Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Hwang-Bae; Kim, Su-Jeong; Hwang, Tae-Young; Park, Hyang-Mi; Lee, Yu-Young; Markkandan, Kesavan; Lee, Dongwoo; Lee, Sunghoon; Hong, Su-Young; Song, Yun-Ho; Koo, Bon-Cheol; Kim, Yul-Ho

    2017-01-01

    For genetic identification of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] cultivars, insertions/deletions (InDel) markers have been preferred currently because they are easy to use, co-dominant and relatively abundant. Despite their biological importance, the investigation of InDels with proven quality and reproducibility has been limited. In this study, we described soybean barcode system approach based on InDel makers, each of which is specific to a dense variation block (dVB) with non-random recombination due to many variations. Firstly, 2,274 VBs were mined by analyzing whole genome data in six soybean cultivars (Backun, Sinpaldal 2, Shingi, Daepoong, Hwangkeum, and Williams 82) for transferability to dVB-specific InDel markers. Secondly, 73,327 putative InDels in the dVB regions were identified for the development of soybean barcode system. Among them, 202 dVB-specific InDels from all soybean cultivars were selected by gel electrophoresis, which were converted as 2D barcode types according to comparing amplicon polymorphisms in the five cultivars to the reference cultivar. Finally, the polymorphism of the markers were assessed in 147 soybean cultivars, and the soybean barcode system that allows a clear distinction among soybean cultivars is also detailed. In addition, the changing of the dVBs in a chromosomal level can be quickly identified due to investigation of the reshuffling pattern of the soybean cultivars with 27 maker sets. Especially, a backcross-inbred offspring, "Singang" and a recurrent parent, "Sowon" were identified by using the 27 InDel markers. These results indicate that the soybean barcode system enables not only the minimal use of molecular markers but also comparing the data from different sources due to no need of exploiting allele binning in new varieties.

  20. Synchrotron micro-imaging of soybean (Glycine max) leaves grown from magnetoprimed seeds - Feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, A.; Guruprasad, K. N.; Kataria, S.; Agrawal, A. K.; Singh, B.; Sarkar, P. S.; Shripathi, T.; Kashyap, Y.; Sinha, A.

    2016-05-01

    The novel phase contrast technique (PCI) based on refractive index variations has been utilized in this work to image soft tissues like plant leaves. The feasibility study of synchrotron micro-imaging to assess the changes in the soybean leaf vascular structure was conducted for plants grown after magnetic field treatment of seeds. Soybean seeds were pre-treated with Static Magnetic Field of different strengths 150 mT and 200 mT for 1 hour to evaluate the effect of magnetopriming on leaf vascular structures, which has links with plant growth and productivity. The plants emerged after magnetic field treatment on seeds showed enhancement in the growth and leaf parameters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the leaf venation has been performed using PCI technique to study this enhancement in the leaf structure.

  1. [Aluminum lightens the adverse effects of excessive Mn on growth of soybean (Glycine max)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; You, Jiang-Feng; Yang, Zhen-Ming

    2007-12-01

    The influence of aluminum (Al) on physiological and biological characteristics of soybean under manganese (Mn) stress was investigated. The results showed that Al suppressed the transport of Mn to shoots (Fig.2B, C), and subsequently alleviated the inhibition of shoot growth (Fig.1), decreased the chlorophyll content (Fig.4). Addition of Al diminished the increase in O(-*)(2) producing rate, the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in soybean leaves caused by excessive Mn (Fig.5), and prevented the dropping of CAT activity to a low level under excessive Mn stress (Fig.6). Results of fractional analysis indicated that high levels of Al supply deduced mainly accumulation of Mn both in cell walls and organelles, but had no effect on it in soluble fractions (Fig.3).

  2. Radiation-induced enhancement of antioxidant contents of soybean (Glycine max Merrill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variyar, Prasad S; Limaye, Ashwini; Sharma, Arun

    2004-06-02

    Soybean samples were treated with gamma-radiation doses between 0.5 and 5 kGy for achieving insect disinfestation and microbial decontamination. Nutritional quality of soybeans with respect to antioxidant isoflavone content was tested in radiation-treated and untreated samples. Changes in major isoflavones such as genistein, diadzein, glycetein, and their glycosides were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography. Interestingly, a decrease in content of glycosidic conjugates and an increase in aglycons were noted with increasing radiation dose. Antioxidant potential measured as percent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity showed an increasing trend with dose, indicating that radiation processing as a method of food preservation has a positive nutritional implication.

  3. Selecting soybean resistant to the cyst nematode Heterodera glycines using simple sequence repeat (microssatellite) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espindola, S M C G; Hamawaki, O T; Oliveira, A P; Hamawaki, C D L; Hamawaki, R L; Takahashi, L M

    2016-03-11

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a major cause of soybean yield reduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of marker-assisted selection to identify genotypes resistant to SCN race 3 infection, using Sat_168 and Sat-141 resistance quantitative trait loci. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, using soybean populations originated from crosses between susceptible and resistant parent stock: CD-201 (susceptible) and Foster IAC (resistant), Conquista (susceptible) and S83-30 (resistant), La-Suprema (susceptible) and S57-11 (resistant), and Parecis (susceptible) and S65-50 (resistant). Plants were inoculated with SCN and evaluated according to the female index (FI), those with FI < 10% were classified as resistant to nematode infection. Plants were genotyped for SCN resistance using microsatellite markers Sat-141 and Sat_168. Marker selection efficiency was analyzed by a contingency table, taking into account genotypic versus phenotypic evaluations for each line. These markers were shown to be useful tool for selection of SCN race 3.

  4. Association mapping for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jutao Sun; Na Guo; Jun Lei; Lihong Li; Guanjun Hu; Han Xing

    2014-08-01

    Association mapping is a powerful high-resolution mapping tool for complex traits. The objective of this study was to identify QTLs for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae. In this study, we evaluated a total of 214 soybean accessions by the hypocotyl inoculation method, and 175 were susceptible. The 175 susceptible accessions were then evaluated for P. sojae partial resistance using slant board assays. The 175 accessions were screened with 138 SSR markers that generated 730 SSR alleles. A subset of 495 SSR loci with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.05 was used for association mapping by the Tassel general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) programmes. This soybean population could be divided into two subpopulations and no or weak relatedness was detected between pairwise accessions. Four SSR alleles, Satt634-133, Satt634-149, Sat_222-168 and Satt301-190, associated with partial resistance to P. sojae were detected by both GLM and MLM methods. Of these identified markers, one marker, Satt301, was located in regions where P. sojae resistance QTL have been previously mapped using linkage analysis. The identified markers will help to understand the genetic basis of partial resistance, and facilitate future marker-assistant selection aimed to improve resistance to P. sojae and reduce disease-related mortality in soybean.

  5. Antioxidant activity of seedling growth in selected soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) responses of submergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, R. I.; Marbun, P.; Sihombing, L.

    2016-08-01

    In order to better understand the physiological and biochemical responses relating to direct seeding establishment in soybeans, the plant growth rate and antioxidative defense responses of seedlings in seven Indonesian soybean genotypes (Anjasmoro, Detam-1, Detam-2, Dieng, Grobogan, Tanggamus, and Willis) at different submergence periods (4, and 8 days) were examined. Twelve-day old seedlings were hydroponically grown in limited oxygen conditions. The results showed that the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings was reduced beginning as early as 4 d under submerged condition, except for Detam-1, Detam-2, and Grobogan genotypes. The dry weight and protein concentration of seedlings were significantly higher at control condition (0 d) than those in submerged condition. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased linearly until 8 d submerged for all genotypes. On the other hand, our results showed that catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities did not work together, meaning that CAT is activated and APX deactivated, or vice versa, in response to submergence conditions, except for Grobogan and Tanggamus genotypes which had an effect on both CAT and APX activities. Submergence stress led to a significant increase in glutathione reductase (GR) together with APX activity for Detam-2 and Dieng genotypes at 8 d submerged.

  6. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Fernández-Tirado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA and two functional units (FUs were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  7. QTL Location and Epistatic Effect Analysis of 100-Seed Weight Using Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Dawei; Qi, Zhaoming; Jiang, Hongwei; Hu, Zhenbang; Zhu, Rongsheng; Hu, Jiahui; Han, Heyu; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) is a main aim of soybean breeding. The 100-seed weight is a critical factor for soybean yield. To facilitate genetic analysis of quantitative traits and to improve the accuracy of marker-assisted breeding in soybean, a valuable mapping population consisting of 194 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) was developed. In these lines, different chromosomal segments of the Chinese cultivar Suinong 14 were substituted into the genetic background of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) ZYD00006. Based on these CSSLs, a genetic map covering the full genome was generated using 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, twelve main effect QTLs (qSW-B1-1/2/3, qSW-D1b-1/2, qSW-D2-1/2, qSW-G-1/2/3, qSW-M-2 and qSW-N-2) underlying 100-seed weight were identified in 2011 and 2012. The epistatic effects of pairwise interactions between markers were analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The results clearly demonstrated that these CSSLs could be used to identify QTLs, and that an epistatic analysis was able to detect several sites with important epistatic effects on 100-seed weight. Thus, we identified loci that will be valuable for improving soybean 100-seed weight. These results provide a valuable foundation for identifying the precise location of genes of interest, and for designing cloning and marker-assisted selection breeding strategies targeting the 100-seed weight of soybean.

  8. Identification of Alternaria alternata mycotoxins by LC-SPE-NMR and their cytotoxic effects to soybean (Glycine max) cell suspension culture

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Rodrigues-Filho; Cristina Daolio; Bernd Schneider; De Souza, Gezimar D.; Axel Mithöfer

    2013-01-01

    This present work describes the application of liquid chromatograpy-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to analyse Alternaria alternata crude extracts. Altenusin (1), alternariol (2), 3'-hydroxyalternariol monomethyl ether (3), and alternariol monomethyl ether (4), were separated and identified. High-resolution mass spectrometry confirmed the proposed structures. The cytotoxic effects of these compounds towards plants were determined using soybean (Glycine max)...

  9. Identification and mapping of resistance genes to Phakopsora pachyrhizi in soybean (Glycine max L.) accession PI 594767-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, G A F; Alves, D P; Oliveira, J C; Brommonschenke, S H

    2016-08-05

    The goal of this study was to study resistance inheritance in the soybean (Glycine max L.) accession PI 594767-A to the Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolate PPUFV02, and map the resistance gene(s) identified using microsatellite markers. Crosses between PI 594767-A and the susceptible cultivar 'Conquista' gave rise to the segregating subpopulations 26C-2 and 26C-5, which in the F2 generation were evaluated for their reactions to PPUFV02. In addition, analyses with microsatellite markers linked to the Rpp1-Rpp5 loci were also performed. The segregation pattern obtained in 26C-2 revealed that resistance was governed by a recessive gene; a 1:2:1 segregation pattern was observed in 26C-5, indicating control by a gene with partial dominance. This variability may have been caused because environmental conditions, particularly temperature, when 26C-5 was assessed were unfavorable for pathogen development, allowing the phenotypic expression of heterozygous alleles in PI 594767-A. A resistance gene was located in the soybean linkage group G, in the genomic region between Sct_187r2 and Sat_064 that contains the Rpp1 locus. Resistance in PI 594767-A is probably conferred by a new Rpp1 gene allele, because this accession has a haplotype for Sct_187r2 and Sat_064, which differs from haplotypes of accessions that also contain resistance alleles that map the Rpp1 locus. The use of Sct_187r2 and Sat_064 will facilitate the introgression of the resistance allele from PI 594767-A and its pyramiding with other resistance genes into genotypes with superior agronomic characteristics, in order to obtain cultivars with broad-spectrum resistance to P. pachyrhizi.

  10. Elicited soybean (Glycine max L.) extract improves regulatory T cell activity in high fat-fructose diet mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atho'illah, Mochammad Fitri; Widyarti, Sri; Rifa'i, Muhaimin

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disorder characterized by the central distribution of abdominal fat, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. A high-fat diet can lead to overnutrition and directly trigger inflammation in adipose tissue. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential negative regulators of inflammation. Soybean (Glycine max L.) has a variety of beneficial health. It contains isoflavones, particularly daidzein and genistein which can be transformed using microbial and physical stimuli to enhance bioactivity. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of elicited soybean extract (ESE) on Treg activity in high fat-fructose (HFFD) mice. Twenty-eight female Balb/C mice were divided into seven groups: normal diet (ND) only, ND + ESE 104 mg/kg BW, HFFD only, HFFD + Simvastatin 2.8 mg/kg, HFFD + ESE 78 mg/kg BW, HFFD + ESE 104 mg/kg BW, and HFFD + ESE 130 mg/kg BW. The high fat-fructose diet was given over a period of 20 weeks, and ESE was administered orally per day after 20 weeks for four weeks. At week 24, the animals were sacrificed and the spleen was collected. Tregs were labeled as CD4+CD25+CD62L+ and the relative Treg number was measured using flow cytometry. The HFFD treatment significantly decreased Treg number (p < 0.05) compared to a normal diet. The ESE treatment in HFFD mice could improve Treg numbers compared to HFFD mice. Our results suggest that ESE has potential to be used as a supplement to suppress chronic inflammation via increased Treg number.

  11. Sampling Survey and Identification of Races of Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) in Huang-Huai Valleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei-guo; GAI Jun-yi; LI Wei-dong

    2006-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is one of the most important nationwide soybean diseases in China. A total of 38 soil specimens or locations in the area was sampled and tested for SCN races during 2001-2003 for the inspection of race distribution in Huang-Huai Valleys. A map of race distribution was constructed according to the data from both the present study and the published reports cited. Three areas, namely, the area of southeast to Jinan in Shangdong Province; the area of northern Henan Province and its border region to south of Hebei Province; and the area of Luohe, Zhoukou of Henan Province and Fuyang of Anhui Province mainly infested with Race 1 were identified. Race 4 was predominant in Shanxi Province, Beijing and the adjacent area of Henan, Shandong, and Anhui provinces, and the delta of Huanghe River in Shandong Province. Race 2 was mainly found in Liaocheng, Dezhou of Shangdong Province and Shijiazhuang of Hebei Province, and Jiaozuo and Huojia of Henan Province. Race 7 was distributed in the west part of Jiaodong Peninsula of Shandong Province and Kaifeng, Huaxian, Wenxian of Henan Province. Race 5 was found and scattered in Hebei and Henan Province. Race 9 was found in Shangqiu of Henan Province, which was reported for the first time in China. It can be seen that Race 1 and Race 4 were the two predominant races in Huang-Huai Valleys, and that research should focus on developing resistant cultivars of these races. There might exist other races in an area with some predominant races. The race substitution in the past decade was not obviously found, therefore, the results should be meaningful to future breeding for resistance to SCN in Huang-Huai Valleys.

  12. The interaction of salicylic acid and Ca(2+) alleviates aluminum toxicity in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tu; You, Jiangfeng; Kong, Lingnan; Yu, Miao; Liu, Minghui; Yang, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    Both calcium ion (Ca(2+)) and salicylic acid (SA) influence various stress responses in plants. In acidic soils, aluminum (Al) toxicity adversely affects crop yield. In this study, we determined the influences of Ca(2+) and SA on root elongation, Al accumulation, and citrate secretion in soybean plant. We also investigated the activity of antioxidative enzymes in Al-exposed soybean roots. Root elongation was severally inhibited when the roots were exposed to 30 μM Al. The Al-induced inhibition of root elongation was ameliorated by Ca(2+) and SA but aggravated by Ca(2+) channel inhibitor (VP), CaM antagonists (TFP), Ca(2+) chelator (EGTA), and SA biosynthesis inhibitor (PAC). Furthermore, 1.0 mM CaCl2 and 10 μM SA reduced the accumulation of Al in roots, but their inhibitors stimulated the accumulation of Al in roots. Citrate secretion from these roots increased with the addition of either 1.0 mM CaCl2 or 10 μM SA but did not increase significantly when treated with higher Ca(2+) concentration. Enzymatic analysis showed that Ca(2+) and SA stimulated the activities of superoxidase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in Al-treated roots. In addition, SA restored the inhibition of Ca(2+) inhibitors on root elongation and Al content. Thus, both Ca(2+) and SA contribute to Al tolerance in soybean. Furthermore, Ca(2+) supplements rapidly increased Al-induced accumulation of free-SA or conjugated SA (SAG), while Ca(2+) inhibitors delayed the accumulation of SA for more than 8 h. Within 4 h of treatment, SA increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in Al-treated roots, and upregulated the expression of four genes that possibly encode calmodulin-like (CML) proteins. These findings indicate that SA is involved in Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction pathways in Al tolerance.

  13. Studies on induction of chlorophyll mutations in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mudasir Hafiz KHAN; Sunil Dutt TYAGI

    2009-01-01

    The phenotypic response of two soybean cultivars to a chemical mutagen (ethyl methane sulphonate, EMS), physical mutagen (gamma rays) and their combinations were studied in M1 and M2 generations and the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll mutations were worked out. Combined treatment was found to be more effective in inducing chlorophyll mutations compared to individual treatments of gamma rays and EMS in both the cultivars. As far as the spectrum of chlorophyll mutations is concerned, a wider spectrum in both the cultivars was observed in 45 kR + 0.2% EMS combined treatment.

  14. Natural polyamines inhibit soybean (Glycine max) lipoxygenase-1, but not the lipoxygenase-2 isozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarrone, M; Baroni, A; Finazzi-Agrò, A

    1998-08-01

    Natural polyamines are shown to inhibit dioxygenase activity of soybean lipoxygenase-1, but they were ineffective toward the lipoxygenase-2 isozyme. The inhibitory power was dependent on the number of basic groups in the molecule, in the order spermine > spermidine > cadaverine >/= putrescine. Both spermidine and spermine acted as uncompetitive inhibitors of lipoxygenase-1 with respect to linoleic acid, the inhibition constants being 2.70 and 0.80 mM, respectively. The inhibitory power apparently correlated with the radical-trapping ability of the polyamines. Spermidine and spermine also inhibited the co-oxidase and peroxidase activities of lipoxygenase-1 and were effective inhibitors of lipoxygenase activity in lentil root protoplasts.

  15. Analysis of isoflavone, phenolic, soyasapogenol, and tocopherol compounds in soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms of different seed weights and origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Ro, Hee-Myong; Kim, Sun-Lim; Kim, Hong-Sig; Chung, Ill-Min

    2012-06-13

    This study investigated the functional compounds, including isoflavones, phenolics, soyasapogenols, and tocopherols, that were detected in 204 soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms. The soybean samples were divided into three groups according to origin: America, China, and Korea. The soybean samples were also classified into three groups on the basis of 100-seed weight: small (24 g). Among the soybean germplasms, CSRV121 (Bosukkong) had the highest level of isoflavone content (4778.1 μg g(-1)), whereas CS01316 had the lowest isoflavone content (682.4 μg g(-1)). Of the soybeans from the three different countries of origin, those from Korea showed the highest average concentration of total isoflavones (2252.6 μg g(-1)). The small seeds had the highest average total isoflavone concentration (2520.0 μg g(-1)) of the three different seed sizes. Among the 204 soybean germplasms, CS01405 had the highest content of total phenolics (5219.6 μg g(-1)), and CSRV017 (Hwangkeumkong) had the lowest phenolic content (654.6 μg g(-1)). The mean concentrations of total phenolic compounds were 2729.1 μg g(-1) in American soybean seeds, 1680.4 μg g(-1) in Chinese soybean seeds, and 1977.6 μg g(-1) in Korean soybean seeds. Of the soybean seeds from the three different countries of origin, American soybean seeds had the highest average concentration of total phenolic compounds, and Korean varieties showed the second highest value. Small soybean seeds had the highest average content of total phenolic compounds (2241.7 μg g(-1)), whereas medium-sized (1926.8 μg g(-1)) and large (1949.9 μg g(-1)) soybeans had lower concentrations of phenolic compounds. In whole soybean germplasms, the level of total soyasapogenols was higher in CS01173 (1802.3 μg g(-1)) and CS01346 (1736.8 μg g(-1)) than in the other types of soybeans. The mean concentrations of total soyasapogenol were 1234.0 μg g(-1) in American, 1294.5 μg g(-1) in Chinese, and 1241.5 μg g(-1) in Korean soybean

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] Roots Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strain CPAC 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Adalgisa R; Rodrigues, Elisete P; Batista, Jesiane Ss; Gomes, Douglas F; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-01-01

    This research intended to analyze the expression pattern of proteins in roots of the Brazilian soybean cultivar Conquista when inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum CPAC 15, a strain broadly used in commercial inoculants in Brazil. At ten days after bacterial inoculation, whole-cell proteins were extracted from roots and separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Comparative analysis revealed significant changes in the intensity of 37 spots due to the inoculation (17 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated proteins), identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-TOF. Identified proteins were associated with COG functional categories of information storage and processing, cellular processes and signaling, metabolism, and also in the "poorly characterized" and "not in COG" categories. Among the up-regulated proteins, we identified sucrose synthase (nodulin-100), β-tubulin, rubisco activase, glutathione-S-transferase, a putative heat-shock 70-kDa protein, pyridine nucleotide-disulphideoxidoreductase and a putative transposase. Proteomic analysis allowed for the identification of some putative symbiotic functions and confirmed the main biological processes triggered in the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with soybean.

  17. Mapping of the genomic regions controlling seed storability in soybean (Glycine max L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hamidreza Dargahi; Patcharin Tanya; Peerasak Srinives

    2014-08-01

    Seed storability is especially important in the tropics due to high temperature and relative humidity of storage environment that cause rapid deterioration of seeds in storage. The objective of this study was to use SSR markers to identify genomic regions associated with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling seed storability based on relative germination rate in the F2:3 population derived from a cross between vegetable soybean line (MJ0004-6) with poor longevity and landrace cultivar from Myanmar (R18500) with good longevity. The F2:4 seeds harvested in 2011 and 2012 were used to investigate seed storability. The F2 population was genotyped with 148 markers and the genetic map consisted of 128 SSR loci which converged into 38 linkage groups covering 1664.3 cM of soybean genome. Single marker analysis revealed that 13 markers from six linkage groups (C1, D2, E, F, J and L) were associated with seed storability. Composite interval mapping identified a total of three QTLs on linkage groups C1, F and L with phenotypic variance explained ranging from 8.79 to 13.43%. The R18500 alleles increased seed storability at all of the detected QTLs. No common QTLs were found for storability of seeds harvested in 2011 and 2012. This study agreed with previous reports in other crops that genotype by environment interaction plays an important role in expression of seed storability.

  18. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of sari tempe formulated from import soybean (glycine max)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi, Muhamad; Andriani, Martina; Sari, Intan Indriana; Angwar, Mukhamad; Nurhayati, Rifa; Khasanah, Yuniar; Wiyono, Tri

    2017-01-01

    Tempe is traditional Indonesian food made from Rhizopus sp. fermentation of soybean. The aims of this research are to know the effect of the addition of water and CMC to nutritional and sensory characteristics of the sari tempe formulated from import soybean. The experimental design used in this study is entirely randomized design (CRD), which consists of two factors: variations addition of water with tempe (1:3, 1:5 and 1:7) and the variation of the addition of CMC concentration (0.05%; 0,10% and 0.15%). Sensory data were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA. If it showed significant results, then it is continued by real difference test using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significance level α = 0.05. The results showed the best formula of sari tempe was F6 with 1:5 water ratio and 0.15% CMC concentration. Folate content and vitamin B6 decreased while processing sari tempe respectively 10.3 times and 2.7 times. Whereas, the vitamin B12 content is increased by 1.7 times. The best formula of sari tempe contains 90.96 % water content; 0.08 % ash content; 0.36 % fat content; 23.41 ppm vitamin B6; 337.49 ppm vitamin B12 and 17.31 ppm folate.

  19. Molecular identification of dominant microflora associated with 'Hawaijar' - a traditional fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.)) food of Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaram, K; Mohendro Singh, W; Premarani, T; Devi, A Ranjita; Chanu, K Selina; Talukdar, N C; Singh, M Rohinikumar

    2008-03-20

    The dominant microorganisms in 'Hawaijar', a traditional non-salted fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.)) food of Manipur, India, were isolated and identified by molecular techniques. Bacillus spp. were the predominant microorganisms in 'Hawaijar'. A total of 274 isolates were obtained from forty-one 'Hawaijar' samples collected from household preparations and markets of valley districts of Manipur. Phenotypic grouping followed by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Digestion Analysis (ARDRA), PCR amplification of 16S-23S rDNA region, RFLP by Hae III and Hind III double digest (by comparing MTCC type strains) and sequencing of 9-1514 region of 16S rDNA resulted in three major phylogenic groups. Bacillus subtilis group comprising B. subtilis and B. licheniformis representing 112 isolates, B. cereus group representing of 128 isolates and Staphylococcus spp. group comprising S. aureus and S. sciuri representing 23 isolates. A few bacterial isolates belongs to Alkaligenes spp. and Providencia rettgeri were also found. Genetic diversity of B. subtilis phylogenic group was investigated by RAPD-PCR. Eighty-two strains of B. subtilis phylogenic group were identified using RAPD-PCR using OPA-18 and OPA-20 primers. These strains will be investigated for potential starter culture selection.

  20. Nodule Formation and Development in Soybeans (Glycine max L.) in Response to Phosphorus Supply in Solution Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Shu-Jie; QIAO Yun-Fa; HAN Xiao-Zeng; M. AN

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is necessary for growth and nitrogen fixation, and thus its deficiency is a major factor limiting legume production in most agricultural soils. The effect of phosphorus supply on nodule development and its role in soybeans (Glycine max L.) was studied in a nutrient solution. Plants were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and grown for 35 days in a glasshouse at a day and night temperature of 25 ℃ and 15 ℃, respectively. Although increasing P supply increased the concentrations of P and N in the shoots and roots, the external P supply did not significantly affect the P concentration in the nodules, and the N fixed per unit nodule biomass decreased with increasing P supply. The nitrogen content in the shoots correlated well with the P content (r = 0.92**). At an inoculation level of 102 cells mL-1, the P supply did not affect the number of nodules; however, at inoculation levels of 103.5 and 105 cells mL-1, increasing P supply increased both the number and size of nodules. Irrespective of the inoculation level, increasing P supply increased the nodule biomass relative to the biomass of the host plant. It is suggested that the P deficiency specifically inhibited the nodule development and thereby the total N2 fixation.

  1. Evaluating effect of biofertilizer on nodulation and soybean (Glycine max L plants growth characteristics under water deficit stress of seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tajik Khaveh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of biofertilizer on soybean (Glycine max L. seed vigor that produced under water deficit condition and related traits, an experiment was conducted in a factorial layout based of complete randomized block design with four replications at the research greenhouse of Aboureihan campus- Tehran University, Iran. Experimental treatments were include biofertilizer (seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Pseudomonas fluorescens, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae, Cultivar (Zalta Zalha and Clark×Hobbit line and water deficit stress [irrigation plants after 50 (normal irrigation, 100 (medium stress, 150 (sever stress mm evaporation from pan class A, in parents field]. Results showed that the water deficit stress had negative effects on seed quality and seedling emergence percentage, mean daily seedling emergence, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of nodule were decreased. ZaltaZalha cultivar had higher shoot dry weight and number of leaf compared with other cultivars. Applications of biofertilzer was effective on stem diameter, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of leaf and nodule and those attributes increased by co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae. Also, use of biofertilizer in stress levels was effective on stem dry weight. Stem dry weight was increased by Co-inoculation of cultivar seeds with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae.

  2. RNA-Seq Atlas of Glycine max: A guide to the soybean transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin Andrew J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next generation sequencing is transforming our understanding of transcriptomes. It can determine the expression level of transcripts with a dynamic range of over six orders of magnitude from multiple tissues, developmental stages or conditions. Patterns of gene expression provide insight into functions of genes with unknown annotation. Results The RNA Seq-Atlas presented here provides a record of high-resolution gene expression in a set of fourteen diverse tissues. Hierarchical clustering of transcriptional profiles for these tissues suggests three clades with similar profiles: aerial, underground and seed tissues. We also investigate the relationship between gene structure and gene expression and find a correlation between gene length and expression. Additionally, we find dramatic tissue-specific gene expression of both the most highly-expressed genes and the genes specific to legumes in seed development and nodule tissues. Analysis of the gene expression profiles of over 2,000 genes with preferential gene expression in seed suggests there are more than 177 genes with functional roles that are involved in the economically important seed filling process. Finally, the Seq-atlas also provides a means of evaluating existing gene model annotations for the Glycine max genome. Conclusions This RNA-Seq atlas extends the analyses of previous gene expression atlases performed using Affymetrix GeneChip technology and provides an example of new methods to accommodate the increase in transcriptome data obtained from next generation sequencing. Data contained within this RNA-Seq atlas of Glycine max can be explored at http://www.soybase.org/soyseq.

  3. Study on Accumulation Rule of Carbohydrates in Soybean (Glycine max(L.) Merrill)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Baiquan; LIU lijun; DONG Shoukun; ZU Wei; SUN Congshu

    2009-01-01

    Three soybean cultivars, Hefeng25 (HF25), Suinong14 (SN14) and Longxuan1 (LX1) were used as materials and the accumulation features of carbohydrates were studied in leaves and stems. The results showed that the soluble sugar content in leaves and stems appeared the same trend of higher-lower-higher in three varieties. The changes of sucrose content in leaves appeared the same rule with that of soluble sugar, that is higher-lower-higher, while presented a rising trend in stems. The content of starch in leaves varied as a change of double apexes. The content of starch in stems appeared a change of single apex. In the same stage, there were some differences among carbohydrates. The content of soluble sugar and sucrose in SN 14 was higher, and the starch content was lower.

  4. Genetic analysis of soybean resistance to Fusarium solani f.sp. glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanoli Fronza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the genetic control of soybean resistance to sudden death syndrome (SDS, a 5 x 5 diallel with the F2 generation, without the reciprocals, was carried out in a greenhouse. The following parents were used: Forrest, MG/BR-46 (Conquista, IAC-4, FT-Cristalina, and FT-Estrela. The first two cultivars are more resistant to SDS than IAC-4, which is considered to be moderately resistant to SDS, and the last two cultivars are highly susceptible. The fungus was inoculated with three colonized sorghum grains placed at the bottom of the holes with two soybean seeds. Single plants were evaluated between 14 and 37 days after emergency based on foliar severity symptoms (1-5 of SDS. The disease incidence and a disease index were also calculated for each plot (clay pots with five plants each. The analysis for severity and disease index was performed only with the data of the 37th day after emergence. Additive and dominant genetic effects were detected by Jinks-Hayman's analysis, but the dominant genetic effects were higher. The genetic parameters estimated indicated that the average degree of dominance showed the presence of overdominance; at least three loci or genic blocks that exhibited dominance were responsible for the genetic control of SDS resistance; the estimates of narrow-sense heritabilities were moderate (0.48 to 0.62, but in the broad-sense they were higher (0.90 to 0.95, thus reinforcing the presence of dominance effects; and the resistance to SDS was controlled mostly by dominant alleles. Five microsatellite markers (Satt163, Satt309, Satt354, Satt371 and Satt570, reported as linked to five QRLs of the SDS, were used to genotype the parents and showed the possibility of occurrence of multiallelism in those loci, but this evidence did not invalidate the fitting of the data to the Jinks-Hayman's model.

  5. Expression of Root-Related Transcription Factors Associated with Flooding Tolerance of Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Valliyodan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of

  6. Lactobacillus plantarum BL011 cultivation in industrial isolated soybean protein acid residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaline Caren Coghetto

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, physiological aspects of Lactobacillus plantarum BL011 growing in a new, all-animal free medium in bioreactors were evaluated aiming at the production of this important lactic acid bacterium. Cultivations were performed in submerged batch bioreactors using the Plackett-Burman methodology to evaluate the influence of temperature, aeration rate and stirring speed as well as the concentrations of liquid acid protein residue of soybean, soy peptone, corn steep liquor, and raw yeast extract. The results showed that all variables, except for corn steep liquor, significantly influenced biomass production. The best condition was applied to bioreactor cultures, which produced a maximal biomass of 17.87 g L-1, whereas lactic acid, the most important lactic acid bacteria metabolite, peaked at 37.59 g L-1, corresponding to a productivity of 1.46 g L-1 h-1. This is the first report on the use of liquid acid protein residue of soybean medium for L. plantarum growth. These results support the industrial use of this system as an alternative to produce probiotics without animal-derived ingredients to obtain high biomass concentrations in batch bioreactors.

  7. Lactobacillus plantarum BL011 cultivation in industrial isolated soybean protein acid residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghetto, Chaline Caren; Vasconcelos, Carolina Bettker; Brinques, Graziela Brusch; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    In this study, physiological aspects of Lactobacillus plantarum BL011 growing in a new, all-animal free medium in bioreactors were evaluated aiming at the production of this important lactic acid bacterium. Cultivations were performed in submerged batch bioreactors using the Plackett-Burman methodology to evaluate the influence of temperature, aeration rate and stirring speed as well as the concentrations of liquid acid protein residue of soybean, soy peptone, corn steep liquor, and raw yeast extract. The results showed that all variables, except for corn steep liquor, significantly influenced biomass production. The best condition was applied to bioreactor cultures, which produced a maximal biomass of 17.87gL(-1), whereas lactic acid, the most important lactic acid bacteria metabolite, peaked at 37.59gL(-1), corresponding to a productivity of 1.46gL(-1)h(-1). This is the first report on the use of liquid acid protein residue of soybean medium for L. plantarum growth. These results support the industrial use of this system as an alternative to produce probiotics without animal-derived ingredients to obtain high biomass concentrations in batch bioreactors.

