WorldWideScience

Sample records for cultivated peanut germplasm

  1. Effect of growing location on seed oil composition in the cultivated peanut germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A particularly important component of seed oils is the content of oleic acid as this fatty acid has several health benefits and contributes to increased oil stability, i.e. longer shelf life. We measured 8846 available accessions of the USDA peanut germplasm collection to gauge the range of variatio...

  2. Refining a major QTL controlling spotted wilt disease resistance in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)and evaluating its contribution to the resistance variations in peanut germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wilt, caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), has been one of major diseases in cultivated peanut grown in the southeastern United States (US) since 1990. Previously a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling spotted wilt disease resistance was mapped to an interval of 2.55 cent...

  3. ''Fushi'' - excellent mutant germplasm for peanut improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Zhou, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The mutant line ''Fushi'' was selected following seed treatment of the variety ''Shi Xuan 64'' in 1960 with 32 P. Many good peanut varieties were developed using ''Fushi'' in cross-breeding (ref. Mutation Breeding Newsletter No. 30 (July 1987) p. 2-3). In the past 10 years, planting areas of these varieties added up to 3,3 million ha in South China, peanut production was increased by more than 500 000 t valued 500 million Yuan. (author)

  4. Genetic analysis of wild and cultivated germplasm of pigeonpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the efficiency of the use of single versus multiple markers, the genetic diversity was quantified among 12 diverse pigeonpea germplasm comprised of eight wild and four cultivated using both random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and how well these two types ...

  5. Characterization of rust, early and late leaf spot resistance in wild and cultivated peanut germplasm Caracterização da resistência à ferrugem, mancha preta e mancha castanha em germoplasma silvestre e cultivado de amendoim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pereira Fávero

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea has an AB genome and is one of the most important oil crops in the world. The main constraints of crop management in Brazil are fungal diseases. Several species of the genus Arachis are resistant to pests and diseases. The objective of our experiments was to identify wild species belonging to the taxonomic section Arachis with either A or B (or " non-A" genomes that are resistant to early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidicola, late leaf spot (Cercosporidium personatum and rust (Puccinia arachidis. For the identification of genotypes resistant to fungal diseases, bioassays with detached leaves were done in laboratory conditions, with artificial inoculation, a controlled temperature of 25ºC and a photoperiod of 10 h light/14 h dark, for 20-42 days, depending on the fungi species. Most of the accessions of wild species were more resistant than accessions of A. hypogaea for one, two or all three fungi species studied. Arachis monticola, considered to be a possible tetraploid ancestor or a derivative of A. hypogaea, was also more susceptible to Cercosporidium personatum and Puccinia arachidis, as compared to most of the wild species. Therefore, wild germplasm accessions of both genome types are available to be used for the introgression of resistance genes against three fungal diseases of peanut.O amendoim (Arachis hypogaea possui genoma AB e é uma das mais importantes culturas oleaginosas em todo o mundo. Os principais problemas da cultura no Brasil são as doenças fúngicas. Várias espécies do gênero Arachis são resistentes a pragas e doenças. Este trabalho visou a identificar espécies silvestres pertencentes à seção Arachis associadas aos genomas A ou B (ou " não-A" do amendoim que são resistentes à mancha castanha (Cercospora arachidicola, mancha preta (Cercosporidium personatum e ferrugem (Puccinia arachidis. Para a identificação de genótipos resistentes a doenças fúngicas, bioensaios utilizando

  6. The Art and the Science of Cultivation for Weed Control in Organic Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultural weed control is the basis on which an integrated system of weed management in organic peanut is based. The cultural practices evaluated for weed control were row patterns and seeding rates, integrated with cultivation intensity. Results showed that peanut seeded in wide rows (two rows, 91...

  7. Association mapping of SSR markers to sweet, bitter and roasted peanut sensory attributes in cultivated peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain roasted peanut quality sensory attributes are very important breeding objectives for peanut manufactory and consumers. Currently the only means of measuring these traits is the use of a trained sensory panel. This is a costly and time-consuming process. It is desirable, from a cost, time an...

  8. Effects of Organic Matter on Soil Erosion and Runoff Peanuts and Green Pea in Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Sukataatmaja, Sukandi; Sato, Yohei; Yamaji, Eiji; Ishikawa, Masaya

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter from manure are used not only for fertilizer but also can be used for preventing soil erosion and runoff. How to manage manure to soil for peanut and green pea CUltivation is especially important, because most farmers plant these crops. The objective of this research is to identify effect of: 1) organicmatter from chicken manure, cow manure and sheep manure on soil erosion and runoff in peanuts and green pea cultivations, 2) mulch from paddy, corn and leaf of banana on soil ero...

  9. Transcriptome Sequencing of Diverse Peanut (Arachis Wild Species and the Cultivated Species Reveals a Wealth of Untapped Genetic Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan Chopra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the cultivated peanut species possesses almost no molecular variability, we sequenced a diverse panel of 22 Arachis accessions representing Arachis hypogaea botanical classes, A-, B-, and K- genome diploids, a synthetic amphidiploid, and a tetraploid wild species. RNASeq was performed on pools of three tissues, and de novo assembly was performed. Realignment of individual accession reads to transcripts of the cultivar OLin identified 306,820 biallelic SNPs. Among 10 naturally occurring tetraploid accessions, 40,382 unique homozygous SNPs were identified in 14,719 contigs. In eight diploid accessions, 291,115 unique SNPs were identified in 26,320 contigs. The average SNP rate among the 10 cultivated tetraploids was 0.5, and among eight diploids was 9.2 per 1000 bp. Diversity analysis indicated grouping of diploids according to genome classification, and cultivated tetraploids by subspecies. Cluster analysis of variants indicated that sequences of B genome species were the most similar to the tetraploids, and the next closest diploid accession belonged to the A genome species. A subset of 66 SNPs selected from the dataset was validated; of 782 SNP calls, 636 (81.32% were confirmed using an allele-specific discrimination assay. We conclude that substantial genetic variability exists among wild species. Additionally, significant but lesser variability at the molecular level occurs among accessions of the cultivated species. This survey is the first to report significant SNP level diversity among transcripts, and may explain some of the phenotypic differences observed in germplasm surveys. Understanding SNP variants in the Arachis accessions will benefit in developing markers for selection.

  10. Genetic diversity of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) germplasm assessed by retrotransposon-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smýkal, P; Bačová-Kerteszová, N; Kalendar, R; Corander, J; Schulman, A H; Pavelek, M

    2011-05-01

    Retrotransposon segments were characterized and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers developed for cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and the Linum genus. Over 75 distinct long terminal repeat retrotransposon segments were cloned, the first set for Linum, and specific primers designed for them. IRAP was then used to evaluate genetic diversity among 708 accessions of cultivated flax comprising 143 landraces, 387 varieties, and 178 breeding lines. These included both traditional and modern, oil (86), fiber (351), and combined-use (271) accessions, originating from 36 countries, and 10 wild Linum species. The set of 10 most polymorphic primers yielded 141 reproducible informative data points per accession, with 52% polymorphism and a 0.34 Shannon diversity index. The maximal genetic diversity was detected among wild Linum species (100% IRAP polymorphism and 0.57 Jaccard similarity), while diversity within cultivated germplasm decreased from landraces (58%, 0.63) to breeding lines (48%, 0.85) and cultivars (50%, 0.81). Application of Bayesian methods for clustering resulted in the robust identification of 20 clusters of accessions, which were unstratified according to origin or user type. This indicates an overlap in genetic diversity despite disruptive selection for fiber versus oil types. Nevertheless, eight clusters contained high proportions (70-100%) of commercial cultivars, whereas two clusters were rich (60%) in landraces. These findings provide a basis for better flax germplasm management, core collection establishment, and exploration of diversity in breeding, as well as for exploration of the role of retrotransposons in flax genome dynamics.

  11. A high-density genetic map of Arachis duranensis, a diploid ancestor of cultivated peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Ervin D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea is an allotetraploid species whose ancestral genomes are most likely derived from the A-genome species, A. duranensis, and the B-genome species, A. ipaensis. The very recent (several millennia evolutionary origin of A. hypogaea has imposed a bottleneck for allelic and phenotypic diversity within the cultigen. However, wild diploid relatives are a rich source of alleles that could be used for crop improvement and their simpler genomes can be more easily analyzed while providing insight into the structure of the allotetraploid peanut genome. The objective of this research was to establish a high-density genetic map of the diploid species A. duranensis based on de novo generated EST databases. Arachis duranensis was chosen for mapping because it is the A-genome progenitor of cultivated peanut and also in order to circumvent the confounding effects of gene duplication associated with allopolyploidy in A. hypogaea. Results More than one million expressed sequence tag (EST sequences generated from normalized cDNA libraries of A. duranensis were assembled into 81,116 unique transcripts. Mining this dataset, 1236 EST-SNP markers were developed between two A. duranensis accessions, PI 475887 and Grif 15036. An additional 300 SNP markers also were developed from genomic sequences representing conserved legume orthologs. Of the 1536 SNP markers, 1054 were placed on a genetic map. In addition, 598 EST-SSR markers identified in A. hypogaea assemblies were included in the map along with 37 disease resistance gene candidate (RGC and 35 other previously published markers. In total, 1724 markers spanning 1081.3 cM over 10 linkage groups were mapped. Gene sequences that provided mapped markers were annotated using similarity searches in three different databases, and gene ontology descriptions were determined using the Medicago Gene Atlas and TAIR databases. Synteny analysis between A. duranensis, Medicago

  12. Comparison of Chemical Compositions in Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by NMR-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Hua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudostellariae Radix (PR is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, which is consumed commonly for its positive health effects. However, the chemical differences of PR from different cultivated fields and germplasms are still unknown. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of PR from different cultivated fields, in this study, 1H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were used to investigate the different metabolites in PR from five germplasms (jr, zs1, zs2, sb, and xc cultivated in traditional fields (Jurong, Jiangsu, JSJR and cultivated fields (Zherong, Fujian, FJZR. A total of 34 metabolites were identified based on 1H-NMR data, and fourteen of them were found to be different in PR from JSJR and FJZR. The relative contents of alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, and hyperoside in PR from JSJR were higher than that in PR from FJZR, while PR from FJZR contained higher levels of glutamine, raffinose, xylose, unsaturated fatty acid, and formic acid. The contents of Heterophyllin A and Heterophyllin B were higher in PR from FJZR. This study will provide the basic information for exploring the influence law of ecological environment and germplasm genetic variation on metabolite biosynthesis of PR and its quality formation mechanism.

  13. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases and demethylase families in wild and cultivated peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDNA methylation plays important roles in genome protection, regulation of gene expression and was associated with plants development. Plant DNA methylation pattern was mediated by cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases and demethylase. Although the genomes of AA and BB wild peanuts have been fully sequence, these two gene families have not been studied. In this study we report the identification and analysis of putative cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases (C5-MTases and demethylase in AA and BB wild peanuts. Cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases in AA and BB wild peanuts could be classified in known MET, CMT and DRM2 groups based on their domain organization. This result was supported by the gene and protein structural characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. We found that some wild peanut DRM2 numbers didn’t contain UBA domain which was different from other plants such as Arabidopsis, maize, soybean. Five DNA demethylase were found in AA genome and five in BB genome. The selective pressure analysis showed that wild peanut C5-MTases gene mainly underwent purifying selection but many positive selection sites can be detected. Conversely, DNA demethylase genes mainly underwent positive selection during evolution. Additionally, the expression dynamic of cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases and demethylase genes in different cultivated peanut tissues were analyzed. Expression result showed that cold, heat or drought stress could influence the expression level of C5-MTases and DNA demethylase genes in cultivated peanut. These results are useful for better understanding the complexity of these two gene families, and will facilitate epigenetic studies in peanut.

  14. Integrated genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut by three RIL populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanbin Song; Huifang Jiang; Huaiyong Luo; Li Huang; Yuning Chen; Weigang Chen; Nian Liu; Xiaoping Ren; Bolun Yu; Jianbin Guo

    2017-01-01

    High-density and precise genetic linkage map is fundamental to detect quanti-tative trait locus (QTL) of agronomic and quality related traits in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). In this study, three linkage maps from three RIL (recombinant inbred line) populations were used to construct an integrated map. A total of 2,069 SSR and transposon markers were anchored on the high-density integrated map which covered 2,231.53 cM with 20 linkage groups. Totally, 92 QTLs correlating with pod length (PL), pod width (PW), hun-dred pods weight (HPW) and plant height (PH) from above RIL populations were mapped on it. Seven intervals were found to harbor QTLs controlling the same traits in different pop-ulations, including one for PL, three for PW, two for HPW, and one for PH. Besides, QTLs controlling different traits in different populations were found to be overlapped in four inter-vals. Interval on A05 contains 17 QTLs for different traits from two RIL populations. New markers were added to these intervals to detect QTLs with narrow confidential intervals. Results obtained in this study may facilitate future genomic researches such as QTL study, fine mapping, positional cloning and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in peanut.

  15. Recombinants from the crosses between amphidiploid and cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea for pest-resistance breeding programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Ferreira de Paula

    Full Text Available Peanut is a major oilseed crop worldwide. In the Brazilian peanut production, silvering thrips and red necked peanut worm are the most threatening pests. Resistant varieties are considered an alternative to pest control. Many wild diploid Arachis species have shown resistance to these pests, and these can be used in peanut breeding by obtaining hybrid of A and B genomes and subsequent polyploidization with colchicine, resulting in an AABB amphidiploid. This amphidiploid can be crossed with cultivated peanut (AABB to provide genes of interest to the cultivar. In this study, the sterile diploid hybrids from A. magna V 13751 and A. kempff-mercadoi V 13250 were treated with colchicine for polyploidization, and the amphidiploids were crossed with A. hypogaea cv. IAC OL 4 to initiate the introgression of the wild genes into the cultivated peanut. The confirmation of the hybridity of the progenies was obtained by: (1 reproductive characterization through viability of pollen, (2 molecular characterization using microsatellite markers and (3 morphological characterization using 61 morphological traits with principal component analysis. The diploid hybrid individual was polyploidized, generating the amphidiploid An 13 (A. magna V 13751 x A. kempff-mercadoi V 132504x. Four F1 hybrid plants were obtained from IAC OL 4 × An 13, and 51 F2 seeds were obtained from these F1 plants. Using reproductive, molecular and morphological characterizations, it was possible to distinguish hybrid plants from selfed plants. In the cross between A. hypogaea and the amphidiploid, as the two parents are polyploid, the hybrid progeny and selves had the viability of the pollen grains as high as the parents. This fact turns the use of reproductive characteristics impossible for discriminating, in this case, the hybrid individuals from selfing. The hybrids between A. hypogaea and An 13 will be used in breeding programs seeking pest resistance, being subjected to successive

  16. Characterization and transferability of microsatellite markers of the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri Dario A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Arachis includes Arachis hypogaea (cultivated peanut and wild species that are used in peanut breeding or as forage. Molecular markers have been employed in several studies of this genus, but microsatellite markers have only been used in few investigations. Microsatellites are very informative and are useful to assess genetic variability, analyze mating systems and in genetic mapping. The objectives of this study were to develop A. hypogaea microsatellite loci and to evaluate the transferability of these markers to other Arachis species. Results Thirteen loci were isolated and characterized using 16 accessions of A. hypogaea. The level of variation found in A. hypogaea using microsatellites was higher than with other markers. Cross-transferability of the markers was also high. Sequencing of the fragments amplified using the primer pair Ah11 from 17 wild Arachis species showed that almost all wild species had similar repeated sequence to the one observed in A. hypogaea. Sequence data suggested that there is no correlation between taxonomic relationship of a wild species to A. hypogaea and the number of repeats found in its microsatellite loci. Conclusion These results show that microsatellite primer pairs from A. hypogaea have multiple uses. A higher level of variation among A. hypogaea accessions can be detected using microsatellite markers in comparison to other markers, such as RFLP, RAPD and AFLP. The microsatellite primers of A. hypogaea showed a very high rate of transferability to other species of the genus. These primer pairs provide important tools to evaluate the genetic variability and to assess the mating system in Arachis species.

  17. Evaluation of Lettuce Germplasm Resistance to Gray Mold Disease for Organic Cultivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ki Shim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 212 accessions of lettuce germplasm to gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. The lettuce germplasm were composed of five species: Lactuca sativa (193 accessions, L. sativa var. longifolia (2 accessions, L. sativa var. crispa (2 accessions, L. saligna (2 accessions, and L. serriola (1 accession; majority of these originated from Korea, Netherlands, USA, Russia, and Bulgaria. After 35 days of spray inoculation with conidial suspension (3×10⁷ conidia/ml of B. cinerea on the surface of lettuce leaves, tested lettuce germplasm showed severe symptoms of gray mold disease. There were 208 susceptible accessions to B. cinerea counted with 100% of disease incidence and four resistant accessions, IT908801, K000598, K000599, and K021055. Two moderately resistant accessions of L. sativa, K021055 and IT908801, showed 20% of disease incidence of gray mold disease at 45 days after inoculation; and two accessions of L. saligna, K000598 and K000599, which are wild relatives of lettuce germplasm with loose-leaf type, showed complete resistance to B. cinerea. These four accessions are candidates for breeding lettuce cultivars resistant to gray mold disease.

  18. Screening of wild and cultivated Capsicum germplasm reveals new sources of Verticillium wilt resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is an important soilborne disease of pepper (Capsicum species) worldwide. Most commercial pepper cultivars lack resistance to this pathogen. Our objective was to identify resistance to multiple V. dahliae isolates in wild and cultivated Capsicum acces...

  19. Anthocyanin characteristics of wines in Vitis germplasms cultivated in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo CHENG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anthocyanin profiles and CIELAB color values of nine wines in Vitis germplasms from southern China were compared. The results showed that the anthocyanin composition of wines from one hybrid between V. vinifera and V. labrusca (‘Moldova’, two V. labrusca varieties (‘Conquistador’ and ‘Saint-Croix’, one V. quinquangularis variety (‘Yeniang No.2’, one hybrid between V. quinquangularis and V. vinifera (‘NW196’, one V. davidii variety (‘Xiangniang No.1’ and one V. rotundifolia variety (‘Noble’ were dominated by anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides. All these were quite different from V. vinifera wines (‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Marselan’, which were characterized by the monoglucoside and pyranoanthocyanins. 3',4',5'-substituted anthocyanins were dominant in the wines of all varieties, except ‘Noble’ wine. ‘Yeniang No.2’ (V. quinquangularis had the highest acid, total anthocyanin concentration, and showed a more intense pigmentation with a higher proportion and concentration of coumaroylated anthocyanins. In the colorimetric analysis, ‘Yeniang No.2’ (V. quinquangularis wine showed the most saturated red colors, followed by ‘NW196’ (V. quinquangularis. The detected chromatic characteristics of these wines were basically in accordance with their sensory evaluation.

  20. Development and characterization of BAC-end sequence derived SSRs, and their incorporation into a new higher density genetic map for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop worldwide, valued for its edible oil and digestible protein. It has a very narrow genetic base that may well derive from a relatively recent single polyploidization event. Accordingly molecular markers have low levels of polymorphism and t...

  1. Molecular Diversity and Population Structure of a Worldwide Collection of Cultivated Tetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) Germplasm as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Haiping; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhengli; Wang, Xuemin; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and population structure of a tetraploid alfalfa collection might be valuable in effective use of the genetic resources. A set of 336 worldwide genotypes of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) was genotyped using 85 genome-wide distributed SSR markers to reveal the genetic diversity and population structure in the alfalfa. Genetic diversity analysis identified a total of 1056 alleles across 85 marker loci. The average expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content values were 0.677 and 0.638, respectively, showing high levels of genetic diversity in the cultivated tetraploid alfalfa germplasm. Comparison of genetic characteristics across chromosomes indicated regions of chromosomes 2 and 3 had the highest genetic diversity. A higher genetic diversity was detected in alfalfa landraces than that of wild materials and cultivars. Two populations were identified by the model-based population structure, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses, corresponding to China and other parts of the world. However, lack of strictly correlation between clustering and geographic origins suggested extensive germplasm exchanges of alfalfa germplasm across diverse geographic regions. The quantitative analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure in this study could be useful for genetic and genomic analysis and utilization of the genetic variation in alfalfa breeding.

  2. Genome-Wide Discovery of Microsatellite Markers from Diploid Progenitor Species, Arachis duranensis and A. ipaensis, and Their Application in Cultivated Peanut (A. hypogaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanzhi Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite several efforts in the last decade toward development of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers in peanut, there is still a need for more markers for conducting different genetic and breeding studies. With the effort of the International Peanut Genome Initiative, the availability of reference genome for both the diploid progenitors of cultivated peanut allowed us to identify 135,529 and 199,957 SSRs from the A (Arachis duranensis and B genomes (Arachis ipaensis, respectively. Genome sequence analysis showed uneven distribution of the SSR motifs across genomes with variation in parameters such as SSR type, repeat number, and SSR length. Using the flanking sequences of identified SSRs, primers were designed for 51,354 and 60,893 SSRs with densities of 49 and 45 SSRs per Mb in A. duranensis and A. ipaensis, respectively. In silico PCR analysis of these SSR markers showed high transferability between wild and cultivated Arachis species. Two physical maps were developed for the A genome and the B genome using these SSR markers, and two reported disease resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs, qF2TSWV5 for tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV and qF2LS6 for leaf spot (LS, were mapped in the 8.135 Mb region of chromosome A04 of A. duranensis. From this genomic region, 719 novel SSR markers were developed, which provide the possibility for fine mapping of these QTLs. In addition, this region also harbors 652 genes and 49 of these are defense related genes, including two NB-ARC genes, three LRR receptor-like genes and three WRKY transcription factors. These disease resistance related genes could contribute to resistance to viral (such as TSWV and fungal (such as LS diseases in peanut. In summary, this study not only provides a large number of molecular markers for potential use in peanut genetic map development and QTL mapping but also for map-based gene cloning and molecular breeding.

  3. Genome re-assignment of Arachis trinitensis (Sect. Arachis, Leguminosae and its implications for the genetic origin of cultivated peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype structure of Arachis trinitensis was studied by conventional Feulgen staining, CMA/DAPI banding and rDNA loci detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH in order to establish its genome status and test the hypothesis that this species is a genome donor of cultivated peanut. Conventional staining revealed that the karyotype lacked the small "A chromosomes" characteristic of the A genome. In agreement with this, chromosomal banding showed that none of the chromosomes had the large centromeric bands expected for A chromosomes. FISH revealed one pair each of 5S and 45S rDNA loci, located in different medium-sized metacentric chromosomes. Collectively, these results suggest that A. trinitensis should be removed from the A genome and be considered as a B or non-A genome species. The pattern of heterochromatic bands and rDNA loci of A. trinitensis differ markedly from any of the complements of A. hypogaea, suggesting that the former species is unlikely to be one of the wild diploid progenitors of the latter.

  4. Genome re-assignment of Arachis trinitensis (Sect. Arachis, Leguminosae) and its implications for the genetic origin of cultivated peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The karyotype structure of Arachis trinitensis was studied by conventional Feulgen staining, CMA/DAPI banding and rDNA loci detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in order to establish its genome status and test the hypothesis that this species is a genome donor of cultivated peanut. Conventional staining revealed that the karyotype lacked the small “A chromosomes” characteristic of the A genome. In agreement with this, chromosomal banding showed that none of the chromosomes had the large centromeric bands expected for A chromosomes. FISH revealed one pair each of 5S and 45S rDNA loci, located in different medium-sized metacentric chromosomes. Collectively, these results suggest that A. trinitensis should be removed from the A genome and be considered as a B or non-A genome species. The pattern of heterochromatic bands and rDNA loci of A. trinitensis differ markedly from any of the complements of A. hypogaea, suggesting that the former species is unlikely to be one of the wild diploid progenitors of the latter. PMID:21637581

  5. Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and peanut products. Always read food labels to identify peanut ingredients. If you are allergic to peanuts, you have a 25 to 40 percent higher chance of also being allergic to tree nuts. 1 Also, peanuts and tree nuts often ...

  6. In silico polymorphism analysis for the development of simple sequence repeat and transposon markers and construction of linkage map in cultivated peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirasawa Kenta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea is an autogamous allotetraploid legume (2n = 4x = 40 that is widely cultivated as a food and oil crop. More than 6,000 DNA markers have been developed in Arachis spp., but high-density linkage maps useful for genetics, genomics, and breeding have not been constructed due to extremely low genetic diversity. Polymorphic marker loci are useful for the construction of such high-density linkage maps. The present study used in silico analysis to develop simple sequence repeat-based and transposon-based markers. Results The use of in silico analysis increased the efficiency of polymorphic marker development by more than 3-fold. In total, 926 (34.2% of 2,702 markers showed polymorphisms between parental lines of the mapping population. Linkage analysis of the 926 markers along with 253 polymorphic markers selected from 4,449 published markers generated 21 linkage groups covering 2,166.4 cM with 1,114 loci. Based on the map thus produced, 23 quantitative trait loci (QTLs for 15 agronomical traits were detected. Another linkage map with 326 loci was also constructed and revealed a relationship between the genotypes of the FAD2 genes and the ratio of oleic/linoleic acid in peanut seed. Conclusions In silico analysis of polymorphisms increased the efficiency of polymorphic marker development, and contributed to the construction of high-density linkage maps in cultivated peanut. The resultant maps were applicable to QTL analysis. Marker subsets and linkage maps developed in this study should be useful for genetics, genomics, and breeding in Arachis. The data are available at the Kazusa DNA Marker Database (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp.

  7. Development and characterization of highly polymorphic long TC repeat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macedo Selma E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is a crop of economic and social importance, mainly in tropical areas, and developing countries. Its molecular breeding has been hindered by a shortage of polymorphic genetic markers due to a very narrow genetic base. Microsatellites (SSRs are markers of choice in peanut because they are co-dominant, highly transferrable between species and easily applicable in the allotetraploid genome. In spite of substantial effort over the last few years by a number of research groups, the number of SSRs that are polymorphic for A. hypogaea is still limiting for routine application, creating the demand for the discovery of more markers polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Findings A plasmid genomic library enriched for TC/AG repeats was constructed and 1401 clones sequenced. From the sequences obtained 146 primer pairs flanking mostly TC microsatellites were developed. The average number of repeat motifs amplified was 23. These 146 markers were characterized on 22 genotypes of cultivated peanut. In total 78 of the markers were polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Most of those 78 markers were highly informative with an average of 5.4 alleles per locus being amplified. Average gene diversity index (GD was 0.6, and 66 markers showed a GD of more than 0.5. Genetic relationship analysis was performed and corroborated the current taxonomical classification of A. hypogaea subspecies and varieties. Conclusions The microsatellite markers described here are a useful resource for genetics and genomics in Arachis. In particular, the 66 markers that are highly polymorphic in cultivated peanut are a significant step towards routine genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection for the crop.

  8. Analysis of molecular diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in a worldwide survey of cultivated barley germplasm (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganal Martin W

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our study was a systematic survey of the molecular diversity in barley genetic resources. To this end 953 cultivated barley accessions originating from all inhabited continents except Australia were genotyped with 48 SSR markers. Molecular diversity was evaluated with routine statistics (allelic richness, gene diversity, allele frequency, heterozygosity and unique alleles, Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA, and analysis of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium. Results A genotyping database for 953 cultivated barley accessions profiled with 48 SSR markers was established. The PCoA revealed structuring of the barley population with regard to (i geographical regions and (ii agronomic traits. Geographic origin contributed most to the observed molecular diversity. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD was estimated as squared correlation of allele frequencies (r2. The values of LD for barley were comparable to other plant species (conifers, poplar, maize. The pattern of intrachromosomal LD with distances between the genomic loci ranging from 1 to 150 cM revealed that in barley LD extended up to distances as long as 50 cM with r2 > 0.05, or up to 10 cM with r2 > 0.2. Few loci mapping to different chromosomes showed significant LD with r2 > 0.05. The number of loci in significant LD as well as the pattern of LD were clearly dependent on the population structure. The LD in the homogenous group of 207 European 2-rowed spring barleys compared to the highly structured worldwide barley population was increased in the number of loci pairs with r2 > 0.05 and had higher values of r2, although the percentage of intrachromosomal loci pairs in significant LD based on P 0.80 provided higher LD values as compared to 19 low polymorphic loci (PIC Conclusion A global population of cultivated barley accessions was highly structured. Clustering highlighted the accessions with the same geographic origin, as well as accessions possessing

  9. Molecular marker screening of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular marker screening of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) germplasm for Meloidogyne arenaria resistance. V Carpentieri-Pipolo, M Gallo-Meagher, DW Dickson, DW Gorbet, M de Lurdes Mendes, SG Hulse de Souza ...

  10. Peanut allergy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2011-04-01

    Peanut allergy may affect up to 2% of children in some countries, making it one of the most common conditions of childhood. Peanut allergy is a marker of a broad and possibly severe atopic phenotype. Nearly all children with peanut allergy have other allergic conditions. Peanut accounts for a disproportionate number of fatal and near fatal food-related allergies. Families with a child or children with peanut allergy can struggle to adapt to the stringent avoidance measures required. Although oral induction of tolerance represents the cutting edge of peanut allergy management, it is not yet ready for routine practice.

  11. Genetic variation in the US Peanut Mini-core collection for agronomy, seed chemistry and nutrient quality traits in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ongoing genome sequencing effort in peanut will result in numerous molecular markers that can be applied to the diverse collection of recently purified mini-core germplasm. This will provide an opportunity to mine valuable genes for peanut cultivar improvement. Association mapping based on linka...

  12. CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE ACESSOS DE GERMOPLASMA DE QUATRO ESPÉCIES BRASILEIRAS DE AMENDOIM-SILVESTRE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GERMPLASM ACESSIONS OF FOUR BRAZILIAN SPECIES OF WILD PEANUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO FERRAZ DE ARRUDA VEIGA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizaram-se morfologicamente os acessos de germoplasma de espécies silvestres brasileiras de amendoim do gênero Arachis L., Sect. Arachis e analisaram-se a similaridade genética entre acessos da mesma espécie e entre as espécies. Realizou-se o experimento nos anos agrícolas de 1993 a 1996, no Núcleo Experimental de Campinas, do Instituto Agronômico (IAC. Avaliaram-se os acessos disponíveis no Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Espécies Silvestres de Arachis, da Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN - Brasília, DF, das espécies A. palustris Krapov., W.C. Gregory & Valls, A. decora Krapov., W.C. Gregory & Valls, A. praecox Krapov., W.C. Gregory & Valls e A. stenosperma Krapov. & W.C. Gregory, efetuando-se anotações fenotípicas quantitativas e qualitativas, conforme lista de descritores morfológicos. Observou-se que os acessos de A. stenosperma são semelhantes, apesar da sua grande distância geográfica, e diferem das demais espécies, formando um grupo mais coeso. Caracteres como o diâmetro do eixo central e o comprimento dos frutos e das sementes serviram para distingui-la das demais espécies. Arachis decora apresentou alta variação entre acessos nos vários caracteres morfológicos estudados. A. palustris apresentou alta variação morfológica entre acessos, ainda que tenham sido analisados apenas dois, para altura da planta, largura da semente, dimensões do esporão, istmo, folíolo, raque e eixo central e quanto à presença e ausência de tricomas no folíolo. Arachis praecox, representada por um único acesso, aproximou-se mais de A. decora que das demais espécies.In this work, a morphological characterization of germplasm accessions of wild Brazilian species of peanut, section Arachis was accomplished. Also, an analysis of the genetic similarity among accessions and between species was evaluated. The experiment was undertaken from 1993 to 1996, at the Campinas Experimental Station of the Instituto

  13. Advances in Arachis genomics for peanut improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut genomics is very challenging due to its inherent problem of genetic architecture. Blockage of gene flow from diploid wild relatives to tetraploid cultivated peanut, recent polyploidization combined with self pollination and narrow genetic base of primary gene pool resulted in low genetic dive...

  14. Morfologia da flor e formação do fruto no amendoim cultivado (Arachis hypogaea, L. Flower morphology and fruit development in the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida H. T. M. Conagin

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available O amendoim comum pertence à espécie Arachis hypogxa L. ; outras espécies não apresentam valor econômico algum. As variedades comerciais podem ser reunidas em três grupos - Virgínia, Spanish e Valência - de acôrdo com a distribuição das gemas vegetativas e reprodutivas e também com o número de sementes por fruto. Nêste trabalho é apresentado um estudo da morfologia, duração e fertilização da flor, mostrando que no amendoim não existe a suposta distinção de flôres férteis e estéreis. Também a formação do fruto é descrita, mostrando a interessante característica desta planta, que é ter flôres aéreas e frutos subterrâneos.This work is based mostly on the descriptions given in Smith's paper "Arachis hypogxa L. Aerial flower and Subterranean Fruit" (2 and in the symposium "The Peanut. The unpredictable Legume" (3, and also on some of the author's observations. All cultivated peanut varieties belong to the species Arachis hypogxa L.; other species of the genus are not used for commercial production and may be of interest only for breeding purposes. Commercial peanut varieties can be grouped into one of three types : Virginia, Spanish, and Valencia. This grouping is done according to the distribution of vegetative and reproductive buds on the plant, and to the number of seeds per fruit. Studies were made on flower morphology, its duration and fertilization ; they indicated that all peanut flowers are potentially fertile and cannot, therefore, be classed into fertile and infertile types. A description of how the aerial flowers produce subterranean fruits is given.

  15. Genome-wide SNP genotyping resolves signatures of selection and tetrasomic recombination in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea; 2n=4x=40) is a nutritious food and a good source of vitamins, minerals, and healthy fats. Expansion of genetic and genomic resources for genetic enhancement of cultivated peanut has gained momentum from the sequenced genomes of the diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut. ...

  16. The peanut landraces from Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia is reagarded as the probable place of origin of the domesticated peanut, and an important world center of unique peanut diversity. As the first published study of its kind or peanut, this paper identifies and describes the infraspecific diversity of the crop in its country of origin and center of diverstity. 62 distinct landraces of Bolivian peanut were identified and systematically described. 42 landraces belong to Arachis hypogaea L. ssp. hypogaea var. hypogaea; 17 to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata; one to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var.vulgaris; and two to A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata var. peruviana. With very few exceptions, the landraces encountered in Bolivia are almost entirely endemic to that country. The most typical peanuts from Bolivia pertain to the landraces “Crema”, “Colorado San Simón”, “Bayo americano”, “Overo”, and “Overo carenado”, which are widely cultivated throughout the country. A few regions of unusually high peanut diversity can be identified. In the Yungas region of La Paz, 11 landraces were collected, of which three are endemic. In the mountainous regions of Santa Cruz and Cochabamba, 18 landraces were collected, of which six are endemic. The Department of Tarija yielded 14 landraces , of which two are endemic. All of the aforementioned landraces pertain to the botanical  variety hypogaea. In contrast, the subspecies fastigiata has a remarkable center or diversity  in the watershed of the Rio Beni, where 10 landraces were collected in a fairly small area, nine of which  are endemic to that region. This monograph is intended to enhance the knowledge and appreciation of peanut diversity, and facilitate the conservation and use of peanut landraces by scientistis, plant breeders, and farmers

  17. MALE F ERTILITY IN UGANDA BANANA GERMPLASM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uidentiflcation du niveau de fertilité mâle dans le germplasm bananier à Kabanyolo, Ouganda, a été effectuée en fendant ... characteristic sterility; most of the presently cultivated .... hybrids (AB) and pollen output values from literature are for ...

  18. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth / For Kids / Nut and Peanut Allergy What's ... getting worse. How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  19. Distribuição da concentração de potássio no solo em lisímetros cultivados com amendoim Distribution of the potassium concentration in soil with lysimeters cultivated with peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas H Miranda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de fertilizantes na agricultura pode provocar uma dinâmica de solutos no solo abaixo da zona radicular, podendo, além de provocar prejuízos econômicos, contaminar águas subterrâneas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo acompanhar o processo de deslocamento do íon potássio (K+ em lisímetros preenchidos com solo de textura arenosa e cultivado com amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L., sob diferentes condições de atenuação da densidade de fluxo radiante, como a utilização de filmes plásticos com diferentes espessuras (100 e 150 micras. O deslocamento do íon potássio (K+ foi monitorado por extratores de solução instalados em diferentes profundidades (15 e 25 cm, e o manejo da fertirrigação foi realizado com a utilização de tensiômetros. Concluiu-se que a baixa radiação solar incidente nos dois ambientes com coberturas plásticas afetou negativamente a produtividade do amendoim; o período em que o amendoim demanda maior quantidade de potássio ocorre dos 30 aos 55 dias após a semeadura; as plantas de amendoim não apresentaram deficiência nutricional com menor lixiviação de K+ para as camadas mais profundas do solo; nos lisímetros com cobertura plástica de 100 e 150 micras, ocorreu maior concentração de K+ na superfície do solo.The application of fertilizers in agriculture produce some solute displacement below the root zone and this situation has provoked great impacts, besides the economic damages, causing groundwater contamination. The present work has as the objective of monitoring the displacement process of the potassium (K+ in lysimeters filled with soil, sandy texture and cultivated with peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L. under different conditions of reducing solar radiation by using plastic films with different thickness (100 and 150 µ. The potassium displacement was monitored by soil solution extractors installed in different depths (15 and 25 cm and the fertigation management was accomplished by

  20. Peanut Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut products distributed by Peanut Corporation of...

  1. Plantio direto de alface adubada com cama de aviário sobre coberturas vivas de grama e amendoim forrageiro Lettuce cultivated directly in poultry manure beds using grass and perennial peanut as living mulch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Geraldo de Oliveira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A viabilidade agronômica do plantio direto de alface cv. Vera foi avaliada sobre coberturas vivas perenes de gramínea e leguminosa em sistema de manejo orgânico. Empregou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, dispostos em parcelas sub-divididas. Os tratamentos nas parcelas constaram de plantio em sistema de preparo convencional do solo (controle, plantio direto sobre cobertura viva de grama batatais e plantio direto sobre cobertura viva de amendoim forrageiro. Os tratamentos nas subparcelas constaram de adubação com doses de cama de aviário aplicada em cobertura (0; 7; 14 e 28 t ha-1, parceladas em três épocas. Observou-se que a produção de cabeça de alface não foi influenciada pelo modo de plantio e nem pela espécie de cobertura viva sobre a qual foi realizado o plantio direto. Modelo quadrático mostrou-se adequado para descrever a variação observada dos valores de produção de cabeça de alface em relação a doses. O rendimento máximo estimado pelo modelo de regressão para a massa fresca média de alface foi de 348 g planta-1 para a dose de 23 t ha-1 de cama de aviário. O plantio direto de alface sobre cobertura viva de grama batatais e amendoim forrageiro acarretou desempenho semelhante ao desta hortaliça, em sistema de preparo convencional do solo, com nível máximo de produtividade de 55,99 t ha-1 de massa fresca estimado pelo modelo de regressão.The agronomic viability of no-tillage system for lettuce was evaluated, using grass and legume as cover crop under organic management. A randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement was used. Plot treatments were conventional soil tillage (control, bahia grass and perennial peanut cultivated for living cover crops on no-tillage system. Split-plot treatments were doses of poultry manure (0; 7; 14 and 28 t ha-1 in three application periods. Lettuce cv. Vera yield was not affected by tillage system neither by cover crop. The quadratic model was the most

  2. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers and their application for diversity assessment in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouch Jonathan H

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. is the fourth most important oilseed crop in the world, grown mainly in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate climates. Due to its origin through a single and recent polyploidization event, followed by successive selection during breeding efforts, cultivated groundnut has a limited genetic background. In such species, microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers are very informative and useful for breeding applications. The low level of polymorphism in cultivated germplasm, however, warrants a need of larger number of polymorphic microsatellite markers for cultivated groundnut. Results A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed from the genotype TMV2. Sequencing of 720 putative SSR-positive clones from a total of 3,072 provided 490 SSRs. 71.2% of these SSRs were perfect type, 13.1% were imperfect and 15.7% were compound. Among these SSRs, the GT/CA repeat motifs were the most common (37.6% followed by GA/CT repeat motifs (25.9%. The primer pairs could be designed for a total of 170 SSRs and were optimized initially on two genotypes. 104 (61.2% primer pairs yielded scorable amplicon and 46 (44.2% primers showed polymorphism among 32 cultivated groundnut genotypes. The polymorphic SSR markers detected 2 to 5 alleles with an average of 2.44 per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC value for these markers varied from 0.12 to 0.75 with an average of 0.46. Based on 112 alleles obtained by 46 markers, a phenogram was constructed to understand the relationships among the 32 genotypes. Majority of the genotypes representing subspecies hypogaea were grouped together in one cluster, while the genotypes belonging to subspecies fastigiata were grouped mainly under two clusters. Conclusion Newly developed set of 104 markers extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated groundnut. These markers showed a good level of PIC value in cultivated germplasm

  3. (Gossypium barbadense) germplasm resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-03-28

    Mar 28, 2017 ... Running title: Marker-trait associations in sea-island cotton ... In this study, Gossypium barbadense germplasm accessions with ... origins (n = 123) were used to perform association analysis of fiber traits with 120 polymorphic simple ... Because fiber yield and quality traits are complex quantitative traits, ...

  4. Weed Control Strategies for Organic Peanut Production and Transition: A Lesson in Basic Agronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic peanut production is difficult and costly. The only production inputs that consistently improved weed management in organic peanut production were modified production practices and intense cultivation with a tine weeder. Research trials evaluated row patterns, seeding rates...

  5. Yield Potential of Ten Peanut Introgression Lines derived from Crosses between Arachis cardenassii and A. hypogaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD RIDUAN

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Diploid species of peanut (Arachis cardenasii showed no symptoms of PStV infection when mechanically inoculated with PStV. Some introgression lines derived from A. cardenasii and A. hypogaea hybridization have been introduced to Indonesia. Evaluation of their adaptability and yield potential were necessary before pursuing further utilization of these introgression lines. The objectives of this research were to determine yield potential of the introgression lines of peanut in green house and field conditions and to evaluate incidence of PStV infection in the field. Peanut plants were grown in the green house and in the field according to standard procedures for raising peanut. Results of the experiments showed that growth and developmental characters of the tested lines were similar between field and green house grown plants. The introgression lines generally exhibited higher secondary branches and longer to flower and harvest as compared to peanut cv. Gajah and Kelinci. The NC-CS30 line was identfied as having higher yield and bigger seed size as compared to standard peanut cultivars (Gajah and Kelinci. Therefore, NC-CS30 germplasm may be further developed as commercial peanut cultivar or be used as donor for peanut breeding in Indonesia.

  6. Genetic diversity of worldwide Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) germplasm as revealed by RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsomnuk, P P; Khampa, S; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Mornkham, T; Ruttawat, B; Patanothai, A; Fu, Y B

    2011-12-12

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a wild relative of the cultivated sunflower (H. annuus); it is an old tuber crop that has recently received renewed interest. We used RAPD markers to characterize 147 Jerusalem artichoke accessions from nine countries. Thirty RAPD primers were screened; 13 of them detected 357 reproducible RAPD bands, of which 337 were polymorphic. Various diversity analyses revealed several different patterns of RAPD variation. More than 93% of the RAPD variation was found within accessions of a country. Weak genetic differentiation was observed between wild and cultivated accessions. Six groups were detected in this germplasm set. Four ancestral groups were found for the Canadian germplasm. The most genetically distinct accessions were identified. These findings provide useful diversity information for understanding the Jerusalem artichoke gene pool, for conserving Jerusalem artichoke germplasm, and for choosing germplasm for genetic improvement.

  7. Resveratrol in peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jocelyn M; Resurreccion, Anna V A

    2014-01-01

    Peanuts are important dietary food source of resveratrol with potent antioxidant properties implicated in reducing risk of cancer, cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease, and delaying aging. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring stilbene phytoalexin phenolic compound produced in response to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. This paper is a review of trans-resveratrol and related stilbenes from peanuts--their chemical structures, mechanisms for their biosynthesis, and concentrations in comparison with other major food sources. It will also discuss trans-resveratrol's absorption, bioavailability, and major health benefits; processes to enhance their biosynthesis in peanuts by biotic and abiotic stresses; process optimization for enhanced levels in peanuts and their potential food applications; and methods used for its extraction and analysis.

  8. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.): Origin and botanical descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the first description of the cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. by Linneaus in 1753, to the recent monograph on the taxonomy of genus Arachis (Krapovickas and Gregory 1994 and 2007), our knowledge of the genetic structure of the genus including its origin, variability, and geographical dis...

  9. Improving Published Descriptions of Germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Published descriptions of new germplasm, such as in the Journal of Plant Registrations (JPR) and, prior to mid-2007, in Crop Science, are important vehicles for allowing researchers and other interested parties to learn about such germplasm and the methods used to generate them. Launched in 2007, JP...

  10. Agronomic characteristic of a dwarf germplasm sunflower line

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana; Tcekova Zoja

    2005-01-01

    A new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) dwarf line, HA-ARG-1, has been developed after interspecific hybridization between cultivated sunflower H. annuus and wild annual silver-leaf sunflower H. argophyllus. Plants were selected for reduced height and multiple branching characteristics. The agronomic, morphologic and oil content characteristics of the line were analyzed. Isolation of similar dwarfed lines illustrates the importance of using the wild sunflower germplasms in the development of sp...

  11. Prevalence of peanut allergy in children of peanut farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    High levels of environmental exposure to peanut during infancy appear to promote sensitization by the epicutaneous route. Children of peanut farmers are likely exposed to relatively high levels of peanut protein in their environment, increasing their risk of cutaneous sensitization. The purpose of...

  12. Uniform peanut performance test 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 14 entries were evaluated at 8 locations....

  13. Structural biology of peanut allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts are a cause of one of the most common food allergies. Allergy to peanuts not only affects a significant fraction of the population, but it is relatively often associated with strong reactions in sensitized individuals. Peanut and tree nut allergies, which start in childhood, are often persi...

  14. Genome-wide identification and characterization of WRKY gene family in peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eSong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available WRKY, an important transcription factor family, is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Many reports focused on analysis of phylogenetic relationship and biological function of WRKY protein at the whole genome level in different plant species. However, little is known about WRKY proteins in the genome of Arachis species and their response to salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA treatment. In this study, we identified 77 and 75 WRKY proteins from the two wild ancestral diploid genomes of cultivated tetraploid peanut, Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaënsis, using bioinformatics approaches. Most peanut WRKY coding genes were located on A. duranensis chromosome A6 and A. ipaënsis chromosome B3, while the least number of WRKY genes was found in chromosome 9. The WRKY orthologous gene pairs in A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis chromosomes were highly syntenic. Our analysis indicated that segmental duplication events played a major role in AdWRKY and AiWRKY genes, and strong purifying selection was observed in gene duplication pairs. Furthermore, we translate the knowledge gained from the genome-wide analysis result of wild ancestral peanut to cultivated peanut to reveal that gene activities of specific cultivated peanut WRKY gene were changed due to SA and JA treatment. Peanut WRKY7, 8 and 13 genes were down-regulated, whereas WRKY1 and 12 genes were up-regulated with SA and JA treatment. These results could provide valuable information for peanut improvement.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of WRKY Gene Family in Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Lin, Jer-Young; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Bi, Yuping; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    WRKY, an important transcription factor family, is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Many reports focused on analysis of phylogenetic relationship and biological function of WRKY protein at the whole genome level in different plant species. However, little is known about WRKY proteins in the genome of Arachis species and their response to salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. In this study, we identified 77 and 75 WRKY proteins from the two wild ancestral diploid genomes of cultivated tetraploid peanut, Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaënsis, using bioinformatics approaches. Most peanut WRKY coding genes were located on A. duranensis chromosome A6 and A. ipaënsis chromosome B3, while the least number of WRKY genes was found in chromosome 9. The WRKY orthologous gene pairs in A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis chromosomes were highly syntenic. Our analysis indicated that segmental duplication events played a major role in AdWRKY and AiWRKY genes, and strong purifying selection was observed in gene duplication pairs. Furthermore, we translate the knowledge gained from the genome-wide analysis result of wild ancestral peanut to cultivated peanut to reveal that gene activities of specific cultivated peanut WRKY gene were changed due to SA and JA treatment. Peanut WRKY7, 8 and 13 genes were down-regulated, whereas WRKY1 and 12 genes were up-regulated with SA and JA treatment. These results could provide valuable information for peanut improvement.

  16. The Tropical and Subtropical Germplasm Repositories of The National Germplasm System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germplasm collections are viewed as a source of genetic diversity to support crop improvement and agricultural research, and germplasm conservation efforts. The United States Department of Agriculture's National Plant Germplasm Repository System (NPGS) is responsible for administering plant genetic ...

  17. M7 germplasm release: A tetraploid clone derived from Solanum infundibuliforme for use in expanding the germplasm base for french fry processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new source of russet germplasm has been identified as a parent for processing and fresh market breeding programs. It was derived via bilateral sexual polyploidization following a cross between a diploid cultivated potato and the diploid wild species Solanum infundibuliforme. This clone, designated...

  18. THE ECONOMICS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined peanut production systems and selected factors affecting the development of commercial peanut enterprises in Bulgaria. A survey of 220 individual farms and farm cooperatives engaged in the cultivation of peanuts was conducted during 2000 and 2002. Poor farm structure, low level of technology, and nonconformity to farm decision making impede the financial and economic development of Bulgarian peanut production and farm growth, thus limiting farm enterprises emergence into competitive economic units financially operative in a freemarket economy. The underlying cost structure, couple with small farms, averaging 0.8 ha in size, prevent farmers from capturing economies of scale, limit farm profitability and hence farm modernization. The lack of owned farm machinery, equipment and storage facilities renders the restructuring and specialization extremely difficult. However, peanut production is still a viable farm enterprise for Bulgarian farmers.

  19. FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall widget allows you to browse the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of peanut butter and peanut-containing products...

  20. Monitoring of Aflatoxins in Peanuts

    OpenAIRE

    UÇKUN, Okşan; VAR, Işıl

    2014-01-01

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are one of the most important oilseed crops and snack foods in the world Agro-food trade market. The major producers/exporters of peanuts are the United States, China, Argentina, Sudan, Senegal, and Brazil. Peanuts are a perishable commodity, easily spoiled by fungi. Aflatoxins are a group of natural compounds mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. They have been found to be carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic to humans and animal...

  1. Genetic diversity and spatial structure in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm from Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important economic crop widely cultivated in the Bolivian Amazon. The germplasm group used by the Bolivian farmers was called “Cacao Nacional Boliviano” (CNB). Wild cacao populations are also found in the Beni River and in the valleys of Andes foot hills. Using DNA...

  2. Germplasm Management in the Post-genomics Era-a case study with lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput genotyping platforms and next-generation sequencing technologies revolutionized our ways in germplasm characterization. In collaboration with UC Davis Genome Center, we completed a project of genotyping the entire cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) collection of 1,066 accessions ...

  3. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  4. In vitro propagation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by shoot tip culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Kaya, Ergun; Lambardi, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), also known as groundnut, is the most important species of Arachis genus, originating from Brazil and Peru. Peanut seeds contain high seed oil, proteins, amino acids, and vitamin E, and are consumed worldwide as edible nut, peanut butter, or candy, and peanut oil extracted from the seeds. The meal remaining after oil extraction is also used for animal feed. However, its narrow germplasm base, together with susceptibility to diseases, pathogens, and weeds, decreases yield and seed quality and causes great economic losses annually. Hence, the optimization of efficient in vitro propagation procedures would be highly effective for peanut propagation, as it would raise yield and improve seed quality and flavor. Earlier reports on traditional micropropagation methods, based on axillary bud proliferation which guarantees the multiplication of true-to-type plants, are still limited. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol to improve multiple shoot formation from shoot-tip explants by using AgNO(3) in combination with plant growth regulators.

