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Sample records for cultivated mushroom pleurotus

  1. Nutritional Analysis of Cultivated Mushrooms in Bangladesh - Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Nuhu; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Ara, Ismot; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, Tae Soo

    2008-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation has been started recently in Bangladesh. Awareness of the nutritional and medicinal importance of mushrooms is not extensive. In this study, the nutritional values of dietary mushrooms- Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajorcaju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica that are very popular among the cultivated mushrooms in Bangladesh have been determined. These mushrooms were rich in proteins (20~25%) and fibers (13~24% in dry samples) and contained a lower amount of lipid (...

  2. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  3. Nutritional Analysis of Cultivated Mushrooms in Bangladesh - Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nuhu; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Ara, Ismot; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, Tae Soo

    2008-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation has been started recently in Bangladesh. Awareness of the nutritional and medicinal importance of mushrooms is not extensive. In this study, the nutritional values of dietary mushrooms- Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajorcaju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica that are very popular among the cultivated mushrooms in Bangladesh have been determined. These mushrooms were rich in proteins (20~25%) and fibers (13~24% in dry samples) and contained a lower amount of lipid (4 to 5%). The carbohydrate contents ranged from 37 to 48% (on the basis of dry weight). These were also rich in mineral contents (total ash content is 8~13%). The pileus and gills were protein and lipid rich and stripe was carbohydrate and fiber-rich. The moisture content of mushrooms ranged from 86 to 87.5%. Data of this study suggest that mushrooms are rich in nutritional value.

  4. Nutritional Analysis of Cultivated Mushrooms in Bangladesh - Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nuhu; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Ara, Ismot; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong

    2008-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation has been started recently in Bangladesh. Awareness of the nutritional and medicinal importance of mushrooms is not extensive. In this study, the nutritional values of dietary mushrooms- Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajorcaju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica that are very popular among the cultivated mushrooms in Bangladesh have been determined. These mushrooms were rich in proteins (20~25%) and fibers (13~24% in dry samples) and contained a lower amount of lipid (4 to 5%). The carbohydrate contents ranged from 37 to 48% (on the basis of dry weight). These were also rich in mineral contents (total ash content is 8~13%). The pileus and gills were protein and lipid rich and stripe was carbohydrate and fiber-rich. The moisture content of mushrooms ranged from 86 to 87.5%. Data of this study suggest that mushrooms are rich in nutritional value. PMID:23997631

  5. DNA marking of some quantitative trait loci in the cultivated edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivolapova, A.B.; Shnyreva, A.V.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Pleurotus, in particular, species Pleurotus ostreatus (common oyster mushroom) are among most cultivated fungi in the world. Due to intense rates of development of studies in this field, efficient breeding programs are highly required in the search for new P. ostreatus strains. Th

  6. Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus on oil palm residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwised, A.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to use oil palm residues to cultivate the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most important mushrooms cultivated worldwide. Spawn was prepared on sorghum seeds and inoculated on substrate in plastic bags. Oil palm fronds were cut and used to grow Pleurotus ostreatus. The first fructification occurred 20 days after waterring. The biological efficiency reached at 28.6%. When sawdust of para rubber logs was added to the cut oil palm fronds at the rate of 1:1 (vol : vol., the biological efficiency reached at 39.3%.Supplementary material at the rate of 5% was also added into the combination of cut oil palm frond and sawdust. The result showed that rice bran, corn meal or oil palm-kernel meal give yields between 142.2-165.0 g/bag (B.E. = 42.8-49.6, which were not statistically different. Oil palm pericarp waste was also used as main substrate for P. ostreatus cultivation. The average yield obtained during 40 days havesting period was 112.6 g/bag (B.E. = 64.3%. Addition of sawdust or rice bran into pericarp waste decreased the yield of the basidiocarps. Palm-kernel meal at the rate of 5-20% was used as a supplement material. Addition of 20% palmkernel meal into sawdust supported higher yield. The biological efficiency reached 55.8%. From the above results, four formulae of the substrate were prepared. Treatment of oil palm pericarp waste + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca(OH2 supported higher yield of the basidiocarps. The average yield obtained from 950 g of substrate was 190.2 g during 60 days havesting (B.E. = 57.2%. Using 6% palm-kernel substitute 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal supported the same yield (B.E. = 56.2% Using sawdust as the main substrate, the yield achieved was less than that obtained with oil palm pericarp waste. The average yield from treatment of sawdust + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca (OH2 was 154.0 g/bag (B.E. = 46.3% while treatment of sawdust + 6% palm-kernel meal + 0

  7. Maize Residue as a Viable Substrate for Farm Scale Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus

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    Abena O. Adjapong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for alternatives to sawdust as growing media in commercial mushroom cultivation, three organic substrates obtainable as crop residue, maize husk, maize cob, and maize stalk, with each being supplemented with rice bran, were evaluated as growth media for the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Kummer. For the tested alternatives to sawdust, the harvested weight of fruiting bodies that sprouted on a kilogram maize husk media per crop (32.99 g was the highest. Sawdust media supported significantly (P<0.001 heavier fruiting bodies (42.18 than the maize residues. The peak mushroom harvests for the various substrates were obtained between the first and seventh fruiting body flushes. The biological efficiency of the substrates, which measured usable nutrients indicated that maize stalk supplemented with rice bran, was 39% compared to that of the sawdust media (60%. The maize husk media and the maize cob media had biological efficiencies of 32% and 9.5%, respectively. These results indicate that two of the tested growing media (maize stalk or husk produced mushrooms with yield characteristics that were comparable to the well-used sawdust in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. The environmental and economic parameters involved in the use and carting of sawdust make these on-farm crop residues a viable alternative for mushroom cultivation in especially nonforest zones of Ghana.

  8. Evaluation of biomass of some invasive weed species as substrate for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintesnot, Birara; Ayalew, Amare; Kebede, Ameha

    2014-01-15

    This study assessed the bioconversion of Agriculture wastes like invasive weeds species (Lantana camara, Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus) as a substrate for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus species) cultivation together with wheat straw as a control. The experiment was laid out in factorial combination of substrates and three edible oyster mushroom species in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Pleurotus ostreatus gave significantly (p production rate of 3.13 was recorded for P. ostreatus grown on P. hysterophorus. The highest total ash content (13.90%) was recorded for P. florida grown on L. camara. while the lowest (6.92%) was for P. sajor-caju grown on the P. juliflora. Crude protein ranged from 40.51-41.48% for P. florida grown on P. hysterophorus and L. camara. Lowest crude protein content (30.11%) was recorded for P. ostreatus grown on wheat straw. The crude fiber content (12.73%) of P. sajor-caju grown on wheat straw was the highest. The lowest crude fiber (5.19%) was recorded for P. ostreatus on P. juliflora. Total yield had a positive and significant correlation with biological efficiency and production. Utilization of the plant biomass for mushroom cultivation could contribute to alleviating ecological impact of invasive weed species while offering practical option to mitigating hunger and malnutrition in areas where the invasive weeds became dominant.

  9. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation technique using re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... The mineral content of oyster mushroom grown on rice straws, ... environment from disposed plastic bags which are non-biodegradable and if burned may cause ill-health effect to ... straw bales and plastic bags and bottles for.

  10. Cultivation of different strains of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) on saw dust and rice straw in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Uddin, Md. Nazim; Ahmed, Saleh; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman

    2010-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii is a popular mushroom due to its excellent consistency of cap and stem, culinary qualities and longer shelf life. In Bangladesh, where Pleurotus mushrooms are very popular, P. eryngii may take position among the consumers, but currently this mushroom is not cultivated in large scale there. In this study, 3 strains of P. eryngii such as Pe-1 (native to Bangladesh), Pe-2 (germplasm collected from China) and Pe-3 (germplasm collected from Japan) were cultivated on saw dust and rice straw and their growth and yield parameters were investigated. Pe-1 on saw dust showed the highest biological yield and efficiency (73.5%) than other strains. Also, the mycelium run rate and number of fruiting bodies were higher in Pe-1 than other two strains. The quality of mushroom strains was near about similar. On saw dust, the yield and efficiency were better than those cultivated on rice straw, however, on straw; the mushroom fruiting bodies were larger in size. This study shows the prospects of P. eryngii cultivation in Bangladesh and suggests further study in controlled environment for higher yield and production. PMID:23961095

  11. The fungistatic activity of organic selenium and its application to the production of cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus spp.

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    Savic Milena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of organic selenium against pathogenic molds and its use as a potential selenium source in the production of enriched mushrooms were examined. The effect of commercial selenized yeast on mycelia growth was examined using a method with mycelia disks and a well diffusion method. For mushroom enrichment, different concentrations of selenium were added to a growth substrate. The results presented in this paper suggest that the most suitable concentration of selenized yeast that inhibits the growth of the mycopathogenic molds is 70-100 mg/kg of selenium. With the addition of this concentration to the substrate, mushroom fruit bodies will uptake a high level of selenium, about 100 μg/g for Pleurotus spp., and 200 μg/g for Agaricus bisporus in dry weight of the mushroom. Thereby a double effect in the cultivation of mushrooms is achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 and br. III46001

  12. Use of oil palm kernel meal as a supplement material for abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus O.K. Miller cultivation

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    Petcharat, V. and

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimum rate of oil palm kernel meal, for an abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus cultivation. Different concentrations of oil palm kernel meal (5- 20% were added to pararubber sawdust and used to grow the abalone mushroom in plastic bags. Growth rate of the mycelia, number of days from watering to harvesting and yield were compared to those on 94% sawdust + 5% rice bran + 1% Ca(OH2. The results showed that 10% oil palm kernel meal was the optimum concentration for abalone mushroom cultivation. Yield on 950 g/bag of 89% sawdust + 10% oil palm kernel meal + 1% Ca(OH2 was 202.12 g/bag (B.E. = 60.79% during 120 days of havesting time. Addition of higher concentration of oil palm kernel meal (15-20% did not increase yield of the basidiocarps.

  13. Lignocellulolytic enzyme activity, substrate utilization, and mushroom yield by Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated on substrate containing anaerobic digester solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvilli, Nona A

    2009-11-01

    Solid waste from anaerobic digestion of litter from the commercial production of broiler chickens has limited use as fertilizer. Its disposal is a major problem for digester operators who are seeking alternative use for anaerobic digester solids, also referred to as solid waste (SW). The use of SW as substrates for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus strain MBFBL400 was investigated. Lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, substrate utilization, and mushroom yield were evaluated in ten different substrate combinations (SCs) containing varying amounts of solid waste, wheat straw, and millet. Nutritional content of mushrooms produced on the different substrates was also determined. Substrates containing 70-80% wheat straw, 10-20% SW, and 10-20% millet were found to produce the highest mushroom yield (874.8-958.3 g/kg). Loss of organic matter in all SCs tested varied from 45.8% to 56.2%, which had positive correlation with the biological efficiency. Laccase, peroxidase, and carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) activities were higher before fruiting, whereas xylanase showed higher activities after mushroom fruiting. SW increased the nutritional content in mushrooms harvested, and the combination of wheat straw and SW with millet significantly improved mushroom yield. Our findings demonstrated the possibility of utilizing anaerobic digester solids in mushroom cultivation. The application of SW as such could improve the financial gains in the overall economy of anaerobic digester plants.

  14. Antioxidant Activities and Total Phenolic Content of Aqueous Extract of Pleurotus ostreatus (Cultivated Oyster Mushroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, H S; Chye, F Y; Tan, C T; Ng, Y C; Ho, C W

    2010-08-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus better known as oyster mushroom is widely cultivated and consumed as food in Malaysia. The present study aims to assess the antioxidative potential and total phenolic content of P. ostreatus aqueous extract. The antioxidant activities were evaluated against DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and β-carotene-linoleate bleaching assay, and the Folin-Ciocalteu method for total phenolic content (TPC). The DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity was found to be 63.20% and 87.29% respectively; antioxidant activity using FRAP at 1.45 mM FE/100g and β-carotenelinoleate bleaching assay was 83.51%, while the TPC was found to be 798.55 mg GAE/100g. These antioxidant activities were compared to synthetic antioxidant, BHA and ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid showed highest scavenging effects on DPPH and ABTS radical, followed by P. ostreatus and BHA (at maximum safety limit). The ferric reducing power of P. ostreatus was significantly higher than BHA and ascorbic acid. The antioxidant activity as assessed in β-carotene-linoleate bleaching assay was found to be higher in BHA compared to P. ostreatus. The aqueous extract of P. ostreatus was found to respond differently in antioxidant assays. The antioxidative activity of the aqueous extract of P. ostreatus correlated with its total phenolic content. Generally, the antioxidant activities of P. ostreatus' aqueous extract are comparable to that of BHA and ascorbic acid to a certain extent.

  15. The famous cultivated mushroom Bailinggu is a separate species of the Pleurotus eryngii species complex

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    Zhao, Mengran; Zhang, Jinxia; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Xiangli; Gao, Wei; Deng, Wangqiu; Huang, Chenyang

    2016-01-01

    The mushroom of the genus Pleurotus in western China, called Bailinggu, is a precious edible fungus with high economic value. However, its taxonomical position is unclear. Some researchers regard it as a variety of P. eryngii, namely P. eryngii var. tuoliensis, whereas others consider it to be a subspecies of P. eryngii, viz. P. eryngii subsp. tuoliensis. A total of 51 samples representing seven genetic groups of the genus Pleurotus were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene (ef1a), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit gene (rpb1), the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit gene (rpb2) and nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Our data indicate that the mushroom Bailinggu is a lineage independent of P. eryngii and should be lifted as its own species, namely P. tuoliensis. In addition, its known distribution range consists of both western China and Iran. PMID:27629112

  16. Alternative method of inoculum and spawn production for the cultivation of the edible brazilian mushroom Pleurotus ostreatoroseus SING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Fábio Rogério; Kemmelmeier, Carlos; Da Costa, Sandra Maria Gomes

    2002-01-01

    Efficiency of solid and liquid inocula and their use for spawn production were compared so that improved cultivation conditions for the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatoroseus could be tested. Solid and liquid inocula were prepared respectively with Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Liquid Potato Dextrose (LPD). Wheat grains and cotton residues were used as substrates for spawn preparation. Inoculum types did not affect the development of P. ostreatoroseus, and LPD spawns were cheaper, more homogenous, less contaminated. Decomposition activity of mushroom growth, as a percentage of organic matter loss (OML), was higher in the wheat grain spawn and was not influenced by the inoculum type. Advantages in the use of cotton residue for spawn production were longer storage time, lower contamination and reduced costs. The cotton residue substrate may be also used for the production of mushroom fruiting bodies.

  17. Prevalence of Ewingella americana in retail fresh cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus) in Zaragoza (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Juan E; Venturini, María E; Oria, Rosa; Blanco, Domingo

    2004-03-01

    The prevalence and mycopathogenic potential of Enterobacteriaceae (especially Ewingella americana) in cultivated mushrooms were studied. A total of 95 samples of Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus were analyzed to quantify the Enterobacteriaceae and to identify the species isolated. The host pathogenicity test was used to verify their mycopathogenic potential. The genus Pseudomonas was also quantified, since it is the predominant bacterial group in cultivated mushrooms. The counts of Enterobacteriaceae ranged from 2.88 to 3.66 log(10) CFU g(-1), which was significantly lower than the counts of Pseudomonas spp. (4.52-7.80 log(10) CFU g(-1)). Among the 151 strains of Enterobacteriaceae isolated, 112 strains (74.2%) were classified as Ewingella americana by the API 20 E system. Other species identified were Enterobacter amnigenus bgp. 1, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella terrigena, Pantoea spp. bgp. 2 and Serratia rubidaea. Only E. americana showed mycopathogenic effect, causing a browning lesion and necrosis in the center of the A. bisporus stipe. This is the first report of the isolation of E. americana from healthy cultivated button mushroom as well as from other species of cultivated mushrooms different from A. bisporus.

  18. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity exhibit high intraspecific variability in Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms and correlate well with cultivation performance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Stathopoulos, Pantelis; Kaliora, Andriana C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2017-05-01

    Experimental data related with oyster mushroom production and nutritional properties usually derive from the examination of only one strain, and hence their representativeness/usefulness is questionable. This work aims at assessing intraspecific variability in Pleurotus ostreatus by studying 16 strains, under the same conditions, in respect to essential cultivation and mushroom quality aspects, and by defining the impact of intrinsic/genetic factors on such parameters. Hence, mushroom yield, earliness, crop length, biological efficiency, productivity, and their content in selected macro and microconstituents (e.g. fatty acids, sterols, individual phenolic compounds, terpenic acids, glucans) as well as their antioxidant properties (i.e., antiradical activity, ferric reducing potential, inhibition of serum oxidation) were assayed. The effect of intrinsic/genetic factors was evident, especially as regards earliness, yield of each production flush and mushroom weight, whereas biological efficiency was not particularly influenced by the cultivated strain. Moreover, phenolics, ergosterol and antiradical activity demonstrated significant variability among strains in contrast to what was observed for fatty acids, β-glucans and ferric reducing potential. The observed heterogeneity reveals the limitations of using a low number of strains for evaluating mushroom production and/or their content in bioactive compounds, and as evidenced, it is valuable for breeding and commercial purposes.

  19. The Management of Humidifying Treatment for Low Contamination Risks During Indoor Cultivation of Grey Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius

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    Islam Md. Tariqul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, grey oyster mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius was cultivated in indoor controlled environment to seeking out the possible risks of contamination and ways of treatment to avoid the contamination. For this, mushroom was cultivated in providing artificial humidifying and ventilation system to ensure optimum humidity (80-90% and fresh air recirculation in different ways of treatment. The ways of treatment were included as in position of humidifier, frequency of humidifying, plastic cork of bags opening part and cleaning of humidifier water container. Maximum percentages of bag contamination (2.5-25.30%, cap contamination (5.6-30.75%, stalk contamination (4.75-23.25% and root contamination (2.6-18.45% were found in front to front humidifier position, long humidifying with long interval frequency, without plastic cork, without cleaning and bi-monthly cleaning of humidifier water container treatment but no diseases and pest infection was found. Whereas, very low percentages of contamination (0.1-0.5% were found in surrounding humidifying position, short humidifying duration with short interval frequency, with plastic cork and weekly cleaning of humidifier water container treatment.

  20. Contamination level, distribution and health risk assessment of heavy and toxic metallic and metalloid elements in a cultivated mushroom Pleurotus florida (Mont.) singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Rouhollah; Moudi, Maryam; Khojeh, Vahid

    2016-12-15

    There are great concentrations of toxic metallic and metalloid elements such as lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium or silver in many species of mushrooms comparative to other fruits and vegetables. In this study, contamination with heavy and toxic metallic and metalloid elements in the cultivated mushroom of (Pleurotus florida (Mont.) Singer) is investigated. P. florida was cultivated on different substrates; wheat straw (as blank), wheat straw + pine cone, wheat straw + soybean straw and wheat straw + urea and the effects of these substrates on contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results showed that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the target mushroom are at the typical levels. The estimated daily intakes of studied metallic and metalloid elements were below their oral reference dosage mentioned by the international regulatory bodies. Health risk index (HRI) was calculated to evaluate the consumer's health risk assessment from the metal intake that contaminated in the cultivated mushroom of P. florida on the different nutrient sources. In this study, the individual HRIs were less than 1, which indicates insignificant potential health risk associated with the consumption of target mushroom from the studied substrates. Based on the HRIs values among the toxic metallic and metalloid elements, As in the target mushroom in the substrate of the wheat straw + pine cone is the main sources of risk, and it may cause severe health problems. Thus, this study suggests that the concentrations of heavy and toxic elements should be periodically monitored in cultivated mushrooms.

  1. Optimization of substrate preparation for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) cultivation by studying different raw materials and substrate preparation conditions (composting: phases I and II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) has become one of the most cultivated mushrooms in the world, mainly in Brazil. Among many factors involved in a mushroom production, substrate preparation is the most critical step, which can be influenced by composting management techniques. Looking forward to optimizing the substrate preparation process, were tested different composting conditions (7 and 14 days of composting with or without conditioning), potential raw materials (decumbens grass, brizantha grass and sugarcane straw) and nitrogen supplementation (with or without wheat bran) on oyster mushroom yield and biological efficiency (BE). The substrate composted for 7 days with conditioning showed higher yield and biological efficiency of mushroom (24.04 and 100.54 %, respectively). Substrates without conditioning (7 and 14 days of composting) showed smaller mushroom yield and biological efficiency. Among the raw materials tested, brizantha grass showed higher mushroom yield followed by decumbens grass, sugarcane straw and wheat straw (28.5, 24.32, 23.5 and 19.27 %, respectively). Brizantha grass also showed higher biological efficiency followed by sugarcane straw, decumbens grass and wheat straw (123.95, 103.70, 96.90 and 86.44 %, respectively). Supplementation with wheat bran improved yield and biological efficiency in all substrate formulations tested; thus, oyster mushroom yield and biological efficiency were influenced by substrate formulation (raw materials), supplementation and composting conditions.

  2. Medicinal and antimicrobial role of the oyster culinary-medicinal mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (higher Basidiomycetes) cultivated on banana agrowastes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjadia, Prashant D; Nagee, Anju; Pandya, Parth Y; Mukhopadhyaya, Pratap N; Sanghvi, Gaurav V; Dave, Gaurav S

    2014-01-01

    Oyster mushrooms, species of the genus Pleurotus, are recognized for producing secondary metabolites with important medicinal properties. Investigations were carried out to evaluate the antioxidative and antimicrobial properties of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (MTCC142) extracts cultivated on banana agrowastes. Ethanolic extracts showed antimicrobial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and their in vitro antifungal activities against all fungi tested revealed a promising role. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of Pleurotus grown on yeast dextrose broth and banana agrowaste confirmed the presence of steroids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and alkaloids, whereas ethanolic extract after 40 days exhibited a phenol concentration of 521.67 µg/mL in banana waste compared to 155 µg/mL in yeast dextrose broth. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanolic extracts ranged from 19.74 to 56.84 mg/mL and 35.53 to 102.31 mg/mL in solid-state and submerged grown mycelium extracts, respectively, after 40 days. Moreover, banana agrowaste could be a significant economic source for the production of the oyster mushroom P. ostreatus. The nutritive, medicinal, and antimicrobial properties of P. ostreatus can be used to develop a new nutraceutical formulation; it can also be used as an additive to routine and fast food.

  3. Feasibility of using olive mill effluent (OME) as a wetting agent during the cultivation of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, on wheat straw.

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    Kalmis, Erbil; Azbar, Nuri; Yildiz, Hasan; Kalyoncu, Fatih

    2008-01-01

    In this study, cultivation of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, on wheat straw substrate containing tap water and olive mill effluent (OME) mixture containing varying volume of OME was studied in order to investigate the feasibility of using OME as an alternative wetting agent and OME's impact on some fundamental food quality characteristics of mushrooms. Time period for mycelial colonization, primordium initiation and first harvest were comparatively evaluated with the control group. It was shown that the use of OME and tap water mixture consisting of OME up to 25% volumetrically was possible for the purpose of commercial mushroom production. Experimental results obtained from substrate containing 25% OME mixture showed no statistically significant difference compared to control group. The negative effects of increasing volume of OME in the mixture were also indicated by bioefficiency, which was found to be 13.8% for substrates wetted with 100% OME, whereas bioefficiency was 53.6% for control group. Increasing volume of OME in the mixture resulted in deformation of fruit body shape, whereas no significant difference in food quality was observed due to the higher amount of OME. This work suggested that the use of OME up to 25% as moisturizer could be considered, especially for the locations having significant number of olive mills and mushroom producers, both as an environmentally friendly solution for the safe and ecological disposal of OME and a practical way for recovering OME's economic value thereby.

  4. Cultivation of the culinary-medicinal Lung Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél. (Agaricomycetideae) on grass plants in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zeng-Chin; Wu, Kuan-Jzen; Wang, Jinn-Chyi; Lin, Chorng-Horng; Wu, Chiu-Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of the culinary-medicinal Lung Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius, on the stalks of three grass plants, i.e., Panicum repens, Pennisetum purpureum, and Zea mays were investigated. The effects of various combinatorial substrates on mushroom mycelial growth and yield calculated as biological efficiency (BE) were determined. Among 9 experimental substrates, the most suitable substrate for mycelial growth was 45ZMS:45S, followed by 45PRS:45S; their mycelial growth rates were obviously quicker than that of the control substrate. The BEs of all the experimental substrates respectively containing P. repens stalk, P. purpureum stalk and Z. mays stalk were higher than that of the control (39.55%) during the 2.5 months of cultivation period. The best substrate in terms of BE was 60ZMS:30S (58.33%), followed by 45PRS:45S (57.16%), 45ZMS:45S (49.86%), and 30ZMS:60S (47.20%). Based on the BE of the tested substrates, Z mays stalk appeared to be the best alternative material for the production of P. pulmonarius.

  5. Cultivo do cogumelo Pleurotus sajor-caju em diferentes resíduos agrícolas Cultivation of the mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju in different agricultural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustáquio Souza Dias

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes resíduos agrícolas disponíveis na região sul de Minas Gerais foram testados para o cultivo do cogumelo Pleurotus sajor-caju. Foram avaliados os seguintes substratos: palha de feijão pura (PFP, palha de milho pura (PMP, casca de café pura (CCP, palha de feijão enriquecida com 2% de calcário, 2% de gesso e 10% de farelo de trigo (PFE, palha de milho enriquecida (PME e casca de café enriquecida (CCE. Todos os substratos receberam 2% de inoculante e foram incubados a 24°C. Após a colonização, os sacos foram mantidos abertos em ambiente a 24°C e umidade a 80%. PFP, PFE e PME apresentaram os melhores resultados na produção de cogumelos, com uma eficiência biológica de 85,7; 81,4 e 83,4%, respectivamente. A palha de feijão foi considerada o melhor resíduo para a produção do cogumelo P. sajor-caju, porque apresentou a melhor eficiência biológica sem necessidade de enriquecimento.Several agricultural residues available in the South of Minas Gerais were tested for cultivation of the mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju. The following substrates were investigated: Bean (BS, Corn (CS straws and Coffee husk (CH without nutrient supplementation and straws of bean (BSS, corn (CSS and coffee husk (CHS supplemented with 2% of CaCO3, 2% of gypsum and 10% of wheat flour. All the substrates were inoculated with 2% of spawn and incubated at 24ºC. After the fungi had colonized the substrate, the plastic bags were open and maintained at room temperature with 80% of humidity. BS, BSS and CSS showed higher mushroom production than the others, showing a biological efficiency of 85.7, 81.4 and 83.6% respectively. The beans straw (BS without nutrient supplementation was considered the best residue for the growth and cultivation of the mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju. This substrate showed higher levels of biological efficiency than the others substrates analysed.

  6. Submerged Cultivation of Mycelium with High Ergothioneine Content from the Culinary-Medicinal Golden Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Chien, Shih-Chang; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of submerged culture of the culinary-medicinal golden oyster mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, was studied using a one-factor-at-a-time, two-stage stimulation and central composite rotatable design to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content. The optimal culture conditions for mycelia harvested at day 22 were a temperature of 25°C, an inoculation ratio of 5%, 2% glucose, 0.5% yeast extract, and adjustment of the initial pH value to 10. The biomass and ergothioneine content were 8.28 g/L and 10.65 mg/g dry weight (dw), respectively. The addition of an amino acid precursor increased the ergothioneine content of mycelia; cysteine was the most effective. In addition, the results obtained from central composite rotatable design showed that the recommended combination for cysteine, histidine, and methionine was 8, 4, and 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. The predicted ergothioneine content was 13.90 mg/g dw, whereas the experimental maximal ergothioneine content was 14.57 mg/g dw. With the addition of complex precursors and under optimal culture conditions, mycelia harvested at days 16-20 had higher ergothioneine content. Accordingly, the information obtained could be used to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content.

  7. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus on weed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nirmalendu; Mukherjee, Mina

    2007-10-01

    Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.:Fr.) Kumm. ITCC 3308 (collected from Indian Type Culture Collection, IARI, New Delhi, India, 110012) was grown on dry weed plants, Leonotis sp, Sida acuta, Parthenium argentatum, Ageratum conyzoides, Cassia sophera, Tephrosia purpurea and Lantana camara. Leonotis sp. was the best substrate in fruit body production of P. ostreatus when it was mixed with rice straw (1:1, wet wt/wet wt) for mushroom cultivation. The fruiting time for P. ostreatus was also less on Leonotis sp. than on any other weed substrates tested in the present investigation. T. purpurea was the least suited weed for oyster mushroom cultivation. The main problem of oyster mushroom cultivation on weed substrates was found to be low yield in the second flush that could be overcome by blending weed plants with rice straw. The protein contents of the fruit bodies obtained from Cassia sophera, Parthenium argentatum and Leonotis sp. were not only better than rice straw but also from the rice straw supplemented weeds.

  8. Food, medicinal and environmental values of mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Alekseenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the literature review describing food, medicinal and ecological properties of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom. It is shown that the mushroom is adequate foodstuff for human beings. It provides with proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and mineral salts. Protein of the oyster mushrooms’ mycothallus contains 18 amino acids, eight of which were essential (isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine, and valine. Therapeutic value of the mushroom is characterised by a content of water-soluble (thiamine B1, riboflavin B2, niacin, B5, PP, pyridoxine B6, biotin B7, ascorbic and pantothenic acid and liposoluble (calciferol, ergosterol, tocopherol vitamins. The considerable gains from the farm wastes use for the mushrooms raising with subsequent application of the substrate in plant cultivation and animal husbandry are stated.

  9. Researches on Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom’s quality cultivated on coffee grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Ropciuc; Ana Leahu; Mircea Oroian; Cristina Damian

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate the possibility of using coffee grounds for cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms and determine the nutritional composition of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms produced on coffee grounds substrate. The results revealed a good fruiting of the fungus on coffee grounds and the biological effectiveness (weight of fresh mushroom) reached about 97% after 30 days. We determined the total protein content in vitamin C, the total polyphenols...

  10. Cultivation Techniques and Medicinal Properties of Pleurotus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gregori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pleurotus (oyster mushroom comprises some most popular edible mushrooms due to their favourable organoleptic and medicinal properties, vigorous growth and undemanding cultivation conditions. It can be cultivated on log and a wide variety of agroforestry (by-products, weeds and wastes for the production of food, feed, enzymes and medicinal compounds, or for waste degradation and detoxification. Many different techniques and substrates have been successfully utilized for mushroom cultivation and biomass production by means of solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation. However, in contrast to submerged liquid fermentation, solid-state fermentation is not often used in large scale due to severe engineering problems. Various Pleurotus species have been shown to possess a number of medicinal properties, such as antitumour, immunomodulatory, antigenotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolaemic, antihypertensive, antiplatelet-aggregating, antihyperglycaemic, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. These therapeutic activities are exhibited by extracts or isolated compounds from Pleurotus spp. fermentation broth, mycelia and fruiting bodies. In particular, polysaccharides appear to be potent antitumour and immuno-enhancing substances, besides possessing other beneficial activities. However, the biochemical mechanisms of these therapeutic activities still remain largely unknown. This review focuses on recent advances in the biotechnology of Pleurotus spp., with emphasis on the production of fruiting bodies, the production of mycelium and bioactive compounds by solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation. The medicinal properties of this mushroom are also outlined.

  11. Genetic diversity of Kenyan native oyster mushroom (Pleurotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, Ojwang D; Onyango, Calvin; Onguso, Justus Mungare; Matasyoh, Lexa G; Wanjala, Bramwel W; Wamalwa, Mark; Harvey, Jagger J W

    2015-01-01

    Members of the genus Pleurotus, also commonly known as oyster mushroom, are well known for their socioeconomic and biotechnological potentials. Despite being one of the most important edible fungi, the scarce information about the genetic diversity of the species in natural populations has limited their sustainable utilization. A total of 71 isolates of Pleurotus species were collected from three natural populations: 25 isolates were obtained from Kakamega forest, 34 isolates from Arabuko Sokoke forest and 12 isolates from Mount Kenya forest. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was applied to thirteen isolates of locally grown Pleurotus species obtained from laboratory samples using five primer pair combinations. AFLP markers and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of the ribosomal DNA were used to estimate the genetic diversity and evaluate phylogenetic relationships, respectively, among and within populations. The five primer pair combinations generated 293 polymorphic loci across the 84 isolates. The mean genetic diversity among the populations was 0.25 with the population from Arabuko Sokoke having higher (0.27) diversity estimates compared to Mount Kenya population (0.24). Diversity between the isolates from the natural population (0.25) and commercial cultivars (0.24) did not differ significantly. However, diversity was greater within (89%; P > 0.001) populations than among populations. Homology search analysis against the GenBank database using 16 rDNA ITS sequences randomly selected from the two clades of AFLP dendrogram revealed three mushroom species: P. djamor, P. floridanus and P. sapidus; the three mushrooms form part of the diversity of Pleurotus species in Kenya. The broad diversity within the Kenyan Pleurotus species suggests the possibility of obtaining native strains suitable for commercial cultivation.