  8. EFICIÊNCIA DE PRODUTOS FITOSSANITÁRIOS PULVERIZADOS NA CULTURA DA SOJA (Glycine max L., NO CONTROLE DA MANCHA PARDA (Septoria glycines E CRESTAMENTO FOLIAR-MANCHA PÚRPURA DOS GRÃOS (Cercospora kikuchii EFFICIENCY OF FUNGICIDES IN THE CONTROL OF Septoria glycines AND Cercospora kikuchii ON SOYBEAN (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ramos Nonato

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Cultura de soja (Glycine max, variedade Crixás, cultivada a campo, naturalmente infectada por Cercospora kikuchii e Septoria glycines, foi pulverizada uma ou duas vezes com diferentes dosagens de produtos fitossanitários. Foram avaliados o nível de infecção nas folhas e sementes, nível de desfolha e rendimento de grãos. Entre os produtos testados, o mais eficiente foi o azoxystrobin, que foi superior ao difeconazole e benomyl, comparando-se à testemunha. Entre os tratamentos com fungicida não houve diferença estatística significante ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, fato este também constatado quando se comparam os tratamentos com fungicida e a testemunha, em relação à produção de grãos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Soja; Cercospora kikuchii; Septoria glycines.

    Soybean Crixás crop (Glycine max, naturally infected by Cercospora kikuchii and Septoria glycines was sprayed once or twice with different dosages of fungicides. Infection level on leaves and seeds, leaf fall level and seed production were evaluated. Among tested fungicides, the most efficient was azoxystrobin, which was superior to difeconazole and benomyl. All were superior to the control. Among the treatments, there was no significant difference at 5% level. This fact was also noticed when seed yield was compared between treatments and the control.

    KEY-WORDS: Cercospora kikuchii; Septoria glycines; soybean.

  9. The endosymbiont Arsenophonus is widespread in soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, but does not provide protection from parasitoids or a fungal pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Wulff

    Full Text Available Aphids commonly harbor bacterial facultative symbionts that have a variety of effects upon their aphid hosts, including defense against hymenopteran parasitoids and fungal pathogens. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is infected with the symbiont Arsenophonus sp., which has an unknown role in its aphid host. Our research goals were to document the infection frequency and diversity of the symbiont in field-collected soybean aphids, and to determine whether Arsenophonus is defending soybean aphid against natural enemies. We performed diagnostic PCR and sequenced four Arsenophonus genes in soybean aphids from their native and introduced range to estimate infection frequency and genetic diversity, and found that Arsenophonus infection is highly prevalent and genetically uniform. To evaluate the defensive role of Arsenophonus, we cured two aphid genotypes of their natural Arsenophonus infection through ampicillin microinjection, resulting in infected and uninfected isolines within the same genetic background. These isolines were subjected to parasitoid assays using a recently introduced biological control agent, Binodoxys communis [Braconidae], a naturally recruited parasitoid, Aphelinus certus [Aphelinidae], and a commercially available biological control agent, Aphidius colemani [Braconidae]. We also assayed the effect of the common aphid fungal pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis (Remaudiere & Hennebert Humber (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae, on the same aphid isolines. We did not find differences in successful parasitism for any of the parasitoid species, nor did we find differences in P. neoaphidis infection between our treatments. Our conclusion is that Arsenophonus does not defend its soybean aphid host against these major parasitoid and fungal natural enemies.

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure: implications for conservation of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) based on nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuilian; Wang, Yunsheng; Volis, Sergei; Li, Dezhu; Yi, Tingshuang

    2012-10-03

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions from 43 locations sampled across its range in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed using 20 nuclear (nSSRs) and five chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) to reveal its genetic diversity and population structure. Relatively high nSSR diversity was found in wild soybean compared with other self-pollinated species, and the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MDRY) was revealed to have the highest genetic diversity. However, cpSSRs suggested that Korea is a center of diversity. High genetic differentiation and low gene flow among populations were detected, which is consistent with the predominant self-pollination of wild soybean. Two main clusters were revealed by MCMC structure reconstruction and phylogenetic dendrogram, one formed by a group of populations from northwestern China (NWC) and north China (NC), and the other including northeastern China (NEC), Japan, Korea, MDRY, south China (SC) and southwestern China (SWC). Contrib analyses showed that southwestern China makes the greatest contribution to the total diversity and allelic richness, and is worthy of being given conservation priority.

  11. Alpha-amylase from germinating soybean (Glycine max) seeds--purification, characterization and sequential similarity of conserved and catalytic amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Arpana; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Fitter, Jörg; Polen, Tino; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Starch hydrolyzing amylase from germinated soybeans seeds (Glycine max) has been purified 400-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity with a final specific activity of 384 units/mg. SDS-PAGE of the final preparation revealed a single protein band of 100 kDa, whereas molecular mass was determined to be 84 kDa by MALDI-TOF and gel filtration on Superdex-200 (FPLC). The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 5.5 and a pI value of 4.85. The energy of activation was determined to be 6.09 kcal/mol in the temperature range 25-85 degrees C. Apparent Michaelis constant (K(m)((app))) for starch was 0.71 mg/mL and turnover number (k(cat)) was 280 s(-1) in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.5. Thermal inactivation studies at 85 degrees C showed first-order kinetics with rate constant (k) equal to 0.0063 min(-1). Soybean alpha-amylase showed high specificity for its primary substrate starch. High similarity of soybean alpha-amylase with known amylases suggests that this alpha-amylase belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 13. Cereal alpha-amylases have gained importance due to their compatibility for biotechnological applications. Wide availability and easy purification protocol make soybean as an attractive alternative for plant alpha-amylase. Soybean can be used as commercially viable source of alpha-amylase for various industrial applications.

  12. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure: Implications for Conservation of Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc Based on Nuclear and Chloroplast Microsatellite Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingshuang Yi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions from 43 locations sampled across its range in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed using 20 nuclear (nSSRs and five chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs to reveal its genetic diversity and population structure. Relatively high nSSR diversity was found in wild soybean compared with other self-pollinated species, and the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MDRY was revealed to have the highest genetic diversity. However, cpSSRs suggested that Korea is a center of diversity. High genetic differentiation and low gene flow among populations were detected, which is consistent with the predominant self-pollination of wild soybean. Two main clusters were revealed by MCMC structure reconstruction and phylogenetic dendrogram, one formed by a group of populations from northwestern China (NWC and north China (NC, and the other including northeastern China (NEC, Japan, Korea, MDRY, south China (SC and southwestern China (SWC. Contrib analyses showed that southwestern China makes the greatest contribution to the total diversity and allelic richness, and is worthy of being given conservation priority.

  13. Fungi and bacteria inventory on soybean (Glycine max (L.) merill) planting media applied by local microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhsan, Ni'matuljannah; Vionita

    2017-02-01

    An experiment aimed to determine the effect of application of several types of local microorganisms (MOL) and the number of doses to the development of fungi and bacteria on soybean planting media, have been conducted in Samarinda for 3 (three) months. Factorial experiment arranged in a completely randomized design and repeated three times, was used in this experiment. The first factor was the type of MOL consisted of cow dung (m1), snails (m2), banana peel (m3) and bamboo roots (m4), and the second factor was the dose MOL zero mL (d0), 100 mL (d1), 200 mL (d2), 300 mL (d3), 400 mL (d4) analyzed with Anova and Least Significance Difference (LSD) at 5%. Fungi and bacteria contained in the local microorganisms (cow dung, snails, banana peel and bamboo root) are: fungus Aspergillus sp, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp., cellulotic and lignolitic bacteria. An increase in the type and amount of fungus is happened for some genus. The dominant bacteria in the planting medium is a gram-negative bacteria. Cow dung seemed the best source at the dosages level of 400 ml.

  14. Role of physiological mechanisms and EPSPS gene expression in glyphosate resistance in wild soybeans (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Lijuan; Jin, Longguo; Wu, Jing

    2014-02-01

    The physiological mechanisms underlying glyphosate resistance in wild soybean germplasm and relevant EPSPS gene expression were evaluated. These germplasms were selected by gradually increasing glyphosate selection pressure started from 2010. As indicated by a whole-plant dose response bioassay, ZYD-254 plants were resistant to glyphosate at concentrations of 1230gaeha(-1), but the susceptible plants (ZYD-16) were unable to survive in the presence of 300gaeha(-1) glyphosate. The ED50 values of resistant germplasm were approximately 8.8 times of the susceptible germplasm. Chlorophyll content was significantly decreased in ZYD-16 plants in comparison with ZYD-254 plants. ZYD-16 plants accumulated 10.1 times more shikimate in leaves at 5days after glyphosate treatment at 1230gaeha(-1) than ZYD-254 did. GST activity differed between ZYD-254 and ZYD-16 in three tissues. It was highest in leaves. There were no significant differences in EPSPS1 or EPSPS3 expression between two germplasms before exposure to glyphosate treatment. After glyphosate treatment, there was a 2- to 4-fold increase in EPSPS1 mRNA levels in ZYD-254, but there was no change in EPSPS3 mRNA levels in ZYD-254 or ZYD-16.

  15. Fe binding properties of two soybean (Glycine max L.) LEA4 proteins associated with antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guobao; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Liao; Zheng, Yizhi

    2011-06-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) group 4 (LEA4) proteins play an important role in the water stress tolerance of plants. Although they have been hypothesized to stabilize macromolecules in stressed cells, the protective functions and mechanisms of LEA4 proteins are still not clear. In this study, the metal binding properties of two related soybean LEA4 proteins, GmPM1 and GmPM9, were tested using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). The metal ions Fe(3+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) were observed to bind these two proteins, while Ca(2+), Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) did not. Results from isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicated that the binding affinity of GmPM1 for Fe(3+) was stronger than that of GmPM9. Hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fe(3+)/H(2)O(2) system were scavenged by both GmPM1 and GmPM9 in the absence or the presence of high ionic conditions (100 mM NaCl), although the scavenging activity of GmPM1 was significantly greater than that of GmPM9. These results suggest that GmPM1 and GmPM9 are metal-binding proteins which may function in reducing oxidative damage induced by abiotic stress in plants.

  16. Assessment of phytotoxicity of anthracene in soybean (Glycine max) with a quick method of chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, R S; Sharma, A; Jajoo, A

    2015-07-01

    A decrease in photosynthetic efficiency may indicate the toxic effects of environmental pollutants on higher plants. Measurement of chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence to assess the performance of photosystem II (PSII) was used as an bioindicator of toxicity of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) anthracene (ANT) in soybean plants. The results revealed that ANT treatment caused a reduction in quantum yield of PSII, damage to the oxygen evolving complex, as well as a significant reduction in performance index of PSII. However, change in performance index was more prominent, and it seems that the performance index is a more sensitive parameter to environmental contaminants. Moreover, a change in heterogeneity of PSII was also observed. The number of active reaction centres decreased with increasing concentration of ANT, as secondary plastoquinone reducing centres were converted into non-reducing centres, and PSIIα centres were converted into PSIIβ and PSIIγ centres. The influence of ANT on PSII heterogeneity could be an important reason for reductions in the PSII performance.

  17. Proanthocyanidins inhibit iron absorption from soybean (Glycine max) seed ferritin in rats with iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Shaojun; Zhang, Tuo; Li, Meiliang; Chen, Bin; Zhao, Guanghua

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of proanthocyanidins (PAs) on iron uptake from soybean seed ferritin (SSF) crude by rats with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) for the first time. Six groups of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 10) were used, which contain (1) SSF crude group; (2) SSF crude + PAs group; (3) PAs group; (4) FeSO(4) group; (5) iron deficiency control group; and (6) control group. The bioavailability of iron was examined by measuring hemoglobin (Hb) concentration value, red blood cell (RBC) numbers, and serum iron stores. After 8 weeks, Hb concentration was almost recovered to the normal level upon feeding SSF crude or FeSO(4) to rats. In contrast, Hb concentration was recovered to less extent when SSF crude plus PAs was used instead of SSF crude alone (P serum iron and RBC were used as parameters. All rats in PAs group died at the 8th week. Taken together, all these results demonstrated that PAs inhibited iron uptake of rats from SSF, and are toxic for rats with IDA.

  18. Silicon addition to soybean (Glycine max L.) plants alleviate zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Ma Blanca; Echevarria, Virginia; Gonzalo, Ma José; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2016-11-01

    It is well established the beneficial role of silicon (Si) in alleviating abiotic stress. However, it remains poorly understood the mechanisms of the Si-mediated protection against metal deficiency, especially the zinc (Zn) one. Recently, it has been proposed that Si may act by an interaction with this biometal in the root apoplast contributing to its movement through the plant, as in the case of Fe deficiency. In the present work, the effect of initial or continuous Si doses in soybean Zn deficient plants has been studied. For that purpose, plants grown in hydroponic culture were treated with different Si doses (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mM) under Zn limiting conditions. SPAD index in leaves, several growth parameters, mineral content in the whole plant and the formation of Zn pools in roots were determined. An initial addition of 0.5 mM of Si to the nutrient solution led to an enhancement of plants growth, Zn and Si content in leaves, and a higher storage of Zn in the root apoplast. The results suggest that this treatment enhanced Zn accumulation on roots and its movement to shoots when needed, mitigating Zn deficiency symptoms.

  19. Distribution and diversity of rhizobia associated with wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Fan, Miaochun; Zhang, Dehui; Yang, Ruiping; Zhang, Feilong; Xu, Lin; Wei, Xiuli; Shen, Yaoyao; Wei, Gehong

    2014-09-01

    A total of 155 nodule isolates that originated from seven sites in Northwest China were characterized by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA gene and sequence analysis of multiple core genes (16S rRNA, recA, atpD, and glnII) in order to investigate the diversity and biogeography of Glycine soja-nodulating rhizobia. Among the isolates, 80 were Ensifer fredii, 19 were Ensifer morelense, 49 were Rhizobium radiobacter, and 7 were putative novel Rhizobium species. The phylogenies of E. fredii and E. morelense isolates in a concatenate tree (assembly of all housekeeping genes) were generally consistent with those in individual gene trees. However, incongruence was found in the phylogenies of the different genes of Rhizobium isolates, indicating that lateral transfer or recombination possibly occurred in these gene loci. Despite their species identity, all the isolates in this study formed a single lineage related to E. fredii in nodAand nifH gene phylogenies, which also indicated that the symbiotic genes were laterally transferred between different species. Biogeographic patterns were found at the species and strain genomic type levels, as revealed by BOXA1R fingerprinting, demonstrating that the evolution of rhizobial populations in different geographic locations was related to soil types, altitude and spatial effects. This study is the first to report that E. morelense, R. radiobacter, and Rhizobium sp. are microsymbionts of G. soja, as well as showing that the diversity of G. soja rhizobia is enhanced and new rhizobia have evolved in Northwest China.

  20. Comparative metabolomics in Glycine max and Glycine soja under salt stress to reveal the phenotypes of their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonghai; Lam, Honming; Pi, Erxu; Zhan, Qinglei; Tsai, Sauna; Wang, Chunmei; Kwan, Yiuwa; Ngai, Saiming

    2013-09-11

    Metabolomics is developing as an important functional genomics tool for understanding plant systems' response to genetic and environmental changes. Here, we characterized the metabolic changes of cultivated soybean C08 (Glycine max L. Merr) and wild soybean W05 (Glycine soja Sieb.et Zucc.) under salt stress using MS-based metabolomics, in order to reveal the phenotypes of their eight hybrid offspring (9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590). Total small molecule extracts of soybean seedling leaves were profiled by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LC-FT/MS). We found that wild soybean contained higher amounts of disaccharides, sugar alcohols, and acetylated amino acids than cultivated soybean, but with lower amounts of monosaccharides, carboxylic acids, and unsaturated fatty acids. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of soybean to tolerate salt was mainly based on synthesis of compatible solutes, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, cell membrane modifications, and induction of plant hormones. On the basis of metabolic phenotype, the salt-tolerance abilities of 9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590 were discriminated. Our results demonstrated that MS-based metabolomics provides a fast and powerful approach to discriminate the salt-tolerance characteristics of soybeans.

  1. Responses of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities to tillage and fertilization systems in soybean (Glycine max L. production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heidari

    2016-11-01

    suitable for sustainable management and improvement in soil biological activities in soybean cultivation. We concluded that applying organic manures and employing reduced tillage systems increased soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities.

  2. Evaluation of Selected Soybean Genotypes (GLYCINE MAX L. by Physiological Responses during Water Deficit

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    Eleonora KRIVOSUDSKA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During the experiments were monitored the following varieties: Impala (South African Republic, Maverick (USA, Rankoshi No.1h (Japan and their reactions to the water supply at the beginning of the growth stage R1 and R2 blooming in an interaction with the Nitrazon inoculation of the seeds before a sowing. Mentioned genetic resources were provided for our research purposes by the Plant Production Research Center PRRC Piesany, Gene Bank of the Slovak Republic. Seeding of the particular soy genotypes was made into the containers whilst 50% of seed corn from each genotype was before the sowing inoculated by the usage of Nitrazon inoculant (supplier: Agrokomp, spol. s.r.o., Modra. Water stress was secured by an irrigation interruption for a 7-day period in the mentioned growth stage. This stress had a negative impact on the relative water content in RWC plants, proline content, osmotic potential, SPAD, stress index as well as an amount of nodules on the roots by the all monitored varieties. According to an evaluation of the mentioned indicators more significant proline accumulation was confirmed by the genotype Maverick especially by the variant exposed to water deficit 3,25 micro mol g 1 FW according to the calculations on 100 percent RWC without the inoculant Nitrazon use and inoculating variant 2.99 micro mol g 1 FW according to calculations on 100 percent RWC. Variety MAVERICK had got the best reaction to water stress and even more noticeable resistance to the stress was monitored in the variant with Nitrazon application in the foregoing seed treatment of soybean seeds. The opposite response to the inoculation was monitored by IMPALA genotype when RWC had dropped to 41.77% in the comparison with the variant without inoculation where RWC had dropped to 61.86%.

  3. Acetohydroxamic Acid - A Competitive Inhibitor of Urease from SoybeanGlycine max”

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    Sandeep Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The acetohydroxamic acid (AHA, a potent inhibitor of urease, inhibits soybean urease competitively and reversibly. The I50 and Ki value for AHA were 900 microM and 0.053 mM, respectively at pH 7.0, 37 °C. The variation in pH over the pH 6 - 9 affected Ki and therefore binding of AHA in the active site. The affinity of AHA for the active site decreases with lowering of pH (below the pKa value of AHA i.e. 8.7. This behaviour is consistent with the deprotonated AHA acting as a nucleophile or the inhibitory species. The time-dependent inhibition studies were performed at two different concentrations of AHA and the biphasic kinetics was revealed with almost equal amplitudes (50% each for fast and slow phases. The values of rate constants were 0.1642 ± 0.0013 min -1 (fast phase; 0.0123±0.0012 min -1 (slow phase at 0.10 mM AHA and 0.2379±0.0017 min -1 (fast phase; 0.0153±0.0010 min -1 (slow phase at 0.15 mM AHA. These studies established the asymmetric nature of active sites, half being more reactive for AHA than the other half. The spectral studies showed a change in absorbance at the lambda wavelength max 414 nm, when urease was incubated with AHA, which was consistent with AHA binding to Ni2+ of active site.

  4. Impact of long-term cropping of glyphosate-resistant transgenic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] on soil microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babujia, Letícia Carlos; Silva, Adriana Pereira; Nakatani, André Shigueyoshi; Cantão, Mauricio Egidio; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergilio; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-08-01

    The transgenic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] occupies about 80 % of the global area cropped with this legume, the majority comprising the glyphosate-resistant trait (Roundup Ready(®), GR or RR). However, concerns about possible impacts of transgenic crops on soil microbial communities are often raised. We investigated soil chemical, physical and microbiological properties, and grain yields in long-term field trials involving conventional and nearly isogenic RR transgenic genotypes. The trials were performed at two locations in Brazil, with different edaphoclimatic conditions. Large differences in physical, chemical and classic microbiological parameters (microbial biomass of C and N, basal respiration), as well as in grain production were observed between the sites. Some phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria), classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Actinomycetales, Solibacteres) and orders (Rhizobiales, Burkholderiales, Myxococcales, Pseudomonadales), as well as some functional subsystems (clustering-based subsystems, carbohydrates, amino acids and protein metabolism) were, in general, abundant in all treatments. However, bioindicators related to superior soil fertility and physical properties at Londrina were identified, among them a higher ratio of Proteobacteria:Acidobacteria. Regarding the transgene, the metagenomics showed differences in microbial taxonomic and functional abundances, but lower in magnitude than differences observed between the sites. Besides the site-specific differences, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Chlorophyta were higher in the transgenic treatment, as well as sequences related to protein metabolism, cell division and cycle. Although confirming effects of the transgenic trait on soil microbiome, no differences were recorded in grain yields, probably due to the buffering capacity associated with the high taxonomic and functional microbial diversity observed in all treatments.

  5. Exogenous low-dose hydrogen peroxide enhances drought tolerance of soybean (Glycine max L.) through inducing antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Neslihan Saruhan; Pehlivan, Necla

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) functions as a signal molecule in plants under abiotic and biotic stress. In this study, the role of exogenous H(2)O(2) in improving drought tolerance in two soybean cultivars (Glycine max L. Merrill) differing in their tolerance to drought was evaluated. Plants were grown in plastic pots with normal irrigation in a phytotron. Four weeks after radicle emergence, either 1 mM H(2)O(2) or distilled water was sprayed as foliar onto the leaves of each plant, after drought stress was applied. Leaf samples were harvested on the 4(th) and 7(th) days of the drought. Antioxidant-related enzyme activity, such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was measured during the drought period. Drought stress decreased leaf water potential, relative water content and photosynthetic pigment content but enhanced lipid peroxidation and endogenous H(2)O(2) concentration. By contrast, exogenous low dose H(2)O(2) improved water status, pigment content and lipid peroxidation under drought stress. Endogenous H(2)O(2) concentration was reduced by exogenous H(2)O(2) as compared to drought treatment alone. H(2)O(2) pre-treatment induced all the antioxidant enzyme activities, to a greater extent than the control leaves, during drought. H(2)O(2) pretreatment further enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the tolerant cultivar compared to the sensitive cultivar. Results suggested that low dose H(2)O(2) pre-treatment alleviated water loss and H(2)O(2) content and increased drought stress tolerance by inducing the antioxidant system.

  6. Regeneration of fertile plants from protoplasts of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.): genotypic differences in culture response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, S K; Dhir, S; Widholm, J M

    1992-06-01

    Fourteen soybean (Glycine max L.) genotypes were evaluated for their regenerability from protoplasts using a procedure previously descibed for the cultivar Clark 63. Protoplasts were isolated from immature cotyledon tissue and were cultured in liquid or agarose gelled KP8, MS or B5 medium with different sugars. Significant differences were observed in plating efficiency, which was as high as 63% in Jack and A-2396, and as low as 38% in X-3337. Upon regular dilution with K8 medium, 1-2 mm diameter colonies were formed in 5-6 weeks with all the genotypes tested. These colonies were then transferred onto MSB (MS salts; Murashige & Skoog, 1962 + B5 organics; Gamborg et al., 1968) medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) each of 2,4-D, BA and KN and 500 mg l(-1) CH for further growth. Once the colonies had become green, compact and nodular, and were 8-10 mm in size, they were transferred to regeneration medium. Upon regular subculturing, calli of six genotypes; A-2396, Chamberlain, Heilong-26, Jack, Resnick and XP-3015 developed shoots, with the regeneration frequency being highest 27% in Jack (52 calli out of 192 produced 8-12 shoots). The regenerated shoots from different genotypes were elongated and rooted. So far, sixty three complete plants have been obtained, including twelve A-2396, nineteen Chamberlain, fifteen Jack, nine Resnick and eight XP-3015. A total of thirty five plants have been transplanted into pots in the greenhouse. Sixteen have set seeds and others are producing flowers and pods.

  7. Multi-Population Selective Genotyping to Identify Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] Seed Protein and Oil QTLs

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    Piyaporn Phansak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeders continually generate ever-higher yielding cultivars, but also want to improve seed constituent value, which is mainly protein and oil, in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.]. Identification of genetic loci governing those two traits would facilitate that effort. Though genome-wide association offers one such approach, selective genotyping of multiple biparental populations offers a complementary alternative, and was evaluated here, using 48 F2:3 populations (n = ∼224 plants created by mating 48 high protein germplasm accessions to cultivars of similar maturity, but with normal seed protein content. All F2:3 progeny were phenotyped for seed protein and oil, but only 22 high and 22 low extreme progeny in each F2:3 phenotypic distribution were genotyped with a 1536-SNP chip (ca. 450 bimorphic SNPs detected per mating. A significant quantitative trait locus (QTL on one or more chromosomes was detected for protein in 35 (73%, and for oil in 25 (52%, of the 48 matings, and these QTL exhibited additive effects of ≥ 4 g kg–1 and R2 values of 0.07 or more. These results demonstrated that a multiple-population selective genotyping strategy, when focused on matings between parental phenotype extremes, can be used successfully to identify germplasm accessions possessing large-effect QTL alleles. Such accessions would be of interest to breeders to serve as parental donors of those alleles in cultivar development programs, though 17 of the 48 accessions were not unique in terms of SNP genotype, indicating that diversity among high protein accessions in the germplasm collection is less than what might ordinarily be assumed.

  8. Genetic diversity of nodulating and non-nodulating rhizobia associated with wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in different ecoregions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li Juan; Wang, Hai Qing; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin; Tian, Chang Fu

    2011-06-01

    A total of 99 bacterial isolates that originated from root nodules of Glycine soja were characterized with restriction analyses of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacers (ITS), and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB, atpD, recA and nodC genes. When tested for nodulation of G. soja, 72 of the isolates were effective symbionts, and these belonged to five species: Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium elkanii, Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and Sinorhizobium fredii. All of these, except some B. yuanmingense strains, also formed effective nodules on the domesticated soybean Glycine max. The remaining 27 isolates did not nodulate either host, but were identified as Rhizobium. Phylogeny nodC in the G. soja symbionts suggested that this symbiosis gene was mainly maintained by vertical gene transfer. Different nodC sublineages and rrs-ITS clusters reflected the geographic origins of isolates in this study.

  9. SISTEMAS DE MANEJO DO SOLO: SOJA [Glycine max (L.] CONSORCIADA COM Brachiaria decumbens (STAPF SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: SOYBEAN [Glycine max (L.] INTERCROPPED WITH Brachiaria decumbens (STAPF

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    Emanuel da Silva Barros

    2011-01-01

    ;">Brachiaria decumbens, in the coastal plateau of the Alagoas State, Brazil. For that, the 9350 Monsoy soybean was cultivated under conventional tillage, minimum tillage, and no-tillage. The experiment was carried out by using a split-plot randomized blocks design (with and without B. decumbens and four replications. The variables analyzed were: 1 soybean: determination of phenological stages, chemical composition of plants, stand of plants, stem diameter, plant height, first pod insertion height, number of grains per pod, number of pods, number of grains per plant, mass of 1,000 grains, and yield; and 2 B. decumbens: chemical composition of plants and accumulation of dry matter, in five different sampling times. The soil management systems influenced the stand of plants and the concentration of P, Cu, Fe, and Zn, in soybean, besides S, in B. decumbens. The no-tillage system showed higher grain and biomass yield for B. decumbens, under the edaphoclimatic conditions of Rio Largo, Alagoas State, Brazil.

    KEY-WORDS: No-tillage; crop-livestock integrated system; minimum tillage.

  10. Identification of Alternaria alternata mycotoxins by LC-SPE-NMR and their cytotoxic effects to soybean (Glycine max) cell suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Gezimar D; Mithöfer, Axel; Daolio, Cristina; Schneider, Bernd; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson

    2013-02-26

    This present work describes the application of liquid chromatography-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to analyse Alternaria alternata crude extracts. Altenusin (1), alternariol (2), 3'-hydroxyalternariol monomethyl ether (3), and alternariol monomethyl ether (4), were separated and identified. High-resolution mass spectrometry confirmed the proposed structures. The cytotoxic effects of these compounds towards plants were determined using soybean (Glycine max) cell cultures as a model. EC(50) values which range from 0.11 (± 0.02) to 4.69 (± 0.47) μM showed the high cytotoxicity of these compounds.

  11. Identification of Alternaria alternata Mycotoxins by LC-SPE-NMR and Their Cytotoxic Effects to Soybean (Glycine max Cell Suspension Culture

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    Edson Rodrigues-Filho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This present work describes the application of liquid chromatograpy-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to analyse Alternaria alternata crude extracts. Altenusin (1, alternariol (2, 3'-hydroxyalternariol monomethyl ether (3, and alternariol monomethyl ether (4, were separated and identified. High-resolution mass spectrometry confirmed the proposed structures. The cytotoxic effects of these compounds towards plants were determined using soybean (Glycine max cell cultures as a model. EC50 values which range from 0.11 (±0.02 to 4.69 (±0.47 μM showed the high cytotoxicity of these compounds.

  12. Chemical composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybean 40-3-2 grown in Europe remains equivalent with that of conventional soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, George G; Ridley, William P; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Sorbet, Roy; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L; Schneider, Ronald W

    2007-07-25

    The composition of glyphosate-tolerant (Roundup Ready) soybean 40-3-2 was compared with that of conventional soybean grown in Romania in 2005 as part of a comparative safety assessment program. Samples were collected from replicated field trials, and compositional analyses were performed to measure proximates (moisture, fat, ash, protein, and carbohydrates by calculation), fiber, amino acids, fatty acids, isoflavones, raffinose, stachyose, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor, and lectin in grain as well as proximates and fiber in forage. The mean values for all biochemical components assessed for Roundup Ready soybean 40-30-2 were similar to those of the conventional control and were within the published range observed for commercial soybean. The compositional profile of Roundup Ready soybean 40-3-2 was also compared to that of conventional soybean varieties grown in Romania by calculating a 99% tolerance interval to describe compositional variability in the population of traditional soybean varieties already on the marketplace. These comparisons, together with the history of the safe use of soybean as a common component of animal feed and human food, lead to the conclusion that Roundup Ready soybean 40-3-2 is compositionally equivalent to and as safe and nutritious as conventional soybean varieties grown commercially.

  13. Yield and Yield Attributes Responses of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill to Elevated CO2 and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculation in the Humid Transitory Rainforest

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    Nurudeen ADEYEMI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Variations in yield components and grain yield of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculated soybean varieties (Glycine max L. Merrill grown in CO2 enriched environment in the humid rainforest were tested.  A screen house trial was established with soybean varieties (‘TGx 1448-2E’, ‘TGx 1440-1E’ and ‘TGx 1740-2F’, AMF inoculation (with and without and CO2 enrichment (350±50 ppm and 550±50 ppm in open top chamber, arranged in completely randomised design, replicated three times. A field trial was also conducted; the treatments were arranged in a split-split plot configuration fitted into randomised complete block design. In the main plot the variant was CO2 enrichment, the sub-plot consisted of AMF inoculation (with and without, while the sub-sub plot consisted of soybean varieties, replicated three times. Both trials had significantly higher grain yield at elevated CO2 than ambient. This could be attributed to improved yield attributes, more spore count and root colonisation. In both trials, inoculated soybean had significantly higher dry pod weight than un-inoculated, which could suggest the increased grain yield observed on the field. AMF inoculated soybean varieties outperformed un-inoculated in both CO2 enriched and ambient concentrations. AMF inoculated soybean variety ‘TGx 1740-2F’ is most preferable in CO2 enriched environment, while variety ‘TGx 1448-2E’ had the most stable grain yield in all growth environments.

  14. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling under heat and drought treatments of HSP70 gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Hong-Kun; Dong, Qian-Li; Zhang, Yuan-Yu; Wang, Yu-Min; Li, Hai-Yun; Xing, Guo-Jie; Li, Qi-Yun; Dong, Ying-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) perform a fundamental role in protecting plants against abiotic stresses. Previous studies have made great efforts in the functional analysis of individual family members, but there has not yet been an overall analysis or expression profiling of the HSP70 gene family in soybeans (Glycine max L.). In this study, an investigation of the soybean genome revealed 61 putative HSP70 genes, which were evaluated. These genes were classified into eight sub-families, denoted I-VIII, based on a phylogenetic analysis. In each sub-family, the constituent parts of the gene structure and motif were relatively conserved. These GmHSP70 genes were distributed unequally on 17 of the 20 chromosomes. The analysis of the expression profiles showed that 53 of the 61 GmHSP70 genes were differentially expressed across the 14 tissues. However, most of the GmHSP70s were differentially expressed in a tissue-specific expression pattern. Furthermore, the expression of some of the duplicate genes was partially redundant, while others showed functional diversity. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of the 61 soybean HSP70 genes confirmed their stress-inducible expression patterns under both drought and heat stress. These findings provide a thorough overview of the evolution and modification of the GmHSP70 gene family, which will help to determine the functional characteristics of the HSP70 genes in soybean growth and development.

  15. Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways

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    Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.