  5. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jizeng Jia; Hongjie Li; Xueyong Zhang; Zichao Li; Lijuan Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Plant germplasm underpins much of crop genetic improvement. Millions of germplasm accessions have been collected and conserved ex situ and/or in situ, and the major challenge is now how to exploit and utilize this abundant resource. Genomics-based plant germplasm research (GPGR) or "Genoplasmics" is a novel cross-disciplinary research field that seeks to apply the principles and techniques of genomics to germplasm research. We describe in this paper the concept, strategy, and approach behind GPGR, and summarize current progress in the areas of the definition and construction of core collections, enhancement of germplasm with core collections, and gene discovery from core collections. GPGR is opening a new era in germplasm research. The contribution, progress and achievements of GPGR in the future are predicted.

  6. Phytosterol variability in almond germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Cuesta, A.; Kodad, Ossama; Socias i Company, Rafel; Velasco, L.

    2012-01-01

    Phytosterols are important dietary components that contribute to reducing serum cholesterol levels. The objective of this research was to assess genetic diversity for total content and profile of free and esterified phytosterols in a world germplasm collection of almond [Prunus amygdalus Batsch; syn. P. dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb]. Steryl glycosides and acylated steryl glycosides were not measured. Fruit from 160 almond accessions were collected in 2009 and 2010. Kernel phytosterol ...

  7. Analysis of Peanut Leaf Proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, R.; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Pechan, T.

    2010-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most important sources of plant protein. Current selection of genotypes requires molecular characterization of available populations. Peanut genome database has several EST cDNAs which can be used to analyze gene expression. Analysis of proteins is a direct...... approach to define function of their associated genes. Proteome analysis linked to genome sequence information is critical for functional genomics. However, the available protein expression data is extremely inadequate. Proteome analysis of peanut leaf was conducted using two-dimensional gel...... electrophoresis in combination with sequence identification using MALDI/TOF to determine their identity and function related to growth, development and responses to stresses. Peanut leaf proteins were resolved into 300 polypeptides with pI values between 3.5 and 8.0 and relative molecular masses from 12 to 100 k...

  8. Potential phytoextraction and phytostabilization of perennial peanut on copper-contaminated vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Bortolon, Leandro; Pieniz, Simone; Giacometti, Marcelo; Roehrs, Dione D; Lambais, Mácio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2011-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the potential of perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) for copper phytoremediation in vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) contaminated with copper and copper mining waste. Our results showed high phytomass production of perennial peanut in both vineyard soils. Macronutrient uptakes were not negatively affected by perennial peanut cultivated in all contaminated soils. Plants cultivated in Mollisol showed high copper concentrations in the roots and shoots of 475 and 52 mg kg(-1), respectively. Perennial peanut plants showed low translocation factor values for Cu, although these plants showed high bioaccumulation factor (BCF) for both vineyard soils, Inceptisol and Mollisol, with BCF values of 3.83 and 3.24, respectively, being characterized as a copper hyperaccumulator plant in these soils. Copper phytoextraction from Inceptisol soil was the highest for both roots and entire plant biomass, with more than 800 mg kg(-1) of copper in whole plant. The highest potential copper phytoextraction by perennial peanut was in Inceptisol soil with copper removal of 2,500 g ha(-1). Also, perennial peanut showed high potential for copper phytoremoval in copper mining waste and Mollisol with 1,700 and 1,500 g of copper per hectare, respectively. In addition, perennial peanuts characterized high potential for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of copper in vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

  9. Concordance between botanical groups and genetic diversity in peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Pinheiro Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aims of this study were to characterize peanut accessions of germplasm collection of the CCA/UFC and check consistency between the pre-existing botanical groups to estimates of genetic diversity. For this were conducted a trial with 43 accessions of peanut in a randomized block design with three replications. To characterization were used 21 morphological descriptors, where revealed large genetic variation. The mass hundred grains trait showed the main discriminating factors, with relative percentage of 22.1%. The cluster obtained with the linkage complete method, it was possible to view the dendrogram the formation of seven groups based on the Mahalanobis distance. By principal components analysis was identified phenotypic diversity among genotypes. The first three components explained 81% of the total variation. Subsequently, built a three-dimensional scatter chart for access of visualization, eight groups being formed. There was medium magnitude of agreement between the botanical groups and genetic diversity, both by the dendrogram and graphic dispersion proving the dissimilarity between genotypes of different botanic groups. Therefore, crossings between group access botanical Spanish or Valencia with those belonging to the Virginia group should generate segregating populations with high genetic potential.

  10. Next generation sequence analysis of the forage peanut (Arachis pintoi virome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés Gutiérrez Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    resulted in the complete genome assembly of Peanut mottle virus (9707 nt, Turnip yellows virus (5578 nt and two variants of a virus with phylogenetic affinity to the genus Allexivirus. These two variants lack ORF6 present in Allexivirus and probably belong to an uncharacterized genus within the family Alphaflexiviridae. The presence of at least three viruses infecting A. pintoi in Colombia highlights the importance of starting a germplasm clean-up program of the plant material used as seed in this crop.

  11. Characterization of peanut phytochromes and their possible regulating roles in early peanut pod development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhang

    Full Text Available Arachis hypogaea L. geocarpy is a unique feature different from other legume plants. Flowering and fertilization occur above ground, while the following processes of pod formation and development proceed in the soil. The zygote divides only few times to develop into pre-embryo and then further embryo developmental process stops when the gynoecium is exposed to light condition or normal day/night period. In this study, eight phytochrome genes were identified in two wild peanuts (four in Arachis duranensis and four in Arachis ipaensis. Using RACE and homologous cloning, the full CDS of AhphyA, AhphyA-like, AhphyB and AhphyE were acquired in cultivated peanut. Protein structure analysis showed that the conservative coding domains of phytochromes from a number of other plant species were found in these proteins. The C-terminal of AhphyA, AhphyA-like and AhphyB could interact with phytochrome-interacting factor 3 in vitro. The expression patterns of these genes in various tissues were analyzed by qRT-PCR, and significant differences were observed. Interestingly, the expression levels of AhphyA-like changed significantly during gynophore growth and early pod development. Furthermore, protein accumulation patterns of AhphyA and AhphyB in gynophore were different during early pod development stages in that AhphyA and AhphyB proteins were not detected in S1 and S2 gynophores, while significant accumulation of AhphyA and AhphyB were detected in S3 gynophore. These results provided evidence that phytochromes mediated light signal transduction may play key roles in peanut geocarpy development.

  12. Intercropping peanut with traditional Chinese medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... Many environmental issues affect peanut production in continuous monocropping system. Deterioration .... study were to (i) determine the impact of peanut intercropped ..... in a subtropical environment (Mexico). Plant Soil.

  13. Dynamic succession of soil bacterial community during continuous cropping of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingna Chen

    Full Text Available Plant health and soil fertility are affected by plant-microbial interactions in soils. Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability, but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. In this study, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses were used to study the succession of soil bacterial communities under continuous peanut cultivation. Six libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and during its seedling and pod-maturing growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil bacterial assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. The diversity of bacterial sequences identified in each growth stage library of the three peanut cropping cycles was high and these sequences were affiliated with 21 bacterial groups. Eight phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were dominant. The related bacterial phylotypes dynamic changed during continuous cropping progress of peanut. This study demonstrated that the bacterial populations especially the beneficial populations were positively selected. The simplification of the beneficial microbial communities such as the phylotypes of Alteromonadales, Burkholderiales, Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut yield under continuous cropping. The microbial phylotypes that did not successively changed with continuous cropping, such as populations related to Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales, could potentially resist stress due to continuous cropping and deserve attention. In addition, some phylotypes, such as Acidobacteriales, Chromatiales and Gemmatimonadales, showed a contrary tendency, their abundance or diversity increased with continuous peanut cropping progress. Some bacterial phylotypes including

  14. Survey of peanut levels in selected Irish food products bearing peanut allergen advisory labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Orla N; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2013-01-01

    Peanut allergy affects up to 2% of consumers and is responsible for the majority of fatalities caused by food-induced anaphylaxis. Peanut-containing products must be clearly labelled. Manufacturers are not legally required to label peanut if its inclusion resulted from unintentional cross contact with foods manufactured in the same facility. However, the use of allergen advisory statements alerting consumers of the potential presence of peanut allergen has increased in recent years. In previous studies, the vast majority of foods with precautionary allergen statements did not contain detectable levels of peanut, but no data are available on Irish food products. Thirty-eight food products bearing peanut/nut allergen-related statements were purchased from multiple locations in the Republic of Ireland and analysed for the presence of peanut. Peanut was detected in at least one lot in 5.3% (2 of 38) of the products tested. The doses of peanut detected ranged from 0.14 mg to 0.52 mg per suggested serving size (0.035-0.13 mg peanut protein). No detectable levels of peanut were found in the products that indicated peanut/nuts as a minor ingredient. Quantitative risk assessment, based on the known distribution of individual threshold doses for peanut, indicates that only a very small percentage of the peanut-allergic population would be likely to experience an allergic reaction to those products while the majority of products with advisory labels appear safe for the peanut-allergic population. Food manufacturers should be encouraged to analyse products manufactured in shared facilities and even on shared equipment with peanuts for peanut residues to determine whether sufficient risk exists to warrant the use of advisory labelling. Although it appears that the majority of food products bearing advisory nut statements are in fact free of peanut contamination, advice to peanut allergy sufferers to avoid said foods should continue in Ireland and therefore in the wider European

  15. Maternal peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation reduces peanut allergy risk in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Expósito, Iván; Song, Ying; Järvinen, Kirsi M; Srivastava, Kamal; Li, Xiu-Min

    2009-11-01

    Maternal allergy is believed to be a risk factor for peanut allergy (PNA) in children. However, there is no direct evidence of maternal transmission of PNA susceptibility, and it is unknown whether maternal peanut exposure affects the development of PNA in offspring. To investigate the influence of maternal PNA on offspring reactions to the first peanut exposure, and whether maternal low-dose peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation influences these reactions and peanut sensitization in a murine model. Five-week-old offspring of PNA C3H/HeJ mothers (PNA-Ms) were challenged intragastrically with peanut (first exposure), and reactions were determined. In a subset of the experiment, PNA-Ms were fed a low dose of peanut (PNA-M/PN) or not fed peanut (PNA-M/none) during pregnancy and lactation. Their 5-week-old offspring were challenged intragastrically with peanut, and reactions were determined. In another subset of the experiment, offspring of PNA-M/PN or PNA-M/none were sensitized with peanut intragastrically for 6 weeks, and serum peanut-specific antibodies were determined. PNA-M offspring exhibited anaphylactic reactions at first exposure to peanut that were associated with peanut-specific IgG(1) levels and prevented by a platelet activation factor antagonist. In a subset experiment, PNA-M/PN offspring showed significantly reduced first-exposure peanut reactions, increased IgG(2a), and reduced mitogen-stimulated splenocyte cytokine production compared with PNA-M/none offspring. In an additional experiment, PNA-M/PN offspring showed reduction of peanut-specific IgE to active peanut sensitization. We show for the first time maternal transmission of susceptibility to first-exposure peanut reactions and active peanut sensitization. Low-dose peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation reduced this risk.

  16. Chemical composition of some wild peanut species (Arachis L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, N R; Nepote, V; Guzmán, C A

    2000-03-01

    Oil, protein, ash, and carbohydrate contents, iodine value, and fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seeds of Arachis trinitensis, A. chiquitana, A. kempff-mercadoi, A. diogoi, A. benensis, A. appressipila, A. valida, A. kretschmeri, A. helodes, A. kuhlmannii, A. williamsii, A. sylvestris, A. matiensis, A. pintoi, A. hoehnei, A. villosa, and A. stenosperma. Oil content was greatest in A.stenosperma (mean value = 51.8%). The protein level was higher in A. sylvestris (30.1%) and A. villosa (29.5%). Mean value of oleic acid varied between 30.6% (A. matiensis) and 46.8% (Arachis villosa), and linoleic acid oscillated between 34.1% (A. villosa) and 47.4% (A. appressipila). The better oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio was exhibited by A. villosa (1.38). Some species showed higher concentration of behenic acid. The greatest level of this fatty acid was found in A. matiensis (6.2%). Iodine value was lower in A. valida (99.2). The sterol composition in the different peanut species showed higher concentration of beta-sitosterol (mean values oscillated between 55.7 and 60.2%) followed by campesterol (12.4-16. 5%), stigmasterol (9.7-13.3%), and Delta(5)-avenasterol (9.7-13.4%). The chemical quality and stability of oils (iodine value and O/L ratio) from wild peanut studied in this work are not better than those of cultivated peanut.

  17. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock peanuts. Farmers stock peanuts means picked or threshed peanuts produced in the United States which have not been...

  18. Characterization of genotypic variability associated to the phosphorus bioavailability in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kraimat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess genotypic variability in some peanut genotypes depending on phosphorus availability, both effects of tri-calcium phosphate (TCP and inoculation by Bradyrhizobium strain (BR on morphological and physiological parameters were studied in five peanut genotypes (Arachis hypogaea L., originated from two Algerian areas (Northern and Southern. The results obtained during the flowering stage of crop development, confirmed the positive effect of the contribution of tri-calcium phosphate (TCP with Bradyrhizobium strains on the morphological characters (shoot biomass, root biomass, nodular biomass and leaf and the physiological (nitrogenase activity, phosphorus absorption efficiency by roots (RPAE and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE for the peanut genotypes cultivated in this experiment. Among five genotypes tested, it was noted that the Southern genotypes were more efficient to use TCP in the presence of Bradyrhizobium strain after a screening of these local genotypes, in particular, with phosphorus use efficiency (PUE and shoot biomass production.

  19. Notice of release of Amethyst Germplasm hoaty tansyaster: Selected class of natural germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek J. Tilley

    2015-01-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Aberdeen Plant Materials Center, Aberdeen, Idaho, announces the release of Amethyst Germplasm hoary tansyaster (Machaeronthero canescens (Pursh) A. Gray [Asteraceae]}, a selected class natural track germplasm identified by NRCS accession number 9076670 for conservation plantings in...

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of Major Agronomic Traits Related to Domestication in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Peanut (Arachis hypogaea consists of two subspecies, hypogaea and fastigiata, and has been cultivated worldwide for hundreds of years. Here, 158 peanut accessions were selected to dissect the molecular footprint of agronomic traits related to domestication using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq method. Then, a total of 17,338 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the whole peanut genome were revealed. Eleven agronomic traits in 158 peanut accessions were subsequently analyzed using genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Candidate genes responsible for corresponding traits were then analyzed in genomic regions surrounding the peak SNPs, and 1,429 genes were found within 200 kb windows centerd on GWAS-identified peak SNPs related to domestication. Highly differentiated genomic regions were observed between hypogaea and fastigiata accessions using FST values and sequence diversity (π ratios. Among the 1,429 genes, 662 were located on chromosome A3, suggesting the presence of major selective sweeps caused by artificial selection during long domestication. These findings provide a promising insight into the complicated genetic architecture of domestication-related traits in peanut, and reveal whole-genome SNP markers of beneficial candidate genes for marker-assisted selection (MAS in future breeding programs.

  1. Peanut allergen Ara h 3: Isolation from peanuts and biochemical characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Knol, E.F.; Vlooswijk, R.A.A.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Gruppen, H.; Piersma, S.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Peanut allergen Ara h 3 has been the subject of investigation for the last few years. The reported data strongly depend on recombinant Ara h 3, since a purification protocol for Ara h 3 from peanuts was not available. Methods: Peanut allergen Ara h 3 (glycinin), was purified and its

  2. Distribution of peanut allergen in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tamara T; Conover-Walker, Mary Kay; Pomés, Anna; Chapman, Martin D; Wood, Robert A

    2004-05-01

    Patients with peanut allergy can have serious reactions to very small quantities of peanut allergen and often go to extreme measures to avoid potential contact with this allergen. The purpose of this study was to detect peanut allergen under various environmental conditions and examine the effectiveness of cleaning agents for allergen removal. A monoclonal-based ELISA for Arachis hypogaea allergen 1 (Ara h 1; range of detection, 30-2000 ng/mL) was used to assess peanut contamination on cafeteria tables and other surfaces in schools, the presence of residual peanut protein after using various cleaning products on hands and tabletops, and airborne peanut allergen during the consumption of several forms of peanut. After hand washing with liquid soap, bar soap, or commercial wipes, Ara h 1 was undetectable. Plain water and antibacterial hand sanitizer left detectable Ara h 1 on 3 of 12 and 6 of 12 hands, respectively. Common household cleaning agents removed peanut allergen from tabletops, except dishwashing liquid, which left Ara h 1 on 4 of 12 tables. Of the 6 area preschools and schools evaluated, Ara h 1 was found on 1 of 13 water fountains, 0 of 22 desks, and 0 of 36 cafeteria tables. Airborne Ara h 1 was undetectable in simulated real-life situations when participants consumed peanut butter, shelled peanuts, and unshelled peanuts. The major peanut allergen, Ara h 1, is relatively easily cleaned from hands and tabletops with common cleaning agents and does not appear to be widely distributed in preschools and schools. We were not able to detect airborne allergen in many simulated environments.

  3. Stress inducible overexpression of AtHDG11 leads to improved drought and salt stress tolerance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banavath, Jayanna N.; Chakradhar, Thammineni; Pandit, Varakumar; Konduru, Sravani; Guduru, Krishna K.; Akila, Chandra S.; Podha, Sudhakar; Puli, Chandra O. R.

    2018-03-01

    Peanut is an important oilseed and food legume cultivated as a rain-fed crop in semi-arid tropics. Drought and high salinity are the major abiotic stresses limiting the peanut productivity in this region. Development of drought and salt tolerant peanut varieties with improved yield potential using biotechnological approach is highly desirable to improve the peanut productivity in marginal geographies. As abiotic stress tolerance and yield represent complex traits, engineering of regulatory genes to produce abiotic stress-resilient transgenic crops appears to be a viable approach. In the present study, we developed transgenic peanut plants expressing an Arabidopsis homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor (AtHDG11) under stress inducible rd29Apromoter. A stress-inducible expression of AtHDG11 in three independent homozygous transgenic peanut lines resulted in improved drought and salt tolerance through up-regulation of known stress responsive genes(LEA, HSP70, Cu/Zn SOD, APX, P5CS, NCED1, RRS5, ERF1, NAC4, MIPS, Aquaporin, TIP, ELIP ) in the stress gene network , antioxidative enzymes, free proline along with improved water use efficiency traits such as longer root system, reduced stomatal density, higher chlorophyll content, increased specific leaf area, improved photosynthetic rates and increased intrinsic instantaneous WUE. Transgenic peanut plants displayed high yield compared to non-transgenic plants under both drought and salt stress conditions. Holistically, our study demonstrates the potentiality of stress-induced expression of AtHDG11 to improve the drought, salt tolerance in peanut.

  4. Long-term kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 survival on peanuts and peanut confectionery products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela S Nascimento

    Full Text Available Due to recent large outbreaks, peanuts have been considered a product of potential risk for Salmonella. Usually, peanut products show a low water activity (aw and high fat content, which contribute to increasing the thermal resistance and survival of Salmonella. This study evaluated the long-term kinetics of Salmonella survival on different peanut products under storage at 28°C for 420 days. Samples of raw in-shell peanuts (aw = 0.29, roasted peanuts (aw = 0.39, unblanched peanut kernel (aw = 0.54, peanut brittle (aw = 0.30, paçoca (aw = 0.40 and pé-de-moça (aw = 0.68 were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 at two inoculum levels (3 and 6 log cfu/ g. The Salmonella behavior was influenced (p420 days, especially in products with aw around 0.40.

  5. New Germplasms of the Culinary-Medicinal Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Agaricomycetes): Two Wild Strains from the Tibetan Plateau (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin-Bin; Jiang, Si-Ping; Xu, Ai-Guo; Dorji, Phurbu; Wang, Wen-Jing; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Wei, Tie-Zheng; Zhang, Zu-Tang; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2017-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is one of the most important commercially cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms worldwide. In China, most of the cultivated strains of the fungus were introduced from other countries and cultivated in the eastern provinces. In this study, 2 wild strains of A. bisporus, 2091 and 2094, isolated from fresh specimens collected from the Tibetan Plateau, were domesticated and cultivated alongside a commercial hybrid strain, As2796, in Lhasa, China, for comparison in order to provide new germplasms for cultivation. Basic characteristics, mushroom yield, dry weight, polysaccharide contents, and antioxidant activities of the tested strains were analyzed. Compared with strain As2796, the 2 wild strains displayed good values for mycelial growth, time to fruiting, mushroom yield, dry weight, and polysaccharide contents, and their basidiomata had distinct morphological characteristics (e.g., brown or pale brown caps with some white scales). In addition, the antioxidant activities (reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging effect) of strain 2094 were significantly higher than those of the other 2 strains. Domestication of the 2 wild strains would add more genetic variation into the germplasm of A. bisporus for cultivation, especially in China, and might help to address the problem inherent to the nearly monoculture crop lacking genetic diversity in China.

  6. Proximate composition and mycological characterization of peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: The aim of this work was to contribute to the food safety of Ivorian consumers by investigating the proximate composition and the toxic fungal contamination of peanut butters offered for retail sale on the different markets of Abidjan. Methodology and results: Peanut butter samples (45) ...

  7. The molecular basis of peanut allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures, and discusses how modif...

  8. Nutritional chemistry of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, are one of the most widely consumed legume globally due to its nutrition, taste and affordability. Peanuts are protein and energy-rich and has been utilized worldwide to address the nutritional needs in developing countries. Currently, its role in a heart-healthy diet ha...

  9. Revealing the Diversity of Introduced Coffea canephora Germplasm in Ecuador: Towards a National Strategy to Improve Robusta

    OpenAIRE

    Loor Solórzano, Rey Gastón; De Bellis, Fabien; Leroy, Thierry; Plaza, Luis; Guerrero, Hilton; Subia, Cristian; Calderón, Darío; Fernández, Fabián; Garzón, Iván; Lopez, Diana; Vera, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Genetic resources of Coffea canephora have been introduced in several tropical countries with potential for crop development. In Ecuador, the species has been cultivated since the mid-20th century. However, little is known about the diversity and genetic structure of introduced germplasm. This paper provides an overview of the genetic and phenotypic diversity of C. canephora in Ecuador and some proposals for implementing a breeding program. Twelve SSR markers were used to analyze 1491 plants ...

  10. Applications of peanut skins as a functional food ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut skins are a low-value byproduct of the peanut industry, with hundreds of thousands of tons being produced annually. Following their removal during the preparation of common peanut products, peanut skins are either discarded or used as a minor component of animal feed. Recent studies have fo...

  11. Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Domenech, Maria Carmen; Picó Sirvent, María Belén N:2949; Nuez Viñals, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Gisbert Domenech, MC.; Picó Sirvent, MBN.; Nuez Viñals, F. (2011). Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm. Report- Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative. 33-34:53-54. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/62926 Senia 53 54 33-34

  12. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure assessed by SSR and SNP markers in a large germplasm collection of grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The economic importance of grapevine has driven significant efforts in genomics to accelerate the exploitation of Vitis resources for development of new cultivars. However, although a large number of clonally propagated accessions are maintained in grape germplasm collections worldwide, their use for crop improvement is limited by the scarcity of information on genetic diversity, population structure and proper phenotypic assessment. The identification of representative and manageable subset of accessions would facilitate access to the diversity available in large collections. A genome-wide germplasm characterization using molecular markers can offer reliable tools for adjusting the quality and representativeness of such core samples. Results We investigated patterns of molecular diversity at 22 common microsatellite loci and 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2273 accessions of domesticated grapevine V. vinifera ssp. sativa, its wild relative V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris, interspecific hybrid cultivars and rootstocks. Despite the large number of putative duplicates and extensive clonal relationships among the accessions, we observed high level of genetic variation. In the total germplasm collection the average genetic diversity, as quantified by the expected heterozygosity, was higher for SSR loci (0.81) than for SNPs (0.34). The analysis of the genetic structure in the grape germplasm collection revealed several levels of stratification. The primary division was between accessions of V. vinifera and non-vinifera, followed by the distinction between wild and domesticated grapevine. Intra-specific subgroups were detected within cultivated grapevine representing different eco-geographic groups. The comparison of a phenological core collection and genetic core collections showed that the latter retained more genetic diversity, while maintaining a similar phenotypic variability. Conclusions The comprehensive molecular characterization of our grape

  14. Peanut gene expression profiling in developing seeds at different reproduction stages during Aspergillus parasiticus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xuanqiang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is an important crop economically and nutritionally, and is one of the most susceptible host crops to colonization of Aspergillus parasiticus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Knowledge from molecular genetic studies could help to devise strategies in alleviating this problem; however, few peanut DNA sequences are available in the public database. In order to understand the molecular basis of host resistance to aflatoxin contamination, a large-scale project was conducted to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs from developing seeds to identify resistance-related genes involved in defense response against Aspergillus infection and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Results We constructed six different cDNA libraries derived from developing peanut seeds at three reproduction stages (R5, R6 and R7 from a resistant and a susceptible cultivated peanut genotypes, 'Tifrunner' (susceptible to Aspergillus infection with higher aflatoxin contamination and resistant to TSWV and 'GT-C20' (resistant to Aspergillus with reduced aflatoxin contamination and susceptible to TSWV. The developing peanut seed tissues were challenged by A. parasiticus and drought stress in the field. A total of 24,192 randomly selected cDNA clones from six libraries were sequenced. After removing vector sequences and quality trimming, 21,777 high-quality EST sequences were generated. Sequence clustering and assembling resulted in 8,689 unique EST sequences with 1,741 tentative consensus EST sequences (TCs and 6,948 singleton ESTs. Functional classification was performed according to MIPS functional catalogue criteria. The unique EST sequences were divided into twenty-two categories. A similarity search against the non-redundant protein database available from NCBI indicated that 84.78% of total ESTs showed significant similarity to known proteins, of which 165 genes had been previously reported in peanuts. There were

  15. Interspecific variation of total seed protein in wild rice germplasm using SDS-Page

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.A.; Hidayat-ur-Rahman; Abbasi, F.M.; Ashiq, M.; Rabbani, A.M.; Khan, I.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Shah, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in seed protein of 14 wild rice species (Oryza spp.) along with cultivated rice species (O. sativa) was studied using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to assess genetic diversity in the rice germplasm. SDS bands were scored as present (1) or absent (0) for protein sample of each genotype. On the basis of cluster analysis, four clusters were identified at a similarity level of 0.85. O. nivara, O. rufipogon and O. sativa with AA genomes constituted the first cluster. The second cluster comprised O. punctata of BB genome and wild rice species of CC genome i.e., O. rhizomatis and O. officinalis. However, it also contained O. barthii and O. glumaepatula of AA genome. O. australiensis with EE genome, and O. latifolia, O. alta and O. grandiglumis having CCDD genomes comprised the third cluster. The fourth cluster consisted of wild rice species, O. brachyantha with EE genome along with two other wild rice species, O. longistaminata and O. meridionalis of AA genome. Overall, on the basis of total seed protein, the grouping pattern of rice genotypes was mostly compatible with their genome status. The results of the present work depicted considerable interspecific genetic variation in the investigated germplasm for total seed protein. Moreover, the results obtained in this study also suggest that analysis of seed protein can also provide a better understanding of genetic affinity of the germplasm. (author)

  16. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d' Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia, E-mail: sgcbraza@usp.b, E-mail: tvieira@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: mabra@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: macdomin@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2011-07-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a {sup 60}Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  17. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia

    2011-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a 60 Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  18. Occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut products determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanovska-Dimzoska Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection using immunoaffinity column clean-up was a method described for determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 in peanuts and peanut based products. The validation of the procedure was performed. Good coefficient of correlation was found for all aflatoxins in the range of 0.9993-0.9999. Limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ ranged from 0.003-0.005 mg/kg and 0.009-0.023 mg/kg, respectively, which was acceptable. The mean recovery for total aflatoxins was 88.21%. The method also showed acceptable precision values in the range of 0.171-2.626% at proposed concentration levels for all four aflatoxins. RSDR values (within laboratory reproducibility calculated from the results showed good correlation between two analysts for all aflatoxins and they ranged from 4.93-11.87%. The developed method was applied for the determination of aflatoxins in 27 samples of peanuts and peanut based products. The results showed that 21 peanut samples (77.7% were below LOD of the method. Three samples had positive results over the MRL. There was one extreme value recorded for the total aflatoxins in peanut (289.2 mg/kg and two peanut based products, peanut snack and peanut, with total content of aflatoxins being 16.3 mg/kg and 8.0 mg/kg, respectively. The obtained results demonstrated that the procedure was suitable for the de­termination of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut based products and it could be implemented for the routine analysis.

  19. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGSheng-xiang; WEIXing-hua; ELJavier

    2004-01-01

    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5 million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  20. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Sheng-xiang; WEI Xing-hua; E L Javier

    2004-01-01

    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  1. Drought Stress Responses of Sunflower Germplasm Developed after Wide Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumiana Dimova Vassilevska-Ivanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Response of sunflower germplasms viz. cultivated sunflower H. annuus and two breeding lines H. annuus x T. rotundifolia and H. annuus x V. encelioides developed after wide hybridization were used for identification of drought tolerant sunflower genotypes at the seedling growth stage. Three water stress levels of zero (control, -0.4, and -0.8 MPa were developed using polyethyleneglycol-6000 (PEG-6000. Physiological and biochemical stress determining parameters such as root and shoots length, fresh weight, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, guaiacol peroxidase (GPO, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and antioxidant metabolite content (total antioxidant capacity, total phenols and total flavonoids content were compared between seedlings of all three genotypes. Results revealed that sunflower genotypes have similar responses at two osmotic potentials for shoot and root length and fresh weight. The data also showed that drought stresss could induce oxidative stress, as indicated by the increase level of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase at -04 MPa in H. annuus cv 1114. Although the activity of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase was differentially influenced by drought, the changes of antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase subjected to drought stress follow a similar pattern in both breeding lines, indicating that similar defense systems might be involved in the oxidative stress injury in sunflowers. Increase in content of phenols and flavonoids were detected for all three genotypes under stress, which showed that these were major antioxidant metabolites in scavenging cellular H2O2.

  2. High-density genetic map using whole-genome re-sequencing for fine mapping and candidate gene discovery for disease resistance in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-density genetic linkage maps are essential for fine mapping QTLs controlling disease resistance traits, such as early leaf spot (ELS), late leaf spot (LLS), and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). With completion of the genome sequences of two diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut, we could use ...

  3. In vitro conservation of Dendrobium germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Zeng, Songjun; Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Vendrame, Wagner A

    2014-09-01

    Dendrobium is a large genus in the family Orchidaceae that exhibits vast diversity in floral characteristics, which is of considerable importance to orchid breeders, biotechnologists and collectors. Native species have high value as a result of their medicinal properties, while their hybrids are important as ornamental commodities, either as cut flowers or potted plants and are thus veritable industrial crops. Thus, preservation of Dendrobium germplasm is valuable for species conservation, breeding programs and the floriculture industry. Cryopreservation represents the only safe, efficient and cost-effective long-term storage option to facilitate the conservation of genetic resources of plant species. This review highlights 16 years of literature related to the preservation of Dendrobium germplasm and comprises the most comprehensive assessment of thorough studies performed to date, which shows reliable and reproducible results. Air-drying, encapsulation-dehydration, encapsulation-vitrification, vitrification and droplet-vitrification are the current cryopreservation methodologies that have been used to cryopreserve Dendrobium germplasm. Mature seeds, pollen, protoplasts, shoot primordia, protocorms and somatic embryos or protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) have been cryopreserved with different levels of success. Encapsulation-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration are the most used protocol, while PLBs represent the main explant explored.

  4. The value of crop germplasm and value accounting system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaowei; DING Guangzhou; CHANG Ying

    2007-01-01

    The value evaluation and accounting of crop germplasm not only provides the theory and method for the price of germplasm, thus makes further lawful and fair transactions, but also ensures the benefits of crop germplasm owners and is also instructive in keeping the foodstuff safety. This paper founded a multidimensional value accounting system, which included physical accounting, value accounting and quality index accounting; individual accounting and total accounting; quantity accounting and quality accounting.

  5. Genotype-independent and enhanced in planta Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of peanut [Arachis hypogaea (L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Sivabalan; Pavan, Gadamchetty; Sathish, Selvam; Siva, Ramamoorthy; Kumar, Periyasamy Suresh; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2018-04-01

    Agrobacterium infection and regeneration of the putatively transformed plant from the explant remains arduous for some crop species like peanut. Henceforth, a competent and reproducible in planta genetic transformation protocol is established for peanut cv. CO7 by standardizing various factors such as pre-culture duration, acetosyringone concentration, duration of co-cultivation, sonication and vacuum infiltration. In the present investigation, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301- bar was used for transformation. The two-stage selection was carried out using 4 and 250 mg l -1 BASTA ® to completely eliminate the chimeric and non-transformed plants. The transgene integration into plant genome was evaluated by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blot hybridization. Among the various combinations and concentrations analyzed, highest transformation efficiency was obtained when the 2-day pre-cultured explants were subjected to sonication for 6 min and vacuum infiltrated for 3 min in Agrobacterium suspension, and co-cultivated on MS medium supplemented with 150 µM acetosyringone for 3 days. The fidelity of the standardized in planta transformation method was assessed in five peanut cultivars and all the cultivars responded positively with a transformation efficiency ranging from minimum 31.3% (with cv. CO6) to maximum 38.6% (with cv. TMV7). The in planta transformation method optimized in this study could be beneficial to develop superior peanut cultivars with desirable genetic traits.

  6. Ridascreen® fast peanut, a rapid and safe tool to determine peanut contamination in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immer, U.; Reck, B.; Lindeke, S.; Koppelman, S.

    2004-01-01

    During the last years allergenic substances in food have gained more and more attention. Stricter rules for a peanut free food labelling demand a peanut contamination less than 5 ppm. The maintenance of a high quality of food products with regards to allergenic exposure is preferable warranted with

  7. Carbon trading as incentive for conversion to organic agriculture. Case study. Organic peanuts in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnar, F.

    2005-12-15

    In this pilot project, the climate effects of the conversion from conventional to organic cultivation of peanuts are evaluated. We could aim at voluntary carbon credits that do not comply with the CDM (Clean Development Mechanisms) rules, but we try to meet the CDM rules by combining it with a agroforestry component. However, in the example of Tanzania meeting the CDM rules was a problem. The agricultural system in Tanzania consists of a rotation of several years cultivation and several years fallow. This fallow of grass, shrubs and trees could be considered as 'forest'. Taking fallow land into cultivation would then be deforestation, which would make the planting of trees no longer eligible under CDM. This is a shame because the traditional 'slash and burn' system emits a lot of greenhouse gases.

  8. Translation Initiation Factor eIF4E and eIFiso4E Are Both Required for Peanut stripe virus Infection in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Manlin; Xie, Hongfeng; Wu, Juxiang; Xie, Lianhui; Yang, Jinguang; Chi, Yucheng

    2017-01-01

    Peanut stripe virus (PStV) belongs to the genus Potyvirus and is the most important viral pathogen of cultivated peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.). The eukaryotic translation initiation factor, eIF4E, and its isoform, eIF(iso)4E, play key roles during virus infection in plants, particularly Potyvirus . In the present study, we cloned the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E homologs in peanut and named these as PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E , respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that these two genes were expressed during all growth periods and in all peanut organs, but were especially abundant in young leaves and roots. These also had similar expression levels. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that PStV multifunctional helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) and viral protein genome-linked (VPg) both interacted with PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay showed that there was an interaction between HC-Pro and PeaeIF4E/PeaeIF(iso)4E in the cytoplasm and between VPg and PeaeIF4E/PeaeIF(iso)4E in the nucleus. Silencing either PeaeIF4E or PeaeIF(iso)4E using a virus-induced gene silencing system did not significantly affect PStV accumulation. However, silencing both PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E genes significantly weakened PStV accumulation. The findings of the present study suggest that PeaeIF4E and PeaeIF(iso)4E play important roles in the PStV infection cycle and may potentially contribute to PStV resistance.

  9. SSR-Based DNA Fingerprinting and Diversity Assessment Among Indian Germplasm of Euryale ferox: an Aquatic Underutilized and Neglected Food Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitish; Shikha, Divya; Kumari, Swati; Choudhary, Binod Kumar; Kumar, Lokendra; Singh, Indu Shekhar

    2017-10-30

    Euryale ferox is native to Southeast Asia and China, and it is one of the important aquatic food crops propagated mostly in eastern part of India. The aim of the present study was to characterize and evaluate the genetic diversity of ex situ collections of E. ferox germplasm from different geographical states of India using microsatellite (simple sequence repeats (SSRs)) markers. Ten SSR markers were analyzed to assess DNA fingerprinting and genetic diversity of 16 cultivated germplasm of E. ferox. Total 37 polymorphic alleles were recorded with an average of 3.7 allele frequency per primer. The polymorphic information content value varied from 0.204 to 0.735 with mean of 0.448. A high range of heterozygosity (Ho 0.228; He 0.512) was detected in the present study. The neighbor-joining (N-J) tree and the principle coordinate analysis showed that the germplasm divided in to three main clusters. The results of the present investigation comply that SSR markers are effective for computing genetic assessment of genetic diversity and similarity with classifying cultivated varieties of E. ferox. Evaluation of genetic diversity among Indian E. ferox germplasm could provide useful information for genetic improvement.

  10. Notice of release of Mountain Home germplasm Sandberg bluegrass (selected germplasm, natural track)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott M. Lambert; Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy Shaw

    2011-01-01

    Mountain Home germplasm Sandberg bluegrass is a small, densely tufted short-lived perennial bunchgrass adapted to low elevation, semi-arid sites with long, hot growing seasons. Mountain Home's drought tolerance, competitive nature, and ease of establishment make it an excellent choice for post-fire restoration of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) dominated...

  11. Notice of release for Eagle Germplasm western yarrow (selected germplasm, natural track)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott M. Lambert; Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy Shaw

    2011-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station; United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Idaho State Office; Utah State University, Agricultural Experiment Station; and University of Idaho, Agricultural Experiment Station, announce the release of a selected germplasm (natural track) of western...

  12. Identification and Evaluation of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Allotetraploid Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Based on Amplicon Sequencing Combined with High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yanbin; Pandey, Manish K; Liu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Hong; Varshney, Rajeev K; Liang, Xuanqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an allotetraploid (AABB) species derived from the A-genome (Arachis duranensis) and B-genome (Arachis ipaensis) progenitors. Presence of two versions of a DNA sequence based on the two progenitor genomes poses a serious technical and analytical problem during single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker identification and analysis. In this context, we have analyzed 200 amplicons derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genome survey sequences (GSS) to identify SNPs in a panel of genotypes consisting of 12 cultivated peanut varieties and two diploid progenitors representing the ancestral genomes. A total of 18 EST-SNPs and 44 genomic-SNPs were identified in 12 peanut varieties by aligning the sequence of A. hypogaea with diploid progenitors. The average frequency of sequence polymorphism was higher for genomic-SNPs than the EST-SNPs with one genomic-SNP every 1011 bp as compared to one EST-SNP every 2557 bp. In order to estimate the potential and further applicability of these identified SNPs, 96 peanut varieties were genotyped using high resolution melting (HRM) method. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values for EST-SNPs ranged between 0.021 and 0.413 with a mean of 0.172 in the set of peanut varieties, while genomic-SNPs ranged between 0.080 and 0.478 with a mean of 0.249. Total 33 SNPs were used for polymorphism detection among the parents and 10 selected lines from mapping population Y13Zh (Zhenzhuhei × Yueyou13). Of the total 33 SNPs, nine SNPs showed polymorphism in the mapping population Y13Zh, and seven SNPs were successfully mapped into five linkage groups. Our results showed that SNPs can be identified in allotetraploid peanut with high accuracy through amplicon sequencing and HRM assay. The identified SNPs were very informative and can be used for different genetic and breeding applications in peanut.

  13. Using rating to evaluate quality of peanut products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    Corresponding authors E-mail: undeogunsanwo@yahoo.co.uk. Peanut butter. The preparation of peanut butter involves dry roasting of peanut seeds in the oven followed by removal of seed testa and grinding of the seeds to obtain butter. Sample ...

  14. Working Towards Disease Resistance in Peanuts Through Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant cultivars are the most desirable approach to disease control in agriculture. Early and late leaf spot are the most important foliar diseases of peanut worldwide. Significant progress for leaf spot resistance in peanut can be achieved through biotechnology. The National Peanut Research ...

  15. Genetic analysis of yield in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... only should the two major genes' effects be considered but also the polygene's effect should be considered in breeding to increase peanut yield. Key words: Peanut, yield, major gene plus polygene inheritance model, genetic analysis. INTRODUCTION. Peanut consists of diploid (2n = 2x = 20), tetraploid ...

  16. Tapping the US sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs is limiting the development of new varieties for biofuel production. Therefore, the identification of genetically diverse sweet sorghum germplasm in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection is...

  17. Powdery mildew reaction of hop cultivars and USDA germplasm, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to identify possible sources of resistance to the disease powdery mildew in publicly-available hop germplasm and cultivars. Germplasm with the highest levels of downy mildew resistance in the USDA collection and various cultivars of interest were screened for their reac...

  18. The research progress on plant mutant germplasm resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Cexi; Ji Linzhen; Zhao Shirong

    1991-07-01

    Mutants induced by nuclear radiation or other mutagens are new artificial germplasm resources. Some mutants have been applied in plant breeding and great achievements have been reached. The status and progress on the collection, identification and utilization of mutants in China are introduced. A proposal for developing mutant germplasm resources with good agronomic characters is suggested

  19. Immunochemical and biological quantification of peanut extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Pedersen, Mona H; Platzer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    of samples. We describe the use of rabbit basophils as a tool in biological standardization. Using peanut as a model allergen, it is described how rabbits immunized for production of antiserum may become sensitized and their basophils used for histamine release experiments. It is also possible to use rabbit...... of human basophils using serum from a strongly sensitized peanut-allergic patient. The overall sensitivity of the methods were ELISA > HR-human cells > HR-sensitized rabbit cells > HR-passively sensitized rabbit cells. The use of rabbit basophils for biological standardizations will allow for the use...

  20. Comparative mapping in intraspecific populations uncovers a high degree of macrosynteny between A- and B-genome diploid species of peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yufang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. is an important oilseed crop with an allotetraploid genome (AABB, 2n = 4x = 40. Both the low level of genetic variation within the cultivated gene pool and its polyploid nature limit the utilization of molecular markers to explore genome structure and facilitate genetic improvement. Nevertheless, a wealth of genetic diversity exists in diploid Arachis species (2n = 2x = 20, which represent a valuable gene pool for cultivated peanut improvement. Interspecific populations have been used widely for genetic mapping in diploid species of Arachis. However, an intraspecific mapping strategy was essential to detect chromosomal rearrangements among species that could be obscured by mapping in interspecific populations. To develop intraspecific reference linkage maps and gain insights into karyotypic evolution within the genus, we comparatively mapped the A- and B-genome diploid species using intraspecific F2 populations. Exploring genome organization among diploid peanut species by comparative mapping will enhance our understanding of the cultivated tetraploid peanut genome. Moreover, new sources of molecular markers that are highly transferable between species and developed from expressed genes will be required to construct saturated genetic maps for peanut. Results A total of 2,138 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers were developed by mining a tetraploid peanut EST assembly including 101,132 unigenes (37,916 contigs and 63,216 singletons derived from 70,771 long-read (Sanger and 270,957 short-read (454 sequences. A set of 97 SSR markers were also developed by mining 9,517 genomic survey sequences of Arachis. An SSR-based intraspecific linkage map was constructed using an F2 population derived from a cross between K 9484 (PI 298639 and GKBSPSc 30081 (PI 468327 in the B-genome species A. batizocoi. A high degree of macrosynteny was observed

  1. Identification and characterization of microRNAs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. by high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Chi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are noncoding RNAs of approximately 21 nt that regulate gene expression in plants post-transcriptionally by endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs play essential roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes and many of them are conserved across species. Extensive studies of miRNAs have been done in a few model plants; however, less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., one of the most important oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. RESULTS: A library of small RNA from peanut was constructed for deep sequencing. In addition to 126 known miRNAs from 33 families, 25 novel peanut miRNAs were identified. The miRNA* sequences of four novel miRNAs were discovered, providing additional evidence for the existence of miRNAs. Twenty of the novel miRNAs were considered to be species-specific because no homolog has been found for other plant species. qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of seven miRNAs in different tissues and in seed at different developmental stages and some showed tissue- and/or growth stage-specific expression. Furthermore, potential targets of these putative miRNAs were predicted on the basis of the sequence homology search. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified large numbers of miRNAs and their related target genes through deep sequencing of a small RNA library. This study of the identification and characterization of miRNAs in peanut can initiate further study on peanut miRNA regulation mechanisms, and help toward a greater understanding of the important roles of miRNAs in peanut.

  2. Soil eukaryotic microorganism succession as affected by continuous cropping of peanut--pathogenic and beneficial fungi were selected.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingna Chen

    Full Text Available Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping.

  3. Genetic diversity of cultivated lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. and its relation to the world’s agro-ecological zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khazaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of germplasm collections plays a critical role in supporting conservation and crop genetic enhancement strategies. We used a cultivated lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. collection consisting of 352 accessions originating from 54 diverse countries to estimate genetic diversity and genetic structure using 1194 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers which span the lentil genome. Using principal coordinate analysis, population structure analysis and UPGMA cluster analysis, the accessions were categorized into three major groups that prominently reflected geographical origin (world’s agro-ecological zones. The three clusters complemented the origins, pedigrees and breeding histories of the germplasm. The three groups were a South Asia (sub-tropical savannah, b Mediterranean and c northern temperate. Based on the results from this study, it is also clear that breeding programs still have considerable genetic diversity to mine within the cultivated lentil, however, surveyed South Asian and Canadian germplasm revealed narrow genetic diversity.

  4. 78 FR 77368 - Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Amendment to Primary Peanut-Producing States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) was not available at the time of the Board's review because... least 10,000 tons of peanuts. 0 4. Section 1216.40, paragraph (a) introductory text and (a)(1) are...

  5. Quantitative risk assessment of foods containing peanut advisory labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Marx, David B; Taylor, Steve L

    2013-12-01

    Foods with advisory labeling (i.e. "may contain") continue to be prevalent and the warning may be increasingly ignored by allergic consumers. We sought to determine the residual levels of peanut in various packaged foods bearing advisory labeling, compare similar data from 2005 and 2009, and determine any potential risk for peanut-allergic consumers. Of food products bearing advisory statements regarding peanut or products that had peanut listed as a minor ingredient, 8.6% and 37.5% contained detectable levels of peanut (>2.5 ppm whole peanut), respectively. Peanut-allergic individuals should be advised to avoid such products regardless of the wording of the advisory statement. Peanut was detected at similar rates and levels in products tested in both 2005 and 2009. Advisory labeled nutrition bars contained the highest levels of peanut and an additional market survey of 399 products was conducted. Probabilistic risk assessment showed the risk of a reaction to peanut-allergic consumers from advisory labeled nutrition bars was significant but brand-dependent. Peanut advisory labeling may be overused on some nutrition bars but prudently used on others. The probabilistic approach could provide the food industry with a quantitative method to assist with determining when advisory labeling is most appropriate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein hydrolysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    Full Text Available Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2-12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2-5 g/100 ml than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

  7. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were

  8. Impact of school peanut-free policies on epinephrine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnikas, Lisa M; Huffaker, Michelle F; Sheehan, William J; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Petty, Carter R; Leibowitz, Robert; Hauptman, Marissa; Young, Michael C; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2017-08-01

    Children with food allergies spend a large proportion of time in school but characteristics of allergic reactions in schools are not well studied. Some schools self-designate as peanut-free or have peanut-free areas, but the impact of policies on clinical outcomes has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effect of peanut-free policies on rates of epinephrine administration for allergic reactions in Massachusetts public schools. In this retrospective study, we analyzed (1) rates of epinephrine administration in all Massachusetts public schools and (2) Massachusetts public school nurse survey reports of school peanut-free policies from 2006 to 2011 and whether schools self-designated as "peanut-free" based on policies. Rates of epinephrine administration were compared for schools with or without peanut-restrictive policies. The percentage of schools with peanut-restrictive policies did not change significantly in the study time frame. There was variability in policies used by schools self-designated as peanut-free. No policy was associated with complete absence of allergic reactions. Both self-designated peanut-free schools and schools banning peanuts from being served in school or brought from home reported allergic reactions to nuts. Policies restricting peanuts from home, served in schools, or having peanut-free classrooms did not affect epinephrine administration rates. Schools with peanut-free tables, compared to without, had lower rates of epinephrine administration (incidence rate per 10,000 students 0.2 and 0.6, respectively, P = .009). These data provide a basis for evidence-based school policies for children with food allergies. Further studies are required before decisions can be made regarding peanut-free policies in schools. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... may not be included. (2) Unblanched peanuts, including the skins and germ. (c) The seasoning and... are regarded as suitable, except that artificial flavorings, artificial sweeteners, chemical... stabilizing ingredients shall be hydrogenated vegetable oils. For the purposes of this section, hydrogenated...

  10. Peanuts as a functional food ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seeds of the peanut plant have long been prized for their pleasant roasted flavor and well as their significant contents of high quality protein and favorable lipid profiles. They are widely grown in the US from Virginia, across the south and as far west as California. At present, they represe...

  11. Somatic embryogenesis from corolla tubes of interspecific amphiploids between cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and its wild species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somatic embryogenesis in vitro provides an efficient means of plant multiplication, facilitating sunflower improvement and germplasm innovation. In the present study, using interspecific amphiploids (2n=4x=68) between cultivated sunflower and wild perennial Helianthus species as explant donors, soma...

  12. Virus Diseases Infecting Almond Germplasm in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeeb Saad; Yusuf Abou-Jawdah; Zahi Kanaan-Atallah

    2000-01-01

    Cultivated and wild almond species were surveyed for virus diseases. Four viruses infected cultivated almonds (Prunus dulcis): Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Only ACLSV and ApMV were detected on wild almonds, (Prunus orientalis and P. korschinskii). The occurence of PNRSV or PDV on seeds used for the production of rootstocks, on seedlings in nurseries, and on mother plants reve...

  13. Foliar fertilization of peanuts with cobalt and molybdenum: agronomic characteristics of production and physiological potential of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Marani Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a crop, the peanut is becoming increasingly important in Brazil because it is used to renew areas where sugarcane is cultivated. The peanuts are mainly used by the candy industry and their importance has also grown because of the exploitation of oil crops to produce biodiesel. This study aimed to determine the effect of applying different levels Co and Mo foliar fertilizer to two peanut cultivars. The experiment was conducted in cerrado, during the rainy season, and the treatments consisted of applying Mo and Co fertilizer at zero, 400 and 800g.ha–1 to the Runner IAC 886 and IAC Tatu ST cultivars. The study found that there were differences in the parameters of the cultivars but there were no changes when the rates of cobalt and molybdenum were increased. The foliar application of cobalt and molybdenum in doses up to 800g.ha–1, during the initial stage of seed formation, does not change the agronomic characteristics of peanuts; Runner IAC 886 is more productive than the IAC Tatu ST cultivar, and seeds with higher molybdenum content do not have more physiological potential.

  14. Transcriptomic and Physiological Evidence for the Relationship between Unsaturated Fatty Acid and Salt Stress in Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Na; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Fang; Wan, Shubo

    2018-01-01

    Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the five major oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Salt stress is a common adverse condition for the growth of this crop in many countries and regions. In this study, physiological parameters and transcriptome profiles of peanut seedlings exposed to salt stress (250 mM NaCl for 4 days, S4) and recovery for 3 days (when transferred to standard conditions for 3 days, R3) were analyzed to detect genes associated with salt stress and recovery in peanut. We observed that the quantum yield of PSII electron transport (ΦPSII) and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII ( F v / F m ) decreased in S4 compared with the control, and increased in R3 compared with those in S4. Seedling fresh weight, dry weight and PSI oxidoreductive activity (Δ I / I o ) were inhibited in S4 and did not recover in R3. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities decreased in S4 and increased in R3, whereas superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) contents increased in S4 and decreased in R3. Transcriptome analysis revealed 1,742 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under salt stress and 390 DEGs under recovery. Among these DEGs, two DEGs encoding ω-3 fatty acid desaturase that synthesized linolenic acid (18:3) from linoleic acid (18:2) were down-regulated in S4 and up-regulated in R3. Furthermore, ω-3 fatty acid desaturase activity decreased under salt stress and increased under recovery. Consistent with this result, 18:3 content decreased under salt stress and increased under recovery compared with that under salt treatment. In conclusion, salt stress markedly changed the activity of ω-3 fatty acid desaturase and fatty acid composition. The findings provide novel insights for the improvement of salt tolerance in peanut.