  12. Cultivation of Pleurotus on agricultural substrates in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    R. C. Bermúdez; García, N.; Gross, P.; Serrano, M

    2001-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus f. sp. florida (P-184) was cultivated on several agricultural substrates, such as coffee pulp, cocoa shells, and coconut shells. These substrates were processed by solar drying, stored, pasteurized, and used for mushroom cultivation. The highest biological efficiencies were recorded on coffee pulp from Coffea arabica (168.5-179.4%), followed by coconut shells (90.0%), and cocoa shells (84.5%; particle size: > 4 mm).

  13. Genotyping and evaluation of Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sumiati, E.

    2005-01-01

    Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) represent one of the most popular mushroom species grown in Indonesia. There is a need for strains that are better adapted to the climate conditions at Java, where most mushrooms in Indonesia are produced. Strains that can produce mushrooms at 22 to 28 oC and h

  14. Genotyping and evaluation of Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sumiati, E.

    2005-01-01

    Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) represent one of the most popular mushroom species grown in Indonesia. There is a need for strains that are better adapted to the climate conditions at Java, where most mushrooms in Indonesia are produced. Strains that can produce mushrooms at 22 to 28 oC and

  15. Microbiological effects of olive mill waste addition to substrates for Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler-Rivas, C.; Garcia-Rosado, A.; Polonia, I.; Junca-Blanch, G.; Marin, F.R.; Wichers, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    When olive mill wastes (OMWs) and vegetation waters (VWs) obtained during the manufacture of olive oil were added as substrate supplements for the cultivation of Pleurotus pulmonarius the material modified growth of the mushroom and the endemic microbiota of the substrate, in particular the mushroom

  16. Selenium uptake by edible oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) from selenium-hyperaccumulated wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Poonam; Prakash, Ranjana; Prakash, N Tejo

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to produce selenium (Se)-fortifying edible mushrooms, five species of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.), were cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw collected from a seleniferous belt of Punjab, India. Total selenium was analyzed in the selenium hyperaccumulated wheat straw and the fruiting bodies. Significantly high levels (pmushrooms grown on Se-rich wheat straw. To the best of our knowledge, accumulation and quantification of selenium in mushrooms has hitherto not been reported with substrates naturally enriched with selenium. The results demonstrate the potential of selenium-rich agricultural residues as substrates for production of Se-enriched mushrooms and the ability of different species of oyster mushrooms to absorb and fortify selenium. The study envisages potential use of selenium-rich agricultural residues towards cultivation of Se-enriched mushrooms for application in selenium supplementation or neutraceutical preparations.

  17. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium were selected for all studied species, from soybean cake – most suitable for the mycelial growth of 24 species, to walnut cake − suitable only for 2 species. The utilization of substrates has been evaluated by biological efficiency. The best index of biological efficiency varied from 19.0% to 41.6% depending on the mushroom species. It was established high biological efficiency of mycelia cultivation on substrates: wheat seed cake – Pleurotus djamor, Lyophyllum shimeji, Crinipellis schevczenkovi, Phellinus igniarius, Spongipellis litschaueri; oat seed cake – Ganoderma applanatum and G. lucidum; soybean cake – Hohenbuehelia myxotricha, Trametes versicolor, Morchella esculenta, Cordyceps sinensis, C. militaris, and Agrocybe aegerita; rape seed cake – Auriporia aurea; camelina seed cake – Fomes fomentarius. The cultivation of these species are perspective as a biotechnological process of agricultural wastes converted into mycelia, which could be used in different forms of products with therapeutic action: powder or tablets nutraceuticals or ingredients for functional foods.

  18. Cultivation of Pleurotus pulmonarius on substrates treated by immersion in alkaline water in Guerrero, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    T. Bernabé-González; M. Cayetano-Catarino

    2009-01-01

    Pleurotus pulmonarius was cultivated on dry banana leaves (Musa paradisiaca) or dry "palmareca" leaves (Chrysalidocarpus lutescens), using two substrate treatments. Substrates were immersed in water containing 2% lime for 24 h and used for mushroom cultivation, in comparison with the method of immersing substrates in hot water at ±80 C for 1 h. The highest mushroom production was obtained on banana leaves immersed in alkaline water, reaching 120.1% of biological efficiency in a period of 61 d...

  19. Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

    1988-10-01

    The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with the mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.

  20. Speciation of selenium in pleurotus ostreatus and lentinula edodes Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Assunção, Laélia Soares de; Fernández, M. G.; García Barrera, Tamara; Gómez Ariza, José Luis; KASUYA, M. C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes are two of the most commercialized mushrooms species in the world and exhibit the potential to accumulate selenium (Se). The form of Se in the protein extracts of P. ostreatus and L. edodes mushrooms enriched with Se has been investigated with the aim of obtaining a protein extract with high concentrations of selenomethionine (SeMet). For an approach to the speciation of Se incorporated in P. ostreatus proteins, size exclusion high performance liquid c...

  1. Ostreolysin enhances fruiting initiation in the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berne, S.; Pohleven, J.; Vidic, I.; Rebolj, K.; Pohleven, F.; Turk, T.; Macek, P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Sepcic, K.

    2007-01-01

    Fruiting initiation in mushrooms can be triggered by a variety of environmental and biochemical stimuli, including substances of natural or synthetic origin. In this work ostreolysin, a cytolytic protein specifically expressed during the formation of primordia and fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus

  2. Status and Future Outlook of Cultivated Mushroom Sector in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Eren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom production that started in 1960's in Turkey gained economic value from the 1990's and it started improving as a commercial sector after that time. While Turkey mushroom production was 80 tons in 1973, it increased up to 45.000 tons in 2014. There is a rapid changes and improvement in cultivated mushroom production and consumption in Turkey. The object of the study is to reveal current status of mushroom production in the world and Turkey, and the problems of the mushroom sector in Turkey and the necessary precautions and ways to solve these problems. The data obtained from the inspections of the mushroom enterprises that in mushroom production regions of Turkey, and the secondary data obtained from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK and Union of Antalya Exporters (AIB and also national and international publication’ data has been used in this study. In Turkey, Mediterranean and Marmara Regions rank first in mushroom production and consumption with the share of 61.5 and 40%, respectively. It has been determined that big enterprises producing mushroom and compost established in the Central Anatolia in this study. The number of enterprises producing mushroom by using technology increases and 15-20% of the total production are provided by the big enterprises having 2000 m2 and over mushroom production areas. Recent years, there are serious increases in the production of different mushroom species such as especially Pleurotus ostreatus. In addition, precision agriculture applications are widespread with the time. For the continuation of growth of the mushroom sector in Turkey and the solving of the sector problems, there are needs both in making the necessary changes in legislation and to be given priority researches related to mushroom production in university and public research institutions and also to support them.

  3. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  4. Use of biogas fluid-soaked water hyacinth for cultivating Pleurotus geesteranus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuxia; Jiang, Zhihe; Chen, Xi; Lei, Jingui; Weng, Boqi; Huang, Qin

    2010-04-01

    Experiments were carried out to test the viability of growing Pleurotus geesteranus on media containing varying amounts of crushed water hyacinth slices, which were soaked in pig farm biogas fluid and dried. The water hyacinth material was utilized to substitute sawdust in the media for mushroom cultivation. Mushroom fruiting bodies harvested were evaluated for yield, amino acid and heavy metal contents. Among the eight treatment groups, the greatest yield and highest amino acid content in the mushrooms were obtained when the proportions of water hyacinth and sawdust in the medium were equal. The concentrations of heavy metals, Hg, Pb and Cd, in most of the present mushroom samples did not exceed the maximum allowed levels according to the limits set forth by the food hygienic and safety regulations for edible mushrooms in China. The proposed waste utilization of water hyacinth could conceivably benefit the environment in various aspects including conservation of forest by reducing the demand on natural woods for mushroom production.

  5. Effect of different cooking methods on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of cultivated mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Mendiola-Lanao, Mónica; Pérez-Clavijo, Margarita; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Influence of culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Proximate composition was affected by the cooking method and the mushrooms species. Frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the β-glucans fraction. A significant decrease was detected in the antioxidant activity especially after boiling and frying, while grilled and microwaved mushrooms reached higher values of antioxidant activity. Maillard reaction products could be partially responsible, as supported by the absorbance values measured at 420 nm. Since cooking techniques clearly influence the nutritional attributes of mushrooms, the proper selection of treatments is a key factor to prevent/reduce nutritional losses. Microwaving and grilling were established as the best processes to maintain the nutritional profile of mushrooms.

  6. Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of edible wild and cultivated mushrooms from Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Srikram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are known as an excellent source of nutrients including macronutrients and bioactive compounds. Nutritional values were investigated involving proximate analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total phenol content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC of 10 edible wild mushroom species—Amanita calyptroderma Ark. et al., Amanita princeps Corner et Bas, A., Astraeus odoratus, Heimiella retispora (Pat. et. Bak. Boedijn., Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis (Pat. Trappe, Russula alboareolata Hongo, Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff.ex.Fr., Russula emetic (Schaeff. ex Fr. S.F.Gray., Russula virescens (Schaeff. fr., Termitomyces clypeatus Heim—and five cultivated mushroom species—Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinus polychrous Lev., Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Sing, Volvariella vovacea (Bull. Ex.Fr. Sing. From the proximate analysis, the moisture contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms ranged from 84.15% fresh weight (FW to 90.21% FW. The ash, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms were in the dry weight ranges 2.56–13.96%, 11.16–50.29%, 1.43–21.94%, 2.11–38.11% and 9.56–59.73%, respectively, and the contents of macronutrients in the mushrooms varied by variety. Wild mushrooms had a high fiber content compared to cultivated mushrooms. The contents of biologically active compounds of both wild and cultivated mushrooms also varied depending on the variety. Values for the TAC, TPC and TFC of wild mushrooms were higher than those of cultivated mushrooms. In conclusion, the proximate analysis for both wild and cultivated mushrooms was variety dependent and wild mushrooms contained a higher fiber content and more biologically active compounds than cultivated mushrooms.

  7. Nutritional and Antioxidant Values of Oyster Mushroom (P. sajor-caju Cultivated on Rubber Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Nuran Mohd Rashidi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— Grey oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju is one of the edible mushrooms from Pleurotus family, which is cultivated commercially in Malaysia. The global mushroom market has shown remarkable growth in recent years and has attractive market potential for the future. This study aimed to determine nutritional value and antioxidant properties of fresh grey oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju with the intention to give better information on nutritional composition of fresh oyster mushroom cultivated on rubber sawdust. Grey oyster mushrooms were freshly harvested from Teloi Agro Farm, Kedah, Malaysia. The proximate analysis was used to determine nutrient composition of grey oyster mushroom. Highest nutritional value of grey oyster mushroom is the moisture content (90.10±0.09%, followed by crude fibre content (17.27±1.08%, protein content (4.00±0.31%, carbohydrates content (3.54±0.09%, while the lowest nutritional value was possessed by fat content (1.18±0.33% and ash content (1.16±0.02%. The antioxidant activities of the mushroom were measure using total phenolic content (TPC by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH assay. The hot water extract showed mushroom powder possessed 2.21±0.03 mg GAE/g of dried mushroom powder for total phenolic content and at concentration of 0.1g/ml it can inhibit 89.29% of DPPH radicals. By virtue of having high fibre with low fat and high antioxidant activity, grey oyster mushroom can be considered as a functional food, which can provide health benefits.

  8. Researches on Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom’s quality cultivated on coffee grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the possibility of using coffee grounds for cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms and determine the nutritional composition of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms produced on coffee grounds substrate. The results revealed a good fruiting of the fungus on coffee grounds and the biological effectiveness (weight of fresh mushroom reached about 97% after 30 days. We determined the total protein content in vitamin C, the total polyphenols and the activity of Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs enzyme on 32 samples of fresh Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom (top and bottom and subjected to heat treatments (blanching, boiling and freezing. The protein content was ranged between the values of 16.9 and 25.1g/ 100g and the Vitamin C content within the range of values presented 64.32-564.95 mg/100g. The polyphenol content results varied significantly in the analyzed samples varying between 1.887 – 7.667 mg GAE / 100 g vegetable product. The determination of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme responsible for enzymatically blackening of the fungus presented values in the range 0.274- 0.610mg / 100g.

  9. The Effects of Different Substrates on the Growth, Yield, and Nutritional Composition of Two Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Ha Thi; Wang, Chun-Li; Wang, Chong-Ho

    2015-12-01

    The study was conducted to compare the effects of different agro-wastes on the growth, yield, and nutritional composition of oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (PC). Seven substrate formulas including sawdust (SD), corncob (CC), sugarcane bagasse (SB) alone and in combination of 80 : 20, 50 : 50 ratio between SD and CC, SD and SB were investigated. The results indicated that different substrate formulas gave a significant difference in total colonization period, characteristics of fruiting bodies, yield, biological efficiency (BE), nutritional composition and mineral contents of two oyster mushrooms PO and PC. The results showed that increasing CC and SB reduced C/N ratio, and enhanced some mineral contents (Ca, P, and Mg) of substrate formulas. The increased amount of CC and SB of substrate formulas enhanced protein, ash, mineral contents (Ca, K, Mg, Mn, and Zn) of fruiting bodies of both mushrooms. Substrates with 100% CC and 100% SB were the most suitable substrate formulas for cultivation of oyster mushrooms PO and PC in which they gave the highest values of cap diameter, stipe thickness, mushroom weight, yield, BE, protein, fiber, ash, mineral content (Ca, K, and Mg) and short stipe length. However, substrate formula 100% CC gave the slowest time for the first harvest of both mushrooms PO and PC (46.02 days and 64.24 days, respectively). It is also found that the C/N ratio of substrate formulas has close correlation with total colonization period, mushroom weight, yield, BE and protein content of mushroom PO and PC.

  10. The Effects of Different Substrates on the Growth, Yield, and Nutritional Composition of Two Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Ha Thi; Wang, Chong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare the effects of different agro-wastes on the growth, yield, and nutritional composition of oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (PC). Seven substrate formulas including sawdust (SD), corncob (CC), sugarcane bagasse (SB) alone and in combination of 80 : 20, 50 : 50 ratio between SD and CC, SD and SB were investigated. The results indicated that different substrate formulas gave a significant difference in total colonization period, characteristics of fruiting bodies, yield, biological efficiency (BE), nutritional composition and mineral contents of two oyster mushrooms PO and PC. The results showed that increasing CC and SB reduced C/N ratio, and enhanced some mineral contents (Ca, P, and Mg) of substrate formulas. The increased amount of CC and SB of substrate formulas enhanced protein, ash, mineral contents (Ca, K, Mg, Mn, and Zn) of fruiting bodies of both mushrooms. Substrates with 100% CC and 100% SB were the most suitable substrate formulas for cultivation of oyster mushrooms PO and PC in which they gave the highest values of cap diameter, stipe thickness, mushroom weight, yield, BE, protein, fiber, ash, mineral content (Ca, K, and Mg) and short stipe length. However, substrate formula 100% CC gave the slowest time for the first harvest of both mushrooms PO and PC (46.02 days and 64.24 days, respectively). It is also found that the C/N ratio of substrate formulas has close correlation with total colonization period, mushroom weight, yield, BE and protein content of mushroom PO and PC. PMID:26839502

  11. The Effects of Temperature and Nutritional Conditions on Mycelium Growth of Two Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Ha Thi; Wang, Chun-Li

    2015-03-01

    The influences of temperature and nutritional conditions on the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (PC) were investigated in laboratory experiment during the summer season of 2014. The results of the experiment indicated that potato dextrose agar (PDA) and yam dextrose agar (YDA) were the most suitable media for the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO while four media (PDA, YDA, sweet potato dextrose agar, and malt extract agar medium) were not significantly different in supporting mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC. The optimal temperature for mycelium growth of both oyster mushroom species was obtained at 28℃. Mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO was improved by carbon sources such as glucose, molasses, and at 1~5% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO was achieved the highest value. Whereas glucose, dextrose, and sucrose as carbon sources gave the good mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC, and at 1~3% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of PC was achieved the maximum value. Ammonium chloride concentrations at 0.03~0.09% and 0.03~0.05% also gave the greatest values in mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO and PC. Brown rice was found to be the most favourable for mycelium growth of two oyster mushroom species. In addition, sugarcane residue, acasia sawdust and corn cob were selected as favourable lignocellulosic substrate sources for mycelium growth of both oyster mushrooms.

  12. The Effects of Temperature and Nutritional Conditions on Mycelium Growth of Two Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Ha Thi

    2015-01-01

    The influences of temperature and nutritional conditions on the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (PC) were investigated in laboratory experiment during the summer season of 2014. The results of the experiment indicated that potato dextrose agar (PDA) and yam dextrose agar (YDA) were the most suitable media for the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO while four media (PDA, YDA, sweet potato dextrose agar, and malt extract agar medium) were not significantly different in supporting mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC. The optimal temperature for mycelium growth of both oyster mushroom species was obtained at 28℃. Mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO was improved by carbon sources such as glucose, molasses, and at 1~5% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO was achieved the highest value. Whereas glucose, dextrose, and sucrose as carbon sources gave the good mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC, and at 1~3% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of PC was achieved the maximum value. Ammonium chloride concentrations at 0.03~0.09% and 0.03~0.05% also gave the greatest values in mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO and PC. Brown rice was found to be the most favourable for mycelium growth of two oyster mushroom species. In addition, sugarcane residue, acasia sawdust and corn cob were selected as favourable lignocellulosic substrate sources for mycelium growth of both oyster mushrooms. PMID:25892910

  13. Delignification of wheat straw by Pleurotus spp. under mushroom-growing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, L.J.; Reid, I.D.; Coxworth, E.C.

    1987-06-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P. cornucopiae, and P. ostreatus mushrooms were produced on unsupplemented wheat straw. The yield of mushrooms averaged 3.6% (dry-weight basis), with an average 18% straw weight loss. Lignin losses (average, 11%) were lower than cellulose (20%) and hemicellulose (50%) losses. The cellulase digestibility of the residual straw after mushroom harvest was generally lower than that of the original straw. It does not appear feasible to simultaneously produce Pleurotus mushrooms and a highly delignified residue from wheat straw. (Refs. 24).

  14. Growth and Yield Response of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) Grown on Different Locally Available Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Bonginkhosi E. Dlamini; Diana M. Earnshaw; Michael T. Masarirambi

    2012-01-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) production is low despite its high demand in Swaziland. Most communal farmers dispose of their agricultural waste while it can be used usefully as substrates for the production of mushrooms. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of different agricultural wastes used as mushroom substrates on growth, development and yield of mushroom. The substrates investigated were banana leaves, sugarcane tops, maize stover and maize stover and cobs (1:1...

  15. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  16. Morphological and molecular characterization of yellow oyster mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, hybrids obtained by interspecies mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnina, A G; Tan, Yee Shin; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Vikineswary, S

    2016-02-01

    Pleurotus citrinopileatus (yellow oyster mushroom) has an attractive shape and yellow colour but the fragile texture complicates packaging, and its strong aroma is unappealing to consumers. This study aimed to improve the characteristics and yield of P. citrinopileatus by interspecies mating between monokaryotic cultures of P. citrinopileatus and P. pulmonarius. Ten monokaryon cultures of the parental lines were crossed in all combinations to obtain hybrids. Eleven compatible mating pairs were obtained and cultivated to observe their sporophore morphology and yield. The selected hybrid, i.e. P1xC9, was beige in colour while hybrid P3xC8 was yellow in colour. Their sporophores had less offensive aroma, improved texture and higher yield. The DNA sequences of these hybrids were found to be in the same clade as the P. citrinopileatus parent with a bootstrap value of 99%. High bootstrap values indicate high genetic homology between hybrids and the P. citrinopileatus parent. The biological efficiencies of these hybrids P1xC9 (70.97%) and P3xC8 (52.14%) were also higher than the P. citrinopileatus parent (35.63%). Interspecies hybrids obtained by this mating technique can lead to better strains of mushrooms for genetic improvement of the Pleurotus species.

  17. [Protein quality of three strains of Mexican mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista Justo, M; Alanís Guzmán, M G; González de Mejía, E; García Díaz, C L; Martínez, G; Barboza Corona, E

    1999-03-01

    The protein quality of fruits bodies of three Pleurotus ostreatus Mexican strains (INIREB-8, CDBB-H-896 and CDBB-H-897) was evaluated. The protein concentration (Nx4.38) ranged from 17.26 to 19.97 g/100 g dry weight; chemical scores were between 74 and 93% with available lysine as a first limiting amino acid in either INIREB-8 and CDBB-H-896 strains or leucine in CDBB-H-897 strain. The nutritional evaluation revealed 67.75 to 68.38% in vitro digestibility. Relative protein values were from 100.06-107.85%, which were lower than soybean meal and whole egg but larger than those of rice, maize, beans, fava beans and pasta, no differences were found between these values and those of skim milk powder, casein plus methionine and albumin. In accordance with the last results we concluded that due to their essential amino acids content, mushroom proteins are a good complement of cereals; furthermore, it is highly recommended to include Pleurotus in the daily diet.

  18. Pleurotus ostreatus: an oyster mushroom with nutritional and medicinal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy Deepalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Mushrooms constitute an integral part of the normal human diet and in recent times, the amounts of consumption have been raised greatly, which includes variety of species. The genus Pleurotus comprise about 40 different species that are commonly referred to as “Oyster mushroom”. Among several species of this genus, Pleurotus ostreatus (P. ostreatus is popularly consumed by all over the world due to their taste, flavor, high nutritional values and medicinal properties. Because of the presence of numerous nutritional compositions and various active ingredients in P. ostreatus, have been reported to have antidiabetic, antibacterial, anticholestrolic, antiarthritic, antioxidant, anticancer, eye health and antiviral activities. In this review, we particularly expose the high nutritional values of P. ostreatus, in relation to their potential medicinal usage which suggest that the P. ostreatus mushrooms are the most important nutraceutical functional foods. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  19. Genome-wide functional analysis of SSR for an edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jibin; Huang, Chenyang; Zhang, Jinxia

    2016-01-10

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) play specific roles in many biological activities. In this paper, we focused on SSRs in the genome of Pleurotus ostreatus, which is a widely cultivated edible mushroom. The distribution curves of SSRs and exons are opposite throughout the genome, which means that SSRs are mostly located in non-coding regions. A comparative analysis of nine fungi suggests that Agaricomycotina fungi have similar SSR distributions. Functional enrichment analysis on the SSR-containing gene set uncovers enriched functions about environmental interactions and important cellular functions for life. Trinucleotide SSRs account for an extremely high fraction of all SSRs, and in exonic regions, they are equivalent to inserting repeating amino acids (RAAs) into the protein sequences. The RAA indel could partly explain some enriched functions of the genes they modify. Agaricomycotina fungi have similar distributions of RAAs, indicating that this may be a potential common mechanism for some specific functions.

  20. Decolourisation of mushroom farm wastewater by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Suyén; García Oduardo, Nora; Bermúdez Savón, Rosa C; Fernández Boizán, Maikel; Augur, Christopher

    2008-07-01

    Mushroom production on coffee pulp as substrate generates an intense black residual liquid, which requires suitable treatment. In the present study, Pleurotus ostreatus growth in wastewater from mushroom farm was evaluated as a potential biological treatment process for decolourisation as well as to obtain biomass (liquid inoculum). Culture medium components affecting mycelial growth were determined, evaluating colour removal. Laccase activity was monitored during the process. P. ostreatus was able to grow in non diluted WCP. Highest biomass yield was obtained when glucose (10 g/l) was added. The addition of this carbon source was necessary for efficient decolourisation. Agitation of the culture improved biodegradation of WCP as well as fungal biomass production. Laccase and manganese-independent peroxidase activities were detected during fungal treatment of the WCP by P. ostreatus CCEBI 3024. The laccase enzyme showed good correlation with colour loss. Both wastewater colour and pollution load (as chemical oxygen demand) decreased more than 50% after 10 days of culture. Phenols were reduced by 92%.

  1. Heat treatment of wheat straw by immersion in hot water decreases mushroom yield in Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo Mejía, Santiago; Albertó, Edgardo

    2013-01-01

    The oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, is cultivated worldwide. It is one of the most appreciated mushrooms due to its high nutritional value. Immersion of the substrate in hot water is one of the most popular and worldwide treatment used for mushroom farmers. It is cheap and easy to implement. To compare the yields obtained during mushroom production of P. ostreatus using different pre-treatments (immersion in hot water, sterilization by steam and the use of fungicide) to determine if they influence mushroom crop. Four different treatments of substrate (wheat straw) were carried out: (i) immersion in hot water (IHW); (ii) steam sterilization; (iii) chemical; and (iv) untreated. The residual water from the IHW treatment was used to evaluate the mycelium growth and the production of P. ostreatus. Carbendazim treatment produced highest yields (BE: 106.93%) while IHW produced the lowest BE with 75.83%. Sugars, N, P, K and Ca were found in residual water of IHW treatment. The residual water increased the mycelium growth but did not increase yields. We have proved that IHW treatment of substrate reduced yields at least 20% when compared with other straw treatments such as steam, chemical or untreated wheat straw. Nutrients like sugars, proteins and minerals were found in the residual water extract which is the resultant water where the immersion treatment is carried out. The loss of these nutrients would be the cause of yield decrease. Alternative methods to the use of IHW as treatment of the substrate should be considered to reduce economical loss. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Various Substrates on Growth and Yield of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Michael T. Masarirambi; Mpendulo B. Mamba; Diana M. Earnshaw

    2011-01-01

    Mushrooms are increasingly becoming an important component of diets worldwide and it is of paramount importance to choose appropriate substrates in a given place to grow them. The experiment was conducted at the University of Swaziland, Faculty of Agriculture, in the Crop Production Department Mushroom Laboratory. The objective was to determine the effects of some of the locally available substrate materials on the growth and yield of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus Jacq. Et Fr). Banana ...

  3. Avaliação do cultivo de Pleurotus sajor-caju (fries sing. sobre o resíduo de algodão da industria têxtil para a produção de cogumelos e para alimentação animal Evaluation of the cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju (fries sing. on cotton textile mill waste for mushroom production and animal feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clenderson Corradi de Mattos Gonçalves

    2010-02-01

    + 40% sawdust + 20% wheat bran and T5- 80% waste + 20% wheat bran. T5 showed the best results for productivity (22.46% and biologic efficiency (71.48%. Fungus altered the constitution of the substrates in the stages of production of the mushroom. Therefore, the use of cotton textile mill waste in the cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju may become a viable alternative for mushroom production, and also improve the quality of this waste for use in animal feeding.

  4. Bioremediation of vegetable and agrowastes by Pleurotus ostreatus: a novel strategy to produce edible mushroom with enhanced yield and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V K; Singh, M P

    2014-12-24

    Pleurotus ostreatus was grown on paddy straw as well as other vegetable and agricultural wastes i.e. pea pod shell, cauliflower leaves, radish leaves and brassica straw in various combinations with paddy straw. The mushroom did not grow on the vegetable wastes separately. The cumulative yield and biological efficiency of the edible oyster mushroom P. ostreatus grown on substrate containing paddy straw in various combinations with different vegetable wastes i.e. 20% and 30 % vegetable wastes mixed with 80% and 70% (w/w) of paddy straw was found to be better, when compared with yield and biological efficiency obtained on paddy straw (100%) alone. The protein content and six essential amino acid contents (Leu, Ile, Val, Thr, Met, Phe) showed a significant increase and total sugar and reducing sugar contents showed decrease in the mushroom fruit bodies grown at different combinations of vegetable wastes with paddy straw as compared to paddy straw alone. However, there was not any significant change in moisture content of mushroom cultivated on different groups of wastes. Hence, results of this investigation suggest that the vegetable wastes which are generally left to rot in situ in many cities and villages causing outbreak of diseases can be bioremediated by edible mushroom P. ostreatus. The added advantage is that we get edible mushroom fruit body with improved nutrition.

  5. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    to provide data for the evaluation of whether the consumption of the cultivated mushroom constitutes a human risk. The present report summarises the Nordic seminar which had the aim to present Nordic studies and to promote exchange of information between chemists and toxicologists in the field of Agaricus...... bisporus research. American, English and Czech researchers gave an up-to-date overview on the cultivated mushroom and its hydrazines and reviewed their ongoing research. Finally, Nordic researchers summarised their chemical and toxicological studies on behalf of the Nordic Project Group on Phenylhydrazines...

  6. Production of mycelial biomass by the Amazonian edible mushroom Pleurotus albidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Larissa de Souza; de Macedo, Ana Júlia Porto; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas

    2016-01-01

    Edible mushroom species are considered as an adequate source of food in a healthy diet due to high content of protein, fiber, vitamins, and a variety of minerals. The representatives of Pleurotus genus are characterized by distinct gastronomic, nutritional, and medicinal properties among the edible mushrooms commercialized worldwide. In the present study, the growth of mycelial biomass of Pleurotus albidus cultivated in submerged fermentation was evaluated. Saccharose, fructose, and maltose were the three main carbon sources for mycelial biomass formation with corresponding yields of 7.28gL(-1), 7.07gL(-1), and 6.99gL(-1). Inorganic nitrogen sources did not stimulate growth and the optimal yield was significantly higher with yeast extract (7.98gL(-1)). The factorial design used to evaluate the influence of saccharose and yeast extract concentration, agitation speed, and initial pH indicated that all variables significantly influenced the production of biomass, especially the concentration of saccharose. The greater amount of saccharose resulted in the production of significantly more biomass. The highest mycelial biomass production (9.81gL(-1)) was reached in the medium formulated with 30.0gL(-1) saccharose, 2.5gL(-1) yeast extract, pH 7.0, and a speed of agitation at 180rpm. Furthermore, P. albidus manifested different aspects of morphology and physiology under the growth conditions employed. Media composition affected mycelial biomass production indicating that the diversification of carbon sources promoted its improvement and can be used as food or supplement.

  7. Production of mycelial biomass by the Amazonian edible mushroom Pleurotus albidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Souza Kirsch

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Edible mushroom species are considered as an adequate source of food in a healthy diet due to high content of protein, fiber, vitamins, and a variety of minerals. The representatives of Pleurotus genus are characterized by distinct gastronomic, nutritional, and medicinal properties among the edible mushrooms commercialized worldwide. In the present study, the growth of mycelial biomass of Pleurotus albidus cultivated in submerged fermentation was evaluated. Saccharose, fructose, and maltose were the three main carbon sources for mycelial biomass formation with corresponding yields of 7.28 g L−1, 7.07 g L−1, and 6.99 g L−1. Inorganic nitrogen sources did not stimulate growth and the optimal yield was significantly higher with yeast extract (7.98 g L−1. The factorial design used to evaluate the influence of saccharose and yeast extract concentration, agitation speed, and initial pH indicated that all variables significantly influenced the production of biomass, especially the concentration of saccharose. The greater amount of saccharose resulted in the production of significantly more biomass. The highest mycelial biomass production (9.81 g L−1 was reached in the medium formulated with 30.0 g L−1 saccharose, 2.5 g L−1 yeast extract, pH 7.0, and a speed of agitation at 180 rpm. Furthermore, P. albidus manifested different aspects of morphology and physiology under the growth conditions employed. Media composition affected mycelial biomass production indicating that the diversification of carbon sources promoted its improvement and can be used as food or supplement.

  8. Alleviating the toxicity of heavy metals by combined amendments in cultivated bag of Pleurotus cornucopiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongying; Guo, Shanshan; Jia, Zhilei; Han, Yue; He, Qi; Xu, Heng

    2015-11-01

    The substrate of mushroom can be polluted with heavy metals and subsequently contaminate mushroom, which requires alternative solutions to reduce associated environmental and human health risks. The effects of amendment application on alleviating Cu and Cd toxicities to Pleurotus cornucopiae were investigated in a cultivated bag experiment conducted with the naturally contaminated substrate. Addition of combined amendments (sodium bentonite, silicon fertilizer, activated carbon, and potassium dihydrogen phosphate) increased the P. cornucopiae biomass and substrate pH. Cu and Cd concentration in P. cornucopiae as well as the available Cu and Cd in substrate reduced for the presence of amendments, and the silicon fertilizer had the biggest inhibition on metal uptake. The smallest amount of Cu and Cd in P. cornucopiae was only 30.8 and 5.51% of control, respectively. Moreover, application of amendments also decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level in metal-stressed mushroom by 4.38-53.74 and 8.90-58.42% relative to control, respectively. The decreased oxidative stress could well contribute to the growth of P. cornucopiae, and the elevated substrate pH might lead to the lower metal availability, thus resulting in the reduction of metal accumulation in mushroom. These above results suggest that application of combined amendments in mushroom substrate could be implemented in a general scheme aiming at controlling metal content in P. cornucopiae.