  16. Novel process of fermenting black soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yogurt with dramatically reduced flatulence-causing oligosaccharides but enriched soy phytoalexins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shengbao; Saw, Chin Lee; Lee, Yuan Kun; Huang, Dejian

    2008-11-12

    Black soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] were germinated under fungal stress with food grade R. oligosporus for 3 days and were homogenized and fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to produce soy yogurt. Fungal stress led to the generation of oxylipins [oxooctadecadienoic acids (KODES) isomers and their respective glyceryl esters] and glyceollins--a type of phytoalexins unique to soybeans. In soy yogurt, the concentrations of total KODES and total glyceollins were 0.678 mg/g (dry matter) and 0.953 mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of other isoflavones (mainly genistein and daidzein and their derivatives) in soy yogurt remained largely unchanged after the processes compared with the control soy yogurt. Germination of black soybean under fungal stress for 3 days was sufficient to reduce stachyose and raffinose (which cause flatulence) by 92 and 80%, respectively. With a pH value of 4.42, a lactic acid content of 0.262%, and a maximum viable cell count of 2.1 x 10 (8) CFU/mL in the final soy yogurt, soy milk from germinated soybeans under fungal stress was concluded to be a suitable medium for yogurt-making. The resulting soy yogurt had significantly altered micronutrient profiles with significantly reduced oligosaccharides and enriched glyceollins.

  17. [Study of interaction of wild soybean subpopulations (Glycine soja) in the valley of the Tsukanovka river in the south of Far East of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, A V; Martynov, V V; Dorokhov, D B

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study of the genetic structure of natural and anthropogenic populations of G. soja gives significant information about formation of different populations, and allows developing measures for preservation of unique natural gene bank of wild soybean, the species closely related to cultivated soybean. In this study, ISSR markers were used to carry out a comparative analysis of genetic structure of natural and anthropogenic subpopulations of G. soja for studying possible mutual influence of subpopulations of anthropogenic and natural phytocenosis on the formation of their genetic diversity and to study genetic structure of natural subpopulations of wild soybean in the contact places between the two types ofcenoses. As a result, the characteristics that describe the genetic diversity of studied populations have been identified and the important role of an interaction between subpopulations of different phytocenoses on formation of the spatial genetic structure of population in the valley of Tsukanovka river has been demonstrated.

  18. Mapping QTLs for 100-seed weight in an interspecific soybean cross of Williams 82 (Glycine max) x PI 366121 (Glycine soja)

    Science.gov (United States)

    100-seed weight is a critical component for soybean quality and yield. The objective of the present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 100-seed weight using 169 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Williams 82 x PI 366121. The parental lines and RILs were g...

  19. Insect-protected event DAS-81419-2 soybean (Glycine max L.) grown in the United States and Brazil is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Brandon J; Schafer, Ariane C; Johnson, Tempest Y; Potts, Brian L; Herman, Rod A

    2015-02-25

    The transgenic soybean event DAS-81419-2 contains genes that encode the Cry1F, Cry1Ac, and PAT proteins. Cry1F and Cry1Ac provide protection against key lepidopteran insect pests, while PAT confers tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. To satisfy regulatory requirements for the safety evaluation of transgenic crops, studies were conducted in the United States and Brazil to evaluate the nutrient and antinutrient composition of event DAS-81419-2 soybean. On the basis of the results of these studies, event DAS-81419-2 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. This conclusion concurs with numerous other published studies in soybean and other crops where compositional equivalence between the transgenic crop and its nontransgenic comparator has been demonstrated.

  20. Growth and stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Glycine max, Solanum tuberosum and Brassica napus cultivated under polychromatic LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Martin; Navrátil, Oldřich; Haisel, Daniel; Jindřichová, Barbora; Fousek, Jan; Burketová, Lenka; Čeřovská, Noemi; Moravec, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) brings several key advantages over existing illumination technologies for indoor plant cultivation. Among these are that LEDs have predicted lifetimes from 50-100.000 hours without significant drops in efficiency and energy consumption is much lower compared to traditional fluorescent tubes. Recent advances allow LEDs to be used with customized wavelengths for plant growth. However, most of these LED growth systems use mixtures of chips emitting in several narrow wavelengths and frequently they are not compatible with existing infrastructures. This study tested the growth of five different plant species under phosphor coated LED-chips fitted into a tube with a standard G13 base that provide continuous visible light illumination with enhanced blue and red light. The LED system was characterized and compared with standard fluorescence tubes in the same cultivation room. Significant differences in heat generation between LEDs and fluorescent tubes were clearly demonstrated. Also, LED lights allowed for better control and stability of preset conditions. Physiological properties such as growth characteristics, biomass, and chlorophyll content were measured and the responses to pathogen assessed for five plant species (both the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana bentamiana and crop species potato, oilseed rape and soybean) under the different illumination sources. We showed that polychromatic LEDs provide light of sufficient quality and intensity for plant growth using less than 40% of the electricity required by the standard fluorescent lighting under test. The tested type of LED installation provides a simple upgrade pathway for existing infrastructure for indoor plant growth. Interestingly, individual plant species responded differently to the LED lights so it would be reasonable to test their utility to any particular application.

  1. EVALUATION OF VARIOUS CHARACTERISTICS OF Akara (FRIED BEANS CAKE) MADE FROM COWPEA (vigna unguiculata) AND SOYBEAN (glycine max) BLENDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ogundele G F; Ojubanire B A; Bamidele O P

    2014-01-01

    Akara (fried bean cake) is one of the most popular local dishes in Nigeria. Proximate composition, functional properties and sensory evaluation of akara prepared from cowpea and soybean blends were carried out in present study. Furthermore, study was also planned to determine the best ratio of cowpea & soybean blend that can give best akara production (fried beans cake). Result of proximate analysis revealed that the combination of cowpea and soybean blends (sample B, C and D) h...

  2. Manganese (Mn) stress toward hyperaccumulators plants combination (HPC) using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition on soybean (Glycine max) seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Tania Sylviana; Zahroh, Tata Taqiyyatuz; Merindasya, Mirza; Masfaridah, Ririn; Hartanti, Dyah Ayu Sri; Arum, Sekar; Nurhatika, Sri; Muhibuddin, Anton; Surtiningsih, Tini; Arifiyanto, Achmad

    2017-06-01

    Heavy metals were a metal bracket which had a specific gravity greater than 5 g / cm3. Manganese was one of them because it has a specific gravity of 7.4 g / cm3. Together with widespread cases of soil contamination caused by heavy metals as well as increased development of the science of breeding ground rapidly, then the alternative rehabilitation techniques were relatively cheap and effective it needs to be developed and even some cases of contaminated management soil using a combination of plants with microorganisms to be more effective. Thus it was necessary to develop research on plants that were able to accumulate heavy metals and other toxic materials, such as Mn so that the land becomes safe for health and the environment. Based on above reason this research aimed to see the influence of hyperaccumulators combination of plants using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition to stressed by manganese (Mn) on soybean (Glycine max). Observations of growth, chlorophyll content and heavy metals analysis performed on nine treatments (P1-P9) and one control (P0). The results showed a combination of hyperaccumulators under mychorrizal helped overcome the stress of manganese (Mn) in the leaves of soybean (G. max). It gave an influence on the number of leaves and chlorophyll content of soybean (G. max), but no effect performed on the height and the roots of soybean (G. max). The use of plants in small amounts hyperaccumulators (P1;1 jatropha and 1 lamtoro) was sufficient to cope with stress of Mn in the leaves of soybean (G. max).

  3. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is

  4. Genome-wide analysis of DWD proteins in soybean (Glycine max): Significance of Gm08DWD and GmMYB176 interaction in isoflavonoid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Shaomin; Li, Xuyan; Mainali, Hemanta; Chen, Ling; Dhaubhadel, Sangeeta

    2017-01-01

    A subset of WD40 proteins with DWD motif has been proposed to serve as substrate receptor of DDB-CUL4-ROC1 complex, thereby getting involved in protein degradation via ubiquitination pathway. Here, we identified a total of 161 potential DWD proteins in soybean (Glycine max) by searching DWD motif against the genome-wide WD40 repeats, and classified them into 20 groups on the basis of their functional domains and annotations. These putative DWD genes in soybean displayed tissue-specific expression patterns, and their genome localization and analysis of evolutionary relationship identified 48 duplicated gene pairs within 161 GmDWDs. Among the 161 soybean DWD proteins, Gm08DWD was previously found to interact with an isoflavonoid regulator, GmMYB176. Therefore, Gm08DWD and its homologue Gm05DWD were further investigated. Expression profile of both genes in different soybean tissues revealed that Gm08DWD was expressed higher in embryo, while Gm05DWD exhibited maximum transcript accumulation in leaf. Our protein-protein interaction studies demonstrated that Gm08DWD interacts with GmMYB176. Although Gm08DWD was localized both in nucleus and cytoplasm, the resulting complex of Gm08DWD and GmMYB176 was mainly observed in the nucleus. This finding is consistent with the functional localization of CUL4-E3 ligase complex. In conclusion, the survey on soybean potential DWD protein is useful reference for the further functional investigation of their DDB1-binding ability. Based on the functional investigation of Gm08DWD, we speculate that protein-protein interaction between Gm08DWD and GmMYB176 may lead to the degradation of GmMYB176 through CUL4-DDB1complex.

  5. 大豆胞囊线虫病生物防治研究进展%Riview of the Biocontrol on Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立杰; 王媛媛; 朱晓峰; 段玉玺

    2011-01-01

    The biological control is an effective method to control soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera giycines). Through the in- depth researches on different methods of biological control of H.glycines, the biocontrol will be helpful on soybean production. Therefore, the biocontrol methods will play an important role in suppressing occurrence and damage of the nematodes. The article summarized the advances in the biocontrol of soybean cyst nematode, which has been done by the nematologists of Shenyang Agricultural University and some other domestic and foreign scientists in recent years. The problems and prospects on biological control of soybean cyst nematode were discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of the biocontrol measures were mentioned. To develop new methods for soybean cyst nematode disease on biological control, the new effective methods will be researched in the future.%大豆胞囊线虫病的生物防治是有效控制大豆胞囊线虫群体的重要措施.通过对各种生物防治方法的逐渐深入研究,生物防治这一措施将在大豆生产上有效控制大豆胞囊线虫的发生与为害发挥重要作用.对近年来沈阳农业大学植物线虫研究室及部分国内外的线虫研究室在大豆胞囊线虫病生物防治方面的研究进展进行了综述,研讨过去生防措施的利弊,探索大豆胞囊线虫病生物防治的新方法,为有效控制大豆胞囊线虫病开辟新的途径.

  6. Artificial Selection for Determinate Growth Habit in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determinacy is an agronomically important trait associated with the domestication in soybean (Glycine max). Most soybean cultivars are classifiable into indeterminate and determinate growth habit, while Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of soybean, is indeterminate. Indeterminate (Dt1) and determina...

  7. [Molecular genetic analysis of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) population structure in anthropogenic and natural landscapes of Primorskii krai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoluzhko, A V; Tikhonov, A V; Dorokhov, D B

    2008-08-01

    The data are presented on genetic population structure of wild soybean growing in natural and anthropogenically disturbed landscapes of Primorskii krai of the Russian Federation. Comparative analysis showed that wild soybean populations exposed to anthropogenic influence exhibited lower genetic diversity than natural populations. Recommendations on conservation of the wild plant gene pools using comparative data on population genetic structures are made.

  8. Heavy metal toxicity in rice and soybean plants cultivated in contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lígia de Souza Silva; Godofredo Cesar Vitti; Anderson Ricardo Trevizam

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals can accumulate in soil and cause phytotoxicity in plants with some specific symptoms. The present study evaluated the specific symptoms on rice and soybeans plants caused by excess of heavy metals in soil. Rice and soybean were grown in pots containing soil with different levels of heavy metals. A completely randomized design was used, with four replications, using two crop species and seven sample soils with different contamination levels. Rice and soybean exhibited different re...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: soybean [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available soybean Glycine max Glycine_max_L.png Glycine_max_NL.png Glycine_max_S.png Glycine_max..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=NS ...

  10. Biokinetic Analysis and Metabolic Fate of 2,4-D in 2,4-D-Resistant Soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Joshua J; Simpson, David M; Peterson, Mark A; Riechers, Dean E

    2017-07-26

    The Enlist weed control system allows the use of 2,4-D in soybean but slight necrosis in treated leaves may be observed in the field. The objectives of this research were to measure and compare uptake, translocation, and metabolism of 2,4-D in Enlist (E, resistant) and non-AAD-12 transformed (NT, sensitive) soybeans. The adjuvant from the Enlist Duo herbicide formulation (ADJ) increased 2,4-D uptake (36%) and displayed the fastest rate of uptake (U50= 0.2 h) among treatments. E soybean demonstrated a faster rate of 2,4-D metabolism (M50= 0.2 h) compared to NT soybean, but glyphosate did not affect 2,4-D metabolism. Metabolites of 2,4-D in E soybean were qualitatively different than NT. Applying 2,4-D-ethylhexyl ester instead of 2,4-D choline (a quaternary ammonium salt) eliminated visual injury to E soybean, likely due to the time required for initial de-esterification and bioactivation. Excessive 2,4-D acid concentrations in E soybean resulting from ADJ-increased uptake may significantly contribute to foliar injury.

  11. Establishment of the integrated applied core collection and its comparison with mini core collection in soybean(Glycine max)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong; Guo; Yinghui; Li; Huilong; Hong; Li-Juan; Qiu

    2014-01-01

    The concept of core collection(CC) provides a new way of management and utilization of plant germplasm resources. In this study, an integrated applied core collection(IACC) of soybean was developed based on evaluation data for desirable agronomic and nutritional traits of available soybean germplasm resources including accessions with cold tolerance, drought tolerance, salt tolerance, soybean cyst nematode resistance, soybean mosaic virus resistance, high protein content, and high fat content. The newly formed collection encompasses accessions with high genetic diversity and desirable agronomic traits. The genetic diversity of the newly formed IACC was compared with that of the established mini core collection(MCC) of soybean with the aid of simple sequence repeat(SSR) markers and phenotypic traits. The results showed that at the molecular level, soybean IACC harbored a similar level of genetic diversity as the established MCC, and that at the phenotypic level the IACC encompasses more accessions with desirable traits than does the established MCC. The development of soybean IACC lays a foundation for breeding projects to meet different objectives in different eco-regions.

  12. Identification of large variation in the photosynthetic induction response among 37 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes that is not correlated with steady-state photosynthetic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleh, M A; Tanaka, Y; Kim, S Y; Huber, S C; Sakoda, K; Shiraiwa, T

    2017-03-01

    Irradiance continuously fluctuates during the day in the field. The speed of the induction response of photosynthesis in high light affects the cumulative carbon gain of the plant and could impact growth and yield. The photosynthetic induction response and its relationship with the photosynthetic capacity under steady-state conditions (P max) were evaluated in 37 diverse soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes. The induction response of leaf photosynthesis showed large variation among the soybean genotypes. After 5 min illumination with strong light, genotype NAM23 had the highest leaf photosynthetic rate of 33.8 µmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1), while genotype NAM12 showed the lowest rate at 4.7 µmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1). Cumulative CO2 fixation (CCF) during the first 5 min of high light exposure ranged from 5.5 mmol CO2 m(-2) for NAM23 to 0.81 mmol CO2 m(-2) for NAM12. The difference in the induction response among genotypes was consistent throughout the growth season. However, there was no significant correlation between CCF and P max among genotypes suggesting that different mechanisms regulate P max and the induction response. The observed variation in the induction response was mainly attributed to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activation, but soybean lines differing in the induction response did not differ in the leaf content of Rubisco activase α- and β-proteins. Future studies will be focused on identifying molecular determinants of the photosynthetic induction response and determining whether this trait could be an important breeding target to achieve improved growth of soybeans in the field.

  13. System-level insights into the cellular interactome of a non-model organism: inferring, modelling and analysing functional gene network of soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yungang; Guo, Maozu; Zou, Quan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Cellular interactome, in which genes and/or their products interact on several levels, forming transcriptional regulatory-, protein interaction-, metabolic-, signal transduction networks, etc., has attracted decades of research focuses. However, such a specific type of network alone can hardly explain the various interactive activities among genes. These networks characterize different interaction relationships, implying their unique intrinsic properties and defects, and covering different slices of biological information. Functional gene network (FGN), a consolidated interaction network that models fuzzy and more generalized notion of gene-gene relations, have been proposed to combine heterogeneous networks with the goal of identifying functional modules supported by multiple interaction types. There are yet no successful precedents of FGNs on sparsely studied non-model organisms, such as soybean (Glycine max), due to the absence of sufficient heterogeneous interaction data. We present an alternative solution for inferring the FGNs of soybean (SoyFGNs), in a pioneering study on the soybean interactome, which is also applicable to other organisms. SoyFGNs exhibit the typical characteristics of biological networks: scale-free, small-world architecture and modularization. Verified by co-expression and KEGG pathways, SoyFGNs are more extensive and accurate than an orthology network derived from Arabidopsis. As a case study, network-guided disease-resistance gene discovery indicates that SoyFGNs can provide system-level studies on gene functions and interactions. This work suggests that inferring and modelling the interactome of a non-model plant are feasible. It will speed up the discovery and definition of the functions and interactions of other genes that control important functions, such as nitrogen fixation and protein or lipid synthesis. The efforts of the study are the basis of our further comprehensive studies on the soybean functional interactome at the genome

  14. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (mucuna deeringiana and soybean (glycine max Características físico-químicas e propriedades funcionais de vitabosa(Mucuna deeringiana e soja (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Chaparro Acuña

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa flour (Mucuna deeringiana and soybean flour (Glycine max were determined. Oil absorption capacity was higher in vitabosa. Water absorption capacity was higher in soy and it was affected by the change in the ionic strength of the medium. Emulsifying Activity (EA decreased with increasing concentration of flour, while Emulsifying Stability (ES showed an increased. EA and ES of flours have more ionic strength in the range between 0.0 and 0.4 M, but it is reduced afterwards with the higher concentration of NaCl. Foaming stability varied with the concentration of flour solution reaching maximum values of 39 and 33% for vitabosa and soybean, respectively at 10% flour concentration.Vitabosa had the best foaming capacity (56% to 0.6 M compared with soybeans (47% to 0.4 M. Maximum capacity of gelation was observed in vitabosa at 10% flour concentration. Increases in ionic strength of the flour solution, at low salt concentrations (Varias características físico-químicas e funcionais para farinha de vitabosa (Mucuna deeringiana e soja (Glycine max foram avaliadas. A vitabosa apresentou maior capacidade de absorção de óleo enquanto a soja mostrou maior capacidade de absorção de água, sendo esta última altamente dependente das mudanças na força iônica do meio. A Atividade Emulsificante (AE diminuiu com o aumento da concentração de farinha, enquanto que a estabilidade de emulsão (ES aumentou. Tanto para a farinha de vitabosa quanto a de soja, os valores de AE e ES incrementaram no intervalo 0,0-0,4 M. Com relação à estabilidade da espuma, esta propriedade variou com a concentração da farinha, atingindo valores máximos de 39% (vitabosa e 33% (soja para uma concentração de 10%. A farinha de vitabosa teve a melhor capacidade espumante (56% para 0,6 M em comparação com a de soja (47% a 0,4 M. A maior capacidade de gelificação foi observada em farinha de vitabosa para

  15. Profile analysis and correlation across phenolic compounds, isoflavones and antioxidant capacity during germination of soybeans (Glycine max L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guzmán-Ortiz, Fabiola A; San Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Valverde, María E; Rodríguez-Aza, Yolanda; Berríos, José De J; Mora-Escobedo, Rosalva

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of germination on the content of phenolic compounds, isoflavones and antioxidant activity of soybean extracts obtained from ungerminated soy...

  16. Effects of light quality on pod elongation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Seiya; Ario, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Andressa Camila Seiko; Tomita, Yuki; Murayama, Naoki; Taniguchi, Takatoshi; Hamaoka, Norimitsu; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari; Ishibashi, Yushi

    2017-06-03

    Soybean pods are located at the nodes, where they are in the shadow, whereas cowpea pods are located outside of the leaves and are exposed to sunlight. To compare the effects of light quality on pod growth in soybean and cowpea, we measured the length of pods treated with white, blue, red or far-red light. In both species, pods elongated faster during the dark period than during the light period in all light treatments except red light treatment in cowpea. Red light significantly suppressed pod elongation in soybean during the dark and light periods. On the other hand, the elongation of cowpea pods treated with red light markedly promoted during the light period. These results suggested that the difference in the pod set sites between soybean and cowpea might account for the difference in their red light responses for pod growth.

  17. Determination and comparison of seed oil triacylglycerol composition of various soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) using ¹H-NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Woo; Rho, Ho Sik; Hong, Yong Deog; Yeom, Myung Hun; Shin, Song Seok; Yi, Jun Gon; Lee, Min-Seuk; Park, Hye Yoon; Cho, Dong Ha

    2013-11-21

    Seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of 32 soybean varieties were determined and compared using ¹H-NMR. The contents of linolenic (Ln), linoleic (L), and oleic (O) ranged from 10.7% to 19.3%, 37.4%-50.1%, and 15.7%-34.1%, respectively. As is evident, linoleic acid was the major fatty acid of soybean oil. Compositional differences among the varieties were observed. Natural oils containing unsaturated groups have been regarded as important nutrient and cosmetic ingredients because of their various biological activities. The TAG profiles of the soy bean oils could be useful for distinguishing the origin of seeds and controlling the quality of soybean oils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the TAG composition of various soybean oils has been analyzed using the ¹H-NMR method.

  18. Transcriptome profiling of soybean (Glycine max) roots challenged with pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanubile, Alessandra; Muppirala, Usha K; Severin, Andrew J; Marocco, Adriano; Munkvold, Gary P

    2015-12-21

    Fusarium oxysporum is one of the most common fungal pathogens causing soybean root rot and seedling blight in U.S.A. In a recent study, significant variation in aggressiveness was observed among isolates of F. oxysporum collected from roots in Iowa, ranging from highly pathogenic to weakly or non-pathogenic isolates. We used RNA-seq analysis to investigate the molecular aspects of the interactions of a partially resistant soybean genotype with non-pathogenic/pathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum at 72 and 96 h post inoculation (hpi). Markedly different gene expression profiles were observed in response to the two isolates. A peak of highly differentially expressed genes (HDEGs) was triggered at 72 hpi in soybean roots and the number of HDEGs was about eight times higher in response to the pathogenic isolate compared to the non-pathogenic one (1,659 vs. 203 HDEGs, respectively). Furthermore, the magnitude of induction was much greater in response to the pathogenic isolate. This response included a stronger activation of defense-related genes, transcription factors, and genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, secondary and sugar metabolism. The obtained data provide an important insight into the transcriptional responses of soybean-F. oxysporum interactions and illustrate the more drastic changes in the host transcriptome in response to the pathogenic isolate. These results may be useful in the developing new methods of broadening resistance of soybean to F. oxysporum, including the over-expression of key soybean genes.

  19. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. sprouts germinated under red light irradiation induce disease resistance against bacterial rotting disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Dhakal

    Full Text Available Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs, including red (650-660, far red (720-730 and blue (440-450 nm or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes.

  20. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) sprouts germinated under red light irradiation induce disease resistance against bacterial rotting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Radhika; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs), including red (650-660), far red (720-730) and blue (440-450 nm) or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA) accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR) gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes.

  1. Metal pollution (Cd, Pb, Zn, and As) in agricultural soils and soybean, Glycine max, in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunyun; Fang, Xiaolong; Mu, Yinghui; Cheng, Yanbo; Ma, Qibin; Nian, Hai; Yang, Cunyi

    2014-04-01

    Crops produced on metal-polluted agricultural soils may lead to chronic toxicity to humans via the food chain. To assess metal pollution in agricultural soils and soybean in southern China, 30 soybean grain samples and 17 soybean-field soil samples were collected from 17 sites in southern China, and metal concentrations of samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The integrated pollution index was used to evaluate if the samples were contaminated by Cd, Pb, Zn and As. Results showed that Cd concentration of 12 samples, Pb concentration of 2 samples, Zn concentration of 2 samples, and As concentrations of 2 samples were above the maximum permissible levels in soils. The integrated pollution index indicated that 11 of 17 soil samples were polluted by metals. Metal concentrations in soybean grain samples ranged from 0.11 to 0.91 mg kg(-1) for Cd; 0.34 to 2.83 mg kg(-1) for Pb; 42 to 88 mg kg(-1) for Zn; and 0.26 to 5.07 mg kg(-1) for As, which means all 30 soybean grain samples were polluted by Pb, Pb/Cd, Cd/Pb/As or Pb/As. Taken together, our study provides evidence that metal pollution is an important concern in agricultural soils and soybeans in southern China.

  2. Dicamba-Tolerant Soybeans (Glycine max L.) MON 87708 and MON 87708 × MON 89788 Are Compositionally Equivalent to Conventional Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary; Bickel, Anna; Mannion, Rhonda; Bell, Erin; Harrigan, George G

    2017-09-13

    Herbicide-tolerant crops can expand both tools for and timing of weed control strategies. MON 87708 soybean has been developed through genetic modification and confers tolerance to the dicamba herbicide. As part of the safety assessment conducted for new genetically modified (GM) crop varieties, a compositional assessment of MON 87708 was performed. Levels of key soybean nutrients and anti-nutrients in harvested MON 87708 were compared to levels of those components in a closely related non-GM variety as well as to levels measured in other conventional soybean varieties. From this analysis, MON 87708 was shown to be compositionally equivalent to its comparator. A similar analysis conducted for a stacked trait product produced by conventional breeding, MON 87708 × MON 89788, which confers tolerance to both dicamba and glyphosate herbicides, reached the same conclusion. These results are consistent with other results that demonstrate no compositional impact of genetic modification, except in those cases where an impact was an intended outcome.

  3. Over-expression of a glutathione S-transferase gene, GsGST, from wild soybean (Glycine soja) enhances drought and salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming; Li, Yong; Yang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaowen; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi

    2010-08-01

    Glycine soja is a species of soybean that survives in adverse environments including high salt and drought conditions. We constructed a cDNA library from G. soja seedlings treated with NaCl and isolated a glutathione S-transferase gene (GsGST: GQ265911) from the library. The cDNA encoding GsGST contains an open reading frame of 660 bp and the predicted protein belongs to the tau class of GST family proteins. Tobacco plants over-expressing the GsGST gene showed sixfold higher GST activity than wild-type plants. Transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced dehydration tolerance. T(2) transgenic tobacco plants showed higher tolerance at the seedling stage than wild-type plants to salt and mannitol as demonstrated by longer root length and less growth retardation.

  4. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh [Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray {sup 60}Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55))]. Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect-orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  5. Composição química e conteúdo de ferro solúvel em soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] Chemical composition and soluble iron content in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Tamie Paiva Yamada

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A soja é um grão que possui um dos maiores teores de proteína e ferro entre os alimentos de origem vegetal e teve a sua utilização muito aumentada nos últimos anos, principalmente por lactentes que têm problemas de intolerância ao leite de vaca em todo mundo. Em razão da sua grande quantidade de ferro, a soja tem sido investigada quanto à sua capacidade de recuperação de indivíduos anêmicos. No passado, a investigação baseou-se somente na sua quantidade de ferro total, não considerando as frações solúveis (mais biodisponíveis das insolúveis (que são mais dificilmente absorvidas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar análises químicas em quatro cultivares de soja Glycine max (L. Merrill (IAC PL-1; IAC 22; IAC 8-2 E IAC 15-2, bem como os seus respectivos conteúdos de ferro solúvel. Os teores de proteína nos grãos, que foram em média de 34,46%, foram estatisticamente iguais; o de lipídeos foi maior para a cultivar IAC PL-1, com 20,07% (PSoybean is a grain which possesses one of the highest contents of protein and iron among the foods of plant origin and had its use greatly increased in the latest years, in the eastern countries mainly by lactents who have problems of intolerance to bovine's milk. Due to its great concentration of iron, soybean has been investigated as to its capacity of recovering anemic individuals. In the past, the investigation was based only on its concentration of total iron, not taking into account the soluble fractions (greater bioavailability from the insoluble (which are less bioavailable. This work was designed to accomplish chemical analyses on four soybean cultivars Glycine max (L. Merrill (IAC PL-1; IAC 22; IAC 8-2 and IAC 15-2, as well as their respective contents of soluble iron. Protein contents in the grains, that were on average 34,46% were statistically similar; oil content was greater for the cultivar IAC PL-1, with 20,07% (P<0,01, the same cultivar which presented the lower

  6. Manipulation of two α-endo-β-1,4-glucanase genes, AtCel6 and GmCel7, reduces susceptibility to Heterodera glycines in soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Mi-Ok; Beard, Hunter; MacDonald, Margaret H; Brewer, Eric P; Youssef, Reham M; Kim, Hyunsoon; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2014-12-01

    Plant endo-β-1,4-glucanases (EGases) include cell wall-modifying enzymes that are involved in nematode-induced growth of syncytia (feeding structures) in nematode-infected roots. EGases in the α- and β-subfamilies contain signal peptides and are secreted, whereas those in the γ-subfamily have a membrane-anchoring domain and are not secreted. The Arabidopsis α-EGase At1g48930, designated as AtCel6, is known to be down-regulated by beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) in Arabidopsis roots, whereas another α-EGase, AtCel2, is up-regulated. Here, we report that the ectopic expression of AtCel6 in soybean roots reduces susceptibility to both soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) and root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Suppression of GmCel7, the soybean homologue of AtCel2, in soybean roots also reduces the susceptibility to SCN. In contrast, in studies on two γ-EGases, both ectopic expression of AtKOR2 in soybean roots and suppression of the soybean homologue of AtKOR3 had no significant effect on SCN parasitism. Our results suggest that secreted α-EGases are likely to be more useful than membrane-bound γ-EGases in the development of an SCN-resistant soybean through gene manipulation. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that Arabidopsis shares molecular events of cyst nematode parasitism with soybean, and confirms the suitability of the Arabidopsis-H. schachtii interaction as a model for the soybean-H. glycines pathosystem.

  7. Genetic Analysis of Combining Abilities and Heterosis for the Contents of Soybean Isoflavone and Its Components Among the Soybean Varieties [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Hui-zhen; LI Wei-dong; WANG Hui; FANG Xuan-jun

    2005-01-01

    The genetic analysis of soybean isoflavone content and its components were carried out based on the NC Ⅱ mating design in eight soybean varieties. The results showed that the isoflavone contents and its components of soybean seed are quite differences among the tested materials, the contents of isoflavone and daidzein are controlled not only by additive effects and but also by non-additive effects, while the content of genistin is dominated by non-additive effects,and genistein, glycitin and daidzin are mainly controlled by additive effects. There are significant differences in the contents of isoflavone and its components among the combinations derived from different parents. Results also indicated that the tested traits are negatively heterosis except for the contens of daidzein and daidzin are positively heterosis based on the data of the GCA and SCA in average heterosis values. In this research we have a suggestion that soybean variety with high isoflavone should be used as one of the parents in the breeding program, and it is the best choice that the combinations crossed between two high isoflavone varieties or a high variety and a low one.

  8. Changes occurring in compositions and antioxidant properties of healthy soybean seeds [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and soybean seeds diseased by Phomopsis longicolla and Cercospora kikuchii fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Hwan; Hwang, Seung-Ryul; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Kyun; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Yong Bok

    2015-10-15

    Changes in the compositions (isoflavone, protein, oil, and fatty acid) and antioxidant properties were evaluated in healthy soybeans and soybeans diseased by Phomopsis longicolla and Cercospora kikuchii. The total isoflavone content (1491.3 μg/g) of healthy seeds was observed to be considerably different than that of diseased seeds (P. longicolla: 292.6, C. kikuchii: 727.2 μg/g), with malonlygenistin exhibiting the greatest decrease (726.1 → 57.1, 351.9 μg/g). Significantly, three isoflavones exhibited a slight increase, and their structures were confirmed as daidzein, glycitein, and genistein, based on their molecular ions at m/z 253.1, 283.0, and 269.1 using the negative mode of HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. The remaining compositions showed slight variations. The effects against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radicals in healthy seeds were stronger than the diseased soybeans, depending upon the isoflavone level. Our results may be useful in evaluating the relationship between composition and antioxidant activity as a result of changes caused by soybean fungal pathogens.

  9. EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE ON NODULE PRIMORDIA OF SOYBEAN (Glycine max Merrill IN ACID SOILS IN RHIZOTRON EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiyo Hadi Waluyo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To clarify whether P had a direct or indirect effect on the nodulation  process of soybean grown in acid soils from Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia, a series of rhizotron experiments, with special attention given to formation of nodule primordia, was conducted at Laboratory of  Microbiology, Wageningen University in 1998-2000. It was shown that Ca and P were essential nutrients for root growth, nodule formation, and growth of soybean in the acid soils (Oxisols. Ca increased root growth, number of nodule primordia, nodules, and growth of the soybean plant. This positive effect of Ca was increased considerably by the application of P. Ca and P have a synergistic effect on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF of soybean in acid soils. Ca is important for the establishment of nodules, whilst P is essential for the development and function of the formed nodules. P increased number of nodule primordia, thus it also has an important role in the initiation of nodule formation. From this study, it can be concluded that Ca and P are the most limiting nutrients for BNF of soybean in the acid soils of Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia.