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity in indigenous turmeric (Curcuma longa) germplasm from India using molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sushma; Singh, Shweta; Sharma, Suresh; Tewari, S K; Roy, R K; Goel, A K; Rana, T S

    2015-04-01

    Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric, is one of the economically and medicinally important plant species. It is predominantly cultivated in the tropical and sub tropical countries. India is the largest producer, and exporter of turmeric in the world, followed by China, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Thailand. In the present study, Directed Amplification of Minisatellite DNA (DAMD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR), methods were used to estimate the genetic variability in indigenous turmeric germplasm. Cumulative data analysis for DAMD (15) and ISSR (13) markers resulted into 478 fragments, out of which 392 fragments were polymorphic, revealing 82 % polymorphism across the turmeric genotypes. Wide range of pairwise genetic distances (0.03-0.59) across the genotypes revealed that these genotypes are genetically quite diverse. The UPGMA dendrogram generated using cumulative data showed significant relationships amongst the genotypes. All 29 genotypes studied grouped into two clusters irrespective of their geographical affiliations with 100 % bootstrap value except few genotypes, suggesting considerable diversity amongst the genotypes. These results suggested that the current collection of turmeric genotypes preserve the vast majority of natural variations. The results further demonstrate the efficiency and reliability of DAMD and ISSR markers in determining the genetic diversity and relationships among the indigenous turmeric germplasm. DAMD and ISSR profiling have identified diverse turmeric genotypes, which could be further utilized in various genetic improvement programmes including conventional as well as marker assisted breeding towards development of new and desirable turmeric genotypes.

  16. Germplasm enhancement for adaptation to climate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo J Carena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Billions of dollars and crops are being lost to drying high moisture grain; drought, cold, and salt susceptibility; andto processing poor quality grain. Maize is a model crop for adaptation to climate changes. Breeding for adaptation is best doneunder challenging environmental conditions where strengths and weaknesses are quickly identified and most stable genotypes areselected. The North Dakota State University (NDSU maize breeding program is strategically located to develop products underextreme weather. It currently exploits northern U.S. environments that allow screening for adaptation traits that are as important asyield. The program focuses on germplasm adaptation and its integration into cultivar development, particularly those carryingunique alleles not present in the B73 and NAM genomes. There is a need for projects that are vital to agricultural research and willmeet present and future demands of superior genotypes tolerant to climate changes in the U.S. and abroad.

  17. Antenatal risk factors for peanut allergy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binkley Karen E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal factors may contribute to the development of peanut allergy. We evaluated the risk of childhood peanut allergy in association with pregnancy exposure to Rh immune globulin, folic acid and ingestion of peanut-containing foods. Methods We conducted a web-based case-control survey using the Anaphylaxis Canada Registry, a pre-existing database of persons with a history of anaphylaxis. A total of 1300 case children with reported peanut allergy were compared to 113 control children with shellfish allergy. All were evaluated for maternal exposure in pregnancy to Rh immune globulin and folic acid tablet supplements, as well as maternal avoidance of dietary peanut intake in pregnancy. Results Receipt of Rh immune globulin in pregnancy was not associated with a higher risk of peanut allergy (odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51 to 1.45, nor was initiation of folic acid tablet supplements before or after conception (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.48. Complete avoidance of peanut-containing products in pregnancy was associated with a non-significantly lower risk of peanut allergy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.03. Conclusion The risk of childhood peanut allergy was not modified by the following common maternal exposures in pregnancy: Rh immune globulin, folic acid or peanut-containing foods. Clinical implications Rh immune globulin, folic acid supplement use and peanut avoidance in pregnancy have yet to be proven to modulate the risk of childhood anaphylaxis to peanuts. Capsule Summary Identification of prenatal factors that contribute to peanut allergy might allow for prevention of this life-threatening condition. This article explores the role of three such factors.

  18. Molecular assessment of genetic diversity in mung bean germplasm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-04-02

    Apr 2, 2008 ... crop, because of its adaptation to short growth duration, low water requirement, soil fertility and because it can be used in ... profiles have been characterized in case of several crop plant germplasm ...... Nucleic Acids Res. 18,.

  19. Use of plumules cryopreservation to save coconut germplasm in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... (PNT/GPA), Brazilian Green Tall (BGD/NVB), Cameroon Red Dwarf (CRD/NRC), Vanuatu Tall ... erosion based on it particular germplasm conservation. Its mode of ..... Tolerance of coffee (Coffea spp) seeds to ultra-low.

  20. Screening of soybean germplasm for resistance against colletotrichum truncatum infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, I.; Islam, M.R.; Hamiduzzaman, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    One hundred and five soybean germplasms of exotic and national origin were evaluated for their reaction to anthracnose under field condition in Bangladesh. In the field 36 materials were found to be free from infection of C. truncatum (highly resistant) while 19, 37, 3, 5 and 5 germplasms were graded as resistant, moderately resistant, moderately susceptible, susceptible and highly susceptible, respectively. Percentage of seed-borne infection by colletotrichum truncatum varied from one germplasm to another. In total 43 germplasms were completely free from seed-borne infection, whereas up to 5% infection was recorded in 25 samples, 6-30% in 32 samples and 31-36% infection was found in five samples. (author)

  1. Methods for acquisition, storage, and evaluation of leguminous tree germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Simple methods for establishing, maintaining, and planting of a small scale tree legume (Prosopis) germplasm collection by one or two people are described. Suggestions are included for: developing an understanding of the worldwide distribution of genus; becoming acquainted with basic and applied scientists working on the taxa; devising seed cleaning, fumigation, cataloging, and storage techniques; requesting seed from international seed collections; collecting seed from native populations; and for field designs for planting the germplasm collection.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of basic/helix-loop-helix gene family in peanut and assessment of its roles in pod development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gao

    Full Text Available The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH proteins constitute a superfamily of transcription factors that are known to play a range of regulatory roles in eukaryotes. Over the past few decades, many bHLH family genes have been well-characterized in model plants, such as Arabidopsis, rice and tomato. However, the bHLH protein family in peanuts has not yet been systematically identified and characterized. Here, 132 and 129 bHLH proteins were identified from two wild ancestral diploid subgenomes of cultivated tetraploid peanuts, Arachis duranensis (AA and Arachis ipaensis (BB, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these bHLHs could be classified into 19 subfamilies. Distribution mapping results showed that peanut bHLH genes were randomly and unevenly distributed within the 10 AA chromosomes and 10 BB chromosomes. In addition, 120 bHLH gene pairs between the AA-subgenome and BB-subgenome were found to be orthologous and 101 of these pairs were highly syntenic in AA and BB chromosomes. Furthermore, we confirmed that 184 bHLH genes expressed in different tissues, 22 of which exhibited tissue-specific expression. Meanwhile, we identified 61 bHLH genes that may be potentially involved in peanut-specific subterranean. Our comprehensive genomic analysis provides a foundation for future functional dissection and understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of bHLH transcription factors in peanuts.

  3. The Balance of N, P, and Manure Fertilizer Dosage on Growth and Yield of Peanuts in Alfisols Dryland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peanuts cultivation in Alfisols dryland limited by low levels of soil fertility. An agricultural intensification that could be done is application of organic and inorganic fertilizer. This research aimed to study the balance of N, P, and manure fertilizer dosage on growth and yield of peanuts in alfisols dryland. The research was done in April 2014 - September 2014 in Sukosari, Jumantono, Karanganyar. This research was compiled using a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD factorial with three factors, there are dose of urea, SP-36 and cow manure fertilizer. The results showed that the dose combinations of urea, SP-36, and cow manure fertilizer have no interaction affected all of variable plant. The application of 300 kg ha-1 SP-36 fertilizer increased the number of pods and weight of pods, while the weight of 1000 seeds was improved by application of 150 kg ha-1 urea fertilizer.

  4. Reuse of sand, crushed sugarcane and peanut hull-based substrates for cherry tomato cultivation Reutilização de substratos compostos por areia, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e casca de amendoim no cultivo do tomateiro do grupo cereja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of substrates for more than one growing season is an alternative to reduce production costs. The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield and quality fruits of the cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum grown in reused substrates. The experimental design was a complete randomized block, with a factorial array of 7 × 2 (seven substrates and two growth periods, with four replications. The seven substrates consisted of different combinations of sand (S, crushed sugarcane (CS and peanut hull (PH. The substrates used were: S1 = S; S2 = [(2/3 S + (1/3 CS]; S3 = [(2/3 S + (1/3 PH]; S4 = [(2/3 S + (1/6 CS + (1/6 PH]; S5 = [(1/2 S + (1/2 CS]; S6 = [(1/2 S + (1/2 PH] and S7 = [(1/3 S + (1/3 CS + (1/3 PH]. These substrates were tested as new (one growth season, and reused (two sequentially growth seasons. The cherry tomato average yield was 9.07 kg m-2 when growth on the new substrates, and 8.44 kg m-2 when growth on the reused ones. The fruit quality was not affected by the reutilization of the substrates. The average values were 6.5 ºBrix for total soluble solids; 0.6 g for citric acid per 100 g for total titratable acidity and 4.2 for pH. A substrate consisting of equal parts of the three components can be recommended as a good growth medium for cherry tomato. All the substrates tested can be efficiently reused, at least once.A reutilização de substratos por mais de um cultivo é uma alternativa para reduzir os custos de produção. Objetivou-se assim avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum do grupo cereja cultivado em substratos reutilizados. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com esquema fatorial 7 × 2 (sete substratos e duas utilizações dos substratos, em quatro repetições. Os substratos resultaram da combinação de diferentes proporções volumétricas de areia (A, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (BC e casca de amendoim (CA. Testou-se: S1 = A; S2

  5. Chitinase Activity in Healthy and Sclerotium rolfsii Infected Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENDANG PUDJIHARTATI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment were to analyze the endo- or exo-chitinase activities of healthy and Sclerotium rolfsii infected peanuts. The experiment analyzed 24 different peanut genotypes. Results of the experiment showed chromogenic dimer was the most suitable substrate for analysing chitinase activities. Both endo- and exo-chitinases activities were detected in leaf, stem, and crown tissues. Increased in chitinase activities were detected in S. rolfsii infected peanut tissues than in healthy plant. Regression analysis showed negative slope between disease intensity and chitinase activity in S. rolfsii infected peanut tissue (R2= 0.45.

  6. Application of Serratia marcescens RZ-21 significantly enhances peanut yield and remediates continuously cropped peanut soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hai-Yan; Yang, Bo; Wang, Hong-Wei; Yang, Qi-Yin; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-15

    Continuous cropping practices cause a severe decline in peanut yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the remediation effect of Serratia marcescens on continuously cropped peanut soil. A pot experiment was conducted under natural conditions to determine peanut agronomic indices, soil microorganism characteristics, soil enzyme activities and antagonism ability to typical pathogens at different growth stages. Four treatments were applied to red soil as follows: an active fermentation liquor of S. marcescens (RZ-21), an equivalent sterilized fermentation liquor (M), an equivalent fermentation medium (P) and distilled water (CK). S. marcescens significantly inhibited the two typical plant pathogens Fusarium oxysporum A1 and Ralstonia solanacearum B1 and reduced their populations in rhizosphere soil. The RZ-21 treatment significantly increased peanut yield, vine dry weight, root nodules and taproot length by 62.3, 33, 72 and 61.4% respectively, followed by the M treatment. The P treatment also increased root nodules and root length slightly. RZ-21 also enhanced the activities of soil urease, sucrase and hydrogen peroxidase at various stages. In addition, RZ-21 and M treatments increased the average population of soil bacteria and decreased the average population of fungi in the three critical peanut growth stages, except for M in the case of the fungal population at flowering, thus balancing the structure of the soil microorganism community. This is the first report of S. marcescens being applied to continuously cropped peanut soil. The results suggest that S. marcescens RZ-21 has the potential to improve the soil environment and agricultural products and thus allow the development of sustainable management practices. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Phytosanitary evaluation of olive germplasm in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Luigi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey on viruses was carried out in 2008 in the main olive-growing areas of Albania (Kruja, Sauk and Vlora. Fifty samples from 14 local and 2 exotic olive cultivars were collected from 10 commercial orchards and one collection field and inspected for Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV, Strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRV, Olive latent virus 1 (OLV-1, Olive leaf yellowing-associated virus (OLYaV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Olive latent virus-2 (OLV-2 and Tobacco necrosis virus strain D (TNV-D by a one-step RT-PCR assay using virus-specifi c primers. None of these viruses were found in the source plants except SLRSV and OLYaV, which were detected in a ‘K. M. Berat’ olive tree grown in the collection field. These findings are important because the incidence of olive virus diseases is low in Albania but high in other Mediterranean countries. Thus, all efforts should be to directed to maintaining the Albanian olive germplasm pathogen-free and in the best agronomical and phytosanitary condition possible.

  8. Extraction of antioxidant components from peanut skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzman, C. A.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to extract antioxidant components from peanut skins using different solvents and to determine antioxidant activity of the extracts. Methanolic, ethanolic, acetonic and aqueous extracts were prepared from defatted and non defatted peanut skins. Total dry matter content and total phenolic content, radical-scavenging activity and antioxidant activity in sunflower oil were determined from the extracts. The peanut skins used in this work had the following proximate composition: 16.60 % oil, 12.32 % protein, 2.83 % ash and 69.8 % other components. High content of total dry matter was found in methanolic (17.11 %, ethanolic (17.70 % and acetonic (18.54 % extracts from non defatted peanut skins. The acetonic extract from defatted peanut skins had lower dry matter extraction than the non defatted peanut skin extract. High content of total phenolics was detected in methanolic (158.6 mg/g and ethanolic (144.1 mg/g extracts from deffated peanut skins. These last two extracts in concentration of 1 μg/mL, the radical-scavenging activities were 32.59 % in methanolic extract and 31.5 % in ethanolic extract. All extracts (0.05 % w/w in sunflower oil showed antioxidant activity. This antioxidant activity from the extracts was lower than that activity from BHT.El objetivo del trabajo fue extraer sustancias antioxidantes del tegumento de las semillas de maní usando diferentes tipos de solventes y determinar la actividad antioxidante de los extractos. Extractos metanólicos, etanólicos, acetónicos y acuosos fueron preparados desde tegumento de maní desengrasado y sin desengrasar. Sobre los extractos se determinaron los contenidos de materia seca y fenoles totales, actividad secuestrante de radicales libres y la actividad antioxidante sobre aceite de girasol. El tegumento de maní usado en este trabajo tuvo la siguiente composición porcentual: 16.60 % de aceite, 12.32 % de proteínas, 2.83 % de cenizas y 69.8 % de otros

  9. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  10. Germplasm Diversity of Chinese Kale in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun LEI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese kale is an important vegetable crop in China, especially in South China where the majority of varieties are grown. It originated in South China and spread throughout Southeast Asia thereafter. Chinese kale can be classified into two types according to whether the petals are white or yellow. There are also three main cultivated types based on the edible organs, including the stalk and leaf type, the stalk type, and the leaf type. Two primary types have also been defined based on stalk color, including green stalks and red stalks. They are also cultivated based on the type of stalk, including main stalk and lateral stalk types. Significant differences have also been observed in glucosinolate content among the varieties, and a 40-fold difference in neoindle-3-methyl glucosinolate was detected across the cultivars.

  11. Core Collection Based Backcrossing: An Efficient Approach for Breeding,Germplasm Enhacement and Gene Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Z. Jia; R.H. Zhou; X.Y. Zhang; L. Zhang; Y.L. Li; J. Wang; X.Z. Liu; L.F. Gao; S.B. Liu

    2007-01-01

    @@ Plant germplasm underpins much of crop development. Millions of germplasm accessions have been collected and conserved ex situ, and the major challenge is now how to exploit and utilize this abundant resource.

  12. Elevated [CO2] modified the drought acclimation response in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut agroecosystems play a key role in food production and are a major source of protein in many arid and semi-arid regions where extreme weather events are expected to increase in frequency. We are taking a systems-level approach to investigate the response of peanut to elevated [CO2], water defi...

  13. Peanut canopy temperature and NDVI response to varying irrigation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. In this study, peanut was grown under a VRI system to evaluate the impact of differential irrigation rates on peanut yield. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of differenti...

  14. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign-produced peanut lot at a port-of-entry, the importer, or customs broker acting on behalf of the... warehouse. Such peanuts should be stored in clean, dry warehouses and under cold storage conditions... inspected at the port-of-entry, or at other locations, shall meet the quality standards of this part in...

  15. Genetic analysis of yield in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yield had significant major gene effect and the results implied that not only should the two major genes' effects be considered but also the polygene's effect should be considered in breeding to increase peanut yield. Key words: Peanut, yield, major gene plus polygene inheritance model, genetic analysis.

  16. Using rating to evaluate quality of peanut products | Ogunsanwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peanuts seeds roasted at 140°C for 40 min for either 25 or 35 min were rated to be of comparable quality with locally available commercial samples. Peanut butter prepared from seeds roasted at160°C for 30 min was also rated to be comparable with commercial samples, while Kwulinkwulis from seeds dry roasted at 150°C ...

  17. SILAGE QUALITY OF CORN AND SORGHUM ADDED WITH FORAGE PEANUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALKÍRIA GUIMARÃES CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn and sorghum are standard silage crops because of their fermentative characteristics. While corn and sorghum silages have lower crude protein (CP contents than other crops, intercropping with legumes can increase CP content. Furthermore, one way to increase CP content is the addition of legumes to silage. Consequently, the research objective was to evaluate the fermentative and bromatological characteristics of corn (Zea mays and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor silages added with forage peanuts (Arachis pintoi. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The treatments consisted of corn silage, sorghum silage, forage peanut silage, corn silage with 30% forage peanut, and sorghum silage with 30% forage peanut. The results showed that the corn and sorghum added with peanut helped to improve the silage fermentative and bromatological characteristics, proving to be an efficient technique for silage quality. The forage peanut silage had lower fermentative characteristics than the corn and sorghum silages. However, the forage peanut silage had a greater CP content, which increased the protein contents of the corn and sorghum silages when intercropped with forage peanuts.

  18. Molecular characterisation and interpretation of genetic diversity within globally distributed germplasm collections of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and meadow fescue (F. pratensis Huds.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Melanie L; Cogan, Noel O I; Forster, John W

    2012-04-01

    Allohexaploid tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh.) is an agriculturally important grass cultivated for pasture and turf world-wide. Genetic improvement of tall fescue could benefit from the use of non-domesticated germplasm to diversify breeding populations through the incorporation of novel and superior allele content. However, such potential germplasm must first be characterised, as three major morphotypes (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous) with varying degrees of hybrid interfertility are commonly described within this species. As hexaploid tall fescue is also a member of a polyploid species complex that contains tetraploid, octoploid and decaploid taxa, it is also possible that germplasm collections may have inadvertently sampled some of these sub-species. In this study, 1,040 accessions from the publicly available United States Department of Agriculture tall fescue and meadow fescue germplasm collections were investigated. Sequence of the chloroplast genome-located matK gene and the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) permitted attribution of accessions to the three previously known morphotypes and also revealed the presence of tall fescue sub-species of varying ploidy levels, as well as other closely related species. The majority of accessions were, however, identified as Continental hexaploid tall fescue. Analysis using 34 simple sequence repeat markers was able to further investigate the level of genetic diversity within each hexaploid tall fescue morphotype group. At least two genetically distinct sub-groups of Continental hexaploid tall fescue were identified which are probably associated with palaeogeographic range expansion of this morphotype. This work has comprehensively characterised a large and complex germplasm collection and has identified genetically diverse accessions which may potentially contribute valuable alleles at agronomic loci for tall fescue cultivar

  19. Review on management of horticultural plant germplasm resources and construction of related database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Jingxian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The advances of databases on horticulture germplasm resources from China and abroad was briefly reviewed and the key technologies were discussed in details,especially in descriptors of data collection of germplasm resources. The prospective and challenges of databases were also discussed. It was evident that there was an urgent need to develop the databases of horticulture germplasm resources,with increasing diversity of germplasm,more user friendly and systematically access to the databases.

  20. Evaluation of aflatoxins and Aspergillus sp. contamination in raw peanuts and peanut-based products along the supply chain in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlia, Mahror; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Selamat, Jinap; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Radu, Son; Chin, Cheow Keat

    2018-06-18

    The peanut supply chain in Malaysia is dominated by three main stakeholders (importers, manufacturers, retailers). The present study, aimed to determine the levels and critical points of aflatoxins and fungal contamination in peanuts along the supply chain. Specifically, two types of raw peanuts and six types of peanut-based products were collected (N = 178). Samples were analysed for aflatoxins by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Results revealed that the aflatoxins contamination was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in raw peanuts and peanut-based products from the retailers. However, there was no significant different (P≥0.05) in fungal contamination for both types of peanuts except for the total fungal count in raw peanuts from the retailers. Furthermore, raw peanut kernels from the retailers were the most contaminated ones ranged from contamination (0.3 - 3.6 log CFU/g) was relatively higher in raw peanuts compared to that of peanut-based products (0.6 - 2.7 log CFU/g). In conclusion, the manufacturers and retailers were the critical points for aflatoxins contamination in peanuts. However, fungal contamination was more critical in the raw peanuts compared to peanut-based products. The study was limited by a minimal number of samples from the importer. Therefore, further investigations on a larger sample size should be conducted to confirm the findings in this present study.

  1. Diversity and population structure of red rice germplasm in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Z Islam

    Full Text Available While the functionality and healthy food value of red rice have increased its popularity, such that market demand for it is expected to rise, most strains suffer from low grain yield. To perform diversity and population structure analyses of red rice germplasm, therefore, becomes essential for improving yields for commercial production. In this study, fifty red rice germplasm from the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI genebank were characterized both morphologically and genetically using fifty simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Overall, 162 alleles were detected by the markers with the detected allele number varying from two to seven. Additionally, 22 unique alleles were identified for use as a germplasm diagnostic tool. The highest and lowest polymorphic information content (PIC indices were 0.75 and 0.04 found in markers RM282 and RM304, respectively, and genetic diversity was moderate, varying from 0.05 to 0.78 (average: 0.35. While phylogenetic cluster analysis of the fifteen distance-based agro-morphological traits divided the germplasm into five clusters (I, II, III, IV and V, a similar SSR analysis yielded only three major groups (I, II, and III, and a model-based population structure analysis yielded four (A, B, C and D. Both principal component and neighbors joining tree analysis from the population structure method showed the tested germplasm as highly diverse in structure. Moreover, an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, as well as a pairwise FST analysis, both indicated significant differentiation (ranging from 0.108 to 0.207 among all pairs of populations, suggesting that all four population structure groups differed significantly. Populations A and D were the most differentiated from each other by FST. Findings from this study suggest that the diverse germplasm and polymorphic trait-linked SSR markers of red rice are suitable for the detection of economically desirable trait loci/genes for use in future molecular

  2. Diversity and population structure of red rice germplasm in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Z; Khalequzzaman, M; Prince, M F R K; Siddique, M A; Rashid, E S M H; Ahmed, M S U; Pittendrigh, B R; Ali, M P

    2018-01-01

    While the functionality and healthy food value of red rice have increased its popularity, such that market demand for it is expected to rise, most strains suffer from low grain yield. To perform diversity and population structure analyses of red rice germplasm, therefore, becomes essential for improving yields for commercial production. In this study, fifty red rice germplasm from the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) genebank were characterized both morphologically and genetically using fifty simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Overall, 162 alleles were detected by the markers with the detected allele number varying from two to seven. Additionally, 22 unique alleles were identified for use as a germplasm diagnostic tool. The highest and lowest polymorphic information content (PIC) indices were 0.75 and 0.04 found in markers RM282 and RM304, respectively, and genetic diversity was moderate, varying from 0.05 to 0.78 (average: 0.35). While phylogenetic cluster analysis of the fifteen distance-based agro-morphological traits divided the germplasm into five clusters (I, II, III, IV and V), a similar SSR analysis yielded only three major groups (I, II, and III), and a model-based population structure analysis yielded four (A, B, C and D). Both principal component and neighbors joining tree analysis from the population structure method showed the tested germplasm as highly diverse in structure. Moreover, an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), as well as a pairwise FST analysis, both indicated significant differentiation (ranging from 0.108 to 0.207) among all pairs of populations, suggesting that all four population structure groups differed significantly. Populations A and D were the most differentiated from each other by FST. Findings from this study suggest that the diverse germplasm and polymorphic trait-linked SSR markers of red rice are suitable for the detection of economically desirable trait loci/genes for use in future molecular breeding programs.

  3. Assessing food allergy risks from residual peanut protein in highly refined vegetable oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.M.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Rubingh, C.M.; Remington, B.C.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Houben, G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Refined vegetable oils including refined peanut oil are widely used in foods. Due to shared production processes, refined non-peanut vegetable oils can contain residual peanut proteins. We estimated the predicted number of allergic reactions to residual peanut proteins using probabilistic risk

  4. Novel Strategy to Create Hypoallergenic Peanut Protein-Polyphenol Edible Matrices for Oral Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Upon peanut consumption by an allergic individual, epitopes on peanut proteins bind and cross-link peanut-specific IgE on mast cell and basophil surfaces triggering the cells to release inflammatory mediators responsible for allergic reactions. P...

  5. Automation of peanut drying with a sensor network including an in-shell kernel moisture sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut drying is an essential task in the processing and handling of peanuts. Peanuts leave the fields with kernel moisture contents > 20% wet basis and need to be dried to < 10.5% w.b. for grading and storage purposes. Current peanut drying processes utilize decision support software based on model...

  6. Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have em...

  7. Novel and Stress Relevant EST Derived SSR Markers Developed and Validated in Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosamia, Tejas C.; Mishra, Gyan P.; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Dobaria, Jentilal R.

    2015-01-01

    With the aim to increase the number of functional markers in resource poor crop like cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), large numbers of available expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the public databases, were employed for the development of novel EST derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. From 16424 unigenes, 2784 (16.95%) SSRs containing unigenes having 3373 SSR motifs were identified. Of these, 2027 (72.81%) sequences were annotated and 4124 gene ontology terms were assigned. Among different SSR motif-classes, tri-nucleotide repeats (33.86%) were the most abundant followed by di-nucleotide repeats (27.51%) while AG/CT (20.7%) and AAG/CTT (13.25%) were the most abundant repeat-motifs. A total of 2456 EST-SSR novel primer pairs were designed, of which 366 unigenes having relevance to various stresses and other functions, were PCR validated using a set of 11 diverse peanut genotypes. Of these, 340 (92.62%) primer pairs yielded clear and scorable PCR products and 39 (10.66%) primer pairs exhibited polymorphisms. Overall, the number of alleles per marker ranged from 1-12 with an average of 3.77 and the PIC ranged from 0.028 to 0.375 with an average of 0.325. The identified EST-SSRs not only enriched the existing molecular markers kitty, but would also facilitate the targeted research in marker-trait association for various stresses, inter-specific studies and genetic diversity analysis in peanut. PMID:26046991

  8. Omalizumab facilitates rapid oral desensitization for peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGinnitie, Andrew J; Rachid, Rima; Gragg, Hana; Little, Sara V; Lakin, Paul; Cianferoni, Antonella; Heimall, Jennifer; Makhija, Melanie; Robison, Rachel; Chinthrajah, R Sharon; Lee, John; Lebovidge, Jennifer; Dominguez, Tina; Rooney, Courtney; Lewis, Megan Ott; Koss, Jennifer; Burke-Roberts, Elizabeth; Chin, Kimberly; Logvinenko, Tanya; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Umetsu, Dale T; Spergel, Jonathan; Nadeau, Kari C; Schneider, Lynda C

    2017-03-01

    Peanut oral immunotherapy is a promising approach to peanut allergy, but reactions are frequent, and some patients cannot be desensitized. The anti-IgE medication omalizumab (Xolair; Genentech, South San Francisco, Calif) might allow more rapid peanut updosing and decrease reactions. We sought to evaluate whether omalizumab facilitated rapid peanut desensitization in highly allergic patients. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to omalizumab (n = 29) or placebo (n = 8). After 12 weeks of treatment, subjects underwent a rapid 1-day desensitization of up to 250 mg of peanut protein, followed by weekly increases up to 2000 mg. Omalizumab was then discontinued, and subjects continued on 2000 mg of peanut protein. Subjects underwent an open challenge to 4000 mg of peanut protein 12 weeks after stopping study drug. If tolerated, subjects continued on 4000 mg of peanut protein daily. The median peanut dose tolerated on the initial desensitization day was 250 mg for omalizumab-treated subjects versus 22.5 mg for placebo-treated subject. Subsequently, 23 (79%) of 29 subjects randomized to omalizumab tolerated 2000 mg of peanut protein 6 weeks after stopping omalizumab versus 1 (12%) of 8 receiving placebo (P omalizumab versus 1 subject receiving placebo passed the 4000-mg food challenge. Overall reaction rates were not significantly lower in omalizumab-treated versus placebo-treated subjects (odds ratio, 0.57; P = .15), although omalizumab-treated subjects were exposed to much higher peanut doses. Omalizumab allows subjects with peanut allergy to be rapidly desensitized over as little as 8 weeks of peanut oral immunotherapy. In the majority of subjects, this desensitization is sustained after omalizumab is discontinued. Additional studies will help clarify which patients would benefit most from this approach. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Developing single nucleotide polymorphism markers for the identification of pineapple (Ananas comosus) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Matsumoto, Tracie; Tan, Hua-Wei; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Mischke, Sue; Wang, Boyi; Zhang, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) is the third most important tropical fruit in the world after banana and mango. As a crop with vegetative propagation, genetic redundancy is a major challenge for efficient genebank management and in breeding. Using expressed sequence tag and nucleotide sequences from public databases, we developed 213 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and validated 96 SNPs by genotyping the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service pineapple germplasm collection, maintained in Hilo, Hawaii. The validation resulted in designation of a set of 57 polymorphic SNP markers that revealed a high rate of duplicates in this pineapple collection. Twenty-four groups of duplicates were detected, encompassing 130 of the total 170 A cosmos accessions. The results show that somatic mutation has been the main source of intra-cultivar variations in pineapple. Multivariate clustering and a model-based population stratification suggest that the modern pineapple cultivars are comprised of progenies that are derived from different wild Ananas botanical varieties. Parentage analysis further revealed that both A. comosus var. bracteatus and A. comosus var. ananassoides are likely progenitors of pineapple cultivars. However, the traditional classification of cultivated pineapple into horticultural groups (e.g. 'Cayenne', 'Spanish', 'Queen') was not well supported by the present study. These SNP markers provide robust and universally comparable DNA fingerprints; thus, they can serve as an efficient genotyping tool to assist pineapple germplasm management, propagation of planting material, and pineapple cultivar protection. The high rate of genetic redundancy detected in this pineapple collection suggests the potential impact of applying this technology on other clonally propagated perennial crops.

  10. Exploring potential of pearl millet germplasm association panel for association mapping of drought tolerance traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Sehgal

    Full Text Available A pearl millet inbred germplasm association panel (PMiGAP comprising 250 inbred lines, representative of cultivated germplasm from Africa and Asia, elite improved open-pollinated cultivars, hybrid parental inbreds and inbred mapping population parents, was recently established. This study presents the first report of genetic diversity in PMiGAP and its exploitation for association mapping of drought tolerance traits. For diversity and genetic structure analysis, PMiGAP was genotyped with 37 SSR and CISP markers representing all seven linkage groups. For association analysis, it was phenotyped for yield and yield components and morpho-physiological traits under both well-watered and drought conditions, and genotyped with SNPs and InDels from seventeen genes underlying a major validated drought tolerance (DT QTL. The average gene diversity in PMiGAP was 0.54. The STRUCTURE analysis revealed six subpopulations within PMiGAP. Significant associations were obtained for 22 SNPs and 3 InDels from 13 genes under different treatments. Seven SNPs associations from 5 genes were common under irrigated and one of the drought stress treatments. Most significantly, an important SNP in putative acetyl CoA carboxylase gene showed constitutive association with grain yield, grain harvest index and panicle yield under all treatments. An InDel in putative chlorophyll a/b binding protein gene was significantly associated with both stay-green and grain yield traits under drought stress. This can be used as a functional marker for selecting high yielding genotypes with 'stay green' phenotype under drought stress. The present study identified useful marker-trait associations of important agronomics traits under irrigated and drought stress conditions with genes underlying a major validated DT-QTL in pearl millet. Results suggest that PMiGAP is a useful panel for association mapping. Expression patterns of genes also shed light on some physiological mechanisms underlying

  11. Introgression of wild alleles into the tetraploid peanut crop to improve water use efficiency, earliness and yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellison F Dutra

    Full Text Available The introduction of genes from wild species is a practice little adopted by breeders for the improvement of commercial crops, although it represents an excellent opportunity to enrich the genetic basis and create new cultivars. In peanut, this practice is being increasingly adopted. In this study we present results of introgression of wild alleles from the wild species Arachis duranensis and A. batizocoi improving photosynthetic traits and yield in a set of lines derived from the cross of an induced allotetraploid and cultivated peanut with selection under water stress. The assays were carried out in greenhouse and field focusing on physiological and agronomic traits. A multivariate model (UPGMA was adopted in order to classify drought tolerant lines. Several lines showed improved levels of tolerance, with values similar to or greater than the tolerant control. Two BC1F6 lines (53 P4 and 96 P9 were highlighted for good drought-related traits, earliness and pod yield, having better phenotypic profile to the drought tolerant elite commercial cultivar BR1. These lines are good candidates for the creation of peanut cultivars suitable for production in semiarid environments.

  12. Wild peanut Arachis duranensis are nodulated by diverse and novel Bradyrhizobium species in acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing Yu; Gu, Jun; Wang, En Tao; Ma, Xing Xian; Kang, Shi Tong; Huang, Ling Zi; Cao, Xue Ping; Li, Liang Bing; Wu, Yan Ling

    2014-10-01

    Aiming at learning the microsymbionts of Arachis duranensis, a diploid ancestor of cultivated peanut, genetic and symbiotic characterization of 32 isolates from root nodules of this plant grown in its new habitat Guangzhou was performed. Based upon the phylogeny of 16S rRNA, atpD and recA genes, diverse bacteria belonging to Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, Bradyrhizobium elkanii, Bradyrhizobium iriomotense and four new lineages of Bradyrhizobium (19 isolates), Rhizobium/Agrobacterium (9 isolates), Herbaspirillum (2 isolates) and Burkholderia (2 isolates) were defined. In the nodulation test on peanut, only the bradyrhizobial strains were able to induce effective nodules. Phylogeny of nodC divided the Bradyrhizobium isolates into four lineages corresponding to the grouping results in phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes, suggesting that this symbiosis gene was mainly maintained by vertical gene transfer. These results demonstrate that A. duranensis is a promiscuous host preferred the Bradyrhizobium species with different symbiotic gene background as microsymbionts, and that it might have selected some native rhizobia, especially the novel lineages Bradyrhizobium sp. I and sp. II, in its new habitat Guangzhou. These findings formed a basis for further study on adaptation and evolution of symbiosis between the introduced legumes and the indigenous rhizobia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Edible peanut worm ( Sipunculus nudus) in the Beibu Gulf: Resource, aquaculture, ecological impact and counterplan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Xie, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Changbo; Guo, Yongjian; Chen, Suwen

    2017-10-01

    Sipunculus nudus is an important economic species because of its high nutritional and medicinal values. The exploitation and utilization of S. nudus primarily occur in the coastal regions of the Beibu Gulf. However, wild resource of S. nudus is rapidly decreasing because of the overexploitation, which has led to considerable developments of artificial breeding techniques. The cultivation scale of S. nudus has increased in response to successful artificial breeding; however, methods for culturing S. nudus in tidal flats or ponds require further study. Most studies have focused on the breeding, nutrition, medical value and ecological impact of these worms. Studies on the distribution, sediment requirements, nutrition characteristics, breeding techniques and aquaculture ecology of this species are summarized in this paper to promote the development of the aquaculture industry for S. nudus. The high biomass of S. nudus in the Beibu Gulf is positively correlated with the sediment characteristics and water quality of the region. The production of peanut worm has improved to some extent through culturing; however, the nutrient value and ecological environment problems have been observed, which reflect the over exploitation of trace elements and the sediment. These problems will worsen unless they are resolved, and the release of organic materials, nitrogen and phosphorus during harvesting impacts the coastal environment. Moreover, genetic erosion is a potential risk for larvae in artificial breeding programs in tidal flats. Therefore, culturing and collecting methods should be improved and the wild resource conservation should be implemented to promote the sustainable development of the peanut worm.

  14. Reported symptoms to peanut between 4 and 8 years among children sensitized to peanut and birch pollen - results from the BAMSE birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnoj, A; Ostblom, E; Ahlstedt, S; Hedlin, G; Lilja, G; van Hage, M; Wickman, M

    2010-02-01

    Specific IgE tests are sometimes difficult to interpret due to structural similarities between certain food and pollen allergens. This may be the reason why concomitant sensitization to peanut and birch pollen is frequently seen. The aim of this study was to investigate reported symptoms to peanut- and birch pollen in relation to sensitization. The data originate from 1928 children in the BAMSE birth cohort. Background factors and clinical parameters were obtained and the levels of IgE antibodies to peanut and birch pollen measured at 4 and 8 years. IgE antibodies to peanut were found in 5.5% and 7.4% of the children at 4 and 8 years, respectively. The IgE antibody levels to peanut were higher in children sensitized to peanut but not birch than in children sensitized to peanut and birch among both 4- and 8-year-olds (P = 0.093 and P = 0.003, respectively). Eight-year-olds sensitized to peanut but not birch, more often reported symptoms to peanut than children sensitized to both peanut and birch pollen (76%vs 46%, P = 0.002). The probability of reported symptoms to peanut increased significantly with increasing IgE levels to peanut, especially in 8-year-olds not sensitized to birch. Children sensitized to both peanut and birch pollen are less likely to report symptoms to peanut than children sensitized to peanut but not to birch pollen at 8 years. This is likely due to cross reactions between birch pollen and peanut and can explain the high sensitization rate to peanut in areas where birch trees are common.

  15. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea Expressed Sequence Tag Project: Progress and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suping Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many plant ESTs have been sequenced as an alternative to whole genome sequences, including peanut because of the genome size and complexity. The US peanut research community had the historic 2004 Atlanta Genomics Workshop and named the EST project as a main priority. As of August 2011, the peanut research community had deposited 252,832 ESTs in the public NCBI EST database, and this resource has been providing the community valuable tools and core foundations for various genome-scale experiments before the whole genome sequencing project. These EST resources have been used for marker development, gene cloning, microarray gene expression and genetic map construction. Certainly, the peanut EST sequence resources have been shown to have a wide range of applications and accomplished its essential role at the time of need. Then the EST project contributes to the second historic event, the Peanut Genome Project 2010 Inaugural Meeting also held in Atlanta where it was decided to sequence the entire peanut genome. After the completion of peanut whole genome sequencing, ESTs or transcriptome will continue to play an important role to fill in knowledge gaps, to identify particular genes and to explore gene function.

  16. Effects of packaging materials on storage quality of peanut kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoji; Xing, Shengping; Xiong, Huiwei; Min, Hua; Zhu, Xuejing; He, Jialin; Mu, Honglei

    2018-01-01

    In order to obtain optimum packaging materials for peanut kernels, the effects of four types of packaging materials on peanut storage quality (coat color, acid value, germination rate, relative damage, and prevention of aflatoxin contamination) were examined. The results showed that packaging materials had a major influence on peanut storage quality indexes. The color of the peanut seed coat packaged in the polyester/aluminum/polyamide/polyethylene (PET/AL/PA/PE) composite film bag did not change significantly during the storage period. Color deterioration was slower with polyamide/polyethylene (PA/PE) packaging materials than with polyethylene (PE) film bags and was slower in PE bags than in the woven bags. The use of PET/AL/PA/PE and PA/PE bags maintained peanut quality and freshness for more than one year and both package types resulted in better germination rates. There were significant differences between the four types of packaging materials in terms of controlling insect pests. The peanuts packaged in the highly permeable woven bags suffered serious invasion from insect pests, while both PET/AL/PA/PE and PA/PE bags effectively prevented insect infection. Peanuts stored in PET/AL/PA/PE and PA/PE bags were also better at preventing and controlling aflatoxin contamination. PMID:29518085

  17. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is not listed as one of the major crops in the Bulgarian agricultural sector, but its economic and fi nancial viability is promising, but unknown. We use enterprise budgets, capital budgeting techniques, risk analysis and logistic regression models to examine the fi nancial and economic structure of peanut farms and to evaluate the factors infl uencing short and long-term profi tability. The results show that peanut production is a profi table venture for most peanut farmers in Bulgaria. Long-run analyses show that peanut production may be economically feasible and producers engaged in production for a period of seven years, and at a discount rate of 13%, may generate internal rates of return (IRR that vary from -20.57% to 67.39%. About 70% of the farms studied had IRRs greater than the discount rate. Sensitivity analyses show that profi tability of peanut production was infl uenced by yield and variable costs. There were risks at the village level associated with peanut production.

  18. Individually dosed omalizumab: an effective treatment for severe peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandström, J; Vetander, M; Lilja, G; Johansson, S G O; Sundqvist, A-C; Kalm, F; Nilsson, C; Nopp, A

    2017-04-01

    Treatment with omalizumab has shown a positive effect on food allergies, but no dosages are established. Basophil allergen threshold sensitivity (CD-sens) can be used to objectively measure omalizumab treatment efficacy and correlates with the outcome of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge to peanut. To evaluate whether individualized omalizumab treatment monitored by CD-sens could be an effective intervention for suppression of allergic reactions to peanut. Severely peanut allergic adolescents (n = 23) were treated with omalizumab for 8 weeks, and CD-sens was analysed before and after. Based on whether CD-sens was suppressed after 8 weeks, the patients either were subject to a peanut challenge or received eight more weeks with increased dose of omalizumab, followed by peanut challenge or another 8-week cycle of omalizumab. IgE and IgE-antibodies to peanut and its components were analysed before treatment. After individualized omalizumab treatment (8-24 weeks), all patients continued with an open peanut challenge with no (n = 18) or mild (n = 5) objective allergic symptoms. Patients (n = 15) needing an elevated omalizumab dose (ED) to suppress CD-sens had significantly higher CD-sens values at baseline 1.49 (0.44-20.5) compared to those (n = 8) who managed with normal dose (ND) 0.32 (0.24-5.5) (P omalizumab, monitored by CD-sens, is an effective and safe treatment for severe peanut allergy. The ratio of IgE-ab to storage protein Ara h 2/IgE as well as CD-sens to peanut may predict the need of a higher omalizumab dose. Clinical trials numbers: EudraCT; 2012-005625-78, ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT02402231. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Field Screening of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Marmey P., Beeching J. R., Hamon S. and Charrier A. (1994). Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm collection using RAPD markers. Euphytica 74: 203–209. Roa A. C., Maya, M. M., Duque M. M., Tohme J., Allen A. C. and Bonierbale M. W. (1997). AFLP analysis of relationships among cassava and ...

  20. National Plant Germplasm System: Critical Role of Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) conserves plant genetic resources, not only for use by future generations, but for immediate use by scientists and educators around the world. With a great deal of interaction between genebank curators and users of plant genetic resources, customer service...

  1. Verification of genetic identity of introduced cacao germplasm in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, high-throughput genotyping with SNP markers was used to fingerprint 160 cacao trees in the germplasm collection at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG). ... Keywords: Cacao, conservation, chocolate, DNA fingerprint, molecular marker, tropical plant, off-type, true-to-type, West Africa.

  2. Evaluation of potato germplasm (Population A & B) for resistance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatments consisted of germplasm materials introduced from International Potato Centre (CIP) headquarters in Lima, Peru from two populations arranged in a completely randomised block design with three replications. At Loreto, late blight was more severe during the long rains than in the short rains while at Kabete late ...

  3. Genetic structure and diversity of the Neem Germplasm Bank from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Particular

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... ... fragment length polymorphism; AMOVA, molecular variance analysis. ... are technically simple, suitable for large-scale germplasm ... Brazil, our study aims to evaluate the genetic structure and genetic ... voltage of 100 V for 90 min. Gel was .... which does not justify an extra effort in labor (Bekessy et.

  4. Emerging crops in the USDA arid lands germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System maintains collections of several emerging crops for arid lands at the National Arid Land Plant Genetic Resources Unit in Parlier, CA (NALPGRU). The guayule, jojoba, and prickly pear collections are most active in terms of current research and crop development...

  5. Screening of Gladiolus germplasm for agronomic performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the agronomic performance and resistance of Gladiolus germplasm against corm rot disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. gladioli (L. Masey) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans. Among the 23 Gladiolus varieties tested, Glad Red exhibited the highest spike length of 55 ...

  6. Regeneration of Algerian germplasm by stigma/style somatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... days in most of the cultured genotypes. Formed embryos were cultured in a single tube before in vivo acclimatization. After sanitary assays, regenerated plants were shown to be free from the agents detected in the mother trees. Key words: Algeria, citrus germplasm, plant regeneration, sanitation, somatic embryogenesis.

  7. Characters analysis of the Macadamia cv. Ikaika (333) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... germplasm resource. Liqing Du, Hui Zeng*, ... needed by human body, but is rich in mineral and vitamin as well. .... It was suggested that climate and orchard management are the main .... than that in South Africa at their 5th, 6th and 7th year respectively, but .... In Chan HT (Ed.), Handbook of tropical foods .

  8. Anthracnose disease evaluation of sorghum germplasm from Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germplasm collections are important resources for sorghum improvement and 17 accessions from Honduras were inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated at the Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Isabela, Puerto Rico during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons to identify sources of ant...

  9. Ashes to ashes: Large Fraxinus germplasm collections and their fates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner; Paul. Lupo

    2010-01-01

    As the emerald ash borer (EAB) threatens the survival of our ash species, measures should be taken to preserve their genetic variability in the event that we discover a way to restore populations destroyed by the beetle. As it happens, large germplasm collections exist for our most important and widely distributed eastern species of the genus, white ash (...

  10. A recirculating hydroponic system for studying peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants were grown hydroponically, using continuously recirculating nutrient solution. Two culture tray designs were tested; one tray design used only nutrient solution, while the other used a sphagnum-filled pod development compartment just beneath the cover and above the nutrient solution. Both trays were fitted with slotted covers to allow developing gynophores to reach the root zone. Peanut seed yields averaged 350 gm-2 dry mass, regardless of tray design, suggesting that substrate is not required for hydroponic peanut production.

  11. The mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement of iron nutrition of peanut in peanut/maize intercropping system by 14C tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Yuanmei; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo

    2004-01-01

    The related mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement iron nutrition of peanut intercropped with maize was investigated by 14 C tracer technique. Neighboring roots between maize and peanut were separated by a 30 μm nylon net, the iron nutrition of peanut was also improved just like normal intercropping of maize and peanut. The results proved that root exudates of maize played an important role in improvement iron nutrition of peanut. The photosynthesis carbohydrate of maize could exuded into the rhizosphere of peanut and transfer into shoot and root of peanut in intercropping system. Root exudates of maize could increased efficiency of iron in soil and improved iron utilization of peanut

  12. Characterization of a pathogen induced thaumatin-like protein gene AdTLP from Arachis diogoi, a wild peanut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L is one of the widely cultivated and leading oilseed crops of the world and its yields are greatly affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Arachis diogoi, a wild relative of peanut, is an important source of genes for resistance against various stresses that affect peanut. In our previous study a thaumatin-like protein gene was found to be upregulated in a differential expression reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR study using the conidial spray of the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. In the present study, the corresponding full length cDNA was cloned using RACE-PCR and has been designated as AdTLP. It carried an open reading frame of 726 bp potentially capable of encoding a polypeptide of 241 amino acids with 16 conserved cysteine residues. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript level of AdTLP increased upon treatment with the late leaf spot pathogen of peanut, P. personata and various hormone treatments indicating its involvement in both, biotic and abiotic stresses. The antifungal activity of the purified recombinant protein was checked against different fungal pathogens, which showed enhanced anti-fungal activity compared to many other reported TLP proteins. The recombinant AdTLP-GFP fusion protein was found to be predominantly localized to extracellular spaces. Transgenic tobacco plants ectopically expressing AdTLP showed enhanced resistance to fungal pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani. The seedling assays showed enhanced tolerance of AdTLP transgenic plants against salt and oxidative stress. The transcript analysis of various defense related genes highlighted constitutively higher level expression of PR1a, PI-I and PI-II genes in transgenic plants. These results suggest that the AdTLP is a good candidate gene for enhancing stress resistance in crop plants.

  13. Germplasm characterization of three jabuticaba tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize cultivated genotypes of three jabuticaba species (Plinia cauliflora, P. trunciflora, and P. jaboticaba. Phenology and fruit growth, as well as leaf, flower and fruit traits were evaluated. Variability in all traits was observed among genotypes of the three jabuticaba species. The trait peduncle size is indicated for differentiation of the three species under study. The leaf and fruit sizes of the genotypes P. trunciflora 3, P. trunciflora 4, P. trunciflora 5 and P. jaboticaba 1 differ from those described in the literature for these species, indicating the formation of ecotypes. Jabuticaba fruit skin contains high anthocyanin and flavonoid concentrations, with potential use in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. The extent of variation in salinity tolerance of the minicore collection of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Upadhyaya, Hari Deo; Purushothaman, Ramamoorthy; Gowda, Cholenahalli Lakkegowda Laxmipathi; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Dwivedi, Sangam Lal; Singh, Sube; Vadez, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) ranks third in production among the dry land cereals. It is widely cultivated in Africa and South Asia where soil salinization is a major production constraint. It is a potential crop for salt affected soils. To identify salt tolerant germplasm, the minicore finger millet germplasm (n=80) was screened for grain yield performance in a soil saturated with NaCl solution of 100 or 125mM. Genotype effect was significant for most traits, while salinity×genotype interaction was significant only in one year. Salinity delayed phenology, marginally reduced shoot biomass and grain yield. There was a large range of genotypic variation in grain yield under salinity and other traits. The yield loss was higher in accessions with prolific growth and yield potential was associated with saline yields. Based on saline yields, accessions were grouped in to four groups and the top tolerant group had 22 accessions with IE 4797 remaining at the top. Salinity had no adverse impact on grain yield of five accessions. Root anatomy in selected genotype of pearl and finger millet showed presence of porous cortex and well fortified endodermis in finger millet that can exclude Na(+) and enhance N absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemoglobin promotes somatic embryogenesis in peanut cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, N; Anthony, P; Davey, M R; Power, J B; Lowe, K C

    2004-02-01

    Critical parameters influencing somatic embryogenesis include growth regulators and oxygen supply. Consequently, the present investigation has focused on optimization of a somatic embryogenic system for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) through media supplementation with the auxin, picloram. The latter at 30 mg L(-1) was optimal for inducing regeneration of somatic embryos from cultured explants of zygotic embryos. In contrast, somatic embryogenesis did not occur in the absence of this growth regulator. An assessment has also been made of the beneficial effect on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of the commercial hemoglobin (Hb) solution, Erythrogen. Hemoglobin at 1:50 and 1:100 (v:v) stimulated increases in mean fresh weight (up to a maximum of 57% over control), mean number of explants producing somatic embryos (15%) and mean number of somatic embryos per explant (29%).