  9. Chemical composition of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr. Quél., substrates and residue after cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Sueli Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of Pleurotus pulmonarius was carried out on different substrate: cotton waste (A leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (B and leaves of Panicum maximum Jacq. (C. The mushroom had a varied chemical composition; nevertheless they contained a good composition for to be used as a good source of protein for human kind. The results showed the higher protein content (29.19% and fibre (9.0% for the mushroom that were cultivated on cotton peel. The substrate composition and the residue composition after the mushroom harvest were: Protein for the substrate "A" (10.63% and 9.35%, "B" (7.87% and 4.24% and "C" (7.55% and 5.90 %; Lipids "A" (4.17% and 2.03%, "B"(2.77% and 3.20% and "C" (0.91% and 2.05%; Fibres "A" (49.02% and 37.02%, "B" (28.40% and 23.26% and "C" (37.50% and 26.66% respectively. The substrate "A" showed 0.048% of iron and "C" 0.14% of magnesium, 0.31% of potassium and 0.26% of calcium. In the substrate "B" the quantity of the minerals were very low in comparison to the other substrates. The residues after the harvest of mushroom could be used as fertiliser or as complement in the composition for animal feed.

  10. Biosorption of aquatic copper (II) by mushroom biomass Pleurotus eryngii: kinetic and isotherm studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Shi-Hong; Sun, Bai-Ye; Xu, Fang; Song, Qi-Xue; Zhang, Sui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Biosorption is an effective method for removing heavy metals from effluent. This work mainly aimed to evaluate the adsorption performance of the widely cultivated novel mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii, for the removal of Cu(II) from single aqueous solutions. Kinetics and equilibria were obtained using a batch technique. The sorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order model, whereas the adsorption equilibria are best described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption process is exothermic because both the Langmuir-estimated biosorption capacity and the heat of adsorption estimated from the Temkin model decreased with increasing tested temperature. Based on the adsorption intensity estimated by the Freundlich model and the mean adsorption free energy estimated by the Dubinin-Radushkevich model, the type of adsorption is defined as physical adsorption. The biomass of the macro-fungus P. eryngii has the potential to remove Cu(II) from a large-scale wastewater contaminated by heavy metals, because of its favorable adsorption, short biosorption equilibrium time of 20 min and remarkable biosorption capacity (15.19 mg g⁻¹ as calculated by the Langmuir model). The adsorbed metal-enriched mushroom is a high-quality bio-ore by the virtue of its high metal content of industrial mining grade and easy metal extractability.

  11. Performance of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom grown on maize stalk residues supplemented with various levels of maize flour and wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senzosenkosi Surprise MKHIZE

    Full Text Available Abstract Improving the performance of mushroom in terms of high production and fast growth rate is essential in mushroom cultivation. In the present study the performance of Pleurotus ostreatus was evaluated using varying levels of wheat bran (WB and maize flour (MF. The results indicated that Pleurotus ostreatus was highly influenced by different levels of supplementation, with 8% WB, 18% WB and 2% MF having higher contamination rate. The low levels of supplementation gave significantly better mycelial growth rate (MGR and shorter colonisation period as observed that the control had highest MGR whereby 20% MF had lowest MGR. The pinning time (TP was shortest at the first flush with minimum of 3 days (12% MF. The higher levels of supplementation showed maximum biological efficiency (BE such as 14% MF, 12% WB and 14% WB. The yield was also higher at high levels of supplementation such as 20% MF and 8% MF being the exception in the lower levels. Based on the results it was observed that for fast production of oyster mushroom there is no need to supplement the maize stalk substrate but for improved productivity supplements can be added up to certain limits such as 14% MF and 12 WB.

  12. Influence of calcium and silicon supplementation into Pleurotus ostreatus substrates on quality of fresh and canned mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongsook, T; Kongbangkerd, T

    2011-08-01

    Supplements of gypsum (calcium source), pumice (silicon source) and pumice sulfate (silicon and calcium source) into substrates for oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) were searched for their effects on production as well as qualities of fresh and canned mushrooms. The addition of pumice up to 30% had no effect on total yield, size distribution and cap diameters. The supplementation of gypsum at 10% decreased the total yield; and although gypsum at 5% did not affect total yield, the treatment increased the proportion of large-sized caps. High content (>10%) of pumice sulfate resulted in the lower yield. Calcium and silicon contents in the fruit bodies were not influenced by supplementations. The centrifugal drip loss values and solid content of fresh mushrooms, and the percentage of weight gained and firmness of canned mushrooms, cultivated in substrates supplemented with gypsum, pumice and pumice sulfate were significantly (p≤0.05) higher than those of the control. Scanning electron micrographs revealed the more compacted hyphae of mushroom stalks supplemented with silicon and/or calcium after heat treatment, compared to the control. Supplementation of P. ostreatus substrates with 20% pumice was the most practical treatment because it showed no effect on yield and the most cost-effective.

  13. Differential Response of Oyster Shell Powder on Enzyme Profile and Nutritional Value of Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus florida PF05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Naraian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oyster mushroom Pleurotus florida was cultivated on different combinations of wheat straw (WS as basal substrate and oyster shell powder (OSP supplement. The OSP supplementation considerably responded to different cultivation phases. The mycelium grew fast and showed rapid growth rate (8.91 mmd−1 in WS + OSP (97 + 3 combination while WS + OSP (92 + 8 showed maximum laccase (3.133 U/g and Mn peroxidase (MnP activities (0.091 U/g. The climax level of laccase (5.433 U/g and MnP (0.097 U/g was recorded during fruit body initiation in WS + OSP (97 + 3 and WS + OSP (98 + 2 combinations, respectively. The WS + OSP (97 + 3 combination represented the best condition for mushroom cultivation and produced the highest biological efficiency (147%. In addition, protein and lipid contents in fruit bodies were slightly improved in response to OSP. The carbohydrate was significantly increased by raising concentration of OSP. The highest values of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid noted were 31.3 μg/g, 0.0639 (g/g, and 0.373 (g/g correspondingly. Conclusively it was evident that lower concentrations of OSP acted positively and relatively to higher concentrations and improved nutritional content which may suitably be used to enhance both yield and nutritional values of mushroom.

  14. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) ...

  15. Radiocesium concentrations in wild mushrooms and characteristics of cesium accumulation by the edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi [National Inst. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan); Shibata, Hisashi; Morita, Yohoji; Kato, Fumio

    2000-10-01

    Mushrooms collected from a sub-alpine forest of Mt. Fuji and some other locations in Japan in 1996 were analyzed for radiocesium. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations in 37 mushrooms varied widely from 1.6 to 783 Bqkg{sup -1} fresh wt. The characteristics of Cs accumulation were analyzed by culturing fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1 (P. ostreatus Y-1). The {sup 137}Cs and stable Cs accumulation expressed as the concentration ratio (CR, {sup 137}Cs or Cs concentration in the dried fruiting body/{sup 137}Cs or Cs concentration in the fresh medium) were in good agreement, indicating similar migration. The CR of Cs grown on medium containing both 0.1% Cs and 0.1% K, 10.2, showed a decrease of about 30 percent as compared with that containing 0.1% Cs only. These CR values suggested that Cs accumulation by the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus Y-1 is affected by the presence of K similarly to previous observations in the mycelia. The {sup 133}Cs-NMR spectra from the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus Y-1 showed two resonance signals, whereas those from the media after harvesting of fruiting bodies showed only one signal. Just before growth of the fruiting bodies, bunches consisting of many mycelia were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No significant differences in the elemental distribution (Cs, K, P and C) were detected in the mycelium surface by SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer. (author)

  16. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) were tested for their efficacy in oyster mushroom production. Pure culture of oyster mushroom was obtained from Mycology laboratory, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University. The pure culture was inoculated on potato dextrose agar for spawn preparation. Then, the spawn containing sorghum was inoculated with the fungal culture for the formation of fruiting bodies on the agricultural wastes. The oyster mushroom cultivation was undertaken under aseptic conditions, and the growth and development of mushroom were monitored daily. Results of the study revealed that oyster mushroom can grow on cotton seed, paper waste, sawdust and wheat straw, with varying growth performances. The highest biological and economic yield, as well as the highest percentage of biological efficiency of oyster mushroom was obtained from cotton seed, while the least was from sawdust. The study recommends cotton seed, followed by paper waste as suitable substrates for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. It also suggests that there is a need for further investigation on various aspects of oyster mushroom cultivation in Ethiopia to promote the industry.

  17. Chemical composition and nutritional value of the most widely appreciated cultivated mushrooms: an inter-species comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Filipa S; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-02-01

    Herein, it was reported and compared the chemical composition and nutritional value of the most consumed species as fresh cultivated mushrooms: Agaricus bisporus (white and brown mushrooms), Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom), Pleurotus eryngii (King oyster mushroom), Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) and Flammulina velutipes (Golden needle mushroom). Shiitake revealed the highest levels of macronutrients, unless proteins, as also the highest sugars, tocopherols and PUFA levels, and the lowest SFA content. White and brown mushrooms showed similar macronutrients composition, as also similar values of total sugars, MUFA, PUFA and total tocopherols. Oyster and king oyster mushrooms gave the highest MUFA contents with similar contents in PUFA, MUFA and SFA in both samples. They also revealed similar moisture, ash, carbohydrates and energy values. This study contributes to the elaboration of nutritional databases of the most consumed fungi species worldwide, allowing comparison between them. Moreover it was reported that cultivated and the wild samples of the same species have different chemical composition, including sugars, fatty acids and tocopherols profiles.

  18. Iron bioavailability from cereal products enriched with Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms in rats with induced anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguła, Julita; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Staniek, Halina

    2016-06-02

    Oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus is good source of iron. However, there is a limited data concerning bioavailability of iron from oyster mushroom and also cereal products containing this mushroom. The aim of this study was to assess bioavailability of iron from products with an addition of Pleurotus ostreatus in male rats with anaemia. Investigations were conducted in two stages. In the first stage iron deficiency was developed in rats. For this purpose 6 weeks old 36 male Wistar rats were fed a AIN-93M diet deficient in iron and 6 males received a standard AIN-93M diet. In the second stage of the study the assessment of Fe bioavailability from cereal products enriched with dried Pleurotus ostreatus. After experiment the animals were killed and blood and heart, liver, spleen and kidneys were collected for biochemical tests. Feeding male Wistar rats supplemented with dried Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms diets resulted in the restitution of the systemic Fe level, as manifested by an increase of the level comparable to the control group for: iron transferrin saturation rate, haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume. Values of hematocrit, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in animals fed products supplemented with Pleurotus ostreatus were significantly higher compared to animals fed products with no Fe added. The highest MCV value was recorded when 20% of dried oyster mushrooms were added. Iron levels in the blood serum, the liver and kidneys in animals fed cereal products considerably exceeded values recorded at the beginning of the experiment and were similar to the control values. Product may be a valuable source of iron in the nutrition of individuals with a deficiency of this element, first of all patients with absorption and metabolism disorders, but also may add variety to the traditional daily diet.

  19. [Use of kenaf fibre in the elaboration of specific substrates for Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo Giménez, Arturo; Perona Zamora, Ma Aquilina; Pardo Núñez, José

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the viability of the kenaf fibre use, alone or combined with cereal straw, vine shoots and olive mill dried waste, in the elaboration of specific substrates for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer, second mushroom in importance cultivated in Spain, is described. Furthermore, three different methods of preparation of the substrate have been considered in order to obtain selectivity for the growth and later fruiting of Pleurotus sporophore. As for the production parameters, the best results have been provided by the substrates that combined kenaf with straw and with vine shoots, being unfavourable the substrates based in just kenaf or combined with olive mill dried waste. As for the treatment applied to the materials, the immersion in water alone and subsequent pasteurization and thermophilic conditioning, together with the semi-anaerobic fermentation, has been favoured in front of the immersion in water with fungicide and later pasteurization.

  20. Evaluation of king oyster mushroom strains (Pleurotus eryngii) on selective lignin degradation in wheat straw: An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Visser, M.H.M.; Lavrijssen, B.; Hendrickx, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    The collection of Plant Breeding contains a large number of strains of Pleurotus eryngii and Lentinula edodes, two fungi producing edible mushrooms and also known by their selective degradation of lignin in lignocellulosic materials.

  1. Exploring the Medicinal Potential of the Fruit Bodies of Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Agaricomycetes), against Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Prasanna, Apoorva; Manjunath, Sirisha P; Karanth, Soujanya S; Nazre, Ambika

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to present-generation antibiotics is increasing drastically, which has become a major public health concern. The present study focuses on demonstrating the antimicrobial potential of fruit bodies of the culinary/medicinal oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus against clinical pathogens. Five bacterial isolates were collected from Sagar Hospital in Bangalore, India. The collected strains were grown on selective and differential media and antibiotic susceptibility testing was applied using 48 antibiotics by disc diffusion assay. The antibacterial efficiency of the mushroom extract against clinical pathogens, which were found to be multidrug resistant (MDR) to most of the tested antibiotics, was studied. The yield of cultivated mushrooms was evident at moist, cooler, and humid conditions. The clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Acinetobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, and Proteus spp. were found to be MDR to β-lactam, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, macrolides, tetracyclines, and carbapenems. The methanolic extracts of mushroom fruit bodies were found to be more effective than present-generation antibiotics against methicillin- and vancomycin- resistant S. aureus, S. typhi, Acinetobacter sp., and P. mirabilis at a concentration ranging from 50 to 100 µg/disc or 50 to 100 µL/well. The current study suggests that the methanolic extract of P. ostreatus can be used as a promising antibacterial agent against MDR bacterial pathogens.

  2. Pleurotus ostreatus: an oyster mushroom with nutritional and medicinal properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnamoorthy Deepalakshmi; Mirunalini Sankaran

    2014-01-01

    ...". Among several species of this genus, Pleurotus ostreatus ( P. ostreatus ) is popularly consumed by all over the world due to their taste, flavor, high nutritional values and medicinal properties...

  3. Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, Tannin Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated on Different Wastes and Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşenur Yılmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the usage possibilities of some agro-industrial wastes such as; peanut wastes, potatoes farm wastes, walnut and orange tree sawdust in Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation were investigated and total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin content and antioxidant properties of these methanolic mushroom extracts were examined. For the determination of the total phenolic contents, the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure was used. The content of total flavonoid present in the methanolic extracts was measured using a spectrophotometric assay. Condensed tannins were determined according to the method by Julkunen-Tıtto. The antioxidant capacity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH. The highest total phenolic content (2.672 ± 0.003 mg GAE/g was found in mushroom cultivated on walnut sawdust. The highest condensed tannin (1.011 ± 0.088 CE mg/g and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP (12.332 ± 0.017 μmol FeSO4.7H2O/g were observed in the same mushroom extract. The highest total flavonoid and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH were found in extract of mushroom cultivated on potatoes handle. Bioactive properties of P. ostreatus cultivated on walnut tree sawdust were generally exhibited remarkable results.

  4. Dried shiitake (Lentinulla edodes and oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms as a good source of nutrient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julita Reguła

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to presented in literature potential health benefits of shiitake Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegl. and oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr. Kumm., chemical composition as well as Fe, Cu and Zn ions sorption (in conditions related to human digestive tract by dried shiitake and oyster were investigated. Both dried mushrooms had the high content of dietary fiber, Fe, Cu, Mg, K but low of fat, Na and Ca. Relatively low sorption of micronutrients was found in pH = 1.8, while the high sorption of Cu and Fe was observed in pH = 8.7. Dried mushrooms satisfied the maximum permissible level standards concerning toxic metals. The results of the research suggest that dried shiitake and oyster mushrooms can be used as additives in food products.

  5. Study of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Potential of the Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Pardhi, Priya; Jain, Alok Pal; Rai, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida. Mushroom basidiocarps were extracted in water:ethanol (1:1, v/v), and the resulting extract was subjected to antimicrobial studies against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans. Cytotoxic potential on viable human leukocytes was studied. In vitro results showed excellent antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials of the mushroom extract. Thus, functional properties of P. ostreatus cv. Florida could be used in the search for novel therapeutics.

  6. Growth and Yield Response of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus Grown on Different Locally Available Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonginkhosi E. Dlamini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus production is low despite its high demand in Swaziland. Most communal farmers dispose of their agricultural waste while it can be used usefully as substrates for the production of mushrooms. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of different agricultural wastes used as mushroom substrates on growth, development and yield of mushroom. The substrates investigated were banana leaves, sugarcane tops, maize stover and maize stover and cobs (1:1 dry mass/dry mass. The study was conducted at the University of Swaziland, Faculty of Agriculture-Luyengo Campus, at the Crop Production’s mushroom laboratory. Sterilization of substrates was done at the Malkerns Research station. Pleurotus ostreatus was evaluated for growth and yield using four replicate bags of sugarcane tops, maize stover, maize stover and cobs and banana leaves as substrates. The moist substrates were sterilised, packed in heat-resistant plastic bags, seeded with 2-4% spawn and incubated for 3-3.5 months. Yield of each mushroom flush, marketable yield, pileus diameter and stipe length were measured and recorded. For the first flash the significantly (p<0.05 highest yield was obtained from maize stover and cobs followed in decreasing order by banana leaves, sugarcane tops and lastly maize stover gave the least yield. The trend was similar for the second and third flash except that in the third flash sugar cane tops produced mushroom of higher yield than banana leaves, similar trends were measured for the other mushroom attributes. The maize stover and cobs substrate gave the highest yield which was 221.7, 189.2 and 107.9 g in the first, second and third flashes, respectively.

  7. Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus) are useful for utilizing lignocellulosic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. ADEBAYO

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... industrial lignocellulosic wastes due to their production of ligninolytic and ... technologies developed between oyster mushrooms and. Adebayo ..... The cost of mushroom is directly dependent on the substrate ... Coconut leaves. 31. 585 ..... poultry and as additives to wheat flour for improving the quality of ...

  8. Effects of Various Substrates on Growth and Yield of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Masarirambi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are increasingly becoming an important component of diets worldwide and it is of paramount importance to choose appropriate substrates in a given place to grow them. The experiment was conducted at the University of Swaziland, Faculty of Agriculture, in the Crop Production Department Mushroom Laboratory. The objective was to determine the effects of some of the locally available substrate materials on the growth and yield of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus Jacq. Et Fr. Banana leaves, sugarcane tops, common thatch grass (Hyparrhenia hirta and cattle manure were milled, bagged and autoclaved for 5 h at 120ºC, cooled and then inoculated with actively growing mushroom culture on sorghum grain. The bags were incubated until mycelium had fully colonized the substrate and then taken to the cropping house. Sugarcane tops had significantly (p<0.05 lower number of contaminated bags and in increasing order of contamination followed by banana leaves, thatch grass and lastly kraal manure. Kraal manure in all bags was contaminated and was subsequently discarded. There were significant (p<0.05 differences in total mushroom yield, marketable yield, mushroom stalk length and mushroom cap diameter. Sugarcane tops produced the highest total mushroom yield, marketable yield and mushroom cap diameter, followed in decreasing order by banana leaves and thatch grass. However thatch grass produced the longest mushroom stalks followed in decreasing order by banana leaves and lastly sugarcane tops. The experiment showed that, in decreasing order, sugarcane tops, banana leaves and thatch grass can be used as one of the best locally available substrate for mushroom production in Swaziland, for the growth and yield parameters measured.

  9. Characterisation of the large-scale production process of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) with the analysis of succession and spatial heterogeneity of lignocellulolytic enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánfi, Renáta; Pohner, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, József; Luzics, Szabina; Nagy, Adrienn; Dudás, Melinda; Tanos, Péter; Márialigeti, Károly; Vajna, Balázs

    2015-12-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) lignocellulolytic enzyme activity pattern and variation was investigated in a large-scale facility from spawning until the end of the second flush. In the first cultivation cycle laccase production reached its peak during vegetative growth stage, while manganese-peroxidase showed the highest activity during fruiting body induction. Cellulose and hemicellulose degrading enzymes had maximal activity at the beginning of flush and harvest stage. The enzyme activities showed similar tendencies among five different mushroom substrate blocks representing a production house. The spatial variability analysis of enzyme activities pointed out the within substrate block heterogeneity as the main source if variation. This result was confirmed by Combined Cluster and Discriminant Analysis (CCDA) method showing minimal among block heterogeneity considering the whole investigation period; furthermore in the first cultivation cycle all blocks were grouped into one cluster.

  10. The effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) powder as prebiotic agent on yoghurt quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupamahu, Ivana Putri Christantia; Budiarso, Tri Yahya

    2017-05-01

    Mushroom has already been known as a good source of proteins, carbohydrates and some vitamins. It is then the objective of this research to find out the effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) powder addition on yoghurt fermentation. The resulting yoghurt product will be monitor by measuring its total lactic acids, acidity (pH), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, and the organoleptic properties, including colour, taste, flavour and texture. The mushroom were dried and grinded into powder up to 200 mashes, continued with its addition in yoghurt making process. Mushroom powder concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% were added on the milk to be fermented. The result showed that mushroom powder addition resulting in increase lactic acid concentration, reduced its acidity, and increased LAB viability. Based on the lactic acid counts, acidity, and LAB viability, a concentration of 1.5% powder addition is the optimal concentration for fermentation, but the product is not preferred by the panelists. The addition of 1% mushroom powder resulting in increased yoghurt quality, and the preferred yoghurt product by most of the panelists. It is then proven that the addition of mushroom powder will increase yoghurt quality and public acceptance.

  11. Oilseed rape straw for cultivation of oyster mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Peyvast

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Oyster mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus var. sajor caju (Fr. Singer] was grown on five substrates: rice straw, rice straw + oilseed rape straw (75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 dw/dw, and oilseed rape straw alone. Rice straw + oilseed rape straw (25:75 and oilseed rape straw were best for fruit body production of P. ostreatus. The time to fruiting for P. ostreatus was also shorter on oilseed rape straw. Protein content of the fruit bodies obtained with oilseed rape straw was highest among all substrates. Oilseed rape straw thus appears to be a suitable substrate for oyster mushroom production.

  12. Evaluating the effect of gamma radiation on eight different agro-lignocellulose waste materials for the production of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus eous (Berk.)Sacc.strain P-31)

    OpenAIRE

    Kortei, Korley Nii; Wiafe-Kwagyan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The influence of 15 kGy dose of gamma radiation on the performance of eight lignocellulose agro-wastes for mushroom (Pleurotus eous, P-31) cultivation was evaluated. The agro-wastes investigated included coconut coir, rice husk, rice straw, banana leaves, cassava peels, corn cobs, elephant grass and sawdust (control). Corn cobs performed overall best with 23.2mm/day, 13 days, 9 days, 0% and very dense for spawn running parameters studied which were the rate of mycelia colonization, time taken...

  13. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a

  14. Cholesterol-lowering effect of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus in hereditary hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, P; Ginter, E; Jurcovicová, M; Kuniak, L

    1991-01-01

    We studied the effect of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (4% in diet containing 1% of cholesterol) on serum and liver lipids in female rats with hereditary enhanced sensitivity to alimentary cholesterol. We found that the consumption of the mushroom-containing diet prevented serum cholesterol increase which was manifested at the end of the 4th week of the experiment. At the end of the 7th week of the experiment the cholesterolemia was lowered by almost 40% as compared with control animals kept on the same diet but without the mushroom. The decrease in serum cholesterol levels is a consequence of the decreased cholesterol concentrations of very-low-density lipoproteins and of low-density lipoproteins.

  15. USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Poyedinok

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is used in greenhouses to increase productivity and quality of agricultural and ornamental plants. Despite the awareness of the fact that light also plays important role in the life of nonhotosynthetic organisms, such as fungi, its using in their biotechnology cultivation is currently limited. Science has quite a large amount information about the influence of artificial light of different nature on morphogenesis, metabolic processes and productivity of more than 100 species of fungi, many of which are valuable producers of biologically active compounds. Themechanisms of photoreactions of various fungi, which is an integral part of a purposeful photoregulation their activity in biotechnological processes are described. The analysis of the researches and of the experience of their practical application allows predicting potential of using artificial light in mushroom growing industry, as well as in creating highly productive, environmentally clean technologies of targeted synthesis of the final product.

  16. HEMATOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF ALBINO RATS FED WITH Pleurotus ostreatus CULTIVATED ON TWO TROPICAL TREES’ SAWDUST (Pycnanthus angolensis AND Spondias mombin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soji Fakoya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus ostreatus, an edible mushroom in the tropics was artificially cultivated on the mixture of the sawdust of two different tropical trees(African nut (Pycnanthus angolensis, Welw, Warb; Family: Myristicaceae and hog plum (Spondias mombin, L; Family: Anacardiaceae . The fruitbodies obtained were used to feed experimental animals (Wistar strain albino rats while the subsequent toxicological effects was investigated on the hematological parameters of the experimental animals. There was a significant decrease (P > 0.05 in the Packed Cell Volume (34.0%, Red Blood Cell (3.2 x 1012/L, White Blood Cell (3.5 x 103/L, Mean Corpuscular Volume (8.0 g/fL and Hemoglobin (11.33 g/dL of the rats fed with protein free diet compared to the rats fed with the mushroom composed diet (PCV, 40.0%; RBC, 5.0 x 1012/L; WBC, 8.5 x 103/L; MCV, 90.0 g/fL and Hb, 13.33 g/dL. The values obtained from the rats fed mushroom composed diet however compared favourably with the results obtained in rats fed with the soybean composed diet (positive control which is given as (PCV, 35.0%; RBCs, 6.6 x 1012/L; WBCs, 6.5 x 103/L, MCV (93.0 g/fL and Hb, 11.67 g/dL. It was therefore concluded that the hematological parameters of the experimental animals was not in any way affected as a result of consumption of mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated on sawdust of these two tropical trees.

  17. Efficient transformation and expression of gfp gene in the edible mushroom Pleurotus nebrodensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfang Lin; Mingyao Zheng; Jie Wang; Wei Shu; Liqiong Guo

    2008-01-01

    An efficient transformation method mediated by PEG-protoplasts was developed for the newly commercial edible mushroom Pleu-rotus nebrodensis. Two plasmids were used to co-transform protoplasts of P. nebrodensis. One plasmid is pAN7-1 containing a positive selectable marker gene hph conferring hygromycin B resistance. Another plasmid is pBIue-GFP containing a reporter gene gfp conferring green fluorescent protein. PCR and Southern blot analysis showed that hph gene or/and gfp gene were integrated into the genome of P.nebrodensis transformants. The transformation efficiency of the positive selectable marker gene hph was 3 transformants per microgram of plasmid pAN7-1 DNA, which was about 30 times higher than that previously reported in thoroughly studied Pleurotus species such as Pleurotus ostreatus. The transformation efficiency of the reporter gene gfp was 9 transformants per microgram of plasmid pBlu-GFP DNA. The co-transformation efficiency was 23.68%. This is the first report that a "reporter" gene, green fluorescent protein gene can be successfully stably expressed in this Pleurotus species.

  18. Antioxidant properties of different edible mushroom species and increased bioconversion efficiency of Pleurotus eryngii using locally available casing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, K K; Pal, R S; Arunkumar, R; Chandrashekara, C; Jain, S K; Bhatt, J C

    2013-06-01

    Total phenolics, radical scavenging activity (RSA) on DPPH, ascorbic acid content and chelating activity on Fe(2+) of Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus flabellatus, Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Hypsizygus ulmarius have been evaluated. The assayed mushrooms contained 3.94-21.67 mg TAE of phenolics, 13.63-69.67% DPPH scavenging activity, 3.76-6.76 mg ascorbic acid and 60.25-82.7% chelating activity. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that significantly higher total phenolics, RSA on DPPH and growth/day was present in P. eryngii whereas P. citrinopileatus showed higher ascorbic acid and chelating activity. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that studied mushroom species fall into two clusters; Cluster I included P. djamor, P. eryngii and P. flabellatus, while Cluster II included H. ulmarius, P. sajor-caju, P. citrinopileatus, P. ostreatus and P. florida. Enhanced yield of P. eryngii was achieved on spent compost casing material. Use of casing materials enhanced yield by 21-107% over non-cased substrate.

  19. Recycling of Vineyard and Winery Wastes as Nutritive Composts for Edible Mushroom Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Marian; Teodorescu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    Every year, in Romania huge amounts of wine and vine wastes cause serious environmental damages in vineyards as well as nearby winery factories, for instance, by their burning on the soil surface or their incorporation inside soil matrix. The optimal and efficient way to solve these problems is to recycle these biomass wastes as main ingredients in nutritive composts preparation that could be used for edible mushrooms cultivation. In this respect, the main aim of this work was to establish the best biotechnology of winery and vine wastes recycling by using them as appropriate growth substrata for edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, two mushroom species of Basidiomycetes, namely Lentinula edodes as well as Pleurotus ostreatus were used as pure mushroom cultures in experiments. The experiments of inoculum preparation were set up under the following conditions: constant temperature, 23° C; agitation speed, 90-120 rev min-1 pH level, 5.0-6.0. All mycelia mushroom cultures were incubated for 120-168 h. In the next stage of experiments, the culture composts for mushroom growing were prepared from the lignocellulose wastes as vine cuttings and marc of grapes in order to be used as substrata in mycelia development and fruit body formation. The tested culture variants were monitored continuously to keep constant the temperature during the incubation as well as air humidity, air pressure and a balanced ratio of the molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide. In every mushroom culture cycle all the physical and chemical parameters that could influence the mycelia growing as well as fruit body formation of L. edodes and P. ostreatus were compared to the same fungal cultures that were grown on poplar logs used as control samples.

  20. A simple procedure for preparing substrate for Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Daniel; Sánchez, José E; Yamasaki, Keiko

    2003-11-01

    The use of wooden crates for composting a mixture of 70% grass, (Digitaria decumbens), and 30% coffee pulp, combined with 2% Ca(OH)(2), was studied as a method for preparing substrate for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus. Crate composting considerably modified the temperature pattern of the substrate in process, as compared to pile composting, where lower temperatures and less homogeneous distributions were observed. Biological efficiencies varied between 59.79% and 93% in the two harvests. Based on statistical analysis significant differences were observed between the treatments, composting times and in the interactions between these two factors. We concluded that it is possible to produce P. ostreatus on a lignocellulosic, non-composted, non-pasteurized substrate with an initial pH of 8.7, and that composting for two to three days improves the biological efficiency.

  1. Rice straw addition as sawdust substitution in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) planted media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Christine Pamardining; Susilawati, Puspita Ratna

    2017-08-01

    Oyster mushroom is favorite by the people because of the high nutrients. The oyster mushroom cultivation usually using sawdust. The availability of sawdust become difficult to find. It makes difficulties of mushroom cultivation. Rice straw as an agricultural waste can be used as planted media of oyster mushroom because they contain much nutrition needed to the mushroom growth. The aims of this research were to analysis the influence of rice straw addition in a baglog as planted media and to analysis the concentration of rice straw addition which can substitute sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom. This research used 4 treatment of sawdust and rice straw ratio K = 75 % : 0 %, P1 = 60 % : 15 %, P2 = 40 % : 35 %, P3 = 15 % : 60 %. The same material composition of all baglog was bran 20%, chalk 5%, and water 70%. The parameters used in this research were wet weight, dry weight, moisture content and number of the mushroom fruit body. Data analysis was used ANOVA test with 1 factorial. The results of this research based on statistical analysis showed that there was no influence of rice straw addition in a planted media on the oyster mushroomgrowth. 15% : 60% was the concentrationof rice straw additionwhich can substitute the sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom.