  10. Estimating genetic diversity and sampling strategy for a wild soybean (Glycine soja) population based on different molecular markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhong; ZHAO Ru; GU Senchang; YAN Wen; CHENG Zhou; CHEN Muhong; LU Weifeng; WANG Shuhong; LU Baorong; LU Jun; ZHANG Fan; XIANG Rong; XIAO Shangbin; YAN Pin

    2006-01-01

    Genetic diversity is the basic and most important component of biodiversity. It is essential for the effective conservation and utilization of genetic resources to accurately estimate genetic diversity of the targeted species and populations. This paper reports analyses of genetic diversity of a wild soybean population using three molecular marker technologies (AFLP, ISSR and SSR), and computer simulation studies of randomly selected subsets with different sample size (5-90 individuals) drawn 50 times from a total of 100 wild soybean individuals. The variation patterns of genetic diversity indices, including expected heterozygosity (He), Shannon diversity index (/), and percentage of polymorphic loci (P), were analyzed to evaluate changes of genetic diversity associated with the increase of individuals in each subset. The results demonstrated that (1) values of genetic diversity indices of the same wild soybean population were considerably different when estimated by different molecular marker techniques; (2) genetic diversity indices obtained from subsets with different sample sizes also diverged considerably; (3) P values were relatively more reliable for comparing genetic diversity detected by different molecular marker techniques; and (4) different diversity indices reached 90% of the total genetic diversity of the soybean population quite differently in terms of the sample size (number of individuals) analyzed.When using the P value as a determinator, 30-40individuals could capture over 90% of the total genetic diversity of the wild soybean population. Results from this study provide a strong scientific basis for estimating genetic diversity and for strategic conservation of plant species.

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis and Expression Profiling of the Phospholipase C Gene Family in Soybean (Glycine max.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawei Wang

    Full Text Available Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate to produce diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. It plays an important role in plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, systematic analysis and expression profiling of the phospholipase C (PLC gene family in soybean have not been reported. In this study, 12 putative PLC genes were identified in the soybean genome. Soybean PLCs were found on chromosomes 2, 11, 14 and 18 and encoded 58.8-70.06 kD proteins. Expression pattern analysis by RT-PCR demonstrated that expression of the GmPLCs was induced by PEG, NaCl and saline-alkali treatments in roots and leaves. GmPLC transcripts accumulated specifically in roots after ABA treatment. Furthermore, GmPLC transcripts were analyzed in various tissues. The results showed that GmPLC7 was highly expressed in most tissues, whereas GmPLC12 was expressed in early pods specifically. In addition, subcellular localization analysis was carried out and confirmed that GmPLC10 was localized in the plasma membrane in Nicotiana benthamiana. Our genomic analysis of the soybean PLC family provides an insight into the regulation of abiotic stress responses and development. It also provides a solid foundation for the functional characterization of the soybean PLC gene family.

  12. Analysis of soybean tissue culture protein dynamics using difference gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excised hypocotyls from developing soybean (Glycine max (L.) merr. cv. Jack) were cultivated on agar-solidified medium until callus formed. The calli were then propagated in liquid medium until stable, relatively uniform, finely-divided suspension cultures were obtained. Cells were typically transfe...

  13. Tracing soybean domestication history: From nucleotide to genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Young; Van, Kyujung; Kang, Yang Jae; Kim, Kil Hyun; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2012-01-01

    Since the genome sequences of wild species may provide key information about the genetic elements involved in speciation and domestication, the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.), a wild relative of the current cultivated soybean (G. max), was sequenced. In contrast to the current hypothesis of soybean domestication, which holds that the current cultivated soybean was domesticated from G. soja, our previous work has suggested that soybean was domesticated from the G. soja/G. max complex that diverged from a common ancestor of these two species of Glycine. In this review, many structural genomic differences between the two genomes are described and a total of 705 genes are identified as structural variations (SVs) between G. max and G. soja. After protein families database of alignments and hidden Markov models IDs and gene ontology terms were assigned, many interesting genes are discussed in detail using four domestication related traits, such as flowering time, transcriptional factors, carbon metabolism and disease resistance. Soybean domestication history is explored by studying these SVs in genes. Analysis of SVs in genes at the population-level may clarify the domestication history of soybean.

  14. A Novel Sucrose-Regulatory MADS-Box Transcription Factor GmNMHC5 Promotes Root Development and Nodulation in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Han, Xiangdong; Zhan, Ge; Zhao, Zhenfang; Feng, Yongjun; Wu, Cunxiang

    2015-08-31

    The MADS-box protein family includes many transcription factors that have a conserved DNA-binding MADS-box domain. The proteins in this family were originally recognized to play prominent roles in floral development. Recent findings, especially with regard to the regulatory roles of the AGL17 subfamily in root development, have greatly broadened their known functions. In this study, a gene from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), GmNMHC5, was cloned from the Zigongdongdou cultivar and identified as a member of the AGL17 subfamily. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that GmNMHC5 was expressed at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in other organs. The activation of expression was first examined in leaves and roots, followed by shoot apexes. GmNMHC5 expression levels rose sharply when the plants were treated under short-day conditions (SD) and started to pod, whereas low levels were maintained in non-podding plants under long-day conditions (LD). Furthermore, overexpression of GmNMHC5 in transgenic soybean significantly promoted lateral root development and nodule building. Moreover, GmNMHC5 is upregulated by exogenous sucrose. These results indicate that GmNMHC5 can sense the sucrose signal and plays significant roles in lateral root development and nodule building.

  15. Establishment of in vitro soybean aphids, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a tool to facilitate studies of aphid symbionts, plant-insect interactions and insecticide efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunadi, Andika; Bansal, Raman; Finer, John J; Michel, Andy

    2017-06-01

    Studies on plant-insect interactions of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Matsumura), can be influenced by environmental fluctuations, status of the host plant and variability in microbial populations. Maintenance of aphids on in vitro-grown plants minimizes environmental fluctuations, provides uniform host materials and permits the selective elimination of aphid-associated microbes for more standardized controls in aphid research. Aphids were reared on sterile, in vitro-grown soybean seedlings germinated on plant tissue culture media amended with a mixture of antimicrobials. For initiation and maintenance of in vitro aphid colonies, single aphids were inoculated onto single in vitro seedlings. After three rounds of transfer of 'clean' aphids to fresh in vitro seedlings, contamination was no longer observed, and aphids performed equally well when compared with those reared on detached leaves. The addition of the insecticides thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole to the culture medium confirmed uptake and caused significant mortality to the in vitro aphids. The use of the antimicrobial mixture removed the associated bacteria Arsenophonus but retained Buchnera and Wolbachia within the in vitro aphids. The in vitro aphid system is a novel and highly useful tool to understand insecticidal efficacy and expand our knowledge of tritrophic interactions among plants, insects and symbionts. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. A Novel Sucrose-Regulatory MADS-Box Transcription Factor GmNMHC5 Promotes Root Development and Nodulation in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box protein family includes many transcription factors that have a conserved DNA-binding MADS-box domain. The proteins in this family were originally recognized to play prominent roles in floral development. Recent findings, especially with regard to the regulatory roles of the AGL17 subfamily in root development, have greatly broadened their known functions. In this study, a gene from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., GmNMHC5, was cloned from the Zigongdongdou cultivar and identified as a member of the AGL17 subfamily. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that GmNMHC5 was expressed at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in other organs. The activation of expression was first examined in leaves and roots, followed by shoot apexes. GmNMHC5 expression levels rose sharply when the plants were treated under short-day conditions (SD and started to pod, whereas low levels were maintained in non-podding plants under long-day conditions (LD. Furthermore, overexpression of GmNMHC5 in transgenic soybean significantly promoted lateral root development and nodule building. Moreover, GmNMHC5 is upregulated by exogenous sucrose. These results indicate that GmNMHC5 can sense the sucrose signal and plays significant roles in lateral root development and nodule building.

  17. Phenylalanine is required to promote specific developmental responses and prevents cellular damage in response to ultraviolet light in soybean (Glycine max) during the seed-to-seedling transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Joe H; Muhammad, DurreShahwar; Warpeha, Katherine M

    2014-01-01

    UV-radiation elicits a suite of developmental (photomorphogenic) and protective responses in plants, but responses early post-germination have received little attention, particularly in intensively bred plants of economic importance. We examined germination, hypocotyl elongation, leaf pubescence and subcellular responses of germinating and/or etiolated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seedlings in response to treatment with discrete wavelengths of UV-A or UV-B radiation. We demonstrate differential responses of germinating/young soybean seedlings to a range of UV wavelengths that indicate unique signal transduction mechanisms regulate UV-initiated responses. We have investigated how phenylalanine, a key substrate in the phenylpropanoid pathway, may be involved in these responses. Pubescence may be a key location for phenylalanine-derived protective compounds, as UV-B irradiation increased pubescence and accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds within primary leaf pubescence, visualized by microscopy and absorbance spectra. Mass spectrometry analysis of pubescence indicated that sinapic esters accumulate in the UV-irradiated hairs compared to unirradiated primary leaf tissue. Deleterious effects of some UV-B wavelengths on germination and seedling responses were reduced or entirely prevented by inclusion of phenylalanine in the growth media. Key effects of phenylalanine were not duplicated by tyrosine or tryptophan or sucrose, nor is the specificity of response due to the absorbance of phenylalanine itself. These results suggest that in the seed-to-seedling transition, phenylalanine may be a limiting factor in the development of initial mechanisms of UV protection in the developing leaf.

  18. Protective effect of Mn(III)-desferrioxamine B upon oxidative stress caused by ozone and acid rain in the Brazilian soybean cultivar Glycine max "Sambaiba".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Jéssica Bordotti Nobre; Esposito, Breno Pannia; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes; Cruz, Luciano Soares; da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the Mn complex (Mn(III)-desferrioxamine B (MnDFB)) on oxidative stress in the Brazilian soybean cultivar Glycine max "Sambaiba" following exposure to ozone and acid rain. We determined the suitable dose of MnDFB to apply to G. max seedlings using a dose-response curve. The highest superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and Mn content in leaves were found upon the application of 8 μM MnDFB. Thus, G. max seedlings pretreated with 8 μM MnDFB were individually exposed to ozone and acid rain simulated. Pretreatment with MnDFB reduced lipid peroxidation upon ozone exposure and increased SOD activity in leaves; it did not alter the metal content in any part of the plant. Conversely, following acid rain exposure, neither the metal content in leaves nor SOD enzyme activity were directly affected by MnDFB, unlike pH. Our findings demonstrated that exogenous MnDFB application before ozone exposure may modulate the MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, and FeSOD activities to combat the ROS excess in the cell. Here, we demonstrated that the applied dose of MnDFB enhances antioxidative defenses in soybean following exposure to acid rain and especially to ozone.

  19. Warming decreases photosynthates and yield of soybean [Glycine max(L.) Merrill] in the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia Zhang; Lili Zhu; Mengyang Yu; Mingxing Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the responses of field crops such as soybean to climate warming is critical for economic development and adaptive management of food security. A field warming experiment was conducted using infrared heaters to investigate the responses of soybean phenology, photosynthetic characteristics, and yield to climate warming in the North China Plain. The results showed that 0.4 °C and 0.7 °C increases in soybean canopy air and soil temperature advanced anthesis stage by 3.8 days and shortened the length of entire growth stage by 4.5 days. Warming also decreased the leaf photosynthetic rate by 6.6% and 10.3% at the anthesis and seed filling stages, respectively, but increased the leaf vapor pressure deficit by 9.4%, 15.7%, and 14.1% at the anthesis, pod setting, and seed filling stages,respectively. However, leaf soluble sugar and starch were decreased by 25.6% and 20.5%,respectively, whereas stem soluble sugar was reduced by 12.2% at the anthesis stage under experimental warming. The transportation amount of leaf soluble sugar and contribution rate of transportation amount to seed weight were reduced by 58.2% and 7.7%, respectively,under warming. As a result, warming significantly decreased 100-seed weight and soybean yield by 20.8% and 45.0%, respectively. Our findings provide better mechanistic understanding of soybean yield response to climate warming and could be helpful for forecasting soybean yield under future climate warming conditions.

  20. EVALUATION OF VARIOUS CHARACTERISTICS OF Akara (FRIED BEANS CAKE MADE FROM COWPEA (vigna unguiculata AND SOYBEAN (glycine max BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundele G F

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Akara (fried bean cake is one of the most popular local dishes in Nigeria. Proximate composition, functional properties and sensory evaluation of akara prepared from cowpea and soybean blends were carried out in present study. Furthermore, study was also planned to determine the best ratio of cowpea & soybean blend that can give best akara production (fried beans cake. Result of proximate analysis revealed that the combination of cowpea and soybean blends (sample B, C and D had a higher protein content (15.20, 18.31and 22.52% ash content (1.74, 1.80 and 1.88% crude fat (3.38, 4.06 and 5.28% and crude fiber (1.03, 1.10 and 1.19% compare to individual cowpea control (sample A which have only 4.44% (protein 1.17% (ash 1.91% (crude fat and 0.92% (crude fiber respectively. The functional properties results showed a reduction in bulk density with an increase in soybean blend with cowpea i.e. sample A > B>C. The same pattern of results were recorded for water absorption and swelling capacity. Sample A having the highest value in all the functional properties determined except in oil absorption capacity. The sensory evaluation results showed a slight difference in all parameters tested for except the overall acceptability which showed no significant difference for all the samples at p≤0.05. This implies that cowpea and soybean blends, up to 30% subtitution, can be used to produce akara that will be acceptable thus improving the culinary uses of soybean and improving the nutritional quality of akara.

  1. Determination of the genetic diversity of vegetable soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] using EST-SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu-wen ZHANG; Sheng-chun XU; Wei-hua MAO; Qi-zan HU; Ya-ming GONG

    2013-01-01

    The development of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) provided a useful tool for investigating plant genetic diversity.In the present study,22 polymorphic EST-SSRs from grain soybean were identified and used to assess the genetic diversity in 48 vegetable soybean accessions.Among the 22 EST-SSR loci,tri-nucleotides were the most abundant repeats,accounting for 50.00% of the total motifs.GAA was the most common motif among tri-nucleotide repeats,with a frequency of 18.18%.Polymorphic analysis identified a total of 71 alleles,with an average of 3.23 per locus.The polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.144 to 0.630,with a mean of 0.386.Observed heterozygosity (Ho) values varied from 0.0196 to 1.0000,with an average of 0.6092,while the expected heterozygosity (He) values ranged from 0.1502 to 0.6840,with a mean value of 0.4616.Principal coordinate analysis and phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the accessions could be assigned to different groups based to a large extent on their geographic distribution,and most accessions from China were clustered into the same groups.These results suggest that Chinese vegetable soybean accessions have a narrow genetic base.The results of this study indicate that EST-SSRs from grain soybean have high transferability to vegetable soybean,and that these new markers would be helpful in taxonomy,molecular breeding,and comparative mapping studies of vegetable soybean in the future.

  2. Physiological quality of soybean (Glycine max. L. seeds during to processing Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja (Glycine max. L. durante o beneficiamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano Alessandro Devilla

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Processing is an important phase in the seed industry. It encompasses important steps to attain seed quality and high performance. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological quality of soybean seed cultivars during important steps of that process. A completely randomized design in a 4 x 5 factorial arrangement with four replicates was used. Samples of three soybean cultivars (Vencedora, Emgopa 313, Luziânia - non transgenic and one genetically modified – Valiosa were drawn in five points of the processing chain: 1º - seed dryer; 2º – bucket elevator number 1; 3º – bucket elevator number 2; 4º - bucket elevator number 3; and 5º – seed spiral separator. The following tests were performed: germination, first count, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and tetrazolium (viability and vigor. Results obtained indicated that seeds from cultivars Emgopa-313, Luziânia and Valiosa - RR presented physiological quality higher than Vencedora, in all stages of processing. To cultivar seeds of Vencedora, the number of elevators mug during the stages of drying and processing time increased the percentage of mechanical damage to seed.Na busca de sementes de alto padrão de qualidade, a fase de beneficiamento configura-se como importante etapa. Objetivou com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de cultivares de soja durante o processo de beneficiamento. Empregou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 5, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de quatro cultivares de soja (Vencedora, Emgopa-313, Luziânia – não transgênicas e Valiosa – transgênica coletadas em cinco pontos de amostragem (1º – secador; 2º – elevadores de caneca número 1; 3º – elevadores de caneca número 2; 4º – elevadores de caneca número 3 e 5º – espiral. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada pelos seguintes testes: germinação, primeira

  3. Heavy metal toxicity in rice and soybean plants cultivated in contaminated soil

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    Maria Lígia de Souza Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals can accumulate in soil and cause phytotoxicity in plants with some specific symptoms. The present study evaluated the specific symptoms on rice and soybeans plants caused by excess of heavy metals in soil. Rice and soybean were grown in pots containing soil with different levels of heavy metals. A completely randomized design was used, with four replications, using two crop species and seven sample soils with different contamination levels. Rice and soybean exhibited different responses to the high concentrations of heavy metals in the soil. Rice plants accumulated higher Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations and were more sensitive to high concentrations of these elements in the soil, absorbing them more easily compared to the soybean plants. However, high available Zn concentrations in the soil caused phytotoxicity symptoms in rice and soybean, mainly chlorosis and inhibited plant growth. Further, high Zn concentrations in the soil reduced the Fe concentration in the shoots of soybean and rice plants to levels considered deficient.

  4. Search for Nodulation and Nodule Development-Related Cystatin Genes in the Genome of Soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Songli; Li, Rong; Wang, Lei; Chen, Haifeng; Zhang, Chanjuan; Chen, Limiao; Hao, Qingnan; Shan, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Shuilian; Yang, Zhonglu; Qiu, Dezhen; Zhou, Xinan

    2016-01-01

    Nodulation, nodule development and senescence directly affects nitrogen fixation efficiency, and previous studies have shown that inhibition of some cysteine proteases delay nodule senescence, so their nature inhibitors, cystatin genes, are very important in nodulation, nodule development, and senescence. Although several cystatins are actively transcribed in soybean nodules, their exact roles and functional diversities in legume have not been well explored in genome-wide survey studies. In this report, we performed a genome-wide survey of cystatin family genes to explore their relationship to nodulation and nodule development in soybean and identified 20 cystatin genes that encode peptides with 97-245 amino acid residues, different isoelectric points (pI) and structure characteristics, and various putative plant regulatory elements in 3000 bp putative promoter fragments upstream of the 20 soybean cystatins in response to different abiotic/biotic stresses, hormone signals, and symbiosis signals. The expression profiles of these cystatin genes in soybean symbiosis with rhizobium strain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 113-2 revealed that 7 cystatin family genes play different roles in nodulation as well as nodule development and senescence. However, these genes were not root nodule symbiosis (RNS)-specific and did not encode special clade cystatin protein with structures related to nodulation and nodule development. Besides, only two of these soybean cystatins were not upregulated in symbiosis after ABA treatment. The functional analysis showed that a candidate gene Glyma.15G227500 (GmCYS16) was likely to play a positive role in soybean nodulation. Besides, evolutionary relationships analysis divided the cystatin genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum, rice, barley and four legume plants into three groups. Interestingly, Group A cystatins are special in legume plants, but only include one of the above-mentioned 7 cystatin genes related to nodulation and

  5. Correlation of cotyledonary node shoot proliferation and somatic embryoid development in suspension cultures of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, H R; Barwale, U B; Meyer, M M; Widholm, J M

    1986-04-01

    Suspension cultures of soybean were initiated from hypocotyl or cotyledon callus tissue of several soybean genotypes. When these were grown on L2 medium with 0.4 mg/liter 2,4-D several genotypes produced numerous embryoids while others produced only a few such structures. Due to internal anatomy, no embryoid developed into a complete plant. A genotype's propensity to form normal appearing embryoids was correlated with the ability to proliferate shoots at the cotyledonary node on a medium with benzylaminopurine as determined in previous testing.

  6. Potential for phytoextraction of copper, lead, and zinc by rice (Oryza sativa L.), soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), and maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masaharu; Ae, Noriharu

    2009-03-15

    Phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators has been proposed for decreasing toxic-metal concentrations of contaminated soils. However, hyperaccumulators have several shortcomings to introduce these species into Asian Monsoon's agricultural fields contaminated with low to moderate toxic-metals. To evaluate the phytoextraction potential, maize (Gold Dent), soybean (Enrei and Suzuyutaka), and rice (Nipponbare and Milyang 23) were pot-grown under aerobic soil conditions for 60d on the Andosol or Fluvisol with low to moderate copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contamination. After 2 months cultivation, the Gold Dent maize and Milyang 23 rice shoots took up 20.2-29.5% and 18.5-20.2% of the 0.1molL(-1) HCl-extractable Cu, 10.0-37.3% and 8.5-34.3% of the DTPA-extractable Cu, and 2.4-6.5% and 2.1-5.9% of the total Cu, respectively, in the two soils. Suzuyutaka soybean shoot took up 23.0-29.4% of the 0.1molL(-1) HCl-extractable Zn, 35.1-52.6% of the DTPA-extractable Zn, and 3.8-5.3% of the total Zn in the two soils. Therefore, there is a great potential for Cu phytoextraction by the Gold Dent maize and the Milyang 23 rice and for Zn phytoextraction by the Suzuyutaka soybean from paddy soils with low to moderate contamination under aerobic soil conditions.

  7. Meiotic behavior of several Brazilian soybean varieties

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    Bione Nilton Cesar Pires

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of soybeans little cytogenetic work has traditionally been done, due to the small size and apparent similarity of the chromosomes. Fifteen soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] varieties adapted for cultivation in two distinct regions of Brazil were analyzed cytogenetically. A low frequency of meiotic abnormalities was noted in all varieties, although they were not equally affected. Irregular chromosome segregation, chromosome stickiness, cytoplasmic connections between cells, cytomixis and irregular spindles were the main abnormalities observed, none of which had been described previously in soybeans. All of these abnormalities can affect pollen fertility. Pollen fertility was high in most varieties and was correlated with meiotic abnormalities. Although soybean is not a model system for cytological studies, we found that it is possible to conduct cytogenetic studies on this species, though some modifications in the standard methods for meiotic studies were necessary to obtain satisfactory results.

  8. EFEITO DE DOSES CRESCENTES DE CALCÁRIO SOBRE A POPULAÇÃO DE Heterodera glycines EM SOJA EFFECT OF SOIL LIMING ON Heterodera glycines POPULATION IN SOYBEAN

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    Guilherme Porta Cattini

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Este estudo foi conduzido sob condições de estufa de produção, visando avaliar o efeito de doses crescentes de calcário, sobre a população do nematóide Heterodera glycines em raízes de soja. Tomando como base a recomendação de calcário para elevar a saturação de bases para 50%, adotaram-se cinco tratamentos: testemunha (sem calcário; metade da dose recomendada (0,675 t.ha-1; dose recomendada (1,35 t.ha-1; dobro da recomendação (2,7 t.ha-1; e triplo da recomendação (4,05 t.ha-1. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições. O ensaio foi conduzido em vasos usando como planta hospedeira a soja, cultivar FT-Cristalina, e inoculando-se 4.000 ovos de H. glycines por vaso. Foram avaliados o número fêmeas nas raízes e o número de cistos/100 cm3 de solo. Os resultados mostraram que o número de fêmeas diminuiu à medida que se aumentaram as doses de calcário, até a dose de 3,039 t.ha-1, segundo uma resposta quadrática significativa. O número de cistos no solo reduziu linearmente à medida que foram aumentadas as doses de calcário.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Nematóide de cisto; manejo do solo; calagem.

    The greenhouse study was carried out at Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos – Universidade Federal de Goiás, Brazil, to evaluate increasing levels of soil liming on Heterodera glycines population developing on soybean roots. The full dose of liming was determined in order to increase the base saturation up to 50%. The treatments were: control (no liming, half dose (0.675 t.ha-1, full dose (1.35 t.ha-1, double dose (2.7 t.ha-1, and triple dose (4.05 t.ha-1. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and six replications. Each pot was planted with the cultivar FT-Cristalina and inoculated with 4

  9. Mapping of yellow mosaic virus (YMV) resistance in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) through association mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bhupender; Talukdar, Akshay; Verma, Khushbu; Bala, Indu; Harish, G D; Gowda, Sarmrat; Lal, S K; Sapra, R L; Singh, K P

    2015-02-01

    Yellow Mosaic Virus (YMV) is a serious disease of soybean. Resistance to YMV was mapped in 180 soybean genotypes through association mapping approach using 121 simple sequence repeats (SSR) and four resistance gene analogue (RGA)-based markers. The association mapping population (AMP) (96 genotypes) and confirmation population (CP) (84 genotypes) was tested for resistance to YMV at hot-spot consecutively for 3 years (2007-2009). The genotypes exhibited significant variability for YMV resistance (P Molecular genotyping and population structure analysis with 'admixture' co-ancestry model detected seven optimal sub-populations in the AMP. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the markers extended up to 35 and 10 cM with r2 > 0.15, and >0.25, respectively. The 4 RGA-based markers showed no association with YMV resistance. Two SSR markers, Satt301 and GMHSP179 on chromosome 17 were found to be in significant LD with YMV resistance. Contingency Chi-square test confirmed the association (P < 0.01) and the utility of the markers was validated in the CP. It would pave the way for marker assisted selection for YMV resistance in soybean. This is the first report of its kind in soybean.

  10. Metabolomic Profiling of Soybeans (Glycine Max L.) Reveals Importance of Sugar and Nitogen Metabolisms under Drought and Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean, an important legume crop, is continually threatened by abiotic stresses, especially drought and heat stress. At molecular levels, reduced yields due to drought and heat stress can be seen in the alterations of metabolic homeostasis of vegetative tissues. A global metabolomics approach can b...

  11. High-affinity binding of fungal beta-glucan fragments to soybean (Glycine max L.) microsomal fractions and protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosio, E G; Pöpperl, H; Schmidt, W E; Ebel, J

    1988-08-01

    We have recently reported the existence of binding sites in soybean membranes for a beta-glucan fraction derived from the fungal pathogen Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea, which may play a role in the elicitor-mediated phytoalexin response of this plant [Schmidt, W. E. & Ebel, J. (1987) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 84, 4117-4121]. The specificity of beta-glucan binding to soybean membranes has now been investigated using a variety of competing polyglucans and oligoglucans of fungal origin. P. megasperma beta-glucan binding showed high apparent affinity for branched glucans with degrees of polymerization greater than 12. Binding affinity showed good correlation with elicitor activity as measured in a soybean cotyledon bioassay. Modification of the glucans at the reducing end with phenylalkylamine reagents had no effect on binding affinity. This characteristic was used to synthesize an oligoglucosyl tyramine derivative suitable for radioiodination. The 125I-glucan (15-30 Ci/mmol) provided higher sensitivity and lower detection limits for the binding assays while behaving in a manner identical to the [3H]glucan used previously. More accurate determinations of the Kd value for glucan binding indicated a higher affinity than previously shown (37 nM versus 200 nM). The 125I-glucan was used to provide the first reported evidence of specific binding of a fungal beta-glucan fraction in vivo to soybean protoplasts. The binding affinity to protoplasts proved identical to that found in microsomal fractions.

  12. Cell division and differentiation in protoplasts from cell cultures of Glycine species and leaf tissue of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamborg, O L; Davis, B P; Stahlhut, R W

    1983-08-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from cell cultures of G. soja and G. tabacina, respectively. The isolation procedure employed Percoll for the separation and concentration of protoplasts. The cultured protoplasts formed cells which developed into embryo-like structures. Protoplasts also were isolated from leaf tissue of soybean cv. Williams 82. Upon culture, the protoplasts regenerated cell walls and divided to form cell cultures.

  13. Identification of phosphorus deficiency responsive proteins in a high phosphorus acquisition soybean (Glycine max) cultivar through proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Aihua; Li, Ming; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-05-01

    As one of the major oil crops, soybean might be seriously affected by phosphorus deficiency on both yield and quality. Understanding the molecular basis of phosphorus uptake and utilization in soybean may help to develop phosphorus (P) efficient cultivars. On this purpose, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis on a high P acquisition soybean cultivar BX10 under low and high P conditions. A total of 61 unique proteins were identified as putative P deficiency responsive proteins. These proteins were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein biosynthesis/processing, energy metabolism, cellular processes, environmental defense/interaction, nucleotide metabolism, signal transduction, secondary metabolism and other metabolism related processes. Several proteins involved in energy metabolism, cellular processes, and protein biosynthesis and processing were found to be up-regulated in both shoots and roots, whereas, proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism appeared to be down-regulated. These proteins are potential candidates for improving P acquisition. These findings provide a useful starting point for further research that will provide a more comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms through which soybeans adapt to P deficiency condition.

  14. Complexation of bovine beta-lactoglobulin with 11S protein fractions of soybean (Glycine max) and sesame (Sesamum indicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, S N; Prakash, V

    2009-01-01

    Beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) comprises 50% of the whey component of bovine milk. Protein-protein interactions between bovine beta-Lg and 11S protein fractions of soybean and sesame were investigated by turbidity, solubility behaviour and by evaluation of functional properties in the mixed systems. In this work, the aggregation behaviour of soybean and the whey protein (beta-Lg) showed the formation of soluble complexes. Turbidity and solubility studies showed that the proteins interacted at temperatures between 60 and 90+/-5 degrees C. Heating a mixture of beta-Lg and 11S proteins of soybean at higher temperatures formed soluble complexes with beta-Lg. It also reduced the self aggregation behaviour, especially that of 11S protein fraction of soybean. This reduced the precipitation of soybean proteins at higher temperature. The complex formed was resolved by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Upon heating beta-Lg at neutral pH, native dimer starts to dissociate into monomers leading to the exposure of previously buried hydrophobic amino acids and the free thiol group. The soluble complex is formed by the exposed thiol groups. But interaction of beta-Lg with sesame 11S protein fractions did not form any soluble complexes. The mechanism of interaction indicates that hydrophobic interactions were preferred over disulfide linkages at the high salt concentrations of the buffer used. During thermal treatment the molecules are unfolded, leading to an exposure of the hydrophobic groups that further enhance the protein-protein interactions that are entropically driven hydrophobic interactions.

  15. Nutritional requirements for soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans [Glycine max] are the second largest cash crop in US Agriculture, but the soybean yield is compromised by infections from Heterodera glycines, also known as Soybean Cyst Nematodes [SCN]. SCN are the most devastating pathogen or plant disease soybean producers confront. This obligate parasi...

  16. Enxofre aplicado via foliar na cultura da soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] Foliar aplication of sulfur on soybean[Glycine max (L. Merrill] crop

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    Pedro Milanez de Rezende

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar doses de enxofre aplicadas via foliar no acúmulo de nutrientes na planta e na produtividade da soja. O ensaio foi constituído por 7 tratamentos sendo utilizado o produto S300(S=26%, densidade=1,16 nas dosagens 1,0; 2,0 e 3,0 l.ha-1 e S800 (S=56%, densidade=1,43 com doses 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 l.ha-1 e um tratamento controle, sendo todas as aplicações realizadas em R3. As parcelas foram constituídas por 4 linhas espaçadas de 0,50m sendo utilizadas como área útil as duas fileiras centrais. A produtividade dos grãos foi alterada significativamente pela aplicação do S, com destaque para S300 2,0 e 3,0 l.ha-1 e S800 1,0 e 1,5 l.ha-1 que proporcionaram rendimento de 2641, 2636, 2621 e 2549 kg.ha-1. Em relação aos nutrientes verificou-se que teor de Ca e S na planta foram elevados com a aplicação de S foliar.The objective of this work was to evaluate doses of foliar sulfur application on the accumulation of nutrients in the plant and on the productivity of the soybean crop. The experiment consisted of seven treatments using the product S300 (S=26%, density =1,16 with doses 1,0; 2,0 and 3,0 l./ha-1 and S800 (S=56%, density =1,43 with doses 0,5; 1,0 and 1,5 l./ha-1 , and a control, with all of the applications being carried out in R3 stage. The plots consisted of 4 rows with 5,0m in length, spaced at 0,50m, utilizing the two central rows. The productivity of the grains was altered significantly by the application of sulfur for treatments S300 2,0 and 3,0 l.ha-1 and S800 1,0 and 1,5 l.ha-1 that yielded 2641, 2636, 2621, and 2549 kg/.ha-1. With respect to nutrients, it was confirmed that the content of Calcium and Sulfur in the plants was high with the foliar application of sulfur.

  17. Simulação da soja geneticamente modificada tolerante ao glyphosate por meio do cultivo de explantes Simulation of the transgenic soybean tolerant to glyphosate through explant cultivation

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    Sérgio C. Siqueira

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento consistiu na simulação in vitro da soja transgênica tolerante ao glyphosate, através do cultivo de explantes em meios de cultura contendo aminoácidos aromáticos. As avaliações basearam-se nos efeitos do glyphosate sobre sementes oriundas de explantes de soja (Glycine max (L. Merr. cv. UFV-16. Para tanto, explantes de soja foram cultivados em meios de cultura líquidos com pH em torno de 5,0. Cada explante constou de um legume completamente expandido contendo duas sementes de aproximadamente 100 mg, conectada a um segmento de caule de 45 mm de comprimento. Os tratamentos testados foram: A = glutamina (Gln; B = Gln + fenilalanina (Phe + tirosina (Tyr + triptofano (Trp; C = Gln + glyphosate; D = Gln + Phe + Tyr + Trp + glyphosate. O experimento foi conduzido sob irradiância de 80 mmol-2s-1 a 25oC por 204 horas. Nos tratamentos que receberam aminoácidos aromáticos e glutamina, o herbicida não afetou as massas fresca e seca das sementes, como também, não afetou seus constituintes bioquímicos (proteínas, óleo, ácidos graxos, carboidratos e clorofilas. Portanto, a suplementação exógena de aminoácidos aromáticos suprime os efeitos fitotóxicos do glyphosate sobre explantes de soja, permitindo estudos sobre o seu modo de ação e metabolismo nas sementes, uma vez que os explantes se comportaram analogamente à soja transgênica não suscetível ao herbicida.The objective of this experiment consisted in simulation in vitro of the transgenic soybean tolerant to glyphosate through explant cultivation in culture medium containing aromatic amino acids. The effects of glyphosate on soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill were evaluated in seeds harvested from explants of cv UFV-16. The soybean explants were cultivated in liquid medium culture with pH about 5.0. Each explant consisted of one fruit completely expanded, containing two seeds of 100 mg approximately, and connected to a stem segment of 45 mm length. The

  18. System-level insights into the cellular interactome of a non-model organism: inferring, modelling and analysing functional gene network of soybean (Glycine max.