  16. Natural radioactivity concentration of peanuts in Osmaniye-Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkurt, Iskender; Guenoglu, Kadir; Mavi, Betuel; Kara, Ayhan [Suleyman Demirel University Isparta (Turkey); Amasya University Amasya (Turkey); Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Osmaniye (Turkey)

    2012-09-06

    The peanut is grown in Osmaniye where located in southern Turkey. Due to it is grown underground, the measurements of natural radioactivity of peanuts become important. For this reason some peanut samples have been collected from different places of Osmaniye and the measurements of natural activity concentrations for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in some peanuts samples have been carried out using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. Activity of {sup 40}K was measured from its intensive line at 1460 keV, for {sup 226}Ra activity peak from {sup 214}Bi at 1760 keV and {sup 232}Th activity, peak from {sup 208}Tl at energy of 2610 keV was used.

  17. Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean peanuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pildain, M.B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Vaamonde, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species from Aspergillus section Flavi from different species of Arachis (peanuts) in Argentina are described as Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov. and Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. Their novel taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic...

  18. Molecular marker screening of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... the genomic DNA, the frozen samples were ground and DNA was extracted .... RFLP analysis, no evidence of segregation was found in ... Figure 1. RFLP locus R2430E linked to resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria in peanut.

  19. Understanding Food Allergies: How to Prevent Peanut Allergy and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe March 2017 Print this issue Understanding Food Allergies How to Prevent Peanut Allergy and More En ... Allergy Therapy Seeking Allergy Relief Wise Choices Food Allergy Symptoms Pay attention to how you feel after ...

  20. Aflatoxin and nutrient contents of peanut collected from local market and their processed foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, E.; Rahmianna, A. A.; Yusnawan, E.

    2018-01-01

    Peanut is succeptable to aflatoxin contamination and the sources of peanut as well as processing methods considerably affect aflatoxin content of the products. Therefore, the study on aflatoxin and nutrient contents of peanut collected from local market and their processed foods were performed. Good kernels of peanut were prepared into fried peanut, pressed-fried peanut, peanut sauce, peanut press cake, fermented peanut press cake (tempe) and fried tempe, while blended kernels (good and poor kernels) were processed into peanut sauce and tempe and poor kernels were only processed into tempe. The results showed that good and blended kernels which had high number of sound/intact kernels (82,46% and 62,09%), contained 9.8-9.9 ppb of aflatoxin B1, while slightly higher level was seen in poor kernels (12.1 ppb). However, the moisture, ash, protein, and fat contents of the kernels were similar as well as the products. Peanut tempe and fried tempe showed the highest increase in protein content, while decreased fat contents were seen in all products. The increase in aflatoxin B1 of peanut tempe prepared from poor kernels > blended kernels > good kernels. However, it averagely decreased by 61.2% after deep-fried. Excluding peanut tempe and fried tempe, aflatoxin B1 levels in all products derived from good kernels were below the permitted level (15 ppb). This suggests that sorting peanut kernels as ingredients and followed by heat processing would decrease the aflatoxin content in the products.

  1. Ecological balance between supply and demand based on cultivated land ecological footprint method in Guizhou Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qinghuan; Zhou, Dequan; Bai, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Jianyong; Chen, Fei; Zeng, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In order to construct the indicators of the balance between supply and demand of the cultivated land ecological carrying capacity, basing on the relation of the cultivated land ecological carrying capacity supply and demand, applying the model of Cultivated Land Ecological Footprints and the method of CIS and considering the factors of cultivated land production, taking the statistical data of 2015 as an example, and then made a systematic evaluation of the balance between supply and demand of the cultivated land ecological carrying capacity in Guizhou Province. The results show that (1) the spatial distribution of supply and demand of cultivated land ecological carrying capacity in Guizhou is unbalanced, and the northern and eastern parts are the overloading area, the middle, the south and the west parts are the balance area. (2) From the perspective of cultivated land structure, the crops with ecological carrying capacity surplus were rice, vegetables and peanuts, among which rice was the highest and the ecological balance index was 0.7354. The crops with ecological carrying capacity overload were potato, wheat, maize, rapeseeds, soybeans and cured tobacco, of which the index of potato up to 7.11, other types of indices are less than 1.5. The research can provide the ecological security early warning, the overall plan of land use and sustainable development of the area cultivated land with scientific evidence and decision support.

  2. Study of Genetic Diversity of grain yield-associated traits in Iranian and Exotic Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Majidi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is cultivated in a wide range of geographical conditions in the world from Africa to Europe, India and China. Previous studies have shown that diversity in indigenous Iranian germplasm is limited for some traits therefore germplasm collections from other origins need to be considered. An experiment was conducted to evaluate agronomic and morphological traits of 100 Iranian and exotic safflower genotypes during 2011- 2012 at the Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, using a simple lattice design of 10 × 10. The results of analysis of variance showed that the differences among genotypes were highly significant (p < 0.01 for days to flowering, seed yield, plant height, number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head, 1000-seed weight, oil content and harvest index, indicating high variability in the studied germplasm. The highest and lowest heritabilities were observed for 1000-seed weight and seed yield, respectively, indicating that indirect improving for seed yield would be more beneficial. Genetic and phenotypic correlation coefficients showed that number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head and harvest index had significantly positive correlations with seed yield. The results of stepwise regression and path analysis showed that number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head and 1000-seed weight are the most important components of seed yield, among which, number of heads per plant had the greatest direct positive effect on seed yield. These traits could be used as criteria for indirect selection in safflower breeding programs. Factor analysis recognized three factors which explained 72.56 percent of total variations. These factors were defined as phenological, physiological source and efficiency factors. Cluster analysis based on the agronomic and morphological traits grouped the genotypes into three clusters. Iranian accessions were clearly discriminated from

  3. Development of STS and CAPS markers for variety identification and genetic diversity analysis of tea germplasm in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chih-Yi; Tsai, You-Zen; Lin, Shun-Fu

    2014-12-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is an important economic crop in Taiwan. Particularly, two major commercial types of tea (Paochong tea and Oolong tea) which are produced in Taiwan are famous around the world, and they must be manufactured with specific cultivars. Nevertheless, many elite cultivars have been illegally introduced to foreign countries. Because of the lower cost, large amount of "Taiwan-type tea" are produced and imported to Taiwan, causing a dramatic damage in the tea industry. It is very urgent to develop the stable, fast and reliable DNA markers for fingerprinting tea cultivars in Taiwan and protecting intellectual property rights for breeders. Furthermore, genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship evaluations of tea germplasm in Taiwan are imperative for parental selection in the cross-breeding program and avoidance of genetic vulnerability. Two STS and 37 CAPS markers derived from cytoplasmic genome and ESTs of tea have been developed in this study providing a useful tool for distinguishing all investigated germplasm. For identifying 12 prevailing tea cultivars in Taiwan, five core markers, including each one of mitochondria and chloroplast, and three nuclear markers, were developed. Based on principal coordinate analysis and cluster analysis, 55 tea germplasm in Taiwan were divided into three groups: sinensis type (C. sinensis var. sinensis), assamica type (C. sinensis var. assamica) and Taiwan wild species (C. formosensis). The result of genetic diversity analysis revealed that both sinensis (0.44) and assamica (0.41) types had higher genetic diversity than wild species (0.25). The close genetic distance between the first (Chin-Shin-Oolong) and the third (Shy-Jih-Chuen) prevailing cultivars was found, and many recently released varieties are the descents of Chin-Shin-Oolong. This implies the potential risk of genetic vulnerability for tea cultivation in Taiwan. We have successfully developed a tool for tea germplasm discrimination and genetic

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J R; Dechaine, J M; Marek, L F; Burke, J M

    2011-09-01

    Crop germplasm collections are valuable resources for ongoing plant breeding efforts. To fully utilize such collections, however, researchers need detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. Here, we report the results of a population genetic analysis of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated accessions from North America and Europe, as well as a range-wide collection of 24 wild sunflower populations. Gene diversity across the cultivars was 0.47, as compared with 0.70 in the wilds, indicating that cultivated sunflower harbors roughly two-thirds of the total genetic diversity present in wild sunflower. Population structure analyses revealed that wild sunflower can be subdivided into four genetically distinct population clusters throughout its North American range, whereas the cultivated sunflower gene pool could be split into two main clusters separating restorer lines from the balance of the gene pool. Use of a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of the wild gene pool to the cultivated sunflower germplasm revealed that the bulk of the cultivar diversity is derived from two wild sunflower population genetic clusters that are primarily composed of individuals from the east-central United States, the same general region in which sunflower domestication is believed to have occurred. We also identified a nested subset of accessions that capture as much of the allelic diversity present within the sampled cultivated sunflower germplasm collection as possible. At the high end, a core set of 288 captured nearly 90% of the alleles present in the full set of 433, whereas a core set of just 12 accessions was sufficient to capture nearly 50% of the total allelic diversity present within this sample of cultivated sunflower.

  5. Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L. Cultivation in Türkiye and Osmaniye Peanut as a Geographical Indication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güven Şahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. whose fatherland is South America outshines with its several aspects at agricultural field. First of all, even though the almost all of the harvest is consumed as food, since the seeds of this plant includes pretty much amount of oil, they constitute a highyl important raw material. The reason why demand of people for groundnut has been increasing as years go by, is the great quality degree of the oil handled and its benefits for human health. Another significant feature of this plant is that, as a member of bean family it has the ability of providing nitrogene fixation. From this point of view, groundnut is considered as the most essential plant of crop rotation technique. Most of the groundnut -also known as “araşit” in Türkiye- growth is done in Mediterranean Region, especially the zone of Adana. In our country, almost all of the harvest handled is consumed as sustenance in addition to that, remarkable increases are observed in the production of the plant mentioned above; furthermore by the year 2011, Türkiye has become the most important producer at his territory. In Türkiye, Osmaniye is now the center of groundnut generation and therefore the city is identical with its product. This could widely be understood from that the plant is secured by geographical indication patent in the name of “Groundnut of Osmaniye”. In that research, the main scope is agricultural geography and the highlighted topics are botanical properties, planting and the disrribution and commerce of the recommendations about the requirements follow. Moreover, the groundnut of Osmaniye, in terms of geographical indication is reconized to the reader

  6. LEAPing through the looking glass: secondary analysis of the effect of skin test size and age of introduction on peanut tolerance after early peanut introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhawt, M; Fleischer, D M; Chan, E S; Venter, C; Stukus, D; Gupta, R; Spergel, J M

    2017-08-01

    In the Learning Early About Peanut Allergy (LEAP) study, early peanut introduction in high-risk 4- to 11-month-olds was associated with a significantly decreased risk of developing peanut allergy. However, the influences of key baseline high-risk factors on peanut tolerance are poorly understood. Secondary analysis was conducted on the publically available LEAP dataset, exploring relationships between peanut tolerance, baseline peanut/egg sensitization, eczema severity/duration, age of introduction, gender, and race. A multiple logistic regression model predicting odds of successful oral food challenge (OFC) at 60 months noted higher odds with early introduction (OR 9.2, P introduction group was 83% vs 43% in the avoidance group with SPT wheal of introduction between 6 and 11 months than at 4-6 months. Increasing eczema severity had limited impact on the probability of peanut tolerance in the early introduction arm. Increasing peanut wheal size predicted peanut tolerance only in the avoidance arm. Peanut introduction between 6 and 11 months of age was associated with the highest rates of peanut tolerance, questioning the 'urgency' of introduction before 6 months. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Allergen-specific oral immunotherapy for peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Venderbosch, Iris; Devereux, Graham; Simons, F Estelle R; Sheikh, Aziz

    2012-09-12

    Peanut allergy is one of the most common forms of food allergy encountered in clinical practice.  In most cases, it does not spontaneously resolve; furthermore, it is frequently implicated in acute life-threatening reactions. The current management of peanut allergy centres on meticulous avoidance of peanuts and peanut-containing foods. Allergen-specific oral immunotherapy (OIT) for peanut allergy aims to induce desensitisation and then tolerance to peanut, and has the potential to revolutionise the management of peanut allergy. However, at present there is still considerable uncertainty about the effectiveness and safety of this approach. To establish the effectiveness and safety of OIT in people with IgE-mediated peanut allergy who develop symptoms after peanut ingestion. We searched in the following databases: AMED, BIOSIS, CAB, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Global Health, Google Scholar, IndMed, ISI Web of Science, LILACS, MEDLINE, PakMediNet and TRIP. We also searched registers of on-going and unpublished trials. The date of the most recent search was January 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs or controlled clinical trials involving children or adults with clinical features indicative of IgE-mediated peanut allergy treated with allergen-specific OIT, compared with control group receiving either placebo or no treatment, were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently checked and reviewed titles and abstracts of identified studies and assessed risk of bias. The full text of potentially relevant trials was assessed. Data extraction was independently performed by two reviewers with disagreements resolved through discussion. We found one small RCT, judged to be at low risk of bias, that enrolled 28 children aged 1 to 16 years with evidence of sensitisation to peanut and a clinical history of reaction to peanut within 60 minutes of exposure. The study did not include children who had moderate to severe asthma or who had a

  8. BUFFEL GRASS MORPHOAGRONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION FROM Cenchrus GERMPLASM ACTIVE BANK

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNO, LEILA REGINA GOMES PASSOS; ANTONIO, RAFAELA PRISCILA; ASSIS, JOSÉ GERALDO DE AQUINO; MOREIRA, JOSÉ NILTON; LIRA, IRLANE CRISTINE DE SOUZA ANDRADE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB) from Embrapa Semi-Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty-five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each cut. Characterizatio...

  9. Buffel grass morphoagronomic characterization from cenchrus germplasm active bank.

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNO, L. R. G. P.; ANTONIO, R. P.; ASSIS, J. G. de A.; MOREIRA, J. N.; LIRA, I. C. de S. A.

    2017-01-01

    his study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB) from Embrapa Semi - Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty - five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each ...

  10. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown Germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Fitzgerald Blank; Lídia Cristina Alves Camêlo; Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank; José Baldin Pinheiro; Thiago Matos Andrade; Edenilson dos Santos Niculau; Péricles Barreto Alves

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalo...

  11. Pathogenic variability of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Ecuadorian Phaseolus vulgaris L. germplasm resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rodríguez-Ortega

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is one of the most economically important diseases of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivation in Ecuador. The best control alternative is the use of resistant varieties. C. lindemuthianum presents great pathogenic variability, which hinders the development of varieties with a lasting resistance, therefore, the knowledge of the presence and distribution of the physiological races of the pathogen and the identification of resistance genes are key to developing varieties with broad and lasting resistance. The objective of this research was to determine the pathogenic variability of C. lindemuthianum and to evaluate the resistance of Ecuadorian bean germplasm. The research was carried out between 2013 and 2014. Seventeen isolates of C. lindemuthianum from northern central Ecuador were characterized by the inoculation of a group of twelve standard differential bean varieties. Among the analyzed samples, thirteen races were identified; five of those races had not been previously reported in the country. The differential G2333 (Co-42, Co-52 and Co-7 presented resistance to every characterized races in Ecuador. In addition, twenty - one improved varieties and elite bean lines were evaluated with sixteen of the seventeen isolates, three genotypes were identified (TB2, TB3 and INIAP 485 Urcuquí with resistance to the mentioned isolates, which can be used as sources of resistance to Anthracnose. The identified sources of resistance in this study will allow to plan the development of bean varieties with broad and durable resistance to C. lindemuthianum.

  12. Potential of popcorn germplasm as a source of resistance to ear rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railan do Nascimento Ferreira Kurosawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because of its multi-purpose nature, popcorn has sparked the interest of the World Trade Organization as regards fungal contamination by mycotoxins. However, no investigations have been conducted on popcorn for resistance of genotypes to ear rot. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of popcorn genotypes as to resistance to ear rot and rotten kernels, as an initial step for the implementation of a breeding program with the popcorn crop in Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Thirty-seven accessions from different ecogeographic regions of Latin America were evaluated in 2 cultivation periods, in a randomized block design with 4 replications. We evaluated the incidence of rotten ears, incidence of rotten ears caused by Fusarium spp., severity of ears with Fusarium spp. rot, and incidence of rotten kernels. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and means were compared by the Scott-Knott clustering test (p < 0.05. A significant effect was observed for all evaluated variables, characterizing them as efficient in the discrimination of genotypic variability for reaction to fungal injuries in popcorn. The gene pool of the tropical and temperate Germplasm Collection evaluated here has the potential to generate superior segregants and provide hybrid combinations with alleles of resistance to diseases affecting ears and stored kernels. Based on the different variables and times, the experiment was conducted, and genotypes L65, L80, and IAC 125 showed the highest levels of resistance.

  13. Evaluation of Maize Germplasm for Resistance to Aflatoxin Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Blanco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination of maize grain threatens human food and animal feed safety. Breeding for reduced grain aflatoxin accumulation is one of the best strategies presently available to lower grain aflatoxin accumulation. Previously identified sources of germplasm with reduced grain aflatoxin accumulation are excessively tall and late maturing. The objective of this research was to screen germplasm and identify potential sources of aflatoxin resistance. KO679Y and CUBA117:S15-101-001-B-B-B-B inbreds were evaluated for aflatoxin accumulation alongside resistant and susceptible checks with both performing well. These two lines were also evaluated in various crosses. KO679Y performed especially well in crosses with Mp494 and Mp717, resulting in low ear rot and very low aflatoxin levels, but not well in other crosses. A breeding cross including CUBA117:S15-101-001-B-B-B-B as a parent accumulated low levels of aflatoxin both years it was evaluated. Lines resulting from these crosses are being advanced for further evaluation and improvement. KO679Y and CUBA117:S15-101-001-B-B-B-B may prove useful for breeders seeking germplasm sources for ear rot and mycotoxin reduction, especially KO679Y which matures a week earlier and is approximately 25% shorter than current lines resistant to grain aflatoxin accumulation.

  14. Diversity Analysis and Physico-Morphlogical Characteritics of Indigenous Germplasm of Lablab Bean

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Bahadur KC; Bal Krishna Joshi; Surya Prasad Dahal

    2016-01-01

    Germplasm characterization is an important component of crop breeding program. In characterizing indigenous beans lablab which is used for vegetables as well pulses in Nepal. Twenty three lablab beans germplasm were evaluated for different qualitative and quantitive physico-morphological charecteristics for two years during 2011 and 2012 at Horticulture Research Station, Malepatan, Pokhara. The germplasm showed considerable variations in most of the qualitative and quantitative traits. Leaf ...

  15. Insights into the Indian peanut genotypes for ahFAD2 gene polymorphism regulating its oleic and linoleic acid fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwat Nawade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., the customization of fatty acid profile is an evolving area to fulfil the nutritional needs in the modern market. A total of 174 peanut genotypes, including 167 Indian cultivars, 6 advanced breeding lines and ‘SunOleic’‒ a double mutant line, were investigated using AS-PCRs, CAPS and gene sequencing for the ahFAD2 allele polymorphism, along with its fatty acid compositions. Of these, 80 genotypes were found having substitution (448G>A mutation only in ahFAD2A gene, while none recorded 1-bp insertion (441_442insA mutation in ahFAD2B gene. Moreover, 22 wild peanut accessions found lacking both the mutations. Among botanical types, the ahFAD2A mutation was more frequent in ssp. hypogaea (89% than in ssp. fastigiata (17%. This single allele mutation, found affecting not only oleic to linoleic acid fluxes, but also the composition of other fatty acids in the genotypes studied. Repeated use of a few selected genotypes in the Indian varietal development programs were also eminently reflected in its ahFAD2 allele polymorphism. Absence of known mutations in the wild-relatives indicated the possible origin of these mutations, after the allotetraploidization of cultivated peanut. The SNP analysis of both ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B genes, revealed haplotype diversity of 1.05% and 0.95%, while Ka/Ks ratio of 0.36 and 0.39 respectively, indicating strong purifying selection pressure on these genes. Cluster analysis, using ahFAD2 gene SNPs, showed presence of both mutant and non-mutant genotypes in the same cluster, which might be due the presence of ahFAD2 gene families. This investigation provided insights into the large number of Indian peanut genotypes, covering various aspects related to O/L flux regulation and ahFAD2 gene polymorphism.

  16. Population structure of Cylindrocladium parasiticum infecting peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) in Georgia, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, L.P.; Davis, A.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Crous, P.W.; Brenneman, T.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Cylindrocladium parasiticum is an important pathogen of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) causing the disease Cylindrocladium black rot. The genetic structure of this haploid pathogen was determined for populations associated with peanut in Georgia, USA. Ten polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to

  17. The effect of peanut pod on performance, small intestine pH and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esnart Mukumbo

    2018-02-05

    Feb 5, 2018 ... insoluble fibre on the growth performance of broilers in this study were probably a result of ... The nitrogen-corrected true metabolisable energy of the peanut pod sample was ... peanut pod sample used in the experiment.

  18. Peanut cross-reacting allergens in seeds and sprouts of a range of legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.B.; Pedersen, M.H.; Skov, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes.......Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes....

  19. Physicochemical effects of gamma radiation in peanuts and the utilization of their peanut skins as natural antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de

    2012-01-01

    Peanuts are among the most popular oilseed in the world, their lipid content is about 50%, on average. Their fatty acid composition is characterized by high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids. Peanuts are a source of dietary tocopherol and polyphenols, antioxidants that play benefits to human health. However, the presence of potential mycotoxic fungi is a concern of this oilseed production chain. Gamma radiation, in addition to good agricultural practices, has been identified as an effective treatment for disinfecting peanuts of fungi and has been identified as a potential tool for reducing their allergenicity. However, the physicochemical quality of the peanuts deserves attention due to its high lipid percentage. The irradiation process can promote the formation of free radicals, increase lipid oxidation and induce molecular changes that may reflect changes in the antioxidant properties. In the present study samples of peanut from IAC Runner 886 cultivar, peeled, in shell and blanched as well as their peanut skins were subjected to gamma radiation in doses of 0.0, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 kGy with dose rate of 7.5 kGy.h -1 using a cobalt-60 source. The samples were stored for six months at room temperature and analysis were performed at the beginning of the study and after each three month storage on peanuts and just at the beginning of the study on peanut skins. Few changes noticed in the physical parameters of color seem to be more related to storage than the irradiation process Chemical parameters related to the antioxidant properties showed moderate change due to the irradiation process, while storage was determinant on the reduction of bioactive compounds as well as the antioxidant activity in the samples. No correlation was found between gamma radiation and fatty acid changes of peanuts. Tocopherol content and the induction period of the crude peanut oil were negatively correlated with gamma radiation doses. Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching

  20. Peanut sensitization pattern in Norwegian children and adults with specific IgE to peanut show age related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namork, Ellen; Stensby, Berit A

    2015-01-01

    Peanuts contain potent food allergens and the prevalence of allergy is reported to increase, especially in children. Since peanut sensitization may differ between different geographical regions, we wanted to investigate the sensitization pattern to the individual peanut allergens in a Norwegian population. Cases reported to the Norwegian Food Allergy Register with sera positive to peanut extract were analyzed for specific IgE (sIgE) to the recombinant peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, Ara h 8 and Ara h 9 and to birch pollen extract. Serum samples negative to the above allergens were analyzed for sIgE to Ara h 6, and sIgE to Pru p 3 in peach were analyzed in sera positive to the cross-reactive allergen Ara h 9. Highest frequency of sIgE to Ara h 2, often co-sensitized to Ara h 1 and 3, were found in the small children up to 6 years of age. From the age of 6 years, sensitization to Ara h 8 was predominant. The sIgE levels to the storage proteins Ara h 1, 2 and 3 were strongly correlated, as was the sIgE levels to Ara h 8 and birch pollen extract. A low sensitization rate of sIgE to Ara h 9 in young adults was observed, which sIgE levels were very strongly correlated to Pru p 3. The sensitization to peanut allergens in a Norwegian population shows a clear age dependent pattern. The results add to the previously published research on the sensitization patterns of peanut sensitized patients in different geographical areas.

  1. Flavor of roasted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) - Part II: Correlation of volatile compounds to sensory characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Flavor and color of roasted peanuts are important research areas due to their significant influence on consumer preference. The aim of the present study was to explore correlations between sensory attributes of peanuts, volatile headspace compounds and color parameters. Different raw peanuts were

  2. Plant Response to TSWV and Seed Accumulation of Resveratrol in Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotic and abiotic stress may induce peanut plants to produce a high amount of resveratrol. The relationship of plant response to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and seed accumulation of resveratrol was investigated. Twenty peanut accessions and six wild relatives were selected from the US peanut g...

  3. Irradiation controlpathogens in mixture of blanched peanut and celery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shurong; Gao Meixu; Li Chunhong

    2007-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on microbiological, nutrient and sensory qualities of blanched peanut and celery mixture stored at commercial condition and D 10 values of pathogens of Listeria innocua and Salmonella enteritidis were investigated. Results showed that D 10 values of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria innocua inoculated mixture of blanched celery and peanut were 0.284 and 0.296 kGy, respectively. Irradiation at dose lower than 2.0kGy have no significant effects on sensory qualities, content of crude protein and amino acid (p>0.05), and decrease 2-3 log of microbial in the mixture blanched peanut and celery and above 6 log of pathogens of Listeria innocua and Salmonella enteritidis inoculated. 2.0 kGy might be the optimum dose to ensure the hygienic quality of products. (authors)

  4. Global transcriptome analysis of two wild relatives of peanut under drought and fungi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Patricia M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea is one of the most widely grown grain legumes in the world, being valued for its high protein and unsaturated oil contents. Worldwide, the major constraints to peanut production are drought and fungal diseases. Wild Arachis species, which are exclusively South American in origin, have high genetic diversity and have been selected during evolution in a range of environments and biotic stresses, constituting a rich source of allele diversity. Arachis stenosperma harbors resistances to a number of pests, including fungal diseases, whilst A. duranensis has shown improved tolerance to water limited stress. In this study, these species were used for the creation of an extensive databank of wild Arachis transcripts under stress which will constitute a rich source for gene discovery and molecular markers development. Results Transcriptome analysis of cDNA collections from A. stenosperma challenged with Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. and M.A. Curtis Deighton, and A. duranensis submitted to gradual water limited stress was conducted using 454 GS FLX Titanium generating a total of 7.4 x 105 raw sequence reads covering 211 Mbp of both genomes. High quality reads were assembled to 7,723 contigs for A. stenosperma and 12,792 for A. duranensis and functional annotation indicated that 95% of the contigs in both species could be appointed to GO annotation categories. A number of transcription factors families and defense related genes were identified in both species. Additionally, the expression of five A. stenosperma Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs and four retrotransposon (FIDEL-related sequences were analyzed by qRT-PCR. This data set was used to design a total of 2,325 EST-SSRs, of which a subset of 584 amplified in both species and 214 were shown to be polymorphic using ePCR. Conclusions This study comprises one of the largest unigene dataset for wild Arachis species and will help to elucidate genes

  5. A strategy for developing representative germplasm sets for systematic QTL validation, demonstrated for apple, peach, and sweet cherry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peace, C.P.; Luby, J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Iezzoni, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Horticultural crop improvement would benefit from a standardized, systematic, and statistically robust procedure for validating quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in germplasm relevant to breeding programs. Here, we describe and demonstrate a strategy for developing reference germplasm sets of

  6. Fatty acid profiling of four different peanut Fatty Acid Desaturase (FAD) 2 genotypes at five seed development stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut is one of the most important edible oilseed crops. The level of oleic acid in peanut seeds can significantly affect the oil quality. Consuming peanut product from high oleic acid seeds may positively contribute to improving human health. The level of oleic acid in peanut seeds is mainly contr...

  7. Assessments of genetic diversity and anthracnose disease response among Zimbabwe sorghum germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a Zimbabwe sorghum collection of 1,235 accessions from different provinces. This germplasm has not been extensively employed in U.S. breeding programs due to the lack of phenotypic and genetic characterization. Therefore, 68 accessions from th...

  8. Flowering of taro germplasm (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadelys Figueroa Águila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was done at the Center for Tropical Crop Research (INIVIT, to evaluate inflorescence of taro germplasm (104 accessions in Cuba´s climatic conditions. Sampling was made every 7 days in the 2013-2014 period to evaluate inflorescence; accessions were characterized according to flowering parameters. The results showed that natural flowering by the 26-accession sample (25%, was observed to early blossom from July to October in 18 accessions (69.2%. Increased temperature and relative humidity lasted until November, when inflorescence ends.

  9. Introduction of peanuts in younger siblings of children with peanut allergy: a prospective, double-blinded assessment of risk, of diagnostic tests, and an analysis of patient preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégin, P; Graham, F; Killer, K; Paradis, J; Paradis, L; Des Roches, A

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of peanut allergy in younger siblings of children with peanut allergy has been reported between 7% and 8.5%, but the anaphylactic risk at the time of introduction is currently unknown, which limits our ability to best counsel parents on this issue. To determine the risk of anaphylaxis and working parameters of allergy testing in this context. One hundred and fifty-four peanut-naïve younger siblings of peanut-allergic children underwent double-blinded skin testing, followed by parent-led peanut introduction. Questionnaires were dispensed to parents to investigate preferences with regard to peanut introduction in this subgroup. Eight participants (5.2%) presented unequivocal IgE-mediated reactions to peanut upon introduction, including five anaphylaxes. These participants were significantly older compared to the rest of the cohort (median 4.0 vs 1.9 years, P = 0.04). The negative predictive value of skin prick test with peanut extract and peanut butter and of specific IgE was 99%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Six peanut-tolerant participants had positive peanut allergy tests. The option of introducing at home without prior skin testing was associated with high levels of anxiety (median 8.4 on 10-point Likert scale) when compared to supervised introduction (median 3.8, P siblings of children with peanut allergy, and parents are reluctant to introduce at home without testing. Allergy testing prior to introduction is negative in over 90% of cases and carries a high negative predictive value. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Host Status of Seven Weed Species and Their Effects on Ditylenchus destructor Infestation of Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, D; Jordaan, E M; Basson, S

    1990-07-01

    The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed species; population densities increased in peanut hulls and caused severe damage to seeds of peanut grown after weeds. Roots of purple nutsedge left in the soil suppressed populations of D. destructor and root and pod development in peanut grown after the weed. However, nematode populations in peanut hulls and seeds were not suppressed. Some weed species, especially purple nutsedge which is common in peanut fields, can be used to indicate the presence of D. destructor in the absence of peanut.

  11. Suppression of Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus Species by Selected Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Stilbenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Victor; Arias, Renee; Goodman, Kerestin; Walk, Travis; Orner, Valerie; Faustinelli, Paola; Massa, Alicia

    2018-01-10

    Aspergillus flavus is a soil fungus that commonly invades peanut seeds and often produces carcinogenic aflatoxins. Under favorable conditions, the fungus-challenged peanut plant produces and accumulates resveratrol and its prenylated derivatives in response to such an invasion. These prenylated stilbenoids are considered peanut antifungal phytoalexins. However, the mechanism of peanut-fungus interaction has not been sufficiently studied. We used pure peanut stilbenoids arachidin-1, arachidin-3, and chiricanine A to study their effects on the viability of and metabolite production by several important toxigenic Aspergillus species. Significant reduction or virtually complete suppression of aflatoxin production was revealed in feeding experiments in A. flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus nomius. Changes in morphology, spore germination, and growth rate were observed in A. flavus exposed to the selected peanut stilbenoids. Elucidation of the mechanism of aflatoxin suppression by peanut stilbenoids could provide strategies for preventing plant invasion by the fungi that produce aflatoxins.

  12. Productivity, adaptability and stability of high-oleic peanut lines in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Francisco dos Santos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Estimating stability and adaptability parameters of cultivars is a widely used study to access the genotype × environment interaction, in order to identify the best genotypes for each cultivation area. In this study, the adaptability and stability parameters were estimated in eight high-oleic lines and two peanut cultivars in 11 experiments in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 2008 to 2013, based on the data of the plots mean productivity (Kg·ha–1, with the objective of recommending the most productive genotypes in peanut producing regions in the State of São Paulo. The design used for these experiments was the randomized complete blocks, with four replications. Lines L. 599 and L. 551 were the best genotypes regarding overall adaptability and stability in yield, considering the methods of Eberhart and Russell and of Lin and Binns modified by Carneiro. Results produced by both methods were convergent as for the classification of the lines, and the use of one of them would not be detrimental to the recommendation of productive lines associated to production adaptability and stability. The overall adaptability in addition to the stability in the productivity of the lines here evaluated showed outstanding performance in relation to the cultivars IAC Caiapó and Runner IAC 886.

  13. Cultivation of different strains of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) on saw dust and rice straw in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Uddin, Md Nazim; Ahmed, Saleh; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman

    2010-10-01

    Pleurotus eryngii is a popular mushroom due to its excellent consistency of cap and stem, culinary qualities and longer shelf life. In Bangladesh, where Pleurotus mushrooms are very popular, P. eryngii may take position among the consumers, but currently this mushroom is not cultivated in large scale there. In this study, 3 strains of P. eryngii such as Pe-1 (native to Bangladesh), Pe-2 (germplasm collected from China) and Pe-3 (germplasm collected from Japan) were cultivated on saw dust and rice straw and their growth and yield parameters were investigated. Pe-1 on saw dust showed the highest biological yield and efficiency (73.5%) than other strains. Also, the mycelium run rate and number of fruiting bodies were higher in Pe-1 than other two strains. The quality of mushroom strains was near about similar. On saw dust, the yield and efficiency were better than those cultivated on rice straw, however, on straw; the mushroom fruiting bodies were larger in size. This study shows the prospects of P. eryngii cultivation in Bangladesh and suggests further study in controlled environment for higher yield and production.

  14. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...

  15. Physical and chemical analysis and fatty acid composition of peanut, peanut oil and peanut butter from ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seven, Serap

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In the samples of two different peanuts and peanut butters which were obtained from different locations of the same region, moisture, protein, oil, cellulose, ash and energy have been determined. Furthermore, the weight of 1000 seeds peanuts and their sizes have been measured. In the samples, Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se and V amounts have been established by using Inductivelly Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES. In the kernels and peanut butter, acidity, iodine and peroxide value, relative density, refractive index, tocopherol, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter have been determined. In the seed and butter oils of ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars, respectively; myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic, gadoleic and behenic acids were identified mainly by gas chromatography. The major fatty acids of peanut seeds and butter of both cultivar were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. Both variety exhibited higher concentrations of oleic acid. Consequently, peanut seeds and butters of ÇOM and NC-7 were found rich in oil, protein, oleic and linoleic acids and mineral compositions. Increasing of high oleic / linoleic ratio and tocopherol contents are very important due to stability of oil. Also, the peanut butter are nutritionally equivalent to peanut kernel.En las muestras de dos diferentes tipos de cacahuete y manteca de cacahuete, obtenidas de localidades diferentes de la misma región, se han determinado: humedad, proteína, grasa, celulosa, ceniza y energía. Por otro lado, se ha medido el peso de 1000 semillas y sus tamaños. En las muestras se han estudiado mediante un Espectrofotómetro de Emisión Atómica - Plasma con Acoplamiento Inductivo (ICP-AES el contenido en Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se y V. En los granos y en la manteca de cacahuete se ha determinado la acidez, el índice de iodo, el índice de per

  16. Genetic transformation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    tissue culture response and plant regeneration has driven researchers to develop alternate transformation systems that target axillary meristem in the cotyledonary nodes (Somers et al 2003). We report here for the first time the mode of genetic transformation using cotyledonary node (CN) as an explant in peanut mediated ...

  17. The impact of application of biocar on peanuts growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Li, Na; Luo, Peiyu; Han, Xiaori; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-12-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the impact of application biocar on peanuts growing. It was based on a long-term fertilization experiment which researched the effect of applying different amounts of biochar and BBF when continuously cropping peanuts for 5 years. There were five treatments: no fertilizer, low level of biochar (C15), high level of biochar (C50), chemical nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) fertilizer and biochar-based fertilization (BBF).We determined peanuts stem and leaf weight, root weight, plant and the relative content of chlorophyll at every growth stages in 2016. The results showed that all fertilization can increase these indexes and in application of NPK improve them the most which close to BBF. The peanuts stem and leaf weight, root weight, plant and the relative content of chlorophyll was higher than the same level carbon treatment (C15) 62.85%, 6.67%, 18.73% and 25.58%, respectively. Expect stem and leaf weight, plant height, root weight and chlorophyll were higher when high level biochar (C50) applied than the low one (C15).

  18. Particle Shape Anisotropy in Pickering Emulsions: Cubes and Peanuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Folter, J.W.J.; Hutter, E.M.; Castillo, S.I.R.; Klop, K.E.; Philipse, A.P.; Kegel, W.K.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of particle shape in Pickering emulsions by employing, for the first time, cubic and peanut-shaped particles. The interfacial packing and orientation of anisotropic microparticles are revealed at the single-particle level by direct microscopy observations. The uniform

  19. Sticky decisions: Peanut butter in a time of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptan, G.; Fischhoff, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present a consumer-focused perspective on creating communications regarding potentially contaminated foods. It is illustrated with decisions that might have faced US consumers during the 2009 recalls of peanut and pistachio products. The example shows how knowledge about test results and

  20. Resveratrol production in hairy root culture of peanut, Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... hypogaea L.) hairy roots and also showed varying effects on the growth and resveratrol production in hairy root cultures. ... (7.6 g/l) and resveratrol production (1.5 mg/g) in hairy root of peanut. Our results demonstrate that the .... and proliferation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells via extracellular ...

  1. Isolation and expression analysis of LEA genes in peanut

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family is a large protein family that includes proteins accumulated at late stages of seed development or in vegetative tissues in response to drought, salinity, cold stress and exogenous application of abscisic acid. In order to isolate peanut genes, an expressed ...

  2. Effect of Pyrasulfotole Carryover to Peanut and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southeastern United States, growers often double-crop soft red winter wheat with peanut. In some areas, tobacco is also grown as a rotational crop. Pyrasulfotole is a residual post-emergence applied herbicide used in winter wheat, but information about its effects on rotational crops is limi...

  3. Occurrence of mycotoxins and associated mycoflora in peanut cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteria isolated from peanut cake product were Eschericha coli, Klebsiella spp. and Clostridium spp. The fungal isolates include Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp. being the dominant microflora in decreasing frequency of occurrence. High concentrations of ...

  4. Resveratrol production in hairy root culture of peanut, Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes differed in their ability to induce peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) hairy roots and also showed varying effects on the growth and resveratrol production in hairy root cultures. A. rhizogenes R1601 is the most effective strain for the induction (75.8%), growth (7.6 g/l) and ...

  5. SSR Markers Assessed for Peanut Smut Disease Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut smut disease, caused by Thecaphora frezii (Carranza & Lindquist), can result in yield losses higher than 50%. Several strategies have been developed for disease management but they are still insufficient. The smut genetic resistance found in wild species and Bolivian landraces is currently th...

  6. Utilization of Peanut Skin Extracts as Functional Food Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut skins are a by-product of the blanching industry that have not been utilized to their full potential. They have been found to contain significant quantities of compounds containing phenolic moieties such as catechins, procyanidins, and other polyphenols that have positive associations with h...

  7. Evaluation of high yielding soybean germplasm under water limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Silvas J; Murphy, Mackensie; Mutava, Raymond N; Zhang, Zhengzhi; Nguyen, Na; Kim, Yoon Ha; Pathan, Safiullah M; Shannon, Grover J; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T

    2016-05-01

    Limited information is available for soybean root traits and their plasticity under drought stress. To date, no studies have focused on examining diverse soybean germplasm for regulation of shoot and root response under water limited conditions across varying soil types. In this study, 17 genetically diverse soybean germplasm lines were selected to study root response to water limited conditions in clay (trial 1) and sandy soil (trial 2) in two target environments. Physiological data on shoot traits was measured at multiple crop stages ranging from early vegetative to pod filling. The phenotypic root traits, and biomass accumulation data are collected at pod filling stage. In trial 1, the number of lateral roots and forks were positively correlated with plot yield under water limitation and in trial 2, lateral root thickness was positively correlated with the hill plot yield. Plant Introduction (PI) 578477A and 088444 were found to have higher later root number and forks in clay soil with higher yield under water limitation. In sandy soil, PI458020 was found to have a thicker lateral root system and higher yield under water limitation. The genotypes identified in this study could be used to enhance drought tolerance of elite soybean cultivars through improved root traits specific to target environments. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor.

  9. The effects of inter-crop cultivation Between rows of citrus crop on spreading of Guignardia citricarpa Ascospores and in the citrus black spot occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Miranda Bellotte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study highlighted the effect of planting coast-cross grass and forage peanut cv. Amarilis between rows of Natal oranges on spreading of Guignardia citricarpa ascospores and consequent citrus black spot control. Treatments evaluated were: 1- conventional cultivation, free of fungicides; 2- conventional cultivation, using protective fungicides; 3- inter-crop cultivation of coast-cross grass between rows of citrus crops and; 4- inter-cropping cultivation of forage peanut between the rows of citrus crops. Quest Volumetric Spore SystemTM traps were set in order to determine the number of ascospores released. A total of 33 inspections were conducted weekly, from the end of August until early September the following year. A diagrammatic scale was used to determine the severity of the disease as well as the percentage of fruits having a commercial standard. The coast-cross grass was more effective in reducing the number of ascospores produced, whose average statistics were lower than in the conventional treatments, free-fungicides. The inter-crop and conventional cultivation method coupled with fungicide treatment was more effective in reducing the severity of citrus black spot symptoms, and differs statistically from the fungicide-free control method. These methods also resulted in a higher percentage of fruits of a commercial standard, ranging from the 89% through the 91% percentile, and the cultivation, free of fungicides, fell within the 73%.

  10. Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Sandra A

    2013-01-01

    Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others.

  11. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  12. TOLERANCE OF PEANUT GENOTYPES TO ACIDIC SOIL CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astanto Kasno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The acidic soil is generally less productive due to soil pH ranging from 3.1 to 5.0. However, it could be solved through soil amelioration, planting tolerant varieties to acidic soil condition, and a combination of both. Twenty peanut genotypes including two check varieties (Jerapah and Talam 1 were evaluated on dolomite-ameliorated and non ameliorated soil. In the greenhouse, the treatments were laid out in factorial design with four replications, while in the field using strip plot design with three replications. Assessment of tolerance was using Stressed Tolerance Index (STI according to Fernandez (1992. Results showed that dolomite application at dose equivalent to 0.5 x exchangeable Al was optimal in improving peanut growth, and peanut yield on acidic soil. Lines of GH3 (G/92088/92088-02-B-2-8-1 and GH 4 (G/92088/ 92088-02-B-2-8-2 genotypes had high STI with average yield of 2.47 tha-1 and 2.62 t ha-1 of dry pods and potential yield of 4.05 t ha-1 and 3.73 t ha-1 of dry pods, respectively as well as check varieties (Jerapah and Talam-1. It is concluded that peanut genotype of G/92088//92088-02-B-2-8-1 and G/92088//920 88- 02-B-2-8-2 were adaptable and tolerance to acidic, and tolerance of peanuts on acidic soil condition were probably controlled by the buffering mechanisms.

  13. Characterization of novel SSR markers in diverse sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Katharina; Mora-Ortiz, Marina; Smith, Lydia M J; Kölliker, Roland; Skøt, Leif

    2016-08-30

    Sainfoin is a perennial forage legume with beneficial properties for animal husbandry due to the presence of secondary metabolites. However, worldwide cultivation of sainfoin is marginal due to the lack of varieties with good agronomic performance, adapted to a broad range of environmental conditions. Little is known about the genetics of sainfoin and only few genetic markers are available to assist breeding and genetic investigations. The objective of this study was to develop a set of SSR markers useful for genetic studies in sainfoin and their characterization in diverse germplasm. A set of 400 SSR primer combinations were tested for amplification and their ability to detect polymorphisms in a set of 32 sainfoin individuals, representing distinct varieties or landraces. Alleles were scored for presence or absence and polymorphism information content of each SSR locus was calculated with an adapted formula taking into account the tetraploid character of sainfoin. Relationships among individuals were visualized using cluster and principle components analysis. Of the 400 primer combinations tested, 101 reliably detected polymorphisms among the 32 sainfoin individuals. Among the 1154 alleles amplified 250 private alleles were observed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 24 with an average of 11.4 alleles. The average polymorphism information content reached values of 0.14 to 0.36. The clustering of the 32 individuals suggested a separation into two groups depending on the origin of the accessions. The SSR markers characterized and tested in this study provide a valuable tool to detect polymorphisms in sainfoin for future genetic studies and breeding programs. As a proof of concept, we showed that these markers can be used to separate sainfoin individuals based on their origin.

  14. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim...

  15. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food ntroduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim...

  16. Chemical composition and sensory analysis of peanut pastes elaborated with high-oleic and regular peanuts from Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, C. G.; Mestrallet, M. G.; Nepote, V.; Grosso, N. R.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition, sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of peanut pastes prepared with the high-oleic cultivar, Granoleico (GO-P), in comparison with the regular cultivar, Tegua (T-P), of peanuts grown in Argentina. GO-P had higher oil contents (50.91%) than T-P (48.95%). GO-P and T-P did not show differences in ash and carbohydrate contents. T-P exhibit higher protein content (27.49%) than GO-P (26.68%). GO-P had significantly higher oleic and lower linoleic contents (78.50% and 4.60%, respectively) than T-P (45.80% and 33.30%, respectively). In addition, GO-P showed higher eicosenoic acid and lower palmitic acid percentages than TP. The consumer acceptance analysis did not show significant differences between samples of GO-P and T-P. In the descriptive analysis, GO-P showed a higher intensity rating in the oiliness texture attribute than in T-P. The other sensory attributes did not show significant variations between the peanut paste samples. GO-P and T-P have a significant difference in fatty acid composition. However, there were no differences in consumer acceptance and descriptive analysis between samples of peanut pastes except for the oiliness attribute. (Author) 32 refs.

  17. Heat processing of peanut seed enhances the sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Blanche; Bernard, Hervé; Drumare, Marie-Françoise; Hazebrouck, Stéphane; Adel-Patient, Karine

    2016-12-01

    Processing of food has been shown to impact IgE binding and functionality of food allergens. In the present study, we investigated the impact of heat processing on the sensitization capacity of Ara h 6, a major peanut allergen and one of the most potent elicitors of the allergic reaction. Peanut extracts obtained from raw or heat-processed peanut and some fractions thereof were biochemically and immunochemically characterized. These extracts/fractions, purified Ara h 6, or recombinant Ara h 6 including Ara h 6 mutants lacking disulfide bridges were used in in vitro digestion tests and mouse models of experimental sensitization. Peanut roasting led to the formation of complexes of high molecular weight, notably between Ara h 6 and Ara h 1, which supported the induction of IgE specific to native Ara h 6. On the contrary, a fraction containing free monomeric 2S albumins or purified native Ara h 6 displayed no intrinsic allergenicity. In addition to complex formation, heat denaturation and/or partial destabilization enhanced Ara h 6 immunogenicity and increased its sensitivity to digestion. These results suggest that sensitization potency and IgE binding capacity can be supported by different structures, modified and/or produced during food processing in interaction with other food constituents. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Chemical and nutritional evaluation of two germplasms of the tribal pulse, Bauhinia racemosa Lamk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, V R; Janardhanan, K

    1994-12-01

    Two germplasms of the tribal pulse, Bauhinia racemosa Lamk. viz., Ayyanarkoil Forest and Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary, were analysed for proximate composition, total (true) seed proteins, seed protein fractions, amino acid composition, fatty acids, minerals and antinutritional factors. Crude proteins, crude lipids, ash and nitrogen free extractives constituted 19.84%, 9.52%, 3.31% and 60.65%, respectively in Ayyanarkoil Forest germplasm; whereas, in Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary germplasm they constituted 19.31%, 8.94%, 3.81% and 61.30%, respectively. The caloric values were found to be 407.64 KCal (Ayyanarkoil Forest) and 402.90 KCal (Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary) germplasms. Essential amino acids like isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and lysine were found to be high in the seed proteins of both the germplasms. The fatty acids, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids, were found to be relatively higher in the seed lipids of both the germplasms. Both the germplasms seemed to be a rich source of calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, manganese and iron. Antinutritional substances like total free phenols, tannins, L-DOPA and phytohaemagglutinating activity also were investigated.

  19. Peanut allergy: is maternal transmission of antigens during pregnancy and breastfeeding a risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesRoches, A; Infante-Rivard, C; Paradis, L; Paradis, J; Haddad, E

    2010-01-01

    Peanut allergy is an important public health problem in western countries. However, the risk factors associated with this allergy remain uncertain. To determine whether the consumption of peanuts during pregnancy and breastfeeding is a risk factor for peanut allergy in infants. We enrolled 403 infants in a case-control study. The cases were infants aged 18 months or less with a diagnosis of peanut allergy based on a history of clinical reaction after exposure to peanuts and the presence of peanut-specific immunoglobulin E. Controls were age-matched infants with no known clinical history or signs of atopic disease. The mothers of the children filled out a detailed questionnaire about maternal diet during pregnancy and breastfeeding, the infant's diet, the presence of peanut products in the infant's environment, and family history of atopy. The mean (SD) age of cases was 1.23 (0.03) years. The groups were comparable in terms of the rate and duration of breastfeeding. However, the reported consumption of peanuts during pregnancy and breastfeeding was higher in the case group and associated with an increased risk of peanut allergy in offspring (odds ratio [OR], 4.22 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.57-11.30 and OR, 2.28 [95% CI, 1.31-3.97] for pregnancy and breastfeeding, respectively). Overall, the infants with peanut allergy did not seem to be more exposed to peanut products in their environment than the controls. Early exposure to peanut allergens, whether in utero or through human breast milk, seems to increase the risk of developing peanut allergy.

  20. Analysis of genetic relationships of mulberry (Morus L.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Analysis of genetic ... Key words: Mulberry, molecular marker, genetic diversity, SRAP. ... Europe, North and South America, and Africa, and it is cultivated ... Xingjiang autonomous region, China.

  1. The value of the radiation induced mutant Fushi in peanut cross breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xienan; Zhou Yongxing

    1987-01-01

    In the sixties the peanut variety Shitouqi was treated with beta rays from 32 P and a mutant called FUSHI was selected. Its seedlings are emerging fast, the plant has short internodes and small thick dark colour leaves. It is highly branched and bears tightly plump pods with thin shells. The yield is low, but the mutant has been used in cross breeding with marvellous success. The scheme shows the new peanut cultivars derived from FUSHI. 1. Yueyou 22 emerges quickly and grows rapidly. It is robust with large light green leaves, bears flowers and pods tightly. Pods are of medium to large size. Its yield was 7,3% over Shitouqi and the variety reached a cultivation area of 130.000 ha. 2. Yueyou 33 is a selection from Yueyou 22 and reached a cultivation of 20.000 ha. 3. By gamma irradiation of Yueyou 22 another mutant variety Fu 21 was developed. The plants of this cultivar are somewhat smaller, but it grows vigorously, has better resistance to bacterial wilt and less leave losses. The yield is higher and it was grown on 11.000 ha. 4. When Yueyou 22 was crossed with Yueyou 431 at the Economic Crops Research Institute Guangzhou, another cultivar Yueyou 551 evolved (MBNL No. 25, p.9). The plants are tall with small but thick leaves, light green and lustrous, late senescing. Yield was 20% over Shitouqi, it was grown on 200.000 ha and became the main variety in Guangdong province. 5. From selection and cross breeding with Yueyou 551 five more varieties were developed: Yueyou 551-6, Yueyou 551-38, Yueyou 551-116, Yuexuan 58 and Yangxuan 1. Of these, Yueyou 551-116 was the most successful, yielding 6-12% over Yueyou 551 and reaching a cultivation area of 130.000 ha. Yuexuan 58 yielded 8.5% over Yueyou 551. 6. By crossing the original Yueyou 551, two new varieties were produced Yueyou 187 and Yueyou 187-93. Their yield was 9-10% over Yueyou 551. 7. By crossing Yueyou 551-6 a new variety Yueyou 169 was developed, yielding 5% over the check Yueyou 551-116. 8. Variety Shanyou 27

  2. Flavor of roasted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) - Part I: Effect of raw material and processing technology on flavor, color and fatty acid composition of peanuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, V.; Capuano, E.