  2. Optimization of Drying Process of Mushroom Powder Production from Pleurotus ostreatus using Response Surface Methodology

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    Nurcan Doğan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus ostreatus that known as poplar, beech and oyster mushrooms is second generation after Agaricus bisporus with the fungal species. Fresh and processed mushrooms products are in great demand worldwide in terms of taste and flavor. Edible mushrooms produced in the world is consumed fresh 40-50%. However, due to the high moisture content and enzyme, harvested mushrooms that can be stored for about one week and shows rapid loss of quality in the storage process. This situation limits the consumption of fresh edible fungus, so the marketing of canned mushrooms, drying and freezing and storage technology has come to the fore. In this study, besides the drying, unlike other studies it is intended to optimize the pulverization of the fungus accordingto the food processing operation. As a result of optimization, drying conditions of 50 °C and 269.02 minutes was concluded as the most suitable drying standard. EC50 value, Total Phenolic Content and desirability rate are determinated respectively; 275.464, 0.762 and 0.976 in this norm.

  3. Efficiency of treatments for controlling Trichoderma spp during spawning in cultivation of lignicolous mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavolpe, María Belén; Mejía, Santiago Jaramillo; Albertó, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma spp is the cause of the green mold disease in mushroom cultivation production. Many disinfection treatments are commonly applied to lignocellulose substrates to prevent contamination. Mushroom growers are usually worried about the contaminations that may occur after these treatments during handling or spawning. The aim of this paper is to estimate the growth of the green mold Trichoderma sp on lignocellulose substrates after different disinfection treatments to know which of them is more effective to avoid contamination during spawning phase. Three different treatments were assayed: sterilization (121 °C), immersion in hot water (60 and 80 °C), and immersion in alkalinized water. Wheat straw, wheat seeds and Eucalyptus or Populus sawdust were used separately as substrates. After the disinfection treatments, bagged substrates were sprayed with 3 mL of suspension of conidia of Trichoderma sp (10(5) conidia/mL) and then separately spawned with Pleurotus ostreatus or Gymnopilus pampeanus. The growth of Trichoderma sp was evaluated based on a qualitative scale. Trichoderma sp could not grow on non-sterilized substrates. Immersions in hot water treatments and immersion in alkalinized water were also unfavorable treatments for its growth. Co- cultivation with mushrooms favored Trichoderma sp growth. Mushroom cultivation disinfection treatments of lignocellulose substrates influence on the growth of Trichoderma sp when contaminations occur during spawning phase. The immersion in hot water at 60 °C for 30 min or in alkalinized water for 36 h, are treatments which better reduced the contaminations with Trichoderma sp during spawning phase for the cultivation of lignicolous species.

  4. Efficiency of treatments for controlling Trichoderma spp during spawning in cultivation of lignicolous mushrooms

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    María Belén Colavolpe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma spp is the cause of the green mold disease in mushroom cultivation production. Many disinfection treatments are commonly applied to lignocellulose substrates to prevent contamination. Mushroom growers are usually worried about the contaminations that may occur after these treatments during handling or spawning. The aim of this paper is to estimate the growth of the green mold Trichoderma sp on lignocellulose substrates after different disinfection treatments to know which of them is more effective to avoid contamination during spawning phase. Three different treatments were assayed: sterilization (121 ºC, immersion in hot water (60 and 80 ºC, and immersion in alkalinized water. Wheat straw, wheat seeds and Eucalyptus or Populus sawdust were used separately as substrates. After the disinfection treatments, bagged substrates were sprayed with 3 mL of suspension of conidia of Trichoderma sp (10(5 conidia/mL and then separately spawned with Pleurotus ostreatus or Gymnopilus pampeanus. The growth of Trichoderma sp was evaluated based on a qualitative scale. Trichoderma sp could not grow on non-sterilized substrates. Immersions in hot water treatments and immersion in alkalinized water were also unfavorable treatments for its growth. Co- cultivation with mushrooms favored Trichoderma sp growth. Mushroom cultivation disinfection treatments of lignocellulose substrates influence on the growth of Trichoderma sp when contaminations occur during spawning phase. The immersion in hot water at 60 ºC for 30 min or in alkalinized water for 36 h, are treatments which better reduced the contaminations with Trichoderma sp during spawning phase for the cultivation of lignicolous species.

  5. Evaluation of some biotechnological parameters influencing the Pleurotus ostreatus biomass production by submerged cultivation

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    Vicenţiu-Bogdan HORINCAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The submerged culture of mushrooms represents a future for biotechnological processes at industrial level, in order to obtain biomass with economical value (food and ingredients, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Pleurotus ostreatus is well known worldwide for its culinary and medicinal value. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the most important biotechnological parameters that have influence on the biomass production of P. ostreatus, by cultivation in submerged conditions. Applying the Plackett-Burman experimental design, the significant parameters influencing the P. ostreatus biomass production were found to be the concentration of dextrose and yeast extract and time of cultivation. The best results in terms of maximising the biomass production (25.71 g·L-1 were obtained when the “+1” level of each independent variables was used in the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA exhibited a high correlation coefficient (R2 value of 0.9908, which certifies that the mathematical model was relevant for the biotechnological process.

  6. IMPORTANCE OF SUBSTRAT DIZINFECTION ON OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS SP. CULTURE

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    Diana FICIOR

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest for oyster mushrooms is increasing very much in the last years due to their special taste and nutritional value. One of the most important aspects on mushroom culture is represented by substrate disinfection. The yield can be compromised if the competitive microorganisms are not removed from the cellulosic materials. The aim of these researches was to determine the most efficient method of disinfection. We have chosen five different methods of disinfection: material boiled for one hour, material boiled for 10 minutes, material scalded with boiled water (100 degree, material disinfected with a fungicide (Derosal 0.01% and material soaked in water for 24 hours with no disinfection. It has been noticed that method of disinfection affects the mycelium development, date of fructification and yield. The best yields have been obtained for variants with material scalded with boiled water (100 degree, material disinfected with a fungicide (Derosal 0.01% and material boiled for one hour. Mushrooms grown on material without disinfection have recorded very low yields.

  7. Secretion of laccase and manganese peroxidase by Pleurotus strains cultivate in solid-state using Pinus spp. sawdust

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    Marli Camassola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus species secrete phenol oxidase enzymes: laccase (Lcc and manganese peroxidase (MnP. New genotypes of these species show potential to be used in processes aiming at the degradation of phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dyes. Hence, a screening of some strains of Pleurotus towards Lcc and MnP production was performed in this work. Ten strains were grown through solid-state fermentation on a medium based on Pinus spp. sawdust, wheat bran and calcium carbonate. High Lcc and MnP activities were found with these strains. Highest Lcc activity, 741 ± 245 U gdm-1 of solid state-cultivation medium, was detected on strain IB11 after 32 days, while the highest MnP activity occurred with strains IB05, IB09, and IB11 (5,333 ± 357; 4,701 ± 652; 5,999 ± 1,078 U gdm-1, respectively. The results obtained here highlight the importance of further experiments with lignocellulolytic enzymes present in different strains of Pleurotus species. Such results also indicate the possibility of selecting more valuable strains for future biotechnological applications, in soil bioremediation and biological biomass pre-treatment in biofuels production, for instance, as well as obtaining value-added products from mushrooms, like phenol oxidase enzymes.

  8. Ethno-Edible Mushroom of Pleurotus sp., Clytocybe nebularis and Auricularia auricula in Ranupani Village, East Java

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    Jehan Ramdani Haryati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper documented the knowledge about the wild edible fungal flora of Ranupani Village of East Java Indonesia that used by indigenous Tenggerese tribes. Study was conducted by using semi-structured interview and purposive sampling. Data were analyzed quantitatively descriptive. Index of Cultural Significance (ICS was used to evaluate the importance of non-wood forest’s yields for local people. Identification of edible mushrooms was based on Guidelines of Flora Diversity Data Collection. This study was focus on the three edible mushrooms which are eaten mostly by the villagers, i.e. Pleurotus sp., Clytocybe nebularis and Auricularia auricula. The result is the Ranupani residents’ perception of edible mushrooms and its potential as an alternative source of food based on local knowledge and local wisdom of Tenggerese. Pleurotus sp. has the highest preference and intensity to be consumed with 3,2 ICS. It means culturally, this edible mushroom were not too important but intensively used as a secondary food sources such as soup (added or sauted, chips (dried and fried. Ranupani Villagers always consumed edible mushrooms in rainy season. The ability of residents to distinguish edible mushrooms are equal to the searching ability to find edible mushroom substrate. The residents will recognized the substrate of edible mushrooms on dead trunks of Pasang Tree (Lithocarpus sundaicus, Danglu (Engelhardia spicata, Kemlandingan (Albizia Montana, Casuarina (Casuarina junghuhniana and acacia (Acacia decurens. Residents who do not have the ability to distinguish and searching were consumer, get the edible mushrooms by buying from the searcher or distributor in packs. The characteristics of an edible mushrooms are a discrete soft flesh of the fruit body, dark color, no ring on the stipe, the presence of insects (e.g. moths in the lamellae and the type of mushroom substrate. There were also assisted growths of wild mushrooms by the residents’ raw chop the

  9. Oilseed rape straw for cultivation of oyster mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamali Peyvast

    2008-01-01

    Oyster mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus var. sajor caju (Fr.) Singer] was grown on five substrates: rice straw, rice straw + oilseed rape straw (75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 dw/dw), and oilseed rape straw alone. Rice straw + oilseed rape straw (25:75) and oilseed rape straw were best for fruit body production of P. ostreatus. The time to fruiting for P. ostreatus was also shorter on oilseed rape straw. Protein content of the fruit bodies obtained with oilseed rape straw was highest among all substrat...

  10. Processamento mínimo de cogumelos do género pleurotus Minimally processing of pleurotus mushrooms

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    Margarida Sapata

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao aumento da procura de cogumelos do género Pleurotus, o sector agro-industrial tem-se mostrado receptivo ao desenvolvimento e aplicação de técnicas de processamento, que contribuam para o aumento do tempo de vida útil, sem prejuízo da caracterização como “produto fresco”. O processamento mínimo é uma tecnologia que pode constituir uma alternativa de conservação, pois permite a manutenção da qualidade através da inibição e/ou o controlo de microrganismos indesejáveis e das reacções químicas e enzimáticas intervenientes na degradação. O sucesso desta tecnologia depende da qualidade inicial do produto, controlo da temperatura, especificidade das misturas gasosas, características do filme de embalagem e eficiência do equipamento, não descurando a utilização de boas práticas de higiene e segurança. Considerando-se a relevância do tema, este trabalho teve por objectivo fazer uma revisão da literatura nos aspectos relacionados com a manipulação de cogumelos minimamente processados, produto de elevado valor acrescentado, apresentando-se pontos de vista sobre os desafios associados à manutenção de uma elevada qualidade com vista à expansão de uma indústria agro-alimentar competitiva.Due to increased demand of the Pleurotus mushrooms genus, the industry has been receptive in processing techniques development that can increase the shelf life, without damages in the product characterization, as “fresh product”. Minimally processing is a technology that can be a storage alternative, allowing the inhibition and/or control of undesirable microorganisms, chemical and enzymatic reactions involved in injury and enjoy the quality maintenance. The success of this technology depends on the initial product quality, temperature control, gas mixtures specificity, film packaging characteristics and equipment efficiency, not forgetting the use of good hygiene and safety. The aim of this paper it was to revise the

  11. Vitamin D2 Stability During the Refrigerated Storage of Ultraviolet B-Treated Cultivated Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawinska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Jablonska-Rys, Ewa; Parfieniuk, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation on the synthesis of vitamin D2 and its stability during refrigerated storage was determined in fresh cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lentinus edodes) after harvest. The irradiated mushrooms were stored at 4°C for up to 10 days. The concentrations of vitamin D2 and ergosterol were determined using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The cultivated mushrooms not treated with UVB were devoid of vitamin D2. After UVB irradiation, we obtained mushrooms with a large amount of ergocalciferol. A. bisporus showed the lowest vitamin D2 content (3.55 ± 0.11 μg D2/g dry weight); P. ostreatus contained 58.96 ± 1.15 μg D2/g dry weight, and L. edodes contained 29.46 ± 2.21 μg/g dry weight. During storage at 4°C, the amount of vitamin D2 was gradually decreased in P. ostreatus and L. edodes, whereas in A. bisporus vitamin D2 gradually increased until the sixth day, then decreased. Mushrooms exposed to UVB radiation contain a significant amount of vitamin D2 and are therefore an excellent food source of vitamin D.

  12. Evaluation of the Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Wild and Cultivated Mushrooms of Ghana

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    Mary Obodai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the chemical composition of both wild and cultivated edible mushrooms in Ghana is limited. This study reports their nutritional value, composition in lipophilic and hydrophilic molecules, minerals and antioxidant properties. The samples were found to be nutritionally rich in carbohydrates, ranging from 64.14 ± 0.93 g in Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 to 80.17 ± 0.34 g in Lentinus squarrosulus strain LSF. The highest level of proteins (28.40 ± 0.86 g was recorded in the mentioned P. ostreatus strain. Low fat contents were registered in the samples, with Auricularia auricula recording the lowest value. High levels of potassium were also observed with the following decreasing order of elements: K > P ~ Na > Mg > Ca. High levels of antioxidants were also observed, thus making mushrooms suitable to be used as functional foods or nutraceutical sources. Furthermore, this study provides new information regarding chemical properties of mushrooms from Ghana, which is very important for the biodiversity characterization of this country.

  13. Evaluation of the chemical and antioxidant properties of wild and cultivated mushrooms of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodai, Mary; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Fernandes, Angela; Barros, Lillian; Mensah, Deborah L Narh; Dzomeku, Matilda; Urben, Arailde F; Prempeh, Juanita; Takli, Richard K

    2014-11-26

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of both wild and cultivated edible mushrooms in Ghana is limited. This study reports their nutritional value, composition in lipophilic and hydrophilic molecules, minerals and antioxidant properties. The samples were found to be nutritionally rich in carbohydrates, ranging from 64.14 ± 0.93 g in Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 to 80.17 ± 0.34 g in Lentinus squarosullus strain LSF. The highest level of proteins (28.40 ± 0.86 g) was recorded in the mentioned P. ostreatus strain. Low fat contents were registered in the samples, with Auricularia auricula recording the lowest value. High levels of potassium were also observed with the following decreasing order of elements: K > P ~ Na > Mg > Ca. High levels of antioxidants were also observed, thus making mushrooms suitable to be used as functional foods or nutraceutical sources. Furthermore, this study provides new information regarding chemical properties of mushrooms from Ghana, which is very important for the biodiversity characterization of this country.

  14. Chemical composition and nutrition value of dried cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağlarirmak, Necla

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fiber, raw fiber, fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, vitamin A (retinol), B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B6 (pyridoxine), and niacin contents of dried cultivated mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (white and brown), Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus were determined and evaluated for nutrient and chemical composition. Assays of dried mushroom samples were carried out after the drying process. Dried shiitake samples showed the highest dietary fiber and raw fiber content (23.23 +/- 0.018 and 9.71 +/- 0.039 microg/100 g, respectively). Mushrooms in this study were valuable sources of vitamins such as retinol, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and niacin. A. bisporus contained the highest vitamin A content (43.93 +/- 1.85 microg/100 g) and shiitake had the highest contents of thiamine and pyridoxine (0.63 +/- 0.012 and 0.56 +/- 0.01 mg/100 g, respectively). Portobello had the highest riboflavin and niacin contents (0.90 +/- 0.015 and 8.37 +/- 0.17 mg/100 g, respectively).

  15. Valorization of solid olive mill wastes by cultivation of a local strain of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour-Benamar, Malika; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Chavant, Louis

    2013-08-01

    Olive oil industry generates huge quantities of solid olive mill wastes (SOMW), causing environmental damage. Cultivation of edible mushrooms, such as Pleurotus ostreatus is a valuable approach for SOMW valorization. A local strain mycelium (Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria) of P. ostreatus (LPO) was isolated from castor oil plants. Oyster mushroom spawn, produced on barley grains, was used to inoculate wet SOMW, steamed in a traditional steamer during 45 min. The mycelium growth rate on SOMW was first estimated in Petri dish by measuring the surface colonized by the mycelium. The fruit body yields were estimated on culture bags containing 2 kg each of SOMW inoculated at 7% (w/w). The local strain potential was compared with that of a commercial one. Both strains produced high-quality mushrooms, but with low yields. The supplementation of the SOMW with wheat straw at the rate of 10% and 2% of CaCO3 had significantly enhanced the productivity of the two strains, multiplying it by 3.2 for LPO and by 2.6 for CPO.

  16. Determination of the Concentration of Essential Elements in Pleurotus Ostreatus Cultivated on Valisneria Arthiopica as a Supplementary Substrate to Sawdust using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analyses

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    R.G. Abrefah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are excellent nutritional and medicinal sources in the environment. This study has sought to conduct an analysis of the concentration of the essential elements in the mushroom sample that was cultivated on three supplementary substrate compositions (25% Vallisneria aethiopica and 75% Tripochton scleroxylon, 50% Vallisneria aethiopica and 50% Tripochton scleroxylon and 75% Vallisneria aethiopica and 25% Tripochton scleroxylon using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA at the Ghana Research Reactor-1 facility(GHARR-1. The concentrations of the elements were detected in Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated on three different percentage substrate compositions of a mixture of Vallisneria aethiopica and Triplochiton scleroxylon. The mixture of 50% Vallisneria aethiopica and 50% Tripochton scleroxylon was best for most of the cultivation of oyster mushrooms since most of the elements detected in the samples attained the highest concentration in this substrate. The validity of the INAA technique for determination essential elements was checked by analyses of SRM 1566b (Oyster tisue and Peach leaves 1547, respectively. The mean concentrations of the nutritional elements (Al, Cs, Ca, Cu, Cr, Cl, Zn, Br, Hg, Th, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V were determined in mushrooms cultivated on three different substrate mixtures.

  17. Contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and some phenolic compounds in cultivated mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, P; Könkö, K; Eurola, M; Pihlava, J M; Astola, J; Vahteristo, L; Hietaniemi, V; Kumpulainen, J; Valtonen, M; Piironen, V

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Se), vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(12), C, D, folates, and niacin), and certain phenolic compounds (flavonoids, lignans, and phenolic acids) in the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus/white, Agaricus bisporus/brown, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus. Selenium, toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb), and other mineral elements were analyzed by ETAAS, ICP-MS, and ICP methods, respectively; vitamins were detected by microbiological methods (folates, niacin, and vitamin B(12)) or HPLC methods (other vitamins), and phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC (flavonoids) or GC--MS methods (lignans and phenolic acids). Cultivated mushrooms were found to be good sources of vitamin B(2), niacin, and folates, with contents varying in the ranges 1.8--5.1, 31--65, and 0.30--0.64 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), respectively. Compared with vegetables, mushrooms proved to be a good source of many mineral elements, e.g., the contents of K, P, Zn, and Cu varied in the ranges 26.7--47.3 g/kg, 8.7--13.9 g/kg, 47--92 mg/kg, and 5.2--35 mg/kg dw, respectively. A. bisporus/brown contained large amounts of Se (3.2 mg/kg dw) and the levels of Cd were quite high in L. edodes (1.2 mg/kg dw). No flavonoids or lignans were found in the mushrooms analyzed. In addition, the phenolic acid contents were very low.

  18. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polyp...

  19. Cultivo e características nutricionais de Pleurotus em substrato pasteurizado Cultivation and nutritional characteristics of Pleurotus grown in pasteurized substrate

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    Eduardo Bernardi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade, eficiência biológica, massa fresca, composição centesimal dos cogumelos Pleurotus ostreatus (BF24 e Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC96/03 e PSC01/06 produzidos no substrato capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum pasteurizado e a relação Carbono/Nitrogênio inicial e final do substrato. O substrato seco e particulado a 2 cm foi umedecido por 24 horas e pasteurizado a 100 ºC durante 30 minutos. Adicionaram-se 3% de inóculo de cada linhagem, sendo acondicionado em embalagens de polipropileno com 1 kg cada uma. Os substratos foram incubados a 26 ºC e na fase de frutificação a 23±3 ºC e umidade relativa de 75% a 90%. Na linhagem BF24 observou-se maior massa fresca (281,19g, eficiência biológica (112,46% e produtividade (28,11%. O substrato com relação Carbono:Nitrogênio inicial de 162:1 foi o de menor relação (68:1 após o cultivo do P. sajor-caju (PSC01/06. A linhagem PSC96/03 proporcionou maior teor de proteína em relação às demais, tendo a BF24 maior teor de lipídios. Quanto ao teor de carboidratos e cinzas, nas diferentes espécies e linhagens não houve diferenças significativas; já para a quantidade de fibras, as linhagens BF24 e PSC01/06 foram similares, porém superiores a PSC96/03. As duas espécies de Pleurotus podem ser cultivadas em capim-elefante pasteurizado, suprimindo o processo de compostagem.The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity, biological efficiency, fresh matter, and centesimal composition of mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (BF24 and Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC96/03 and PSC01/06 grown in pasteurized elephant grass substrate (Pennisetum purpureum. It was also assessed the initial and final Carbon/Nitrogen ratio. The dried 2-cm-particulate substrate was moist for 24 hours and pasteurized at 100ºC during 30 minutes. Then, it was added 3% of inoculum of each strain. The substrate was placed into 1-kg polypropylene bags. The bags were incubated

  20. Molecular identification and artificial cultivation of a wild isolate of oyster mushroom in Albania

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    Jordan Merkuri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomata of a wild mushroom macroscopically recognised as Pleurotus ostreatus were observed on an oak trunk in a mixed wood of northern Albania. Pure cultures of the fungus were then obtained on potato-dextrose-agar medium. Molecular analyses of genomic DNA of the fungus confirmed its identification. The rDNA ITS region nucleotide sequence of the studied Pleurotacea matched at 99% those of two P. ostreatus strains already present in NCBI GenBank database. The rDNA ITS nucelotide sequences of two pure cultures of the Albanian P. ostreatus were deposited in EMBL database under the accession numbers LN849458 and LN849459. One of the fungus isolates was subsequently cultivated under protected and semi-natural conditions. Productivity and biological efficiency of the Albanian P. ostreatus ranged from about 10% to 16% and from 33 to 53.33%, respectively. This seems to be the first report on the artificial cultivation of P. ostreatus in Albania and could have, in the next future, a high economic impact on development and diffusion of this important edible mushroom over the country.

  1. Bioactive and Structural Metabolites of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia Species Causal Agents of Cultivated Mushrooms Diseases1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Cantore, Pietro Lo; Iacobellis, Nicola Sante; Evidente, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas tolaasii, P. reactans and Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola, are responsible of diseases on some species of cultivated mushrooms. The main bioactive metabolites produced by both Pseudomonas strains are the lipodepsipeptides (LDPs) tolaasin I and II and the so called White Line Inducing Principle (WLIP), respectively, LDPs which have been extensively studied for their role in the disease process and for their biological properties. In particular, their antimicrobial activity and the alteration of biological and model membranes (red blood cell and liposomes) was established. In the case of tolaasin I interaction with membranes was also related to the tridimensional structure in solution as determined by NMR combined with molecular dynamic calculation techniques. Recently, five news minor tolaasins, tolaasins A–E, were isolated from the culture filtrates of P. tolaasii and their chemical structure was determined by extensive use of NMR and MS spectroscopy. Furthermore, their antimicrobial activity was evaluated on target micro-organisms (fungi—including the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus spp.—chromista, yeast and bacteria). The Gram positive bacteria resulted the most sensible and a significant structure-activity relationships was apparent. The isolation and structure determination of bioactive metabolites produced by B. gladioli pv. agaricicola are still in progress but preliminary results indicate their peptide nature. Furthermore, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) from the culture filtrates of B. gladioli pv. agaricicola, as well as the O-chain and lipid A, from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the three bacteria, were isolated and the structures determined. PMID:19787100

  2. Bioactive and structural metabolites of pseudomonas and burkholderia species causal agents of cultivated mushrooms diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Cantore, Pietro Lo; Iacobellis, Nicola Sante; Evidente, Antonio

    2008-05-09

    Pseudomonas tolaasii, P. reactans and Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola, are responsible of diseases on some species of cultivated mushrooms. The main bioactive metabolites produced by both Pseudomonas strains are the lipodepsipeptides (LDPs) tolaasin I and II and the so called White Line Inducing Principle (WLIP), respectively, LDPs which have been extensively studied for their role in the disease process and for their biological properties. In particular, their antimicrobial activity and the alteration of biological and model membranes (red blood cell and liposomes) was established. In the case of tolaasin I interaction with membranes was also related to the tridimensional structure in solution as determined by NMR combined with molecular dynamic calculation techniques. Recently, five news minor tolaasins, tolaasins A-E, were isolated from the culture filtrates of P. tolaasii and their chemical structure was determined by extensive use of NMR and MS spectroscopy. Furthermore, their antimicrobial activity was evaluated on target micro-organisms (fungi-including the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus spp.-chromista, yeast and bacteria). The Gram positive bacteria resulted the most sensible and a significant structure-activity relationships was apparent. The isolation and structure determination of bioactive metabolites produced by B. gladioli pv. agaricicola are still in progress but preliminary results indicate their peptide nature. Furthermore, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) from the culture filtrates of B. gladioli pv. agaricicola, as well as the O-chain and lipid A, from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the three bacteria, were isolated and the structures determined.

  3. Use of Polygonum cuspidatum Cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii Cultivation Medium Optimization and Recycling of Mushroom-planted Analysis%利用虎杖药渣栽培杏鲍菇的培养基优化及菌糠再利用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杰; 刘艺; 黄苛; 刘洪生; 田宏现

    2013-01-01

    In order to optimize the allocation of resources, the bio-experiment of culturing Pleurotus eryngii, adding polygonum cuspidatum as the substrate, used 9 formulas to optimize the new substrate. The result of the experiment showed that, the best formula of substrate includes 55 kg of polygonum cuspidatum, 20 kg of cottonseed hull, 20 kg of wood chips, 15 kg of wheat bran, 1%of white sugar and 1%of gypsum. This paper concluded that the mushroom-planted consists of 6.20% of lipid and 8.94% of protein. According to the national standard of organic fertilize, the content of heavy metal in the waste medium was under the national level, which showed that the waste medium by adding polygonum cuspidatum to culture the Pleurotus eryngii could be recycled in the organic feeds and biological organic fertilizer. As the HPLC shows, the content of resveratrol in the fruiting body was 4.91μg/g.%  为了达到资源化的最大利用,实现节能减排、发展生态经济,以虎杖药渣作为常规培养基新的添加成分对杏鲍菇进行熟料法袋栽试验,采用正交设计9个不同组合配方对新的培养基进行优化。结果表明:优化后的最佳培养基配方为虎杖药渣的含量为55 kg,棉籽壳含量为20 kg,木屑的含量为20 kg,麦麸的含量为15 kg,白糖1%,石膏1%。对栽培杏鲍菇后最佳培养基的菌糠成分做了测定:菌糠中含有较高比例的脂质,蛋白质,分别为6.20%和8.94%;另外其中重金属含量均低于国家有机肥标准中的规定,表明虎杖渣熟料法栽培杏鲍菇后的菌糠在有机饲料及生物有机复混肥的生产中还有再次利用的价值;通过高效液相色谱仪检测出杏鲍菇子实体中白藜芦醇的含量为4.91μg/g。

  4. Molecular characterization of a lipoxygenase from the basidiomycete mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Yuji; Toyama, Shungo; Kuribayashi, Takashi; Joh, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    The full-length cDNA of the gene PoLOX1 encoding a lipoxygenase (LOX) and its corresponding genomic DNA were isolated from the basidiomycete mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus strain H1. The deduced amino acid sequence of PoLOX1 showed similarity to a valencene dioxygenase of Pleurotus sapidus, putative LOX-like proteins from ascomycete, basidiomycete, and deuteromycete fungi, and known LOXs from plants, animals, and bacteria. PoLOX1 also contained the LOX iron-binding catalytic domain in the C-terminal region, but not the polycystin-1, lipoxygenase, alpha-toxin (PLAT) domain, which is usually found in the N-terminal region of eukaryotic LOXs. Genomic sequence analysis revealed that PoLOX1 was interrupted by one intron, and that the promoter region included TATA and CAAT boxes. Southern blot analysis indicated that PoLOX1 is a member of a small gene family comprising highly similar genes. Northern blot analysis revealed that it is transcribed more abundantly in the stipes of the fruit bodies than in the caps.

  5. Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Kumm. CULTIVATION ON VEGETABLE WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupodorova T. A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the study of influence of cultivation substrates (agriculture wasters on biomass accumulation, amino acid composition, polysaccharide content and sorption ability towards heavy metals for the obtained biomass of edible myshroom P.ostreatus. The intensity of P. ostreatus biomass accumulation (18–24,1 g/L and high conversion of substrates (33,3–44,6% have shown prospects for P. ostreatus cultivation on new substrates such as wheat germ oil meal, CO2-extraction waste — amaranth flour and rapeseed meal. The optimum concentration of selected substrates were 70 g in 1 liter of distilled water for wheat germ oil meal and amaranth flour, 60 g/l — for rapeseed mea. It was foundl 17 amino acids, including 9 essential ones in fungi biomass hydrolyzate. Significant influence of cultivation substrate on quantitative composition of amino acids has been established. To all biomass samples the prevalence of glutamic and aspartic acids, arginine among the nonessential amino-acids, leucine, lysine and cystine among the essential amino-acids were common. Endopolysaccharides content in mushroom biomass and exopolysaccharides in culture liquid were slightly different depending on the selected substrates. Sorption of heavy metals by P. ostreatus biomass was increased in series Hg2+ < Pb2+ < Cd2+. High biological activity of the biomass as a source of important essential amino acids and endopolysaccharides as well as sorption capacity towards toxic ions of Pb2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ were determined. It could be a good purpose for usage of P. ostreatus biomass as an ingredient in the composition of functional food or food for special purpose to enhance both: its nutritional value and excretion of heavy metals from the human body.

  6. Biological Activities of the Polysaccharides Produced in Submerged Culture of Two Edible Pleurotus ostreatus Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamanu, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) and internal (intracellular) polysaccharides (IPS) obtained from the Pleurotus ostreatus M2191 and PBS281009 cultivated using the batch system revealed an average of between 0.1–2 (EPS) and 0.07–1.5 g/L/day (IPS). The carbohydrate analysis revealed that the polysaccharides comprised 87–89% EPS and 68–74% IPS. The investigation of antioxidant activity in vitro revealed a good antioxidant potential, particularly for the IPS and EPS isolated from PBS281009, as proved by the EC50 value for DPPH, ABTS scavenging activity, reducing power, and iron chelating activity. PMID:22778553

  7. Cultivable microbiome of fresh white button mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, W; Korsten, L

    2017-02-01

    Microbial dynamics on commercially grown white button mushrooms is of importance in terms of food safety assurance and quality control. The purpose of this study was to establish the microbial profile of fresh white button mushrooms. The total microbial load was determined through standard viable counts. Presence and isolation of Gram-negative bacteria including coagulase-positive Staphylococci were performed using a selective enrichment approach. Dominant and presumptive organisms were confirmed using molecular methods. Total mushroom microbial counts ranged from 5·2 to 12·4 log CFU per g, with the genus Pseudomonas being most frequently isolated (45·37% of all isolations). In total, 91 different microbial species were isolated and identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrophotometry, PCR and sequencing. Considering current food safety guidelines in South Africa for ready-to-eat fresh produce, coliform counts exceeded the guidance specifications for fresh fruit and vegetables. Based on our research and similar studies, it is proposed that specifications for microbial loads on fresh, healthy mushrooms reflect a more natural microbiome at the point-of-harvest and point-of-sale. Presence and persistence of micro-organisms within the microbiome of fresh produce is important when identifying a potential niche for foodborne pathogens. Most foodborne outbreaks can be attributed to microbial imbalances or lack of diversity within the associated host surface and residing microbial population. Agaricus bisporus samples analysed during this study showed a higher microbial load (5·2 up to 12·4 log CFU per g) compared to known values for other fresh produce. These mushrooms were considered to carry microbial loads representing a healthy and safe product, fit for consumption, despite showing a high indicator incidence. Although foodborne pathogens may be associated on occasion with fresh mushrooms, it remains a low

  8. Toughening and its association with the postharvest quality of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) stored at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danqing; Qin, Xiaoyi; Tian, Pingping; Wang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Toughening-induced textural decay easily occurs in stored mushrooms. The objective of this study was to investigate the textural alteration caused by toughening in relation to other quality attributes of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii). Fresh king oyster mushrooms, packed in low-density polyethylene bags, were stored at different low temperatures for 18 days to measure textural and other quality attributes. It was found that toughening occurred twice during the entire storage time. Highly associated change profiles were observed for the lignin content and activities of three important enzymes involved in lignin synthesis. The chitin and cellulose contents exhibited low correlation with toughening. Malondialdehyde content, electrolyte leakage rate and total phenolics content appeared to be related to toughening, but the browning index showed a negative correlation with toughening. Our results suggested that toughening may be mainly caused by lignification and can affect the postharvest quality of the tested mushrooms.