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    Yungang Xu

    Full Text Available Cellular interactome, in which genes and/or their products interact on several levels, forming transcriptional regulatory-, protein interaction-, metabolic-, signal transduction networks, etc., has attracted decades of research focuses. However, such a specific type of network alone can hardly explain the various interactive activities among genes. These networks characterize different interaction relationships, implying their unique intrinsic properties and defects, and covering different slices of biological information. Functional gene network (FGN, a consolidated interaction network that models fuzzy and more generalized notion of gene-gene relations, have been proposed to combine heterogeneous networks with the goal of identifying functional modules supported by multiple interaction types. There are yet no successful precedents of FGNs on sparsely studied non-model organisms, such as soybean (Glycine max, due to the absence of sufficient heterogeneous interaction data. We present an alternative solution for inferring the FGNs of soybean (SoyFGNs, in a pioneering study on the soybean interactome, which is also applicable to other organisms. SoyFGNs exhibit the typical characteristics of biological networks: scale-free, small-world architecture and modularization. Verified by co-expression and KEGG pathways, SoyFGNs are more extensive and accurate than an orthology network derived from Arabidopsis. As a case study, network-guided disease-resistance gene discovery indicates that SoyFGNs can provide system-level studies on gene functions and interactions. This work suggests that inferring and modelling the interactome of a non-model plant are feasible. It will speed up the discovery and definition of the functions and interactions of other genes that control important functions, such as nitrogen fixation and protein or lipid synthesis. The efforts of the study are the basis of our further comprehensive studies on the soybean functional

  19. Comparison of Small RNA Profiles of Glycine max and Glycine soja at Early Developmental Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuzhe; Mui, Zeta; Liu, Xuan; Yim, Aldrin Kay-Yuen; Qin, Hao; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Chan, Ting-Fung; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Lam, Hon-Ming; Lim, Boon Leong

    2016-12-06

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs; from PHAS loci), play key roles in plant development. Cultivated soybean, Glycine max, contributes a great deal to food production, but, compared to its wild kin, Glycine soja, it may lose some genetic information during domestication. In this work, we analyzed the sRNA profiles of different tissues in both cultivated (C08) and wild soybeans (W05) at three stages of development. A total of 443 known miRNAs and 15 novel miRNAs showed varying abundances between different samples, but the miRNA profiles were generally similar in both accessions. Based on a sliding window analysis workflow that we developed, 50 PHAS loci generating 55 21-nucleotide phasiRNAs were identified in C08, and 46 phasiRNAs from 41 PHAS loci were identified in W05. In germinated seedlings, phasiRNAs were more abundant in C08 than in W05. Disease resistant TIR-NB-LRR genes constitute a very large family of PHAS loci. PhasiRNAs were also generated from several loci that encode for NAC transcription factors, Dicer-like 2 (DCL2), Pentatricopeptide Repeat (PPR), and Auxin Signaling F-box 3 (AFB3) proteins. To investigate the possible involvement of miRNAs in initiating the PHAS-phasiRNA pathway, miRNA target predictions were performed and 17 C08 miRNAs and 15 W05 miRNAs were predicted to trigger phasiRNAs biogenesis. In summary, we provide a comprehensive description of the sRNA profiles of wild versus cultivated soybeans, and discuss the possible roles of sRNAs during soybean germination.

  20. Resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS na cultura da soja (Glycine max Weed resistance to ALS - inhibiting herbicides in soybean (Glycine max crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Monqueiro

    2000-01-01

    .a. ha-1. As curvas de dose-resposta da porcentagem de controle das plantas daninhas aos 14 dias após o tratamento dos biotipos resistentes apresentaram valores inferiores aos das curvas de dose-resposta dos biotipos suscetíveis, mesmo nas doses extremas utilizadas. As taxas de resistência (GR50(resistente/GR50(suscetível para picão-preto foram de 9,90 para chlorimuron-ethyl, 9,07 para nicosulfuron e 27,03 para imazethapyr, enquanto para caruru elas foram de 45,03 para o chlorimuron-ethyl, 181 para o nicosulfuron e 24,55 para o imazethapyr.In the soybean crop, the weeds Bidens pilosa/Bidens subalternans and Amaranthus quitensis are controlled by several herbicides, with the acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors being the ones most sprayed by growers. The intensive and repetitive use of these herbicides in soybean areas of São Gabriel do Oeste (Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil and in the provinces of Córdoba and Tucumã (Argentina have imposed a great selection pressure on the resistant population of these weeds. In order to determine the cross resistance of these biotypes to ALS - inhibiting herbicides (sulfonylureas and imidazolinones, an experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The weeds Bidens pilosa/Bidens subalternans and Amaranthus quitensis, whose seeds were collected from suspected sites of herbicide resistance, were treated by the herbicides chlorimuron-ethyl, imazethapyr and nicosulfuron at several rates, and compared to plants whose seeds were obtained from susceptible populations. The treatments were established considering rates giving, at least, 50% of control (GR50, using multiples of the recommended rates. Chlorimuron-ethyl was sprayed at 1500, 750, 150, 75, 15, 7.5, 1.5 g a.i. ha-1, imazethapyr at 8000, 4000, 800, 400, 80, 40, 8 g a.i. ha-1 and nicosulfuron at 1.200, 600, 120, 60, 12, 6, 1.2 g a.i. ha-1. The resistant biotype

  1. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  2. Compositional variability in conventional and glyphosate-tolerant soybean (Glycine max L.) varieties grown in different regions in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Berman, Kristina H; Breeze, Matthew L; Nemeth, Margaret A; Oliveira, Wladecir S; Braga, Daniella P V; Berger, Geraldo U; Harrigan, George G

    2011-11-09

    The compositions of a diverse range of commercially available conventional and genetically modified (GM; glyphosate-tolerant) soybean varieties from maturity groups 8 and 5, respectively, grown in the northern and southern soybean regions of Brazil during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 growing seasons were compared. Compositional analyses included measurement of essential macro- and micronutrients, antinutrients, and selected secondary metabolites in harvested seed as well as measurement of proximates in both forage and harvested seed. Statistical comparisons utilized a mixed analysis of variance model to evaluate the relative contributions of growing season, soybean growing region, production site, phenotype (GM or conventional), and variety. The study highlighted extensive variability in the overall data set particularly for components such as fatty acids, vitamin E, and isoflavones. There were few differences between the GM and non-GM populations, and most of the variability in the data set could be attributed to regional and variety differences. Overall, the results were consistent with the expanding literature on the lack of any meaningful impact of transgene insertion on crop composition.

  3. Isolation and Expression Profile Analysis of Genes Relevant to Chilling Stress During Seed Imbibition in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Meer.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Li-bao; LI Shu-yan; HE Guang-yuan

    2009-01-01

    Germination of soybean seed is always arrested by chilling imbibitional stress,and this phenomenon is widespread in the plant seed kingdom,but has not been studied at molecular level.In this experiment,eDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique was applied to isolate genes relevant to chilling stress (4~C) during soybean seed imbibition.Eight genes were found to be up-regulated and two were down-regulated during chilling stress respectively.Four up-regulated genes were selected to analyze the expression profiles during imbibition under chilling condition.It was demonstrated that the four genes were induced significantly by 4℃ for 24 h,and decreased when the temperature was shifted from 4 to 22℃.GMCHI,a highly chilling stress-induced gene which responded to abseisic acid (ABA),polyethylene glycol (PEG) and NaCl,showed great stress-resistance according to published reports.Cos78 was identified to be induced by PEG.However,Cos66 and Cos36 transcription showed no change to ABA,PEG,and NaCl.From the characteristic of genes isolated from the embryonic axis,we concluded that soybean seeds have different pathways to adapt to various biotic and abiotic stresses by regulating many signal transduction pathways.

  4. Effects of two low phytic acid mutations on seed quality and nutritional traits in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Feng-Jie; Zhu, Dan-Hua; Deng, Bo; Fu, Xu-Jun; Dong, De-Kun; Zhu, Shen-Long; Li, Bai-Quan; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2009-05-13

    Reduction of phytic acid in soybean seeds has the potential to improve the nutritional value of soybean meal and lessen phosphorus pollution in large scale animal farming. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of two new low phytic acid (LPA) mutations on seed quality and nutritional traits. Multilocation/season comparative analyses showed that the two mutations did not affect the concentration of crude protein, any of the individual amino acids, crude oil, and individual saturated fatty acids. Among other traits, Gm-lpa-TW75-1 had consistently higher sucrose contents (+47.4-86.1%) and lower raffinose contents (-74.2 to -84.3%) than those of wild type (WT) parent Taiwan 75; Gm-lpa-ZC-2 had higher total isoflavone contents (3038.8-4305.4 microg/g) than its parent Zhechun # 3 (1583.6-2644.9 microg/g) in all environments. Further tests of homozygous F(3) progenies of the cross Gm-lpa-ZC-2 x Wuxing # 4 (WT variety) showed that LPA lines had a mean content of total isoflavone significantly higher than WT lines. This study demonstrated that two LPA mutant genes have no negative effects on seed quality and nutritional traits; they instead have the potential to improve a few other properties. Therefore, these two mutant genes are valuable genetic resources for breeding high quality soybean varieties.

  5. Resposta da soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill à ação de bioestimulante = Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill response to biostimulant action

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    Celestina Alflen Klahold

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar o efeito do bioestimulante, Stimulate®, aplicado via semente e pulverização foliar, na cultura da soja, conduziu-se um experimento sob ambiente protegido, em vasos. O delineamento foi de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos constaram da combinação de doses de bioestimulate, aplicadas via semente (0, 3 e 5 mL kg-1 de sementes na semeadura e via foliar (0,0; 0,075; 0,150 e 0,225 mL L-1, aos 58 dias após a emergência (DAE. Realizaram-se coletas de plantas aos 73 e 129 DAE.Para algumas das variáveis estudadas, nas doses utilizadas, houve efeito negativo na resposta à aplicação de bioestimulante, para algumas doses testadas. Respostas positivas foram verificadas para massa seca de flores, raízes, razão raiz/parte aérea, número de flores, vagens e grãos e produção por planta. Destacaram-se positivamente os tratamentos: 0,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,150 mL L-1 (APF; 3,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,0 mL L-1 (APF; 3,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS+ 0,225 mL L-1 (APF e 5,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,075 mL L-1 (APF.Aiming to verify the effect of the bioestimulant, Stimulate®, applied saw by seed and leaf pulverization, in the culture of the soybean. It behaved an experiment under greenhouse, in vases. Randomized block experimental design was used, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the combination of bioestimulant doses: seed application (SA (0; 3; and 5 mL kg-1 of seeds in the sowing and leaf spray (LS (0.0; 0.075; 0.150; and 0.225 mL L- 1, to the 58 days after the emergency (DAE. Collections of plants were accomplished to the 73 and 129 DAE. For some of the studied variables, in the used doses, there was negative effect in the response of the biostimulant application, for some tested doses. Positives responses were verified for flowers and roots dry mass; root/shoot relation; flowers; beans and grains number; and yield for plant. They stood out the treatments: 0,0 mL 0.5 kg-1 (SA + 0.150 mL L-1 (LS; 3.0 mL 0.5 kg

  6. The Effect of using Quail Litter Biochar on Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. Production Efecto del uso de Biocarbón de Lecho de Codorniz en la Producción de Soya (Glycine max L. Merr.

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    Tawadchai Suppadit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochars can be used as soil amendments for improving soil properties and crop yield. The objective of this research was to study the plant growth, yield, yield components, and seed quality, including nutrients and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Hg, in the soybean plant (Glycine max L. Merr. and soil. The experiment was conducted from September 2010 to January 2011 in a greenhouse located in the Dan Khun Thot District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The research comprised six treatments with four replicates in a completely randomized design. Quail litter biochar (QLB at rates of 0, 24.6, 49.2, 73.8, 98.4 and 123 g per pot mixture were provided to soybean cv. Chiang Mai 60. The results showed that QLB could be used as a soil fertility improvement and amendment for soybean production with an optimum rate of 98.4 g per pot mixture, which gave the best performance in terms of the number of nodes, height, DM accumulation, total yield, and seed quality. After the experiment, the nutrient contents in the soil increased as the QLB content increased, but the heavy metal residues in the leaves and seeds did not change. However, QLB at levels higher than 98.4 g per pot mixture is not advisable because QLB is alkaline in nature, which may affect soil pH.El biocarbón puede usarse como enmienda para mejorar las propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento del cultivo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue el estudio del crecimiento de la planta, rendimiento y sus características, así como la calidad de semilla, incluyéndose el estudio de nutrientes y metales pesados (Pb, Cd y Hg en la planta de soya (Glycine max L. Merr. y el suelo. La experimentación se realizó en condiciones de invernadero en el distrito de Dan Khun Thot, provincia de Nakhon Ratchasima, Tailandia, entre septiembre del 2010 y enero del 2011. La investigación constó de seis tratamientos con cuatro repeticiones en un diseño completamente al azar. Se administró biocarbón de lecho de

  7. High residue cultivation timing impact on organic no-till soybean weed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cereal rye cover crop mulch can suppress summer annual weeds early in the soybean growing season. However, a multi-tactic weed management approach is required when annual weed seedbanks are large or perennial weeds are present. In such situations, the weed suppression from a cereal rye mulch can b...

  8. Evaluation of distribution and manganese availability in soils under soybean cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes Coutinho, Edson Luiz; de Cássia Gomes São João, Andréia; Mendes Coutinho Neto, André; Corá, José Eduardo; Fernandes, Carolina

    2013-04-01

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency in soybean became a problem in Brazil, mainly, due to soil low fertility use or soil high pH due to incorrect lime use. However, the manganese deficiency have not been thoroughly investigated. The effect of Mn soil application on Mn distribution among exchangeable, organic matter, amorphous Fe and Al oxides, crystalline Fe and Al oxides, and residual fractions were studied on a Typic Quartzipsament (RQ), a clayey Typic Haplustox (LVA) and a sandy clay loam Typic Haplustox (LV), in a greenhouse experiment carried out in Jaboticabal (SP) - Brazil (21°14'05'' S and 48°17'09'' W). A complete randomized design with three replications of treatments in a 3 x 6 factorial arrangement (three soils and six manganese rates) was used. Five soybean plants were grown during 34 days in pots with 2.5 kg of soil. The Mn contents in these fractions were correlated with those extracted by DTPA and by Mehlich-1 extractants and with soybean shoot Mn contents. Mn rates (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mg kg-1) were applied using manganese sulphate (MnSO4). In the Oxisols, most of the Mn was associated with the Fe and Al oxides (amorphous and crystalline) and residual fractions. In the sandy soil (RQ), higher contents were found in exchangeable and residual fractions. Exchangeable fraction was the most important Mn supplier to soybean plants. Multiple regression analysis showed that Mn extracted by DTPA and Mehlich-1 were associated with soil exchangeable fraction.

  9. A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja

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    Dubouzet Joseph G

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. Results B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H. The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. Conclusions B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean

  10. Combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolite data reveals extensive differences between black and brown nearly-isogenic soybean (Glycine max seed coats enabling the identification of pigment isogenes

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    Arnason John T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The R locus controls the color of pigmented soybean (Glycine max seeds. However information about its control over seed coat biochemistry and gene expressions remains limited. The seed coats of nearly-isogenic black (iRT and brown (irT soybean (Glycine max were known to differ by the presence or absence of anthocyanins, respectively, with genes for only a single enzyme (anthocyanidin synthase found to be differentially expressed between isolines. We recently identified and characterized a UDP-glycose:flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase (UGT78K1 from the seed coat of black (iRT soybean with the aim to engineer seed coat color by suppression of an anthocyanin-specific gene. However, it remained to be investigated whether UGT78K1 was overexpressed with anthocyanin biosynthesis in the black (iRT seed coat compared to the nearly-isogenic brown (irT tissue. In this study, we performed a combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolite data to elucidate the control of the R locus over seed coat biochemistry and to identify pigment biosynthesis genes. Two differentially expressed late-stage anthocyanin biosynthesis isogenes were further characterized, as they may serve as useful targets for the manipulation of soybean grain color while minimizing the potential for unintended effects on the plant system. Results Metabolite composition differences were found to not be limited to anthocyanins, with specific proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, and phenylpropanoids present exclusively in the black (iRT or the brown (irT seed coat. A global analysis of gene expressions identified UGT78K1 and 19 other anthocyanin, (isoflavonoid, and phenylpropanoid isogenes to be differentially expressed between isolines. A combined analysis of metabolite and gene expression data enabled the assignment of putative functions to biosynthesis and transport isogenes. The recombinant enzymes of two genes were validated to catalyze late-stage steps in anthocyanin

  11. Sensibilidade de cultivares de soja (Glycine max aos herbicidas diclosulam e flumetsulam Soybean (Glycine max cultivars sensibility to the herbicides diclosulam and flumetsulam

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    Célio R. F. Leite

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar, no campo, no município de Londrina-PR, a resposta de 12 cultivares de soja em relação aos herbicidas diclosulam e flumetsulam aplicados e incorporados em Latossolo Roxo distrófico (80,84 % de argila, pH 5,4 e matéria orgânica 3,07 %. As cultivares foram: 'FT-Guaira', 'Embrapa-48', 'Ocepar-14', 'BR-16', 'Embrapa-4', 'Ocepar-13', 'BR-36', 'FT10-Princesa', 'FT-2000', 'FTAbyara', 'BR-37' e 'RS7- Jacuí'. O diclosulam foi utilizado nas doses de 35 g/ha (normal e 70 g/ha (dobrada; e o flumetsulam nas doses de 120 g/ha (normal e 240 g/ha (dobrada; também foi utilizada a mistura de diclosulam + flumetsulam (20 + 100 g/ha; e imazaquin à 150 g/ha. Nas doses normais utilizadas dos dois herbicidas não foi possível distinguir nenhuma cultivar suscetível. Em dose dobrada do diclosulam os rendimentos das cultivares 'FT-Guaira', 'Embrapa 4' e 'BR-37 ' foram reduzidos em 20,9 %, 11,8 % e 11,0 % respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. O flumetsulam à 240 g/ha e sua mistura com diclosulam também reduziu o rendimento destas cultivares, mais o da 'Ocepar-14'. A maioria das cultivares teve o estande reduzido, nas doses dobradas dos dois herbicidas, mas também sem significância. Somente o estande da cultivar 'Embrapa-48' não foi afetado, ao contrário da 'RS-7 Jacuí'. A altura de plantas foi menor em relação à testemunha no tratamento com flumetsulam à 240 g/ha. Na maioria das cultivares o peso da biomassa seca de nódulos foi menor nas doses dobradas, e em algumas também o peso por unidade de nódulos. A biomassa seca da parte aérea e da raiz não foram reduzidas.The objective of the present paper was to check the behaviour of 12 different soybean cultivars in relation to the tolerance to the herbicides flumetsulam and diclosulam applied on a soil classified as Latossolo Roxo distrófico (80,87% of clay, pH of 5,4 and 3,07 of organic matter in Londrina - PR. The cultivars were: 'FTGuaira', 'Embrapa

  12. Phenylalanine is required to promote specific developmental responses and prevents cellular damage in response to ultraviolet light in soybean (Glycine max during the seed-to-seedling transition.

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    Joe H Sullivan

    Full Text Available UV-radiation elicits a suite of developmental (photomorphogenic and protective responses in plants, but responses early post-germination have received little attention, particularly in intensively bred plants of economic importance. We examined germination, hypocotyl elongation, leaf pubescence and subcellular responses of germinating and/or etiolated soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. seedlings in response to treatment with discrete wavelengths of UV-A or UV-B radiation. We demonstrate differential responses of germinating/young soybean seedlings to a range of UV wavelengths that indicate unique signal transduction mechanisms regulate UV-initiated responses. We have investigated how phenylalanine, a key substrate in the phenylpropanoid pathway, may be involved in these responses. Pubescence may be a key location for phenylalanine-derived protective compounds, as UV-B irradiation increased pubescence and accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds within primary leaf pubescence, visualized by microscopy and absorbance spectra. Mass spectrometry analysis of pubescence indicated that sinapic esters accumulate in the UV-irradiated hairs compared to unirradiated primary leaf tissue. Deleterious effects of some UV-B wavelengths on germination and seedling responses were reduced or entirely prevented by inclusion of phenylalanine in the growth media. Key effects of phenylalanine were not duplicated by tyrosine or tryptophan or sucrose, nor is the specificity of response due to the absorbance of phenylalanine itself. These results suggest that in the seed-to-seedling transition, phenylalanine may be a limiting factor in the development of initial mechanisms of UV protection in the developing leaf.

  13. Catalytic features and crystal structure of a tau class glutathione transferase from Glycine max specifically upregulated in response to soybean mosaic virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopelitou, Katholiki; Muleta, Abdi W; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C; Chronopoulou, Evangelia; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2015-02-01

    The plant tau class glutathione transferases (GSTs) play important roles in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in crops and weeds. In this study, we systematically examined the catalytic and structural features of a GST isoenzyme from Glycine max (GmGSTU10-10). GmGSTU10-10 is a unique isoenzyme in soybean that is specifically expressed in response to biotic stress caused by soybean mosaic virus (SMV) infections. GmGSTU10-10 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. The results showed that GmGSTU10-10 catalyzes several different reactions and exhibits wide substrate specificity. Of particular importance is the finding that the enzyme shows high antioxidant catalytic function and acts as hydroperoxidase. In addition, its Km for GSH is significantly lower, compared to other plant GSTs, suggesting that GmGSTU10-10 is able to perform efficient catalysis under conditions where the concentration of reduced glutathione is low (e.g. oxidative stress). The crystal structure of GmGSTU10-10 was solved by molecular replacement at 1.6Å resolution in complex with glutathione sulfenic acid (GSOH). Structural analysis showed that GmGSTU10-10 shares the same overall fold and domain organization as other plant cytosolic GSTs; however, major variations were identified in helix H9 and the upper part of helix H4 that affect the size of the active site pockets, substrate recognition and the catalytic mechanism. The results of the present study provide new information into GST diversity and give further insights into the complex regulation and enzymatic functions of this plant gene superfamily.

  14. Site of clomazone action in tolerant-soybean and susceptible-cotton photomixotrophic cell suspension cultures. [Glycine max (L. ); Gossypium hirsutum

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    Norman, M.A.; Liebl, R.A.; Widholm, J.M. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the herbicidal site of clomazone action in tolerant-soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Corsoy) (SB-M) and susceptible-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum (L.) cv Stoneville 825) (COT-M) photomixotrophic cell suspension cultures. Although a 10 micromolar clomazone treatment did not significantly reduce the terpene or mixed terpenoid content (microgram per gram fresh weight) of the SB-M cell line, there was over a 70% reduction in the chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoid (CAR), and plastoquinone (PQ) content of the COT-M cell line. The tocopherol (TOC) content was reduced only 35.6%. Reductions in the levels of Chl, CAR, TOC, and PQ indicate that the site of clomazone action in COT-M cells is prior to geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). The clomazone treatment did not significantly reduce the flow of ({sup 14}C)mevalonate (({sup 14}C)MEV) (nanocuries per gram fresh weight) into CAR and the three mixed terpenoid compounds of SB-M cells. Conversely, ({sup 14}C)MEV incorporation into CAR and the terpene moieties of Chl, PQ, and TOC in COT-M cells was reduced at least 73%, indicating that the site of clomazone action must be after MEV. Sequestration of clomazone away from the chloroplast cannot account for soybean tolerance to clomazone since chloroplasts isolated from both cell lines incubated with ({sup 14}C)clomazone contained a similar amount of radioactivity (disintegrations per minute per microgram of Chl). The possible site(s) of clomazone inhibition include mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, pyrophosphomevalonate decarboxylase, isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase, and/or a prenyl transferase.

  15. Root morphological responses of five soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cultivars to cadmium stress at young seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Deng, Xiaojuan; Huang, Yian; Fang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Jie; Wan, Haibo; Yang, Cunyi

    2016-01-01

    To examine the differences in root morphological responses of soybean cultivars with different cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation to Cd stress, the biomass, Cd concentration, and root morphological features of five soybean cultivars were determined under 0, 9, 23, 45, and 90 μM Cd stress via hydroponic experiments. Significantly genotypic differences in Cd tolerance and Cd concentration were observed between five soybean cultivars at four Cd levels. For Cd tolerance, HX3 showed a strong Cd tolerance with tolerance indexes of shoot biomass at 92.49, 76.44, 60.21, and 46.45% after 18 days at four Cd levels, and others had similar weak tolerance at young seedling. For Cd accumulation, Cd concentration in roots showed far higher than that in shoots. The different accumulation features in roots and shoots among five cultivars were found at four Cd levels. Comparing with the control, the total root length (RL), root surface area (SA), and root volume (RV) of all cultivars were decreased significantly at four Cd levels. Tolerant cultivar HX3 had the largest root system and sensitive cultivar BX10 had the smallest root system at young seedling stage. Correlation analysis indicated that RL, SA, and RV were positively correlated with root biomass and shoot biomass under 9 and 23 μM Cd treatments, but root average diameter (RD) was negatively correlated with shoot biomass and root biomass only under 9 μM Cd treatments, while RL and SA were negatively correlated with root Cd concentration under 23 and 45 μM Cd treatments. The results suggested that root morphological traits were closely related to Cd tolerance at young seedlings under Cd treatments.

  16. Arsenic effect on the model crop symbiosis Bradyrhizobium-soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talano, Melina A; Cejas, Romina B; González, Paola S; Agostini, Elizabeth

    2013-02-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is often being cultivated in soils with moderate to high arsenic (As) concentrations or under irrigation with As contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of As on soybean germination, development and nodulation in soybean-Bradyrhizobium japonicum E109 symbiosis, as a first-step approach to evaluate the impact of As on soybean production. Semi-hydroponic assays were conducted using soybean seedlings inoculated and non-inoculated with B. japonicum E109 and treated with arsenate or arsenite. Soybean germination and development, at early stage of growth, were significantly reduced from 10 μM arsenate or arsenite. This also was seen for soybean seedlings inoculated with B. japonicum mainly with arsenite where, in addition, the number of effective nodules was reduced, despite that the microorganism tolerated the metalloid. This minor nodulation could be due to a reduced motility (swarming and swimming) of the microorganism in presence of As. Arsenic concentration in roots was about 250-times higher than in shoots. Transference coefficient values indicated that As translocation to aerial parts was low and As accumulated mainly in roots, without significant differences between inoculated and non-inoculated plants. The presence of As restricted soybean-B. japonicum symbiosis and hence, the efficiency of most used commercial inoculants for soybean. Thus, water and/or soils containing As would negatively impact on soybean production, even in plants inoculated with B. japonicum E109.

  17. Influence of Agricultural Practices on Biotic Production Potential and Climate Regulation Potential. A Case Study for Life Cycle Assessment of Soybean (Glycine max in Argentina

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    Roxana Piastrellini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the impact potential of land use on biotic production and climate regulation in the agricultural phase of a product, taking into account the varied soil and crop management. Land occupation and transformation impacts of soybean production in Argentina for different agricultural systems are evaluated. The results indicate that the magnitude of occupation and transformation impacts is considerably reduced by implementing no-tillage instead of conventional tillage. Nevertheless, the methodologies adopted are unable to show any of the expected differences between rainfed or irrigation systems, crop sequences and delays in seed-planting, due to failures in the specific characterization factors. On the other hand, an uncertainty is demonstrated by the results associated with the choice of regeneration time corresponding to the different ecoregions over which soybean cultivation extends across the country. One of the recommendations that comes to the fore is to consider in the characterization factors increments in the soil organic carbon stock and in the mineralization rates, associated with the presence of the preceding crop and the greater availability of water in the soil of irrigated systems.

  18. Persimmon Fruit Powder May Substitute Indolbi, a Synthetic Growth Regulator, in Soybean Sprout Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Park, Yong-Sung; Kim, Dong Joon; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2017-09-03

    Soybean sprouts are a major food item in Korea. Various studies have been carried out to enhance their yield and nutritional values. The objective of the present study was to examine the influence of persimmon fruit powder and Indolbi, a synthetic plant growth regulator, on the yield and nutritional value of soybean sprouts. Seeds were soaked in tap water containing 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0% (w/v) persimmon fruit powder and the samples were named as PT-1, PT-2, PT-3, and PT-4, respectively. The yield increment was almost doubled in PT-3 and PT-4 than in the Indolbi treated sprouts on basis of the control. Vitamin C, isoflavones, and total phenolic contents as well as antioxidant potentials (determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays) were also significantly (p products.

  19. Effect of silicon addition on soybean (Glycine max) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants grown under iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, María José; Lucena, Juan J; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2013-09-01

    Silicon is considered an essential element in several crops enhancing growth and alleviating different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this work, the role of Si in the alleviation of iron deficiency symptoms and in the Fe distribution in iron deficient plants has been studied. Thus, soybean and cucumber plants grown in hydroponic culture under iron limiting conditions were treated with different Si doses (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mM). The use of a strong chelating agent such as HBED avoided Fe co-precipitation in the nutrient solution and allowed for the first time the analysis of Si effect in iron nutrition without the interference of the iron rhizospheric precipitation. SPAD index, plant growth parameters and mineral content in plant organs were determined. For soybean, the addition of 0.5 mM of Si to the nutrient solution without iron, initially or continuously during the experiment, prevented the chlorophyll degradation, slowed down the growth decrease due to the iron deficiency and maintained the Fe content in leaves. In cucumber, Si addition delayed the decrease of stem dry weight, stem length, node number and iron content in stems and roots independently of the dose, but no-effect was observed in chlorosis symptoms alleviation in leaves. The observed response to Si addition in iron deficiency was plant-specific, probably related with the different Fe efficiency strategies developed by these two species.

  20. Comparison of saponin composition and content in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) before and after germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Panneerselvam; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Takahashi, Yuya; Hongo, Yuji; Singh, Ram J; Lee, Jeong Dong; Chung, Gyuhwa

    2014-01-01

    Eight wild soybean accessions with different saponin phenotypes were used to examine saponin composition and relative saponin quantity in various tissues of mature seeds and two-week-old seedlings by LC-PDA/MS/MS. Saponin composition and content were varied according to tissues and accessions. The average total saponin concentration in 1 g mature dry seeds of wild soybean was 16.08 ± 3.13 μmol. In two-week-old seedlings, produced from 1 g mature seeds, it was 27.94 ± 6.52 μmol. Group A saponins were highly concentrated in seed hypocotyl (4.04 ± 0.71 μmol). High concentration of DDMP saponins (7.37 ± 5.22 μmol) and Sg-6 saponins (2.19 ± 0.59 μmol) was found in cotyledonary leaf. In seedlings, the amounts of group A and Sg-6 saponins reduced 2.3- and 1.3-folds, respectively, while DDMP + B + E saponins increased 2.5-fold than those of mature seeds. Our findings show that the group A and Sg-6 saponins in mature seeds were degraded and/or translocated by germination whereas DDMP saponins were newly synthesized.

  1. Evaluation of Clethodim Herbicide Efficiency in Comparison to other Graminicides for Weedy Grasses Control in Soybean (Glycin max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mousavi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted at Lorestan, Kermanshah and Golestan provinces in 2006 to separately evaluation of Clethodim herbicide for weedy grass control in soybean. All experiments were designed as randomized complete blocks with four replicates. Treatments included: clethodim at 0.6, 0.8, 1, and 1.2 L/ha; cycloxydim at 3 L/ha; Haloxyfop-R-methyl at 0.75 L/ha; Quizalofop-P-ethyl at 2 L/ha; and weeding control. In Lorestan postemergence application of clethodim at 1.2 L/ha reduced grass weed biomass by 74%. In Kermanshah, postemergence application of clethodim at 1.2 L/ha reduced grass weed density by 78%. In Golestan, post emergence application of clethodim at 1, and 1.2 L/ha reduced barnyarad grass density 75% and 80% respectively. Accordingly, use of clethodim for grass weed control in soybean, because of high-performance and lower consumption in comparison with some common herbicides is recommended.