    2016-01-01

    Flavor and color of roasted peanuts have a strong impact on consumer acceptability. They can be influenced by
    raw material and processing technology. Raw peanuts of various market types, origins and grades were processed
    by different technologies to produce 134 unique samples, which were

  3. The prevalence of peanut sensitization and the association to pollen sensitization in a cohort of unselected adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade an increased occurrence of peanut hypersensitivity and severe anaphylactic reactions to peanut have been reported. However, few prevalence studies have been performed in unselected populations. This study evaluated the point prevalence of peanut hypersensitivity in Danish...... adolescents. The point prevalence of peanut allergy confirmed by oral challenge was estimated to 0.5%. The number of adolescents sensitized to peanut by specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (CAP FEIA) and skin prick test (SPT) were higher (5.8% resp. 3.4%). In adolescents without clinically relevant peanut...... sensitization most cases were sensitized to grass pollen and the IgE class for grass was higher than for peanut. A correlation between peanut and pollen (grass) sensitization is therefore plausible. Before a positive SPT or specific IgE measurement to peanut is considered clinically relevant in a patient...

  4. Investigation and Analysis of Crop Germplasm Resources in Coastal Areas of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong WANG; Shoujin FAN; Libin ZHANG; Hui ZHANG; Yingjie LIN; Hanfeng DING; Xiaodong ZHANG; Runfang LI; Zhan LI; Yumin MA; Yu ZHANG; Nana LI; Weijing CHEN; Zhongxue FAN

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the investigation of crop germplasm resources in coastal areas of Shandong Province, including 132 villages in 82 towns of 34 counties. The survey collected local varieties and wild resources of grain crops, economic crops, vegetables and fruit trees, and a total of 848 samples were collected, belonging to 54 species of 39 genera in 15 families. In this study, the current situation and growth and decline conditions of crop germplasm resources were investigated, and their botanical classification and utilization importance were analyzed. Furthermore, the conservation, development and utilization of crop germplasm resources in coastal areas of Shandong Province were also discussed in this paper.

  5. Omissão de macronutrientes em plantas de amendoim Deficiency of macronutrients in peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Solano de Oliveira Rodrigues Filho

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de amendoim Arachis hypogaea L. 'Tatu' foram cultivadas em condições de casa de vegetação, em vasos de Mitscherlich contendo areia lavada e irrigados com solução nutritiva completa e com soluções nutritivas com a omissão de cada macronutriente (N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. As plantas mostraram sintomas de deficiência de macronutrientes, com exceção do fósforo, na ausência de cada elemento, relacionados com os seus baixos teores e redução no crescimento, desenvolvimento e produção de matéria seca.Peanut plants (Arachis hypogaea L. were cultivated in washed sand, under greenhouse conditions, irrigated with a complete nutrient solution and nutrient solutions with absence of each macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S. Typical symptoms of macronutrient deficiencies were observed, except for phosphorus, related to the content of the element in the plant. The absence of macronutrients also influenced the plant dry matter production, development and height.

  6. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Young [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jsjs87@ajou.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-{gamma} and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-{gamma} cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  7. Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Soo-Young

    2009-01-01

    Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-γ cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

  8. Transition in nori cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaney, Alyne

    2011-01-01

    . Technological change has had a profound impact on both the manner of nori production as well as the household division of labor and work and gender roles. Women play a key role in nori production today. With better understanding of such outward manifestations of culture and society we can bring the human...... of social and environmental sustainability, we must understand both society and cultural institutions. With this in mind, this article focuses on the division of labor among cultivators, particularly along gender lines and the impacts, on a cultural level, of technological change on nori production...

  9. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Brown Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Fitzgerald Blank

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalool, 1,8-cineole, and caryophyllene oxide; group 2: linalool, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineol, and caryophyllene oxide; group 3: limonene, carvone, and sabinene; group 4: carvone, limonene, g-muurolene, and myrcene; group 5: neral, geranial, and caryophyllene oxide; and group 6: geranial, neral, o-cymene, limonene, and caryophyllene oxide.

  10. Genetic Diversity of Aromatic Rice Germplasm Revealed By SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Jasim Aljumaili

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic rice cultivars constitute a small but special group of rice and are considered the best in terms of quality and aroma. Aroma is one of the most significant quality traits of rice, and variety with aroma has a higher price in the market. This research was carried out to study the genetic diversity among the 50 aromatic rice accessions from three regions (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak with 3 released varieties as a control using the 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. The objectives of this research were to quantify the genetic divergence of aromatic rice accessions using SSR markers and to identify the potential accessions for introgression into the existing rice breeding program. Genetic diversity index among the three populations such as Shannon information index (I ranged from 0.25 in control to 0.98 in Sabah population. The mean numbers of effective alleles and Shannon’s information index were 0.36 and 64.90%, respectively. Similarly, the allelic diversity was very high with mean expected heterozygosity (He of 0.60 and mean Nei’s gene diversity index of 0.36. The dendrogram based on UPGMA and Nei’s genetic distance classified the 53 rice accessions into 10 clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed that 89% of the total variation observed in this germplasm came from within the populations, while 11% of the variation emanated among the populations. These results reflect the high genetic differentiation existing in this aromatic rice germplasm. Using all these criteria and indices, seven accessions (Acc9993, Acc6288, Acc6893, Acc7580, Acc6009, Acc9956, and Acc11816 from three populations have been identified and selected for further evaluation before introgression into the existing breeding program and for future aromatic rice varietal development.

  11. Genetic Diversity of Aromatic Rice Germplasm Revealed By SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim Aljumaili, Saba; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A; Sakimin, Siti Zaharah; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Miah, Gous

    2018-01-01

    Aromatic rice cultivars constitute a small but special group of rice and are considered the best in terms of quality and aroma. Aroma is one of the most significant quality traits of rice, and variety with aroma has a higher price in the market. This research was carried out to study the genetic diversity among the 50 aromatic rice accessions from three regions (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak) with 3 released varieties as a control using the 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The objectives of this research were to quantify the genetic divergence of aromatic rice accessions using SSR markers and to identify the potential accessions for introgression into the existing rice breeding program. Genetic diversity index among the three populations such as Shannon information index ( I ) ranged from 0.25 in control to 0.98 in Sabah population. The mean numbers of effective alleles and Shannon's information index were 0.36 and 64.90%, respectively. Similarly, the allelic diversity was very high with mean expected heterozygosity ( H e ) of 0.60 and mean Nei's gene diversity index of 0.36. The dendrogram based on UPGMA and Nei's genetic distance classified the 53 rice accessions into 10 clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 89% of the total variation observed in this germplasm came from within the populations, while 11% of the variation emanated among the populations. These results reflect the high genetic differentiation existing in this aromatic rice germplasm. Using all these criteria and indices, seven accessions (Acc9993, Acc6288, Acc6893, Acc7580, Acc6009, Acc9956, and Acc11816) from three populations have been identified and selected for further evaluation before introgression into the existing breeding program and for future aromatic rice varietal development.

  12. Genetic Diversity of Aromatic Rice Germplasm Revealed By SSR Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim Aljumaili, Saba; Sakimin, Siti Zaharah; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Miah, Gous

    2018-01-01

    Aromatic rice cultivars constitute a small but special group of rice and are considered the best in terms of quality and aroma. Aroma is one of the most significant quality traits of rice, and variety with aroma has a higher price in the market. This research was carried out to study the genetic diversity among the 50 aromatic rice accessions from three regions (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak) with 3 released varieties as a control using the 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The objectives of this research were to quantify the genetic divergence of aromatic rice accessions using SSR markers and to identify the potential accessions for introgression into the existing rice breeding program. Genetic diversity index among the three populations such as Shannon information index (I) ranged from 0.25 in control to 0.98 in Sabah population. The mean numbers of effective alleles and Shannon's information index were 0.36 and 64.90%, respectively. Similarly, the allelic diversity was very high with mean expected heterozygosity (He) of 0.60 and mean Nei's gene diversity index of 0.36. The dendrogram based on UPGMA and Nei's genetic distance classified the 53 rice accessions into 10 clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 89% of the total variation observed in this germplasm came from within the populations, while 11% of the variation emanated among the populations. These results reflect the high genetic differentiation existing in this aromatic rice germplasm. Using all these criteria and indices, seven accessions (Acc9993, Acc6288, Acc6893, Acc7580, Acc6009, Acc9956, and Acc11816) from three populations have been identified and selected for further evaluation before introgression into the existing breeding program and for future aromatic rice varietal development. PMID:29736396

  13. Characterization of gamma irradiated peanut kernels stored one year under ambient and frozen conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, R.Y.Y.; Shyu, S.L.; Tsai, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Peanut kernels were gamma irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, and 20 KGy, and stored 1 yr at ambient and frozen (-14 degrees C) conditions. Irradiated peanuts lost germination capabilities during storage. Molds were detected only on peanuts irradiated with 2.5 KGy and stored at ambient temperature. Peanut oil in kernels stored at -14 degrees C was comparatively more stable than that in peanuts stored at ambient temperature. Oxidation of oil was not significantly changed by irradiation. Changes in fatty acid content varied slightly with exception of linoleic and linolenic acids which decreased with increased radiation depending on storage temperature. The SDS-PAGE protein patterns of peanuts revealed no noticeable variation of protein subunits resulting from irradiation and storage

  14. Effect of processing on the detectability of peanut protein by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Amjad; Ateeq, Nadia

    2013-12-01

    Chicken IgY was used for the detection and quantification of peanut proteins by indirect competitive ELISA. The method was optimized by using a checker board approach to determine the optimal concentration of coating antigen, primary antibody and secondary antibody. Peanut protein could be detected in foods down to levels of 10 ppm. The effect of physical (heat treatment at 80 °C and 100 °C) and chemical (acid, alkali and reducing sugar) treatments on the IgY binding of peanut proteins was investigated. The optimized assay was relatively sensitive for the roasted peanut proteins. However, the binding ability of chicken IgYs to peanut proteins was found to be significantly altered by denaturation and hydrolysis of proteins. It was also observed that the effect of Millard chemistry on the detectability of peanut protein was less pronounced at high temperatures than at low temperatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Activity and stability of immobilized lipases in lipase-catalyzed modification of peanut oil

    OpenAIRE

    Soumanou Mohamed M.; Edorh Aleodjrodo P.; Bornscheuer Uwe T.

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid release during lipolysis of peanut oil using microbial free and immobilized lipases in aqueous media was developed. Immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML) gave the best result from its ability to clive different fatty acids from peanut oil in such media. In organic solvent, interesterification of peanut oil with tricaprylin using immobilized lipases from RML, Chromobacterium viscosum (CVL) and Candida rugosa (CRL) was performed. The best substrate molar ratio of tricapryli...

  16. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rozalli, N. H.; Chin, N. L.; Yusof, Y. A.; Mahyudin, N.

    2015-01-01

    The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectiv...

  17. ISSR diversity and genetic differentiation of ancient tea (camellia sinensis var. assamica) plantations from China: implications for precious tea germplasm conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.Q.; Ji, P.Z.; Li, H.; Zhang, J.; Gao, L.Z.; Cheng, Z.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Over 10 centuries, ancient cultivated tea populations (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) are still planted merely in Yunnan province of China. Genetic diversity and differentiation were examined in 10 ancient tea plantations by using ISSR markers. The average genetic diversity within populations, estimated with Nei's genetic diversity (HE), was approximately 0.2809, while Shannon indices (HO) was 0.4179. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) of the 10 populations ranged from 56.5% to 90.91%. We found a moderate level of genetic differentiation among population as evidenced by the coefficients of gene differentiation (Gst) of 0.3911 and the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of 39.70%. The result could be explained by the nature of highly out crossing in the tea species as well as serious habitat fragmentation. Finally, conservation strategies were discussed to protect these ancient tea populations, including in situ reserve settings and ex situ germplasm sampling. (author)

  18. Agrobiodiversity and ethnoknowledge in Gleba Nova Olinda I, Pará: social interactions and sharing of manioc's germplasm (Manihot Esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Glécio Costa Lima

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A major concern of ethnobiology is to understand the social relations that favor the occurrence and expansion of biological diversity in the Neotropic. This article evaluates the richness of ethnovarieties of cassava cultivated in communities located in public forest lands named Gleba Nova Olinda I, Pará State, Brazil. Data were obtained in workshops with 46 informants, and were analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods. There are at least 52 manioc ethnovarieties on this site and germplasm sharing occurs both inside and outside the community. The knowledge improvement on this agrobiological resource by community members shows the important role that the inhabitants play in biological conservation of Gleba Nova Olinda I. Thus, support to local development should be grounded on ethnoknowledge.

  19. Seed germination of peanuts irradiated with cobalt (60CO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Niedja Marrize C.; Almeida, Francisco de Assis C.; Gomes, Josivanda P.; Pessoa, Elvira B.; Leal, Artur S. Cavalcanti

    2010-01-01

    This work was realized to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation ( 60 Co) at doses 0, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 2.50, 3.00 and 4.00 kGy, on germination of seeds of peanut, cultivar BR1. Irradiation Department of Nuclear, UFPE, where he received after the irradiation, they were stored in packing of PET and polyethylene braided with a time of 90 days. Through the results, obtained monthly, concluded that the dose of 0.5 kGy was effective in the germination of seeds of peanut, not affecting its power of germination and overcoming the witness within 30 to 60 days. (author)

  20. Determination of Carbaryl residues in soybean and peanut plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumatra, M.; Soejono; Sisworo, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Carbaryl is one of the insecticides used in large quantities in Indonesia. It is effective against soybean and peanut plant insects. The residues in the plants are determined by Colorimetry at the residues level up to 5 ppm and by thin layer chromatography at level up to 0,1 ppm. Both methods use coupling reaction between hydrolysis product of Carbaryl and diazo reagent to produce colour. (author)

  1. Peanut skin extract reduces lipid oxidation in cooked chicken patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekata, P E S; Calomeni, A V; Rodrigues, C E C; Fávaro-Trindade, C S; Alencar, S M; Trindade, M A

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of peanut skin extract and its effect on the color and lipid oxidation of cooked chicken patties over 15 d of refrigerated storage. The extract was obtained using 80% ethanol and evaluated in terms of total phenolic content, reducing power based on the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) reagent, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The patties were made with ground thigh fillets, chicken skin, and 2% salt. They were homogenized and divided into the following two groups: a control treatment without antioxidants and a peanut skin treatment with 70 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg per patty. Analyses of the fatty acid profiles, instrumental colors (L*, a*, and b*) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were performed on d 1, 8, and 15 of storage at 1±1ºC. The peanut skin extract resulted in a phenolic content of 32.6±0.7 mg GAE/g dry skin, an antioxidant activity (FRAP) of 26.5±0.8 6 μmol Trolox equivalent/g dry skin, and an efficient concentration (EC50) of 46.5 μg/mL. The total unsaturated fatty acid was approximately 73%, and 39% of this fatty acid content was monounsaturated. The peanut skin extract slowed the decrease in the a* values (Pcooked chicken patties because it efficiently inhibits lipid oxidation in this product during refrigerated storage. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Halotolerant rhizobacteria promote growth and enhance salinity tolerance in peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR is a promising strategy to improve the crop production under optimal or sub-optimal conditions. In the present study, five diazotrophic salt tolerant bacteria were isolated from the roots of a halophyte, Arthrocnemum indicum. The isolates were partially characterized in vitro for plant growth promoting traits and evaluated for their potential to promote growth and enhanced salt tolerance in peanut. The 16S rRNA gene sequence homology indicated that these bacterial isolates belong to the genera, Klebisiella, Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium and Ochrobactrum. All isolates were nifH positive and able to produce indole -3-acetic acid (ranging from 11.5 to 19.1 µg ml-1. The isolates showed phosphate solubilisation activity (ranging from 1.4 to 55.6 µg phosphate /mg dry weight, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (0.1 to 0.31 µmol α-kB/µg protein/h and were capable of reducing acetylene in acetylene reduction assay (ranging from 0.95 to 1.8 µmol C2H4 mg protein/h. These isolates successfully colonized the peanut roots and were capable of promoting the growth under non-stress condition. A significant increase in total nitrogen (N content (up to 76% was observed over the non-inoculated control. All isolates showed tolerance to NaCl ranging from 4-8% in nutrient broth medium. Under salt stress, inoculated peanut seedlings maintained ion homeostasis, accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS and showed enhanced growth compared to non-inoculated seedlings. Overall, the present study has characterized several potential bacterial strains that showed an enhanced growth promotion effect on peanut under control as well as saline conditions. The results show the possibility to reduce chemical fertilizer inputs and may promote the use of bio-inoculants.

  3. Detection of gamma-irradiated peanuts by ESR spectroscopy and GC analysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Mingli; An Li [Institute of Agro-food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 100193 Beijing (China); Yi Mingha, E-mail: wangyilwm@163.co [Institute of Agro-food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 100193 Beijing (China); Feng Wang [Institute of Agro-food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 100193 Beijing (China); Yan Lizhang [Division of Metrology in Ionizing Radiation and Medicine, National Institute of Metrology, 100013 Beijing (China)

    2011-03-15

    Peanuts were analyzed by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC) before and after gamma irradiation. Using European protocols, the validity and effectiveness of these two techniques were compared with regard to sample preparation, sample and solvent consumption and dose-response curves after irradiation. The results showed the possibility of using ESR and GC for distinguishing between irradiated and unirradiated peanuts. A radiation dose of 0.1 kGy could be detected by ESR but not by GC. The results also indicated that GC is an effective method for qualitative analysis of irradiated peanut, while ESR is suitable for the rapid detection of irradiated peanuts.

  4. A study on the stomata mutation of peanut leaves and its relationship with drought resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Qingshu; Li Zhengchao; Hu Wenguang; Wu Lanrong

    1999-12-01

    Stomata mutation of leaves and its relationship with drought resistance were studied with four peanut mutants as well as original variety Baisha 1016. Results showed that irradiation was able to cause peanut leaf stoma to mutate. By comparing with original variety Baisha 1016, some of the mutants have more stomas, and some have less ones; some mutants have bigger stomas, some have smaller ones. The stomata numbers of peanut leaf have close relation to the drought resistance, while the stomata size seems to have no relation to it. It's possible that more drought-resistant variety or line could be elected among peanut mutants

  5. Testing of gastric contents for peanut proteins in a 13-year old anaphylaxis victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Charles; Stauble, M Elaine; Jortani, Saeed A

    2014-02-15

    We report the case of a 13-y female who went into anaphylactic shock following the ingestion of a meal suspected to be contaminated by peanuts. The teenager had a known sensitivity to peanuts, however, the restaurant claimed that no peanut products were used in the preparation of her meal. The gastric contents of the decedent were retained and tested for peanut proteins due to the possible legal liability of the proprietor. Using antibodies against peanut proteins (roasted and unroasted), we optimized a method to detect total soluble peanut proteins by Western-blot analysis in gastric contents. In addition, we validated two commercially available tests which were originally intended for detection of peanut proteins in food matrices to examine the same gastric sample. One was an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that utilized polyclonal antibodies against Ara h 1 (Tepnel Life Sciences). The other was a laminar-flow assay directed against Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 (R-Biopharm). A positive food-based control was created by reducing bread and peanuts (1:1, w/w) with water (1:1, w/v) using a mortar and pestle. A food-based negative food control was created similar to the positive control, except the peanuts were omitted and the amount of bread was doubled. The Western-blot assay was sensitive down to 2.5ng/ml of total peanut protein. The laminar flow was the most rapid and least complex. The ELISA was the most analytically sensitive with a cut-off of 1ng/ml of Ara h 1 protein compared to the laminar flow which had a cut-off of 4ng/ml Ara h 1 equivalent. Both ELISA and laminar flow assays were able to detect peanut proteins in the food matrices and positive controls, and not in negative controls. No peanut related proteins were detected in the decedent's gastric sample. The gastric sample spiked with peanuts was reliably detectable. The anaphylaxis patient had no peanut allergens detected in her gastric contents by any of the three methods employed. Both

  6. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  7. Sensorial analysis of peanuts processed by e-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila V.; Furgeri, Camilo; Salum, Debora C.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The development of the sensorial analysis was influenced by frequent changes in the technology of production and distribution of foods. Currently the sensorial analysis has represented a decisive part in some sectors of the nourishing industry with the purpose to improve the quality of its products. The food irradiation has as purpose to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate the diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. The process of irradiation in the recommended doses causes very few chemical alterations in some foods, the nutritional losses are considered insignificant and some of the alterations known found in irradiated foods is not harmful or dangerous. The present study evaluated the sensorial characteristics of peanuts processed by electron beam machine and was made a test of acceptance using a hedonic scale. Samples of peanut had been processed in the doses of 0, 5 and 7 kGy. Thirty volunteer panelists had participated of that acceptance study. The evaluating parameters were: appearance, odor and flavor. The result showed that the consumers had approved the peanut in the dose of 5 and 7 kGy, not having significant difference between the samples controlled and irradiated. (author)

  8. Sensorial analysis of peanuts processed by e-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Priscila V.; Furgeri, Camilo; Salum, Debora C.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2007-01-01

    The development of the sensorial analysis was influenced by frequent changes in the technology of production and distribution of foods. Currently the sensorial analysis has represented a decisive part in some sectors of the nourishing industry with the purpose to improve the quality of its products. The food irradiation has as purpose to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate the diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. The process of irradiation in the recommended doses causes very few chemical alterations in some foods, the nutritional losses are considered insignificant and some of the alterations known found in irradiated foods is not harmful or dangerous. The present study evaluated the sensorial characteristics of peanuts processed by electron beam machine and was made a test of acceptance using a hedonic scale. Samples of peanut had been processed in the doses of 0, 5 and 7 kGy. Thirty volunteer panelists had participated of that acceptance study. The evaluating parameters were: appearance, odor and flavor. The result showed that the consumers had approved the peanut in the dose of 5 and 7 kGy, not having significant difference between the samples controlled and irradiated. (author)

  9. Detection and Antigenic Profiling of Undeclared Peanut in Imported Garlic Using an xMAP Multiplex Immunoassay for Food Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ronnie O; Peters, Tim; Panda, Rakhi; Wehling, Paul; Garber, Eric A E

    2017-07-01

    A shipment of imported garlic powder was suspected of containing peanut. Samples (subs) collected from the shipment displayed considerable variability in peanut antigenicity when analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This raised questions regarding whether peanut was actually present, the amount present, and the basis for the variability in antigenic content. Analyses that used an xMAP multiplex assay for the detection of peanut and additional food allergens generated responses that were characteristic of peanut. Specifically, the relative intensities of two different peanut-specific antibodies coupled to beads (peanut-37 and -38) and the antigen profiles were identical to garlic controls spiked with peanut. In addition, the xMAP data did not indicate the presence of other allergens. Quantitative analyses indicated an approximately fivefold variation in peanut concentration among different subs. In contrast, within a sub, the apparent peanut concentration appeared constant. Particle size analyses of the garlic powder subs indicated a single distribution profile, with a peak at 380 μm. ELISA analysis of sieve-fractionated garlic powder from one of the subs indicated that slightly less than half of the detectable peanut was smaller than 212 μm, with the remainder almost evenly split between 212 and 300 μm and >300 μm. Modeling to predict possible oral exposure levels of peanut other than those directly measured requires additional research on the physicochemical properties of peanut and garlic, along with information on the production of the garlic powder.

  10. UAV remote sensing for phenotyping drought tolerance in peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balota, Maria; Oakes, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Farmers can benefit from growing drought tolerant peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars with improved yield when rainfall is sporadic. In the Virginia-Carolina (VC) region, drought is magnified by hot summers and usually occurs in July and Aug when pod and seed growth are intense. At these growth stages, weekly supply of 50 to 75 mm of water is needed to ensure profitability. Irrigation can supplement crop water needs, but only 10% of the peanut farms are irrigated. In this frame, drought tolerant varieties can be profitable, but breeding for cultivars with improved drought tolerance requires fast yet accurate phenotyping. Our objective was to evaluate the potential of UAV remote sensing technologies for drought tolerance selection in peanut. In this study, we examined the effect of drought on leaf wilting, pod yield, grading characteristics, and crop value of 23 peanut cultivars (Virginia, Runner, and Valencia type). These varieties were arranged in a factorial design, with four replications drought stressed and two replications well-watered. Drought was imposed by covering the drought stressed plots with rainout shelters on July 19; they remained covered until August 29 and only received 38 mm irrigation in mid Aug. The well-watered plots continued to receive rain and supplemental irrigation as needed. During this time, Canopy Temperature Depression (CT) and Normalized Differential Vegetative Index (NDVI) were collected from the ground on all plots at weekly intervals. After the shelters were removed, these measurements were collected daily for approximately 2 weeks. At the same time, Red-Green-Blue (RGB), near-infrared (NIR), and infrared (IR) images taken from an UAV platform were also collected. Vegetation indices derived from the ground and aerial data were compared with leaf wilting, pod yield and crop value. Wilting, which is a common water stress symptom, was best estimated by NDVI and RGB, and least by CT; but CT was best in estimating yield, SMK and

  11. Biocompatibility of sweetpotato and peanut in a hydroponic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortley, D. G.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Morris, C. E.; Hall, R.; Sullen, D.

    1998-01-01

    'Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and TU-82-155 sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were grown in monocultured or intercropped recirculating hydroponic systems in a greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The objective was to determine whether growth and subsequent yield would be affected by intercropping. Treatments were sweetpotato monoculture (SP), peanut monoculture (PN), and sweetpotato and peanut grown in separate NFT channels but sharing a common nutrient solution (SP-PN). Greenhouse conditions ranged from 24 to 33 degrees C, 60% to 90% relative humidity (RH), and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of 200 to 1700 micromoles m-2 s-1. Sweetpotato cuttings (15 cm long) and 14-day-old seedlings of peanuts were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart within and 25 cm apart between growing channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with a 1 N: 2.4 K ratio was used. Solution pH was maintained between 5.5 and 6.0 for treatments involving SP and 6.4 and 6.7 for PN. Electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. The number of storage roots per sweetpotato plant was similar for both SP and SP-PN. Storage root fresh and dry mass were 29% and 36% greater, respectively, for plants in the SP-PN treatment than for plants in the SP treatment. The percent dry mass of the storage roots, dry mass of fibrous and pencil roots, and the length-to-diameter ratio of storage roots were similar for SP and SP-PN sweetpotato plants. Likewise, foliage fresh and dry mass and harvest index were not significantly influenced by treatment. Total dry mass was 37% greater for PN than for SP-PN peanut plants, and pod dry mass was 82% higher. Mature and total seed dry mass and fibrous root dry mass were significantly greater for PN than for SP-PN plants. Harvest index (HI) was similar for both treatments. Root length tended to be lower for seedlings grown in the nutrient solution from the SP-PN treatment.

  12. Starting from grape cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  13. Polyphasic approach to the identification and characterization of aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from peanuts and peanut-based products marketed in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlia, M; Jinap, S; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Son, R; Chin, C K; Sardjono

    2018-05-31

    Peanuts are widely consumed as the main ingredient in many local dishes in Malaysia. However, the tropical climate in Malaysia (high temperature and humidity) favours the growth of fungi from Aspergillus section Flavi, especially during storage. Most of the species from this section, such as A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, are natural producers of aflatoxins. Precise identification of local isolates and information regarding their ability to produce aflatoxins are very important to evaluate the safety of food marketed in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and characterize the aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus section Flavi in peanuts and peanut-based products. A polyphasic approach, consisting of morphological and chemical characterizations was applied to 128 isolates originating from raw peanuts and peanut-based products. On the basis of morphological characters, 127 positively identified as Aspergillus flavus, and the other as A. nomius. Chemical characterization revealed six chemotype profiles which indicates diversity of toxigenic potential. About 58.6%, 68.5%, and 100% of the isolates are positive for aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid and aspergillic acid productions respectively. The majority of the isolates originating from raw peanut samples (64.8%) were aflatoxigenic, while those from peanut-based products were less toxigenic (39.1%). The precise identification of these species may help in developing control strategies for aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts, especially during storage. These findings also highlight the possibility of the co-occurrence of other toxins, which could increase the potential toxic effects of peanuts. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Carbon and nitrogen stocks and forms of N in a red dysthropic argisol grown or not with peanut forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinei Tadeu Paulino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The low availability of nitrogen (N is considered one of the most limiting factors for the productivity of pastures, often responsible for their degradation. Overall, due to the high cost of nitrogen fertilizers, it is not applied in sufficient quantities. In this context, the cultivation of legumes is an option for adding nitrogen in the soil and simultaneously is into high-protein food. Forage legume may reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, changing nutrient cycling (C and N and can improve productivity and sustainability of agricultural systems. Most of the N in the soil is in the organic form compounds, that is converted into inorganic fraction, the predominant mineral forms of nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3-, available to plants by mineralization process. The C:N ratios from soil and plant residues affect the decomposition rate and the balance between N mineralization and N immobilization by microbes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the improvements in soil quality by comparing the forage legume Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte, cultivated for eight years and a bare soil - an adjacent area (AA in a soil Ultissol (Red Dysthrophic argisol. We evaluated the levels and stocks of C, total N and C:N, NH4+ and NO3- in soil from a depth of 0-20 cm. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with ten replications. Variance analysis (ANOVA was used to detect significant differences between the study areas, averages were compared using test for multiple comparisons Student Newman-Keuls - SNK test (p < 0.05. Analyses were performed using SAS (2010. The availability of mineral N in uncultivated area was low, with mean values below 10 mg kg-1 for both nitrate and ammonium, possibly due to the low organic matter content (17.8 g kg-1. However, under the cultivation of the peanut forage there were increases (p < 0.05 of the contents and stocks of C and N, and the levels of ammonium and nitrate. Increases in total N and inorganic N forms are the

  15. Revealing the Diversity of Introduced Coffea canephora Germplasm in Ecuador: Towards a National Strategy to Improve Robusta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey Gastón Loor Solórzano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic resources of Coffea canephora have been introduced in several tropical countries with potential for crop development. In Ecuador, the species has been cultivated since the mid-20th century. However, little is known about the diversity and genetic structure of introduced germplasm. This paper provides an overview of the genetic and phenotypic diversity of C. canephora in Ecuador and some proposals for implementing a breeding program. Twelve SSR markers were used to analyze 1491 plants of C. canephora grown in different living collections in Ecuador, compared to 29 genotypes representing the main genetic and geographic diversity groups identified within the species. Results indicated that most of the genotypes introduced are of Congolese origin, with accessions from both main subgroups, SG1 and SG2. Some genotypes were classed as hybrids between both subgroups. Substantial phenotypic diversity was also found, and correlations were observed with genetic diversity. Ecuadorian Robusta coffee displays wide genetic diversity and we propose some ways of improving Robusta in Ecuador. A breeding program could be based on three operations: the choice of elite clones, the introduction of new material from other countries (Ivory Coast, Uganda, and the creation of new hybrid material using genotypes from the different diversity groups.

  16. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip L F

    2014-01-01

    and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. Objectives The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via...... the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1....... Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter...

  17. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  18. Differential iridoid production as revealed by a diversity panel of 84 cultivated and wild blueberry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Kamileen, Mohamed O; Conway, Megan E; O'Connor, Sarah E; Buell, C Robin

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium darrowii, and Vaccinium virgatum) is an economically important fruit crop native to North America and a member of the Ericaceae family. Several species in the Ericaceae family including cranberry, lignonberry, bilberry, and neotropical blueberry species have been shown to produce iridoids, a class of pharmacologically important compounds present in over 15 plant families demonstrated to have a wide range of biological activities in humans including anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory. While the antioxidant capacity of cultivated blueberry has been well studied, surveys of iridoid production in blueberry have been restricted to fruit of a very limited number of accessions of V. corymbosum, V. angustifolium and V. virgatum; none of these analyses have detected iridoids. To provide a broader survey of iridoid biosynthesis in cultivated blueberry, we constructed a panel of 84 accessions representing a wide range of cultivated market classes, as well as wild blueberry species, and surveyed these for the presence of iridoids. We identified the iridoid glycoside monotropein in fruits and leaves of all 13 wild Vaccinium species, yet only five of the 71 cultivars. Monotropein positive cultivars all had recent introgressions from wild species, suggesting that iridoid production can be targeted through breeding efforts that incorporate wild germplasm. A series of diverse developmental tissues was also surveyed in the diversity panel, demonstrating a wide range in iridoid content across tissues. Taken together, this data provides the foundation to dissect the molecular and genetic basis of iridoid production in blueberry.

  19. Cultivation, Genetic, Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Moringa oleifera Leaves: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Alessandro; Spada, Alberto; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Aristil, Junior; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-06-05

    Moringa oleifera is an interesting plant for its use in bioactive compounds. In this manuscript, we review studies concerning the cultivation and production of moringa along with genetic diversity among different accessions and populations. Different methods of propagation, establishment and cultivation are discussed. Moringa oleifera shows diversity in many characters and extensive morphological variability, which may provide a resource for its improvement. Great genetic variability is present in the natural and cultivated accessions, but no collection of cultivated and wild accessions currently exists. A germplasm bank encompassing the genetic variability present in Moringa is needed to perform breeding programmes and develop elite varieties adapted to local conditions. Alimentary and medicinal uses of moringa are reviewed, alongside the production of biodiesel. Finally, being that the leaves are the most used part of the plant, their contents in terms of bioactive compounds and their pharmacological properties are discussed. Many studies conducted on cell lines and animals seem concordant in their support for these properties. However, there are still too few studies on humans to recommend Moringa leaves as medication in the prevention or treatment of diseases. Therefore, further studies on humans are recommended.

  20. Mixed antibody and T cell responses to peanut and the peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6 in an oral sensitization model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, F. van; Hartgring, S.; Koppelman, S.J.; Pieters, R.; Knippels, L.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Peanut allergy is known for its severity and persistence through life. Several peanut proteins have been identified as allergenic and are indicated as Ara h 1-7. Very little is known about the mechanisms that underlie sensitization to peanut proteins. Objective: The purpose of the

  1. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard (Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    successfully cultivated between Aman and Boro rice rotation without affecting this popular cropping pattern. So, it is urgent to analyze the genetic diversity and its response for the selection of short duration mustard genotypes for increasing our cropping intensity. Diversity at marker loci is currently the most feasible strategy ...

  2. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the rapid detection of allergic peanut in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Shyang-Chwen; Tsou, Po-Chuan; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou

    2018-08-15

    Peanut is a widely and common used in many cuisines around the world. However, peanut is also one of the most important food allergen for causing anaphylactic reaction. To prevent allergic reaction, the best way is to avoid the food allergen or food containing allergic ingredient such as peanut before food consuming. Thus, to efficient and precisely detect the allergic ingredient, peanut or related product, is essential and required for maintain consumer's health or their interest. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of allergic peanut using specifically designed primer sets. Two sets of the specific LAMP primers respectively targeted the internal transcribed sequence 1 (ITS1) of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence regions and the ara h1 gene sequence of Arachia hypogeae (peanut) were used to address the application of LAMP for detecting peanut in processed food or diet. The results demonstrated that the identification of peanut using the newly designed primers for ITS 1 sequence is more sensitive rather than primers for sequence of Ara h1 gene when performing LAMP assay. Besides, the sensitivity of LAMP for detecting peanut is also higher than the traditional PCR method. These LAMP primers sets showed high specificity for the identification of the peanut and had no cross-reaction to other species of nut including walnut, hazelnut, almonds, cashew and macadamia nut. Moreover, when minimal 0.1% peanuts were mixed with other nuts ingredients at different ratios, no any cross-reactivity was evident during performing LAMP. Finally, genomic DNAs extracted from boiled and steamed peanut were used as templates; the detection of peanut by LAMP was not affected and reproducible. As to this established LAMP herein, not only can peanut ingredients be detected but commercial foods containing peanut can also be identified. This assay will be useful and potential for the rapid detection of peanut in practical food

  3. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komivi Dossa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sesame is an important oil crop widely cultivated in Africa and Asia. Understanding the genetic diversity of accessions from these continents is critical to designing breeding methods and for additional collection of sesame germplasm. To determine the genetic diversity in relation to geographical regions, 96 sesame accessions collected from 22 countries distributed over six geographic regions in Africa and Asia were genotyped using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. The total number of alleles was 137, averaging 4.15 alleles per locus. The accessions from Asia displayed more diversity than those from Africa. Accessions from Southern Asia (SAs, Eastern Asia (EAs, and Western Africa (WAf were highly diversified, while those from Western Asia (WAs, Northern Africa (NAf, and Southeastern Africa (SAf had the lowest diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that more than 44% of the genetic variance was due to diversity among geographic regions. Five subpopulations, including three in Asia and two in Africa, were cross-identified through phylogenetic, PCA, and STRUCTURE analyses. Most accessions clustered in the same population based on their geographical origins. Our results provide technical guidance for efficient management of sesame genetic resources in breeding programs and further collection of sesame germplasm from these different regions.

  4. Evolutionary history of barley cultivation in Europe revealed by genetic analysis of extant landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Huw

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the evolution of cultivated barley is important for two reasons. First, the evolutionary relationships between different landraces might provide information on the spread and subsequent development of barley cultivation, including the adaptation of the crop to new environments and its response to human selection. Second, evolutionary information would enable landraces with similar traits but different genetic backgrounds to be identified, providing alternative strategies for the introduction of these traits into modern germplasm. Results The evolutionary relationships between 651 barley landraces were inferred from the genotypes for 24 microsatellites. The landraces could be divided into nine populations, each with a different geographical distribution. Comparisons with ear row number, caryopsis structure, seasonal growth habit and flowering time revealed a degree of association between population structure and phenotype, and analysis of climate variables indicated that the landraces are adapted, at least to some extent, to their environment. Human selection and/or environmental adaptation may therefore have played a role in the origin and/or maintenance of one or more of the barley landrace populations. There was also evidence that at least some of the population structure derived from geographical partitioning set up during the initial spread of barley cultivation into Europe, or reflected the later introduction of novel varieties. In particular, three closely-related populations were made up almost entirely of plants with the daylength nonresponsive version of the photoperiod response gene PPD-H1, conferring adaptation to the long annual growth season of northern Europe. These three populations probably originated in the eastern Fertile Crescent and entered Europe after the initial spread of agriculture. Conclusions The discovery of population structure, combined with knowledge of associated phenotypes and

  5. The relevance of basophil allergen sensitivity testing to distinguish between severe and mild peanut-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homšak, Matjaž; Silar, Mira; Berce, Vojko; Tomazin, Maja; Skerbinjek-Kavalar, Maja; Celesnik, Nina; Košnik, Mitja; Korošec, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peanut sensitization is common in children. However, it is difficult to assess which children will react mildly and which severely. This study evaluated the relevance of basophil allergen sensitivity testing to distinguish the severity of peanut allergy in children. Twenty-seven peanut-sensitized children with symptoms varying from mild symptoms to severe anaphylaxis underwent peanut CD63 dose-response curve analysis with the inclusion of basophil allergen sensitivity calculation (CD-sens) and peanut component immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing. Eleven children who had experienced anaphylaxis to peanuts showed a markedly higher peanut CD63 response at submaximal allergen concentrations and CD-sens (median 1,667 vs. 0.5; p < 0.0001) than 16 children who experienced a milder reaction. Furthermore, a negative or low CD-sens to peanuts unambiguously excluded anaphylactic peanut allergy. Children with anaphylaxis have higher levels of Ara h 1, 2, 3 and 9 IgE, but comparable levels of IgE to Ara h 8 and whole-peanut extract. The diagnostic specificity calculated with a receiver operating characteristic analysis reached 100% for CD-sens and 73% for Ara h 2. We demonstrated that severe peanut allergy is significantly associated with higher basophil allergen sensitivity. This cellular test should facilitate a more accurate diagnosis of peanut allergy. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Honey roasted peanuts and roasted peanuts from Argentina. Sensorial and chemical analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosso, Nelson R.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the chemical and sensory aspects of Honey Roasted (HRP and Roasted Peanuts (RP. These products were evaluated for sensory analysis: overall acceptance using a consumer test and a descriptive analysis using a trained panel. Percentages of protein, oil, carbohydrate and ash was analyzed in HRP and RP. The contents of carbohydrate, oil and protein in HRP were 28.22%, 45.56% and 21.06%, respectively. RP showed higher percentages of lipids and protein and lower percentages of carbohydrate content than HRP. The total energetic value was lower in HRP. Values of 8 (like very much were chosen by a higher number of consumer panelist for HRP while values of 6 (like slightly were found in a higher proportion for RP. The trained panel described 11 attributes: brown color, roughness, roasted peanutty, oxidized, cardboard, sweet, salty, bitter, sour, hardness and crunchiness. The roasted peanutty intensity in RP was higher than in HRP. The intensities of roughness, sweet and salty in HRP were higher than in RP.El objetivo del trabajo fue caracterizar química y sensorialmente al Maní Tostado con Miel (MTM y Maní Tostado (MT. Estos dos productos fueron evaluados sensorialmente analizando su aceptabilidad por parte de consumidores (test de aceptabilidad y sus atributos sensoriales por el uso de un panel de jueces entrenados (prueba descriptiva. Por otra parte se describió la composición química porcentual: porcentajes de proteínas, aceites, hidratos de carbonos y cenizas. Los contenidos de hidratos de carbonos, aceites y proteínas en MTM fueron de 28,22%, 45.56% y 21,06%. MT presentó mayores porcentajes de lípidos y proteínas y menor contenido de hidratos de carbono que MTM. El valor energético total de MTM es levemente menor que en MT. La aceptabilidad de los productos mostró mayor número de consumidores que le asignaron un valor de 8 ( me gusta mucho dentro de una escala hedónica de 9 puntos a MTM y

  7. Consumer attitudes and risks associated with packaged foods having advisory labeling regarding the presence of peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefle, Susan L; Furlong, Terence J; Niemann, Lynn; Lemon-Mule, Heather; Sicherer, Scott; Taylor, Steve L

    2007-07-01

    Foods with advisory labeling (eg, "may contain") are increasingly prevalent. Consumers with food allergies might ignore advisory labeling advice. We sought to determine whether consumers with food allergy heeded advisory labels and whether products with advisory labels contained detectable peanut allergen. Surveys (n = 625 in 2003 and n = 645 in 2006) were conducted at Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network patient conferences. Food products bearing advisory statements regarding peanuts were analyzed for the presence of peanut. Consumers were less likely to heed advisory labeling in 2006 (75%) compared with in 2003 (85%, P 1 mg of peanut or >0.25 mg of peanut protein) were detected in only 13 of 200 such products. Consumers with food allergy are increasingly ignoring advisory labeling. Because food products with advisory labeling do contain detectable levels of peanuts, a risk exists to consumers choosing to eat such foods. The format of the labeling statement did not influence the likelihood of finding detectable peanut, except for products listing peanuts as a minor ingredient, but did influence the choices of consumers with food allergy. Allergic patients are taking risks by increasingly disregarding advisory labeling.

  8. Compositional and Mechanical Properties of Peanuts Roasted to Equivalent Colors using Different Time/Temperature Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts in North America and Europe are primarily consumed after dry roasting. Standard industry practice is to roast peanuts to a specific surface color (Hunter L-value) for a given application; however, equivalent surface colors can be attained using different roast temperature/time combinations,...

  9. Contributions of plant introductions to the ancestry of current U.S. peanut cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant introductions (PIs) have been used in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) improvement in the U.S.A. since the inception of peanut breeding there in the 1930s. One might think that the era of screening collections of PIs for pest resistances or other economically important traits then crossing selecte...

  10. Removal of heavy metal contamination from peanut skin extracts by waste biomass adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenols are a rapidly increasing portion of the nutraceutical and functional food marketplace. Peanut skins are a waste product which have potential as a low-cost source of polyphenols. Extraction and concentration of peanut skin extracts can cause normally innocuous levels of the heavy metal co...

  11. Drivers of Preference and Perception of Freshness in Roasted Peanuts (Arachis spp.) for European Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    Roasted peanuts are a popular snack in Europe, but their drivers of liking and perceived freshness have not been previously studied with European consumers. Consumer research to date has been focused on U.S. consumers, and only on specific peanut cultivars. In this study, 26 unique samples were

  12. Novel strategy to create a hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol edible matrices for oral immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergy affects approximately 1% of infants and children and 0.6% of adults in the U.S., and is responsible for the majority of fatal allergic reactions. Generally, immunoglobulin E (IgE) binds to epitopes on peanut proteins, triggering the cascades responsible for the allergic response. Poly...

  13. Hypoallergenic Edible Peanut Protein Matrix to Enable Novel Functional Food & Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergies can present life-threatening consequences; therefore, there is an intense interest in developing therapeutic strategies that could reduce the danger and severity of the allergic reaction in peanut sensitive patients. We have developed a unique technology to modify or mask allergenic...

  14. Comparative leaf proteomics of drought-tolerant and -susceptible peanut in response to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water stress (WS) predisposes peanut plants to fungal infection resulting in pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Major changes during water stress including oxidative stress, lead to destruction of photosynthetic apparatus and other macromolecules within cells. Two peanut cultivars with diverse dro...

  15. Recovery and Purification of Spanish High Oleate Peanut ‘AT-9899’

    Science.gov (United States)

    “AT-9899” developed in Golden Peanut Company in 2002 is a Spanish market type peanut. It has spreading growth habit and mid maturity. Due to high level of oleate and small seed size, it is grown specifically for confectionery market in the USA and Mexico. However, from the time of development and ...

  16. Safety Assessment of Donkwa – An Indigenous Maize-Peanut Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Donkwa is a maize-peanut based street-vended snack commonly consumed in Nigeria and other West African countries. Donkwa is produced from the mixture of roasted-ground peanut and maize with or without addition of pepper, which is then moulded into small shapes. The safety of the street-vended donkwa, which ...

  17. Minimising the effects of drought stress on growth of two peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major cash crop in the semi-arid tropics, where it is mainly grown under rainfed conditions. Inadequate soil fertility (especially N and P), drought and diseases are important factors causing low yields. Peanut forms two types of symbiotic associations with micro-organisms, one with ...

  18. Development of diagnostic markers from disease resistance QTLs for marker-assisted breeding in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding for disease resistance in peanut cultivars has been constrained due to both a narrow genetic base and a low degree of polymorphism. Earlier attempts have resulted in the development of a few hundreds of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in peanut that could define broad QTL on the physic...

  19. Parsing the peanut panic: the social life of a contested food allergy epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Miranda R

    2013-08-01

    As medical reports over the last decade indicate that food allergies among children are on the rise, peanut allergies in particular have become a topic of intense social debate. While peanut allergies are potentially fatal, they affect very few children at the population level. Yet, peanut allergies are characterized in medical and popular literature as a rising "epidemic," and myriad and broad-based social responses have emerged to address peanut allergy risk in public spaces. This analysis compares medical literature to other textual sources, including media reports, legislation, and advocacy between 1980 and 2010 in order to examine how peanut allergies transformed from a rare medical malady into a contemporary public health problem. I argue that the peanut allergy epidemic was co-constructed through interactions between experts, publics, biomedical categories, and institutions, while social reactions to the putative epidemic expanded the sphere of surveillance and awareness of peanut allergy risk. The characterization of the peanut allergy problem as an epidemic was shaped by mobility across social sites, with both discursive and material effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rooting traits of peanut genotypes with different yield response to terminal drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought at pod filling and maturity stages can severely reduce yield of peanut. Better root systems can reduce yield loss from drought. The goal of this study was to investigate the responses to terminal drought of peanut genotypes for root dry weight and root length density. A field experiment was ...

  1. Rooting traits of peanut genotypes with different yield responses to terminal drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought at pod filling can severely reduce yield of peanut. Better root systems can reduce yield loss from drought. However, the relationship of root characters with yield under terminal drought is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of peanut genotyp...

  2. Process Development for Spray Drying a Value-Added Extract from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut meal, the primary byproduct of commercial oil crushing operations, is an excellent source of protein though aflatoxin contamination often limits applications for this material. Naturally aflatoxin contaminated (59 ppb) peanut meal dispersions were adjusted to pH 2.1 or pH 9.1, with or without...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides...

  4. Effect of high pressure on peanut allergens in the presence of polyphenol oxidase and caffeic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure (HP) enhances enzymatic reactions. Because polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an enzyme, and reduces IgE binding of peanut allergens in presence of caffeic acid (CA), we postulated that a further reduction in IgE binding can be achieved, using HP together with PPO and CA. Peanut extracts cont...

  5. Immunotherapy using algal-produced Ara h1 core domain suppresses peanut allergy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated adverse reaction to a subset of proteins found in peanuts. Immunotherapy aims to desensitize allergic patients through repeated and escalating exposures for several months to years using extracts or flours. The complex mix of proteins and variability between prepara...

  6. Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae in the peanut supply chain: From farm to table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, M S; Carminati, J A; Silva, I C R N; Silva, D L; Bernardi, A O; Copetti, M V

    2018-03-01

    Due to recent foodborne outbreaks, peanuts have been considered a potential risk for Salmonella transmission. For this reason, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and contamination load of Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae throughout the peanut supply chain in Brazil. Samples of peanuts and peanut-containing processed products from post-harvest (n=129), secondary processing (n=185) and retail market (n=100) were analyzed. The results showed high Enterobacteriaceae counts in the post-harvest samples. At the end of the secondary processing, 16% of the samples remained contaminated by this group of microorganisms. Six peanut samples from primary production and one sample of peanut butter were tested positive for E. coli while Salmonella was detected in nine samples (2.2%): six from post-harvest, two from the initial stage of the secondary processing and one from retail. The Salmonella counts ranged between 0.004 and 0.092MPN/g and five serotypes were identified (Muenster, Miami, Javiana, Oranienburg, Glostrup). The results demonstrated a high prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and low prevalence of E. coli throughout the peanut supply chain. Furthermore, it was verified that peanuts may become contaminated by Salmonella during different stages of the supply chain, especially at post-harvest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The nutritional value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) as an alternate forage source for sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.T.; Khan, N.A.; Bezabih, M.; Qureshi, M.S.; Rahman, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and feeding value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) produced under tropical environment as an alternate forage resource for sheep. Peanut hay was appreciably high in crude protein [CP; 105 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and lower in neutral detergent

  8. Genetic diversity of the forage peanut in the Jequitinhonha, São Francisco, and Paranã River valleys of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azêvedo, H S F S; Sousa, A C B; Martins, K; Oliveira, J C; Yomura, R B T; Silva, L M; Valls, J F M; Assis, G M L; Campos, T

    2016-09-09

    Arachis pintoi and A. repens are legumes with a high forage value that are used to feed ruminants in consortium systems. Not only do they increase the persistence and quality of pastures, they are also used for ornamental and green cover. The objective of this study was to analyze microsatellite markers in order to access the genetic diversity of 65 forage peanut germplasm accessions in the section Caulorrhizae of the genus Arachis in the Jequitinhonha, São Francisco and Paranã River valleys of Brazil. Fifty-seven accessions of A. pintoi and eight of A. repens were analyzed using 17 microsatellites, and the observed heterozygosity (H O ), expected heterozygosity (H E ), number of alleles per locus, discriminatory power, and polymorphism information content were all estimated. Ten loci (58.8%) were polymorphic, and 125 alleles were found in total. The H E ranged from 0.30 to 0.94, and H O values ranged from 0.03 to 0.88. By using Bayesian analysis, the accessions were genetically differentiated into three gene pools. Neither the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean nor a neighbor-joining analysis clustered samples into species, origin, or collection area. These results reveal a very weak genetic structure that does not form defined clusters, and that there is a high degree of similarity between the two species.

  9. BUFFEL GRASS MORPHOAGRONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION FROM Cenchrus GERMPLASM ACTIVE BANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEILA REGINA GOMES PASSOS BRUNO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available his study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB from Embrapa Semi - Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty - five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each cut. Characterization was based on 15 quantitative and qualitative morphoagronomic descriptors. Quantitative descriptors were subjected to individual and joint univariate analysis of variance, followed by the Scott - Knott’s test at 5% significance. Yet qualitative descriptors were submitted to descriptive analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative descriptors were grouped based on the Gower algorithm for divergence analysis. A dendrogram and calculations of the characters relative importance for divergence were established. Genotype and cutting effects were significant for almost all descriptors in the joint analysis. This result indicates a genetic variability between genotypes and, regarding the cut, it indicates mainly differences in growth rate of each genotype in each cutting season. Genotypes were separated into three groups, which showed good genotype variation. The number of tillers per clump, followed by number of inflorescence and color of seeds, were the most relevant characters in genotype separation.