  9. UTILIZATION OF AREN (Arenga pinnata Merr. SAWMILLING WASTE FOR EDIBLE MUSHROOM CULTIVATION MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djarwanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aren (Arenga pinnata Merr. is a multipurpose tree that can be utilized for palm sugar, alcoholic drinks, beverages and construction wood. The use of aren sawdust has not been studied intensively. This study examines the utilization of aren sawdust as cultivation media for edible mushrooms. Aren sawdust was mixed with rice bran, CaCO3, gypsum, fertilizers and distilled water before sterilization in 30 minutes pressurized autoclave at 1210C and 1.5atm. The mixed media was inoculated with pure cultures containing four mushrooms species (Pleurotus flabellatus, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju and Lentinula edodes and incubated for five weeks to allow mycelium growth producing fruit bodies. The fruit bodies were harvested everyday within four months and examined for its gained mushroom-weight and biological conversion efficiency/BE. The core part of aren trunk was cut into smaller pieces of 10 cm (width by 5 cm (thickness, by 120 cm (length. Each core sample was bored from the surface inward, creating holes with a particular distance apart. Each hole was inoculated with pure cultures containing 6 mushroom species (four species above, P. cystidiosus and Auricularia polytricha. The inoculated samples were slanted on bamboo support, and placed in a bamboo hut. Harvesting was carried out everyday after the fruiting body became mature and examined for its gained mushroom weight. Results show that the use of sawdust supplemented with nutritious material is more likely to improve the mushroom yield than that of aren sawn-timber core. In this case, the BE values with aren-sawdust media were 21.97-89.45% (P. flabellatus, 15.36-105.36% (P. ostreatus, 63.88-76.86% (P. sajor-caju, and up to 62.88% (L. edodes. Meanwhile, the yields (gained mushroom weight with aren sawn-timber media were 210g (P. ostreatus, 368g (P. flabellatus, 331g (P. sajor-caju and 48g (A. polytricha; however, P. cystidiosus and L. edodes inoculated on aren stem core failed to grow.

  10. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan

    2014-09-01

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec-1. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD50 to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  11. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan [Bioprocess Group, Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec{sup −1}. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD{sub 50} to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  12. Effect of the Polysaccharide Extract from the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rugea

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The polysaccharide-containing extracellular fractions (EFs of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have immunomodulating effects. Being aware of these therapeutic effects of mushroom extracts, we have investigated the synergistic relations between these extracts and BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines. These vaccines target the stimulation of the immune system in commercial poultry, which are extremely vulnerable in the first days of their lives. By administrating EF with polysaccharides from P. ostreatus to unvaccinated broilers we have noticed slow stimulation of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease (IBD starting from four weeks post hatching. For the broilers vaccinated with BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines a low to almost complete lack of IBD maternal antibodies has been recorded. By adding 5% and 15% EF in the water intake, as compared to the reaction of the immune system in the previous experiment, the level of IBD antibodies was increased. This has led us to believe that by using this combination of BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccine and EF from P. ostreatus we can obtain good results in stimulating the production of IBD antibodies in the period of the chicken first days of life, which are critical to broilers’ survival. This can be rationalized by the newly proposed reactivity biological activity (ReBiAc principles by examining the parabolic relationship between EF administration and recorded biological activity.

  13. Isolation of a phytase with distinctive characteristics from an edible mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2013-04-01

    From the fresh fruiting bodies of the mushroom Pleurotus eryngii a phytase with a molecular mass of 14 kDa was isolated. The isolation protocol entailed ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, and ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose. The phytase was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel, and adsorbed on Q-Sepharose. It appeared as a single band in SDSPAGE. It exhibited maximal activity at around 37°C. Its activity underwent little changes over the range of pH 3.0 to 9.0. The aforementioned characteristics are different from those of animal, plant and bacterial phytases. The low molecular mass and pH stability of P. eryngii phytase also distinguish it from mushroom phytases and other fungal phytases reported earlier. The purified enzyme exhibited a broad substrate specificity on a range of phosphorylated compounds, and the phytase demonstrated the N-terminal sequence ADNVYRHDNN which shows little homology to known phytases. It inhibited proliferation of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells and breast cancer MCF7 cells with an IC(50) of 1.9 μM, 2.9 μM, and 1.0 μM, respectively.

  14. Effect of the Polysaccharide Extract from the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selegean, Mircea; Putz, Mihai V.; Rugea, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    The polysaccharide-containing extracellular fractions (EFs) of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have immunomodulating effects. Being aware of these therapeutic effects of mushroom extracts, we have investigated the synergistic relations between these extracts and BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines. These vaccines target the stimulation of the immune system in commercial poultry, which are extremely vulnerable in the first days of their lives. By administrating EF with polysaccharides from P. ostreatus to unvaccinated broilers we have noticed slow stimulation of maternal antibodies against infectious bursal disease (IBD) starting from four weeks post hatching. For the broilers vaccinated with BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines a low to almost complete lack of IBD maternal antibodies has been recorded. By adding 5% and 15% EF in the water intake, as compared to the reaction of the immune system in the previous experiment, the level of IBD antibodies was increased. This has led us to believe that by using this combination of BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccine and EF from P. ostreatus we can obtain good results in stimulating the production of IBD antibodies in the period of the chicken first days of life, which are critical to broilers’ survival. This can be rationalized by the newly proposed reactivity biological activity (ReBiAc) principles by examining the parabolic relationship between EF administration and recorded biological activity. PMID:20111675

  15. Preliminary studies on productivity of white Pleurotus eryngii isolates in protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Rana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Four isolates of Pleurotus eryngii species-complex, originating from different basidiomata growing in a mountainous area of the Basilicata region (southern Italy and characterized by white pileus cuticle (Wh A, Wh B, Wh C, and Wh D were compared, in artificial cultivation conditions, to other isolates of the same mushroom with beige (Be 3, Be 5 or brown cap (Br 1, Br 2 originating from the same area of the former or selected among the commercial ones (Com 142 and Com 164 in order to evaluate their productivity and morphological features. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse belonging to the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bari Aldo Moro, in autumn winter 2010-2011, using substrate bags well colonized by P. eryngii mycelium and kept at 4-6°C for 5 months. Wh A and Wh D and, less significantly, Wh C, Be 5 and Com 142, produced a fresh basidioma yield significantly higher than the five other tested isolates (Wh B, Be 3, Br 1, Br 2 and Com 164. Only Com 142 produced the basidiomata of medium and maximum size significantly heavier and with larger pileus diameter than other tested isolates. Com 142 also resulted significantly different, for the basidiomata number/substrate bag, from the white pileus cuticle isolates except for Wh B. All tested isolates concentrated almost all (90-95% of the sporophore yield in the first basidioma flush. No significant differences were found among all tested P. eryngii isolates in terms of yield earliness.

  16. Study on thinning buttons of Pleurotus eryngii during factory bottle cultivation%工厂化瓶栽杏鲍菇疏蕾研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉; 于海龙; 周峰; 王瑞娟; 郭倩

    2011-01-01

    The relations of the number of fruiting bodies reserved after thinning buttons to the weight per mushroom and the yield per bottle were studied during factory bottle cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii .The result showed that the number of fruiting bodies had significant effects on the weight per mushroom and the yield per bottle,and was inversely proportional to the weight per mushroom but directly proportional to the yield per bottle.Reserving 2~3 fruiting bodies during cultivation could gain a rather high yield and a relatively large proportion of mushrooms for export.%对工厂化瓶栽杏鲍菇疏蕾后保留的子实体数目与单菇重量以及单瓶产量之间的关系进行了研究,结果表明:子实体数目对单菇重量以及单瓶产量存在显著影响,子实体数目与单菇重量成反比,与单瓶产量成正比;生产过程中将子实体数目控制在2~3个有利于获得较大的产量,并且出口菇比例较高.

  17. Evaluation of Water hyacinth and Paddy Straw Waste for Culture of Oyster Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Nageswaran, M.; Gopalakrishnan, A.; M. Ganesan; Vedhamurthy, A.

    2003-01-01

    Waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.) was evaluated at ratios of 25, 50 and 75% with paddy straw ( Oryza sativa L.) for oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus sajor-caju) cultivation. There was an increase in yield with decreasing ratio waterhyacinth.

  18. Evaluation of Waterhyacinth and Paddy Straw Waste for Culture of Oyster Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Nageswaran, M.; Gopalakrishnan, A.; M. Ganesan; Vedhamurthy, A.

    2003-01-01

    Waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.) was evaluated at ratios of 25, 50 and 75% with paddy straw ( Oryza sativa L.) for oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus sajor-caju) cultivation. There was an increase in yield with decreasing ratio waterhyacinth.

  19. Influência da composição química do substrato no cultivo de Pleurotus florida Influence of the chemical composition of the substrate in the cultivation of Pleurotus florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Garcia Figueiró

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da composição química do substrato no cultivo do cogumelo comestível Pleurotus florida, seis resíduos agrícolas foram testados: palha de arroz, palha de feijão, palha de trigo, folha de bananeira, palha de sorgo e sabugo de milho. O substrato palha de feijão apresentou resultados semelhantes para a produção (189,8 g kg-1, eficiência biológica (89,2% e número de cogumelos (12 à palha de arroz, substrato utilizado tradicionalmente no cultivo de Pleurotus em escala comercial. Não foi possível atribuir apenas a um fator químico as altas produções e eficiências biológicas observadas em palha de arroz e palha de feijão e muito menos para a baixa produção em palha de sorgo (77,8 g kg-1 e sabugo de milho (53,2 g g-1. No geral, substratos com relação C/N em torno de 45 (N = 1,0%, maior conteúdo de cinzas, acrescido de altos teores de P, K, Ca, Mg and Mn foram os melhores para o cultivo de P. florida.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of the chemical composition of the substrate in the cultivation of the edible mushroom Pleurotus florida. Six agricultural by-products were tested: rice straw, bean straw, wheat straw, banana leaf, sorghum straw and maize cobs. Using bean straw as the substrate showed similar results for yield (189.8 g kg-1, biological efficiency (89.2% and number of mushrooms (12 as rice straw substrates traditionally used for the cultivation of Pleurotus on a commercial scale. It was not possible to attribute the high yields and biological efficiency observed in rice and bean straw solely to chemical factors and, even less so for the low yields presented by sorghum straw (77.8 g kg-1 and maize cobs (53.2 g kg-1. In general, substrates with C/N ratio around 45 (N = 1.0%, high ash content and high levels of P, K, Ca, Mg and Mn were the best for the cultivation of P. florida.

  20. Photo-bio-synthesis of irregular shaped functionalized gold nanoparticles using edible mushroom Pleurotus florida and its anticancer evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ravishankar; Sharanabasava, V G; Deshpande, Raghunandan; Shetti, Ullas; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Venkataraman, A

    2013-08-05

    A green chemistry approach to the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using edible mushroom Pleurotus florida (Oyster mushroom) by photo-irradiation method has been attempted. The mixture containing the aqueous gold ions and the mushroom extract was exposed to sunlight; this resulted in the formation of biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were characterized using various techniques like UV-visible spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction studies, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Atomic force microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The obtained biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles showed effective anti-cancer property against four different cancer cell lines A-549 (Human lung carcinoma), K-562 (Human chronic myelogenous leukemia bone marrow), HeLa (Human cervix) and MDA-MB (Human adenocarcinoma mammary gland) and no lethal effect is observed in Vero (African green monkey kidney normal cell) cell lines.

  1. Agronomic assessment of spent substrates for mushroom cultivation

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    Picornell-Buendía, R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. In this work the agronomic viability of substrates based on spent Agaricus bisporus Imbach (Lange substrates (SAS and spent Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. P. Kumm. substrates (SPS is studied. Objectives. The aim of this work is the qualitative agronomic evaluation of SPS and SAS and the mixture of thereof in different proportions, such as lignocellulosic sources in new growing cycles of P. ostreatus. Method. In addition to the commercial substrate used as a control reference, six different treatments are considered. In this experiment, SPS and SAS were mixed in different amounts. SAS was subjected to a heat treatment in a growing room ("cook out" and then to a maturation treatment which consisted of a controlled recomposting process in cameras. SPS was subjected to a pasteurizing heat treatment (60 °C – 65 °C, 8 h and a progressive temperature decrease for at least 15 h to a "seeding" temperature (25 °C. Results. SPS (3,600 g + SAS (2,400 g and SPS (3,000 g + SAS (3,000 g were prepared substrates that achieved acceptable crude protein content in their fruiting bodies. Additionally, we obtained higher ash content, lightness, yellow-blue (y-b and red-green (r-g chromaticity, breaking strength (Bs, and compression energy (CE in these mushrooms. These values were higher than the mean values, and even higher than the commercial substrate. Conclusions. Increased SAS participation in the mixture of the processed substrate (and the consequent reduction of SPS participation resulted in mushrooms that require higher Bs, and CE. These formulation-based composts degraded by the growth of P. ostreatus, could be a low-cost substrate with selective and balanced nutrients for growth and development of oyster mushrooms.

  2. Produção de três espécies de cogumelos Pleurotus e avaliação da qualidade em atmosfera modificada Production of three species of Pleurotus mushrooms and quality evaluation in modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ramos

    2011-01-01

    maintain quality, minimal processing is reported to be an economical and effective method of extending the mushrooms shelf life. The purpose of this study was tested three species of the Pleurotus genus yield cultivated in wheat straw, in order to determine the most productive one and also evaluate the combined effects of modified atmosphere packaging on quality and shelf life of these packaged fresh mushrooms. The results indicate that P. ostreatus was the most productive, followed by P. sajor-caju and P. eryngii and the studied storage conditions improved P. eryngii quality.

  3. Effect of mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus and isolated fungal polysaccharide on serum and liver lipids in Syrian hamsters with hyperlipoproteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, P; Ginter, E; Kuniak, L; Babala, J; Jurcovicova, M; Ozdín, L; Cerven, J

    1991-01-01

    In Syrian hamsters, a diet with 44% of the calories being fat and containing 52 mg cholesterol (C)/100 g induced an accumulation of blood plasma and liver C and triacylglycerol (TG). In these animals, we studied the effect of dried whole mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus, 2% in the diet, 6-mo experiment) and ethanol-insoluble residue and structurally defined fungal polysaccharide, both isolated from the mushroom (in both cases, 4% in the diet, 2-mo experiments) on C and TG concentration in serum and liver. Whole mushroom effectively retarded the increase in C and TG in both serum and liver throughout the experiment. The mushroom also reduced the content of all lipids in lipoproteins with densities of less than 1.006 to less than 1.063 g/ml. Very-low-density lipoproteins played a substantial role in the decrease (65-80%) in serum lipids. As a result, the lipoprotein concentration of the specified density classes was reduced by 45-60%, and the concentration of the serum lipoprotein pool was reduced by 40%. Neither the chemical composition of high-density lipoproteins nor their serum concentration was affected by the mushroom. Ethanol-insoluble mushroom residue did not significantly affect serum lipid levels, but it reduced liver TG content. Fungal polysaccharide lowered the C content in serum and liver.

  4. Bioavailability and Digestibility of Nutrients from the Dried Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Agaricomycetes): In Vivo Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regula, Julita; Suliburska, Joanna; Siwulski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    There is a limited number of publications on the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients contained in macrofungi. The aim of this study was to assess the bioavailability and digestibility of macronutrients using in vivo experiments on laboratory animals. The experiments were conducted with the commercial oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Semisynthetic diets were prepared based on the modified AIN-93M diet and were supplemented with 4% and 8% mushroom powder. Between days 4 and 13, apparent digestibility indexes were determined for all animals using the conventional balance method. The hematological indexes-that is, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, white blood cells, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration-were determined using a Sysmex K-1000 hematological analyzer. Feeding rats with semisynthetic diets supplemented with dried oyster mushroom had no negative effect on body weight gain or feeding efficiency, expressed in the amount of body weight gain per unit of metabolic energy uptake. Introduction of dried oyster mushroom to the diet resulted in reduced digestibility of the diet and the protein and fat it contained, as well as decreased apparent energy availability. These changes were dependent on the volume of dried mushroom added to the semisynthetic diet. The addition of dried oyster mushroom to the semisynthetic diet considerably reduced passage time through the alimentary tract of rats.

  5. PURIFICATION OF CATALASE ENZYME FROM PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmitha.S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus is the most commonly cultivated mushroom, and are effective for antitumor, antibacterial, anti viral and hematological agents and in immune modulating treatments. Several compounds from oyster mushrooms, potentially beneficial for human health have been isolated and studied. The aim of this research is to purify an enzyme catalase from Pleurotus ostreatus through Sephadox G-75 column, its molecular weight was determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the catalase enzyme stability were observed at various temperature and different pH condition. Under denaturing conditions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed dissociation of a major component of molecular weight 62,000 kDa, which constituted 90% of the total protein of the stained gel, suggesting that the native enzyme is tetrameric. The optimum temperature and pH for the purified enzyme catalase from Pleurotus ostreatus enzymatic reaction were 30°C and pH 7.5.

  6. Cultivation of oyster mushrooms on cassava waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Obodai, M.; Asagbra, A.

    2015-01-01

    Cassava is a major food crop for approximately 700 million people, especially in African countries. A large quantity of waste is produced during processing of cassava, mainly consisting of tuber peels. Although previous research has shown that these peels can be an ingredient for substrate to cultiv

  7. Enzyme-assisted extraction enhancing the umami taste amino acids recovery from several cultivated mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poojary, Mahesha Manjunatha; Orlien, Vibeke; Passamonti, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, enzyme-assisted extraction was performed to extract umami taste and total free amino acids (FAAs) from the six different mushrooms including shiitake (Lentinus edodes), oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus), tea tree (Agrocybe aegerita) and, white, brown and portobello champignons (Agaricus...

  8. Effect of caffeine and tannins on cultivation and fructification of Pleurotus on coffee husks Efeito da cafeína e taninos no cultivo e frutificação de Pleurotus em casca de café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leifa Fan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effect of caffeine and tannins on Pleurotus sp. cultivation and to evaluate the feasibility of using coffee husks as substrate for mushroom cultivation. Eight strains of P. ostreatus and two strains of P. sajor-caju were screened on a medium prepared from agar extract of coffee husk. Based on best mycelial growth and biomass production, the strain P. ostreatus LPB 09 was selected for detailed studies. With the increase of caffeine concentration, the mycelial growth and the biomass production decreased, and no growth was observed when concentration of caffeine was 2500 mg/L. Furthermore, Pleurotus did not degrade the caffeine, but absorbed it. Tannin under 100 mg/L in the medium stimulated the growth of mycelia, but above 500 mg/L it had a negative effect. When the concentration reached 1000 mg/L, the fungus still survived and showed a certain tolerance to it. No tannic acid was found in the mycelia, but its concentration decreased in the medium. This fact confirmed that Pleurotus had the capacity of degrading tannic acid. Fructification occurred after 20 days of inoculation and the biological efficiency reached about 97% after 60 days. Caffeine content in the husk after cultivation was reduced to 60.7% and tannins to 79.2%. The results indicated the feasibility of using coffee husk without any pretreatment for the cultivation of Pleurotus.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar o efeito da cafeína e taninos sobre o desenvolvimento do fungo Pleurotus sp. e avaliar a possibilidade do uso da casca de café como substrato no seu cultivo. Oito cepas de P. ostreatus e duas cepas de P. sajor-caju foram selecionadas em um meio à base de extrato aquoso de casca de café e Agar. A cepa P. ostreatus LPB 09 foi escolhida para estudos posteriores com base na velocidade de crescimento do micélio e produção de biomassa. O estudo do desenvolvimento do cogumelo em meio com diferentes concentrações de cafe

  9. Effect of Pleurotus eryngii Mushroom β-Glucan on Quality Characteristics of Common Wheat Pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SunHee; Lee, Jo-Won; Heo, Yena; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of β-glucan-rich fractions (BGRFs) from Pleurotus eryngii mushroom powder on the quality, textural properties, and sensory evaluation of common wheat pasta. Pasta was prepared from semolina flour and common wheat flour by replacing common wheat flour at 2%, 4%, and 6% with BGRFs. Semolina flour showed significantly higher viscosities than common wheat flour samples. However, all viscosities, except the breakdown viscosity, were reduced with increasing percentages of BGRFs. Replacement of the common wheat flour with BGRFs resulted in a reddish brown colored pasta with a lower L* value and a higher a* value. The common wheat pastas containing up to 4% BGRFs were not significantly different from semolina pasta with regard to cooking loss. Addition of up to 2% BGRFs had no significant impact on swelling index and water absorption. The addition of BGRFs in common wheat flour had a positive effect on the quality of common wheat pasta and resulted in hardness values similar to those of semolina pasta. In a sensory evaluation, cooked pasta with 2% BGRFs had the highest overall acceptability score. In summary, the results showed that common wheat flour containing 4% BGRFs could be used to produce pasta with an improved quality and texture properties similar to semolina pasta.

  10. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Anti-cholinesterase, and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Culinary Mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Kien; Im, Kyung Hoan; Choi, Jaehyuk; Shin, Pyung Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Culinary mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius has been popular in Asian countries. In this study, the anti-oxidant, cholinesterase, and inflammation inhibitory activities of methanol extract (ME) of fruiting bodies of P. pulmonarius were evaluted. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazy free radical scavenging activity of ME at 2.0 mg/mL was comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene, the standard reference. The ME exhibited significantly higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than butylated hydroxytoluene. ME showed slightly lower but moderate inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase than galantamine, a standard AChE inhibitor. It also exhibited protective effect against cytotoxicity to PC-12 cells induced by glutamate (10~100 µg/mL), inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, and carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the ME of P. pulmonarius contained at least 10 phenolic compounds and some of them were identified by the comparison with known standard phenolics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that fruiting bodies of P. pulmonarius possess antioxidant, anti-cholinesterase, and inflammation inhibitory activities.

  11. Antioxidant properties of polysaccharides obtained by batch cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamanu, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of the exopolysaccharides (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) obtained from the mycelia obtained by submerged culture of two edible Pleurotus ostreatus strains, PQMZ91109 and PSI101109 in a batch bioreactor was determined. EPS and IPS showed significant antioxidant activities (in vitro) especially in the scavenging effect on the DPPH and ABTS radicals, reducing power and chelating effect on ferrous ions. The tests proved the differences between the two mushrooms, concerning the biological activity of polysaccharides. The data sustain that P. ostreatus polysaccharides are natural antioxidant for pharmaceutical and food industries, particularly PSI101109.

  12. Effects of the Base Substrate and Dietary supplementson Growth Indices Florida Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Makenali

    2016-02-01

    than sugarcane bagasse soit provided mycelium with the nutrient amount of biological efficiency that increased byadding dietary supplements there for ethe yield was higher than control. Temperature of substrate increased by combining urea, cotton seed powder and soya flour nitrogen supplements, and that large amount of nitrogen were released into the environment and high temperature substrate. So expansion of mycelium decreased and mushrooms with low biological efficiency and low yield were produced. The highest biological efficiency (23.03 % and the highest yield (4/921 gr were obtained through wheat straw that fed by cotton seed powder + soya flour (A2B6.The lowest biological efficiency (10.48 % and the lowest yield (419 gr were from control treatment (A1. Frequency of nitrogen in cotton seed powder is one of the most important reasons of increasing biological efficiency and yield. Another efficiency biologic factor was used in cultivation of fungi was C/N ratio, since nitrogen is a necessary factor for the activity of ligninoletic enzyme that is produced by basidiomycets. Cultivated fungi on wheat straw were wetter than mushrooms cultivated on sugarcane bagasse, because wheat straw has 10-15%water and sugarcane bagasse has 9% moisture. Wheat straw with cotton seed + powder soya flour (A2B6 and control treatment (A1 had the highest moisture (92.26%. Byaddition of dietary supplements in the surface of enriched substrate, fruit body density had increased in control, so mushrooms were less exposed to the air flow, but the combination of nitrogen supplements, the arrival of more nitrogen andsubstrate heat increased and that the mushrooms had less humid. In wheat straw substrate more number of body fruits was obtained in comparison with sugarcane bagasse substrate..418 numbers of body fruits obtained from wheat straw by cotton seed powder + soya flour (A2B6 and 163 mushrooms were obtained from control treatment (A1. Absorbable chemical compounds in the medium were used

  13. Oral administration of an aqueous extract from the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus enhances the immunonutritional recovery of malnourished mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauradó, Gabriel; Morris, Humberto J; Lebeque, Yamila; Venet, Gleymis; Fong, Onel; Marcos, Jane; Fontaine, Roberto; Cos, Paul; Bermúdez, Rosa C

    2016-10-01

    Mushroom nutriceutical components have lately attracted interest for developing immunonutritional support. However, there is relatively little information pertaining to the use of mushroom preparations for modulating the metabolic and immunological disorders associated to malnutrition. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of an aqueous extract (CW-P) from Pleurotus ostreatus on the recovery of biochemical and immunological functions of malnourished mice. 8-week old female BALB/c mice were starved for 3days and then refed with commercial diet supplemented with or without CW-P (100mg/kg) for 8days. Regardless of the diet used during refeeding, animal body weights and serum protein concentrations did not differ between groups. Oral treatment with CW-P normalized haemoglobin levels, liver arginase and gut mucosal weight. CW-P increased total liver proteins and also DNA and protein contents in gut mucosa. Pleurotus extract provided benefits in terms of macrophages activation as well as in haemopoiesis, as judged by the recovery of bone marrow cells and leukocyte counts. Moreover, CW-P stimulated humoral immunity (T-dependent and T non-dependent antibodies responses) compared to non-supplemented mice. CW-P extract from the oyster mushroom can be used to develop specific food or nutritional supplement formulations with potential clinical applications in the immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Cultivation of Agaricus blazei on Pleurotus spp. spent substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Miranda Gern

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the use of Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju for the previous lignocellulolytic decomposition of banana tree leaf straw and the further use of the degraded straw as substrate for the culture of Agaricus blazei. For optimising the production of A. blazei in terms of yield (Y% and biological efficiency (BE%, adjustments to the composition of the substrate were evaluated in a 2(5 experimental design. The following components were tested in relation to % of substrate dry mass: urea (1 and 10%, rice bran (10 or 20% or ammonium sulphate (0 or 10%, inoculum (10 or 20% and the casing material (subsoil or burned rice husks. The best results (79.71 Y% and 6.73 BE% were found when the substrate containing 10% of rice bran, without ammonium sulphate, inoculated with 20% and covered with subsoil was used.O cultivo de fungos comestíveis e medicinais utilizando resíduos da agroindústria vem se apresentando como uma alternativa econômica para o pequeno produtor rural, favorecendo a agricultura familiar do nordeste catarinense. Este trabalho avaliou o fungo Pleurotus para a decomposição lignocelulolítica de palha de folhas de bananeira e a utilização da palha residual como substrato para o cultivo de Agaricus blazei. Ajustes na composição do substrato residual de Pleurotus, tais como o tipo e a concentração da fonte de nitrogênio, a porcentagem de inóculo e a camada de cobertura, foram avaliadas. O substrato residual que mais favoreceu a produção de A. blazei em Eficiência Biológica (6,73%, Rendimento (79,71% e menor tempo para emissão do primeiro primórdio (27 dias foi o substrato residual de P. ostreatus inoculado com 20% de inóculo (ms, 10% de farelo de arroz (ms, sem sulfato de amônio e utilizando terra de subsolo como camada de cobertura.

  15. Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation on amended palm press fibre waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bola

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... In the process of extraction of palm oil from oil palm fruit, biomass materials such as palm ... America and Europe, they are still being hunted for in forests and ..... potency of oil palm plantation wastes for mushroom production.

  16. Statistical optimization of ultraviolet irradiate conditions for vitamin D₂ synthesis in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Jie; Ahn, Byung-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum vitamin D2 synthesis conditions in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). Ultraviolet B (UV-B) was selected as the most efficient irradiation source for the preliminary experiment, in addition to the levels of three independent variables, which included ambient temperature (25-45°C), exposure time (40-120 min), and irradiation intensity (0.6-1.2 W/m2). The statistical analysis indicated that, for the range which was studied, irradiation intensity was the most critical factor that affected vitamin D2 synthesis in oyster mushrooms. Under optimal conditions (ambient temperature of 28.16°C, UV-B intensity of 1.14 W/m2, and exposure time of 94.28 min), the experimental vitamin D2 content of 239.67 µg/g (dry weight) was in very good agreement with the predicted value of 245.49 µg/g, which verified the practicability of this strategy. Compared to fresh mushrooms, the lyophilized mushroom powder can synthesize remarkably higher level of vitamin D2 (498.10 µg/g) within much shorter UV-B exposure time (10 min), and thus should receive attention from the food processing industry.

  17. Composted versus Raw Olive Mill Waste as Substrates for the Production of Medicinal Mushrooms: An Assessment of Selected Cultivation and Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios I. Zervakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW, “alperujo” is a highly biotoxic sludge-like effluent of the olive-oil milling process with a huge seasonal production. One of the treatment approaches that has so far received little attention is the use of TPOMW as substrate for the cultivation of edible mushrooms. Fifteen fungal strains belonging to five species (Basidiomycota, that is, Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. eryngii, P. ostreatus, and P. pulmonarius, were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize media composed of TPOMW, which was used either raw or composted in mixtures with wheat straw in various ratios. Qualified strains exhibited high values of biological efficiency (e.g., 120–135% for Pleurotus spp. and 125% for A. cylindracea and productivity in subsequent cultivation experiments on substrates supplemented with 20–40% composted TPOMW or 20% raw TPOMW. Only when supplementation exceeded 60% for raw TPOMW, a negative impact was noted on mushroom yields which could be attributed to the effluent's toxicity (otherwise alleviated in the respective composted TPOMW medium. Earliness and mushroom size as well as quality parameters such as total phenolic content and antioxidant activity did not demonstrate significant differences versus the control wheat-straw substrate. The substrates hemicellulose content was negatively correlated with mycelium growth rates and yields and positively with earliness; in addition, cellulose: lignin ratio presented a positive correlation with mycelium growth and mushroom weight for A. cylindracea and with earliness for all species examined. TPOMW-based media revealed a great potential for the substitution of traditional cultivation substrates by valorizing environmentally hazardous agricultural waste.

  18. Composted versus raw olive mill waste as substrates for the production of medicinal mushrooms: an assessment of selected cultivation and quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervakis, Georgios I; Koutrotsios, Georgios; Katsaris, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW, "alperujo") is a highly biotoxic sludge-like effluent of the olive-oil milling process with a huge seasonal production. One of the treatment approaches that has so far received little attention is the use of TPOMW as substrate for the cultivation of edible mushrooms. Fifteen fungal strains belonging to five species (Basidiomycota), that is, Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. eryngii, P. ostreatus, and P. pulmonarius, were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize media composed of TPOMW, which was used either raw or composted in mixtures with wheat straw in various ratios. Qualified strains exhibited high values of biological efficiency (e.g., 120-135% for Pleurotus spp. and 125% for A. cylindracea) and productivity in subsequent cultivation experiments on substrates supplemented with 20-40% composted TPOMW or 20% raw TPOMW. Only when supplementation exceeded 60% for raw TPOMW, a negative impact was noted on mushroom yields which could be attributed to the effluent's toxicity (otherwise alleviated in the respective composted TPOMW medium). Earliness and mushroom size as well as quality parameters such as total phenolic content and antioxidant activity did not demonstrate significant differences versus the control wheat-straw substrate. The substrates hemicellulose content was negatively correlated with mycelium growth rates and yields and positively with earliness; in addition, cellulose: lignin ratio presented a positive correlation with mycelium growth and mushroom weight for A. cylindracea and with earliness for all species examined. TPOMW-based media revealed a great potential for the substitution of traditional cultivation substrates by valorizing environmentally hazardous agricultural waste.

  19. Physiochemical analysis and centesimal composition of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom grown in residues from the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceci Sales-Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the nutritional composition of mushrooms produced in alternative substrates in agricultural and agro-industrial residues from the Amazon. C, N, pH, moisture, soluble solids, protein, lipids, total fibers, ashes, carbohydrates and energy were determined. Substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. and Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. Sawdust and from Bactris gasipaes Kunth and Saccharum officinarum stipe. Results showed that the nutritional composition of P. ostreatus varied according to the cultivation substrate and that it can be considered important food due to its nutritional characteristics such as: high protein content; metabolizable carbohydrates and fiber; and low lipids and calories contents.