  2. Seed-borne fungi of soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr in the guinea savannah agroecology of Nigeria

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    Ahmed Oladimeji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed health testing of fifteen soybean cultivars obtained from five locations in the Guinea Savannah agro-ecology of Nigeria was carried out using two main seed health testing methods described by the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA; the standard blotter and two variants of agar plate incubation method (Potato Dextrose Agar and Czapeck Dox Agar plate methods to determine the seed infection by fungi. Seed component plating was also carried out to determine the most active site of infection of the seeds by the fungi. Five fungal species were isolated from the cultivars tested. The percentage of seeds infected with Fusarium sp. and Penicillium sp. was significantly different (p<0.05 among the cultivars, with the highest value standing at 15.20 percent of Fusarium sp. and 8.54 percent of Penicillium sp. in cultivars MSJ and FSSBu, respectively. The difference in the methods of isolation was also significant (p<0.05 and the agar (PDA plate method was the most efficient in the isolation of Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Phomopsis sp. The efficiency of the other methods of isolation however varied for the different organisms. The cotyledon was observed to be the most active site of infection with thirteen of the fifteen tested cultivars showing 40-100% of infection of the cotyledons. The need for soybean seed health testing before their distribution to farmers is made manifest in this study.

  3. Four conventional soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seeds exhibit different protein profiles as revealed by proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luciana S; Senna, Raquel; Sandim, Vanessa; Silva-Neto, Mário A C; Perales, Jonas E A; Zingali, Russolina B; Soares, Márcia R; Fialho, Eliane

    2014-02-12

    Soybeans have several functional properties due to their composition and may exert beneficial health effects that are attributed to proteins and their derivative peptides. The present study aimed to analyze the protein profiles of four new conventional soybean seeds (BRS 257, BRS 258, BRS 267, and Embrapa 48) with the use of proteomic tools. Two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoreses were performed, followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF and ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry analyses, respectively. These two different experimental approaches allowed the identification of 117 proteins from 1D gels and 46 differentially expressed protein spots in 2D gels. BRS 267 showed the greatest diversity of identified spots in the 2D gel analyses. In the 1D gels, the major groups were storage (25-40%) and lipid metabolism (11-25%) proteins. The differences in protein composition between cultivars could indicate functional and nutritional differences and could direct the development of new cultivars.

  4. The critical period of weed control in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in north of Iran conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, Sara; Pirdashti, Hemmatollah; Esmaili, Mohammad Ali; Abbasian, Arastoo; Habibi, Marjaneh

    2008-02-01

    A field study was conducted in 2006 at Sari Agricultural and Natural Resources University, in order to determine the best time for weed control in soybean promising line, 033. Experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with 4 replications and two series of treatments. In the first series, weeds were kept in place until crop reached V2 (second trifoliolate), V4 (fourth trifoliolate), V6 (sixth trifoliolate), R1 (beginning bloom, first flower), R3 (beginning pod), R5 (beginning seed) and were then removed and the crop kept weed-free for the rest of the season. In the second series, crops were kept weed-free until the above growth stages after which weeds were allowed to grow in the plots for the rest of the season. Whole season weedy and weed-free plots were included in the experiment for yield comparison. The results showed that among studied traits, grain yield, pod numbers per plant and weed biomass were affected significantly by control and interference treatments. The highest number of pods per plant was obtained from plots which kept weed-free for whole season control. Results showed that weed control should be carried out between V2 (26 day after planting) to R1 (63 day after planting) stages of soybean to provide maximum grain yield. Thus, it is possible to optimize the timing of weed control, which can serve to reduce the costs and side effects of intensive chemical weed control.

  5. Residue and bio-efficacy evaluation of controlled release formulations of imidacloprid against pests in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Totan; Kumar, Jitendra; Dey, Debjani; Shakil, N A; Walia, S

    2012-01-01

    Controlled release (CR) formulations of imidacloprid (1-(6 chloro-3-pyridinyl methyl)-N- nitro imidazolidin-2- ylideneamine) were prepared using novel amphiphilic polymers synthesized from polyethylene glycol and aliphatic diacids employing encapsulation technique. The bioefficacy of the prepared CR formulations was evaluated against major pests of soybean, namely stem fly, Melanagromyza sojae Zehntmer and white fly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius along with a commercial formulation at the experimental farm of Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi during kharif 2009 and 2010. Most of the CR formulations of imidacloprid gave significantly better control of the pests compare to its commercial formulations, however the CR formulations, Poly [poly (oxyethylene-1000)-oxy suberoyl] amphiphilic polymer based formulation performed better over others for controlling of both stem fly incidence and Yellow Mosaic Virus (YMV) infestation transmitted by white fly. Some of the developed CR formulations recorded higher yield over commercial formulation and control. Nodulation pattern of soybean was not affected due to treatment of CR and commercial formulations of imidacloprid. Also the residues of imidacloprid in seed and soil at harvest were not detectable for both CR and commercial formulations.

  6. Compositions of forage and seed from second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean MON 89788 and insect-protected soybean MON 87701 from Brazil are equivalent to those of conventional soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Kristina H; Harrigan, George G; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Hanson, Christy; Smith, Michelle; Sorbet, Roy; Zhu, Eddie; Ridley, William P

    2010-05-26

    Brazil has become one of the largest soybean producers. Two Monsanto Co. biotechnology-derived soybean products are designed to offer benefits in weed and pest management. These are second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean, MON 89788, and insect-protected soybean, MON 87701. The second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean product, MON 89788, contains the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps). MON 87701 contains the cry1Ac gene and expression of the Cry1Ac protein providing protection from feeding damage caused by certain lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to determine whether the compositions of seed and forage of MON 89788 and MON 87701 are comparable to those of conventional soybean grown in two geographically and climatically distinct regions in multiple replicated sites in Brazil during the 2007-2008 growing season. Overall, results demonstrated that the seed and forage of MON 89788 and MON 87701 are compositionally equivalent to those of conventional soybean. Strikingly, the results also showed that differences in mean component values of forage and seed from the two controls grown in the different geographical regions were generally greater than that observed in test and control comparisons. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) of compositional data generated on MON 89788, MON 87701, and their respective region-specific controls provide a graphical illustration of how natural variation contributes more than biotechnology-driven genetic modification to compositional variability in soybean. Levels of isoflavones and fatty acids were particularly variable.

  7. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of microbial community in soy-daddawa, a Nigerian fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) condiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeokoli, Obinna T; Gupta, Arvind K; Mienie, Charlotte; Popoola, Temitope O S; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius C

    2016-03-02

    Soy-daddawa, a fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) condiment, plays a significant role in the culinary practice of West Africa. It is essential to understand the microbial community of soy-daddawa for a successful starter culture application. This study investigated the microbial community structure of soy-daddawa samples collected from Nigerian markets, by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of fungi. Six bacterial and 16 fungal (nine yeasts and seven molds) operational taxonomic units (OTUs)/species were obtained at 97% sequence similarity. Taxonomic assignments revealed that bacterial OTUs belonged to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and included species from the genera Atopostipes, Bacillus, Brevibacterium and Nosocomiicoccus. Densitometric analysis of DGGE image/bands revealed that Bacillus spp. were the dominant OTU/species in terms of population numbers. Fungal OTUs belonged to the phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota, and included species from the genera, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Candida, Cladosporium, Dokmaia, Issatchenkia, Kodamaea, Lecythophora, Phoma, Pichia, Rhizopus, Saccharomyces and Starmerella. The majority of fungal species have not been previously reported in soy-daddawa. Potential opportunistic human pathogens such as Atopostipes suicloacalis, Candida rugosa, Candida tropicalis, and Kodamaea ohmeri were detected. Variation in soy-daddawa microbial communities amongst samples and presence of potential opportunistic pathogens emphasises the need for starter culture employment and good handling practices in soy-daddawa processing.

  8. Desempenho de genótipos de soja-hortaliça de ciclo precoce [Glycine max (L. Merril] em diferentes densidades Performance of genotypes of early-cycle vegetable soybeans [Glycine max (L. Merril] in different densities

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    Hamilton César de O. Charlo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se avaliar o desempenho de dois genótipos de soja-hortaliça de ciclo precoce [Glycine max (L. Merril], em diferentes densidades, foi instalado um ensaio, em área experimental do Setor de Olericultura e Plantas Aromático-Medicinais, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal, nas dependências da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV-UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal-SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de parcelas subdivididas, adotando-se nas parcelas os genótipos e nas subparcelas as densidades, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Cada parcela experimental foi constituída por quatro linhas de 4,5m de plantio, com densidades de 20, 10 e 7 plantas por metro e 0,60m nas entrelinhas, sendo consideradas para avaliação 20 plantas por parcela, das duas linhas centrais. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido de 128 células, contendo substrato Plantmax Hortaliças®. O transplantio ocorreu dez dias após a semeadura, em solo devidamente preparado, conforme recomendações para a cultura. A colheita foi realizada quando os legumes estavam em estádio reprodutivo R6. Avaliaram-se os genótipos JLM010 e CNPSOI quanto às características: número médio de legumes por planta, número médio de sementes por legume, massa fresca de 100 sementes e produtividade estimada de grãos imaturos. Com base nos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o genótipo JLM010 é o mais recomendado e deve ser plantado na densidade de 7 plantas por metro.With the aim of evaluating the performance of two genotypes of early-cycle soybeans [Glycine max (L. Merril] in different spacings, a study was carried out in the experimental area of the Sector of Vegetable Crops and Aromatic Medicinal Plants, belonging to the Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences (FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus-SP. The experimental design used was the one of subdivided parcels, each parcel representing

  9. Identification of a Highly Specific Isoflavone 7-O-glucosyltransferase in the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaki, Ayuta; Waki, Toshiyuki; Noguchi, Akio; Kawai, Yosuke; Yamashita, Satoshi; Takahashi, Seiji; Nakayama, Toru

    2015-08-01

    Isoflavone conjugates [7-O-β-D-glucosides and 7-O-(6″-malonyl-β-D-glucosides) of daidzein and genistein] accumulate in soybean roots and serve as the stored precursors of isoflavones (aglycons), which play very important roles in the rhizobia-mediated nodulation of this plant. Thus far, the isoflavone 7-O-glucosyltransferase (GmIF7GT or GmUGT1) has been biochemically characterized and is believed to be involved in isoflavone conjugate biosynthesis. The soybean genome encodes many other glycosyltransferase homologs (GmUGTs) that are related to GmUGT1; however, their catalytic properties, substrate specificities, and role(s) in isoflavone conjugation are unknown. In this study, nine different GmUGT1-related GmUGT cDNAs were isolated; six of these cDNAs belonged to two distinct phylogenetic subgroups (A and B), and these six were functionally characterized. The results showed that GmUGT4, a representative of subgroup A, encoded a UGT that was highly specific for isoflavones showing kcat and kcat/Km values for daidzein of 5.89 ± 0.65 s(-1) and 2.91 × 10(5) s(-1)M(-1), respectively. Moreover, GmUGT4 was expressed in the roots (mainly in lateral roots) of the 7-day-old seedlings and seeds, both of which contained abundant amounts of isoflavone conjugates. By contrast, GmUGT1 and GmUGT7, which were subgroup B members, encoded enzymes with broad glucosyl-acceptor specificities and were mainly expressed in the aerial portions (cotyledons and hypocotyls) of the seedlings. In the present study, we proposed that the role of isoflavone glucosylation in a soybean plant is assigned to different GmUGT members in an organ/tissue-dependent manner. We also established the functional importance of GmUGT4 in the biosynthesis of isoflavone conjugates in lateral roots that make a major contribution to overall N2 fixation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email

  10. Effects of Salinity on Leaf Spectral Reflectance and Biochemical Parameters of Nitrogen Fixing Soybean Plants (Glycine max L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora D.; Kirova, Elisaveta B.; Yanev, Tony K.; Iliev, Ilko Ts.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of physiology and hyperspectral leaf reflectance were used to detect salinity stress in nitrogen fixing soybean plants. Seedlings were inoculated with suspension of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 273. Salinity was performed at the stage of 2nd-4th trifoliate expanded leaves by adding of NaCl in the nutrient solution of Helrigel in concentrations 40 mM and 80 mM. A comparative analysis was performed between the changes in the biochemical parameters - stress markers (phenols, proline, malondialdehyde, thiol groups), chlorophyll a and b, hydrogen peroxide, and leaf spectral reflectance in the spectral range 450-850 nm. The spectral measurements were carried out by an USB2000 spectrometer. The reflectance data of the control and treated plants in the red, green, red-edge and the near infrared ranges of the spectrum were subjected to statistical analysis. Statistically significant differences were found through the Student's t-criterion at the two NaCl concentrations in all of the ranges examined with the exception of the near infrared range at 40 mM NaCl concentration. Similar results were obtained through linear discriminant analysis. The tents of the phenols, malondialdehyde and chlorophyll a and b were found to decrease at both salinity treatments. In the spectral data this effect is manifested by decrease of the reflectance values in the green and red ranges. The contents of proline, hydrogen peroxide and thiol groups rose with the NaCl concentration increase. At 80 mM NaCl concentration the values of these markers showed a considerable increase giving evidence that the soybean plants were stressed in comparison with the control. This finding is in agreement with the results from the spectral reflectance analysis.

  11. Characterization of seed storage proteins of several perennial glycine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial Glycine species, distant relatives of soybean, have been recognized as a potential source of new genetic diversity for soybean improvement. The subgenus Glycine includes around 30 perennial species, which are well adapted to drought conditions and possess resistance to a number of soybean ...

  12. Transmissibilidade do virus do mosaico comum da soja (VMCS por intermédio das sementes de soja(Glycine max (L. Merrill Transmission of soybean mosaic virus (SMV by soybean seeds (Glycine max (L. Merrill

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    A.S.do R. Barros

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Diante da dispersão do vírus VMCS nas lavouras brasileiras de soja, o presente trabalho foi conduzido procurando verificar a transmissibilidade do patógeno pelas sementes portadoras do sintoma ("mancha café" característico da doença. Para tanto, material proveniente de campos contaminados foi testado quanto às porcentagens de emergência e infecção das plântulas. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que o patógeno é transmitido por sementes, ainda que estas estejam livres de sintomas; contudo, apesar da inexistência de efeitos sobre a emergência, a elevação da freqüência de sementes com "mancha café" tende a ampliar o número de plântulas contaminadas.In view of the long-range dissemination of the virus SMV in Brazilian soybean fields, this research was conserned with the transmission of the pathogen by seeds that show seedcoat mottling. Seeds proceeding from contaminated fields were submitted to emergence tests and examination of infected seedlings. The results indicated that the pathogen is transmited through the seeds even when they do not show seedcoat mottling; although no particular effect was found on emergence percentage, the use of mottled seeds tends to increase the number of infected seelings.

  13. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide derived from glycinin, the 11S globulin of soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjun Gouda, K G; Gowda, Lalitha R; Rao, A G Appu; Prakash, V

    2006-06-28

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, catalyzes the conversion of Angiotensin I to the potent vasoconstrictor Angiotensin II and plays an important physiological role in regulating blood pressure. Inhibitors of angiotensin 1-converting enzyme derived from food proteins are utilized for pharmaceuticals and physiologically functional foods. ACE inhibitory properties of different enzymatic hydrolysates of glycinin, the major storage protein of soybean, have been demonstrated. The IC50 value for the different enzyme digests ranges from 4.5 to 35 microg of N2. The Protease P hydrolysate contained the most potent suite of ACE inhibitory peptides. The ACE inhibitory activity of the Protease P hydrolysate after fractionation by RP-HPLC and ion-pair chromatography was ascribed to a single peptide. The peptide was homogeneous as evidenced by MALDI-TOF and identified to be a pentapeptide. The sequence was Val-Leu-Ile-Val-Pro. This peptide was synthesized using solid-phase FMOC chemistry. The IC50 for ACE inhibition was 1.69 +/- 0.17 microM. The synthetic peptide was a potent competitive inhibitor of ACE with a Ki of 4.5 +/- 0.25 x 10(-6) M. This peptide was resistant to digestion by proteases of the gastrointestinal tract. The antihypertensive property of this peptide derived from glycinin might find importance in the development of therapeutic functional foods.

  14. Biochemical and functional properties of a lectin purified from korean large black soybeans--a cultivar of glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, E F; Wong, J H; Lin, P; Ng, T B

    2010-06-01

    Lectins, a class of proteins that reversibly and non-enzymatically bind specific sugars, have been purified from different kinds of legumes. In this study, a 48-kDa lectin (KBL) was purified from Korean large black soybeans using liquid chromatography. The specific hemagglutinating activity of the KBL was 4096 titer/mg. EDTA-induced loss of hemagglutinating activity of KBL could be recovered by addition of Fe(3+) ions and some divalent cations as Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Pb(2+). Sugars such as D-(+)-galactose, D-(+)-raffinose, L-(+)-arabinose, alpha-D-(+)-melibiose, and alpha-lactose could inhibit the hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. Furthermore, the protein showed high thermal stability as well as stability over a wide range of pH values. KBL inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity with an IC(50) of 1.38 microM. However, it was destitute of cytokine releasing, mitogenic, ribonuclease and antifungal activities. In addition, inhibitory activity toward nasopharyngeal cell lines was undetectable in KBL at concentrations up to 20 microM.

  15. Redox markers for drought-induced nodule senescence, a process occurring after drought-induced senescence of the lowest leaves in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Garcia, Belén; Shaw, Daniel; Cooper, James William; Karpinska, Barbara; Quain, Marian Dorcas; Makgopa, Eugene Matome; Kunert, Karl; Foyer, Christine Helen

    2015-09-01

    Water is an increasingly scarce resource that limits crop productivity in many parts of the world, and the frequency and severity of drought are predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Improving tolerance to drought stress is therefore important for maximizing future crop yields. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of drought on soybean (Glycine max) leaves and nodules in order to define phenotypic markers and changes in cellular redox state that characterize the stress response in different organs, and to characterize the relationships between leaf and nodule senescence during drought. Leaf and crown nodule metabolite pools were measured together with leaf and soil water contents, and leaf chlorophyll, total protein contents and chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching parameters in nodulated soybeans that were grown under either well-watered conditions or deprived of water for up to 21 d. Ureides, ascorbate, protein, chlorophyll and the ratios of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv') to maximal chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fm') fell to levels below detection in the oldest leaves after 21 d of drought. While these drought-induced responses were not observed in the youngest leaf ranks, the Fv'/Fm' ratios, pyridine nucleotide levels and the reduction state of the ascorbate pool were lower in all leaf ranks after 21 d of drought. In contrast to leaves, total nodule protein, pyridine nucleotides, ureides, ascorbate and glutathione contents increased as a result of the drought treatment. However, the nodule ascorbate pool was significantly less reduced as a result of drought. Higher levels of transcripts encoding two peroxiredoxins were detected in nodules exposed to drought stress but senescence-associated transcripts and other mRNAs encoding redox-related proteins were similar under both conditions. While the physiological impact of the drought was perceived throughout the shoot, stress-induced senescence occurred only in the oldest

  16. Effects of Nano-Zinc oxide and Seed Inoculation by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Yield, Yield Components and Grain Filling Period of Soybean (Glycine max L.

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    R. Seyed Sharifi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Utilizing biological fertilizer is a proper and cheap method for crop production. Potentially, soybean can be used as biological fertilizers and seed inoculation. Zinc is an essential element that have positive effects on plant growth and its development. Canola, sunflower, soybean and safflower are the main cultivated oilseeds in Iran. Soybean production in Iran is very low as compared to other countries. One of the most effective factor in increasing the soybean yield is seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and application of Zinc fertilizer. Some of the benefits provided by PGPR are the ability to produce gibberellic acid, cytokinins and ethylene, N2 fixation, solubilization of mineral phosphates and other nutrients (56. Numerous studies have shown a substantial increase in dry matter accumulation and seed yield following inoculation with PGPR. Seyed Sharifi (45 reported that seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 5 increased all of the growth indices such as total dry matter, crop growth rate and relative growth rate. Increasing and extending the role of biofertilizers such as Rhizobium can reduce the need for chemical fertilizers and decrease adverse environmental effects. Therefore, in the development and implementation of sustainable agricultural techniques, biofertilization has great importance in alleviating environmental pollution and deterioration of the nature. As a legume, soybean can obtain a significant portion (4-85% of its nitrogen requirement through symbiotic N2 fixation when grown in association with effective and compatible Rhizobium strains. Since there is little available information on nano-zinc oxide and seed inoculation by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on yield in the agro-ecological growing zones of Ardabil province of Iran. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate the effects of nano-zinc oxide and seed inoculation with plant growth

  17. Evaluation of constitutive iron reductase (AtFRO2 expression on mineral accumulation and distribution in soybean (Glycine max. L

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    Marta Wilton Vasconcelos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an important micronutrient in human and plant nutrition. Adequate iron nutrition during crop production is central for assuring appropriate iron concentrations in the harvestable organs, for human food or animal feed. The whole-plant movement of iron involves several processes, including the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron at several locations throughout the plant, prior to transmembrane trafficking of ferrous iron. In this study, soybean plants that constitutively expressed the AtFRO2 iron reductase gene were analyzed for leaf iron reductase activity, as well as the effect of this transgene's expression on root, leaf, pod wall, and seed mineral concentrations. High Fe supply, in combination with the constitutive expression of AtFRO2, resulted in significantly higher concentrations of different minerals in roots (K, P, Zn, Ca, Ni, Mg and Mo, pod walls (Fe, K, P, Cu and Ni, leaves (Fe, P, Cu, Ca, Ni and Mg and seeds (Fe, Zn, Cu and Ni. Leaf and pod wall iron concentrations increased as much as 500% in transgenic plants, while seed iron concentrations only increased by 10%, suggesting that factors other than leaf and pod wall reductase activity were limiting the translocation of iron to seeds. Protoplasts isolated from transgenic leaves had three-fold higher reductase activity than controls. Expression levels of the iron storage protein, ferritin, were higher in the transgenic leaves than in wild-type, suggesting that the excess iron may be stored as ferritin in the leaves and therefore unavailable for phloem loading and delivery to the seeds. Also, citrate and malate levels in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type, suggesting that organic acid production could be related to the increased accumulation of minerals in roots, leaves and pod walls, but not in the seeds. All together, these results suggest a more ubiquitous role for the iron reductase in whole-plant mineral accumulation and

  18. Evaluation of constitutive iron reductase (AtFRO2) expression on mineral accumulation and distribution in soybean (Glycine max. L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marta W; Clemente, Thomas E; Grusak, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an important micronutrient in human and plant nutrition. Adequate iron nutrition during crop production is central for assuring appropriate iron concentrations in the harvestable organs, for human food or animal feed. The whole-plant movement of iron involves several processes, including the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron at several locations throughout the plant, prior to transmembrane trafficking of ferrous iron. In this study, soybean plants that constitutively expressed the AtFRO2 iron reductase gene were analyzed for leaf iron reductase activity, as well as the effect of this transgene's expression on root, leaf, pod wall, and seed mineral concentrations. High Fe supply, in combination with the constitutive expression of AtFRO2, resulted in significantly higher concentrations of different minerals in roots (K, P, Zn, Ca, Ni, Mg, and Mo), pod walls (Fe, K, P, Cu, and Ni), leaves (Fe, P, Cu, Ca, Ni, and Mg) and seeds (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ni). Leaf and pod wall iron concentrations increased as much as 500% in transgenic plants, while seed iron concentrations only increased by 10%, suggesting that factors other than leaf and pod wall reductase activity were limiting the translocation of iron to seeds. Protoplasts isolated from transgenic leaves had three-fold higher reductase activity than controls. Expression levels of the iron storage protein, ferritin, were higher in the transgenic leaves than in wild-type, suggesting that the excess iron may be stored as ferritin in the leaves and therefore unavailable for phloem loading and delivery to the seeds. Also, citrate and malate levels in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type, suggesting that organic acid production could be related to the increased accumulation of minerals in roots, leaves, and pod walls, but not in the seeds. All together, these results suggest a more ubiquitous role for the iron reductase in whole-plant mineral accumulation and distribution.

  19. Growth at elevated ozone or elevated carbon dioxide concentration alters antioxidant capacity and response to acute oxidative stress in soybean (Glycine max)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, K.M.; Rogers, A.; Ainsworth, E. A.

    2011-01-31

    Soybeans (Glycine max Merr.) were grown at elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO{sub 2}]) or chronic elevated ozone concentration ([O{sub 3}]; 90 ppb), and then exposed to an acute O{sub 3} stress (200 ppb for 4 h) in order to test the hypothesis that the atmospheric environment alters the total antioxidant capacity of plants, and their capacity to respond to an acute oxidative stress. Total antioxidant metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, and antioxidant transcript abundance were characterized before, immediately after, and during recovery from the acute O{sub 3} treatment. Growth at chronic elevated [O{sub 3}] increased the total antioxidant capacity of plants, while growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}] decreased the total antioxidant capacity. Changes in total antioxidant capacity were matched by changes in ascorbate content, but not phenolic content. The growth environment significantly altered the pattern of antioxidant transcript and enzyme response to the acute O{sub 3} stress. Following the acute oxidative stress, there was an immediate transcriptional reprogramming that allowed for maintained or increased antioxidant enzyme activities in plants grown at elevated [O{sub 3}]. Growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}] appeared to increase the response of antioxidant enzymes to acute oxidative stress, but dampened and delayed the transcriptional response. These results provide evidence that the growth environment alters the antioxidant system, the immediate response to an acute oxidative stress, and the timing over which plants return to initial antioxidant levels. The results also indicate that future elevated [CO{sub 2}] and [O{sub 3}] will differentially affect the antioxidant system.

  20. Spectroscopic characterization of a higher plant heme oxygenase isoform-1 from Glycine max (soybean)--coordination structure of the heme complex and catabolism of heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohya, Tomohiko; Zhang, Xuhong; Yoshida, Tadashi; Migita, Catharina T

    2006-12-01

    Heme oxygenase converts heme into biliverdin, CO, and free iron. In plants, as well as in cyanobacteria, heme oxygenase plays a particular role in the biosynthesis of photoreceptive pigments, such as phytochromobilins and phycobilins, supplying biliverdin IX(alpha) as a direct synthetic resource. In this study, a higher plant heme oxygenase, GmHO-1, of Glycine max (soybean), was prepared to evaluate the molecular features of its heme complex, the enzymatic activity, and the mechanism of heme conversion. The similarity in the amino acid sequence between GmHO-1 and heme oxygenases from other biological species is low, and GmHO-1 binds heme with 1 : 1 stoichiometry at His30; this position does not correspond to the proximal histidine of other heme oxygenases in their sequence alignments. The heme bound to GmHO-1, in the ferric high-spin state, exhibits an acid-base transition and is converted to biliverdin IX(alpha) in the presence of NADPH/ferredoxin reductase/ferredoxin, or ascorbate. During the heme conversion, an intermediate with an absorption maximum different from that of typical verdoheme-heme oxygenase or CO-verdoheme-heme oxygenase complexes was observed and was extracted as a bis-imidazole complex; it was identified as verdoheme. A myoglobin mutant, H64L, with high CO affinity trapped CO produced during the heme degradation. Thus, the mechanism of heme degradation by GmHO-1 appears to be similar to that of known heme oxygenases, despite the low sequence homology. The heme conversion by GmHO-1 is as fast as that by SynHO-1 in the presence of NADPH/ferredoxin reductase/ferredoxin, thereby suggesting that the latter is the physiologic electron-donating system.

  1. Assessing the short-term impact of an insecticide (Deltamethrin) on predator and herbivore abundance in soybean Glycine max using a replicated small-plot field experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarina Macfadyen; Myron P. Zalucki

    2012-01-01

    A greater understanding of the relative impact of insecticide use on non-target species is critical for the incorporation of natural enemies into integrated pest management strategies.Here we use a small-plot field trial to examine the relative impact of an insecticide on herbivores and predators found in soybean (Glycine max L.),and to highlight the issues associated with calculating impact factors from these studies.The pyrethroid insecticide (Deltamethrin) caused a significant reduction in invertebrate abundance in the treated plots,and populations did not recover to pre-treatment levels even 20 days after spraying.To assess the relative impact of the spray on arthropods we first examined the mean difference in abundance in each plot before and after spraying.All herbivores decreased in abundance in the sprayed plots but increased in the control plots after spraying.Most predators (excluding hemipterans) showed a decrease in the control plots but a proportionally greater decrease in the sprayed plots.Next we examined the corrected percentage population reduction calculated using Abbott's formula.All predators (including Araneae) experienced a greater reduction (mean 87% ± 3.54 SE) than herbivores (mean 56% ± 4.37 SE) and Araneae alone (mean 71% ± 8.12 SE).The range in values across the plots varied and made categorising overall impact subjective for some taxa.Despite the constraints associated with small-plot trials,by using a combination of impact factors and examining community-level response across time,we did get some indication of the likely impact of this insecticide if used in a commercial situation.

  2. Genome-wide identification and evolution of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) gene family in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Wei, Haichao

    2017-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants. Wild and cultivated soybean varieties have significant differences worth further investigation, such as plant morphology, seed size, and seed coat development; these characters may be related to auxin biology. The PIN gene family encodes essential transport proteins in cell-to-cell auxin transport, but little research on soybean PIN genes (GmPIN genes) has been done, especially with respect to the evolution and differences between wild and cultivated soybean. In this study, we retrieved 23 GmPIN genes from the latest updated G. max genome database; six GmPIN protein sequences were changed compared with the previous database. Based on the Plant Genome Duplication Database, 18 GmPIN genes have been involved in segment duplication. Three pairs of GmPIN genes arose after the second soybean genome duplication, and six occurred after the first genome duplication. The duplicated GmPIN genes retained similar expression patterns. All the duplicated GmPIN genes experienced purifying selection (Ka/Ks < 1) to prevent accumulation of non-synonymous mutations and thus remained more similar. In addition, we also focused on the artificial selection of the soybean PIN genes. Five artificially selected GmPIN genes were identified by comparing the genome sequence of 17 wild and 14 cultivated soybean varieties. Our research provides useful and comprehensive basic information for understanding GmPIN genes.

  3. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Aluminum Toxin Tolerance in NJRIKY Recombinant Inbred Line Population of Soybean(Glycine max)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Qi; Paul Korir; Tuanjie Zhao; Deyue Yu; Shouyi Chen; Junyi Gai

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the genetic mechanism of AI-tolerance in soybean,a recombinant inbred line population (RIL) with 184 F2:7:11 lines derived from the cross of Kefeng No.1 x Nannong 1138-2 (AI-tolerant x AI-sensitive) were tested in pot experimentwith sand culture medium in net room in Nanjing.Four traits,i.e.plant height,number of leaves,shoot dry weight and root dry weight at seedling stage,were evaluated and used to calculate the average membership index (FAi) as the indicator of AI-tolerance.The composite interval mapping (ClM) under WinQTL Cartographer v.2.5 detected five QTLs (i.e.qFAiol,qFAi-2,qFAi-3,qFAi-4 and qFAi-5),explaining 5.20%-9.07% of the total phenotypic variation individually.While with the multiple interval mapping (MIM) of the same software,five QTLs (qFAi-1,qFAi-5,qFAi-6,qFAi-7,and qFAi-8) explaining 5.7%-24.60% of the total phenotypic variation individually were mapped.Here qFAi-1 and qFAi-5 were detected by both CIM and MIM with the locations in a same flanking marker region,GMKF046-GMKF080 on B1 and satt278-sat_95 on L,respectively.While qFAi-2 under CIM and qFAi-6 under MIM both on D1b2 were located in neighboring regions with their confidence intervals overlapped and might be the same locus.Segregation analysis under major gene plus polygene inheritance model showed that Al-tolerance was controlled by two major genes (h2mg =33.05%) plus polygenes (h2pg=52.73%).Both QTL mapping and segregation analysis confirmed two QTLs responsible for Al-tolerance with relatively low heritability,and there might be a third QTL,confounded with the polygenes in segregation analysis.

  4. Tillage systems and cover crops on soil physical properties after soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael B. Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil management alters soil physical attributes and may affect crop yield. In order to evaluate soil physical attributes in layers from 0 to 0.40 m and soybean grain yield, in the 2012/2013 agricultural year, an essay was installed in the experimental area of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS/CPCS. Soil tillage systems were: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and no tillage (DS, the cover crops used were millet, sunn hemp and fallow. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split plots. For the layer of 0.20-0.30 m, millet provided the best results for soil bulk density, macro and microporosity. The resistance to penetration (RP was influenced in the layer of 0-0.10 m, and millet provided lower RP. The DS provided the lowest RP values for the layer of 0.10-0.20 m. The treatments did not influence yield or thousand-seed weight.

  5. Structural and Functional Characterization of the VQ Protein Family and VQ Protein Variants from Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Xinjian; Chi, Yingjun; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Proteins containing the FxxxVQxhTG or VQ motif interact with WRKY transcription factors. Although VQ proteins have been reported in several plants, knowledge about their structures, functions and evolution is still very limited. Here, we report structural and functional analysis of the VQ protein family from soybean. Like Arabidopsis homologues, soybean VQ proteins bind only Group I and IIc WRKY proteins and a substantial number of their genes are responsive to stress-associated phytohormones. Overexpression of some soybean VQ genes in Arabidopsis had strong effects on plant growth, development, disease resistance and heat tolerance. Phylogenetic analysis, sequence alignment and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the region immediately upstream of the FxxxVQxhTG motif also affects binding to WRKY proteins. Consistent with a larger WRKY-binding VQ domain, soybean VQ22 protein from cultivated soybean contains a 4-amino acid deletion in the region preceding its VQ motif that completely abolishes its binding to WRKY proteins. By contrast, the 4-amino acid deletion is absent in the VQ22 protein from wild soybean species (Glycine soja). Overexpression of wild soybean VQ22 in cultivated soybean inhibited growth, particularly after cold treatment. Thus, the mutation of soybean VQ22 is associated with advantageous phenotypes and may have been positively selected during evolution. PMID:27708406

  6. Fine Mapping of a Phytophthora Resistance Gene RpsWY in Soybean (Glycine max L.) by High-Throughput Genome-Wide Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important soil-borne diseases in many soybean-production regions in the world. Identification of resistant gene(s) is an effective way for breeding to prevent soybean from being harmed by this disease. Here, two soybean popu...