  10. Characterization and evaluation of olive germplasm in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Claudio; Nocerino, Sabrina; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2013-08-15

    The southern Italian region of Campania has suitable pedo-climatic conditions and a large varietal heritage able to produce oils with high typicality. The aim of this study was to characterize 20 cultivars belonging to Campania's olive germplasm, evaluating their vegetative and production aspects and their oil quality characteristics. The study was conducted from 2003 to 2009, observing the following aspects in six plants per variety: entry into production, vigour, ripening and drupe oil content. The following analyses were carried out on monovarietal oils, obtained by microextractor: acid composition, polyphenol content and aromatic profile. The agronomic results showed early entry into production for the cultivars Racioppella, Ortolana, Biancolilla and Carpellese. However, entry into production was delayed for Ritonnella, Ortice, Cornia and Rotondella. As regards vegetative behaviour, Asprinia, from the province of Caserta and Pisciottana and Carpellese, from the province of Salerno, proved the most vigorous cultivars. Groups of similar cultivars emerged from chemical and sensory analysis of their oils, while other accessions were well characterized and separated from each other, showing a high level of diversity and specificity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Screening Prosopis (mesquite) germplasm for biomass production and nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing trees of the genus Prosopis (mesquite or algaroba) are well adapted to the semi-arid and often saline regions of the world. These trees may produce firewood or pods for livestock food, they may stabilize sand dunes and they may enrich the soil by production of leaf litter supported by nitrogen fixation. A collection of nearly 500 Prosopis accessions representing North and South American and African germplasm has been established. Seventy of these accessions representing 14 taxa are being grown under field conditions where a 30-fold range in biomass productivity among accessions has been estimated. In a greehouse experiment, 13 Prosopis taxa grew on nitrogen-free medium nodulated, and had a 10-fold difference in nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction). When Prosopis is propagated by seed the resulting trees are extremely variable in growth rate and presence or absence of thorns. Propagation of 6 Prosopis taxa by stem cuttings has been achieved with low success (1 to 10%) in field-grown plants and with higher success (50 to 100%) with young actively growing greenhouse plants.

  12. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) germplasm diversity based on single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from the transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Amir; Rubinstein, Mor; Eshed, Ravit; Benita, Miri; Ish-Shalom, Mazal; Sharabi-Schwager, Michal; Rozen, Ada; Saada, David; Cohen, Yuval; Ophir, Ron

    2015-11-14

    Germplasm collections are an important source for plant breeding, especially in fruit trees which have a long duration of juvenile period. Thus, efforts have been made to study the diversity of fruit tree collections. Even though mango is an economically important crop, most of the studies on diversity in mango collections have been conducted with a small number of genetic markers. We describe a de novo transcriptome assembly from mango cultivar 'Keitt'. Variation discovery was performed using Illumina resequencing of 'Keitt' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars identified 332,016 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1903 simple-sequence repeats (SSRs). Most of the SSRs (70.1%) were of trinucleotide with the preponderance of motif (GGA/AAG)n and only 23.5% were di-nucleotide SSRs with the mostly of (AT/AT)n motif. Further investigation of the diversity in the Israeli mango collection was performed based on a subset of 293 SNPs. Those markers have divided the Israeli mango collection into two major groups: one group included mostly mango accessions from Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia) and India and the other with mainly of Floridian and Israeli mango cultivars. The latter group was more polymorphic (FS=-0.1 on the average) and was more of an admixture than the former group. A slight population differentiation was detected (FST=0.03), suggesting that if the mango accessions of the western world apparently was originated from Southeast Asia, as has been previously suggested, the duration of cultivation was not long enough to develop a distinct genetic background. Whole-transcriptome reconstruction was used to significantly broaden the mango's genetic variation resources, i.e., SNPs and SSRs. The set of SNP markers described in this study is novel. A subset of SNPs was sampled to explore the Israeli mango collection and most of them were polymorphic in many mango accessions. Therefore, we believe that these SNPs will be valuable as they recapitulate and

  13. Caregiver and expecting caregiver support for early peanut introduction guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhawt, Matthew; Chan, Edmond S; Fleischer, David M; Hicks, Allison; Wilson, Rachel; Shaker, Marcus; Venter, Carina; Stukus, David

    2018-03-07

    Recent guidelines recommend early peanut introduction (EPI) beginning around 4 to 6 months of age in infants with severe eczema and/or egg allergy and around 6 months for all other infants. Caregiver preferences for such practices are unknown. We explored preferences for EPI and in-office allergy risk assessment (IRA) through a nationally representative survey of expecting (n = 1,000) and new caregivers of infants younger than 1 year (n = 1,000). Among a primarily female (99.7%), married (80.3%), and white (74.4%) sample, 29% had no or vague awareness of the new guidelines, 61% had no or minimal concern for their child developing food allergy, but 54% felt timing of food introduction has moderate to strong importance for developing food allergy. Only 31% expressed willingness for EPI before or around 6 months of age, with 40% reporting willingness to introduce peanut after 11 months of age, similar to tree nuts and seafood. However, 60% reported willingness to introduce egg before 8 months of age. A total of 51% and 56.8% were unwilling to allow IRA methods, such as skin testing and oral challenge, before 11 months of age, respectively. Odds of willingness to delay peanut introduction (odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.96) and undergo challenge (odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.82) after 6 months of age were lower among expecting caregivers. Among new and expecting caregivers, there is poor current willingness and questionable support for early allergenic solid food recommendations, including IRA before introduction. Willingness was better among expecting vs current caregivers. These trends underscore a need for broader formal implementation planning to facilitate early allergen introduction and maximize its preventive benefits. Copyright © 2018 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sublingual immunotherapy for peanut allergy: clinical and immunologic evidence of desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edwin H; Bird, J Andrew; Kulis, Michael; Laubach, Susan; Pons, Laurent; Shreffler, Wayne; Steele, Pamela; Kamilaris, Janet; Vickery, Brian; Burks, A Wesley

    2011-03-01

    There are no treatments currently available for peanut allergy. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a novel approach to the treatment of peanut allergy. We sought to investigate the safety, clinical effectiveness, and immunologic changes with SLIT in children with peanut allergy. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study subjects underwent 6 months of dose escalation and 6 months of maintenance dosing followed by a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Eighteen children aged 1 to 11 years completed 12 months of dosing and the food challenge. Dosing side effects were primarily oropharyngeal and uncommonly required treatment. During the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, the treatment group safely ingested 20 times more peanut protein than the placebo group (median, 1,710 vs 85 mg; P = .011). Mechanistic studies demonstrated a decrease in skin prick test wheal size (P = .020) and decreased basophil responsiveness after stimulation with 10(-2) μg/mL (P = .009) and 10(-3) μg/mL (P = .009) of peanut. Peanut-specific IgE levels increased over the initial 4 months (P = .002) and then steadily decreased over the remaining 8 months (P = .003), whereas peanut-specific IgG4 levels increased during the 12 months (P = .014). Lastly, IL-5 levels decreased after 12 months (P = .015). No statistically significant changes were found in IL-13 levels, the percentage of regulatory T cells, or IL-10 and IFN-γ production. Peanut SLIT is able to safely induce clinical desensitization in children with peanut allergy, with evidence of immunologic changes suggesting a significant change in the allergic response. Further study is required to determine whether continued peanut SLIT is able to induce long-term immune tolerance. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A randomized controlled study of peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT): clinical desensitization and modulation of the allergic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Pooja; Jones, Stacie M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Perry, Tamara T.; Kemper, Alex; Steele, Pamela; Hiegel, Anne; Kamilaris, Janet; Carlisle, Suzanne; Yue, Xiaohong; Kulis, Mike; Pons, Laurent; Vickery, Brian; Burks, A. Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Background Open-label oral immunotherapy (OIT) protocols have been used to treat small numbers of patients with peanut allergy. Peanut OIT has not been evaluated in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Objective To investigate the safety and effectiveness of OIT for peanut allergy in a double blind, placebo-controlled study. Methods In this multicenter study, peanut-allergic children ages 1-16 years received OIT with peanut flour or placebo. Initial escalation, build-up, and maintenance phases were followed by an oral food challenge at approximately one year. Titrated skin prick tests (SPT) and laboratory studies were performed at regular intervals. Results Twenty-eight subjects were enrolled in the study. Three peanut OIT subjects withdrew early in the study due to allergic side effects. During the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, all remaining peanut OIT subjects (N=16) ingested the maximum cumulative dose of 5000 mg (approximately 20 peanuts), while placebo subjects (N=9) ingested a median cumulative dose of 280 mg (range, 0-1900 mg) [p<0.001]. In contrast to the placebo group, the peanut OIT group showed reductions in SPT size (p<0.001), IL-5 (p=0.01), and IL-13 (p=0.02) and increases in peanut-specific IgG4 (p<0.001). Peanut OIT subjects had initial increases in peanut-specific IgE (p<0.01) but did not show significant change from baseline by the time of OFC. The ratio of FoxP3 hi: FoxP3 intermediate CD4+CD25+ T cells increased at the time of OFC (p=0.04) in peanut OIT subjects. Conclusion These results conclusively demonstrate that peanut OIT induces desensitization and concurrent immune modulation. The present study continues and is evaluating the hypothesis that peanut OIT causes long-term immune tolerance. PMID:21377034

  16. A pilot study of omalizumab to facilitate rapid oral desensitization in high-risk peanut allergic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lynda C.; Rachid, Rima; LeBovidge, Jennifer; Blood, Emily; Mittal, Mudita; Umetsu, Dale T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is a major public health problem that affects 1% of the population and has no effective therapy. Objective To examine the safety and efficacy of oraldesensitization in peanut allergic children in combination with a brief course of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab, Xolair). Methods We performed oral peanut desensitization in peanut allergic children at high risk for developing significant peanut-induced allergic reactions. Omalizumab was administered prior to and during oral peanut desensitization. Results We enrolled 13 children (median age, 10 years), with a median peanut-specific IgE of 229 kUA/L and a median total serum IgE of 621 kU/L, who failed an initial double-blind placebo controlled food challenge at doses 100 mg peanut flour. After pre-treatment with omalizumab, all subjects tolerated the initial 11 desensitization doses given on the first day, including the maximum dose of 500 mg peanut flour (cumulative dose, 992 mg, equivalent to >2 peanuts), requiring minimal or no rescue therapy. 12 subjects then reached the maximum maintenance dose of 4,000 mg peanut flour/day in a median time of 8 weeks, at which point omalizumab was discontinued. All 12 subjects continued on 4,000 mg peanut flour/day and subsequently tolerated a challenge with 8,000 mg peanut flour (equivalent to about 20 peanuts), or 160 to 400 times the dose tolerated before desensitization. During the study, 6 of the 13 subjects experienced mild or no allergic reactions; 6 subjects had Grade 2, and 2 subjects Grade 3 reactions, all of which responded rapidly to treatment. Conclusions Among children with high-risk peanut allergy, treatment with omalizumab may facilitate rapid oral desensitization, and qualitativelyimprove the desensitization process. PMID:24176117

  17. A pilot study of omalizumab to facilitate rapid oral desensitization in high-risk peanut-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lynda C; Rachid, Rima; LeBovidge, Jennifer; Blood, Emily; Mittal, Mudita; Umetsu, Dale T

    2013-12-01

    Peanut allergy is a major public health problem that affects 1% of the population and has no effective therapy. To examine the safety and efficacy of oral desensitization in peanut-allergic children in combination with a brief course of anti-IgE mAb (omalizumab [Xolair]). We performed oral peanut desensitization in peanut-allergic children at high risk for developing significant peanut-induced allergic reactions. Omalizumab was administered before and during oral peanut desensitization. We enrolled 13 children (median age, 10 years), with a median peanut-specific IgE level of 229 kU(A)/L and a median total serum IgE level of 621 kU/L, who failed an initial double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge at peanut flour doses of 100 mg or less. After pretreatment with omalizumab, all 13 subjects tolerated the initial 11 desensitization doses given on the first day, including the maximum dose of 500 mg peanut flour (cumulative dose, 992 mg, equivalent to >2 peanuts), requiring minimal or no rescue therapy. Twelve subjects then reached the maximum maintenance dose of 4000 mg peanut flour per day in a median time of 8 weeks, at which point omalizumab was discontinued. All 12 subjects continued on 4000 mg peanut flour per day and subsequently tolerated a challenge with 8000 mg peanut flour (equivalent to about 20 peanuts), or 160 to 400 times the dose tolerated before desensitization. During the study, 6 of the 13 subjects experienced mild or no allergic reactions, 5 subjects had grade 2 reactions, and 2 subjects had grade 3 reactions, all of which responded rapidly to treatment. Among children with high-risk peanut allergy, treatment with omalizumab may facilitate rapid oral desensitization and qualitatively improve the desensitization process. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Watermelon Germplasm for Resistance to Phytophthora Blight Caused by Phytophthora capsici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jeong Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the Phytophthora rot resistance of 514 accessions of watermelon germplasm, Citrullus lanatus var lanatus. About 46% of the 514 accessions tested were collections from Uzbekistan, Turkey, China, U.S.A., and Ukraine. Phytophthora capsici was inoculated to 45-day-old watermelon seedlings by drenching with 5 ml of sporangial suspension (10⁶ sporangia/ml. At 7 days after inoculation, 21 accessions showed no disease symptoms while 291 accessions of susceptible watermelon germplasm showed more than 60.1% disease severity. A total of 510 accessions of watermelon germplasm showed significant disease symptoms and were rated as susceptible to highly susceptible 35 days after inoculation. The highly susceptible watermelon germplasm exhibited white fungal hyphae on the lesion or damping off with water-soaked and browning symptoms. One accession (IT032840 showed moderate resistance and two accessions (IT185446 and IT187904 were resistant to P. capsici. Results suggest that these two resistant germplasm can be used as a rootstock and as a source of resistance in breeding resistant watermelon varieties against Phytophthora.

  19. Exogenous Calcium Alleviates Photoinhibition of PSII by Improving the Xanthophyll Cycle in Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Leaves during Heat Stress under High Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sha; Wang, Fang; Guo, Feng; Meng, Jing-Jing; Li, Xin-Guo; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wan, Shu-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium (Ca) serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. The effect of exogenous calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] (6 mM) on the dissipation of excess excitation energy in the photosystem II (PSII) antenna, especially on the level of D1 protein and the xanthophyll cycle in peanut plants under heat (40°C) and high irradiance (HI) (1 200 µmol m−2 s−1) stress were investigated. Compared with the control plants [cultivated in 0 mM Ca(NO3)2 medium], the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in Ca2+-treated plants showed a slighter decrease after 5 h of stress, accompanied by higher non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), higher expression of antioxidative genes and less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Meanwhile, higher content of D1 protein and higher ratio of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) were also detected in Ca2+-treated plants under such stress. These results showed that Ca2+ could help protect the peanut photosynthetic system from severe photoinhibition under heat and HI stress by accelerating the repair of D1 protein and improving the de-epoxidation ratio of the xanthophyll cycle. Furthermore, EGTA (a chelant of Ca ion), LaCl3 (a blocker of Ca2+ channel in cytoplasmic membrane), and CPZ [a calmodulin (CaM) antagonist] were used to analyze the effects of Ca2+/CaM on the variation of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) (%) and the expression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE). The results indicated that CaM, an important component of the Ca2+ signal transduction pathway, mediated the expression of the VDE gene in the presence of Ca to improve the xanthophyll cycle. PMID:23940721

  20. Exogenous calcium alleviates photoinhibition of PSII by improving the xanthophyll cycle in peanut (Arachis hypogaea leaves during heat stress under high irradiance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Yang

    Full Text Available Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium (Ca serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. The effect of exogenous calcium nitrate [Ca(NO32] (6 mM on the dissipation of excess excitation energy in the photosystem II (PSII antenna, especially on the level of D1 protein and the xanthophyll cycle in peanut plants under heat (40°C and high irradiance (HI (1 200 µmol m(-2 s(-1 stress were investigated. Compared with the control plants [cultivated in 0 mM Ca(NO32 medium], the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm in Ca(2+-treated plants showed a slighter decrease after 5 h of stress, accompanied by higher non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, higher expression of antioxidative genes and less reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation. Meanwhile, higher content of D1 protein and higher ratio of (A+Z/(V+A+Z were also detected in Ca(2+-treated plants under such stress. These results showed that Ca(2+ could help protect the peanut photosynthetic system from severe photoinhibition under heat and HI stress by accelerating the repair of D1 protein and improving the de-epoxidation ratio of the xanthophyll cycle. Furthermore, EGTA (a chelant of Ca ion, LaCl3 (a blocker of Ca(2+ channel in cytoplasmic membrane, and CPZ [a calmodulin (CaM antagonist] were used to analyze the effects of Ca(2+/CaM on the variation of (A+Z/(V+A+Z (% and the expression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE. The results indicated that CaM, an important component of the Ca(2+ signal transduction pathway, mediated the expression of the VDE gene in the presence of Ca to improve the xanthophyll cycle.

  1. Karyotipic asymmetry of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed the establishment of the relation between karyotipic asymmetry values obtained for different accessions of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum from Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Gado de Leite/Juiz de Fora-Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Conventional cell cycle synchronization protocols and Feulgen staining method were used to obtain metaphases plates. The wild-type accessions corresponded to the species P. setosum (2n=6x=54, P. nervosum (2n=4x=36, and P. orientale (2n=4x=36, and the cultivated to P. purpureum (2n=4x=28 and P. glaucum (2n=2x=14. No significant difference was found for the total length of chromosomes (p>0.05 among the species. The analysis of intra-chromosomal asymmetry (A1 and inter-chromosomal asymmetry (A2 has shown that P. setosum has a tendency to chromosome asymmetry. P. nervosum, P. orientale, and P. purpureum have presented an intermediary level of asymmetry and P. glaucum, low asymmetry. Considering Stebbins criteria, the karyotype of P. glaucum and those from the three wild species fitted into the category 1A-symmetrical. With regard to P. purpureum, karyotypes of the accessions BAGs 54, 65 and 91 fitted into the category 2B and the other two genotypes (BAGs 63 and 75 fitted into the 1A. Comparison between the karyotype classification according to the inter- and intra-chromosomal asymmetry and Stebbins methodologies revealed that this last one alone was not able to detect small variations between karyotypes of the taxa closely related.

  2. Multivariate analysis of quantitative traits can effectively classify rapeseed germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankulovska Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of different multivariate approaches to classify rapeseed genotypes based on quantitative traits has been presented. Tree regression analysis, PCA analysis and two-way cluster analysis were applied in order todescribe and understand the extent of genetic variability in spring rapeseed genotype by trait data. The traits which highly influenced seed and oil yield in rapeseed were successfully identified by the tree regression analysis. Principal predictor for both response variables was number of pods per plant (NP. NP and 1000 seed weight could help in the selection of high yielding genotypes. High values for both traits and oil content could lead to high oil yielding genotypes. These traits may serve as indirect selection criteria and can lead to improvement of seed and oil yield in rapeseed. Quantitative traits that explained most of the variability in the studied germplasm were classified using principal component analysis. In this data set, five PCs were identified, out of which the first three PCs explained 63% of the total variance. It helped in facilitating the choice of variables based on which the genotypes’ clustering could be performed. The two-way cluster analysissimultaneously clustered genotypes and quantitative traits. The final number of clusters was determined using bootstrapping technique. This approach provided clear overview on the variability of the analyzed genotypes. The genotypes that have similar performance regarding the traits included in this study can be easily detected on the heatmap. Genotypes grouped in the clusters 1 and 8 had high values for seed and oil yield, and relatively short vegetative growth duration period and those in cluster 9, combined moderate to low values for vegetative growth duration and moderate to high seed and oil yield. These genotypes should be further exploited and implemented in the rapeseed breeding program. The combined application of these multivariate methods

  3. Early maturing mutations as germplasm stocks for barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Yasuo

    1985-01-01

    A total of 102 early maturing mutations have been isolated after various treatments of seeds or plants with ionizing radiations or chemicals from a barley cultivar 'Chikurin Ibaraki 1' or its mutants. Fifty of them were evaluated as regards responses to internal physiological factors. The mutants were found to have a mutational alteration in vernalization and/or photoperiodic response. Earliness in a narrow sense was not noticeably changed. The original genotype is a winter and long-day type. By mutation four different degrees of change in vernalization requirement i.e. complete (V 1 ) and incomplete (V 2 ) spring habit and winter habit with reduced requirement to varying degrees (V 3 , V 4 ) have been produced. Photoperiodic response was also changed into at least three types i.e. complete (P 1 ) and incomplete (P 2 ) loss of sensitivity to short photoperiod and a slight reduction in critical daylength for heading. P 1 and P 2 type mutants were all characterized by marked earliness in heading time in field. Thirty seven mutants were located in seven separate loci. Allelism test of the mutated genes to spontaneous ones revealed that the genes carried by P 1 type mutants were all allelic to an earliness gene ea sub(k) on chromosome 5 and the gene involved in P 2 type mutants to ea 7 on chromosome 6. On the contrary, the gene commonly involved in all V 1 type mutants and one V 2 type mutant was not allelic to spring habit gene Sh 2 or Sh 3 . It seemed likely that the gene was not allelic to, either, but closely linked with sh on chromosome 4. The diversity in terms of genetic and physiological properties of the early maturing mutants arising from common ancestry emphasizes the importance of induced mutation in broadening of germplasm of barley breeding. (author)

  4. Development of Pineapple Microsatellite Markers and Germplasm Genetic Diversity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suping Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were used to develop pineapple microsatellite markers. Genomic library-based SSR development: using selectively amplified microsatellite assay, 86 sequences were generated from pineapple genomic library. 91 (96.8% of the 94 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR loci were dinucleotide repeats (39 AC/GT repeats and 52 GA/TC repeats, accounting for 42.9% and 57.1%, resp., and the other three were mononucleotide repeats. Thirty-six pairs of SSR primers were designed; 24 of them generated clear bands of expected sizes, and 13 of them showed polymorphism. EST-based SSR development: 5659 pineapple EST sequences obtained from NCBI were analyzed; among 1397 nonredundant EST sequences, 843 were found containing 1110 SSR loci (217 of them contained more than one SSR locus. Frequency of SSRs in pineapple EST sequences is 1SSR/3.73 kb, and 44 types were found. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats dominate, accounting for 95.6% in total. AG/CT and AGC/GCT were the dominant type of dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, accounting for 83.5% and 24.1%, respectively. Thirty pairs of primers were designed for each of randomly selected 30 sequences; 26 of them generated clear and reproducible bands, and 22 of them showed polymorphism. Eighteen pairs of primers obtained by the one or the other of the two methods above that showed polymorphism were selected to carry out germplasm genetic diversity analysis for 48 breeds of pineapple; similarity coefficients of these breeds were between 0.59 and 1.00, and they can be divided into four groups accordingly. Amplification products of five SSR markers were extracted and sequenced, corresponding repeat loci were found and locus mutations are mainly in copy number of repeats and base mutations in the flanking region.

  5. Development of Pineapple Microsatellite Markers and Germplasm Genetic Diversity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Helin; Chen, You; Wang, Jingyi; Chen, Yeyuan; Sun, Guangming; He, Junhu; Wu, Yaoting

    2013-01-01

    Two methods were used to develop pineapple microsatellite markers. Genomic library-based SSR development: using selectively amplified microsatellite assay, 86 sequences were generated from pineapple genomic library. 91 (96.8%) of the 94 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci were dinucleotide repeats (39 AC/GT repeats and 52 GA/TC repeats, accounting for 42.9% and 57.1%, resp.), and the other three were mononucleotide repeats. Thirty-six pairs of SSR primers were designed; 24 of them generated clear bands of expected sizes, and 13 of them showed polymorphism. EST-based SSR development: 5659 pineapple EST sequences obtained from NCBI were analyzed; among 1397 nonredundant EST sequences, 843 were found containing 1110 SSR loci (217 of them contained more than one SSR locus). Frequency of SSRs in pineapple EST sequences is 1SSR/3.73 kb, and 44 types were found. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats dominate, accounting for 95.6% in total. AG/CT and AGC/GCT were the dominant type of dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, accounting for 83.5% and 24.1%, respectively. Thirty pairs of primers were designed for each of randomly selected 30 sequences; 26 of them generated clear and reproducible bands, and 22 of them showed polymorphism. Eighteen pairs of primers obtained by the one or the other of the two methods above that showed polymorphism were selected to carry out germplasm genetic diversity analysis for 48 breeds of pineapple; similarity coefficients of these breeds were between 0.59 and 1.00, and they can be divided into four groups accordingly. Amplification products of five SSR markers were extracted and sequenced, corresponding repeat loci were found and locus mutations are mainly in copy number of repeats and base mutations in the flanking region. PMID:24024187

  6. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fonseca Moreira da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1% followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.. All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains.

  7. Morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus irradiated on peanut grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Valeria B.; Maia, Maria C.A.; Couto, Maria A.P.G., E-mail: antun@eq.ufrj.br, E-mail: gimenes@eq.ufrj.br [Coordenaao s Programas de Pos-graduacaoem Processos Quimicos e Bioquimicos. Escola de Quimica. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/ UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Secao de Defesa Nuclear do Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Mauro C.L. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ). Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus inoculated on peanuts and irradiated. The effects of radiation on the morphology of the fungus were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The experiments were performed with samples of peanuts in natura (raw and peeled) purchased in supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were inoculated with the fungal strain Aspergillus ochraceus (CMT 00145) in petri plates that were kept incubated in a BOD germination chamber at 25 degree C for 5 days. They were then exposed to gamma radiation from a cesium-137 source to doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 kGy at an average dose rate of approximately 1.6 kGy/h. Radiosensitivity as well as morphological and microscopic changes induced by irradiation were investigated for colonies kept for 7 days in MEA medium at 25 degree C. Inactivation was found to occur for all colonies irradiated with 5 kGy and for none irradiated with 2.0 kGy or less. Also investigated was the time needed for irradiated colonies to resume growth. The impact of irradiation on the morphological and microscopic characteristics of the fungus were found to become significant at doses above 1 kGy, causing some structures to gradually shrink or even vanish with increasing dose. (author)

  8. Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution by dehydrated peanut hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, Dursun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Dursun, Guelbeyi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: gdursun@firat.edu.tr; Ozer, Ahmet [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-06-01

    Dyes are colour organic compounds which can colorize the other substances. These substances usually presents in the effluent water of many industries, such as textiles, leather, paper, printing and cosmetics. To observe the potential feasibility of removing colour, peanut hull as an agricultural by-product was dehydrated with sulphuric acid (DPH) and used for adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The effects of various parameters such as initial methylene blue concentrations, temperatures and particle sizes were examined and optimal experimental conditions were determined. Adsorption data were well described by the Langmuir model, although they could be modelled by the Freundlich model as well. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The mass transfer model as intraparticle diffusion was applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of rate controlling step. It was found that at the higher initial MB concentration, intraparticle diffusion is becoming significant controlling step. The thermodynamic constants of the adsorption process were also evaluated by using the Langmuir constants related to the equilibrium of adsorption at different temperatures. The results in this study indicated that dehydrated peanut hull was a good adsorbent for removing methylene blue.

  9. Morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus irradiated on peanut grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Valeria B.; Maia, Maria C.A.; Couto, Maria A.P.G.; Vital, Helio C.; Souza, Mauro C.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus inoculated on peanuts and irradiated. The effects of radiation on the morphology of the fungus were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The experiments were performed with samples of peanuts in natura (raw and peeled) purchased in supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were inoculated with the fungal strain Aspergillus ochraceus (CMT 00145) in petri plates that were kept incubated in a BOD germination chamber at 25 degree C for 5 days. They were then exposed to gamma radiation from a cesium-137 source to doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 kGy at an average dose rate of approximately 1.6 kGy/h. Radiosensitivity as well as morphological and microscopic changes induced by irradiation were investigated for colonies kept for 7 days in MEA medium at 25 degree C. Inactivation was found to occur for all colonies irradiated with 5 kGy and for none irradiated with 2.0 kGy or less. Also investigated was the time needed for irradiated colonies to resume growth. The impact of irradiation on the morphological and microscopic characteristics of the fungus were found to become significant at doses above 1 kGy, causing some structures to gradually shrink or even vanish with increasing dose. (author)

  10. Mycological and toxicological analysis of peanuts and derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson de Lima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nomius produce toxins, which are secondary metabolites called aflatoxins. These toxin-producing species grow rapidly on peanuts and cereals in favorable conditions of temperature and humidity. Their toxins can either cause acute effects, and even be lethal or accumulate in the organism, resulting in liver cancer in the long term. Based on the health risks of aflatoxins in food, a research was conducted on peanuts and derivatives sold in Alfenas, MG, Brazil, to evaluate the presence of Aspergillus sp. and aflatoxins. The samples were randomly collected at “popular stores”, from November 2008 to May 2009, to assess the occurrence of aflatoxins B1 , B2, G1 and G2by thin layer chromatography (TLC. The mycological analysis revealed the presence of fungi in 50% of the samples: Penicillium sp. (53.85%, A. flavus (19.23%, A. niger (15.38% and A. fumigatus (11.54%, and 63.64% of these showed the presence of aflatoxins : B1 (43.14%, B2 (25.49%, G1 (23.53% and G2 (7.84%. Itis concluded that the results reported here are a cause for concern, given the harmfulness of these cumulative and carcinogenic toxins.

  11. Peanut Seed Vigor Evaluation Using a Thermal Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Grey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments conducted from 2007 to 2009 evaluated germination of 11 peanut runner-type cultivars. Germination was evaluated in Petridishes incubated over a thermal gradient ranging from 14 to 30°C at 1.0 C increments. Beginning 24 hr after seeding, peanut was counted as germinated when radicles were greater than 5 mm long, with removal each day. Germination was counted daily for seven days after seeding. Growing-degree day (GDD accumulation for each temperature increment was calculated based on daily mean temperature for that Petri dish. Two indices were obtained from a logistic growth curve used to elucidate seed germination by cultivar: (1 maximum indices of germination and (2 GDD value at 80% germination (Germ80, an indication of seed vigor the lower the Germ80 value, the greater the seed lot vigor. Based on the two indices, seed lots “AT 3081R”, “AP-3”, “GA-06G”, and “Carver” had the strongest seed vigor (Germ80 26 to 47 GDD and a high maximum incidence of germination rate (80 to 94%. Seed lots of “C99-R”, “Georgia-01R”, “Georgia-02C”, and “Georgia-03L” had inconsistent seed performance, failing to achieve 80% germination in at least two of three years.

  12. Ectopic over-expression of peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (SbpAPX) gene confers salt stress tolerance in transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Natwar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-08-15

    Peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase gene (SbpAPX) of an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata imparts abiotic stress endurance and plays a key role in the protection against oxidative stress. The cloned SbpAPX gene was transformed to local variety of peanut and about 100 transgenic plants were developed using optimized in vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation method. The T0 transgenic plants were confirmed for the gene integration; grown under controlled condition in containment green house facility; seeds were harvested and T1 plants were raised. Transgenic plants (T1) were further confirmed by PCR using gene specific primers and histochemical GUS assay. About 40 transgenic plants (T1) were selected randomly and subjected for salt stress tolerance study. Transgenic plants remained green however non-transgenic plants showed bleaching and yellowish leaves under salt stress conditions. Under stress condition, transgenic plants continued normal growth and completed their life cycle. Transgenic peanut plants exhibited adequate tolerance under salt stress condition and thus could be explored for the cultivation in salt affected areas for the sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Addendum Guidelines for the Prevention of Peanut Allergy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togias, Alkis; Cooper, Susan F.; Acebal, Maria L.; Assa’ad, Amal; Baker, James R.; Beck, Lisa A.; Block, Julie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Chan, Edmond S.; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.; Fleischer, David M.; Fuchs, George J.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Greenhawt, Matthew J.; Gupta, Ruchi S.; Habich, Michele; Jones, Stacie M.; Keaton, Kari; Muraro, Antonella; Plaut, Marshall; Rosenwasser, Lanny J.; Rotrosen, Daniel; Sampson, Hugh A.; Schneider, Lynda C.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Sidbury, Robert; Spergel, Jonathan; Stukus, David R.; Venter, Carina; Boyce, Joshua A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Food allergy is an important public health problem because it affects children and adults, it may be severe and even life-threatening, and it may be increasing in prevalence. Beginning in 2008, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), working with other organizations and advocacy groups, led the development of the first clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. A recent landmark clinical trial and other emerging data suggest that peanut allergy can be prevented through introduction of peanut-containing foods beginning in infancy. Objectives Prompted by these findings, along with 25 professional organizations, federal agencies, and patient advocacy groups, NIAID facilitated development of Addendum Guidelines to specifically address the prevention of peanut allergy. Results The Addendum provides three separate guidelines for infants at various risk levels for development of peanut allergy and is intended for use by a wide variety of health care providers. Topics addressed include the definition of risk categories, appropriate use of testing (specific IgE, skin prick testing, and oral food challenge) and the timing and approaches for introduction of peanut-containing foods in the health care provider’s office or at home. The Addendum Guidelines provide the background, rationale, and strength of evidence for each recommendation. Conclusions Guidelines have been developed for early introduction of peanut-containing foods into the diets of infants at various risk levels for peanut allergy. PMID:28065278

  14. Variation in fungal microbiome (mycobiome and aflatoxin in stored in-shell peanuts at four different areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eDing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of peanuts with Aspergillus sp. and subsequently aflatoxins is considered to be one of the most serious safety problems in the world. Mycobiome in peanuts is critical for aflatoxin production and food safety. To evaluate the biodiversity and ecological characteristics of whole communities in stored peanuts, the barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing (BIPES of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region of rDNA was used to characterize the peanut mycobiome monthly over a period of one year at four main peanut grown areas i.e Liaoning (LN, North East, Shandong (SD, East, Hubei (HB, Central and Guangdong (GD, South provinces. The fungal diversity of peanuts stored in SD was the highest with 98 OTUs and 43 genera, followed by LN, HB and GD. In peanuts stored in SD, Rhizopus, Emericella and Clonostachys were predominant. In peanuts from LN, Penicillium, Eurotium and Clonostachys were abundant. In peanuts from HB, Penicillium, Eurotium and Aspergillus were higher. In GD peanuts, Eurotium, Aspergillus and Emericella were mainly seen. The abundances of Aspergillus in LN, SD, HB and GD were 0.53%, 6.29%, 10.86% and 25.75%, respectively. From the North of China to the South, that increased over the latitude, suggesting that the higher temperature and relative humidity might increase the risk of peanuts contaminated with Aspergillus and aflatoxins. During the storage, Aspergillus levels were higher at 7-12 months than in 0-6 months, suggesting that the risk increases over storage time. At 7-10 months, AFB1 was higher in four areas, while declined further. The reduction of AFB1 might be attributed to the inhibition and degradation of AFB1 by A. niger or to the combination with the compounds of peanuts. This is the first study that identified the mycobiome and its variation in stored peanuts using ITS2 sequencing technology, and provides the basis for a detailed characterization of whole mycobiome in peanuts.

  15. Assessment of the sensitizing potential of processed peanut proteins in Brown Norway rats: roasting does not enhance allergenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Kroghsbo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. METHODS: Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-, heated (H- or heat glycated (G-Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL cell assay. RESULTS: In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. CONCLUSIONS: Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose.

  16. Mating system and pollen dispersal in Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) germplasm collection: tools for conservation and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Collevatti, Rosane G; Chaves, Lázaro J; Moreira, Lucas R; Telles, Mariana P C

    2016-04-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) is a perennial tree producing edible fruits and ornamental flowers of potential value widely distributed in Brazilian "Cerrados" (savannas), but available genetic resources and potential for future breeding programs must be evaluated. Here we evaluated the reproductive system and pollen-mediated gene flow in one generation of Eugenia dysenterica germplasm collection of Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás (in Goiânia city, Central Brazil). We collected leaves from all adults from the germplasm collection (682 plants) and seeds (542) from 23 mother-trees. Genotypes were obtained for seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was high and did not significantly differ between adults (H e = 0.777) and progeny arrays (H e = 0.617). Our results showed that E. dysenterica has an allogamous mating system in the germplasm collection (t m = 0.957), but with high and significant biparental inbreeding (t m - t s = 0.109). Because sibs are very close to each other, mating between closely related individuals is likely. Paternity correlation was also relatively high, indicating a 11.9 % probability that a randomly chosen pair of outcrossed progeny from the same array are full sibs. The maximum pollen dispersal distance (224 m), estimated using assignment test, corresponded to the boundaries of the orchard. We were able to assign the paternity to only 64 % of the 349 seeds analyzed, indicating potential pollen immigration to the germplasm collection. The variance effective population size estimated for one maternal family in the germplasm collection (N ev = 3.42) is very close to the theoretical maximum value for half-sibs (Nev = 4.0). Because E. dysenterica has a long life cycle and generation time, the maintenance of an effective population size of at least 100 in the germplasm collection is suggested, which can be achieved by maintaining a seed-trees number around 30 individuals.

  17. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  18. Effects of Peanut-Tobacco Rotations on Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne arenaria in Mixed Race Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirunsalee, A; Barker, K R; Beute, M K

    1995-06-01

    A 3-year microplot study was initiated to characterize the population dynamics, reproduction potential, and survivorship of single or mixed populations of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 (Ma1) and race 2 (Ma2), as affected by crop rotations of peanut 'Florigiant' and M. incognita races 1 and 3-resistant 'McNair 373' and susceptible 'Coker 371-Gold' tobacco. Infection, reproduction, and root damage by Ma2 on peanut and by Ma1 on resistant tobacco were limited in the first year. Infection, reproduction, and root-damage potentials on susceptible tobacco were similar for Ma1 and Ma2. In the mixed (1:1) population, Ma1 was dominant on peanut and Ma2 was dominant on both tobacco cultivars. Crop rotation affected the population dynamics of different nematode races. For years 2 and 3, the low numbers of Ma1 and Ma2 from a previous-year poor host increased rapidly on suitable hosts. Ma1 had greater reproduction factors ([RF] = population density at harvest/population density at preplandng) than did Ma2 and Ma1 + Ma2 in second-year peanut plots following first-year resistant tobacco, and in third-year peanut plots following second-year tobacco. In mixed infestations, Ma1 predominated over Ma2 in previous-year peanut plots, whereas Ma2 predominated over Ma1 in previous-year tobacco plots. Moderate damage on resistant tobacco was induced by Ma1 in the second year. In the third year, moderate damage on peanut was associated with 'Ma2' from previous-year peanut plots. The resistant tobacco supported sufficient reproduction of Ma1 over 2 years to effect moderate damage and yield suppression to peanut in year 3.

  19. Peanut allergy as a family project: social relations and transitions in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensgaard, Anette; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Nielsen, Dorthe

    2017-11-01

    To explore and better understand the impact that peanut allergy can have on family experiences in everyday life through interviews with individual family members. Peanut allergy affects adolescents' quality of life through the need to avoid eating peanut-containing food and the risk of anaphylaxis. Adolescence is a period of increasing separation from parents and has the highest risk of food fatalities. A qualitative interview study taking a phenomenological-hermeneutical approach. Data were generated through semi-structured individual interviews with the adolescent with peanut allergy, and both parents and a sibling. Five families were interviewed, with 20 participants in total. The theoretical foundation was the family as an interactive system, and data were analysed with Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. The consequences of peanut allergy appeared to affect all family members and required knowledge and understanding, especially in the social network. Siblings took responsibility and had concerns for the well-being of the adolescent with allergy, while parents expressed difficulties with their child's transition to independence and their subsequent loss of control. Social relations with new family members or friends were challenged by lack of knowledge about the potential seriousness of peanut allergy. Risk and uncertainty were permanent companions for the adolescents with peanut allergy and their families. It takes time to acquire the necessary understanding about peanut allergy and the risk of anaphylaxis. The adolescent's social network also needs this knowledge during the transition to independent living. In the management of peanut allergy in adolescence, it is important to consider not only the smaller biological family unit (mothers, fathers and siblings) but to also take a wider perspective to include others such as stepfamily and friends. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Endurance Exercise Increases Intestinal Uptake of the Peanut Allergen Ara h 6 after Peanut Consumption in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonneke M. JanssenDuijghuijsen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled studies on the effect of exercise on intestinal uptake of protein are scarce and underlying mechanisms largely unclear. We studied the uptake of the major allergen Ara h 6 following peanut consumption in an exercise model and compared this with changes in markers of intestinal permeability and integrity. Ten overnight-fasted healthy non-allergic men (n = 4 and women (n = 6 (23 ± 4 years ingested 100 g of peanuts together with a lactulose/rhamnose (L/R solution, followed by rest or by 60 min cycling at 70% of their maximal workload. Significantly higher, though variable, levels of Ara h 6 in serum were found during exercise compared to rest (Peak p = 0.03; area under the curve p = 0.006, with individual fold changes ranging from no increase to an increase of over 150-fold in the uptake of Ara h 6. Similarly, uptake of lactulose (2–18 fold change, p = 0.0009 and L/R ratios (0.4–7.9 fold change, p = 0.04 were significantly increased which indicates an increase in intestinal permeability. Intestinal permeability and uptake of Ara h 6 were strongly correlated (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001 for lactulose and Ara h 6. Endurance exercise after consumption may lead to increased paracellular intestinal uptake of food proteins.

  1. Production of recombinant peanut allergen Ara h 2 using Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenting, J.; Poulsen, Lars K.; Kato, K.

    2007-01-01

    lactis is an attractive microorganism for use in the production of protein therapeutics. L. lactis is considered food grade, free of endotoxins, and is able to secrete the heterologous product together with few other native proteins. Hypersensitivity to peanut represents a serious allergic problem. Some...... of the major allergens in peanut have been described. However, for therapeutic usage more information about the individual allergenic components is needed. In this paper we report recombinant production of the Ara h 2 peanut allergen using L. lactis. Results: A synthetic ara h 2 gene was cloned into an L...

  2. Gene Expression Profiling and Identification of Resistance Genes to Aspergillus flavus Infection in Peanut through EST and Microarray Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhu Guo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus infect peanut seeds and produce aflatoxins, which are associated with various diseases in domestic animals and humans throughout the world. The most cost-effective strategy to minimize aflatoxin contamination involves the development of peanut cultivars that are resistant to fungal infection and/or aflatoxin production. To identify peanut Aspergillus-interactive and peanut Aspergillus-resistance genes, we carried out a large scale peanut Expressed Sequence Tag (EST project which we used to construct a peanut glass slide oligonucleotide microarray. The fabricated microarray represents over 40% of the protein coding genes in the peanut genome. For expression profiling, resistant and susceptible peanut cultivars were infected with a mixture of Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus spores. The subsequent microarray analysis identified 62 genes in resistant cultivars that were up-expressed in response to Aspergillus infection. In addition, we identified 22 putative Aspergillus-resistance genes that were constitutively up-expressed in the resistant cultivar in comparison to the susceptible cultivar. Some of these genes were homologous to peanut, corn, and soybean genes that were previously shown to confer resistance to fungal infection. This study is a first step towards a comprehensive genome-scale platform for developing Aspergillus-resistant peanut cultivars through targeted marker-assisted breeding and genetic engineering.

  3. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility in Merino Sheep Fed Peanut Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanim, C.; Muhlisin

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare nutrient intake and digestibility between male and female Merino fed peanut straw as sole feed. Four male and five female Merino sheep ages 10 to 12 month with average weight of 40 kg were used in this study. All animals were confined in individual metabolism cages and nylon nets were fitted bellow the cages for faecal collection. This experiment was done with 14 d adaptation period and 7 d collection period. Representative sample of feed, refusal feed, and faeces were analysed proximate including dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and extract-free nitrogen (EFN). Data collected were used to calculate nutrient intake and digestibility. All nutrient intake in male Merino was higher (Pdigestibility of DM, CP, and CF in male Merino sheep were higher (Pdigestibility.

  4. Biofiltration of methanol in an organic biofilter using peanut shells as medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Lopez, E M; Corona-Hernandez, J; Avelar-Gonzalez, F J; Omil, F; Thalasso, F

    2010-01-01

    Biofiltration consists of a filter-bed of organic matter serving both as carrier for the active biomass and as nutrient supply, through which the polluted gas passes. The selection of a suitable medium material is of major importance to ensure optimum biofilter efficiency. Peanut shells are an agricultural byproduct locally available in large quantities at a low price in most tropical and sub-tropical countries. A previous study showed that peanut shells are physically and chemically suitable for biofiltration. This paper presents the results obtained during a six month biofiltration experiment using peanut shells as medium and methanol as air pollutant. It is shown that peanut shells are potentially suitable as biofiltration medium, since degradation rates of up to 30 kg MeOH/m(3)d with an empty bed residence time of 19s was obtained. The biofilter showed a good resistance to shock load and no operational problems were observed.

  5. New additions to the National Plant Germplasm System’s Beta collection: Southern Morocco expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service’s National Plant Germplasm System’s (NPGS) Beta collection is comprised of 2,541 accessions from 14 species. The largest number of accessions is from Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris, (domesticated beet crops – table, leaf (Swiss chard), fodder and, primarily, sugar...

  6. New additions to the National Plant Germplasm System's Beta collection: Southern Morocco collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service’s National Plant Germplasm System’s (NPGS) Beta collection is comprised of 2,541 accessions from 14 species. The largest number of accessions is from Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris, (domesticated beet crops – table, leaf (Swiss chard), fodder and, primarily, sugar...

  7. New carrot and garlic germplasm to advance breeding and understand crop origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic variation provided by diverse plant germplasm is the basic building material used for crop improvement that shapes the crops we grow today. Wild carrot from the U.S. provided the cytoplasm used to develop a reliable system to produce hybrid carrots that account for most of the commercial...

  8. Microsatellite fingerprinting in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad: Accession and plot homogeneity information for germplasm management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) is the largest public domain field gene bank collection of cacao and the correct identity of each tree is crucial for germplasm movement, evaluation and phenotypic characterization. Nine microsatellite loci were used to assess the identity of 1480 t...

  9. Semi-high throughput screening for potential drought-tolerance in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) germplasm collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    This protocol describes a method by which a large collection of the leafy green vegetable lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm was screened for likely drought-tolerance traits. Fresh water availability for agricultural use is a growing concern across the United States as well as many regions of th...

  10. Rebuilding Hawaii’s Anthurium germplasm collection for cultivar and species preservation, breeding, and biotechnological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthurium is the third most important floriculture crop in Hawaii, grown mainly as a cut flower. The University of Hawaii (UH) has a well-established anthurium breeding program since 1950, with a germplasm collection assembled from backyard growers, hobbyists, researchers and collection trips from c...

  11. 2D random walk representation of Begonia x tuberhybrida multiallelic loci used for germplasm identification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiesner, Ivo; Wiesnerová, Dana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2010), s. 353-356 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500510566 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : begonia germplasm identification * random walk * primary sequence analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2010

  12. Characterization of Sugar Concentration Among Edible Podded Accessions in the USDA Phaseolus vulgaris Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective is to gain knowledge regarding variation in sugar and flavor content among a sample of dry bean and green pod-type accessions from the USDA Phaseolus Germplasm Core Collection, Pullman, WA. The results could be used to market product quality and offer unique opportunities to expand ma...

  13. El nombre 'Forastero' no más: A new protocol for meaningful cacao germplasm classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The title of this article (The name ‘Forastero’ no more) is to convey an attempt in this paper to try to convince the cacao scientific community not to use the term Forastero to identify cacao germplasm of non-Criollo origin. The term Forastero originated in Latin America to differentiate the intro...

  14. Germplasm morgue or gold mine? Enhancing the value of plant genetic resource collections for plant breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity is the raw material that plant breeders require to develop cultivars that are productive, nutritious, pest and stress tolerant, and water and nutrient use efficient. The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) contains a wealth of genetic diversity, including improved varie...

  15. Genomewide association study of ionomic traits on diverse soybean populations from germplasm collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elemental content of a soybean seed is a determined by both genetic and environmental factors and is an important component of its nutritional value. The elemental content is stable, making the samples stored in germplasm repositories an intriguing source of experimental material. To test the ef...

  16. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  17. Development of a core set of SSR markers for the characterization of Gossypium germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular markers such as simple sequence repeats (SSR) are a useful tool for characterizing genetic diversity of Gossypium germplasm collections. Genetic profiles by DNA fingerprinting of cotton accessions can only be compared among different collections if a common set of molecular markers are us...

  18. Bird-resistant pollination bags for sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. To overcome these limitations we fabricated pollination bags from spun polyethylene fiber sheeting. Seed loss by bird damage was elimi...

  19. Discussion of submitted posters for Section 2.3 (Rangeland Germplasm Resources)

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the IX International Rangeland Congress held in Rosario, Argentina, a total of 70 posters from 17 countries were submitted to Section 2.3 (Rangeland Germplasm Resources). These posters documented research conducted in five major regions of the world: South America, North America, Africa...

  20. Ft. Collins Sugar Beet Germplasm Evaluated for Resistance to Rhizomania and Storability in Idaho, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet germplasm and commercial check cultivars were evaluated in a sprinkler-irrigated sugar beet field near Kimberly, ID where sugar beet was grown in 2009. The field trial relied on natural inoculum for rhizomania development. The seed was treated with clothianidin (2.1 oz a.i. per 100,000 ...

  1. Genetic diversity of water use efficiency in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity in crop germplasm is an important resource for crop improvement, but information on genetic diversity is rare for Jerusalem artichoke, especially for traits related to water use efficiency. The objectives of this study were to investigate genetic variations for water use and water...

  2. Genetic characterization of guava (psidium guajava l.) Germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity of thirty five Psidium guajava accessions maintained at the USDA, National Plants Germplasm System, Hilo, HI, was characterized using 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Diversity analysis detected a total of 178 alleles ranging from four to 16. The observed mean heterozygosit...

  3. Minimum number and best combinations of harvests to evaluate accessions of tomato plants from germplasm banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Abreu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the minimum number and the best combination of tomato harvests needed to compare tomato accessions from germplasm banks. Number and weight of fruit in tomato plants are important as auxiliary traits in the evaluation of germplasm banks and should be studied simultaneously with other desirable characteristics such as pest and disease resistance, improved flavor and early production. Brazilian tomato breeding programs should consider not only the number of fruit but also fruit size because Brazilian consumers value fruit that are homogeneous, large and heavy. Our experiment was a randomized block design with three replicates of 32 tomato accessions from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank (Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças at the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil plus two control cultivars (Debora Plus and Santa Clara. Nine harvests were evaluated for four production-related traits. The results indicate that six successive harvests are sufficient to compare tomato genotypes and germplasm bank accessions. Evaluation of genotypes according to the number of fruit requires analysis from the second to the seventh harvest. Evaluation of fruit weight by genotype requires analysis from the fourth to the ninth harvest. Evaluation of both number and weight of fruit require analysis from the second to the ninth harvest.

  4. Registration of Mp718 and Mp719 germplasm lines of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm lines Mp718 (Reg. No. GP-xxxx, PI 662045) and Mp719 (Reg. No. GP-xxxx, PI 662046) were developed and released by USDA-ARS in cooperation with the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Mississippi State, Mississippi, as sources of resistance to aflat...

  5. Evaluating citrus germplasm for huanglongbing (HLB) resistance: USDA-ARS Inoculation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is an important pest because it vectors bacteria responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). USDA-ARS researchers recently established a program for screening citrus germplasm for resistance to the di...

  6. Genetics of the ovule fuzzless trait in Gossypium arboreum germplasm line PI 615737

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diploid cotton species Gossypium arboreum possesses many favorable agronomic traits such as drought tolerance and disease resistance, which can be utilized in the development of improved upland cotton cultivars. The USDA National Plant Germplasm System maintains more than 1,600 G. arboreum acces...

  7. Genetic diversity of sweet sorghum germplasm in Mexico using AFLP and SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the diversity and genetic relationships between lines and varieties of the sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) germplasm bank of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research, Mexico, using AFLP and SSR markers. The molecular markers ...