  20. Genetic diversity of the edible mushroom Pleurotus sp. by amplified fragment length polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Anna; Janusz, Grzegorz; Koszerny, Joanna; Małek, Wanda; Rogalski, Jerzy

    2012-10-01

    Pleurotus strains are the most important fungi used in the agricultural industry. The exact characterization and identification of Pleurotus species is fundamental for correct identification of the individuals and exploiting their full potential in food industry. The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method was applied for genomic fingerprinting of 21 Pleurotus isolates of Asian and European origin. Using one PstI restriction endonuclease and four selective primers in an AFLP assay, 371 DNA fragments were generated, including 308 polymorphic bands. The AFLP profiles were found to be highly specific for each strain and they unambiguously distinguished 21 Pleurotus sp. fungi. The coefficient of Jaccard's genome profile similarity between the analyzed strains ranged from 0.0 (Pleurotus sp. I vs. P. sajor-caju 237 and P. eryngii 238) to 0.750 (P. ostreatus 246 vs. P. ostreatus 248), and the average was 0.378. The AFLP-based dendrogram generated by the UPGMA method grouped all the Pleurotus fungi studied into two major clusters and one independent lineage located on the outskirt of the tree occupied by naturally growing Pleurotus species strain I. The results of the present study suggest the possible applicability of the AFLP-PstI method in effective identification and molecular characterization of Pleurotus sp. strains.

  1. Rapid strain classification and taxa delimitation within the edible mushroom genus Pleurotus through the use of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervakis, Georgios I; Bekiaris, Georgios; Tarantilis, Petros Α; Pappas, Christos S

    2012-06-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been successfully applied for the identification of bacteria and yeasts, but only to a limited extent for discriminating specific groups of filamentous fungi. In the frame of this study, 73 strains - from different associated hosts/substrates and geographic regions - representing 16 taxa of the edible mushroom genus Pleurotus (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) were examined through the use of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. A binary matrix, elaborated on the basis of presence/absence of specific absorbance peaks combined with cluster analysis, demonstrated that the spectral region 1800-600 cm(-1) permitted clear delimitation of individual strains into Pleurotus species. In addition, closely related species (e.g., Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius) or taxa of the subgenus Coremiopleurotus demonstrated high similarity in their absorbance patterns, whereas genetically distinct entities such as Pleurotus dryinus, Pleurotus djamor, and Pleurotus eryngii provided spectra with noteworthy differences. When specific regions (1800-1700, 1360-1285, 1125-1068, and 950-650 cm(-1)) were evaluated in respect to the absorbance values demonstrated by individual strains, it was evidenced that this methodology could be eventually exploited for the identification of unknown Pleurotus specimens with a stepwise process and with the aid of a dichotomous key developed for this purpose. Moreover, it was shown that the nature of original fungal material examined (mycelium, basidiomata, and basidiospores) had an effect on the outcome of such analyses, and so did the use of different mycelium growth substrates. In conclusion, application of FT-IR spectroscopy provided a fast, reliable, and cost-efficient solution for the classification of pure cultures from closely related mushroom species.

  2. Application of silage ramie byproducts for Pleurotus eryngii cultivation%青贮苎麻副产物栽培刺芹侧耳技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢纯良; 严理; 朱作华; 李智敏; 胡镇修; 彭源德

    2013-01-01

    针对食用菌培养基质严重短缺和苎麻副产物直接晾晒干燥成本高、体积大、不便于长途运输等问题,进行青贮苎麻副产物栽培刺芹侧耳试验.通过测定不同营养条件下刺芹侧耳的菌丝生长速率和生物学效率,确定了青贮苎麻副产物培养基栽培刺芹侧耳的适宜配方,并对产品品质进行了检测.结果表明:培养基pH为5.5,培养基中含苎麻副产物50%和水分67.5%,并添加1%碳酸钙和1%白糖时栽培刺芹侧耳的效果较好,生物学效率达70%以上;与常规棉籽壳培养基相比,青贮苎麻副产物培养基栽培产品的蛋白质含量提高了30%,总糖和脂肪含量分别降低了24%和33%.%Faced by issues in the mushroom cultivation,such as substrates shortage,high cost and large volume in direct air-dry or inconvenient long-distance transportation,silage ramie byproducts were tested for Pleurotus eryngii cultivation in this study.The effects of moisture,pH,calcium salts,sugars,additives,and carbonitride on the Pleurotus eryngii growth were measured from mycelial growth rate and biological efficiency.The optimal medium conditions of the silage ramie byproducts and mushroom residues for eryngii cultivation as well as the product quality were also determined.The results showed that the when the cultivation medium contained 50% silage ramie byproducts,35% nitrogen source,67.5% moisture content,1% calcium carbonate and 1% sucrose with a 5.5 pH value,the biological efficiency of Pleurotus eryngii could reach up to 70% above; Compared with the cotton seed hulls medium cultivation,the protein content of the Pleurotus eryngii was increased by 30% and the total sugar and fat were reduced by 24% and 33%,respectively.This study demonstrated that the silage ramie byproduct should be a good raw material for Pleurotus eryngii cultivation.

  3. Mycelium growth kinetics and optimal temperature conditions for the cultivation of edible mushroom species on lignocellulosic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervakis, G; Philippoussis, A; Ioannidou, S; Diamantopoulou, P

    2001-01-01

    The influence of environmental parameters on mycelial linear growth of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, P. pulmonarius, Agrocybe aegerita, Lentinula edodes, Volvariella volvacea and Auricularia auricula-judae was determined in two different nutrient media in a wide range of temperature, forming the basis for the assessment of their temperature optima. V. volvacea grew faster at 35 degrees C, P. eryngii at 25 degrees C, P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius at 30 degrees C, A. aegerita at 25 or 30 degrees C and A. auricula-judae at 20 or 25 degrees C depending on the nutrient medium used and L. edodes at 20 or 30 degrees C depending on the strain examined. The mycelium extension rates were evaluated on seven mushroom cultivation substrates: wheat straw, cotton gin-trash, peanut shells, poplar sawdust, oak sawdust, corn cobs and olive press-cake. The mycelium extension rates (linear growth and colonization rates) were determined by the 'race-tube' technique, and were found to be the highest on cotton gin-trash, peanut shells and poplar sawdust for Pleurotus spp. and A. aegerita. Wheat straw, peanut shells and particularly cotton gin-trash supported fast growth of V. volvacea, whereas wheat straw was the most suitable substrate for L. edodes and A. auricula-judae. Supplemented oak sawdust and olive press-cake were poor substrates for most species examined, while almost all strains performed adequately on corn cobs.

  4. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushrooms in HIV-infected individuals taking antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Mary

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral treatment (ART regimens in HIV patients commonly cause significant lipid elevations, including increases in both triglycerides and cholesterol. Standard treatments for hypercholesterolemia include the HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, or "statins." Because many ART agents and statins share a common metabolic pathway that uses the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, coadministration of ART with statins could increase statin plasma levels significantly. The oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, has been shown in animal models to decrease lipid levels - a finding that has been supported by preliminary data in a small human trial. Methods To assess the safety and efficacy of P. ostreatus in patients with HIV and ART-induced hyperlipidemia, a single-arm, open-label, proof-of-concept study of 8 weeks' duration with a target enrollment of 20 subjects was conducted. Study patients with ART-induced elevated non-HDL cholesterol levels (> 160 mg/dL were enrolled. Participants received packets of freeze-dried P. ostreatus (15 gm/day to be administered orally for the 8 week trial period. Lipid levels were drawn every two weeks to assess efficacy. Safety assessments included self-reported incidence of muscle aches and measurement of liver and muscle enzymes. Mean within-person change in lipid levels were estimated using generalized estimating equations to account for repeated observations on individuals. A 30 mg/dL decrease in non-HDL cholesterol was deemed clinically significant. Results 126 patients were screened to enroll 25, of which 20 completed the 8-week study. The mean age was 46.4 years (36-60. Patients had a mean 13.7 yrs of HIV infection. Mean non-HDL cholesterol was 204.5 mg/dL at day 0 and 200.2 mg/dL at day 56 (mean within-person change = -1.70; 95% confidence interval (CI = -17.4, 14.0. HDL cholesterol levels increased from 37.8 mg/dL at day 0 to 40.4 mg/dL on day 56 (mean within-person change = 2.6; 95% CI = -0.1, 5

  5. Biology, cultivation, and medicinal functions of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum

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    Sławomir Sokół

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr. Pers. is an edible fungus of great significance in medicine. It is rarely found in Europe, in contrast, it is common in Japan and North America. Its fruitbodies have been well-known for hundreds of years in traditional Chinese medicine and cuisine. A cradle of H. erinaceum cultivation is Asia. In Eastern Europe is rare in natural habitats, but can be successfully cultivated. Both fruitbodies and mycelia are rich in active, health promoting substances. Tests of substances extracted from this mushroom carried out on animals and in vitro have given good results. They can be used in the treatment of cancer, hepatic disorders, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, wound healing. They improve cognitive abilities, support the nervous and immune systems. Promising results have been reported in clinical trials and case reports about the human treatment (e.g., recovery from schizophrenia, an improvement of the quality of sleep, alleviation of the menopause symptoms. The subject of this paper is to summarize information about the development of mycelium, the best conditions for cultivation of fruitbodies, bioactive substances and their use in medicine.

  6. [DNA quantification in nuclei of cultivated mushroom with DAPI staining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancheva, E V; Volkova, V N; Kamzolkina, O V

    2004-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach is actively cultivated amphithallic basidiomycete, in which various strains are primary homothallic, heterothallic or secondary homothallic. Countings of relative nuclear DNA content by means of DAPI stain and its comparison in different strains can help to understand the mushroom's life cycle features. The authors for the first time observed change of nuclear phases in basidia of A. bisporus strains with different types of life cycle and revealed that DNA content in diploid nuclei is about 1.3 times higher than in haploid ones. The method is highly sensitive and can be used for quantitative measurings of nuclear DNA even in objects with nuclei of about 1 mkm in diameter.

  7. The pathogenic fungi in mushroom cultivation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange. Imbach.

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    Agata Tekiela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a mushroom growing facility located near Rzeszów, consisting of three production cycles. The number and composition of microorganisms which accompany the mushroom cultivation depended on the healthiness of: the compost, casing and spawn of Agaricus bisporus. The presence of pathogenic fungi in the cultivation halls at the beginning of the production cycle is a serious threat to the cultivation of common mushroom because their rapid development shortens the span of fruiting body harvests.

  8. Viral Effects of a dsRNA Mycovirus (PoV-ASI2792) on the Vegetative Growth of the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ha-Yeon; Choi, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Hansaem; Choi, Dahye

    2016-01-01

    A double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus was detected in malformed fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus strain ASI2792, one of bottle cultivated commercial strains of the edible oyster mushroom. The partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of the P. ostreatus ASI2792 mycovirus (PoV-ASI2792) was cloned, and a cDNA sequences alignment revealed that the sequence was identical to the RdRp gene of a known PoSV found in the P. ostreatus strain. To investigate the symptoms of PoV-ASI2792 infection by comparing the isogenic virus-free P. ostreatus strains with a virus-infected strain, isogenic virus-cured P. ostreatus strains were obtained by the mycelial fragmentation method for virus curing. The absence of virus was verified with gel electrophoresis after dsRNA-specific virus purification and Northern blot analysis using a partial RdRp cDNA of PoV-ASI2792. The growth rate and mycelial dry weight of virus-infected P. ostreatus strain with PoV-ASI2792 mycovirus were compared to those of three virus-free isogenic strains on 10 different media. The virus-cured strains showed distinctly higher mycelial growth rates and dry weights on all kinds of experimental culture media, with at least a 2.2-fold higher mycelial growth rate on mushroom complete media (MCM) and Hamada media, and a 2.7-fold higher mycelial dry weight on MCM and yeastmalt-glucose agar media than those of the virus-infected strain. These results suggest that the infection of PoV mycovirus has a deleterious effect on the vegetative growth of P. ostreatus.

  9. Viral Effects of a dsRNA Mycovirus (PoV-ASI2792) on the Vegetative Growth of the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ha-Yeon; Choi, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Hansaem; Choi, Dahye; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Kim, Jung-Mi

    2016-12-01

    A double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus was detected in malformed fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus strain ASI2792, one of bottle cultivated commercial strains of the edible oyster mushroom. The partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of the P. ostreatus ASI2792 mycovirus (PoV-ASI2792) was cloned, and a cDNA sequences alignment revealed that the sequence was identical to the RdRp gene of a known PoSV found in the P. ostreatus strain. To investigate the symptoms of PoV-ASI2792 infection by comparing the isogenic virus-free P. ostreatus strains with a virus-infected strain, isogenic virus-cured P. ostreatus strains were obtained by the mycelial fragmentation method for virus curing. The absence of virus was verified with gel electrophoresis after dsRNA-specific virus purification and Northern blot analysis using a partial RdRp cDNA of PoV-ASI2792. The growth rate and mycelial dry weight of virus-infected P. ostreatus strain with PoV-ASI2792 mycovirus were compared to those of three virus-free isogenic strains on 10 different media. The virus-cured strains showed distinctly higher mycelial growth rates and dry weights on all kinds of experimental culture media, with at least a 2.2-fold higher mycelial growth rate on mushroom complete media (MCM) and Hamada media, and a 2.7-fold higher mycelial dry weight on MCM and yeastmalt-glucose agar media than those of the virus-infected strain. These results suggest that the infection of PoV mycovirus has a deleterious effect on the vegetative growth of P. ostreatus.

  10. Can consumption of antioxidant rich mushrooms extend longevity?: antioxidant activity of Pleurotus spp. and its effects on Mexican fruit flies' (Anastrepha ludens) longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José E; Jiménez-Pérez, Gabriela; Liedo, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    The variability of antioxidant capacity of 14 strains of the edible oyster mushroom Pleurotus spp. was determined, and the effect of selected mushroom supplements on the longevity of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, was evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of the fruiting bodies was determined by three different methods, measuring the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts, the OH radical scavenging capacity, and the total phenol content. The inhibition percentage of the DPPH radical varied between 32.6 and 85.7% and total phenols varied between 30.6 and 143.3 mg/g. The strains with the highest (Pleurotus djamor ECS-0142) and lowest (Pleurotus ostreatus ECS-1123) antioxidant capacity were selected to study their effect on the survival, life expectancy, and mortality of the Mexican fruit fly A. ludens. The results demonstrated differing responses between male and female flies. High concentrations of mushrooms (5 and 20%) in the diet resulted in a decrease in life expectancy. However, flies on the diet with 1% P. djamor ECS-0142 showed slightly but significantly greater survival than those on the control diet. The possible adverse effect of protein content in mushroom extracts is discussed.

  11. Impact of fungicides used for wheat treatment on button mushroom cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Potočnik; Jelena Vukojević; Mirjana Stajić; Dejana Kosanović; Emil Rekanović; Miloš Stepanović; Svetlana Milijašević-Marčić

    2012-01-01

    Little information is currently available on the potential environmental risks that fungicides applied during wheat cultivation and remaining in straw may have for mushroom production. The substrate for many cultivated mushrooms is mostly based on cereal straw. This review aimed to answer the question whether residues of the fungicides commonly used in wheat production and remaining in straw could be directly or indirectly responsible for changes in yields ...

  12. Characterization of phytase activity from cultivated edible mushrooms and their production substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collopy, Patrick D; Royse, Daniel J

    2004-12-15

    Phytase is used commercially to maximize phytic acid degradation and to decrease phosphorus levels in poultry and swine manure. To determine phytase content in edible mushrooms, basidiomata of Agaricus bisporus and three specialty mushrooms (Grifola frondosa, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus cornucopiae) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were surveyed. Enzyme activity ranged from 0.046 to 0.074 unit/g of tissue for four A. bisporus types (closed and open whites and closed and open browns) grown at The Pennsylvania State University's Mushroom Test Demonstration Facility (MTDF). The addition of various nutrient supplements to phase II mushroom production substrate did not alter phytase activity in A. bisporus. Portabella mushrooms (open brown) obtained from a commercial farm had significantly higher levels of phytase activity (0.211 unit/g of tissue) compared to A. bisporus grown at the MTDF. Of the specialty mushrooms surveyed, maitake (G. frondosa) had 20% higher phytase activity (0.287 unit/g of tissue) than commercial portabella mushrooms. The yellow oyster mushroom (P. cornucopiae) ranked second in level of phytase activity (0.213 unit/g of tissue). Shiitake (L. edodes) contained the least amount of phytase in basidiomata (0.107 unit/g of tissue). Post-crop steam treatment (60 degrees C, 24 h) of SMS reduced phytase activity from 0.074 to 0.018 unit/g. Phytase was partially purified from commercially grown portabella basidiomata 314-fold with an estimated molecular mass of 531 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. The optimum pH for activity was 5.5, but appreciable phytase activity was observed over the range of pH 5.0-8.0. Partially purified A. bisporus phytase was inactivated following a 10-min incubation at > or =60 degrees C.

  13. 安康杏鲍菇营养成分的测定与分析%Determination and analysis of the nutrients of Pleurotus eryngii cultivated in Ankang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳; 徐晖

    2015-01-01

    依据国标分析法,采用原子荧光分光光度计、凯氏定氮仪等仪器,对安康工厂化栽培的杏鲍菇主要营养物质及其微量元素含量进行初步测定与分析。结果表明:安康杏鲍菇还原糖、多糖、粗蛋白、脂肪、灰分、水分含量分别为42.52%、4.38%、46.58%、3.2%、4.50%、87.63%;微量元素Se、Fe、Ca、Mg、Zn和Cu 的含量分别为0.2166、178.6、757.6、1065.4、39.75、10.5 mg/kg。上述测定结果初步表明,安康工厂化栽培的杏鲍菇具有富硒、蛋白质、多糖等营养成分全面且含量高的特点,属于营养丰富的优质食用菌品种。%According to the national standard analysis method , the nutritional values of dietary mush-rooms-pleurotus eryngii by industrial cultivation in Ankang were determined and analyzed by atomic fluores-cence spectrophotometer , kjeldahl total nitrogen apparatus and so on .The data showed the reducing sugar , polysaccharides, crude protein, lipid, ash, moisture contained in these mushrooms were respectively 42.52%, 4.38%, 46.58%, 3.2%, 4.50%, 87.63%; and these mushrooms were rich in trace elements such as Se(0.216 6 mg/kg), Fe(178.6 mg/kg), Ca(757.6 mg/kg), Mg(1 065.4 mg/kg ), Zn(39.75 mg/kg) and Cu (10.5 mg/kg).The preliminary results indicated the mushrooms-pleurotus eryngii by industrial cultivation are rich in selenium , protein , polysaccharides and other nutrition ingredients , which belongs to the high-quality nutritious edible fungi species .

  14. Effect of Calcinated Oyster Shell Powder on Growth, Yield, Spawn Run, and Primordial Formation of King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Eryngii

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    Young-Chan Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the calcium (Ca absorption efficacy of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii grown on sawdust medium supplemented with Ca-sources, including oyster shell powder, and to determine the efficacy of oyster shell powder as a calcium supplement on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial formation of P. eryngii. Optimum calcination of oyster shell powder was achieved at the temperature of 620.56 °C. A 1% supplementation of oyster shell powder in sawdust medium did not suppress the mycelial growth of P. eryngii. Also the supplementation of 2% calcinated oyster shell powder to sawdust medium potentially increased the calcium content up to a level of 315.7 ± 15.7 mg/100 g in the fruiting body of P. eryngii, without extension of duration of spawn run and the retardation of the days to primordial formation. These results suggest that the shellfish by-products, including oyster shell powder, can be utilized to develop calcium enriched king oyster mushrooms.

  15. Effect of calcinated oyster shell powder on growth, yield, spawn run, and primordial formation of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kim, Young-Chan

    2011-03-10

    This study was conducted to evaluate the calcium (Ca) absorption efficacy of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) grown on sawdust medium supplemented with Ca-sources, including oyster shell powder, and to determine the efficacy of oyster shell powder as a calcium supplement on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial formation of P. eryngii. Optimum calcination of oyster shell powder was achieved at the temperature of 620.56 °C. A 1% supplementation of oyster shell powder in sawdust medium did not suppress the mycelial growth of P. eryngii. Also the supplementation of 2% calcinated oyster shell powder to sawdust medium potentially increased the calcium content up to a level of 315.7 ± 15.7 mg/100 g in the fruiting body of P. eryngii, without extension of duration of spawn run and the retardation of the days to primordial formation. These results suggest that the shellfish by-products, including oyster shell powder, can be utilized to develop calcium enriched king oyster mushrooms.

  16. Toxic and lethal effects of ostreolysin, a cytolytic protein from edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzek, Monika Cecilija; Macek, Peter; Sepcić, Kristina; Cestnik, Vojteh; Frangez, Robert

    2006-09-01

    Ostreolysin (Oly), an acidic, 15 kDa protein from the edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), is a toxic, pore-forming cytolysin. In this paper, its toxic properties have been studied in rodents and the LD(50) in mice shown to be 1170 microg/kg. Electrocardiogram, arterial blood pressure and respiratory activity were recorded under general anaesthesia, in intact, pharmacologically vagotomised and artificially respirated rats injected with one mouse LD(50). A few seconds after intravenous Oly injection, a transient increase in arterial blood pressure was recorded, followed by a progressive fall to mid-circulatory pressure accompanied by bradicardia, myocardial ischaemia and ventricular extrasystoles. Similar changes produced by Oly were observed in vagotomised and artificially respirated animals, indicating that vagotomy and hypoxia play no primary role in toxicity. Oly induced lysis of rat erythrocytes in vitro, and probably also in vivo as indicated by the increase in serum potassium. Although direct action of the protein on the cardiomyocytes or heart circulation cannot be excluded, the hyperkalaemia resulting from the haemolytic activity probably plays an important role in its toxicity. The lethality and cardiorespiratory toxic action of Oly are thus shown to be candidates for the cause of the recorded adverse effects of oyster mushroom.

  17. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-07-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), laminated aluminum foil (LAF), high density polyethylene under vacuum (HDPEV) were stored at freezing (0°C) temperatures for 12 weeks. Samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analyzed for proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture), mineral content (calcium, potassium), vitamin C content, and microbiological qualities (total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, Coliform count, Staphylococcal count, Salmonella count) using the standard laboratory procedures. Carbohydrate, protein, fat content of dried mushrooms packaged in HDPE at freezing temperature ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.0% to 20.3%, and 3.2% to 4.3%, while mushrooms in polypropylene ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.5% to 20.3%, 2.6% to 4.3%. Carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in LAF ranged from 47.8% to 53.5%, 17.3% to 20.3%, and 3.3% to 4.3%, respectively, while carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in HDPEV ranged from 51.1% to 53.5%, 19.5% to 20.3%, and 3.5% to 4.3%. Microbiological analysis showed that total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, and Staphyloccocal count of dried mushroom ranged from 2.3 to 3.8 log cfu/g, 0.6 to 1.1 log cfu/g, and 0.4 to 0.5 log cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, dried mushroom in HDPE packaged under vacuum at freezing temperature retained the nutritional constituents than those packaged with other packaging materials.

  18. Antimicrobial activity and mineral composition of shiitake mushrooms cultivated on agricultural waste

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    Kérley Braga Pereira Bento Casaril

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity and mineral composition of shiitake mushrooms were evaluated in four isolates of Lentinula edodes. Mushrooms were cultivated on artificial logs, based on eucalyptus sawdust enriched with 20% rice, wheat, or soybean bran, or combination of 10% of two of these supplements. The substrates were humidified with a 0.1% mate tea extract or water. Logs of Eucalyptus grandis were also used to cultivate the shiitake mushrooms. The antimicrobial activity of an aqueous extract, corresponding to 40 mg of mushroom dry matter, was in some cases, depending on the isolate, able to inhibit both Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli K-12, independent of substrate composition or the growth stage of the mushrooms. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium concentrations varied according to the substrate on which the mushrooms were cultivated, being, generally, higher with cultivation on artificial rather than natural eucalyptus logs. It could be concluded that, in addition to the fungal isolate, substrate composition and, processing methods must be considered during the production of antimicrobial substance(s as well as in the mushroom nutritional composition.

  19. Identification of three differentially expressed hydrophobins in Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asgeirsdottir, S.A; de Vries, O.M H; Wessels, J.G H

    1998-01-01

    Three proteins with characteristic features of class I hydrophobins, designated POH1, POH2 and POH3, were isolated from the basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus. Based on N-terminal sequence analyses, their cDNAs were isolated using RT-PCR; the cDNAs and corresponding genes were sequenced and their

  20. Identification of three differentially expressed hydrophobins in Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asgeirsdottir, S.A; de Vries, O.M H; Wessels, J.G H

    1998-01-01

    Three proteins with characteristic features of class I hydrophobins, designated POH1, POH2 and POH3, were isolated from the basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus. Based on N-terminal sequence analyses, their cDNAs were isolated using RT-PCR; the cDNAs and corresponding genes were sequenced and their reg

  1. Effect on the Nutritional Value of Some Cultivated Mushroom Species of Various Agricultural Waste Materials

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    Sevda Kırbağ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study; The nutritional composition and element contents of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.ex.Fr kum., Pleurotus florida fovose, P. sajor-caju (Fr. Singer, which grown on some various agro-wastes were determined. Mushroom species. contained that 86.6-91.7% dry matter, moisture 8.3-13.4%, 26.3-39.3% crude protein, 0.5-4.5% crude fat, 4.4-7.8% crude ash, 34.2-48.9% nitrogen-free extract substances, and it was found that the change of element content. The highest protein content was determined in BC environment that the culture of P. sajor-caju as % 39.3, and in B growing medium that the culture of P. ostreatus was determined as 36.4%

  2. Biological efficiency and nutritional value of Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated on spent beer grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Sakoda, A; Suzuki, M

    2001-07-01

    Unpretreated spent beer grains were successfully used as a basic substrate material for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus. The effects of spent grain types, additives, substrate moisture content, and substrate packing density on the yield and nutrition of fruit bodies were investigated. The cultivation results showed that few fruit bodies were formed on spent grain alone; however, a significantly high biological efficiency (19.1%) was obtained with the addition of wheat bran to (45%). The chemical analysis of fruit bodies indicated that P. ostreatus cultivated on spent grain substrate had a higher nutritional value than those grown on other reported types of substrates. The total amino acid content in the fruit bodies was 347.5 mg/g dry matter, and the crude protein content was as high as 53.3% on a dry weight basis. It was also found that the cultivation of P. ostreatus increased the crude protein content, while it decreased the ratio of lignin to cellulose, of the spent grain substrate.

  3. The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Champignon) and some environmental and health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as button mushroom, requires the use of substrates for its cultivation, such as chicken and/or horse manure and the application of manufacturing steps, such as storage and composting that produce odours. The odours may cause disturbance to people living near the plant and may be a problem for workers. This article examines some measures that can be taken to reduce the odorous emissions during the production of Agaricus bisporus. The possibility of recovery of some organic matter left from the cultivation is examined. Finally, some occupational hazards for workers are highlighted.

  4. Dose- and time-dependent hypocholesterolemic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, P; Ozdín, L; Galbavý, S

    1998-03-01

    The effect of the dose of oyster mushroom in the diet (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0%) and of the period of application (8, 16, 28, and 52 wk) on cholesterol accumulation in blood and body organs was studied in weanling male Wistar rats fed a diet containing 0.3% cholesterol. Reduction of cholesterol in serum and body organs was found to be dependent on the amount of dietary oyster mushroom administered. A negative correlation between the mushroom dose and cholesterol level was found after 8 and 28 wk of feeding (r=-0.9821 and -0.9803, respectively; P < 0.02 for both cases). The dose of 1% oyster mushroom did not affect cholesterol levels in serum or body organs. A significant reduction of cholesterol levels was observed in serum (31-46%) and liver (25-30%) at a dose of 5% of oyster mushroom for all periods. Reduced cholesterol content in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) was also observed at this level. The highest dose of oyster mushroom induced a decrease in conjugated diene levels in erythrocytes and an increase in the levels of reduced glutathione in the liver and stimulated the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the liver in the final period of the experiment.

  5. Morphological and molecular identification of four Brazilian commercial isolates of Pleurotus spp. and cultivation on corncob

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Menolli Junior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The species of Pleurotus have great commercial importance and adaptability for growth and fructification within a wide variety of agro-industrial lignocellulosic wastes. In this study, two substrates prepared from ground corncobs supplemented with rice bran and charcoal were tested for mycelium growth kinetics in test tubes and for the cultivation of four Pleurotus commercial isolates in polypropylene bags. The identification of the isolates was based on the morphology of the basidiomata obtained and on sequencing of the LSU rDNA gene. Three isolates were identified as P. ostreatus, and one was identified as P. djamor. All isolates had better in-depth mycelium development in the charcoal-supplemented substrate. In the cultivation experiment, the isolates reacted differently to the two substrates. One isolate showed particularly high growth on the substrate containing charcoal.Espécies de Pleurotus têm grande importância comercial e adaptabilidade para crescimento e frutificação em uma ampla variedade de resíduos agro-industriais lignocelulósicos. Neste trabalho foram testados dois substratos à base de sabugo de milho triturado, suplementados com farelo de arroz e carvão vegetal, para avaliação da cinética de crescimento micelial em tubos de ensaio e produção em sacos de polipropileno, utilizando quatro isolados comerciais. O estudo taxonômico foi realizado com a análise da morfologia dos basidiomas obtidos em cultivo e pelo seqüenciamento do gene nLSU do DNAr, para certificar a identificação taxonômica. Os isolados tiveram melhor desenvolvimento micelial em profundidade no substrato suplementado com carvão vegetal. Em relação à produção, os isolados reagiram de formas distintas em função dos substratos, sendo significativamente melhor o substrato contendo carvão. Três isolados foram identificados como P. ostreatus e o outro foi identificado como P. djamor.

  6. Yield, mushroom size and time to production of Pleurotus cornucopiae (oyster mushroom) grown on switch grass substrate spawned and supplemented at various rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royse, D J; Rhodes, T W; Ohga, S; Sanchez, J E

    2004-01-01

    To find a cost effective alternative substrate, Pleurotus cornucopiae 608 (yellow basidiomata) was grown on: (1) chopped, pasteurized switch grass (Panicum virgatum, 99%) with 1% ground limestone and (2) a mixture of pasteurized cottonseed hulls (75% dry wt.), 24% chopped wheat straw, and 1% ground limestone (all ingredients wt./wt.). The substrates were spawned at various levels (2.5%, 3.75% or 5% wet wt., crop I) and non-supplemented or supplemented with commercial delayed release nutrient (Campbell's S-41) at various levels (0%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, 6%, 7.5% and 9% dry wt., crop II). Maximum yield (weight of fresh mushrooms harvested at maturity) was obtained on cottonseed hull/wheat straw substrate at a 3.75-5% spawn level and 6% S-41 supplement. On switch grass substrate, increasing spawn levels and supplement levels stimulated yields in a linear fashion. However, maximum yields were only 46% or less for those of similar treatments on cottonseed hull/wheat straw substrate. Yields were three times higher on switch grass that was harvested after the grass had senesced (winter; beige color) compared to material that was harvested when the grass was green (summer; time of flowering). Additional physical processing of the material, such as milling, may improve yield potential of this material.

  7. Effect of storage conditions on the quality of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of quality factors were studied during storage of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus at 2°C in controlled atmospheres. A concentration of 15% CO2 and 1.5-2% O2 and an atmosphere with a continuous flow of nitrogen retarded cap expansion and stipe elongation, while 10% CO2 retarded only cap expansion. Controlled atmospheres suppressed the growth of some microorganisms. The toughness of mushrooms stored in a normal atmosphere at 2°C markedly decreased during storage, while 10% CO2 and nitrogen atmosphere did not influence toughness as compared to initial mushrooms. The acceptability value of mushrooms in controlled atmospheres was lower during 13 days of storage as compared to normal atmosphere. Normal atmosphere appeared to keep whiteness of mushrooms longer than did other treatments.

  8. Screening of beta-glucan contents in commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Miriam; Prange, Alexander; Lelley, Jan I; Hambitzer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps.