  7. Soybean (Glycine max) allergy in Europe: Gly m 5 (beta-conglycinin) and Gly m 6 (glycinin) are potential diagnostic markers for severe allergic reactions to soy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzhauser, Thomas; Wackermann, Olga; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soybean is considered an important allergenic food, but published data on soybean allergens are controversial. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify relevant soybean allergens and correlate the IgE-binding pattern to clinical characteristics in European patients with confirmed soy allergy....

  8. Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to Soybean Rust in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is a severe foliar disease of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] that occurs throughout most soybean producing regions of the world. Soybean rust may be managed with fungicides, but the utilization of soybean cultivars that are resistant to the path...

  9. The Influence Water Extract of Black Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. on Reducing of Blood Glucose Level and The Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Activity on Diabetes Mellitus Rats Induced With Multiple Low Dose of Streptozotocin (MLD-STZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Putu Gina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Black soybean (Glycine max ( L. Merr. is a tropical plant and spread widely in South East Asia including Indonesia. It contains anthocyanins and isoflavones which acts commonly as natural antioxidants. This paper discloses recent investigation on the benefits of its water extract on the oxidative stress in diabetes rat model exposed with multiple low dose of streptozotocin (MLD-STZ. It will also be reported the effect on increasing of the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and lowering of blood glucose levels. Groups of male Rattus novergicus strain Winstar was applied as animal model.

  10. Adaptation of the dwarf forms of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines to environment and impact on soybean yield%大豆蚜对环境的适应及对大豆产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国庆; 陈彦; 王兴亚; 刘培斌; 徐蕾; 赵彤华

    2011-01-01

    The population dynamics of the dwarf form of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, was investigated in 2009 and 2010 in Xiuyan County, eastern Liaoning, one of the main soybean production areas in China. Fungal parasitism of this pest by Verticillium lecanii( Zimmerman) Viegas and Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall and predation on it by Harmonia axyridis(Pallas) were also investigated. In addition, research was conducted on the effect on this species of rainfall, and on its impact on soybean yield. The results indicate that the earliest damage to soybean plants occurred in mid-June. Heavy infestations of aphids occurred in late July and early August with densities of up to 80 722 aphids per hundred plants. Normal aphids excreted significantly more honey-dew than dwarf forms. Dwarf forms had a lower incidence of parasitism by V. Lecanii than normal forms. However, normal forms had a higher incidence of parasitism by L fabarum(43. 41% ) than dwarf forms(0. 58% ) . The 3rd larval stage of H. Axyriiis had a predation rate on normal and dwarf aphids of 80. 24% and 36. 36% respectively. Dwarf forms were less affected by rainfall than normal forms. Moreover, a One-Way ANOVA indicated no significant relationship between the number of dwarf aphids per plant and yield(F = 0.378; df/=7,l; P>0.05).%2009-2010年,以辽东山区大豆主产区岫岩县作为试验点,系统调查了大豆蚜Aphis glycines Matsumura 正常型蚜和小型蚜的种群动态,研究了蜡蚧轮枝菌Verticillium lecanii( Zimmerman) Viegas、豆柄瘤蚜茧蜂Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall、异色瓢虫Harmonia axyridis( Pallas)对大豆蚜正常型蚜和小型蚜的寄生与捕食作用;另外,也研究了降雨对小型蚜和正常型蚜的冲刷作用,以及小型蚜对大豆产量的影响等.研究结果表明,7月上中旬为大豆蚜小型蚜发生初期,7月下旬-8月上旬为小型蚜发生高峰期,2010年小型蚜平均蚜量达10000头/百株以上.此外,通过比较大豆蚜正常

  11. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methlyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN) is the most pervasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. SCN reduced soybean yields worldwide by an estimated billion dollars annually. These losses remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over ...

  12. Characterization and genetics of multiple soybean aphid biotype resistance in five soybean plant introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is the most important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] insect pest in the USA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the resistance expressed in the five plant introductions (PIs) to four soybean aphid biotypes, determine the mode of resistance in...

  13. [Study of genetic diversity and spatial structure of the wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) population from the Ekaterinovka in the south of Primorskii krai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, A V; Nedoluzhko, A V; Martynov, V V; Dorokhov, D B

    2011-03-01

    Data are presented on the genetic diversity and spatial structure of the natural wild soybean population from the neighborhood of the settlement of Ekaterinovka in Primorskii krai and on the relationship between the genetic structure of this population and its spatial organization. These data are discussed in comparison with the results of studies of wild soybean populations in the Far East region of the Russian Federation and China. Recommendations are given concerning the collection of genetic wild soybean resources.

  14. Is the nutritional value of grains in broiler chickens' diets affected by environmental factors of soybean (Glycine max) growing and the variety of maize (Zea maize) in Benin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A six-week experiment was carried out in Benin to evaluate under tropical conditions the variation in nutritional value of soybean and maize grains due to, respectively, environmental factors and the plant variety. Two soybean grains of the same variety (Jupiter) but grown in two agro-ecological ...

  15. Nitrogen rhizodeposition from soybean (Glycine max) and its impact on nutrient budgets in two contrasting environments of the Guinean savannah zone of Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laberge, G.; Franke, A. C.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) rhizodeposition by grain legumes such as soybean is potentially a large but neglected source of N in cropping systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. Field studies were conducted to measure soybean N rhizodeposition in two environments of the Guinean savannah of Nigeria using 15N leaf labelli...

  16. Effects of Boron foliar-fertilization on irrigated soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in the Mississippi River Valley Delta of the midsouth, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigated soybeans in the Mississippi Delta have been reported to with increased seed yields when fertilized with a boron (B). Furrow irrigated soybean cultivars were foliar fertilized with a B solution at growth stages R3 and/or R5. No consistent trends in yield or seed weight were noted. No phy...

  17. Soil compaction and fertilization in soybean productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutler Amauri Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction and fertilization affect soybean development. This study evaluated the effects of soil compaction and fertilization on soybean (Glycine max cv. Embrapa 48 productivity in a Typic Haplustox under field conditions in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A completely randomized design with a 5 x 2 factorial layout (compaction vs. fertilization, with four replications in each treatment, was employed. Each experimental unit (replicate consisted of a 3.6 m² useful area. After the soil was prepared by cultivation, an 11 Mg tractor passed over it a variable number of times to create five levels of compaction. Treatments were: T0= no compaction, T1= one tractor pass, T2= two, T4= four, and T6= six passes, and no fertilizer and fertilizer to give soybean yields of 2.5 to 2.9 Mg ha-1. Soil was sampled at depths of 0.02-0.05, 0.07-0.10, and 0.15-0.18 m to determine macro and microporosity, penetration resistance (PR, and bulk density (Db. After 120 days growing under these conditions, the plants were analyzed in terms of development (plant height, number of pods, shoot dry matter per plant and weight of 100 seeds and seed productivity per hectare. Soil compaction decreased soybean development and productivity, but this effect was decreased by soil fertilization, showing that such fertilization increased soybean tolerance to soil compaction.

  18. Screening and Identification of Bacterium to Induce Resistance of Soybean against Heterodera glycines%种子处理诱导大豆抗胞囊线虫病的生防细菌筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项鹏; 陈立杰; 朱晓峰; 王媛媛; 段玉玺

    2013-01-01

    Soybean plants are able to develop resistance against Heterodera glycines when coated with Bacillus simplex. Three bio-control bacteria were selected after a two-year field experiment. Among them, strain Sneb545 was proven effective by pot culture in greenhouse. In order to elucidate the modes of action, the split−root experiment was designed to investigate Sneb545’s ability to induce soybean systemic resistance against H. glycines. The results showed that soybean seeds treated with strain Sneb545 were able to produce seedlings that had notable resistance to first generation cyst nematodes. Number of H. glycines cyst in soybean roots decreased by 72.63%comparing with control, the ratio of H. glycines in adjacent soil to soybean root decreased by 70.63%. Split-root experiment concluded that after inoculating Sneb545 in the challenging roots, nematodes penetration in responding roots decreased by 51.27%, number of cyst in soil decreased by 65.82%. Sneb545 was identified as B. simplex based on morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.%国内研究了简单芽孢杆菌Bacillus simplex包衣处理大豆种子,诱导大豆植株抗胞囊线虫的侵染。采用温室盆栽试验,对研究室通过2年田间试验筛选出的3株生防细菌进行复筛,获得最优菌株Sneb545;为了阐明其作用方式,设计了裂根试验验证菌株 Sneb545诱导大豆产生抗胞囊线虫的能力,并对菌株Sneb545进行种水平鉴定。结果表明,菌株Sneb545处理种子后可以诱导苗期大豆对第一代胞囊线虫产生明显的抗性,线虫入侵总数显著降低,较对照降低72.63%,胞囊抑制率达70.63%;裂根试验结果证明,菌株Sneb545能够诱导大豆对胞囊线虫产生很强的抗性,菌株Sneb545在挑战根系中接种后,应答根系中胞囊线虫入侵量降低51.27%,土壤中胞囊减少65.82%;经形态学特征、生理生化试验测定及16S rDNA序列同

  19. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivar Selection Affects Double-Crop and Relay-Intercrop Soybean (Glycine max L. Response on Claypan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field research (2003–2005 evaluated the effect of wheat row spacing (19 and 38 cm and cultivar on double-cropped (DC soybean response, 38-cm wheat on relay-intercrop (RI response, and wheat cultivar selection on gross margins of these cropping systems. Narrow-row wheat increased grain yield 460 kg ha−1, light interception (LI 7%, and leaf area index (LAI 0.5 compared to wide rows, but did not affect DC soybean yield. High yielding wheat (P25R37 with greater LI and LAI produced lower (330 kg ha−1 soybean yields in an RI system than a low yielding cultivar (Ernie. Gross margins were $267 ha−1 greater when P25R37 was RI with H431 Intellicoat (ITC soybean compared to Ernie. Gross margins were similar for monocrop H431 non-coated (NC or ITC soybean, P25R37 in 19- or 38-cm rows with DC H431 NC soybean, and P25R37 in 38-cm rows with RI H431 ITC soybean in the absence of an early fall frost.

  20. Optimal Cultivation Time for Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Milk and Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Rumen Degradability Using Nylon Bag Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Polyorach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine an optimal cultivation time for populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB co-cultured in fermented milk and effects of soybean meal fermented milk (SBMFM supplementation on rumen degradability in beef cattle using nylon bag technique. The study on an optimal cultivation time for yeast and LAB growth in fermented milk was determined at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-cultivation. After fermenting for 4 days, an optimal cultivation time of yeast and LAB in fermented milk was selected and used for making the SBMFM product to study nylon bag technique. Two ruminal fistulated beef cattle (410±10 kg were used to study on the effect of SBMFM supplementation (0%, 3%, and 5% of total concentrate substrate on rumen degradability using in situ method at incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h according to a Completely randomized design. The results revealed that the highest yeast and LAB population culture in fermented milk was found at 72 h-post cultivation. From in situ study, the soluble fractions at time zero (a, potential degradability (a+b and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM linearly (p<0.01 increased with the increasing supplemental levels and the highest was in the 5% SBMFM supplemented group. However, there was no effect of SBMFM supplement on insoluble degradability fractions (b and rate of degradation (c. In conclusion, the optimal fermented time for fermented milk with yeast and LAB was at 72 h-post cultivation and supplementation of SBMFM at 5% of total concentrate substrate could improve rumen degradability of beef cattle. However, further research on effect of SBMFM on rumen ecology and production performance in meat and milk should be conducted using in vivo both digestion and feeding trials.

  1. Identification of Rotylenchulus reniformis resistant Glycine lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is the first step in developing resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars that will benefit growers in the Mid South. This study was conducted to identify soybean (G. max and G. soja) lines with resistance to this pathogen....

  2. An assessment of the impact of ambient ozone on field-grown crops in New Jersey using the EDU method: part 2-soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, E G; Clarke, B B; Greenhalgh-Weidman, B; Smith, G

    1990-01-01

    The yields of eleven commercially grown soybean cultivars were compared in ethylenediurea (EDU)-treated and non-treated field plots in New Brunswick, New Jersey, over a 4 year period. No statistically significant difference between treatments was found for any cultivar; the inference being ambient ozone did not adversely affect soybean yield. Succeeding field experiments supported this interpretation of the data. 'Sanilac' white bean, a legume known to be more sensitive to O(3) than soybean, was found to produce a significantly greater yield in EDU-treated than non-treated plots, unlike a companion planting of 'Williams 82' soybean which did not exhibit the differential response. The results indicated that the specific EDU protocol used in the soybean experiments is capable of detecting an ozone effect in a legume. Moreover, in a concurrent greenhouse experiment the yield of EDU-treated Sanilac white bean was not significantly different from non-treated plants in the absence of ozone pollution. In a dose-response field experiment during a year of unusually high O(3) pollution, yield of 'Williams 82' increased slightly with each EDU increment up to 500 ppm and decreased at 1000 ppm. The difference between non-treated and EDU-treated plants, however, was not statistically significant. There was no evidence to suggest that the EDU concentration (500 ppm) used in previous soybean experiments reduced seed yield. Fortuitously, the tolerance of commercially-grown soybean to ambient ozone is at least partially conditioned by the practce of not irrigating the crop. The New Jersey results are in agreement with reports from Maryland, Georgia and Tennessee in which an adverse impact of ambient O(3) was not found in soybean, but contrary to a current predictive model.

  3. Levels of dioxins in rice, wheat, soybean, and adzuki bean cultivated in 1999 to 2002 in Japan and estimation of their intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Takashi; Seike, Nobuyasu; Miwa, Tetsuhisa

    2006-08-01

    A total of 369 samples of rice (n = 311), wheat (n = 10), soybean (n = 44), and adzuki bean (n = 4) collected from various locations in Japan between 1999 and 2002 were analyzed for PCDDs, PCDFs (PCDD/Fs) and coplanar PCBs. Sampling points within about 1 km of operational municipal waste incinerators that were considered sources of dioxins were defined as "near-source" areas, and all other sampling points were defined as "general" areas. The toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values of soybean samples collected from near-source areas were significantly higher (p pollution. The TEQs of the crops varied widely, but the median value of each crop was quite low, at 0.000021, 0.00013, 0.0000095, and 0.00016 pg-TEQ/g wet wt. in rice, wheat, soybean and adzuki bean, respectively. On the basis of these survey results, the daily intake of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs from rice, wheat, soybean, and adzuki bean was calculated. The daily intakes from these crops were estimated to be 0.0056 pg-TEQ/kg B.W./day on the assumption that "not detected" (ND) could be taken as zero, ND = 0, and 0.18 pg-TEQ/kg B.W./day if ND is put equal to 1/2 LOD (half the limit of detection). In comparison with the tolerable daily intake set in Japan for PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs (4 pg-TEQ/kg B.W./day), it was considered that the levels of contamination by PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in these crops cultivated in the environment of Japan do not present a problem.

  4. Effects of salinity on activities of H+-ATPase, H+-PPase and membrane lipid composition in plasma membrane and tonoplast vesicles isolated from soybean (Glycine max L.) seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Bing-jun; LAM Hon-ming; SHAO Gui-hua; LIU You-ling

    2005-01-01

    The effects of NaCl stress on the H+ -ATPase, H+ -PPase activity and lipid composition of plasma membrane(PM) and tonoplast(TP) vesicles isolated from roots and leaves of two soybean cultivars( Glycine max L. ) differing in salt tolerance(Wenfeng7,salt-tolerant; Union, salt-sensitive) were investigated. When Wenfeng7 was treated with 0.3% (W/V) NaCl for 3 d, the H+ -ATPase activities in PM and TP from roots and leaves exhibited a reduction and an enhancement, respectively. The H+ -PPase activity in TP from roots also increased. Similar effects were not observed in roots of Union. In addition, the increases of phospholipid content and ratios ofphospholipid to galactolipid in PM and TP from roots and leaves of Wenfeng7 may also change membrane permeability and hence affect salt tolerance.

  5. The Seed Biotinylated Protein of Soybean (Glycine max): A Boiling-Resistant New Allergen (Gly m 7) with the Capacity To Induce IgE-Mediated Allergic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, John J; Weissinger, Sandra M; Weissinger, Arthur K; Kulis, Michael; Burks, A Wesley; Pons, Laurent

    2016-05-18

    Soybean is a common allergenic food; thus, a comprehensive characterization of all the proteins that cause allergy is crucial to the development of effective diagnostic and immunotherapeutic strategies. A cDNA library was constructed from seven stages of developing soybean seeds to investigate candidate allergens. We searched the library for cDNAs encoding a seed-specific biotinylated protein (SBP) based on its allergenicity in boiled lentils. A full-length cDNA clone was retrieved and expressed as a 75.6-kDa His-tagged recombinant protein (rSBP) in Escherichia coli. Western immunoblotting of boiled bacterial extracts demonstrated specific IgE binding to rSBP, which was further purified by metal affinity and anion exchange chromatographies. Of the 23 allergic sera screened by ELISA, 12 contained IgEs specific to the purified rSBP. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a predominantly unordered structure consistent with SBP's heat stability. The natural homologues (nSBP) were the main proteins isolated from soybean and peanut embryos after streptavidin affinity purification, yet they remained low-abundance proteins in the seed as confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Using capture ELISAs, the soybean and peanut nSBPs were bound by IgEs in 78 and 87% of the allergic sera tested. The soybean nSBP was purified to homogeneity and treatments with different denaturing agents before immunoblotting highlighted the diversity of its IgE epitopes. In vitro activation of basophils was assessed by flow cytometry in a cohort of peanut-allergic children sensitized to soybean. Stronger and more frequent (38%) activations were induced by nSBP-soy compared to the major soybean allergen, Gly m 5. SBPs may represent a novel class of biologically active legume allergens with the structural resilience to withstand many food-manufacturing processes.

  6. Genetic Analysis of Embryo, Cytoplasm and Maternal Effects and Their Environment Interactions for Isoflavone Content in Soybean [Glycine max(L.) Merr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soybean seed products contain isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein) that display biological effects when ingested by humans and animals. These effects are species, dose and age dependent. Therefore, the content and quality of isoflavones in soybeans is a key factor to the biological effect. Our objective was to identify the genetic effects that underlie the isoflavone content in soybean seeds. A genetic model for quantitative traits of seeds in diploid plants was applied to estimate the genetic main effects and genotype × environment (GE) interaction effects for the isoflavone content (IC) of soybean seeds by using two years experimental data with an incomplete diallel mating design of six parents. Results showed that the IC of soybean seeds was simultaneously controlled by the genetic effects of maternal,embryo, and cytoplasm, of which maternal genetic effects were most important, followed by embryo and cytoplasmic genetic effects. The main effects of different genetic systems on IC trait were more important than environment interaction effects. The strong dominance effects on isoflavone from residual was made easily by environment conditions. Therefore,the improvement of the IC of soybean seeds would be more efficient when selection is based on maternal plants than that on the single seed. Maternal heritability (65.73%) was most important for IC, followed by embryo heritability (25.87%) and cytoplasmic heritability (8.39%). Based on predicated genetic effects, Yudou 29 and Zheng 90007 were better than other parents for increasing IC in the progeny and improving the quality of soybean. The significant effects of maternal and embryo dominance effects in variance show that the embryo heterosis and maternal heterosis are existent and uninfluenced by environment interaction effects.

  7. The Use of DNA Microsatellite Markers for Genetic Diversity Identifi cation of Soybean (Glycine max (L Meriil. as a Supplementary Method in Reference Collections Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Agusti Widaningsih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Large number of new soybean varieties are mostly derived from crosses of elite genotypes resulted ina narrowing of both the genetic diversity and the phylogenetic relationship between soybean varieties. Thus,discrimination among soybean varieties is becoming more diffi cult, especially when morphological traits wereapplied. In Plant Variety Protection (PVP system, new varieties of soybeans including granted PVP right, localand breeding varieties registered in PVP offi ce were frequently increased, implicate on increasingly the numberof soybean varieties collections. To assist the management of varieties collections, a standard fi ngerprinting datais further needed. In comparison to the management of plant collection in the fi eld, molecular marker systemswhich are rapid, reliable, informative and relatively simple are continually sought for practical applications ingermplasm conservation, management and enhancement. This study aimed to identify the genetic diversity andphylogenetic relationship of soybean varieties that have earned PVP Right as well as local varieties and breedingvarieties registered in the PVP offi ce using microsatellite or simple sequence repeats (SSR markers.This study was conducted in Molecular Biology laboratory, Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnologyand Genetic Resources Research and Development (ICABIOGRAD Bogor, from February to May 2013. The datawere analyzed using the genetic analysis package NTSYSpc 2.02i and PowerMarker V3.25. The result showed arelatively narrow genetic diversity among 45 varieties of soybean analyzed in present study which were indicatedby the small number of genotypes and total number of alleles (NA, and the low value of gene diversity and PICvalues (<0.75. Cluster analysis showed that the grouping varieties are not related to morphological characters butrelated to phylogeny relationship between varieties. Despite the group of varieties were not clustered in accordancewith morphological

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on lipoxygenases, trypsin inhibitor, raffinose family oligosaccharides and nutritional factors of different seed coat colored soybean (Glycine max L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Dixit, Amit [School of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India); Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita [National Research Centre for Soybean, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India); Manjaya, J.G. [Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Bhatnagar, Deepak, E-mail: bhatnagarbio@yahoo.co [School of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Three soybean genotypes Kalitur, Hara soya and NRC37 with black, green and yellow seed coat color, respectively, were gamma irradiated at 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0 kGy and tested for antinutritional and nutritional factors. Gamma irradiation at all doses reduced the level of lipoxygenase isomers, trypsin inhibitor (TI) and ascorbic acid in all the 3 soybean genotypes as compared to the unirradiated control. However, irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy increased the sucrose content of the soybean genotypes. No significant change was observed in oil, protein fatty acids and total tocopherol content of the 3 genotypes at any irradiation dose. It is suggested that inhibition of lipoxygenase, reduction in TI and ascorbic acid may be due to the breakage or oxidation of protein structure by the gamma irradiation. Similarly, gamma irradiation at higher doses may break glycosidic linkages in oligosaccharides to produce more sucrose and decrease the content of flatulence causing oligosaccharides.

  9. Enzymic synthesis of lignin precursors. Comparison of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol:NADP+ dehydrogenase from spruce (Picea abies L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüderitz, T; Grisebach, H

    1981-09-01

    Cambial sap of spruce (Picea abies) proved to be a good source for isolation of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol:NADP+ dehydrogenase. Apparently homogeneous enzymes were obtained by a multistep procedure including dye-ligand chromatography and for the reductase also affinity chromatography on (coenzyme A)-agarose. An improved purification procedure for the reductase from soybean cell cultures is also reported. Molecular weights and subunit composition of reductase and dehydrogenase from spruce are very similar to those of the corresponding enzymes from soybean. Reduction of feruloyl-CoA to coniferaldehyde catalysed by the reductase is a freely reversible reaction with an equilibrium constant of 5.6 x 10(-4) M at pH 6.25. A strong dependence of the Michaelis constants on the type of buffer was found. For reductase the Km-value of feruloyl-CoA in phosphate buffer (5.2 microM) is about 14-times similar than in citrate buffer (73 microM). Pronounced differences in substrate specificities between the enzymes from spruce and soybean were found, which reflect the different lignin composition of gymnosperms and dicotyledenous angiosperms. From the kinetic constants of the enzymes it can be concluded that under physiological conditions feruloyl-CoA is the preferred substrate for the reductase from both sources whereas sinapoyl-CoA is a substrate only for the soybean reductase and sinapyldehyde a substrate only for the soybean dehydrogenase. 4-Coumaroyl-CoA is a poor substrate for the reductase from both spruce and soybean. This result is consistent with the low content of 4-coumaryl alcohol units in gymnosperm and angiosperm lignin.

  10. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Maria Julieta [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen, E-mail: jrodriguez@com.uncor.edu [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Nieto, Gaston Leonardo; Pignata, Maria Luisa [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  11. Cold-induced modulation and functional analyses of the DRE-binding transcription factor gene, GmDREB3, in soybean (Glycine max L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Zhaoshi; Xia, Lanqin; Li, Liancheng; Cheng, Xianguo; Dong, Jianhui; Wang, Qiaoyan; Ma, Youzhi

    2008-01-01

    DREB (dehydration-responsive element-binding protein) transcription factors have important roles in the stress-related regulation network in plants. A DREB orthologue, GmDREB3, belonging to the A-5 subgroup of the DREB subfamily, was isolated from soybean using the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. Northern blot analysis showed that expression of GmDREB3 in soybean seedlings was induced following cold stress treatment for 0.5 h and was not detected after 3 h. However, it was not...

  12. Differential gene expression and mitotic cell analysis of the drought tolerant soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill Fabales, Fabaceae cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista under two water deficit induction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana K. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought cause serious yield losses in soybean (Glycine max, roots being the first plant organ to detect the water-stress signals triggering defense mechanisms. We used two drought induction systems to identify genes differentially expressed in the roots of the drought-tolerant soybean cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista and characterize their expression levels during water deficit. Soybean plants grown in nutrient solution hydroponically and in sand-pots were submitted to water stress and gene expression analysis was conducted using the differential display (DD and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Three differentially expressed mRNA transcripts showed homology to the Antirrhinum majus basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor bHLH, the Arabidopsis thaliana phosphatidylinositol transfer protein PITP and the auxin-independent growth regulator 1 (axi 1. The hydroponic experiments showed that after 100 min outside the nutrient solution photosynthesis completely stopped, stomata closed and leaf temperature rose. Both stress induction treatments produced significant decrease in the mitotic indices of root cells. Axi 1, PITP and bHLH were not only differentially expressed during dehydration in the hydroponics experiments but also during induced drought in the pot experiments. Although, there were differences between the two sets of experiments in the time at which up or down regulation occurred, the expression pattern of all three transcripts was related. Similar gene expression and cytological analysis results occurred in both systems, suggesting that hydroponics could be used to simulate drought detection by roots growing in soil and thus facilitate rapid and easy root sampling.

  13. 土壤加砷对大豆叶绿素、脯氨酸和过氧化氢酶活性的影响%Effects of soil arsenic additions on chlorophyll, proline and the catalase activity in soybean (Glycine max .L .)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛昌美; 杨兰芳; 彭小兰; 裴艳艳

    2013-01-01

    为了认识土壤砷污染对大豆生理指标的影响,设置土壤加砷0、5、10、30、50和100 mg kg -1共6个水平的盆栽大豆试验,测定大豆生长期间叶片的叶绿素、脯氨酸含量和过氧化氢酶活性等生理指标.结果表明,土壤砷污染影响大豆的叶绿素、脯氨酸、过氧化氢酶等生理指标.土壤加砷对大豆叶绿素的影响随生长期而不同,在结荚期,土壤加砷对叶绿素含量的影响不显著,但是高砷水平降低了叶绿素a与b的比值;在鼓粒期,高砷水平增加了大豆的叶绿素含量,叶绿素a、叶绿素b、类胡萝卜素和叶绿素总量的最大增加率分别达119.8%、111.0%、105.6%和117.2%.在大豆结荚期,土壤加砷30~100 mg kg -1使大豆脯氨酸的含量降低了23.4%~31.4%,而所有加砷处理的过氧化氢酶活性都显著低于对照,土壤加砷使大豆过氧化氢酶活性降低了10.7%~46.6%.总之,土壤砷污染会通过影响叶绿素的构成和含量改变大豆光合作用、降低大豆抗逆性和破坏大豆抗氧化系统来妨碍大豆的生长.%In order to understand the effects of soil arsenic pollution on soybean (Glycine max . L .) physiological indexes ,a soil pot experiment cultivating soybean by soil arsenic additions of 0 ,5 , 10 ,30 ,50 and 100 mg kg -1 was conducted and the content of chlorophyll and proline and the activity of catalase was determined during the soybean growing .The results showed that soil arsenic additions had significant effects on chlorophyll ,proline and catalase in soybean leaves .The effects of arsenic on chlorophyll in soybean leaves varied with the growing stages . At the pod stage , the content of chlorophyll in soybean leaves was not significantly influenced by soil arsenic additions ,but the ratios of chlorophyll a to b in 50 and 100 mg kg -1 arsenic additions were significant lower than that in control .While at grain filling

  14. Supressividade dos nematóides Meloydogine javanica e Heterodera glycines em soja por adição de lodo de esgoto ao solo Supressiveness of nematodes Meloydogine javanica e Heterodera glycines in soybean by sewage sludge incorporated in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Fernando de Araújo

    2005-08-01

    soilborne plant pathogens and resistance to foliar diseases. However, it may influence negatively the biological and chemical balance in the soil, due to the presence of considerable amounts of available N, soluble salts and heavy metals. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge incorporation to the soil and the suppressiveness induction of nematodes (Meloydogine javanica (Treub Chitwood and Heterodera glycines Ichinoe in soybean (Glycine max L.. Experiments were performed in laboratory and in a greenhouse using collected soil in an experimental area of the Embrapa Meio Ambiente, Jaguariúna, SP. This area received successive applications of sewage sludge, originary from the sewage treatment of Barueri and Franca, in São Paulo State, Brazil, during five years (1998-2002. In relation to the suppressiveness induction of nematodes, the sludge did not affect significantly the development of H. glycines in the soil, but reduced the M. javanica reproduction, in the soybean root.

  15. Soil hydraulic properties affected by topsoil thickness in cultivated switchgrass and corn-soybean rotation production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of productive topsoil by soil erosion over time can reduce the productive capacity of soil and can significantly affect soil hydraulic properties. This study evaluated the effects of reduced topsoil thickness and perennial switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) versus corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean [Gly...

  16. UTILIZATION OF BIOMOL AND TEA COMPOST SOLUTION FERMENTED BY THE FUNGUS Trichoderma spp. ON THE GROWTH OF SOYBEAN (Glycine Max (L. Merr. IN DRY LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurriyatun Solihah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to know whether the use of Biomol and Tea Compost solution fermented by Trichoderma spp. can increase the growth and development of soybean plants in dry land. The experiment was conducted in the field and was arranged according to a Split Plot Design with the main plot is Tea Compost Solution with 4 levels of treatment, i.e. at the rate of 0, 5, 10, or 15 liters/plot and the subplot is Biomol solution with 4 levels of treatment, i.e. 0, 5, 10, or 15 liters/plot. The treatments were repeated three times. The results showed that the use of the Biomol at the rate of 15 liters/plot and Tea Compost at the of 15 liters/plot can increase the growth and development of soybean plants mainly on plant height. In addition, Biomol and Tea Compost solution applied to soybean can  increase the weight of the wet and the dry berangkasan Keywords: Biomol, Tea Compost, Soybean, Trichoderma spp.

  17. Interactive effects of carbon dioxide, temperature, and ultraviolet-B radiation on soybean (Glycine max L.) flower and pollen morphology, pollen production, germination, and tube lengths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sailaja Koti; K. Raja Reddy; V. R. Reddy; V. G. Kakani; Duli Zhao

    2005-01-01

    ...), temperature at 30/22 °C (control) and 38/30 °C (+T) and UV-B radiation 0 (control) and 10 kJ m-2 d-1 (+UV-B) on flower and pollen morphology, pollen production, germination, and tube lengths of six soybean genotypes...

  18. Endophytic fungi from selected varieties of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and corn (Zea mays L.) grown in an agricultural area of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María L; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Vianna, María F; Scorsetti, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous and live within host plants without causing any noticeable symptoms of disease. Little is known about the diversity and function of fungal endophytes in plants, particularly in economically important species. The aim of this study was to determine the identity and diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves, stems and roots of soybean and corn plants and to determine their infection frequencies. Plants were collected in six areas of the provinces of Buenos Aires and Entre Ríos (Argentina) two areas were selected for sampling corn and four for soybean. Leaf, stem and root samples were surface-sterilized, cut into 1cm(2) pieces using a sterile scalpel and aseptically transferred to plates containing potato dextrose agar plus antibiotics. The species were identified using both morphological and molecular data. Fungal endophyte colonization in soybean plants was influenced by tissue type and varieties whereas in corn plants only by tissue type. A greater number of endophytes were isolated from stem tissues than from leaves and root tissues in both species of plants. The most frequently isolated species in all soybean cultivars was Fusarium graminearum and the least isolated one was Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Furthermore, the most frequently isolated species in corn plants was Aspergillus terreus whereas the least isolated one was Aspergillus flavus. These results could be relevant in the search for endophytic fungi isolates that could be of interest in the control of agricultural pests.