  8. Cross-reactive Carbohydrate Determinant Contributes to the False Positive IgE Antibody to Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komei Ito

    2005-01-01

    Conclusions: Social education about the features of peanut allergy is needed in Japan. Anti-CCD IgE antibody was suggested to be one of the mechanisms contributing to the false positive detection of peanut IgE. Detection of anti-HRP or anti-bromelain IgE can be a useful tool to recognize the presence of anti-CCD antibodies.

  9. Dynamics of Consumer Response to Food Contamination: The 2007 Peanut Butter Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhtavoryan, Rafael; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Salin, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the foodborne illness outbreak affecting a national brand of peanut butter to determine how demand for the product category was affected. The illness outbreak coincided with growth in the quantity demanded for the peanut butter category. The negative impact on the category associated with the initiation of the product recall was significant and dissipated over time. The recovery of the product category after the recall indicates that the information was correctly targeted and a...

  10. Consumer-based optimization of a third-generation product made from peanut and rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I-D; Phillips, R D; Resurreccion, A V A

    2007-09-01

    Indirectly puffed snacks were produced by an extrusion process with partially defatted (12% fat) peanut flour (30%, 40%, 50%) at different levels of screw speed (200, 300, 400 rpm) and feed rate (4, 5, 6 kg/h). Extrudates were dried to obtain half-products (11% to 12% MC) followed by puffing with deep-fat frying. The puffed snack prototypes were subjected to consumer acceptance test. Consumers rated higher than 6.0 (= like slightly) for all products produced within the experimental factor ranges on the attributes of crispness and texture, whereas consumer scores for appearance, color, flavor, and overall liking were lower than 6.0 for the product containing 50% peanut flour regardless of screw speed and feed rate. The product extruded with 50% peanut flour at screw speed of 400 rpm and feed rate of 6 kg/h received the lowest score of 5.5 on overall liking in a 9-point hedonic score. Predicted regression models indicated that feed rate had the largest effect on consumer attributes followed by peanut flour and screw speed. From the superimposed contour plot of individual contour plot of consumer attributes, the optimum region was identified as the area beginning at the 42.0% to 43.0% peanut flour and 4.0 kg/h feed rates, rising to a maximum at 45% peanut flour and 4.6 kg/h feed rates and decreasing to the 33.0% to 34.0% peanut flour and 6.0 kg/h feed rates. Verification confirmed the ability of predictive regression models to identify peanut-based snacks, which would be scored higher than 6.0 by consumer evaluation.

  11. Mapping Late Leaf Spot Resistance in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea Using QTL-seq Reveals Markers for Marker-Assisted Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Clevenger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Late leaf spot (LLS; Cercosporidium personatum is a major fungal disease of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea. A recombinant inbred line population segregating for quantitative field resistance was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL using QTL-seq. High rates of false positive SNP calls using established methods in this allotetraploid crop obscured significant QTLs. To resolve this problem, robust parental SNPs were first identified using polyploid-specific SNP identification pipelines, leading to discovery of significant QTLs for LLS resistance. These QTLs were confirmed over 4 years of field data. Selection with markers linked to these QTLs resulted in a significant increase in resistance, showing that these markers can be immediately applied in breeding programs. This study demonstrates that QTL-seq can be used to rapidly identify QTLs controlling highly quantitative traits in polyploid crops with complex genomes. Markers identified can then be deployed in breeding programs, increasing the efficiency of selection using molecular tools.Key Message: Field resistance to late leaf spot is a quantitative trait controlled by many QTLs. Using polyploid-specific methods, QTL-seq is faster and more cost effective than QTL mapping.

  12. Investigation and Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Diospyros Germplasms Using SCoT Molecular Markers in Guangxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Libao; Liang, Qingzhi; He, Xinhua; Luo, Cong; Chen, Hu; Qin, Zhenshi

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about genetic diversity and relationships among germplasms could be an invaluable aid in diospyros improvement strategies. This study was designed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship of local and natural varieties in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China using start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT) markers. The accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms belonging to four species Diospyros kaki Thunb, D. oleifera Cheng, D. kaki var. silverstris Mak, and D. lotus Linn were collected from different eco-climatic zones in Guangxi and were analyzed using SCoT markers. Results indicated that the accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms could be distinguished using SCoT markers, and were divided into three groups at similarity coefficient of 0.608; these germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together; of these, the degree of genetic diversity of the natural D. kaki var. silverstris Mak population was richest among the four species; the geographical distance showed that the 12 natural populations of D. kaki var. silverstris Mak were divided into two groups at similarity coefficient of 0.19. Meanwhile, in order to further verify the stable and useful of SCoT markers in diospyros germplasms, SSR markers were also used in current research to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship in the same diospyros germplasms. Once again, majority of germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together. Thus SCoT markers were stable and especially useful for analysis of the genetic diversity and relationship in diospyros germplasms. The molecular characterization and diversity assessment of diospyros were very important for conservation of diospyros germplasm resources, meanwhile for diospyros improvement.

  13. Beneficial Influence of Short-Term Germination on Decreasing Allergenicity of Peanut Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchao; Sun, Xiulan; Ma, Zhezhe; Cui, Yan; Du, Chao; Xia, Xiuhua; Qian, He

    2016-01-01

    Most allergenic storage proteins in peanuts are degraded during seed germination. By altering this natural physiological process, it might be possible to reduce peanut protein allergenicity. However, little is known about the change in allergenic proteins and their corresponding immunocreactivity, and the effects of major environmental conditions on their allergenicity during germination. In this study, the influence of different germination conditions (temperature and light) on the degradation of Ara h1 and allergenicity changes of peanut seeds was evaluated by ELISA and Western blotting. The results showed that the 40- and 65-kDa proteins in peanut seeds degraded rapidly during the time course, beginning at 60 (at 25 °C) and 108 h (at 20 °C), and the corresponding immunocreactivity of Ara h1 decreased approximately one-third after 5 to 7 d of germination. Compared with the cotyledons, the embryonic axes had a higher proportion of Ara h1, which was then degraded relatively faster during germination, resulting in a significant reduction in its allergenicity. Although a higher temperature improved the seed germination rate, it affected sprout quality (as did light); therefore, 25 °C and dark surroundings were suitable conditions under which peanut sprouts were processed; neither factor significantly affected the allergenicity of Ara h1. These results provided a theoretical basis for studies using biological methods to reduce peanut allergenicity. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Antiviral Activity of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Skin Extract Against Human Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makau, Juliann Nzembi; Watanabe, Ken; Mohammed, Magdy M D; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2018-05-30

    The high propensity of influenza viruses to develop resistance to antiviral drugs necessitates the continuing search for new therapeutics. Peanut skins, which are low-value byproducts of the peanut industry, are known to contain high levels of polyphenols. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of ethanol extracts of peanut skins against various influenza viruses using cell-based assays. Extracts with a higher polyphenol content exhibited higher antiviral activities, suggesting that the active components are the polyphenols. An extract prepared from roasted peanut skins effectively inhibited the replication of influenza virus A/WSN/33 with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.3 μg/mL. Plaque assay results suggested that the extract inhibits the early replication stages of the influenza virus. It demonstrated activity against both influenza type A and type B viruses. Notably, the extract exhibited a potent activity against a clinical isolate of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, which had reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir. Moreover, a combination of peanut skin extract with the anti-influenza drugs, oseltamivir and amantadine, synergistically increased their antiviral activity. These data demonstrate the potential application of peanut skin extract in the development of new therapeutic options for influenza management.

  15. THE ROLE OF POSTHARVEST MACHINERIES AND PACKAGING IN MINIMIZING AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION IN PEANUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Paramawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a tropical country with relatively high humidity and temperature, Indonesia is struggling with aflatoxin which frequently contaminates peanut. Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic toxic substance that could cause liver cancer. Due to the increasing concern on food safety, the Indonesian Drugs and Foods Agency specifies the maximum aflatoxin allowed in peanut as much as 20 ppb. However, researches showed that aflatoxin contamination in peanut in Indonesia is much higher than the threshold. The study was carried out to observe the effect of using postharvest machineries and packaging  treatments on aflatoxin contamination in peanut. Reduction of postharvest processes was conducted by using series of machineries, e.g. thresher, dryer, and sheller. Packaging treatments, e.g. vacuum plastic pack, hermetic glass chamber, and polyethylene (PE plastic wrap were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (25-27°C. The results showed that using machineries in postharvest handling produced peanut free from aflatoxin contamination. However, without effective packaging, the aflatoxin level would increase during storage. Hermetic packaging could protect peanut from the mold as indicated by low level of aflatoxin contamination.

  16. Variation for yield, water-use efficiency, and canopy morphology among nine alfalfa germplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, I.M.; Townsend, M.S.; Henning, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production under irrigated and rainfed conditions may benefit from improvements in water-use efficiency (WUE), the amount of forage and root biomass produced per unit of water transpired. If benefits from improved WUE are to be realized, correlations between important agronomic traits and key physiological traits associated with WUE must be determined. This study characterized variation for dry matter yield, forage maturity, leaf-to-stem ratio (LSR), carbon isotope discrimination (delta), canopy temperature, ash content, and specific leaf mass (SLM) in alfalfa. Associations between traits were also determined. Nine alfalfa germplasms representing eight of the nine historical genetic diversity groups, and a very fall-dormant (VFD) population, were established in seeded, irrigated plots for 2 yr near Las Cruces, NM. Significant variation (P less than or equal to 0.10) was detected for all traits and was greatest for delta and maturity, intermediate for yield, canopy temperature, ash content, and LSR, and least for SLM. The African, Peruvian, and Indian germplasms exhibited a higher delta than either the Turkistan, VFD, M. varia Martyn., or Ladak germplasms. Carbon isotope discrimination was positively correlated with forage yield (r = 0.64; P less than or equal to 0.10; n = 9) and forage maturity (r = 0.66; P less than or equal to 0.05; n = 9). No association was detected between delta and either canopy temperature, ash content, SLM, or LSR. The results indicate that differences in stomatal conductance or photosynthetic capacity exist among the nine populations, and that germplasms with low delta tended to have slower growth and development rates under irrigated conditions. Neither canopy temperature, ash content, nor SLM provided suitable alternate measurements of delta among the nine alfalfa germplasms

  17. SeedStor: A Germplasm Information Management System and Public Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horler, R S P; Turner, A S; Fretter, P; Ambrose, M

    2018-01-01

    SeedStor (https://www.seedstor.ac.uk) acts as the publicly available database for the seed collections held by the Germplasm Resources Unit (GRU) based at the John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK. The GRU is a national capability supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). The GRU curates germplasm collections of a range of temperate cereal, legume and Brassica crops and their associated wild relatives, as well as precise genetic stocks, near-isogenic lines and mapping populations. With >35,000 accessions, the GRU forms part of the UK's plant conservation contribution to the Multilateral System (MLS) of the International Treaty for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) for wheat, barley, oat and pea. SeedStor is a fully searchable system that allows our various collections to be browsed species by species through to complicated multipart phenotype criteria-driven queries. The results from these searches can be downloaded for later analysis or used to order germplasm via our shopping cart. The user community for SeedStor is the plant science research community, plant breeders, specialist growers, hobby farmers and amateur gardeners, and educationalists. Furthermore, SeedStor is much more than a database; it has been developed to act internally as a Germplasm Information Management System that allows team members to track and process germplasm requests, determine regeneration priorities, handle cost recovery and Material Transfer Agreement paperwork, manage the Seed Store holdings and easily report on a wide range of the aforementioned tasks. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  18. Genetic diversity of wild germplasm of "yerba mate" (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, Jimena; Bracco, Mariana; Poggio, Lidia; Gottlieb, Alexandra Marina

    2014-12-01

    The "yerba mate" tree, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., is a crop native to subtropical South America, marketed for the elaboration of the highly popular "mate" beverage. The Uruguayan germplasm occupies the southernmost area of the species distribution range and carries adaptations to environments that considerably differ from the current production area. We characterized the genetic variability of the germplasm from this unexplored area by jointly analyzing individuals from the diversification center (ABP, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay) with 19 nuclear and 11 plastidic microsatellite markers. For the Uruguayan germplasm, we registered 55 alleles (18 % private), and 80 genotypes (44 % exclusive), whereas 63 alleles (28.6 % private) and 81 genotypes (42 % exclusive) were recorded for individuals from ABP. Only two plastidic haplotypes were detected. Distance-based and multilocus genotype analyses showed that individuals from ABP intermingle and that the Uruguayan germplasm is differentiated in three gene-pools. Significant positive correlations between genetic and geographic distances were detected. Our results concur in that ABP individuals harbor greater genetic variation than those from the tail of the distribution, as to the number of alleles (1.15-fold), He (1.19-fold), Rs (1.39-fold), and the between-group genetic distances (1.16-fold). Also the shape of the genetic landscape interpolation analysis suggests that the genetic variation decays southward towards the Uruguayan territory. We showed that Uruguayan germplasm hosts a combination of nuclear alleles not present in the central region, constituting a valuable breeding resource. Future conservation efforts should concentrate in collecting numerous individuals of "yerba mate" per site to gather the existent variation.

  19. Chemical composition and sensory analysis of peanut pastes elaborated with high-oleic and regular peanuts from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepote, V.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition, sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of peanut pastes prepared with the high-oleic cultivar, Granoleico (GO-P, in comparison with the regular cultivar, Tegua (T-P, of peanuts grown in Argentina. GO-P had higher oil contents (50.91% than T-P (48.95%. GO-P and T-P did not show differences in ash and carbohydrate contents. T-P exhibit higher protein content (27.49% than GO-P (26.68%. GO-P had significantly higher oleic and lower linoleic contents (78.50% and 4.60%, respectively than T-P (45.80% and 33.30%, respectively. In addition, GO-P showed higher eicosenoic acid and lower palmitic acid percentages than TP. The consumer acceptance analysis did not show significant differences between samples of GO-P and T-P. In the descriptive analysis, GO-P showed a higher intensity rating in the oiliness texture attribute than in T-P. The other sensory attributes did not show significant variations between the peanut paste samples. GO-P and T-P have a significant difference in fatty acid composition. However, there were no differences in consumer acceptance and descriptive analysis between samples of peanut pastes except for the oiliness attribute.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la composición química, atributos sensoriales y la aceptabilidad de pastas de cacahuete elaboradas a partir del cultivar alto oleico, Granoleico (GO-P, en comparación con el cultivar convencional, Tegua (T-P, de cacahuetes desarrollados en Argentina. GOP presentó mayor contenido de aceite (50.91% que T-P (48.95%. GO-P y T-P no mostraron diferencias en los contenidos de cenizas y carbohidratos. T-P presentó mayor contenido de proteínas (27.49% que GO-P (26.68%. GO-P mostró contenidos significativamente mayores de ácido oleico y menores de ácido linoleico (78.50% y 4.60%, respectivamente que T-P (45.80% y 33.30%, respectivamente. Además, GO-P mostró mayor porcentaje de ácido eicosenoico y

  20. Cultivation and uses of cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated cucurbits have spread through trade and exploration from their respective Old and New World centers of origin to the six arable continents and are important in local, regional and world trade. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), pumpkin, squash and gourd (Cucurbita spp...

  1. Cultivating Audiences: Taming, Teaching, Transforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Satisfying and successful school concerts require an active, empathic, and cooperative partnership between performers and audience members. As music educators work to prepare artful, dignified, and confident performers, "audiences" for these performers must be cultivated just as purposefully. Concertgoers can be motivated to consume school…

  2. Genetic Analysis of Seed Yield Components and its Association with Forage Production in Wild and Cultivated Species of Sainfoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Najafipoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about genetic variation of seed related traits and their association with forage characters in sainfoin. In order to investigate the variation and relationship among seed yield and its components, 93 genotypes from 21 wild and cultivated species of genus Onobrychis were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with four replications at Isfahan University of Technology Research Farm, Isfahan, Iran. Analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference among genotypes, indicating existence of considerable genetic variation in this germplasm. Panicle fertility and panicle length had the most variation in cultivated and the wild genotypes, respectively. Results of correlation analysis showed that seed yield was positively correlated with number of stems per plant and number of seeds per panicle and negatively correlated with panicle length and days to 50% flowering. Seed yield had positive correlation with forage yield in wild species while this correlation was not significant in cultivated one. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into three groups which separate wild and cultivated species. Based on principal component analysis the first component was related to seed yield and the second one was related to components of forage yield which can be used for selection of high forage and seed yielding genotypes.

  3. Cor a 14 is the superior serological marker for hazelnut allergy in children, independent of concomitant peanut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Esben; Mortz, Charlotte G; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hazelnut is the most frequent cause of tree-nut allergy, but up to half of all children with hazelnut allergy additionally suffers from peanut allergy. Our aim was to identify diagnostic values of the most promising serological markers (Cor a 9 and Cor a 14) and to address the influence...... of concomitant peanut allergy and PR10 sensitization. METHOD: We included 155 children suspected off hazelnut allergy and challenged according to guidelines. Concomitant allergy to peanuts was verified or ruled out by challenge. Skin Prick Test, s-IgE and CRD to hazelnut, peanut, PR10 and LPT protein families...... were measured using ImmunoCap. RESULTS: Sixty-five children had a positive hazelnut challenge, and 60% of these also had concomitant peanut allergy. Children allergic to hazelnut were sensitized to Cor a 9 and Cor a 14; peanut allergic children to Ara h 2. Sensitization to PR10 protein components were...

  4. Physicochemical characterization and quality of cold-pressed peanut oil obtained from organically produced peanuts from Macedonian Virginia” variety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadinovic Velickovska, S.; Mitrev, S.; Mihajlov, L.

    2016-07-01

    The physicochemical characterization and quality of cold pressed peanut edible oil from the “Virginia” variety, organically produced from the region of Macedonia, were examined in this work for the first time. The fatty acid composition of the oil showed almost equal levels of oleic and linoleic acids with an abundance of 34.19±0.01 and 36.13±0.01%, respectively. The most dominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid with a level of 10.06±0.00%. The level of tocopherols and other vitamin-E-related compounds was in strong agreement with the antioxidant activity of the oils measured by the DPPH assay. Almost equal amounts of α and γ tocopherols indicated an antioxidant potential of 288.63±59.78 mg·L−1 α-tocopherol. Phytosterols, as minor compounds present in the oils, can be additional antioxidants responsible for the health benefits of this oil in human nutrition. The four major pytosterols were β-sitosterol (1812.21±22.17 mg·kg−1 oil), champesterol (320.55±17.07 mg·kg−1 oil), Δ5-avenasterol (236.16±14.18 mg·kg−1) and stigmasterol (133.12±12.51 mg·kg−1 oil). Induction time, Peroxide number, FFA and specific extinction (K232 and K270, values 1.82 and 0.22) gave us an indication of the oxidative stability of cold pressed peanut oil. (Author)

  5. Isoforms of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2: IgE binding in children with peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Belinda J; Bosco, Anthony; Mills, Kristina L; Hazell, Lee A; Loh, Richard; Holt, Patrick G; Thomas, Wayne R

    2004-10-01

    The major peanut allergen Ara h 2 consists of two isoforms, namely Ara h 2.0101 and Ara h 2.0201. The recently identified Ara h 2.0201 isoform contains an extra 12 amino acids including an extra copy of the reported immunodominant epitope DPYSPS. This study aimed to evaluate the IgE binding of the two Ara h 2 isoforms. Ten clones of Ara h 2 were sequenced to assess the relative frequency of the Ara h 2 isoforms and to identify whether there was further variation in the Ara h 2 sequence. IgE binding to Ara h 2.0101 and Ara h 2.0201 was measured for 70 peanut-allergic children using an IgE DELFIA assay to quantitate specific IgE binding. A competition assay was used to measure whether Ara h 2.0201 contained IgE epitopes other than those found for Ara h 2.0101. The original Ara h 2.0101 sequence was found for 6/10 clones and Ara h 2.0201 was found for 2/10 clones. Ara h 2.0201 had the expected insertion of 12 amino acids as well as substitutions at positions 40 (40G) and 142 (142E). Two new isoforms were identified as different polymorphisms of position 142. One Ara h 2.01 clone (Ara h 2.0102) contained 142E and one Ara h 2.02 clone (Ara h 2.0202) contained 142D. A polymorphism that was previously identified by other investigators at position 77 (77Q or 77R) was not found for any of the 10 sequences. Although the level of IgE binding to Ara h 2.0201 of individual patients was frequently higher than the binding to Ara h 2.0101 (p originally sequenced Ara h 2.0101 isoform and contains other IgE specificities.

  6. "To Screen or not to Screen": Comparing the Health and Economic Benefits of Early Peanut Introduction Strategies in Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Marcus; Stukus, David; Chan, Edmond S; Fleischer, David M; Spergel, Jonathan M; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2018-03-30

    Early peanut introduction (EPI) in the first year of life is associated with reduced risk of developing peanut allergy in children with either severe eczema and/or egg allergy. However, EPI recommendations differ among countries with formal guidelines. Using simulation and Markov modeling over a 20-year horizon to attempt to explore optimal EPI strategies applied to the US population, we compared high-risk infant specific IgE peanut screening (US/Canadian) with the Australiasian Society for Clinical Immunology and Allergy (Australia/New Zealand) (ASCIA) and the United Kingdom Department of Health (UKDOH) published EPI approaches. Screening peanut skin testing of all children with early onset eczema and/or egg allergy before in-office peanut introduction was dominated by a no-screen approach, in terms of number of cases of peanut allergy prevented, QALY's, and healthcare costs, though screening resulted in a slightly lower rate of allergic reactions to peanut per-patient in high-risk children. Considering costs of peanut allergy in high-risk children, the per-patient cost of early introduction without screening over the model horizon was $6,556.69 (95%CI, $6,512.76-$6,600.62), compared with a cost of $7,576.32 (95%CI, $7,531.38-$7,621.26) for skin test screening prior to introduction. From a US societal perspective, screening prior to introduction cost $654,115,322 and resulted in 3,208 additional peanut allergy diagnoses. Both screening and non-screening approaches dominated deliberately delayed peanut introduction. A no-screening approach for EPI has superior health and economic benefits in terms of number of peanut allergy cases prevented, QALY's, and total health care costs compared to screening and in-office peanut introduction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Sustainable intensification of cultivated pastures using multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rangeland and wildlife parks) for guidelines to implementing this approach in cultivated pasture. In rangeland or natural grassland ... Keywords: animal production, biodiversity, cultivated pastures, foraging ecology, plant–herbivore interactions ...

  8. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that can reduce post-harvest proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael L; Foster, Jamie L

    2013-08-15

    Studies of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) suggest its hay and haylage have greater levels of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) than other legume forages such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Greater RUP can result in more efficient nitrogen utilization by ruminant animals with positive economic and environmental effects. We sought to determine whether, like red clover (Trifolium pretense L.), perennial peanut contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that might be responsible for increased RUP. Perennial peanut extracts contain immunologically detectible PPO protein and high levels of PPO activity (>100 nkatal mg(-1) protein). Addition of caffeic acid (PPO substrate) to perennial peanut extracts depleted of endogenous substrates reduced proteolysis by 90%. Addition of phenolics prepared from perennial peanut leaves to extracts of either transgenic PPO-expressing or control (non-expressing) alfalfa showed peanut phenolics could reduce proteolysis >70% in a PPO-dependent manner. Two abundant likely PPO substrates are present in perennial peanut leaves including caftaric acid. Perennial peanut contains PPO and PPO substrates that together are capable of inhibiting post-harvest proteolysis, suggesting a possible mechanism for increased RUP in this forage. Research related to optimizing the PPO system in other forage crops will likely be applicable to perennial peanut. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Processing of commercial peanut cake into food-grade meal and its utilization in preparation of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, P V; Chavan, J K; Patil, P B; Kadam, S S

    1990-04-01

    The commercial cake produced during expeller pressing of peanuts was extracted with n-hexane, and 80% ethanol followed by sieving through 80 mesh, to remove residual oil, pigments, bitter taste and fibrous material. The processed meal exhibited comparable composition with defatted peanut flour prepared in the laboratory by solvent extraction of full-fat peanut meal. However, the processed cake meal exhibited low methionine content and in vitro protein digestibility as compared with defatted peanut flour. The processed cake meal can be blended with wheat flour to the extent of 10% (w/w) to prepare acceptable cookies with improved protein and mineral contents.

  10. Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, Tannin Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated on Different Wastes and Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşenur Yılmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the usage possibilities of some agro-industrial wastes such as; peanut wastes, potatoes farm wastes, walnut and orange tree sawdust in Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation were investigated and total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin content and antioxidant properties of these methanolic mushroom extracts were examined. For the determination of the total phenolic contents, the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure was used. The content of total flavonoid present in the methanolic extracts was measured using a spectrophotometric assay. Condensed tannins were determined according to the method by Julkunen-Tıtto. The antioxidant capacity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH. The highest total phenolic content (2.672 ± 0.003 mg GAE/g was found in mushroom cultivated on walnut sawdust. The highest condensed tannin (1.011 ± 0.088 CE mg/g and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP (12.332 ± 0.017 μmol FeSO4.7H2O/g were observed in the same mushroom extract. The highest total flavonoid and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH were found in extract of mushroom cultivated on potatoes handle. Bioactive properties of P. ostreatus cultivated on walnut tree sawdust were generally exhibited remarkable results.

  11. Differential iridoid production as revealed by a diversity panel of 84 cultivated and wild blueberry species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney P Leisner

    Full Text Available Cultivated blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium darrowii, and Vaccinium virgatum is an economically important fruit crop native to North America and a member of the Ericaceae family. Several species in the Ericaceae family including cranberry, lignonberry, bilberry, and neotropical blueberry species have been shown to produce iridoids, a class of pharmacologically important compounds present in over 15 plant families demonstrated to have a wide range of biological activities in humans including anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory. While the antioxidant capacity of cultivated blueberry has been well studied, surveys of iridoid production in blueberry have been restricted to fruit of a very limited number of accessions of V. corymbosum, V. angustifolium and V. virgatum; none of these analyses have detected iridoids. To provide a broader survey of iridoid biosynthesis in cultivated blueberry, we constructed a panel of 84 accessions representing a wide range of cultivated market classes, as well as wild blueberry species, and surveyed these for the presence of iridoids. We identified the iridoid glycoside monotropein in fruits and leaves of all 13 wild Vaccinium species, yet only five of the 71 cultivars. Monotropein positive cultivars all had recent introgressions from wild species, suggesting that iridoid production can be targeted through breeding efforts that incorporate wild germplasm. A series of diverse developmental tissues was also surveyed in the diversity panel, demonstrating a wide range in iridoid content across tissues. Taken together, this data provides the foundation to dissect the molecular and genetic basis of iridoid production in blueberry.

  12. Seed-storage Mycoflora of Peanut Cultivars Grown in Nigerian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwankiti, AO.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of peanut is increasingly becoming important both among growers and users of the crop in Nigerian savanna. The aim is to sell the produce and maximize benefits accruing from the crops during scarcity. Very often, these envisaged advantages fail due to unfavourable market forces, thus compelling them to sell at a loss or store them across seasons for periods ranging from one to two years. However, information on fungi associated with storage of such peanuts in Nigerian savanna and its attendant problems are yet to be investigated. Thus, the seed mycoflora and viability seven common peanut cultivars stored under conditions similar to traditional settings were investigated using different isolating techniques. The peanut cultivars were RMP 12, RMP 91, RRB, 48-115B, M554-76, 55-437 Ex-Dakar and a local cultivar. None of these cultivars possessed resistance to in vitro colonization by fungi. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer were consistently isolated from all the cultivars from almost all isolating techniques. Other fungi were Fusarium chlamydosporium, F. roseum, F. oxysporium, Penicillium spp., Curvularia spp., Botryodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina and Sclerotium rolfsii. Relative percentages, however, varied with individual fungi and peanut cultivars. The test with seven different types of growth media gave the highest fungi recovery rate than the blotter paper technique. Seed viability was lower with peanut seeds stored for two years. Also, the relative percentage occurrence of individual fungi was significantly higher with seeds stored for two years. While we recommend the use of growth media for recovery and study of seed mycoflora, peanut seeds should not be stored for more than one year.

  13. Atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus isolated from peanuts collected from northern Philippines as potential biocon agents against pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut and corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination of food products causes liver cancer and weakened immunity in humans, and stunted growth and reduced productivity in animals (CAST, 2003). Effective control of pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut and corn due to AflaGuard and Aflasafe in the United States and Africa...

  14. Exploring the Cultivable Ectocarpus Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KleinJan, Hetty; Jeanthon, Christian; Boyen, Catherine; Dittami, Simon M

    2017-01-01

    Coastal areas form the major habitat of brown macroalgae, photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes that have great ecological value and industrial potential. Macroalgal growth, development, and physiology are influenced by the microbial community they accommodate. Studying the algal microbiome should thus increase our fundamental understanding of algal biology and may help to improve culturing efforts. Currently, a freshwater strain of the brown macroalga Ectocarpus subulatus is being developed as a model organism for brown macroalgal physiology and algal microbiome studies. It can grow in high and low salinities depending on which microbes it hosts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. Cultivation of Ectocarpus -associated bacteria is the first step toward the development of a model system for in vitro functional studies of brown macroalgal-bacterial interactions during abiotic stress. The main aim of the present study is thus to provide an extensive collection of cultivable E . subulatus -associated bacteria. To meet the variety of metabolic demands of Ectocarpus -associated bacteria, several isolation techniques were applied, i.e., direct plating and dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, each with chemically defined and undefined bacterial growth media. Algal tissue and algal growth media were directly used as inoculum, or they were pretreated with antibiotics, by filtration, or by digestion of algal cell walls. In total, 388 isolates were identified falling into 33 genera (46 distinct strains), of which Halomonas ( Gammaproteobacteria ), Bosea ( Alphaproteobacteria ), and Limnobacter ( Betaproteobacteria ) were the most abundant. Comparisons with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding data showed that culturability in this study was remarkably high (∼50%), although several cultivable strains were not detected or only present in extremely low abundance in the libraries. These undetected bacteria could be considered as part

  15. Exploring the Cultivable Ectocarpus Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetty KleinJan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas form the major habitat of brown macroalgae, photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes that have great ecological value and industrial potential. Macroalgal growth, development, and physiology are influenced by the microbial community they accommodate. Studying the algal microbiome should thus increase our fundamental understanding of algal biology and may help to improve culturing efforts. Currently, a freshwater strain of the brown macroalga Ectocarpus subulatus is being developed as a model organism for brown macroalgal physiology and algal microbiome studies. It can grow in high and low salinities depending on which microbes it hosts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. Cultivation of Ectocarpus-associated bacteria is the first step toward the development of a model system for in vitro functional studies of brown macroalgal–bacterial interactions during abiotic stress. The main aim of the present study is thus to provide an extensive collection of cultivable E. subulatus-associated bacteria. To meet the variety of metabolic demands of Ectocarpus-associated bacteria, several isolation techniques were applied, i.e., direct plating and dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, each with chemically defined and undefined bacterial growth media. Algal tissue and algal growth media were directly used as inoculum, or they were pretreated with antibiotics, by filtration, or by digestion of algal cell walls. In total, 388 isolates were identified falling into 33 genera (46 distinct strains, of which Halomonas (Gammaproteobacteria, Bosea (Alphaproteobacteria, and Limnobacter (Betaproteobacteria were the most abundant. Comparisons with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding data showed that culturability in this study was remarkably high (∼50%, although several cultivable strains were not detected or only present in extremely low abundance in the libraries. These undetected bacteria could be considered

  16. Hydroponic cultivation of Oncidium baueri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Brandstetter Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, orchid cultivation has been increasing steadily over the last few years and contributing significantly to the economy. It has been reported that several vegetable crops and ornamentals have been successfully grown by soilless cultivation. The orchid Oncidium baueri Lindl. is grown on pot substrates. Nevertheless, hydroponics is an excellent alternative, especially for the production of cut flowers and bare root plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Oncidium baueri on two soilless systems: (a pots containing Amafibra® coconut fiber, carbonized rice husk, and pine bark (1:1:1 irrigated with nutrient solution every 15 d; and (b a nutrient film technique (NFT hydroponic system irrigated with nutrient solution daily. Shoot height, pseudobulb diameter, and number of sprouts were evaluated monthly. The number of flowering plants, number of flowers, dry mass of shoots, and dry mass of roots were evaluated 11 months after onset of experiment. The pot cultivation system yielded more flowers and higher values for all vegetative parameters than the NFT hydroponic system.

  17. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization under different tillage systems and Permanent Groundcover cultivation between Orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space.

  18. Induced Biosynthesis of resveratrol and the prenylated stilbenoids arachidan-1 and arachidan-3 in hairy root cultures of peanut: effects of culture medium and growth stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peanut plant has evolved specialized biosynthetic mechanisms that allowed resisting infection by producing diverse secondary metabolites. Among these unique compounds are the stilbenoids, which include resveratrol analogues. Our previous research demonstrated that peanut hairy root cultures prov...

  19. Cultivating the Deep Subsurface Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casar, C. P.; Osburn, M. R.; Flynn, T. M.; Masterson, A.; Kruger, B.

    2017-12-01

    Subterranean ecosystems are poorly understood because many microbes detected in metagenomic surveys are only distantly related to characterized isolates. Cultivating microorganisms from the deep subsurface is challenging due to its inaccessibility and potential for contamination. The Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in Lead, SD however, offers access to deep microbial life via pristine fracture fluids in bedrock to a depth of 1478 m. The metabolic landscape of DeMMO was previously characterized via thermodynamic modeling coupled with genomic data, illustrating the potential for microbial inhabitants of DeMMO to utilize mineral substrates as energy sources. Here, we employ field and lab based cultivation approaches with pure minerals to link phylogeny to metabolism at DeMMO. Fracture fluids were directed through reactors filled with Fe3O4, Fe2O3, FeS2, MnO2, and FeCO3 at two sites (610 m and 1478 m) for 2 months prior to harvesting for subsequent analyses. We examined mineralogical, geochemical, and microbiological composition of the reactors via DNA sequencing, microscopy, lipid biomarker characterization, and bulk C and N isotope ratios to determine the influence of mineralogy on biofilm community development. Pre-characterized mineral chips were imaged via SEM to assay microbial growth; preliminary results suggest MnO2, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 were most conducive to colonization. Solid materials from reactors were used as inoculum for batch cultivation experiments. Media designed to mimic fracture fluid chemistry was supplemented with mineral substrates targeting metal reducers. DNA sequences and microscopy of iron oxide-rich biofilms and fracture fluids suggest iron oxidation is a major energy source at redox transition zones where anaerobic fluids meet more oxidizing conditions. We utilized these biofilms and fluids as inoculum in gradient cultivation experiments targeting microaerophilic iron oxidizers. Cultivation of microbes endemic to DeMMO, a system

  20. Observational constraints to boxy/peanut bulge formation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, I.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Florido, E.; González Delgado, R. M.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; van de Ven, G.; Zurita, A.

    2017-09-01

    Boxy/peanut bulges are considered to be part of the same stellar structure as bars and both could be linked through the buckling instability. The Milky Way is our closest example. The goal of this Letter is to determine if the mass assembly of the different components leaves an imprint in their stellar populations allowing the estimation the time of bar formation and its evolution. To this aim, we use integral field spectroscopy to derive the stellar age distributions, SADs, along the bar and disc of NGC 6032. The analysis clearly shows different SADs for the different bar areas. There is an underlying old (≥12 Gyr) stellar population for the whole galaxy. The bulge shows star formation happening at all times. The inner bar structure shows stars of ages older than 6 Gyr with a deficit of younger populations. The outer bar region presents an SAD similar to that of the disc. To interpret our results, we use a generic numerical simulation of a barred galaxy. Thus, we constrain, for the first time, the epoch of bar formation, the buckling instability period and the posterior growth from disc material. We establish that the bar of NGC 6032 is old, formed around 10 Gyr ago while the buckling phase possibly happened around 8 Gyr ago. All these results point towards bars being long-lasting even in the presence of gas.

  1. Nutritional composition of new peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Mondragon, M. G.; Calderon de la Barca, A. M.; Duran-Prado, A.; Campos-Reyes, L. C.; Oliart-Ros, R. M.; Ortega-Garcia, J.; Medina-Juarez, L. A.; Angulo, O.

    2009-07-01

    Six peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars (Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81-B, Ranferi Diaz, NC-2 and Florunner) were studied for agricultural yield, chemical composition (protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and ash), amino acid profile, digestibility, fatty acid profile, tocopherol and sterol contents. Results indicated that Ranferi Diaz and Col-61-Gto presented the highest yield (6.3 Ton/ha). Protein content was from 23.5 to 26.6% and fat content ranged from 49.8-53.4%. Mean digestibility was 86%. Lysine and threonine levels in all cultivars were sufficient to meet human requirements. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 15-18%. The oleic/linoleic ratio was estimated 1.3-1.4. Tocopherol levels varied from 390 to 706 ppm. The highest tocopherol levels corresponded to the cultivars with the lowest yield. The alpha tocopherol content was estimated at 90-150 ppm, while gamma tocopherol was 270-570 ppm. The main sterol present was A- sitosterol (approx. 65%). Ranferi Diaz variety presented the highest agronomic yield and the highest protein content but low oleic acid, low sterols and low total tocopherols. The differences among cultivars suggest differences in their applications. (Author) 40 refs.

  2. Evaluation of peanut hulls as an alternative to bleaching clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, M. M.; El-Shami, S. M.; Taha, F. S.

    2011-07-01

    Peanut hulls (PNH) were carbonized at different temperatures, times, and evaluated at different concentrations as an alternative to bleaching clays. Evaluation of bleached crude soybean oil with PNH was based on their delta free fatty acids, reduction in peroxide value (PV), reduction in phospholipids (PL) and bleachability. The performance of several commercially used bleaching clays was evaluated, for comparison. Mixtures were formulated including: PNH and Tonsil -N (TN), PNH and Fuller's earth (FE) and PNH and O-passive (OP) and examined. The oxidative stability of oils was determined. Results for the investigated commercial bleaching clays revealed: TN > FE > F > TF > OP. Highest reduction in PV and PL, and highest bleachability were achieved for soybean oil bleached with 2% PNH carbonized at 500 degree centigrade for 30 min (PNH). Mixtures of PNH with the three chosen bleaching clays indicated that 1PNH : 2TN gave the highest bleachability. CSO was miscella bleached in hexane using PNH and resulted in an appreciable improvement in all oil characteristics, especially in bleachability. Oxidative stability of oils was in the following order: TN > control > FE > PNH with Induction period values of 23.1 > 6.43 > 5.73 > 2.85 h, respectively. (Author) 20 refs.

  3. Plants Regeneration Derived From Various on Peanut on Mutant Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewi, Kumala; Masrizal; Mugiono

    1998-01-01

    The study of calli, greenspot formation and shoot regeneration on peanut mutant lines has ben conducted by MS media. Three explants derived from shoot tips, embryo and seeding root of two mutant lines a/20/3 and D/25/3/2 were used in this experiment. the explants were cultured on modified MS media enriched by vitamins, growth regulation, amino acids for fourth teen calli were transferred on regeneration media. The ability of calli formation and plant regeneration of each explant and genotypes of plants was varied. Greenspot and shoot formation were observed seventh days after the calli transferred on regeneration media. It is shown that the ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation of each explants and genotypes was varied. the high ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation were found in explant derived from shoot tip and embryo. Seedling root explant has lower ability in calli formation, while greenspot and shoot was formatted. The ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation on A/20/3 mutant line was better than D/25/3/2 mutant line. (author)

  4. The peanut lectin-binding glycoproteins of human epidermal keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, A.I.; Keeble, S.; Watt, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    The peanut lectin (PNA) is known to bind more strongly to keratinocytes that are undergoing terminal differentiation than to proliferating keratinocytes. In order to investigate the significance of this change in cell-surface carbohydrate authors have identified the PNA-binding glycoproteins of cultured human keratinocytes and antibodies against them. Two heavily glycosylated bands of 110 and 250 kDa were resolved by PAGE of [ 14 C]galactose- or [ 14 C]mannose- and [ 14 C]glucosamine-labeled cell extracts eluted with galactose from PNA affinity columns. The higher molecular weight band was also detected on PNA blots of unlabeled cell extracts transferred to nitrocellulose. Both bands were sensitive to pronase digestion, but only the 250-kDa band was digested with trypsin. A rabbit antiserum that we prepared (anti-PNA-gp) immunoprecipitated both bands from cell extracts. In contrast to PNA, anti-PNA-gp bound equally to proliferating and terminally differentiating cells, indicating that some epitope(s) of the PNA-binding glycoproteins is present on the cell surface prior to terminal differentiation. When keratinocytes grown as a monolayer in low-calcium medium were switched to medium containing 2 mM calcium ions in order to induce desmosome formation and stratification, there was a dramatic redistribution of the PNA-binding glycoproteins, which became concentrated at the boundaries between cells. This may suggest a role for the glycoproteins in cell-cell interactions during stratification

  5. Minimizing the Negative Flavor Attributes and Evaluating Consumer Acceptance of Chocolate Fortified with Peanut Skin Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, L L; Klevorn, C M; Hess, B J

    2016-10-13

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in antioxidant-rich products by consumers wanting to enhance the health benefits of their diet. Chocolate has been identified as a natural source of antioxidant compounds, which resulted in the development of polyphenol-enriched chocolate products that are now available commercially. This study investigated the use of phenolic compounds extracted from peanut skins as a novel antioxidant source for the enrichment of milk chocolate. The extracts were encapsulated with maltodextrin to lessen their bitterness. Antioxidant potential of the encapsulated peanut skin extracts was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl radical quenching assay. Encapsulated peanut skins were found to have a corrected Trolox equivalency of 31.1 μmol/g of chocolate up to 0.8% (w/w). To produce a product with an antioxidant content similar to that of dark chocolate yet which maintained the milder flavor of milk chocolate, the best estimate threshold of encapsulated peanut skin extract in chocolate was 0.9 % (w/w) based on the standard method (American Society of Testing Materials; ASTM E-679). Consumer liking of milk chocolate enhanced by adding subthreshold (0.8 % (w/w)) inclusion levels of encapsulated peanut skin extract was found to be at parity with milk chocolate as a control. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Regulation of Calcium on Peanut Photosynthesis Under Low Night Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-fei; HAN Xiao-ri; ZHAN Xiu-mei; YANG Jin-feng; WANG Yu-zhi; SONG Qiao-bo; CHEN Xin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different levels of CaCl2 on photosynthesis under low night temperature (8°C) stress in peanuts were studied in order to ifnd out the appropriate concentration of Ca2+ through the artiifcial climate chamber potted culture test. The results indicated that Ca2+, by means of improving the stomatal conductivity of peanut leaves under low night temperature stress, may mitigate the decline of photosynthetic rate in the peanut leaves. The regulation with 15 mmol L-1 CaCl2 (Ca15) was the most effective, compared with other treatments. Subsequently, the improvement of Ca2+ on peanut photosynthesis under low night temperature stress was validated further through spraying withCa15, Ca2+ chelator (ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl) tetraacetic acid; EGTA) and calmodulin antagonists (trilfuonerazine; TFP).And CaM (Ca2+-modulin) played an important role in the nutritional signal transduction for Ca2+ mitigating photosynthesis limitations in peanuts under low night temperature stress.

  7. Peanuts, Aflatoxins and Undernutrition in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Mupunga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea is an important and affordable source of protein in most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and a popular commodity and raw material for peanut butter, paste and cooking oil. It is a popular ingredient for foods used at the point of weaning infants from mother’s milk. It is at this critical point that childhood undernutrition occurs and the condition manifests as stunting, wasting and growth restriction and accounts for nearly half of all deaths in children under five years of age in SSA. Undernutrition is multi-factorial but weaning foods contaminated with microbiological agents (bacteria and fungi and natural toxins have been shown to play a big part. While peanuts may provide good nutrition, they are also highly prone to contamination with mycotoxigenic fungi. The high nutritive value of peanuts makes them a perfect substrate for fungal growth and potential aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic and mutagenic mycotoxins. This article reviews the nutritional value and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts, the role they play in the development of childhood malnutrition (including the different theories of aetiology and immunological problems in children. We also discuss the control strategies that have been explored and advocacy work currently taking shape in Africa to create more awareness of aflatoxins and thus combat their occurrence with the goal of reducing exposure and enhancing trade and food safety.

  8. Screening natural antioxidants in peanut shell using DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiying; Chen, Leilei; Zhu, Qingjun; Wang, Daijie; Wang, Wenliang; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaoyong; Du, Fangling

    2012-12-15

    Peanut shell, a byproduct in oil production, is rich in natural antioxidants. Here, a rapid and efficient method using DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS was used for the first time to screen antioxidants in peanut shell. The method is based on the hypothesis that upon reaction with 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the peak areas of compounds with potential antioxidant activities in the HPLC chromatogram will be significantly reduced or disappeared, and the identity confirmation could be achieved by HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS technique. With this method, three compounds possessing potential antioxidant activities were found abundantly in the methanolic extract of peanut shell. They were identified as 5,7-dihydroxychromone, eriodictyol, and luteolin. The contents of these compounds were 0.59, 0.92, and 2.36 mg/g, respectively, and luteolin possessed the strongest radical scavenging capacity. DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS assay facilitated rapid identification and determination of natural antioxidants in peanut shell, which may be helpful for value-added utilization of peanut processing byproducts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of potassium application on the accumulated nitrogen source and yield of peanut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuefu; Kang Yujie; Wang Minglun; Zhao Changxing

    2013-01-01

    Pot experiments and were carried out respectively to study the effects of different potassium application on soil nitrogen uptake, fertilizer nitrogen uptake, nodule nitrogen fixation and their proportion and yield of peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) by "1"5N tracer technique, and explore the reasons, which may provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for peanut production in the scientific fertilizer application. Results showed that nitrogen in peanut all mainly accumulated in the kernel for different treatments of potassium fertilizer application. However, with increasing of potassium application, the increasing extent of nitrogen content of stems was the biggest during all the peanut organs, with nut shells the smallest. Properly increasing the amount of potassium can improve nitrogen content, "1"5N abundance, nitrogen and "1"5N accumulation of every organ, and promote absorption and utilization three nitrogen-source especially with the most effect for the kernel biomass (economic output). The ratio of fertilizer nitrogen, soil nitrogen and atmospheric nitrogen absorbed by peanut was respectively between 12.37%-13.10%, 38.29%-45.10%, and 42.53%-48.31% respectively. Properly increasing potassium fertilizer application improved the absorption ratio of fertilizer nitrogen and nodule nitrogen fixation, reduced the proportion of soil uptake and enhanced fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency. However, the influences of excessive application of potassium fertilizer decreased. (authors)

  10. [Ecological adaptability evaluation of peanut cultivars based on biomass and nutrient accumulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Cui, Shao-xiong; Sun, Zhi-mei; Mu, Guo-jun; Cui, Shun-li; Wang, Peng-chao; Liu, Li-feng

    2015-07-01

    To identify the good peanut cultivars with the properties of high yield, high nutrient use efficiency and wide adaptability, 19 selected peanut cultivars were planted in the low champaign area and piedmont plain area of Hebei Province. By using principal component analysis, the adaptability of these 19 cultivars was evaluated for different ecological regions through comparing their 16 main traits including biomass and nutrient parameters. According to the critical value of principal component (>1.0), the 16 biomass and nutrient characteristics were integrated into 4 principal components which accounted for 85% of the original information. The results indicated that there were obvious differences in yield and nutrient use efficiency for the peanut cultivars in different ecological regions. The 19 peanut cultivars were classified into 2 groups according to their ecological adaptability, and the cultivars from the group with wide adaptability could further be divided into 3 categories according to their yield and nutrient use efficiency. Among these cultivars, Yuhua 9719, Jihua 0212-4, Weihua 10, Yuhua 15, Puhua 28 and Jihua 10 were selected as the better peanut cultivars with the properties of high yield, high nutrient use efficiency and wide adaptability.

  11. Genetic diversity of "Pimenta Longa" genotypes (Piper spp., Piperaceae) of the Embrapa Acre germplasm collection

    OpenAIRE

    Wadt, Lúcia Helena de Oliveira; Ehringhaus, Christiane; Kageyama, Paulo Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    The commonly known Pimenta longa is a commercially valuable natural resource found wild in Acre, Brazil. Specifically, three Piperaceae species with contested taxonomic status were studied, Piper hispidinervum, Piper aduncum, and Piper hispidum, to assesses the inter- and intra-specific genetic relationship of 49 Piper genotypes kept in the Pimenta longa germplasm collection at Embrapa Acre, using sixty six Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The DNA polymorphism level detected w...

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure of Miscanthus sinensis germplasm in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhao

    Full Text Available Miscanthus is a perennial rhizomatous C4 grass native to East Asia. Endowed with great biomass yield, high ligno-cellulose composition, efficient use of radiation, nutrient and water, as well as tolerance to stress, Miscanthus has great potential as an excellent bioenergy crop. Despite of the high potential for biomass production of the allotriploid hybrid M. ×giganteus, derived from M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis, other options need to be explored to improve the narrow genetic base of M. ×giganteus, and also to exploit other Miscanthus species, including M. sinensis (2n = 2x = 38, as bioenergy crops. In the present study, a large number of 459 M. sinensis accessions, collected from the wide geographical distribution regions in China, were genotyped using 23 SSR markers transferable from Brachypodium distachyon. Genetic diversity and population structure were assessed. High genetic diversity and differentiation of the germplasm were observed, with 115 alleles in total, a polymorphic rate of 0.77, Nei's genetic diversity index (He of 0.32 and polymorphism information content (PIC of 0.26. Clustering of germplasm accessions was primarily in agreement with the natural geographic distribution. AMOVA and genetic distance analyses confirmed the genetic differentiation in the M. sinensis germplasm and it was grouped into five clusters or subpopulations. Significant genetic variation among subpopulations indicated obvious genetic differentiation in the collections, but within-subpopulation variation (83% was substantially greater than the between-subpopulation variation (17%. Considerable phenotypic variation was observed for multiple traits among 300 M. sinensis accessions. Nine SSR markers were found to be associated with heading date and biomass yield. The diverse Chinese M. sinensis germplasm and newly identified SSR markers were proved to be valuable for breeding Miscanthus varieties with desired bioenergy traits.