  9. 稻草、茭白鞘叶栽培凤尾菇试验研究%Pleurotus sajor-caju experiments cultivation of rice straw and sheathing leaf of zizania latifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎锡海; 罗四英

    2014-01-01

    传统的凤尾菇栽培料主要成分是木屑,试验采用稻草、茭白鞘叶代替部分木屑栽培凤尾菇,用不同的栽培料配方栽培凤尾菇,共设置7个试验组,以传统培养料配方为对照组( CK)。通过对菌丝生长、子实体生长和产量等指标的考察,分析不同配方对凤尾菇生长的影响。结果表明:试验组中配料以木屑、稻草、茭白鞘叶以合适比例混合为基料时,凤尾菇产量最好,生物学效率最高为32.24%。%Pleurotus sajor-caju is nutritious and delicious .Its is a kind of mushroom welcomed by peo-ple.In this experiment , rice straw and zizania sheathing leaf are used to take place of sawdust to cultivate the Pleurotus sajor-caju.We set 7 experiment groups using different cultivating materials .and set traditional culti-vating experiment as control group ( CK) .We analyzed the influence of different cultivating material by record-ing the growing of mycelium and sporocarp .The result shows:group G properly mixed materials of sawdust , pleurotus sajor-caju and sheathing leaves of zizania latifolia is best suitable for growing sporocarp ,with biotrans-formation efficiency of group H being 32 .24%.

  10. Screening of antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of some edible mushrooms cultivated in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammed; Kubra, Khadizatul; Ahmed, Sheikh

    2015-02-07

    For a long time mushrooms have been playing an important role in several aspects of the human activity. Recently edible mushrooms are used extensively in cooking and make part of new food in Bangladesh for their beneficial properties. The aim of this study is to screen some values of mushrooms used in Bangladesh. Methanolic extracts of 3 edible mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes, Hypsizigus tessulatus) isolated from Chittagong, Bangladesh were used in this study. Phenolic compounds in the mushroom methanolic extracts were estimated by a colorimetric assay. The antioxidant activity was determined by radical 1, 1-diphenyl;-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Eight microbial isolates were used for antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of mushrooms by the agar well diffusion method with slight modification. Determination of antimicrobial activity indicated considerable activity against all bacteria and fungi reveling zone of inhibition ranged from 7 ± 0.2 to 20 ± 0.1 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of the extracts showed that they are also active even in least concentrations ranged from 1 mg/ml to 9 mg/ml. Lentinula edodes showed the best antimicrobial activity than others. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was quite resistant and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was more sensitive than others microbial isolates. Antioxidant efficiency by inhibitory concentration on 1,1-Diphenly-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was found significant when compared to standard antioxidant like ascorbic Acid . The concentration (IC50) ranged from 100 ± 1.20 to 110 ± 1.24 μg/ml. Total phenols are the major bioactive component found in extracts of isolates expressed as mg of GAE per gram of fruit body, which ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 to 10.66 ± 0.52 mg/ml. Average concentration of flavonoid ranged from 2.50 ± 0.008 mg/ml to 4.76 ± 0.11 mg/ml; followed by very small concentration of ascorbic acid (range, 0.06 ± 0.00 mg/ml to 0

  11. The relationship between lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase production capacities and cultivation periods of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian Z; Zhang, Jun L; Hu, Kai H; Zhang, Wei G

    2013-05-01

    Mushrooms are able to secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), and able to use the cellulose as sources of carbon. This article focuses on the relation between peroxidase-secreting capacity and cultivation period of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Methylene blue and methyl catechol qualitative assay and spectrophotometry quantitative assay show LiP secreting unvaryingly accompanies the MnP secreting in mushroom strains. The growth rates of hyphae are detected by detecting the dry hyphal mass. We link the peroxidase activities to growth rate of mushrooms and then probe into the relationship between them. The results show that there are close relationships between LiP- and/or MnP-secretory capacities and the cultivation periods of mushrooms. The strains with high LiP and MnP activities have short cultivation periods. However, those strains have long cultivation periods because of the low levels of secreted LiP and/or MnP, even no detectable LiP and/or MnP activity. This study provides the first evidence on the imitate relation between the level of secreted LiP and MnP activities and cultivation periods of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Our study has significantly increased the understanding of the role of LiP and MnP in the growth and development of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. © 2012 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Utilización de Residuos Forestales Lignocelulósicos para Producción del Hongo Ostra (Pleurotus ostreatus Use of Lignocellulosic Forest Residues for Oyster Mushroom Production (Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T Varnero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el potencial de distintos residuos forestales como sustrato para el cultivo del hongo Pleurotus ostreatus. Para ello, se analizó la composición química de estos residuos, antes y después de la etapa de cosecha, y se midieron distintas variables fenológicas y morfológicas así como el rendimiento y la calidad de los cuerpos fructíferos de Pleurotus ostreatus tras la cosecha. Se fijaron cuatro tratamientos: astillas de álamo, astillas de eucalipto, mezcla de paja de trigo y eucalipto, y paja de trigo como testigo. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que todos los sustratos, principalmente paja de trigo y mezcla paja de trigo más eucalipto son aptos para el cultivo de Pleurotus ostreatus. El nivel proteico de este hongo fue elevado en todos los sustratos y la relación carbono/nitrógeno de los mismos disminuyó después de cosecha.Organic waste resulting from the forest practices, containing lignocellulosic carbon sources, was used in the production of the mushroom specie Pleurotus ostreatus. For this, the chemical composition before and after harvest were analyzed, the phenological and morphological variables were determined and yield and quality of harvested fruit bodies also determined. Four treatments were performed: chips of poplars, chips of eucalyptus, a mixture of wheat straw and eucalyptus, and wheat straw as witness. The results showed that all substrates, especially wheat straw and wheat straw with eucalyptus, are suitable for the production of Pleurotus ostreatus. This species showed a high protein level in all the studied substrates, and the ratio carbon/nitrogen decreased after harvest.

  13. Impact of Fungicides Used for Wheat Treatment on Button Mushroom Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information is currently available on the potential environmental risks that fungicides applied during wheat cultivation and remaining in straw may have for mushroom production. The substrate for many cultivated mushrooms is mostly based on cereal straw. This review aimed to answer the question whether residues of the fungicides commonly used in wheat production and remaining in straw could be directly or indirectly responsible for changes in yields of Agaricus bisporus. Potential chemical risks of eight fungicides (for wheat treatments for A. bisporus: mancozeb, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl,carbendazim+cyproconazole, carbedazim+flusilasole, captan, chlorothalonil and trifloxystrobinare disscused. Only the value of maximum residue level of flusilasole and its formulation was evaluated as higher than medium effective concentration of the fungicide for A.bisporus. As a conclusion, flusilazole treatment could be a limiting factor for using straw for composting and mushroom cultivation.

  14. Reduction of energy use in mushroom cultivation; Reductie energiegebruik in de champignonteelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baar, J.; Amsing, J.G.M.; Rutjens, A.J.

    2005-01-15

    The aim of this project was to examine options for reducing energy use in mushroom cultivation. The project focused particularly on the reduction of energy use in making the mushrooms disease-free through use of steam prior to the next cultivation round. To this end, various methods were examined that could lead to a 50% energy use reduction for mushroom cultivation, or higher [Dutch] Het doel van dit project was om te onderzoeken welke mogelijkheden er zijn om het energiegebruik in de teelt van champignons te verminderen. Met name richtte het project zich op de reductie van het energiegebruik bij het ziektevrij maken van de teeltcellen door stomen voorafgaande aan de volgende teelt. Hiertoe werden diverse methoden onderzocht die kunnen leiden tot een reductie van het energieverbruik van 50% of meer voor de champignonteelt.

  15. SEMI-SOLID FERMENTATION OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Szabová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Four strains of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus KBB, M1, S1, T1, were cultivated on lignocellulosis wastes such as wheat straw and cornstalks separately or in combination 1:1. The aim of this work was to choose the best substrate for individual strain of mushroom based on the growth characteristics and yield. Cultivation was realised in polyethylene bags and plastic containers at the temperature 22 ± 1 oC, low concentration of carbon dioxide, high air humidity 85 – 90% and sufficient lighting. Cultivation in polyethylene (PE bags was at all strains more effective. There were achieved higher yields of fruiting bodies and lower time of colonization of substrate compared with cultivation in plastic containers.

  16. A study of mechanisms responsible for incorporation of cesium and radiocesium into fruitbodies of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, Grazyna [Isotope Laboratory, Faculty of Biology, Warsaw University, 02-096 Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1 (Poland)], E-mail: byst@biol.uw.edu.pl; Bazala, Michal A. [Isotope Laboratory, Faculty of Biology, Warsaw University, 02-096 Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1 (Poland)

    2008-07-15

    Ex vitro cultures of Pleurotus eryngii were carried out under controlled conditions using sterile medium composed of barley seeds. The influence of alkali and alkaline earth element salts (CsCl, KCl, NaCl, RbCl, and CaCl{sub 2}) and tetraethylammonium chloride on incorporation of cesium, potassium, sodium, rubidium and calcium, and their distribution within fruitbodies, was examined. The results show that incorporation of cesium into fruitbodies was not suppressed by Na{sup +} and Rb{sup +} or tetraethylammonium chloride. However, it was inhibited by Ca{sup 2+} and stimulated by high concentrations of K{sup +}. The inhibition of cesium incorporation by Ca{sup 2+}, lack of influence of tetraethylammonium chloride and stimulation by high K{sup +} concentrations suggest that there may exist two pathways of passive transport of cesium in mycelium: (i) uptake mediated by a non-specific potassium channel localised in plasmalemma (similar to voltage-insensitive cation channel, VICC) followed by diffusive transport inside hyphae and (ii) extracellular transport from the medium through inter-hyphal cavities into fruitbodies. The results highlight distinctiveness of mechanisms responsible for the uptake and incorporation of cesium in mushrooms and plants.

  17. Evaluation of the analgesic activity of ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts ofPleurotus eous mushroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuseemSR; Mary SaralA; NeelakandaReddy P; MarslinGregory

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the analgesic activity of the ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of Pleurotus eous (P. eous) mushroom.Methods:The dried fruiting bodies were extracted with ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The analgesic effect of extracts ofP. eous were investigated at doses 250 500 and1 000 mg/kg body weight, using acetic-acid induced writhing, hot-plate, tail immersion and tail-clip tests.Results:P. eous extracts produced significant reduction in number of writhes induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic-acid(P<0.05). Moreover, in hot-plate and tail immersion test, all the three extracts significantly raised the pain threshold at different time of observation (0-60 min) in comparison with control (P<0.05). In tail-clip test the extracts also caused a significant inhibition of pain at both the doses used (P<0.05).Conclusions:The results of present study suggest that extracts ofP. eous possess potent analgesic property and could serve as a base for future drugs.

  18. Characterization and immunomodulatory effects of glucans from Pleurotus albidus, a promising species of mushroom for farming and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alves, Victor Costa; Gomes, Daniel; Menolli, Nelson; Sforça, Maurício Luís; Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira do

    2017-02-01

    Polysaccharides from a number of mushroom species are recognized as functional food ingredients with potential health benefits, including immunomodulatory effects. In this study, polysaccharides extracted from the basidiome with cold water (BaCW), hot water (BaHW), and hot alkali (BaHA) solution, and exo- (MyEX) and endopolysaccharides (MyEN) from the submerged culture of Pleurotus albidus, a promising species for farming and biomass production, were analyzed for their chemical composition and structure and immunomodulatory effects on macrophages. Compositional (HPAEC-PAD and HPSEC-RID/MWD) and structural (FT-IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR) analyses identified BaCW and MyEX as β-(1,6)-branched β-(1,3)-glucans, BaHW and MyEN as α-(1,3)-(1,2)-branched α-(1,6)-glucans, and BaHA as a mixture of α-(1,6)- and β-(1,3)-glucans. BaCW and MyEX stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO), but not interleukin-6 (IL-6), and decreased phagocytosis of zymosan particles. In contrast, BaHW and MyEN induced TNF-α, NO and IL-6 production, and increased zymosan phagocytosis, while BaHA displayed intermediary effects in comparison the other polysaccharides. In conclusion, the basidiome and the submerged culture of P. albidus are sources of easily extractable α- and β-glucans with potential immunomodulatory effects.

  19. Assessing the potential of mushroom cultivation in improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Agricultural technology, Market for mushrooms, Uganda. Introduction. Kabale is one of ... would reduce pressure on land, increase farmers' incomes and improve food security. ..... sales and yield were scarcely available. However, an attempt.

  20. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... biological efficiency of the three Tanzanian wild edible mushrooms, Coprinus ..... chloride pipe (Simba Plastics, Dar es Salaam), were 2.5 cm height ... other hand, the layer spawning method was employed for C. cinereus.

  1. Nutritional quality of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Ostreatus) as affected by osmotic pretreatments and drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolera, Kumela D; Abera, Solomon

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of osmotic pretreatments prior to drying and different drying methods on nutritional quality of dried mushroom slices. The experiment consisted of sun, solar, and oven drying after dipping the slices in salt solutions of 5 and 10% concentrations for 50 minutes, the control being untreated mushroom sample. Significant differences in proximate composition were observed between the fresh and dried mushroom samples. The average mean value of crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash, and carbohydrates of the fresh mushroom samples were 28.85, 2.47, 12.87, 9.76 and 48.16% as compared to 25.91, 2.18, 10.41, 10.91 and 42.14% for dried samples. Oven drying resulted in higher content of ash (11.06%) and carbohydrates (43.64%) and lower contents of crude protein (24.99%), crude fat (2.12%), and crude fiber (10.21%). The osmotic pretreatments significantly affected the composition of the dried mushroom samples. As salt concentration increased from 0 to 5 and 10%, the protein content reduced from 26.78 to 25.99 and 24. 95%, the fat reduced from 2.42 to 2.19 and 1.94, and fiber from 12.82 to 9.41 and 9.01%, respectively. Contrarily, the ash increased from 9.75 to 12.20%, and the carbohydrate from 38.16 to 43.08 and 45.18%, respectively.

  2. Ligninolytic enzymes activities of Oyster mushrooms cultivated on OMW (olive mill waste) supplemented media, spawn and substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Rodrigues, A.; Polonia, I.; Soler-Rivas, C.; Wichers, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ligninolytic enzymes activities (laccases, peroxidases (total, MnP and MiP) and aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO)) were measured during the cultivation of six commercial Pleurotus sp. strains on MMP media, on cereal grains (spawn) and on straw substrates (the three commonly utilized cultivation steps to ob

  3. Determination of Lovastatin, β-glucan, Total Polyphenols, and Antioxidant Activity in Raw and Processed Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yu Shan; Okello, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify a number of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus. Ostreatus, and characterize the effects of processing, such as blanching, on these outcomes. Dry matter content was 8%. Lovastatin was not detected in this study. β-glucan content of 23.9% and total polyphenol content of 487.12 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g of dry matter were obtained in raw P. ostreatus. Antioxidant activities as evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays in raw P. ostreatus were 14.46, 16.51, and 11.21 µmol/g, respectively. Blanching did not significantly affect β-glucan content but caused significant decrease in dry matter content, polyphenol content, and antioxidant activities. Mushroom rolls produced from blanched mushrooms and blanching water contained significantly higher amounts of β-glucan, total polyphenol content, and FRAP antioxidant activity compared to blanched mushrooms. In conclusion, P. ostreatus is a good source for β-glucan, dietary polyphenols, and antioxidants. Although the blanching process could affect these properties, re-addition of the blanching water during the production process of mushroom rolls could potentially recover these properties and is therefore recommended.

  4. Feasibility Study on Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Inha

    2013-12-15

    This report on the 'Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation' is belonged to the final report on the preliminary study of the first subject in 2013 for civilian project. This was complimented on the responsible of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for 1{sup st} of June 2013 to 30{sup th} of November 2013. We are going to make sterilization the badge using the gamma ray and supplying the oxygen by nano-bubble oxygen rich water for cultivating the Matsutake Mushroom, instead of the conventional process of sterilization of the badge by hot steam over 120 .deg. C consuming over 8 hours and expensive ventilation system for supplying the fresh air for delivering the oxygen.

  5. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus reduces secretion and accelerates the fractional turnover rate of very-low-density lipoproteins in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, P; Kuniak, L; Ozdín, L

    1993-01-01

    In male rats fed a diet containing 1.5% cholesterol and 5% of dried mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) a significantly reduced accumulation of cholesterol in serum (by 45%) and the liver (by 15%) was observed at the end of the 12th week of the experiment. The decrease in serum cholesterol level by more than 90% is a consequence of the decreased cholesterol concentration of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and of low-density lipoproteins. Consumption of P. ostreatus reduces the total VLDL entry into the circulation by 19% and accelerates (by 49%) fractional turnover rate of VLDL.

  6. A Proinflammatory Effect of the β-Glucan from Pleurotus cornucopiae Mushroom on Macrophage Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichiro Minato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PCPS from P. citrinopileatus mushroom extract is a β-1,6-glucan possessing a proinflammatory effect on innate immune cells. The PCPS stimulated THP-1 macrophages to secrete significant levels of TNF. Moreover, the mRNA expressions of TNF and IL-1β were significantly enhanced by PCPS treatment. However, the PCPS did not induce to express both IL-12 and IL-10 mRNA in the macrophages. Next, the P. cornucopiae extract (containing mainly PCPS treatment against mice showed significant increases in TNF and IL-1β mRNA expressions in the peritoneal macrophages of them. In this study, the expression levels of IFNγ mRNA in the spleen were almost the same between the extract- (PCPS- treated group and control group. However, the expression of IL-4 mRNA showed a lower level in the extract-treated group than that in the control. Our results suggested that the PCPS could induce proinflammatory action in the immune response. In addition, the proinflammatory effect of the PCPS on THP-1 was enhanced by 5′-GMP-Na, while it was reduced by vitamin D2. These two compounds are majorly contained in the P. citrinopileatus mushroom. Therefore, these results suggested that the P. citrinopileatus mushroom might contain other immune regulative compounds, such as vitamin D2, as well as PCPS.

  7. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  8. 利用沼渣栽培白黄侧耳初探%Cultivation of Pleurotus cornucopiae Using Biogas Production Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海龙; 吕贝贝; 谭琦; 尚晓冬; 宋春艳; 章炉军; 张美彦; 李国贤

    2014-01-01

    以沼气发酵的废弃物---沼渣为试验材料,白黄侧耳(Pleurotus cornucopiae)2026为供试菌株,研究不同比例沼渣和玉米芯培养料中白黄侧耳的生长情况。试验结果表明:在供试配比范围内,随着沼渣添加量的增加,白黄侧耳菌丝生长速度呈增加的趋势;子实体产量呈现先增加后降低的趋势。其中试验配方3(40%沼渣,40%玉米芯,13%麸皮,5%玉米粉,2%石膏,含水量60%)用于栽培白黄侧耳,菌丝生长速度快,产量(每袋278.27 g)和生物转化率(69.57%)较高,并且子实体中镉、汞、铅、砷的含量远低于国家对食用菌中重金属含量的要求。%Biogas production residue (BPR)was prepared from cow house bedding (consisting of rice straw spread to 70-80 cm thickness in winter and 50 cm during other seasons,and covered with sawdust to a thickness of 15-20 cm)by adding 8%-9% water after 5-7 days,allowing fermentation to proceed at 35 ℃ for 20 days to produce biogas,and separating the residue from the fermentation liquor using a solid-liquid separator.The effects of replacing the sawdust and corn cob components of a substrate used for cultivating Pleurotus cornucopiae with different amounts of BGR (moisture content ~40%)on mycelial growth and mushroom fruit body yields was then determined.High mycelial growth rates (0.49 cm/d),fruit body yields (278.3 g per bag)and biological efficiency values (69.6%)were achieved following cultivation on a substrate consisting of 40% biogas residue,40% corn cobs,13% wheat bran,5% corn powder and 2% gypsum. Germanium,mercury,cadmium and selenium levels in the cultivated fruit bodies were below the allowable upper limits of heavy metal contamination set by the national food safety standards.

  9. Identification and Control of Cladobotryum spp., Causal Agents of Cobeweb Disease of Cultivated Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cladobotryum spp. are causal agents of cobweb disease, one of the most serious diseases of cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach in Serbia and worldwide, which affects product quality and yield. The disease symptoms are: cottony fluffy white oryellowish to pink colonies on mushroom casing, rapid colonization of casing surface, covering of host basidiomata by mycelia, and their decay. Prochloraz-Mn has been officially recommended for mushroom cultivation in EU countries. However, inefficiency of prochloraz-Mn has been noted at a level of spotting symptoms of cobweb disease. With regard to cases of resistance evolution and a general threat to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on good programmes of hygiene, and inventing and developing alternative methods of disease control.

  10. Failure of the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) to induce tumors in the A/J mouse lung tumor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten; Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1997-01-01

    We studied whether the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) or 4-(carboxy)phenylhydrazine (CP) induce lung adenomas in the A/J mouse lung tumor model. For 26 weeks female mice were fed a semisynthetic diet where 11 or 22% of the diet was replaced by freeze-dried mushrooms. The intake...... of the mushroom diets was equivalent to an intake of agaritine, the major phenylhydrazine derivative occurring in the mushroom, of 92 or 166 mg/kg body weight per day. The intake of CP was 106 mg/kg body weight per day. Neither the;freeze-dried mushroom nor CP induced statistically significant increased numbers...

  11. Proteomic insights into the stimulatory effect of Tween 80 on mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production of an edible mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-Bo; Chen, Lei; Cheung, Peter C K

    2012-10-01

    Proteomic analysis was applied to investigate the mechanism of the stimulatory effect of Tween 80 on the mycelial growth and exopolysaccharide production by an edible mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium. 32 differentially expressed proteins were identified by one-dimension gel electrophoresis. Combined with our previous findings, the up-regulation of heat shock proteins might help to maintain cellular viability under environmental stress. The up-regulation of ATP:citrate lyase isoform 2 could suppress the activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle and, consequently, stimulate exopolysaccharide production. The present results provide important insight to the mechanism by which stimulatory agents (Tween 80) can increase the production of useful fungal metabolites and also fill the gap of our knowledge on the under-developed mushroom proteomics.

  12. nutritional profile and yield of oyster mushroom cultivated on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Research on mushroom production and products is gaining more grounds globally and in particular Nigeria. This ... bodies, the highest fat content being on plantain leaves (1.72 g 100 g-1) and the ... Starch content for fruiting bodies was highest on sawdust (5.31 g 100 g-1) and lowest on ..... as potent dietary supplements.

  13. Environmental assessment of the degradation potential of mushroom fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. towards synthetic azo dyes and contaminating effluents collected from textile industries in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Prasanna, Apoorva; Manjunath, Sirisha P; Karanth, Soujanya S; Nazre, Ambika

    2016-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. is one of the edible mushrooms currently gaining attention as environmental restorer. The present study explores the potential of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. in degradation of textile dyes and effluents. The mushroom cultivation was carried out using paddy bed as substrate. The fully grown mushroom fruit bodies were used as a bioremediation agent against two industrially important azo dyes such as nylon blue and cotton yellow and few effluents collected from various textile industries in Karnataka, India. The ideal growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and dye concentrations for effective degradation were carried out. One of the main enzymes, laccase, responsible for biodegradation, was partially characterized. The degradation was found to be ideal at pH 3.0 and temperature at 26-28 °C. This study demonstrated a percentage degradation of 78.10, 90.81, 82.5, and 64.88 for dye samples such as nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), KSIC effluents, and Ramanagar effluents at 28 °C within 15th days respectively in comparison with other temperature conditions. Similarly, a percentage degradation of 35.99, 33.33, 76.13 and 25.8 for nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), Karnataka Silk Industries Corporation (KSIC) effluents and Ramnagar effluents were observed at pH 3.0 within 15 days, respectively (p < 0.05). Thus, the current study concluded that the utilization of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. at ideal environmental conditions is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach for the degradation of various azo dyes and textile effluents which are harmful to the ecosystem.

  14. Yield and nutritional composition of oyster mushroom strains newly introduced in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostak Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and chemical composition of oyster mushroom strains newly introduced in Bangladesh. Strains of Pleurotus high‑king (strain PHK, P. ostreatus (strain PO2, and P. geesteranus (strains PG1 and PG3 were evaluated as to yield components and proximate composition. Pleurotus ostreatus was used as control. Pleurotus high‑king showed fastest growth of primordia, but moderate flush of effective fruiting bodies. Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1 showed higher economic yield and biological performance, and better chemical composition, especially in terms of protein and mineral contents. Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1 shows better performance than P. ostreatus (PO2, the most commercially cultivated edible species in Bangladesh, and, therefore, it should be recommended for commercial cultivation.

  15. Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina S.; Patrícia Maia Pereira; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana S

    2010-01-01

    Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR), Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN), Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR), and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR). The colour removal was evaluated by...

  16. 利用葡萄枝屑、玉米芯栽培平菇试验研究%Study on Cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus with Grape Branch Chips and Corn Cobs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海霞; 王东云; 王素娟; 王桂玲; 邓杰中

    2015-01-01

    With Pleurotus ostreatus as test material and taking the grape branch chips and corn cobs as main raw materials, Pleurotus ostreatus was cultivated adopting fermentation bag cultivation mode to study the effects of different culture sub-strates on the mycelium growth and biological efficiency. The results showed that different percentage of grape branch chips powder used as medium would result in variation in the speed of growth and the biological efficiency of Pleurotus ostreatus. The optimum formulation was: grape branch chips 40%, corn cobs 40%, bran 11%, flaxseed cakes3%, lime 3%, calcium superphosphate 2%, urea 0.6%, salt 0.3%, and kemeiba 0.1%. With this formulation, the mycelium growth vigor was strong; the mushrooms had high yield and high biological efficiency.%以平菇为试材,以不同比例的葡萄枝屑、玉米芯为主要原料,采用发酵料袋栽方式栽培平菇,研究不同栽培基质对菌丝生长情况及生物学效率的影响。结果表明:葡萄枝屑的含量不同对平菇菌丝的生长速度和生物学效率的影响不同,以葡萄枝屑40%、玉米芯40%、麦麸11%、胡麻饼3%、石灰3%、过磷酸钙2%、尿素0.6%、食盐0.3%、克霉霸0.1%为最佳配方,在此配方下平菇表现为菌丝生长势较强,产量高,生物学转化率高。

  17. Effects of Different Substrates on Lignocellulosic Enzyme Expression, Enzyme Activity, Substrate Utilization and Biological Efficiency of Pleurotus Eryngii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunliang Xie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Pleurotus eryngii is one of the most valued and delicious mushrooms which are commercially cultivated on various agro-wastes. How different substrates affect lignocellulosic biomass degradation, lignocellulosic enzyme production and biological efficiency in Pleurotus eryngii was unclear. Methods and Results: In this report, Pleurotus eryngii was cultivated in substrates including ramie stalks, kenaf stalks, cottonseed hulls and bulrush stalks. The results showed that ramie stalks and kenaf stalks were found to best suitable to cultivate Pleurotus eryngii with the biological efficiency achieved at 55% and 57%, respectively. In order to establish correlations between different substrates and lignocellulosic enzymes expression, the extracellular proteins from four substrates were profiled with high throughput TMT-based quantitative proteomic approach. 241 non-redundant proteins were identified and 74 high confidence lignocellulosic enzymes were quantified. Most of the cellulases, hemicellulases and lignin depolymerization enzymes were highly up-regulated when ramie stalks and kenaf stalks were used as carbon sources. The enzyme activities results suggested cellulases, hemicellulases and lignin depolymerization enzymes were significantly induced by ramie stalks and kenaf stalks. Conclusion: The lignocelluloses degradation, most of the lignocellulosic enzymes expressions and activities of Pleurotus eryngii had positive correlation with the biological efficiency, which depend on the nature of lignocellulosic substrates. In addition, the lignocellulosic enzymes expression profiles during Pleurotus eryngii growth in different substrates were obtained. The present study suggested that most of the lignocellulosic enzymes expressions and activities can be used as tools for selecting better performing substrates for commercial mushroom cultivation.

  18. In vitro prevention of cataract by Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus florida extract on isolated goat eye lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Ganeshpurkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro effect of Pleurotus florida extract cataract induced by glucose. Materials and Methods : Goat eye lenses were divided into four groups. Group I lenses were incubated in artificial aqueous humor with glucose concentration 5.5 mM (normal control. Group II lenses were incubated with glucose concentration 55 mM (toxic control. Group III and IV lenses incubated with glucose concentration 55 mM were incubated along with hydroethanolic extract of P. florida 250 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml and subjected to morphological and biochemical evaluation. Results : Group II lenses showed high amount of malondialdehyde (MDA soluble and insoluble protein and decreased catalase and glutathione levels, while lenses treated with P. florida extract showed significant (P < 0.05 reduction in MDA, increased level of catalase (P < 0.001, glutathione (P < 0.005 and total and soluble protein. Conclusions : Hydroethanolic extract of P. florida showed prevention of in vitro glucose induced cataract. Thus, the goat lens model could be used for testing of various anticataract agents.

  19. Antimicrobial Coumarins from the Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Agaricomycetes), from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraza, Lilechi D; Neser, Wekesa; Jackson, Korir Cheruiyot; Fredrick, Juma B; Dennis, Ochieno; Wairimu, Kamau R; Keya, Aggrey Osogo; Heydenreich, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus has been widely used as food because of its nutritional and medicinal properties. These have been attributed to the presence of macronutrients, minerals, vitamins, and amino acids, among other secondary metabolites. There are, however, few reports on the antimicrobial activities of different classes of purified compounds from P. ostreatus. This led to the current study, the objective of which was to chemically characterize the antibiotic activities of P. ostreatus against selected human pathogenic bacteria and endophytic fungi. Chemical structures were determined using spectroscopic methods and by comparison with values of related structures reported in the literature. Pure compounds from P. ostreatus were tested in vitro against pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and endophytic fungi (Pencillium digitatum and Fusarium proliferatum). A new compound, (E)-5,7-dimethoxy-6-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (5-methoxy-(E)-suberodiene) (compound 2), along with ergosterol (compound 1) and 5,7-dimethoxy-6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (toddaculin; compound 3), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus. The growth of S. aureus, F. proliferatum, and P. digitatum colonies was inhibited in media containing compound 2, with minimum inhibitory concentrations closely comparable to those of conventional antibiotics.

  20. Evaluation of antidiabetic potential of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Bindhu; Renitta, R Emilin; Prabha, M Lakshmi; Issac, Reya; Naidu, Shanti

    2013-02-01

    To study the antidiabetic activity of Pleurotus ostreatus in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Ethanolic extract of fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus was tested for their antidiabetic activity. BALB/C mice (25-30 g) were divided into four groups of six animals each normal control mice, diabetic control mice, diabetic mice posttreated with standard drug glibenclamide and diabetic mice treated with P. ostreatus ethanolic extract. Blood glucose level, biochemical parameters such as serum total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, VLDL, triglyceride creatinine, urea, and Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase were studied in alloxan-induced diabetic mice after 15 days of treatment. Animals treated with the ethanolic extract of P. ostreatus showed a significant decrease in serum glucose level (p ostreatus extract reduced serum cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol. The serum HDL cholesterol was significantly increased in posttreated groups. The serum creatinine, urea levels were significantly reduced in posttreated group, whereas the decrease in the body weight was arrested by administration of P. ostreatus extract to the animals. The consumption of P. ostreatus produced a significant hypoglycemic effect in diabetic mice and it is capable of improving hyperlipidemia and the impaired kidney functions in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Thus, indicating that the ethanolic extract of P. ostreatus could be added in the list of medicinal preparations beneficial in diabetes mellitus.

  1. Hypoglycaemic activity of culinary Pleurotus ostreatus and P. cystidiosus mushrooms in healthy volunteers and type 2 diabetic patients on diet control and the possible mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, W J A Banukie N; Wanigatunge, Chandanie A; Fernando, Gita H; Abeytunga, D Thusitha U; Suresh, T Sugandhika

    2015-02-01

    This study determined the oral hypoglycaemic effect of suspensions of freeze dried and powdered (SFDP) Pleurotus ostreatus (P.o) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (P.c), using healthy human volunteers and Type 2 diabetic patients on diet control at a dose of 50 mg/kg/body weight, followed by a glucose load. The possible hypoglycaemic mechanisms were evaluated using rats, by examining intestinal glucose absorption and serum levels of insulin, glucokinase (GK) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK). The P.o and P.c showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in fasting and postprandial serum glucose levels of healthy volunteers and reduced the postprandial serum glucose levels and increased the serum insulin levels (P < 0.05) of Type 2 diabetic patients. The P.o and P.c increased the intestinal absorption of glucose but simultaneously reduced the serum glucose levels (P < 0.05) in rats. Both mushrooms reduced the serum GSK and promoted insulin secretion while P.c increased serum GK (P < 0.05). The hypoglycaemic activity of P.o and P.c makes mushrooms beneficial functional foods in diabetes mellitus. The mechanism of hypoglycaemic activity of P.o and P.c is possibly by increasing GK activity and promoting insulin secretion and thereby increasing the utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, inhibiting GSK and promoting glycogen synthesis.