  19. Characterization of Ethylene Receptors and Their Interactions with GmTPR-A Novel Tetratricopeptide Repeat Protein (TPR) in Soybean (Glycine max L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Yan-yan; CHEN Ming; XU Zhao-shi; LI Lian-cheng; CHEN Xue-ping; MA You-zhi

    2013-01-01

    Ethylene receptors play important roles not only in regulation of growth and development but also in response to environmental stimuli of plants. However, there are few reports on ethylene receptors in soybean. In this article, putative ethylene receptors of soybean were searched from soybean genomic database (http://www.phytozome.net/search.php) and analyzed. The ethylene receptor gene family in soybean comprising eight members, designated as GmERS1-1, GmERS1-2, GmETR1-1, GmETR1-2, GmETR2-1, GmETR2-2, GmEIN4-1, and GmEIN4-2 corresponding with their homologous genes in Arabidopsis, were isolated and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the eight soybean ethylene receptors (SERs) were in two subfamilies and further divided into four groups, viz., groups I (GmERS1-1 and GmERS1-2), II (GmETR1-1 and GmETR1-2), VI (GmETR2-1 and GmETR2-2), and VII (GmEIN4-1 and GmEIN4-2). Protein structure of the members in groups I and II from subfamily I were more conserved than the members in other two groups from subfamily II. Expression patterns of the SERs were compared with the homologous genes in Arabidopsis. The results demonstrated that expression patterns of the SERs differed from Arabidopsis members in the same group, suggesting that SERs are involved in different signal pathways compared to ethylene receptors in Arabidopsis. Promoter analysis showed that the sequences of the members in each group were different from each other, and some specific binding elements of transcription factors detected in promoter sequences might explain the differences between the members in the same group. A novel soybean TPR protein (tetratricopeptide repeat protein), GmTPR, was identified to interact with GmETR1-1, apparently an important ethylene receptor in ethylene signaling pathway in soybean. This suggested that GmTPR might be a novel downstream component of the ethylene signaling pathway.

  20. Levels of glyphosate in surface waters, sediments and soils associated with direct sowing soybean cultivation in north pampasic region of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzo, Pablo J; Porta, Atilio A; Ronco, Alicia E

    2008-11-01

    Levels of glyphosate were determined in water, soil and sediment samples from a transgenic soybean cultivation area located near to tributaries streams of the Pergamino-Arrecifes system in the north of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Field work took into account both the pesticide application and the rains occurring after applications. The pesticide was analysed by HPLC-UV detection, previous derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl). In addition, SoilFug multimedia model was used to analyse the environmental distribution of the pesticides. In the field, levels of glyphosate in waters ranged from 0.10 to 0.70 mg/L, while in sediments and soils values were between 0.5 and 5.0 mg/Kg. Temporal variation of glyphosate levels depended directly on the time of application and the rain events. The results obtained from the application of the model are in accordance with the values found in the field.

  1. Surviving and thriving in terms of symbiotic performance of antibiotic and phage-resistant mutants of Bradyrhizobium of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Akhil; Jaiswal, Sanjay Kumar; Dhar, Banshi; Vaishampayan, Akhouri

    2012-10-01

    Rhizobial inoculation plays an important role in yielding enhancement of soybean, but it is frequently disturbed by competition with bacterial population present in the soil. Identification of potential indigenous rhizobia as competitive inoculants for efficient nodulation and N(2)-fixation of soybean was assessed under laboratory and field conditions. Two indigenous bradyrhizobial isolates (MPSR033 and MPSR220) and its derived different antibiotic (streptomycin and gentamicin) and phage (RT5 and RT6)-resistant mutant strains were used for competition study. Nodulation occupancy between parent and mutant strains was compared on soybean cultivar JS335 under exotic condition. Strain MPSR033 Sm(r) V(r) was found highly competitive for nodule occupancy in all treatment combinations. On the basis of laboratory experiments four indigenous strains (MPSR033, MPSR033 Sm(r), MPSR033 Sm(r) V(r), MPSR220) were selected for their symbiotic performance along with two exotic strains (USDA123 and USDA94) on two soybean cultivars under field conditions. A significant symbiotic interaction between Bradyrhizobium strains and soybean cultivar was observed. Strain MPSR033 Sm(r) V(r) was found superior among the rhizobial treatments in seed yield production with both cultivars. The 16S rRNA region sequence analysis of the indigenous strains showed close relationship with Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense strain. These findings widen out the usefulness of antibiotic-resistance marked phage-resistant bradyrhizobial strains in interactive mode for studying their symbiotic effectiveness with host plant, and open the way to study the mechanism of contact-dependent growth inhibition in rhizobia.

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line NJCMS1A and Its Maintainer NJCMS1B in Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Li

    Full Text Available The utilization of soybean heterosis is probably one of the potential approaches in future yield breakthrough as was the situation in rice breeding in China. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS plays an important role in the production of hybrid seeds. However, the molecular mechanism of CMS in soybean remains unclear.The comparative transcriptome analysis between cytoplasmic male sterile line NJCMS1A and its near-isogenic maintainer NJCMS1B in soybean was conducted using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 88,643 transcripts were produced in Illumina sequencing. Then 56,044 genes were obtained matching soybean reference genome. Three hundred and sixty five differentially expressed genes (DEGs between NJCMS1A and NJCMS1B were screened by threshold, among which, 339 down-regulated and 26 up-regulated in NJCMS1A compared to in NJCMS1B. Gene Ontology (GO annotation showed that 242 DEGs were annotated to 19 functional categories. Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG annotation showed that 265 DEGs were classified into 19 categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis showed that 46 DEGs were assigned to 33 metabolic pathways. According to functional and metabolic pathway analysis combined with reported literatures, the relations between some key DEGs and the male sterility of NJCMS1A were discussed. qRT-PCR analysis validated that the gene expression pattern in RNA-Seq was reliable. Finally, enzyme activity assay showed that energy supply was decreased in NJCMS1A compared to in NJCMS1B.We concluded that the male sterility of NJCMS1A might be related to the disturbed functions and metabolism pathways of some key DEGs, such as DEGs involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, transcription factors, regulation of pollen development, elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS, cellular signal transduction, and programmed cell death (PCD etc. Future research will focus on cloning and transgenic function validation of

  3. Overexpression of AtDREB1A causes a severe dwarf phenotype by decreasing endogenous gibberellin levels in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haicui Suo

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acids (GAs are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that three key enzymes of GA20ox, GA3ox, and GA2ox are involved in GA biosynthesis. In this study, the Arabidopsis DREB1A gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was introduced into soybean plants by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results showed that the transgenic soybean plants exhibited a typical phenotype of GA-deficient mutants, such as severe dwarfism, small and dark-green leaves, and late flowering compared to those of the non-transgenic plants. The dwarfism phenotype was rescued by the application of exogenous GA(3 once a week for three weeks with the concentrations of 144 µM or three times in one week with the concentrations of 60 µM. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcription levels of the GA synthase genes were higher in the transgenic soybean plants than those in controls, whereas GA-deactivated genes except GmGA2ox4 showed lower levels of expression. The transcript level of GmGA2ox4 encoding the only deactivation enzyme using C(20-GAs as the substrates in soybean was dramatically enhanced in transgenic plants compared to that of wide type. Furthermore, the contents of endogenous bioactive GAs were significantly decreased in transgenic plants than those of wide type. The results suggested that AtDREB1A could cause dwarfism mediated by GA biosynthesis pathway in soybean.

  4. Allelopathic effects on the germination of soybean seeds (Glycine max L.Merrill/ Efeitos alelopáticos sobre a germinação de sementes de soja (Glycine max L.Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the effect of natural substances found in root exsudates of other crops on the gemination of soybean seeds. Two experiments were accomplished. For the first experiment wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum, cale (Triticum sp., corn (Zea mays, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa, and black oat (Avena strigosa, that were placed to germinate, in paper rolls, in BOD at 25°C. These seeds were discarded and the papers were reused for germination of soybean seeds, using as solution-test root exsudates, and as control distilled water to humidify the paper. For the second experiment, aqueous extract of above-ground part of black oat (Avena strigosa was used to humidify the paper where the soy seeds were placed to germinate, in BOD at 25oC. Allelopatic effects alelopáticos of the root exsudates were verified on the percentage of germination of the soybean seeds, but it was not verified effect on the time and medium speed of germination. It was observed negative interference of black oat extract on the time and medium speed of soybean seeds germination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito de substâncias naturais encontrados em exsudados radiculares de outras culturas, sobre a geminação da soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos: no primeiro, sementes de trigo (Triticum aestivum, triticale (Triticum sp., milho (Zea mays, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa, e aveia preta (Avena strigosa, foram colocadas para germinar, em rolos de papel, em BOD a 25°C. Estas sementes foram descartadas e os papéis reutilizados para germinação de sementes de soja, utilizando como solução-teste exsudados radiculares, e como controle apenas água destilada para umedecer os papéis. Para o segundo experimento, foi utilizado extrato aquoso da parte área de aveia preta (Avena strigosa, como umidificante do papel, onde posteriormente as sementes de soja foram colocadas para germinar, em BOD a 25oC. Constataram-se efeitos alelopáticos dos exudados

  5. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria can inhibit the in vitro germination of Glycine max L. seeds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marius Stefan; Marius Mihasan; Simona Dunca

    2008-01-01

    .... Because soybean represent a crop of major economic importance, a study wasperformed to analyze the impact of some rhizobacteria isolated from soybean roots on the on the germination process ofGlycine max L...

  6. Screening and Physiological Mechanisms of Resistance to Glyphosate in Wild Soybeans(Glycine soja)%抗草甘膦野生大豆筛选及其抗性生理机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高越; 刘辉; 陶波

    2013-01-01

    利用田间试验对67份野生大豆材料进行草甘膦抗性筛选,结果在草甘膦有效剂量为1.23 kg·hm-2条件下,不同野生大豆对草甘膦抗性存在明显差异,其中ZYD0685和ZYD2405的存活率最高,分别为87%和83%;7份材料的存活率为2.7%~38%;58份材料死亡.以抗性材料ZYD0685和敏感材料ZYD0790进行生理指标研究,结果在未经草甘膦处理时,二者的叶绿素含量、莽草酸含量及谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶(GSTs)活性基本相同.在草甘膦不同剂量处理下,抗性材料ZYD0685叶绿素和莽草酸含量没有明显变化,GSTs活性明显增加;而敏感材料ZYD0790莽草酸含量明显升高,叶绿素含量明显降低,GSTs活性变化幅度较小.因此,植物体内莽草酸积累量较少是抗草甘膦的主要生理反应.%Sixty-seven wild soybeans(Glycine soja) were field planted and their resistance to glyphosate were identified. The resistance to glyphoaste of tested materials varied greatly. At 1. 23 kg a. i·hm-2 glyphosate, the survival rate of ZYD0685 and ZYD2405 were 87% and 83% ,respectively,that of seven wild soybeans ranged from 2.7% to 38% .fifty-eight wild soybeans were died after glyphosate treatment. To elucidate the physiological mechanism of the resistance,chlorophyll content,shikimate accumulation and gultathione S transferases(GSTs) activity between glyphosate resistant and sensitive wild soybean tZYD0685 and ZYD0790,were compared. The three index for ZYD0685 and ZYD0790 were basically identical before glyphosate treatment. Under varied glyphosate concentration treatment, chlorophyll content and shikimate accumulation remained stable and GSTs activity significantly enhanced for resistant soybean ZYD0685. While shikimate accumulation significantly increased and chlorophyll content significantly increased for sensetive soybean ZYD0790. Results suggest lower shikimate accumulation is the main physiological response for glyphosate resistance in wild soybean.

  7. Effect of Aerated Compost Tea on the Growth Promotion of Lettuce, Soybean, and Sweet Corn in Organic Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical characteristics and microbial population during incubation of four kinds of aerated compost teas based on oriental medicinal herbs compost, vermicompost, rice straw compost, and mixtures of three composts (MOVR. It aimed to determine the effects of the aerated compost tea (ACT based on MOVR on the growth promotion of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn. Findings showed that the pH level and EC of the compost tea slightly increased based on the incubation time except for rice straw compost tea. All compost teas except for oriental medicinal herbs and rice straw compost tea contained more NO⁻₃-N than NH⁺₄-N. Plate counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher than the initial compost in ACT. Microbial communities of all ACT were predominantly bacteria. The dominant bacterial genera were analyzed as Bacillus (63.0%, Ochrobactrum (13.0%, Spingomonas (6.0% and uncultured bacterium (4.0% by 16S rDNA analysis. The effect of four concentrations, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% MOVR on the growth of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn was also studied in the greenhouse. The red leaf lettuce with 0.4% MOVR had the most effective concentration on growth parameters in foliage part. However, 0.8% MOVR significantly promoted the growth of root and shoot of both soybean and sweet corn. The soybean treated with higher MOVR concentration was more effective in increasing the root nodule formation by 7.25 times than in the lower MOVR concentrations Results indicated that ACT could be used as liquid nutrient fertilizer with active microorganisms for culture of variable crops under organic farming condition.

  8. Effect of Aerated Compost Tea on the Growth Promotion of Lettuce, Soybean, and Sweet Corn in Organic Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Shim, Chang Ki; Kim, Yong Ki; Hong, Sung Jun; Park, Jong Ho; Han, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin Ho; Kim, Suk Chul

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical characteristics and microbial population during incubation of four kinds of aerated compost teas based on oriental medicinal herbs compost, vermicompost, rice straw compost, and mixtures of three composts (MOVR). It aimed to determine the effects of the aerated compost tea (ACT) based on MOVR on the growth promotion of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn. Findings showed that the pH level and EC of the compost tea slightly increased based on the incubation time except for rice straw compost tea. All compost teas except for oriental medicinal herbs and rice straw compost tea contained more NO−3-N than NH+4-N. Plate counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher than the initial compost in ACT. Microbial communities of all ACT were predominantly bacteria. The dominant bacterial genera were analyzed as Bacillus (63.0%), Ochrobactrum (13.0%), Spingomonas (6.0%) and uncultured bacterium (4.0%) by 16S rDNA analysis. The effect of four concentrations, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% MOVR on the growth of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn was also studied in the greenhouse. The red leaf lettuce with 0.4% MOVR had the most effective concentration on growth parameters in foliage part. However, 0.8% MOVR significantly promoted the growth of root and shoot of both soybean and sweet corn. The soybean treated with higher MOVR concentration was more effective in increasing the root nodule formation by 7.25 times than in the lower MOVR concentrations Results indicated that ACT could be used as liquid nutrient fertilizer with active microorganisms for culture of variable crops under organic farming condition. PMID:26361474

  9. Influence of initial seed moisture and temperature conditions during germination and emergence on seedling survival and yields of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Markowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Injury to soybean seedlings caused by low temperature (5°C at the beginning of germination was greatly reduced when instead of chilling (10°C a higher temperature (20°C was applied at the end of germination and during emergence. A new interpretation of the physiological mechanism involved in this reversibility of chilling injury was proposed. Hydration in water vapour of soybean seeds with initial moisture content of from 5 to 10% to a level of 30%, dry weight basis, increased seedling survival under controlled conditions of germination and emergence at respectively 5°C and l0°C as well as under natural soil conditions in field experiments both after early and late planting dates. A modified method of seed hydration in water vapour (i.e. conditioning or hardening of seeds against cold was developed for practical application. In field experiments conditioning of seeds increased seedling survival and thus also yields per unit area of plot but had no significant effect on yield per plant. Seed conditioning may have practical significance in soybean growing and for breeding purposes when equalizing the number of plants per plot is important for comparing new varieties and breeding forms.

  10. Association analysis for detecting significant single nucleotide polymorphisms for phosphorus-deficiency tolerance at the seedling stage in soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Lihua; Kan, Guizhen; Du, Wenkai; Guo, Shiwei; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Guozheng; Cheng, Hao; Yu, Deyue

    2016-03-01

    Tolerance to low-phosphorus soil is a desirable trait in soybean cultivars. Previous quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies for phosphorus-deficiency tolerance were mainly derived from bi-parental segregating populations and few reports from natural population. The objective of this study was to detect QTLs that regulate phosphorus-deficiency tolerance in soybean using association mapping approach. Phosphorus-deficiency tolerance was evaluated according to five traits (plant shoot height, shoot dry weight, phosphorus concentration, phosphorus acquisition efficiency and use efficiency) comprising a conditional phenotype at the seedling stage. Association mapping of the conditional phenotype detected 19 SNPs including 13 SNPs that were significantly associated with the five traits across two years. A novel cluster of SNPs, including three SNPs that consistently showed significant effects over two years, that associated with more than one trait was detected on chromosome 3. All favorable alleles, which were determined based on the mean of conditional phenotypic values of each trait over the two years, could be pyramided into one cultivar through parental cross combination. The best three cross combinations were predicted with the aim of simultaneously improving phosphorus acquisition efficiency and use efficiency. These results will provide a thorough understanding of the genetic basis of phosphorus deficiency tolerance in soybean.

  11. Acidification and starch behaviour during co-fermentation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and soybean (Glycine max Merr) into gari, an African fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Kongor, Edem John; Annor, George Amponsah; Adjonu, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Changes in acidification and starch behaviour were investigated during co-fermentation of cassava and soybean into gari, an African fermented product. Non-volatile acidity, pH and starch content were evaluated using standard analytical methods. Starch breakdown and pasting characteristics were also analysed using a Brabender viscoamylograph. Fermentation caused significant variations in the pH, non-volatile acidity and starch concentration. The pH decreased with concomitant increases in non-volatile acidity during co-fermentation of the cassava dough. Soy fortification up to 20% caused only minimal effects on the pH, titratable acidity and starch content during the fermentation period. Starch content decreased from 69.8% to 60.4% within the 48 h fermentation time in the unfortified sample, with similar trends noted at all levels of fortification. Starch pasting characteristics showed varied trends in pasting temperature, peak viscosity, viscosity at 95 degrees C and at 50 degrees C-hold with increasing fermentation time and soybean concentration. Cassava could be co-fermented with soybean up to 20% concentration during gari processing without significant effect on its process and product quality characteristics.

  12. Screening of filamentous fungi to produce xylanase and xylooligosaccharides in submerged and solid-state cultivations on rice husk, soybean hull, and spent malt as substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Menezes, Bruna; Rossi, Daniele Misturini; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the enzymatic complex produced by selected fungi strains isolated from the environment using the agro-industrial residues rice husk, soybean hull, and spent malt as substrates. Microbial growth was carried out in solid-state cultivation (SSC) and in submerged cultivations (SC) and the enzymatic activities of xylanase, cellulase, β-xylosidase, and β-glucosidase were determined. All substrates were effective in inducing enzymatic activities, with one strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis BLf1 showing maximum activities for all enzymes, except for cellulases. Using this fungus, the enzymatic activities of xylanase, cellulase, and β-glucosidase were generally higher in SSC compared to SC, producing maxima activities of 120.5, 25.3 and 47.4 U g(-1) of dry substrate, respectively. β-xylosidase activity of 28.1 U g(-1) of dry substrate was highest in SC. Experimental design was carried out to optimize xylanase activity by A. brasiliensis BLf1 in SSC using rice husk as substrate, producing maximum xylanase activity 183.5 U g(-1) dry substrate, and xylooligosaccharides were produced and characterized. These results suggest A. brasiliensis BLf1 can be used to produce important lytic enzymes to be applied in the preparation of xylooligosaccharides.

  13. Levels of glyphosate in surface waters, sediments and soils associated with direct sowing soybean cultivation in north pampasic region of Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peruzzo, Pablo J. [Grupo Materiales Polimericos, INIFTA - Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (UNLP-CONICET), Diag. 113 y 64, CC 16 Suc 4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Porta, Atilio A. [CIMA - Centro de Investigaciones del Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Division Quimica Analitica, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: aporta@quimica.unlp.edu.ar; Ronco, Alicia E. [CIMA - Centro de Investigaciones del Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2008-11-15

    Levels of glyphosate were determined in water, soil and sediment samples from a transgenic soybean cultivation area located near to tributaries streams of the Pergamino-Arrecifes system in the north of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Field work took into account both the pesticide application and the rains occurring after applications. The pesticide was analysed by HPLC-UV detection, previous derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl). In addition, SoilFug multimedia model was used to analyse the environmental distribution of the pesticides. In the field, levels of glyphosate in waters ranged from 0.10 to 0.70 mg/L, while in sediments and soils values were between 0.5 and 5.0 mg/Kg. Temporal variation of glyphosate levels depended directly on the time of application and the rain events. The results obtained from the application of the model are in accordance with the values found in the field. - Glyphosate concentrations in the environment from a region where little information exists about this and intensive cultivation activities predominate in large areas.

  14. Evaluation of the use of waste of soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) combined with wood waste in making briquet; Avaliacao da utilizacao de residuo de soja (Glycine max (L.)) combinado com residuo de madeira de confeccao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travessini, Rosana; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo; Anami, Marcelo Hidemassa; Scherpinski, Neusa Idick [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Emails: rosana_travessini@yahoo.com.br, fabianaschutz@gmail.com, mhanami@gmail.com, neusascherpinski@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    The agricultural industry produces a large amount of which use biomass is an alternative energy economically viable through the compression portion of ligno-cellulose as raw material to replace the wood with an equivalent product, by briquetting. This study aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility of manufacturing fuel briquettes made from soybean residues combined with waste wood. The making of briquettes was performed in the laboratory of Electromechanics of UTFPR campus Medianeira PR. For this analysis, we assessed the content of moisture, ash, fixed carbon content of porosity and higher calorific value. From the results we can conclude that the manufacture of briquettes from lignocellulosic raw materials is an extremely viable energy flashlight for the region of the Bacia do Rio Parana III. (author)

  15. Comportamento de cultivares de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] em resposta ao metribuzin aplicado em diferentes doses Response of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] cultivars to rates of metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.R.O. Velloso

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante o ano agrícola de 1978/79, foi realizado um experimento a campo, na re gião da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul, com o objetivo de conhecer o comportamento das cultivares de soja BR1, Bragg, Davis, IAS4, IAS5, Paraná e Planalto em relação ao metribuzin aplicado em pré-emergência nas doses de 0, 490 e 980 g/ha. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram estimados através de avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade, contagem da população de plantas, determinações do peso seco da parte aérea e do número de grãos e obtenção do rendimento de grãos. Para a maioria das variáveis em estudo, constatou-se que ocorreram reduções proporcionais aos acréscimos das doses do herbicida. Os resultados da avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade mostraram que houve diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos de doses, tendo as cultivares Bragg e Davis demonstrado o menor efeito fito-tóxico, enquanto BR1 foi a que apresentou maior grau de injúria. Quanto ao rendimento de grãos alcançado pelas cultivares, foi constatado que Bragg comportou-se como altamente tolerante; BR1 e Davis como moderadamente tolerantes; IAS5 como intermediária e Paraná, Planalto e IAS4 como moderadamente suscetíveis.A field experiment was conducted during the 1978/79 growing season at the Central Depression Region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in order to evaluate the response soybean cultivars BR1, Bragg, Davis, IAS4, IAS5, Paraná, and Planalto to metribuzin applied in pre-emergence at rates of 0, 490 and 980 g/ha. The effects of the treatments were evaluated through visual rating of phytotoxicity, counting of soybean population, and determinations of dry weight of soybean stems, number of grains per unit area and grain yield. For most of the variables measured there were reductions proportional to increasing rates of metribuzin appl ied. Results of visual evaluation of soybean injury showed statistical differences among rates of the herbicide, being Bragg and

  16. 野生大豆(Glycine soja)资源的利用研究进展%Progress in Evaluation and Utilization of Wild Soybean Germplasm Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王果

    2007-01-01

    从野生大豆(Glycine soja)在大豆育种中的应用、在生物技术中的应用以及作为肥料、饲料的应用等三个方面介绍了目前我国野生大豆资源的开发利用情况,并根据最近几年的研究成果,对将来野生大豆的利用与开发作出了展望.

  17. Screening for Glyphosate Resistant Wild Soybean (Glycine soja) and Study on Its Physiological Mechanisms of Resistance%抗草甘膦野生大豆筛选及其抗性生理机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高越; 刘辉; 陶波

    2013-01-01

    [目的]初步确定抗草甘膦野生大豆抗性产生的生理机制,为抗草甘膦大豆育种奠定基础。[方法]利用田间试验对67份野生大豆材料进行草甘膦抗性筛选;并以抗性材料ZYD0685和敏感材料 ZYD0790进行生理指标研究。[结果]在草甘膦有效剂量为1.23 kg/hm2条件下,不同野生大豆对草甘膦抗性存在明显差异,其中 ZYD0685和 ZYD2405的存活率最高,分别为87%和83%;7份材料的存活率为2.7%~38%;58份材料死亡。在草甘膦不同剂量处理下,抗性材料 ZYD0685叶绿素和莽草酸含量没有明显变化,GSTs活性明显增加;而敏感材料 ZYD0790莽草酸含量明显升高,叶绿素含量明显降低,GSTs活性变化幅度较小。[结论]降低莽草酸积累量较少是野生大豆抗草甘膦的主要生理反应。%[Objective] This study aimed to preliminarily determine the physiological mechanism of glyphosate resistance produced in wild soybean(Glycine soja) and fur-ther provide a basis for the breeding of glyphosate-resistant soybean. [Method] First, a screening for glyphosate resistant varieties among sixty-seven wild soybean mate-rials was done in a field trial; subsequently, physiological indexes of the screened resistant variety ZYD0685 and the sensitive variety ZYD0790 were studied. [Result] At the glyphosate dose of 1.23 kg a.i/hm2, glyphoaste resistance varied greatly a-mong different wild soybean materials, with the highest survival rate of 87% and 83% occurring in ZYD0685 and ZYD2405, respectively, and that of another seven accessions ranged from 2.7% to 38%, and al the remaining fifty-eight soybean ma-terials died. After treatment with glyphoaste at different doses, there were no signifi-cant differences in chlorophyl content and shikimate content in the resistant ZYD0685, but there was an evident increase in the activity of gultathione-S-transferas-es(GSTs); while in the sensitive ZYD0790, the content of shikimic acid increased sig

  18. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of glyoxalase gene families in soybean (Glycine max) indicate their development and abiotic stress specific response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ajit; Islam, Tahmina

    2016-04-16

    Glyoxalase pathway consists of two enzymes, glyoxalase I (GLYI) and glyoxalase II (GLYII) which detoxifies a highly cytotoxic metabolite methylglyoxal (MG) to its non-toxic form. MG may form advanced glycation end products with various cellular macro-molecules such as proteins, DNA and RNA; that ultimately lead to their inactivation. Role of glyoxalase enzymes has been extensively investigated in various plant species which showed their crucial role in salinity, drought and heavy metal stress tolerance. Previously genome-wide analysis of glyoxalase genes has been conducted in model plants Arabidopsis and rice, but no such study was performed in any legume species. In the present study, a comprehensive genome database analysis of soybean was performed and identified a total of putative 41 GLYI and 23 GLYII proteins encoded by 24 and 12 genes, respectively. Detailed analysis of these identified members was conducted including their nomenclature and classification, chromosomal distribution and duplication, exon-intron organization, and protein domain(s) and motifs identification. Expression profiling of these genes has been performed in different tissues and developmental stages as well as under salinity and drought stresses using publicly available RNAseq and microarray data. The study revealed that GmGLYI-7 and GmGLYII-8 have been expressed intensively in all the developmental stages and tissues; while GmGLYI-6, GmGLYI-9, GmGLYI-20, GmGLYII-5 and GmGLYII-10 were highly abiotic stress responsive members. The present study identifies the largest family of glyoxalase proteins to date with 41 GmGLYI and 23 GmGLYII members in soybean. Detailed analysis of GmGLYI and GmGLYII genes strongly indicates the genome-wide segmental and tandem duplication of the glyoxalase members. Moreover, this study provides a strong basis about the biological role and function of GmGLYI and GmGLYII members in soybean growth, development and stress physiology.

  19. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greenhouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Olszyk, David; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2011-02-01

    Although laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective, and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive to obtain. Toxicology tests were conducted on potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in a native soil in pots in the greenhouse and were compared to plants grown outside under natural environmental conditions to determine toxicological differences between environments, whether different plant developmental stages were more sensitive to herbicides, and whether these species were good candidates for plant reproductive tests. The reproductive and vegetative endpoints of the greenhouse plants and field-grown plants were also compared. The herbicides bromoxynil, glyphosate, MCPA ([4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy] acetic acid), and sulfometuron-methyl were applied at below field application rates to potato plants at two developmental stages. Peas and soybeans were exposed to sulfometuron-methyl at similar rates at three developmental stages. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in a given measure differed between experimental conditions but were generally within a single order of magnitude within a species, even though there were differences in plant morphology. This study demonstrated that potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in pots in a greenhouse produce phytotoxicity results similar to those grown outside in pots; that reproductive endpoints in many cases were more sensitive than vegetative ones; and that potato and pea plants are reasonable candidates for asexual and sexual reproductive phytotoxicity tests, respectively. Plants grown in pots in a greenhouse and outside varied little in toxicity. However, extrapolating those toxicity results to native plant communities in the field is basically unknown and in need of research. © 2010 SETAC.

  20. Identification and Construction of the Recombinant Vector of Virus Induced Gene Silencing of Soybean Heterodera glycines Ichinohe%大豆胞囊线虫VIGS载体的构建与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡; 阮九霄; 马晓萌; 傅露露; 乔月娥; 段素娟; 孟娉; 李成伟

    2012-01-01

    拟克隆大豆胞囊线虫肌钙蛋白(Hg-tnc)和酰胺样多肽(Hg-flp)基因的部分片段,构建胞囊线虫的病毒诱导基因沉默体系(VIGS),以期为大豆抗胞囊线虫抗性品种的培育及胞囊线虫基因功能验证的研究奠定理论基础.利用RT-PCR方法从大豆胞囊线虫中克隆出目的基因,电泳检测表明,克隆的Hg-tnc基因和Hg-flp基因部分片段分别约为1000bp和700bp.将目的基因连接到烟草脆裂病毒载体pYY13上,转化大肠杆菌,利用PCR进行初步鉴定后进行序列测定.结果表明,大豆胞囊线虫Hg-tnc基因和Hg-flp基因已插入到pYY13载体上,VIGS载体构建成功.%In this research, the partial cDNA of Heterodera glycines Ichinohe troponin C ( Hg-tnc) gene and FM-RFamide-like peptides ( Hg-flp ) were cloned and construct virus induced gene silencing ( V1GS) vectors. The target genes Hg-flp and Hg-tnc can be obtained from H. glycines by RT-PCR and then ligated to tobacco rattle virus(TRV) vector pYY13. Then the constructed vectors were transformed into DH5α and identified by PCR and sequencing. Sequence analysis indicates that the sequences of H. glycines Hg-tnc and Hg-tnc were approximately 1 000 bp and 700 bp in length and we successfully constructed recombinant vectors pYY13-Hg-flp and pYY13-Hg-tnc. This work laid the foundations for soybean resistance breeding and the function reseach on Hg-flp and Hg-tnc.

  1. Germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill sob cobertura vegetal = Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill seed germination and plantlet growth under vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pereira Nóbrega

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência do sistema de rotação de cultura requer, entre outrostratamentos, a escolha adequada das espécies a serem instaladas. Culturas vegetais podem apresentar compostos aleloquímicos, os quais são liberados por meio de pelos radiculares, sementes, raízes, colmos e folhas, em quantidades variáveis, capazes de interferir nas culturas subsequentes, comprometendo a produção. Assim, este estudoanalisou o potencial alelopático de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb (AP, nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. (NF, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. (ER, azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. (AZ e consórcio (CO - AP+ER+NF na germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de soja. O experimento foi em laboratório, com substrato deareia, onde foram cultivadas plantas de cobertura, por 30 dias, mantendo os restos radiculares das plantas com e sem restos de parte aérea. Observou-se redução na emergência de plântulas de soja sob CO, AZ e AP. O índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, a porcentagem de emergência em areia (EA e a massa fresca de hipocótilo (MFH foram afetados negativamente pelas plantas de cobertura.In order to be efficient, the crop rotation system requires, among other factors, an adequate choice of species to be installed. Vegetalcultures can feature allelochemical compounds, released by root hairs, roots, stems and leaves in variable amounts, which are able to interfere on subsequent cultures, as well as cause a delay in their production. Thus, this study analyzed the allelopathic potentialof black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb (BO, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. (FT, vetch (Vicia sativa L. (V, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. (RG and consortium (CO - BO+V+FT on soybean seed germination and plantlet growth. This trial was carried out in a laboratory, with sand substrate, where coverage plants were grown, during 30 days. The remaining root portions of plants were kept with and without the remaining aerial part portions

  2. Differential reactions of soybean isolines with combinations of aphid resistance genes Rag1, Rag2, and Rag3 to four soybean aphid biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the discovery of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) as a devastating insect pest of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in the United States, host resistance was recognized as an important management option. However, the identification of soybean aphid isolates exhibiting strong virulenc...

  3. Influences of climate warming on co-occurrence of Aphis glycines (Matsumura) and Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) on different soybean strains in cold area of China%气候变暖对寒地大豆作物两种害虫发生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣; 郝操; 牛琳琳; 赵佳男; 付雪; 叶乐夫; 赵奎军

    2016-01-01

    [Objectives] To investigate the effects of temperature increase on the occurrence of phytophagous arthropod pests, and their interspecific interactions, on soybean crops in cold areas of China in order to improve the long term prediction and forecasting of multiple local arthropod pest species. [Methods] We simulated climate warming in an artificial climatic chamber and investigated the effects of both high and low temperatures on the co-occurrence and interspecific interactions of Aphis glycines and Tetranychus cinnabarinus. In addition, we tested interactions between these two arthropod pest species on“leaf discs”from different soybean strains. [Results] The results of our experiments suggest that relatively low