  13. High-throughput genotyping for species identification and diversity assessment in germplasm collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Annaliese S; Zhang, Jing; Tollenaere, Reece; Vasquez Teuber, Paula; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Hu, Liyong; Yan, Guijun; Edwards, David; Redden, Robert; Batley, Jacqueline

    2015-09-01

    Germplasm collections provide an extremely valuable resource for breeders and researchers. However, misclassification of accessions by species often hinders the effective use of these collections. We propose that use of high-throughput genotyping tools can provide a fast, efficient and cost-effective way of confirming species in germplasm collections, as well as providing valuable genetic diversity data. We genotyped 180 Brassicaceae samples sourced from the Australian Grains Genebank across the recently released Illumina Infinium Brassica 60K SNP array. Of these, 76 were provided on the basis of suspected misclassification and another 104 were sourced independently from the germplasm collection. Presence of the A- and C-genomes combined with principle components analysis clearly separated Brassica rapa, B. oleracea, B. napus, B. carinata and B. juncea samples into distinct species groups. Several lines were further validated using chromosome counts. Overall, 18% of samples (32/180) were misclassified on the basis of species. Within these 180 samples, 23/76 (30%) supplied on the basis of suspected misclassification were misclassified, and 9/105 (9%) of the samples randomly sourced from the Australian Grains Genebank were misclassified. Surprisingly, several individuals were also found to be the product of interspecific hybridization events. The SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) array proved effective at confirming species, and provided useful information related to genetic diversity. As similar genomic resources become available for different crops, high-throughput molecular genotyping will offer an efficient and cost-effective method to screen germplasm collections worldwide, facilitating more effective use of these valuable resources by breeders and researchers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Capability of multiple selection criteria to evaluate contrasting spring wheat germplasms under arid conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Suhaibani, N. A.; SALAH, E.; El-Hendawy, S. E.; Al-Gaadi, K.; Rehman, S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Selection criteria that would evaluate a large number of germplasm in a rapid and non-destructive manner would be considered advantageous in plant breeding programs. Trade-off between traditional and non-destructive screening criteria in evaluating 90 wheat accessions under water shortage was tested using multivariate statistical techniques. Only three irrigations during the growing cycle of germplasm were applied with the amount of water totalling 2550 m /sup 3/ ha /sup -1/. Sequential path analysis identified one traditional trait (grain weight per plant) and two non-destructive traits (leaf area index and stomatal conductance) as important first-order traits that influenced final grain yield. The three traits, taken together, explained 96.8 percentage of the total variation in grain yield. Total dry weight per plant, green leaf area per plant, harvest index, grain number per plant, leaf water content and canopy temperature were identified as important second-order traits that influenced grain yield. Although canopy temperature was ranked as a second-order trait, it explained 64.4 percentage of the total variation in stomatal conductance. Approximately 78.0 percentage of the total variation in grain weight or leaf area index was explained by the leaf water content (66.2 percentage) and total dry weight (11.5 percentage). The 90 examined spring wheat germplasms were grouped into five clusters based on all agro-physiological traits using the centroid linkage method. The tested wheat germplasm that produce high grain yield under water shortage were characterised by good performance of certain rapid, easy and non-destructive physiological traits such as high leaf area index, high stomatal conductance and low canopy temperature. Therefore, these three traits could be used in combination as quick and easy screening criteria to select suitable genotypes for water-limiting conditions. (author)

  15. Nuclear and chloroplast diversity and phenotypic distribution of rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm from the democratic people’s republic of Korea (DPRK; North Korea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Rice accounts for 43% of staple food production in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The most widely planted rice varieties were developed from a limited number of ancestral lines that were repeatedly used as parents in breeding programs. However, detailed pedigrees are not publicly available and little is known about the genetic, phenotypic, and geographical variation of DPRK varieties. Results We evaluated 80 O. sativa accessions from the DPRK, consisting of 67 improved varieties and 13 landraces. Based on nuclear SSR analysis, we divide the varieties into two genetic groups: Group 1 corresponds to the temperate japonica subpopulation and represents 78.75% of the accessions, while Group 2 shares recent ancestry with indica varieties. Interestingly, members of Group 1 are less diverse than Group 2 at the nuclear level, but are more diverse at the chloroplast level. All Group 2 varieties share a single Japonica maternal-haplotype, while Group 1 varieties trace maternal ancestry to both Japonica and Indica. Phenotypically, members of Group 1 have shorter grains than Group 2, and varieties from breeding programs have thicker and wider grains than landraces. Improved varieties in Group 1 also show similar and/or better levels of cold tolerance for most traits, except for spikelet number per panicle. Finally, geographic analysis demonstrates that the majority of genetic variation is located within regions that have the most intensive rice cultivation, including the Western territories near the capital city Pyungyang. This is consistent with the conscious and highly centralized role of human selection in determining local dispersion patterns of rice in the DPRK. Conclusions Diversity studies of DPRK rice germplasm revealed two genetic groups. The most widely planted group has a narrow genetic base and would benefit from the introduction of new genetic variation from cold tolerant landraces, wild accessions, and/or cultivated gene pools to

  16. Genetic diversity in radish germplasm for morphological traits and seed storage proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatoi, S.A.; Siddiqui, S.U.; Masood, M.S.; Javaid, A.; Iqbal, M.; Sayal, O.U.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variation of forty-nine local and exotic radish genotypes including two checks was studied for morphological traits and seed storage protein electrophoresis using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) markers. A high variation in germplasm for root shape, root length, root colour (internal and external), flesh texture and root type was observed. Among these genotypes, the genetic variation was apparent for most of the characters like plant biomass, root weight, leaf length, root length and root diameter that indicated the potential for crop improvement in these traits through simple selection. Exotic germplasm exhibited higher variation for plant biomass, root weight and root length which could be utilized through breeding programme. Cluster analysis on the basis of genetic diversity for seven quantitative traits resulted into four clusters. No clustering was found on the basis of origin. Low level of variance was observed for SDS-PAGE electrophoresis that suggested acquisition of more germplasm. On the basis of high yield and crispy root texture some genotypes (10076, 10362, 10429, 10658, 10662 and 10667) were identified for further testing under wide range of agro-ecological conditions. (author)

  17. Fingerprinting for discriminating tea germplasm using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.Y.; Li, Y.Y.; Wang, P.S.; Wang, L.Y.; Wang, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    For the discrimination of tea germplasm at the inter-specific level, 134 tea varieties preserved in the China National Germplasm Tea Repositories (CNGTR) were analyzed using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Eighteen primers were chosen from 60 screened for ISSR amplification, generating 99.4% polymorphic bands. The mean Nei's gene diversity (H) and the overall mean Shannon's Information index (I) were 0.396 and 0.578, respectively, indicating a wide gene pool. Using the presence, sometimes absence of unique ISSR markers, it was possible to discriminate 32 of the genotypes tested. No single primer could discriminate all the 134 genotypes. However, UBC811 provided rich band patterns and it can discriminate 35 genotypes. The combination of two and three primers could discriminate 99 and 121 genotypes, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of band patterns or the DNA fingerprinting based on specific ISSR markers generated by UBC811, UBC835, ISSR2 and ISSR3 could discriminate all 134 genotypes tested. ISSR markers also provide a powerful tool to discriminate tea germplasm at the inter-specific level. (author)

  18. Diversity Analysis and Physico-Morphlogical Characteritics of Indigenous Germplasm of Lablab Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Bahadur KC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Germplasm characterization is an important component of crop breeding program. In characterizing indigenous beans lablab which is used for vegetables as well pulses in Nepal. Twenty three lablab beans germplasm were evaluated for different qualitative and quantitive physico-morphological charecteristics for two years during 2011 and 2012 at Horticulture Research Station, Malepatan, Pokhara. The germplasm showed considerable variations in most of the qualitative and quantitative traits. Leaf size, vine color, flower color, pod color, pod shape, pod type and seed color varied among the genotypes. Variation was also observed in yield attributing characters eg, pod length and width, 10 fresh pod weight, seeds per pod and 100-seed weight. Days to 50% flowering ranged from 81 to 130 days indicating the presence of early varieties. Fresh pod weight of 10 pods was ranged from 45.0 g to 162.5 g. Multivariate analysis indicated four groups in these genotypes, among with ML-02 and ML-10 were distinct in comparioson with other genotypes. Simple selection may be considered to develop high yielding, early type varieties from these gentopypes.

  19. Specific IgE to peanut 2S albumin Ara h 7 has a discriminative ability comparable to Ara h 2 and 6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankestijn, Mark A; Otten, Henry G.; Suer, Waltraud; Weimann, Alf; Knol, Edward F; Knulst, André C

    BACKGROUND: Little is known on the clinical relevance of peanut 2S albumin Ara h 7. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the discriminative ability of Ara h 7 in peanut allergy and assess the role of cross-reactivity between Ara h 2, 6 and Ara h 7 isoforms. METHODS: Sensitization to recombinant peanut storage

  20. Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus suppress IgE production and prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Nan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut allergy is characterized by increased levels of peanut-specific IgE in the serum of most patients. Thus, the most logical therapy would be to inhibit the IgE production by committed B-cells. This study aims to investigate the unreported anti-IgE effects of Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia (Qiancao and Dianthus superbus (Qumai. Methods Seventy herbal extracts were tested for their ability to reduce IgE secretion by a human B-cell line. Those with the lowest inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 values were tested in a mouse model of peanut-anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic scores, body temperature, plasma histamine and peanut-specific-immunoglobulins were determined. Results Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the in vitro IgE production by a human B-cell line in a dose-dependent manner and the in vivo IgE production in a murine model of peanut allergy without affecting peanut-specific-IgG1 levels. After challenge, all mice in the sham groups developed anaphylactic reactions and increased plasma histamine levels. The extract-treated mice demonstrated significantly reduced peanut-triggered anaphylactic reactions and plasma histamine levels. Conclusion The extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the IgE production in vivo and in vitro as well as reduced anaphylactic reactions in peanut-allergic mice, suggesting potentials for allergy treatments.

  1. Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus suppress IgE production and prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is characterized by increased levels of peanut-specific IgE in the serum of most patients. Thus, the most logical therapy would be to inhibit the IgE production by committed B-cells. This study aims to investigate the unreported anti-IgE effects of Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia (Qiancao) and Dianthus superbus (Qumai). Methods Seventy herbal extracts were tested for their ability to reduce IgE secretion by a human B-cell line. Those with the lowest inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values were tested in a mouse model of peanut-anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic scores, body temperature, plasma histamine and peanut-specific-immunoglobulins were determined. Results Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the in vitro IgE production by a human B-cell line in a dose-dependent manner and the in vivo IgE production in a murine model of peanut allergy without affecting peanut-specific-IgG1 levels. After challenge, all mice in the sham groups developed anaphylactic reactions and increased plasma histamine levels. The extract-treated mice demonstrated significantly reduced peanut-triggered anaphylactic reactions and plasma histamine levels. Conclusion The extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the IgE production in vivo and in vitro as well as reduced anaphylactic reactions in peanut-allergic mice, suggesting potentials for allergy treatments. PMID:21961957

  2. The importance of dietary control in the development of a peanut allergy model in Brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J.D. de; Knippels, L.M.J.; Ezendam, J.; Odink, J.; Penninks, A.H.; Loveren, H. van

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the further development of a peanut allergy model in Brown Norway (BN) rats and in particular the importance of allergen-free breeding of the laboratory animals for the allergen to be used. For this purpose BN rats were bred for 3 generations on soy- and peanut-free feed since

  3. Reduction and alkylation of peanut allergen isoforms Ara h 2 and Ara h 6; Characterization of intermediate- and end products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolovic, D.; Luykx, D.; Warmenhoven, H.; Verbart, D.; Stanic-Vucinic, D.; Jong, G.A.H. de; Velickovic, T.C.; Koppelman, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conglutins, the major peanut allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, are highly structured proteins stabilized by multiple disulfide bridges and are stable towards heat-denaturation and digestion. We sought a way to reduce their potent allergenicity in view of the development of immunotherapy for peanut

  4. Investigations into the agronomic and economic aspects of using peanut (Arachis hypogaea) as an on-farm biodiesel feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although farmers have benefited from the creation of transportation fuels from grain and oilseeds, little research has addressed single farm or community self-reliance on home-grown fuels. The Peanut Biodiesel Project is designed to determine if peanut is suitable for just such a concept through fi...

  5. AFLP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in european and North American potato varieties cultivated in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Tarkesh Esfahani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about the genetic diversity of potato germplasm in Iran is important for variety identification andto enhance the classification of germplasm collections and exploit them in breeding programs and for the development andintroduction of new varieties. AFLP fingerprinting was applied to a group of cultivated potato varieties to find if there is anygeographical differentiation in potato diversity from Europe and North America. The high level of polymorphism within potatovarieties and the high number of variety-specific bands suggest that AFLPs are powerful markers for diversity analysis inpotato varieties. No region-specific AFLP markers were found (present in varieties from the same origin and absent inothers. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed four distinct clusters corresponding almost to the geographical origin of thevarieties. However, the bootstrap support for branches was rather weak. No clusters clearly distinguished varieties fromEurope and North America. Varieties from the same geographical origins however tended to group together within eachcluster. The mean similarity and the UPGMA dendrogram both suggest that North American varieties have nearly identicalgenetic diversity to European varieties. The results of AMOVA revealed large within-region variations which accounted for94.5% of the total molecular variance. The between-region variation, although accounting for only 5.5% of the total variation,was statistically significant. AFLP technology was successfully used to evaluate diversity between different geographicalgroups of potatoes and is recommended for potato genetic studies.

  6. Plants cultivation in controlled containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The plants cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to plants, contribute to understand the plant - soil relationships and the plant growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on plants and the plant stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of plants (F. M.)

  7. Effect of solid state fermentation of peanut shell on its dye adsorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayang; Wang, Zhixin; Li, Hongyan; Hu, Changwei; Raymer, Paul; Huang, Qingguo

    2018-02-01

    The effect of solid state fermentation of peanut shell to produce beneficial laccase and on its dye adsorption performance was evaluated. The resulting residues from solid fermentation were tested as sorbents (designated as SFs) in comparison to the raw peanut shell (RPS) for their ability to remove crystal violet from water. The fermentation process reduced the adsorption capacity (q m ) of SF by about 50%, and changed the sorptive behavior when compared to the RPS. The Langmuir model was more suitable for fitting adsorption by SFs. q m was positively correlated with the surface area of peanut shell, but negatively correlated with acid detergent lignin content. For all the sorbents tested, the process was spontaneous and endothermic, and the adsorption followed both the pseudo 1st and 2nd order kinetic model and the film diffusion model. Dye adsorption efficiency was greater when SFs dispersed solution than when placed in filter packets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancement of Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Peanut Meal by Bio-modification with Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinjian; Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Guan, Qingfeng; Mao, Ruoyu; Hao, Ya; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    Peanut meal (PM) is limited in practical use (feed or food) from imbalance of amino acid profile and denaturation of protein. Fermentation was used to promote its nutritional and functional properties by single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments. Results showed that the nutritional properties of fermented peanut meal (crude protein content, dry matter content, ash content, acid soluble oligopeptides content, in vitro digestibility, and content of organic acids) had a significant increase (P implied that the nutritional and antioxidant properties of peanut meal were improved effectively by biological modification, which could be valuable in terms of nutrition and protein resources. It is great of importance to meet requirement of raw materials for husbandry in China when facing a huge lacking of feedstuff, especially for protein feed with an over 80 % import amount depending from other countries yearly.

  9. Clinical value of component-resolved diagnostics in peanut-allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, E; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2013-01-01

    As replacement for the oral food challenge, decision-points for sensitization test have been established, but suboptimal sensitivity and/or specificity, as well as regional differences, have reduced the clinical usability. IgE toward specific peanut protein components has been reported to be of v......As replacement for the oral food challenge, decision-points for sensitization test have been established, but suboptimal sensitivity and/or specificity, as well as regional differences, have reduced the clinical usability. IgE toward specific peanut protein components has been reported...... to be of value, but data on correlation with clinical data are sparse. Our aim was to correlate IgE values with the outcome of peanut challenges....

  10. Risk assessment of clinical reactions to legumes in peanut-allergic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bjerremann; Andersen, Milene; Skov, Per Stahl

    2008-01-01

    Peanut-allergic children might be at risk for reactions to other legumes. However, it is not always possible to perform multiple oral food challenges in children. On the basis of patient case history, in vitro diagnostic tests, and eventually food challenges, we aimed at developing an algorithm...... for risk assessment of possible clinical reactions to other legumes (soybean, lupine, fresh, and blanched green pea). Seventy-five consecutive patients with a positive oral food challenge to peanut were included in the study. All tests were run as part of the routine allergy examination. A high proportion...... of patients and/or caretakers refused the administered legume oral food challenges. Obtained diagnoses from histamine release did not correlate significantly to the outcome of the algorithm. Interestingly, threshold from peanut challenges did not correlate with the risk assessment.The algorithm presented...

  11. Establishing the Bases for Introducing the Unexplored Portuguese Common Bean Germplasm into the Breeding World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Susana T.; Dinis, Marco; Veloso, Maria M.; Šatović, Zlatko; Vaz Patto, Maria C.

    2017-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is among the most important grain legumes for human consumption worldwide. Portugal has a potentially promising common bean germplasm, resulting from more than five centuries of natural adaptation and farmers' selection. Nevertheless, limited characterization of this resource hampers its exploitation by breeding programs. To support a more efficient conservation of the national bean germplasm and promote its use in crop improvement, we performed, for the first time, a simultaneous molecular marker (21 microsatellites and a DNA marker for phaseolin-type diversity analysis) and seed and plant morphological characterization (14 traits) of 175 accessions from Portuguese mainland and islands traditional bean-growing regions. A total of 188 different alleles were identified and an average pairwise Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards' chord genetic distance of 0.193 was estimated among accessions. To relate the Portuguese germplasm with the global common bean diversity, 17 wild relatives and representative accessions from the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools were evaluated at the molecular level. No correlation was detected between the variability found and the geographic origin of accessions. Structure analysis divided the collection into three main clusters. Most of the Portuguese accessions grouped with the race representatives and wild relatives from the Andean region. One third of the national germplasm had admixed genetic origin and might represent putative hybrids among gene pools from the two original centers of domestication in the Andes and Mesoamerica. The molecular marker-based classification was largely congruent with the three most frequent phaseolin haplotype patterns observed in the accessions analyzed. Seed and plant morphological characterization of 150 Portuguese common bean accessions revealed a clear separation among genetic structure and phaseolin haplotype groups of accessions, with seed size and shape and the number of

  12. Histomorphometric and radioimmunoassay studies of the rat endometrium following peanut oil treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venant Tchokonte-Nana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pregnancy rate during in-vitro fertilization (IVF following progesterone supplement still remains very low at around 20%.Objective: To investigate the effects of peanut oil itself on the endometrial receptivity, the pregnancy success rate and fertility during the peri-implantation time in hyper stimulated and normal rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six adult Sprague Dawley rats with at least four regular oestrus cycles were randomly divided into 4 groups: two groups were hyper stimulated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and treated with progesterone or with peanut oil; the two other groups were not hyper stimulated and treated with saline solution or peanut oil. On day 5.5 of pregnancy, the uterine horns were removed and blood was collected for histomorphometric and serum progesterone evaluation. 12 rats were allowed to continue the presumed pregnancy to term. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and student t-test were used to compare the means of morphometric and radioimmunoassay data between groups. p-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: The mean values of morphometric parameters and serum progesterone varied significantly between the groups (ANOVA, p<0.0001. The lowest values of progesterone parameters were observed in the hyperstimulated groups that did not deliver pups; both hyperstimulated groups had deleterious luminal epithelium with varying degrees of mucosal projections. There were isolated decidualised zones observed in hyper stimulated peanut oil group, whereas peanut oil group had the highest number of implantation sites and deliveries.Conclusion: The results show that hype stimulation reduces the endometrial receptivity, while peanut oil increases endometrial receptivity, pregnancy rates and fertility by triggering decidualisation

  13. Effect of heating and glycation on the allergenicity of 2S albumins (Ara h 2/6 from peanut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne M Vissers

    Full Text Available Peanut allergy is one of the most common and severe food allergies, and processing is known to influence the allergenicity of peanut proteins. We aimed to establish the effect of heating and glycation on the IgE-binding properties and biological activity of 2S albumins (Ara h 2/6 from peanut.Native Ara h 2/6 was purified from raw peanuts and heated in solution (15 min, 110°C in the presence or absence of glucose. Ara h 2 and 6 were also purified from roasted peanut. Using PBMC and sera from peanut-allergic patients, the cellular proliferative potency and IgE reactivity (reverse EAST inhibition and functionality (basophil degranulation capacity of allergens were assessed. Heating Ara h 2/6 at 110°C resulted in extensive denaturation, hydrolysis and aggregation of the protein, whilst Ara h 2 and 6 isolated from roasted peanut retained its native conformation. Allergen stimulation of PBMC induced proliferation and Th2 cytokine secretion which was unaffected by thermal processing. Conversely, IgE reactivity and functionality of Ara h 2/6 was decreased by heating. Whilst heating-glycation further reduced the IgE binding capacity of the proteins, it moderated their loss of histamine releasing capacity. Ara h 2 and 6 purified from roasted peanut demonstrated the same IgE reactivity as unheated, native Ara h 2/6.Although no effect of processing on T-cell reactivity was observed, heat induced denaturation reduced the IgE reactivity and subsequent functionality of Ara h 2/6. Conversely, Ara h 2 and 6 purified from roasted peanut retained the structure and IgE reactivity/functionality of the native protein which may explain the allergenic potency of this protein. Through detailed molecular study and allergenicity assessment approaches, this work then gives new insights into the effect of thermal processing on structure/allergenicity of peanut proteins.

  14. Grouping and clustering of maize Lancaster germplasm inbreds according to the results of SNP-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Derkach

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is the grouping and clustering of maize inbred lines based on the results of SNP-genotyping for the verification of a separate cluster of Lancaster germplasm inbred lines. As material for the study, we used 91 maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines, including 31 Lancaster germplasm lines and 60 inbred lines of other germplasms (23 Iodent inbreds, 15 Reid inbreds, 7 Lacon inbreds, 12 Mix inbreds and 3 exotic inbreds. The majority of the given inbred lines are included in the Dnipro breeding programme. The SNP-genotyping of these inbred lines was conducted using BDI-III panel of 384 SNP-markers developed by BioDiagnostics, Inc. (USA on the base of Illumina VeraCode Bead Plate. The SNP-markers of this panel are biallelic and are located on all 10 maize chromosomes. Their range of conductivity was >0.6. The SNP-analysis was made in completely automated regime on Illumina BeadStation equipment at BioDiagnostics, Inc. (USA. A principal component analysis was applied to group a general set of 91 inbreds according to allelic states of SNP-markers and to identify a cluster of Lancaster inbreds. The clustering and determining hierarchy in 31 Lancaster germplasm inbreds used quantitative cluster analysis. The share of monomorphic markers in the studied set of 91 inbred lines equaled 0.7%, and the share of dimorphic markers equaled 99.3%. Minor allele frequency (MAF > 0.2 was observed for 80.6% of dimorphic markers, the average index of shift of gene diversity equaled 0.2984, PIC on average reached 0.3144. The index of gene diversity of markers varied from 0.1701 to 0.1901, pairwise genetic distances between inbred lines ranged from 0.0316–0.8000, the frequencies of major alleles of SNP-markers were within 0.5085–0.9821, and the frequencies of minor alleles were within 0.0179–0.4915. The average homozygosity of inbred lines was 98.8%. The principal component analysis of SNP-distances confirmed the isolation of the Lancaster

  15. Economic evaluation of epinephrine auto-injectors for peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Marcus; Bean, Katherine; Verdi, Marylee

    2017-08-01

    Three commercial epinephrine auto-injectors were available in the United States in the summer of 2016: EpiPen, Adrenaclick, and epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. To describe the variation in pharmacy costs among epinephrine auto-injector devices in New England and evaluate the additional expense associated with incremental auto-injector costs. Decision analysis software was used to evaluate costs of the most and least expensive epinephrine auto-injector devices for children with peanut allergy. To evaluate regional variation in epinephrine auto-injector costs, a random sample of New England national and corporate pharmacies was compared with a convenience sample of pharmacies from 10 Canadian provinces. Assuming prescriptions written for 2 double epinephrine packs each year (home and school), the mean costs of food allergy over the 20-year model horizon totaled $58,667 (95% confidence interval [CI] $57,745-$59,588) when EpiPen was prescribed and $45,588 (95% CI $44,873-$46,304) when epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector was prescribed. No effectiveness differences were evident between groups, with 17.19 (95% CI 17.11-17.27) quality-adjusted life years accruing for each subject. The incremental cost per episode of anaphylaxis treated with epinephrine over the model horizon was $12,576 for EpiPen vs epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector. EpiPen costs were lowest at Canadian pharmacies ($96, 95% CI $85-$107). There was price consistency between corporate and independent pharmacies throughout New England by device brand, with the epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector being the most affordable device. Cost differences among epinephrine auto-injectors were significant. More expensive auto-injector brands did not appear to provide incremental benefit. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of quality of life in children with peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Natalie J; King, Rosemary M; Knight, Susan; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2003-10-01

    Children with a peanut allergy (PA) are faced with food and social restrictions due to the potentially life-threatening nature of their disease, for which there is no cure or treatment. This inevitably impacts upon their quality of life (QoL). QoL of 20 children with PA and 20 children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) was measured using two disease-specific QoL questionnaires (higher scores correspond to a poorer QoL). One questionnaire was designed by us and the other was adapted from the Vespid Allergy QoL questionnaire. We gave subjects cameras to record how their QoL is affected over a 24-h period. Response rates for both questionnaires were 100%. Mean ages were 9.0 and 10.4 years for PA and IDDM subjects, respectively. Children with a PA reported a poorer quality of life than children with IDDM: mean scores were 54.85 for PA subjects and 46.40 for diabetics (p = 0.004) in questionnaire 1 and 54.30 and 34.50 (pmanagement, environment, away from home, physical activities, restaurant and people. Most photographs related to food and management issues and revealed difficulties for both groups regarding food restrictions. PA subjects felt more threatened by potential hazards within their environment, felt more restricted by their PA regarding physical activities, and worried more about being away from home. However, they felt safe when carrying epinephrine kits and were positive about eating at familiar restaurants. The QoL in children with PA is more impaired than in children with IDDM. Their anxiety may be considered useful in some situations, promoting better adherence to allergen avoidance advice and rescue plans.

  17. Fusarium spp. recovered from waste peanuts associated with sandhill crane mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.E.; Cole, R.J.; Tousson, T.A.; Dorner, J.W.; Windingstad, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Approximately 5000 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis ) died from undetermined causes in Gains County, Texas, 1985, and an additional 200 died in 1986. Prominent clinical signs were the inability of many sick cranes to hold their necks horizontal and the neck, head, and legs sometimes drooped perpendicularly during flight. Approximately 95% of the dead cranes' gizzards contained peanuts. Culturing of peanuts, shells, soil and soil debris from fields in which sandhill cranes died showed that Fusarium species were the fungi most frequently isolated and eight species were recovered from these substrates. Fusarium compactum, F. solani , and F. equiseti were the only species recovered from all substrates cultured from both fields.

  18. Effects of partial fertilizer substitution by organic fertilizer on growth of peanut at seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Li, Na; Luo, Peiyu; Wang, Yue; Dai, Jian; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-12-01

    In response to the Ministry of agriculture’s action plan for chemical fertilizer reductions and organic fertilizers instead of fertilizersand discuss the optimum consumption and proportion of peanut biochar-based fertilization.Six different fertilization treatments were set up:C40, C50(standard consumption), C60, C40+M, C30+M and C20+M. Seelding height, chlorophyll content and total biomass were also measured on 6th, 2017. The results showed that C20+M treatment had the highest plant height and the highest biomass in Peanut Seedlings, while the content of chlorophyll increased with the amount of biochar applied.

  19. Effects of Peanut-Tobacco Rotations on Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne arenaria in Mixed Race Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hirunsalee, Anan; Barker, K. R.; Beute, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    A 3-year microplot study was initiated to characterize the population dynamics, reproduction potential, and survivorship of single or mixed populations of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 (Ma1) and race 2 (Ma2), as affected by crop rotations of peanut 'Florigiant' and M. incognita races 1 and 3-resistant 'McNair 373' and susceptible 'Coker 371-Gold' tobacco. Infection, reproduction, and root damage by Ma2 on peanut and by Ma1 on resistant tobacco were limited in the first year. Infection, reproduc...

  20. ADAPTIVE ENERGY-SAVING CULTIVATOR FOR STONY SOILS CULTIVATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kudzaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Practice of cultivators operation on stony soils in RNO-Alania with high hardness and humidity indicates that traction resistance during the work varies widely, with deviation from the mean value by more than 2 times. Optimally adjust the machine to the soil background when using most modern mechanisms of regulation is not always possible. Customizing the data machine boils down to the choice of priority between the vibration of the working bodies in the soil, the maintenance of the given depth and power reserve stands required to crawl the working body of the big stones. It is very difficult to get in practice the best combination of these three factors, especially on stony soils. Therefore, the machine must be designed with the ability to quickly adjust to changing operating conditions and modes to ensure energy-saving effects and not violations of the specified soil depth of various hardness with the possibility of equipping the machine racks with different working bodies. The interrow cultivator with the possibility of the quick adjustment (including automated to varying conditions was developed. In the process of studied basic parameters of elastic composite racks and parameters of pneumatic mechanism drive to adjust the proposed section of the machine were established. The system hardiness in layouts by elastic bars with air pressure up to 0.6 MPa varies from 17.7 to 45.3 N/mm. It was received effective values of pressures 0.4-0.5 MPa in the pneumatic drive partitions of the machine when operating with universal blade and ridger body OK-3 on stony soil. As a result, traction resistance decreases by 30-35 percent.

  1. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  2. An empirical assessment of the effects of the 1994 In Trust Agreements on IRRI Germplasm Acquisition and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Gotor

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the possible influence of the 1994 In Trust Agreements (ITAs on acquisition and distribution of germplasm held by the International Research Rice Institute (IRRI genebank. The agreements, legally affirmed the ‘public good’ status of the collections that were placed ‘In Trust’ for the benefit of the world community under agreements with FAO. They initiated a formal system of multilateral access to CGIAR-held ex situ genetic resources. The hypothesis that the consequences of the ITAs lead to an enhancement of CGIAR germplasm utilization is tested here using a basic conceptual framework to infer on factors determining the distribution of germplasm. Subsequently a Bayesian empirical model is applied to IRRI accessions distribution’s time-series to provide formal evidence to the hypothesis. Results show that there is a discernible ‘change’ point that would support a significant drop in germplasm distribution followed by a new growing trend around the establishment of the ITAs. This had followed a period beginning around 1989 and leading up to the establishment of the ITAs of a large number of requests for restoration of germplasm back to countries of origin and a reduction in acquisitions. As a result the number of accessions held by IRRI reached a low point around 1994. The number of accessions might not have been built back up without the establishment of a stable policy environment that was provided by the ITAs.

  3. Compression Characteristics and Energy Requirement of Briquettes Made from a Mixture of Corn Stover and Peanut Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Gong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Corn stover and peanut shells are both abundantly available biomass feedstocks in China. To determine the compression characteristics and energy requirement of briquettes, mixtures of the corn stover and peanut shells were compressed under three different pressures (30, 60, and 90 MPa with three moisture contents (9%, 14%, and 19%, wet basis and five corn stover-peanut shell mixtures (0%-100%, 25%-75%, 50%-50%, 75%-25%, and 100%-0% by mass. The results showed that applied pressure, moisture content, and the corn stover-peanut shell mixture all significantly affected briquette density and specific energy consumption. The density of the briquette ranged from 646 to 1052 kg/m3 and the specific energy consumption varied from 6.6 to 25.1 MJ/t. A moisture content of 9% was found to be better for the compression of the corn stover and peanut shells mixture. Adding peanut shells to the corn stover improved briquette density and reduced the specific energy consumption. Linear models were developed to describe the briquette density and the specific energy consumption. The briquette durability ranged from 57% to 94% and durable briquettes can be obtained when corn stover and peanut shells are compressed with the mixing ratio of 1:1 (50%-50% at moisture content of 9%.

  4. Impacts of climate change on peanut yield in China simulated by CMIP5 multi-model ensemble projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanqing; Tian, Zhan; Zhong, Honglin; Fan, Dongli; Shi, Runhe; Niu, Yilong; He, Xiaogang; Chen, Maosi

    2017-09-01

    Peanut is one of the major edible vegetable oil crops in China, whose growth and yield are very sensitive to climate change. In addition, agriculture climate resources are expected to be redistributed under climate change, which will further influence the growth, development, cropping patterns, distribution and production of peanut. In this study, we used the DSSAT-Peanut model to examine the climate change impacts on peanut production, oil industry and oil food security in China. This model is first calibrated using site observations including 31 years' (1981-2011) climate, soil and agronomy data. This calibrated model is then employed to simulate the future peanut yield based on 20 climate scenarios from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) developed by the InterSectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) driven by 4 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results indicate that the irrigated peanut yield will decrease 2.6% under the RCP 2.6 scenario, 9.9% under the RCP 4.5 scenario and 29% under the RCP 8.5 scenario, respectively. Similarly, the rain-fed peanut yield will also decrease, with a 2.5% reduction under the RCP 2.6 scenario, 11.5% reduction under the RCP 4.5 scenario and 30% reduction under the RCP 8.5 scenario, respectively.

  5. Inheritance of fresh seed dormancy in Spanish-type peanut ( Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and seed quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) can be reduced substantially by in situ germination under unpredictable rainfed environments. Inheritance of fresh seed dormancy in Spanish x Spanish crosses was studied with two sets of segregating populations, an F2 population derived from true F1 hybrids ...

  6. A technique to study Meloidogyne arenaria resistance in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    A reliable peanut root transformation system would be useful to study the functions of genes involved in root biology and disease resistance. The objective of this study was to establish an effective protocol to produce composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation. More tha...

  7. Activity and stability of immobilized lipases in lipase-catalyzed modification of peanut oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumanou Mohamed M.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid release during lipolysis of peanut oil using microbial free and immobilized lipases in aqueous media was developed. Immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML gave the best result from its ability to clive different fatty acids from peanut oil in such media. In organic solvent, interesterification of peanut oil with tricaprylin using immobilized lipases from RML, Chromobacterium viscosum (CVL and Candida rugosa (CRL was performed. The best substrate molar ratio of tricaprylin to peanut oil found was in the range 0.7 to 0.8. Using substrate molar ratio 0.7, high amount of structured triglyceride ST (about 35% MLM, 44% LML triglyceride fractions was obtained with lipase from RML in n-hexane. The results found in solvent free system were in some cases quite similar to that obtained in organic solvent. In nine successive batch interesterification in solvent free medium using immobilized RML and CRL, no significant loss of amount of both produced triacylglycerol fractions until batch 7 was observed with RML.

  8. An initial non-targeted analysis of the peanut seed metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are likely a large number of compounds that constitute the peanut seed metabolome that have yet to be elucidated. Although the proximate composition and nutrients such as vitamins and minerals are well known, the composition of many other small molecule metabolites present have not been syste...

  9. Mutagenesis of FAD2 genes in peanut with CRISPR/Cas9

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is known for its precise and efficient gene-editing of a targeted region in a variety of organisms including plants. We targeted FAD2 gene region to perform CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing in peanut. The FAD2 gene encodes fatty acid desaturase which catalyzes the conversion of oleic ...

  10. Removal of Heavy Metal Contamination from Peanut Skin Extracts by Waste Biomass Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year, 3.6 million pounds of peanuts are harvested in the United States. Consequent processing, however, generates large amounts of waste biomass as only the seed portion of the fruit is consumed. The under-utilization of waste biomass is a lost economic opportunity to the industry. In particula...

  11. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B₁ by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guanghui; Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Ma, Yunxiao; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-20

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste-one kind of traditional Chinese food-to detoxify aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii , and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii ) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB₁ through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB₁ in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB₁. Additionally, m / s statistics demonstrated that AFB₁ may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB₁, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB₁.

  12. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guanghui; Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Ma, Yunxiao; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind of traditional Chinese food—to detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB1 through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB1 in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB1. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB1 may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB1, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB1. PMID:28117705

  13. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind of traditional Chinese food—to detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB1 through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB1 in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB1. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB1 may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB1, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB1.

  14. Fungicides and Application Timing for Control of Early Leafspot, Southern Blight, and Sclerotinia Blight of Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. James Grichar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in south Texas near Yoakum and from 2008 to 2011 in central Texas near Stephenville to evaluate various fungicides for foliar and soilborne disease control as well as peanut yield response under irrigation. Control of Sclerotinia blight caused by Sclerotinia minor Jagger with penthiopyrad at 1.78 L/ha was comparable to fluazinam or boscalid; however, the 1.2 L/ha dose of penthiopyrad did not provide consistent control. Peanut yield was reduced with the lower penthiopyrad dose when compared with boscalid, fluazinam, or the high dose of penthiopyrad. Control of early leaf spot, caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori or southern blight, caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., with penthiopyrad in a systems approach was comparable with propiconazole, prothioconazole, or pyraclostrobin systems and resulted in disease control that was higher than the nontreated control. Peanut yield was also comparable with the penthiopyrad, propiconazole, prothioconazole, or pyraclostrobin systems and reflects the ability of the newer fungicides to control multiple diseases found in Texas peanut production.

  15. Structure, Function and Epitope Mapping the Peanut Panallergen Ara h 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of peanut allergy continues to rise in the US and Europe. Whereas exposure to the major allergens Ara h 1, 2, 3, and 6 can cause fatal anaphylaxis, exposure to the minor allergens usually does not. Ara h 8 is a minor allergen. Importantly, it is the minor food allergens that are though...

  16. Legumin allergens from peanuts and soybeans: Effects of denaturation and aggregation on allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, E.L. van; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Koppelman, S.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Legumin proteins Ara h 3 from peanuts and glycinin from soybeans are increasingly described as important allergens. The stability of an allergen's IgE binding capacity towards heating and digestion is considered an important characteristic for food allergens. We investigated the effects of heating

  17. Legumin allergens from peanuts and soybeans : Effects of denaturation and aggregation on allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van E.L.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Koppelman, S.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Legumin proteins Ara h 3 from peanuts and glycinin from soybeans are increasingly described as important allergens. The stability of an allergen's IgE binding capacity towards heating and digestion is considered an important characteristic for food allergens. We investigated the effects of heating

  18. A comprehensive look at the effect of processing on peanut (Arachis spp.) texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Boer, Den Lara; Hamoen, Remco; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Relationships between process and peanut texture have only been studied in Hypogaea species, and focused on very limited processing conditions. In this study, 94 samples were prepared from a combination of 12 raw materials (Arachis hypogaea and fastigiata cultivars) and 11 roasting

  19. Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birima, A H; Desa, M N M; Muda, Z C; Hammad, H A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO 3 , KCl, NH 4 Cl and NaNO 3 . Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R 2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

  20. Temperature/Humidity Conditions in Stacked Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers for Shelled Peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelled peanuts are loaded into flexible intermediate bulk containers, or totes. After loading, the 1000-kg totes are placed directly into cold storage at 3ºC and 65% relative humidity until shipment to the customer domestically in the United States or internationally requiring transport overseas. ...

  1. Oil and fatty acid composition of peanut cultivars grown in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, F.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-01-01

    Quality and flavor of edible peanuts and its products are affected by fatty acid composition of oil. The information related to chemical composition of Peanut grown in the country are scarce, therefore, the present investigation was designed to determine the oil and fatty acid composition of some commonly grown peanut cultivars in Pakistan. Seven Peanut cultivars were grown during 2008 in randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The tested cultivars differed significantly for oil content which ranged from 49.83 to 53.06% on dry weight basis, thus showing differences of 7% among cultivars. The saturated fatty acids (Palmetic and Stearic acid) in different cultivars ranged between 9.95 to 10.79% and 1.63 to 2.19%, respectively. Differences among cultivars for oleic acid exhibited significance which ranged between 49.34 to 54.83%. Similarly, cultivars differed statistically for linoleic ac id which showed a range of 28.99 to 34.23%, thus depicted difference of 7%. Significant differences among tested cultivars may be attributed to the place of origin of particular cultivar. An inverse relationship was exhibited between oleic and linoleic acid, similar to other edible oils. (author)

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation of peanut in low-fertile tropical soil. II. Alleviation of drought stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quilambo, OA; Weissenhorn, I.; Doddema, H; Kuiper, PJC; Stulen, I.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of drought stress and inoculation with an indigenous Mozambican and a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculant on root colonization and plant growth and yield was studied in two peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars-a traditional, low-yielding Mozambican landrace (Local) and a

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation of peanut in low-fertile tropical soil : I. Host-fungus compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quilambo, OA; Weissenhorn, I.; Kuiper, P.J C; Stulen, I.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of inoculation with an indigenous Mozambican and a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculant on two peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars, a traditional, low-yielding Mozambican landrace (Local) and a modern, high-yielding cultivar (Falcon), were tested in a non-sterile and

  4. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxins in the Brazilian peanut production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Ligia Manoel; de Souza Sant'Ana, Anderson; Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Maria Helena

    2017-01-01

    , the potential for aflatoxin production by the isolates was tested using the agar plug technique and the presence of aflatoxins in peanuts was assessed using an immunoaffinity column followed by quantification using HPLC with reverse phase column and fluorescence detection. The limit of detection...

  5. Antifungal activity of essential oils on Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooussef Mina M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus parasiticus is one of the most common fungi which contaminates peanuts by destroying peanut shells before they are harvested and the fungus produces aflatoxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activities of seventeen essential oils on the growth of the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus in contaminated peanuts from commercial outlets in Georgia. The agar dilution method was used to test the antifungal activity of essential oils against this form of A. parasiticus at various concentrations: 500; 1,000; 1,500; 2,000; 2,500 ppm. Among the seventeen essential oils tested, the antifungal effect of cinnamon, lemongrass, clove and thyme resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth. Cinnamon oil inhibited mycelial growth at ≥ 1,000 ppm, lemongrass and clove oils at ≥ 1,500 ppm and thyme at 2,500 ppm. However, cedar wood, citronella, cumin and peppermint oils showed partial inhibition of mycelial growth. Eucalyptus oil, on the other hand, had less antifungal properties against growth of A. parasiticus, irrespective of its concentration. Our results indicate that the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus is sensitive to selected essential oils, especially cinnamon. These findings clearly indicate that essential oils may find a practical application in controlling the growth of A. parasiticus in stored peanuts.

  6. Magnetically modified peanut husks as an effective sorbent of heavy metals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozumová, L.; Životský, O.; Seidlerová, J.; Motyka, O.; Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2016), s. 549-555 ISSN 2213-3437 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13709S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cadmium * Ions sorption * Lead * Magnetic modification * Peanut husks * Waste water Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  7. European Survey for Hidden Allergens in Food: A Case Study with Peanut and Hazelnut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgertner, S.; Furtler-Leitzenberger, L.; Molinelli, E.; Krska, R.; Immer, U.; Schmitt, K.; Bremer, M.; Haasnoot, W.; Danks, C.; Romkies, V.; Reece, P.; Wilson, P.; Kiening, M.; Weller, M.; Niessner, R.; Corsini, E.; Mendonca, S.

    2008-01-01

    During the EU-funded project Allergentest (QLK1-CT-2001-01151) a survey for the presence of hidden proteins of hazelnut and peanut in suspected pre-packed foodstuffs within EC member states was carried out to check the usefulness of the developed rapid test-kits. There were 11 participating

  8. Effect of extrusion conditions on aflatoxin content of corn–peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn-peanut extrudates and flakes were then produced at various combinations of feed moisture contents (17% and 21%,) barrel temperatures (140°C, 160°C and 180°C) and screw speeds (150 rpm,200 rpm and 250 rpm)in a double screw extruder under factorial design. The process parameters were recorded during the ...

  9. Weed Control and Peanut Tolerance with Ethalfluralin-Based Herbicide Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Grichar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted from 2007 through 2009 to determine weed efficacy and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. response to herbicide systems that included ethalfluralin applied preplant incorporated. Control of devil's claw (Proboscidea louisianica (Mill. Thellung, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L., Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats., and puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris L. was most consistent with ethalfluralin followed by either imazapic or imazethapyr applied postemergence. Peanut stunting was 19% when paraquat alone was applied early-postemergence. Stunting increased to greater than 30% when ethalfluralin applied preplant incorporated was followed by S-metolachlor applied preemergence and paraquat applied early-postemergence. Stunting (7% was also observed when ethalfluralin was followed by flumioxazin plus S-metolachlor applied preemergence with lactofen applied mid-postemergence. Ethalfluralin followed by paraquat applied early-postemergence reduced peanut yield when compared to the nontreated check. Ethalfluralin applied preplant incorporated followed by imazapic applied mid-postemergence provided the greatest yield (6220 kg/ha. None of the herbicide treatments reduced peanut grade (sound mature kernels plus sound splits when compared with the nontreated check.

  10. Evaluation of tillage, cover crop, and herbicide effects on weed control, yield, and grade in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut production plays a large role in agriculture in the Southeastern United States. Weeds are detrimental to their production because of the competition that they create; weeds will compete with crops for resources such as nutrients and sunlight, among others. Therefore, it is important to reduce...

  11. Massively parallel read mapping on GPUs with the q-group index and PEANUT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Köster (Johannes); S. Rahmann (Sven)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe present the q-group index, a novel data structure for read mapping tailored towards graphics processing units (GPUs) with a small memory footprint and efficient parallel algorithms for querying and building. On top of the q-group index we introduce PEANUT, a highly parallel GPU-based

  12. Effect of kernel characteristics on color and flavor development during peanut roasting: two years of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with Crop Year (CY) 2014 samples from the Uniform Peanut Performance Trials (UPPT) revealed that color and flavor profile development were related to kernel moisture content (MC) during dry roasting. That work was repeated with CY 2015 UPPT samples with additional replication. Raw MC, ...

  13. In Vitro Selection of Peanut Somatic Embryos on Medium Containing Culture Filtrate of Sclerotium rolfsii and Plantlet Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUSNITA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to identify somaclonal variants of peanut with resistance to Sclerotium stem rot disease due to infection of S. rolfsii were conducted. The objectives of this study were to develop in vitro selection method using culture filtrates of S. rolfsii, identify culture filtrate-insensitive somatic embryo (SE of peanut after in vitro selection and regenerate peanut R0 lines originated from culture filtrate-insensitive SE. To achieve these objectives, peanut embryogenic tissues were cultured on selective medium containing various concentrations of S. rolfsii culture filtrates and sublethal concentration of the filtrates. Medium containing sublethal level of S. rolfsii culture filtrates was used to identify culture filtrate-insensitive SE of peanut. Subsequently, the selected SEs were germinated, plantlets were regenerated and preliminary tested against S. rolfsii. Results of the experiments showed that addition of S. rolfsii culture filtrates into medium for inducing peanut somatic embryos drastically reduced their growth and proliferation. S. rolfsii culture filtrates at 10% concentration has significantly reduced the number of proliferated SE per explant. However, sublethal level was achieved at 30% of culture filtrates concentration. Responses of five peanut cultivars against 30% of culture filtrates were similar, indicating they were similar in their susceptibility against S. rolfsii. A number of culture filtrate-insensitive SE were identified after culturing 1500 clumps of embryogenic tissue of peanut cv. Kelinci for three consecutive passages on medium containing 30% of culture filtrates. Germination of selected SE and regeneration of plantlet from culture filtrate-insensitive SE resulted in 50 peanut R0 lines. These lines have been grown in the plastic house and produced normal seeds for further evaluation. Results of S. rolfsii inoculation indicated the existence of chimera for insensitivity against S. rolfsii.

  14. Cor a 14 is the superior serological marker for hazelnut allergy in children, independent of concomitant peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, E; Mortz, C G; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2016-04-01

    Hazelnut is the most frequent cause of tree nut allergy, but up to half of all children with hazelnut allergy additionally suffer from peanut allergy. Our aim was to identify diagnostic values of the most promising serological markers (Cor a 9 and Cor a 14) and to address the influence of concomitant peanut allergy and PR10 sensitization. We included 155 children suspected of hazelnut allergy and challenged according to the guidelines. Concomitant allergy to peanuts was verified or ruled out by challenge. Skin prick test, s-IgE and CRD to hazelnut, peanut, PR10 and LPT protein families were measured using ImmunoCAP. Sixty-five children had a positive hazelnut challenge, and 60% of these also had a concomitant peanut allergy. Children allergic to hazelnut were sensitized to Cor a 9 and Cor a 14; peanut-allergic children were sensitized to Ara h 2. Sensitization to PR10 protein components was seen in 45% of all included children, irrelevant to allergy to peanut or hazelnut. A cut-off >0.72 kU/L of IgE towards Cor a 14 diagnosed 87% correctly, making Cor a 14 the superior serology marker. However, nine hazelnut-allergic children were primarily sensitized to Cor a 9. Concomitant peanut allergy is common in hazelnut-allergic children, but decision points as well as diagnostic values for Cor a 14 are not affected. We found three independent and well-characterized serotypes; hazelnut-allergic children were sensitized to Cor a 14, peanut-allergic children were sensitized to Ara h 2, and independently of this were children sensitized to birch pollen (Bet v 1). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production: status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghan; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel from microalgae provides a promising alternative for biofuel production. Microalgae can be produced under three major cultivation modes, namely photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation, and mixotrophic cultivation. Potentials and practices of biodiesel production from microalgae have been demonstrated mostly focusing on photoautotrophic cultivation; mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production has rarely been reviewed. This paper summarizes the mechanisms and virtues of mixotrophic microalgae cultivation through comparison with other major cultivation modes. Influencing factors of microalgal biodiesel production under mixotrophic cultivation are presented, development of combining microalgal biodiesel production with wastewater treatment is especially reviewed, and bottlenecks and strategies for future commercial production are also identified.

  16. Diversity of Sex Types and Seasonal Sexual Plasticity in a Cucumber Germplasm Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou Xinxin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The sex type of a cucumber plant is determined by the proportion of male, female and hermaphrodite flowers that it bears and is an important factor that affects fruit yield. In this paper, the sex types and seasonal sexual stabilities of 322 accessions of cucumber germplasm were identified. This germplasm collection displayed a great variety of sex types. We used an updated 10-type sex classification system based on the flower types present and the proportion of nodes with pistillate flowers (PNPF. The PNPF ranges of all the accessions were 2.12%–100% in spring and 0–100% in autumn. A total of 81.37% of the accessions had PNPFs of 10%–50% in spring, but most (84.78% accessions were reduced to 0–20% PNPF in autumn. The range of reduction of PNPF from spring to autumn was 0–67.91%. In other words, most of the germplasm was normal monoecious (31.68% or subandroecious (62.73% in spring, but 94.10% of the accessions were subandroecious in autumn. According to the statistical evaluation of the difference in PNPFs between the two seasons, each accession could be classified into one of three groups: seasonally stable, seasonally sensitive and highly seasonally sensitive, accounting for 10.56%, 20.50% and 68.94% of the accessions, respectively. With a few exceptions, the seasonal PNPF differences were positively correlated with the PNPFs in a given season for most accessions. These results provided useful information and materials for sex expression mechanism research and for breeding cucumbers with high and stable yields.

  17. An informational view of accession rarity and allele specificity in germplasm banks for management and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Valdés, M Humberto; Burgueño, Juan; Singh, Sukhwinder; Martínez, Octavio; Sansaloni, Carolina Paola

    2018-01-01

    Germplasm banks are growing in their importance, number of accessions and amount of characterization data, with a large emphasis on molecular genetic markers. In this work, we offer an integrated view of accessions and marker data in an information theory framework. The basis of this development is the mutual information between accessions and allele frequencies for molecular marker loci, which can be decomposed in allele specificities, as well as in rarity and divergence of accessions. In this way, formulas are provided to calculate the specificity of the different marker alleles with reference to their distribution across accessions, accession rarity, defined as the weighted average of the specificity of its alleles, and divergence, defined by the Kullback-Leibler formula. Albeit being different measures, it is demonstrated that average rarity and divergence are equal for any collection. These parameters can contribute to the knowledge of the structure of a germplasm collection and to make decisions about the preservation of rare variants. The concepts herein developed served as the basis for a strategy for core subset selection called HCore, implemented in a publicly available R script. As a proof of concept, the mathematical view and tools developed in this research were applied to a large collection of Mexican wheat accessions, widely characterized by SNP markers. The most specific alleles were found to be private of a single accession, and the distribution of this parameter had its highest frequencies at low levels of specificity. Accession rarity and divergence had largely symmetrical distributions, and had a positive, albeit non-strictly linear relationship. Comparison of the HCore approach for core subset selection, with three state-of-the-art methods, showed it to be superior for average divergence and rarity, mean genetic distance and diversity. The proposed approach can be used for knowledge extraction and decision making in germplasm collections of

  18. Multiple outcomes of cultivation in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Laura Vang; Reenberg, Anette

    2015-01-01

    A default assumption about the Sahel is that farmers consider food provision for the family as the sole reason for cultivation. The degree to which this ‘cultivation for food’ assumption has been embedded in the scientific literature on land use changes is signified by the fact that hardly any...

  19. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  20. Landscape design and allocation for demonstrating the distinctive germplasm resources of SHNU offers in 2015 Shanghai International Flower Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Jiaying

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Combing with its theme——″The Delicate Horticulture & The Beautiful Homeland″,the 2015 Shanghai International Flower Show offers SHNU a special outdoor stand for distinctive germplasm resources to shine in different aspects of subject creativity.Many properties of the landscaping,such as landscape arrangement,season reflection,color configuration,personal training,identification,landscaping,season reflection,afforested maintenance,were discused and analyzed in this study.A proposal on how to improve the achievements in scientific research and application of the splendid germplasm resources to a further step was provided as well.The practice of the doemonstration for SHNU′s of germplasm resources in the show gave us a lot of inspirations such as doing more study and develop more plant varieties in order to meeting the social demands,furthermore,promoting the development of the horticulture industry.