  2. Submerged fermentation of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus in a batch stirred tank bioreactor as a promising alternative for the effective production of bioactive metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaspyridi, Lefki-Maria; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Topakas, Evangelos; Christakopoulos, Paul; Skaltsounis, Alexandros-Leandros; Fokialakis, Nikolas

    2012-03-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the submerged fermentation procedure in the production of bioactive metabolites of the common edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. The biomass of the mushroom strain was produced by submerged fermentation in a batch stirred tank bioreactor and extracted by solvents of increasing polarity. The dichloromethane and methanol extract were fractioned by different techniques including Adsorption Chromatography and Fast Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (FCPC). The structures of pure compounds were elucidated with 1D/2D NMR-spectroscopic analyses, and chemical correlations combined with GC/MS and LC/MS experiments. Nineteen metabolites (e.g., fatty acids, phenolic metabolites, nucleotides and alkaloids) were isolated. Beyond the production of known metabolites, we report herein the production also of trans-3,4-dihydro-3,4,8-trihydroxynapthalen-1(2H)-one, indolo-3-carboxylic acid, 3-formylpyrrole and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, that have pharmaceutical interest and are isolated for the first time from Pleurotus strains. This work indicates the great potential of the established bioprocess for the production of P. ostreatus mycelia with enhanced metabolic profile.

  3. Antioxidant capacity of several Iranian, wild and cultivated strains of the button mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Tajalli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, is the most commonly grown mushroom in Iran; however, there is a significant shortage of research on its antioxidant activity and other medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extracts from four cultivated strains and four Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-identified, Iranian wild isolates of A. bisporus. Evaluations were made for total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity. Overall, results showed that all the wild isolates exhibited significantly lower DPPH-derived EC50, compared to the cultivated strains (p 2 > 0.60. However, these constituents could not statistically differentiate the group of wild samples from the cultivated ones, and there was low correlation with the DPPH-derived EC50s (r2

  4. Macro and trace mineral constituents and radionuclides in mushrooms: health benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Borovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews and updates data on macro and trace elements and radionuclides in edible wild-grown and cultivated mushrooms. A huge biodiversity of mushrooms and spread of certain species over different continents makes the study on their multi-element constituents highly challenging. A few edible mushrooms are widely cultivated and efforts are on to employ them (largely Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., and Lentinula edodes) in the production of selenium-enriched food (mushrooms) or nutraceuticals (by using mycelia) and less on species used by traditional medicine, e.g., Ganoderma lucidum. There are also attempts to enrich mushrooms with other elements than Se and a good example is enrichment with lithium. Since minerals of nutritional value are common constituents of mushrooms collected from natural habitats, the problem is however their co-occurrence with some hazardous elements including Cd, Pb, Hg, Ag, As, and radionuclides. Discussed is also the problem of erroneous data on mineral compounds determined in mushrooms.

  5. Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) immune response in mice by an extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Kazunori; Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2012-12-01

    To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-γ and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-γ production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-γ levels and high-level production of IFN-γ in the culture supernatant from the CD4(+) spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator.

  6. 超高压处理对即食杏鲍菇的影响%The Influence of Ultra High Pressure Treatment on Instant Pleurotus Eryngii Mushrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈三娜; 张平平; 王娜; 王金娥; 刘金福; 王连珠

    2015-01-01

    研究超高压处理对杏鲍菇感官、菇体及汁液中成分等的影响,制作即食杏鲍菇产品。以杏鲍菇为原料,以超高压处理后的感官品质、菌落总数、浸出液和菇体中的蛋白质、氨基酸、总糖、多糖为研究对象,通过单因素实验,确定超高压处理最佳条件。结果表明,超高压处理压力450 MPa,处理时间10 min,杏鲍菇片的感官评价最好;汁液中蛋白质、氨基酸、总糖、多糖的含量分别为0.471%、0.58%、0.491%、0.405%,而菇体中的蛋白质、氨基酸、总糖及多糖含量分别为1.55%、1.07%、2.28%和1.95%。因此,菇体中营养成分的含量在最佳超高压处理条件(450 MPa,10 min)下保留率最高,为即食杏鲍菇的制作提供了技术支撑。%Study of ultra high pressure treatment on the effect of sensory of Pleurotus eryngii mushrooms, ingredients on exudates and the body of Pleurotus eryngii mushrooms, making instant Pleurotus eryngii products. Fresh Pleurotus eryngii as the raw material was processing by UHP. Sensory quality , leaching , proteins , total sugar and polysaccharides, and amino acids in the exudates and Pleurotus eryngii slices, as the research object. Through single-factor experiment, determine the best conditions for high pressure. Results showed that ,under the pressure 450 MPa, processing time -10 min , nutrients content in Pleurotus eryngii slices is higher than that in exudates, and to evaluate the sensory quality of Pleurotus eryngii manufactured under this condition is good. Result is sensory score 8.35 per cent , protein content of nutrients in the exudates is 0.471%、0.58%、0.491%、0.405%, and those in the body of Pleurotus is 1.55%, amino acid content is 1.07%, with a total sugar content of 2.28%, and active polysaccharides also reached 1.95%.

  7. Edible Mushroom Cultivation for Food Security and Rural Development in China: Bio-Innovation, Technological Dissemination and Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqi Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms traditionally collected from forests and now more cultivated have recently become the products of the fifth-largest agricultural sector in China. It was estimated that more than 25 million farmers in China are currently engaged in the collection, cultivation processing and marketing of mushrooms. The total value of mushroom products amounted to 149 billion RMB Yuan (24 billion USD in 2011. The raw materials have expanded from a few hardwoods to a variety of woods and increasing more into agricultural residues and wastes. The average annual growth rate has been over 10% over the past 30 years in China. This paper describes the rapid growth of mushroom cultivation and its contribution to food security and rural sustainable development. The roles of bio-innovation, technological dissemination, and marketing are also examined. Mushrooms could potentially be very important in future food supplies and in new dimensions of sustainable agriculture and forestry.

  8. Genetic variability and population structure of the mushroom Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengran Zhao

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 123 wild strains of Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis, which were collected from nine geographical locations in Yumin, Tuoli, and Qinghe counties in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, was analysed using two molecular marker systems (inter-simple sequence repeat and start codon targeted. At the variety level, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei's gene diversity index for P. eryngii var. tuoliensis was 96.32% and 0.238, respectively. At the population level, Nei's gene diversity index ranged from 0.149 to 0.218 with an average of 0.186, and Shannon's information index ranged from 0.213 to 0.339 with an average of 0.284. These results revealed the abundant genetic variability in the wild resources of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis. Nei's gene diversity analysis indicated that the genetic variance was mainly found within individual geographical populations, and the analysis of molecular variance revealed low but significant genetic differentiation among local and regional populations. The limited gene flow (Nm = 1.794 was inferred as a major reason for the extent of genetic differentiation of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis. The results of Mantel tests showed that the genetic distance among geographical populations of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis was positively correlated with the geographical distance and the longitudinal distances (rGo = 0.789 and rLn = 0.873, respectively, which indicates that geographical isolation is an important factor for the observed genetic differentiation. Nine geographical populations of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis were divided into three groups according to their geographical origins, which revealed that the genetic diversity was closely related to the geographical distribution of this wild fungus.

  9. Failure of the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) to induce tumors in the A/J mouse lung tumor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten; Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1997-01-01

    We studied whether the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) or 4-(carboxy)phenylhydrazine (CP) induce lung adenomas in the A/J mouse lung tumor model. For 26 weeks female mice were fed a semisynthetic diet where 11 or 22% of the diet was replaced by freeze-dried mushrooms. The intake...

  10. Unraveling the mystery of commercial cultivation of Agaricus bisporus : plant biomass utilization and its effect on mushroom production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus, the white button mushroom, is economically the most important mushroom cultivated worldwide. Growth of A. bisporus needs a substrate produced by the composting of animal manure, wheat straw, gypsum, water and different additives. Therefore lignocellulose which is a complex mixture

  11. Effect of olive mill waste (OMW) supplementation to Oyster mushrooms substrates on the cultivation parameters and fruiting bodies quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, A.; Soler-Rivas, C.; Polonia, I.; Wichers, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Seven Oyster mushroom strains were cultivated in wheat straw (WS) bags supplemented with 0 up to 90% olive mill waste (OMW), a solid residue obtained from a two-phases olive oil production system. All mushroom strains could grow but high OMW concentrations resulted in a significant yield, biological

  12. Thin-layer modeling of convective and microwave-convective drying of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Mrittika; Srivastav, Prem Prakash; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-04-01

    Oyster mushroom samples were dried under selected convective, microwave-convective drying conditions in a recirculatory hot-air dryer and microwave assisted hot-air dryer (2.45 GHz, 1.5 kW) respectively. Only falling rate period and no constant rate period, was exhibited in both the drying technique. The experimental moisture loss data were fitted to selected semi-theoretical thin-layer drying equations. The mathematical models were compared according to three statistical parameters, i.e. correlation coefficient, reduced chi-square and residual mean sum of squares. Among all the models, Midilli et al. model was found to have the best fit as suggested by 0.99 of square correlation coefficient, 0.000043 of reduced-chi square and 0.0023 of residual sum of square. The highest effective moisture diffusivity varying from 10.16 × 10(-8) to 16.18 × 10(-8) m(2)/s over the temperature range was observed in microwave-convective drying at an air velocity of 1.5 m/s and the activation energy was calculated to be 16.95 kJ/mol. The above findings can aid to select the most suitable operating conditions, so as to design drying equipment accordingly.

  13. 提高平菇产量的栽培新技术%Improvement of Spawn,Compost and Cultivation Technique for Oyster Mushroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oh Se Jong; Park Jeong Sik; Shin Pyung Gyun; Yoo Young Bok

    2004-01-01

    A series of works related with growing techniques for oyster mushroom were implemented to improve the efficiencies involved in spawn, compost, cultivation. To enhance the quality of sawdust spawn,fermentation technique was introduced to the spawn making. In an attempt to solve the problems of growing basic factor, the improvement of preparation of the substrate was carried out. Quality and productivity of Pleurotus ostreatus and P. sajor-caju were also assessed by a perforated polythene sheet covering technique.A method of spawn making procedures through the application of fermented sawdust for the purpose of avoiding contamination by undesirable fungi in the course of Pleurotus ostreatus mycelial growth was evaluated. Of three kinds of supplements, rice bran was the most effective to raise temperature up to 70℃. Mycelial activity and density were more considerably improved in the case of using fermented sawdust supplemented with rice bran than the case of non-fermented sawdust. Primordia of Pleurotus ostreatus were formed on fermented sawdust. The substrate of fermented sawdust showed potential to prevent the growth of Trichoderma sp. which caused a symptom on mushroom mycelium, whereas there was nothing to inhibit the growth of Trichoderma sp. during 30 days after inoculation in non-fermented sawdust. A composting technique was assessed to enhance efficiency in oyster mushroom substrate. Poplar sawdusts and by-product of winter mushroom added by 10% rice bran were composted outdoors at 20℃ to 28℃ for 12 days. The duration of composting shortened 3 days in fermented sawdust plot. The oyster mushroom substrate with fermented sawdusts promoted initial pins to produce a large lump of primordia. The highest yield was 742 g obtained from waste cotton substrate with fermented poplar sawdust, whereas the yield in control treatment 663 g. In addition, the substrate with by-product of winter mushroom was the most effective to composting. It was useful to

  14. Radiocesium uptake mechanisms in wild and culture mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi (Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)); Isomura, Kimio; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Shibata, Hisashi

    1993-12-01

    Concentrations of [sup 137]Cs and stable Cs in wild mushrooms, cultivated mushrooms and those substrates were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The average concentration of [sup 137]Cs in 80 wild mushrooms in Japan was 87.5 Bq/kg (wet wt.), and concentration of [sup 137]Cs in mycorrhizal mushrooms was higher than that of saprophytic mushrooms. High concentrations of [sup 137]Cs were found in Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1, saprophytic mushrooms, cultivated in culture substrates containing high [sup 137]Cs. Clear correlations with 5% level of significance were found between wild mushroom-to-substrate ratios (wet/dry) of [sup 137]Cs concentration and those of stable Cs. Cultivated P. ostreatus-to-culture substrate ratios (wet/wet) of [sup 137]Cs concentration were stable in the order of 10[sup 0] when the culture substrate was containing 10 000 Bq/kg (wet wt.) of [sup 137]Cs or 1 000 mg/kg (wet wt.) of stable Cs. The ratios of [sup 137]Cs concentration in cultivated mushrooms were about equal to those in wild mushrooms. Higher concentration of [sup 137]Cs in culture substrate after sampling P. ostreatus was observed at the upper layer where mycelium density was high. (author).

  15. Characteristics of a hydrated, alginate-based delivery system for cultivation of the button mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, C P; Schlagnhaufer, B

    1992-09-01

    The production of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus with mycelium-colonized alginate pellets as an inoculant of the growing medium was investigated. Pellets having an irregular surface and porous internal structure were prepared by complexing a mixture of 1% sodium alginate, 2 to 6% vermiculite, 2% hygramer, and various concentrations of Nutrisoy (soy protein) with calcium chloride. The porous structure allowed the pellets to be formed septically and then inoculated and colonized with the fungus following sterilization. By using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate fungal biomass, the matrix components of the pellet were found to be of no nutritive value to A. bisporus. Pellets amended with Nutrisoy at a concentration of 0.5 to 8% supported extensive mycelial growth, as determined by significantly increased ELISA values, with a concentration of 4% being optimal and higher concentrations proving inhibitory. The addition of hydrated, mycelium-invaded pellets to the compost or casing layer supported the thorough colonization of the growing substrate and culminated in the formation of mushrooms that showed normal development and typical morphology. Yields and sizes of mushrooms were comparable from composts seeded with either colonized pellets or cereal grain spawn. Similarly, amending the casing layer with pelletized-mycelium-colonized compost resulted in a 2- to 3-day-earlier and more-synchronous emergence of mushrooms than with untreated casing. This technology shows the greatest potential as a pathogen-free inoculant of the casing layer in the commercial cultivation of mushrooms.

  16. FEATURES OF VENTILATION CONDITIONS BY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN MINING UNDERGROUND WORKINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rendulić

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The trial cultivation of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus in one of the dead faces of the »Krš« pit of the Dalmatian bauxite mines Obrovac proved, that an optimal yield can be attained with the domestic mycelium. The decision has been brought to go on with investments into equipment for new growing-site locations in underground workings of the mine. In order to cultivate high-quality mushrooms, the ventilation of growing sites has been particularly considered. Compressive separate ventilation of growing fields has been applied using the main and the return ventilating pipeline, with the air current regulation according to the growing stage (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. Cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju on banana stalk and Bahia grass based substrates Cultivo de Pleurotus sajor-caju em substratos a base de grama batatais e engaço de bananeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix G de Siqueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana stalks and Bahia grass were utilized as basic starting materials for the production of the mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju. Banana stalks were combined with other waste or supplement products (wheat bran, coast-cross hay, bean straw and cotton textile mill to obtain different nitrogen concentrations. Since Bahia grass is relatively rich in protein, it was combined with other substrates (banana stalk, coast-cross hay and bean straw to maintain a substrate nitrogen concentration of about 1.5%. Banana stalks and Bahia grass were both more efficient in the production of the mushroom P. sajor-caju when utilized without the addition of other substrates, with biological efficiencies of 74.4% and 74.12%, respectively. When combined with other substrates or grasses, there was a drop in biological efficiency, independent of the concentration of nitrogen. Furthermore, the addition of protein-rich waste to banana stalks resulted in a decrease or absence of fructification, which indicates that high concentrations of nitrogen in the cultivation substrate may hinder the cultivation of this mushroom. On the other hand, results reveal that the ideal concentration of nitrogen may depend on other physicochemical factors and these factors may determine the success in cultivating P. sajor-caju. Therefore, we conclude that P. sajor-caju may be cultivated on banana stalk and Bahia grass as pure substrates, not being necessary their supplementation or combine them with another substrates.O engaço de bananeira e a grama batatais foram utilizados como matérias-primas básicas para a produção do substrato de cultivo do cogumelo Pleurotus sajor-caju. O engaço de bananeira foi combinado com outros resíduos (farelo de trigo, capim "Coast-cross", palha de feijão e resíduo de lixadeira de algodão, com o objetivo de se obter substratos com diferentes concentrações de nitrogênio. Como a grama batatais é relativamente rica em proteína, a mesma foi combinada com

  18. Decontamination Trials for the Bed-Log Cultivation of Mushroom in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Kahori; Arai, Shio; Hirano, Yurika; Yoshida, Hirohisa [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Ogawa, Hideki [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112 (Japan); Ito, Hirohisa; Kumata, Atsushi [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112 (Japan); Murayama, Kazunari [Macoho Co. Ltd., Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan); Suzuki, Kin-ichi [Abukuma Cooperative for Best Use of Broad-leaved Trees (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive nuclear dispersed in environment from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNP) Accident-contaminated forests in Fukushima Prefecture, especially in Abukuma mountainous region located 10 to 20 Km west from FNP. Broad-leaved trees such as Quercus serrata, chestnut tree, oak, chinquapin tree, Japanese beech are widely planting in Abukuma area. Many prefectures in Japan depends on supply of bed-log from Fukushima prefecture, especially Abukuma area. North part of Abukuma mountain area has highly contaminated by radioactive nuclear, however, the contamination level in the south part of Abkuma area was about ten times lower than the north part. The outside (bark, leaves and twigs) of broad-leaved trees was highly contaminated above 10,000 Bq/kg in Iidate and Kawamata villages located the north part of Abkuma ears, 35 to 40 km from FNP. On the other hand, the contamination level of the outside of broad-leaved trees in the south part of Abukuma ears was 100-500 Bq/kg and the contamination of the inside tree was lower than 10 Bq/kg. For the bed-log cultivation of mushrooms using broad-leaved trees, two methods were used in Japan. The mushrooms incubated broad-leaved trees (90 cm of length and 15 cm of diameter) were setting in the lack on the ground in forest from winter to autumn. This method was mainly used for the cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes). The second method was used for Maitake (Grifola frondosa) cultivation. The mushroom incubated broad-leaved trees (20 cm of length and 20 cm of diameter) were setting in the ground holes and covered by soil (2 cm) and litters. The maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms harvesting October 2013 at Iidate, the evaluation area, contained 120 Bq/kg, even though the soil on the broad-leaved trees contained more than 20,000 Bq/kg. The outside contamination of broad-leaved trees supplied from the south part of Abkuma ears were washed by the wet blasting. 80 % of radiocesium on the bark was efficiently

  19. Biodegradation and detoxification of olive mill wastewater by selected strains of the mushroom genera Ganoderma and Pleurotus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Baldrian, Petr; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Nerud, Frantisek; Antoniou, Theodoros; Merhautová, Věra; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2012-07-01

    Thirty-nine white-rot fungi belonging to nine species of Agaricomycotina (Basidiomycota) were initially screened for their ability to decrease olive-mill wastewater (OMW) phenolics. Four strains of Ganoderma australe, Ganoderma carnosum, Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus, were selected and further examined for key-aspects of the OMW biodegradation process. Fungal growth in OMW-containing batch cultures resulted in significant decolorization (by 40-46% and 60-65% for Ganoderma and Pleurotus spp. respectively) and reduction of phenolics (by 64-67% and 74-81% for Ganoderma and Pleurotus spp. respectively). COD decrease was less pronounced (12-29%). Cress-seeds germination increased by 30-40% when OMW was treated by Pleurotus strains. Toxicity expressed as inhibition of Aliivibrio fischeri luminescence was reduced in fungal-treated OMW samples by approximately 5-15 times compared to the control. As regards the pertinent enzyme activities, laccase and Mn-independent peroxidase were detected for Ganoderma spp. during the entire incubation period. In contrast, Pleurotus spp. did not exhibit any enzyme activities at early growth stages; instead, high laccase (five times greater than those of Ganoderma spp.) and Mn peroxidases activities were determined at the end of treatment. OMW decolorization by Ganoderma strains was strongly correlated to the reduction of phenolics, whereas P. eryngii laccase activity was correlated with the effluent's decolorization.

  20. Disposal of agro-industrial by-products by organic cultivation of the culinary and medicinal mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akavia, E; Beharav, A; Wasser, S P; Nevo, E

    2009-05-01

    Organic mushroom cultivation is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture. At the core of the organic philosophy lies a ban on the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, in addition to such tenets as animal welfare, energy efficiency, and social justice. Hypsizygus marmoreus (HM) is a highly praised cultivated culinary and medicinal mushroom. The objective of this paper was to assess the suitability of different spawn media and then the potential of various cultivation substrates to support HM mushroom production compatible with organic standards. This objective was met through the setup of a low-cost cultivation infrastructure. First, seven types of spawn media were tested; then we tested 24 substrates made from organic by-products for their biological efficiency (BE) with strain HM 830, using the liquid inoculation method. The best substrate in terms of BE was corn cob with bran and olive press cake, with a BE of 85.6%. The BE of the same composition but without olive press cake was only 67.5%. The next best substrates were cotton straw combinations with a BE of 31.5-53%. The spent mushroom substrate provides a good method for the disposal of solid waste. The guidance provided in this research complies with organic mushroom cultivation standards and can be used to produce certified organic mushrooms. In addition, it allows responsible and beneficial disposal of a large amount of solid agro-industrial waste.

  1. Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) to the Cultivation Line of Mushroom and Other Cultivated Edible Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, José E; de Figueirêdo, Vinícius Reis; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego C; Peñaranda, Jesús A; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

    2013-09-01

    The Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a preventive system which seeks to ensure food safety and security. It allows product protection and correction of errors, improves the costs derived from quality defects and reduces the final overcontrol. In this paper, the system is applied to the line of cultivation of mushrooms and other edible cultivated fungi. From all stages of the process, only the reception of covering materials (stage 1) and compost (stage 3), the pre-fruiting and induction (step 6) and the harvest (stage 7) have been considered as critical control point (CCP). The main hazards found were the presence of unauthorized phytosanitary products or above the permitted dose (stages 6 and 7), and the presence of pathogenic bacteria (stages 1 and 3) and/or heavy metals (stage 3). The implementation of this knowledge will allow the self-control of their productions based on the system HACCP to any plant dedicated to mushroom or other edible fungi cultivation.

  2. Biological Characteris tics and Cultivational Technique of Pleurotus sp.Jin Ping 90%平菇津平90特性及栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班立桐; 谷荣祥; 高燕; 王文治

    2001-01-01

    介绍了平菇菌种津平90的特征特性、生长条件及其高产栽培技术。%Introduces biological characteristic,specific property,growth condition and cultivational technique of Pleurotus sp.Jin Ping 90 which were examined and approved in Tianjin.

  3. Fractionation and characterization of mushroom dietary fiber (nonstarch polysaccharides) as potential nutraceuticals from sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fries) singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, P C; Lee, M Y

    2000-08-01

    The nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs) in the total dietary fiber (TDF) from the sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium (tiger milk mushroom) were fractionated by the sequential use of chemical solvents. About half of the TDF was solubilized and two major alkali-soluble fractions (1 and 4 N sodium hydroxide) that contained 126 and 293 g/kg TDF were obtained. Sugar analysis and infrared spectroscopy indicated that the NSPs in these alkali-soluble fractions were mainly beta-glucans and chitin. These alkali-soluble NSPs were further purified by anion-exchange chromatography followed by gel permeation chromatographic separation. Methylation analysis revealed that these purified glucans were highly branched and contained a mixture of sugar linkages of beta-1,3, beta-1,6, and beta-1,4. The potential use of these sclerotial beta-glucans as nutraceuticals was discussed.

  4. Cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju%侧耳栽培研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钊; 梁瑞璋; 潘蓉

    2001-01-01

    In this paper culitivation of Pleurotus sajor-ca ju was studied.It discussed nutrient constituents and mirco-trace element s in Pleurotus sajor-caju(Fr.)Sing.%本文研究了用木屑栽培侧耳的试验,以及侧耳在不同培养料上的产量试验,评价了侧耳的营养成分以及其中含有的常量,微量元素的含量。

  5. Microbiological quality and safety of fresh cultivated and wild mushrooms commercialized in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, María E; Reyes, Juan E; Rivera, Carmen S; Oria, Rosa; Blanco, Domingo

    2011-12-01

    402 samples of 22 species of cultivated and wild fresh mushrooms sold in retail markets and supermarkets in Zaragoza (Spain) were studied to quantify their microbial load (mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, Pseudomonas genus, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, yeasts and moulds) and to investigate the presence of E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. The total microbial counts ranged from 4.4 to 9.4 log cfu/g, the genus Pseudomonas being the most prevalent with counts from 3.7 to 9.3 log cfu/g and Auricularia auricula-judae the species with the highest microbial load (9.4 log cfu/g). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were detected between mean counts of wild and cultivated species in all the microbial groups studied. The microbiological safety level of the cultivated mushrooms was excellent since no pathogens were isolated, and the microbial counts of indicator microorganisms were low, being detected in only half of the species. Salmonella spp, E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus were not isolated from any sample, Y. enterocolitica was detected in only four samples of wild mushrooms whereas twenty-six (6.5%) were positive for L. monocytogenes, their occurrence being relatively high in Calocybe gambosa (40%), Hygrophorus limacinus (40%) and Tuber indicum (100%). These results suggest that a strategy to reduce bacterial populations, and to improve the microbiological safety of some species of fresh mushrooms, should be investigated.

  6. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-09-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  7. Cultivation of three medicinal mushroom species on olive oil press cakes containing substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej GREGORI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil press cakes (OOPC represent a waste that has a negative impact on environment. OOPC have little or no use and because of that solutions for their alternative use are sought after. In our experiments we investigated substrate mixtures composed of different proportions of OOPC, wheat bran, crushed corn seeds and beech sawdust for cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes and Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies. The increasing amount of OOPC in fruiting bodies cultivation substrates resulted in decreasing production of fruiting bodies. Results show, that although OOPC in small portion can be successfully used as a medicinal mushroom fruiting bodies cultivating substrate, their use is rational only, if no other substrate composing materials can be found or when OOPC usage solves the problem of its deposition.

  8. The influence of flushes on some constituents of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus cultivated on different composts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two different composts: horse manure and broiler chicken manure and the influence of flushes during the growing cycle on some chemical components contained in the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus was studied. The strain Somycel 11 was analyzed. The following determinations were made: dry matter, total nitrogen and crude protein, nitrates, nitrites and amino acids composition. It has been noted that the crude protein from. combined flushes III to VI of mushrooms cultivated on horse manure was about 24% higher than in those grown on broiler chicken manure. Some changes in amino acids composition, especially lysine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, serine, methionine, glutamic acid and alanine were observed, depending on the size of the fruit-body, flushes and type of compost.

  9. Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough doses, have effects similar to the drug LSD . Hallucinogenic mushrooms might be either fresh or dried. ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Drugs: What to Know LSD Dealing With Addiction Marijuana Bath Salts Depressants GHB ...

  10. Efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms cultivation. Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Koc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The economical efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach SYLVAN 737 has been experimented in controlled weather conditions. It was found that the application of a 50 and 150 g•m-2 hydrogel dose is not economically proved due to the lack of harvest significant increase. In the cultivation of this particular variety of mushrooms, the optimal hydrogel dose should not be 100 g•m-2 of subsoil.

  11. Cultivation Guidelines of Pleurotus nebrodensis%白灵菇栽培技术规程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔巍; 郑焕春; 颜丽君

    2009-01-01

    本标准规定了白灵菇(Pleurotus nebrodensis)栽培场地环境,生产设备及条件、生产工艺、后熟管理、出菇管理、采收标准等技术要求。本标准适用于北方白灵菇栽培。

  12. Shelf-life increase of fresh mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju using gamma radiation;Aumento da vida util de cogumelos Pleurotus sajor-caju in natura com aplicacao de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moda, Evelise Moncaio

    2008-07-01

    The production and consumption of edible mushrooms has been increasing in the last years due to its nutritional composition and sensory quality. The irradiation of mushrooms has been used with the purpose of maintaining the fresh product characteristics during shelf-life. The present study evaluated the effect of different radiation doses on the conservation of mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju, through by chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial parameters. The packaging consisted on polystyrene trays with 250 g of sample, wrapped in polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The mushrooms were irradiated with doses of 125, 250, 500 and 750 Gy in a Gamma cell 220 type irradiator, and stored at 4 +- 1 deg C and 90% UR for 10 days. The proximate composition (moisture, crude fibre, total protein, total fat and ash), total soluble solids, pH, texture, color (L, a, b, Chroma and ho), enzymatic activity (polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase), microbiological (total coliform, Escherichia coli and total psychotropic bacteria) and sensory evaluation (color, taste and appearance) were determined in the 1st, 5th and 10th storage days. For the respiratory rate analysis, 30 g of sample were placed in jars and stored at 4 +- 1 deg C and 90% UR for 8 days. CO{sub 2} was analyzed every day using a gaseous chromatograph. The results were submitted to variance analysis and average test using the SAS statistical package. The total protein and total fat values did not differ significantly between treatments or storage periods, while the moisture, crude fibre and ash values differ between treatments and periods. The dose of 750 Gy darkness the mushroom in the last evaluation, and texture was better in control during the storage period. The color (L, a), texture and proximate composition values did not differ significantly between treatments or storage periods. A significant increase was observed for soluble solids, b{sup *} and enzymatic activity values in all treatments at the end of the storage

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-suppressive compounds from scrap cultivation beds of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Keiko; Kodani, Shinya; Kubo, Masakazu; Masuno, Kazuhiko; Sekiya, Atsushi; Nagai, Kaoru; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2009-08-01

    Four compounds were isolated from scrap cultivation beds of the mushroom, Hericium erinaceum. Compounds 1-4 were identified as methyl 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methylbutanoyl) benzoate, 2-chloro-1,3-dimethoxy-5-methylbenzene, methyl 4-chloro-3,5-dimethoxybenzoate, and 4-chloro-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde by an interpretation of the NMR and MS data, respectively. This is the first reported isolation of 1 from a natural source. All the compounds showed protective activity against endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent cell death.

  14. Usage of Edible Mushrooms in Various Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Süfer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using of edible mushrooms which are generally consumed in houses in dried form is based on mainly instant soup and sauce formulations. Recently, the cultivations of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species have become widespread. Utilization of these cultivated mushrooms in recipes would bring added value to related food products. For this purpose, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species farmed in Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Mushroom House were dried and then pulverized. Firstly, a snack was prepared with Agaricus bisporus powder. Agaricus bisporus powder was substituted for wheat flour at the rates of 5 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 % and thus the potential of food product which had relatively lower carbohydrate and fat level and higher fiber content was investigated. In the second part of the study, either 5 %, 10 % of Agaricus bisporus powder or 5 %, 10 % of Pleurotus ostreatus powder were added into traditional Turkish meatball (beef mince, salt which was cooked in conventional oven, so meat flavor could be replaced by herbal flavor coming from mushroom. This property mat obey the purpose that, the created new product will be consumed fondly especially by children. Sensory and physical (colour and texture analysis were performed in both snack and meatball samples and the results were evaluated statistically.

  15. Carnivorous mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, R G; Barron, G L

    1984-04-06

    Ten species of gilled fungi, including the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), have been shown to attack and consume nematodes. It is suggested that these wood-decay fungi utilize the nutrients in their prey to supplement the low levels of nitrogen available in wood. This mode of nutrition is similar in principle to that of carnivorous higher plants.

  16. Evaluation of {sup 222}radon occupational exposure in underground workplaces: tunnels used for mushroom cultivation in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, C.; Vecchiariello, S.; Angeloni, U. [Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity - Central Laboratory, ITALIAN RED CROSS, Rome (Italy); Trevisi, R.; Tonnarini, S. [Radon Measurement Laboratory - Department of Occupational Hygiene, ISPESL, Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The mushroom cultivation in tunnels represents a working activity with interesting characteristics from a radiological protection point of view. The practice of using tunnels or caves for the cultivation of mushrooms is diffused in many countries as well as in several Italian regions. These places are characterized by micro climate conditions (temperature, humidity, etc.) particularly adapted for the growth of mushrooms in every period of the year. This practice, like every working activity carried out in underground workplaces, is regulated by the Italian implementation of the European Union Basic Safety Standards (E.U. B.S.S., 1996). With the aim to evaluate the {sup 222}Rn exposure of workers in tunnels used for mushroom cultivation, a study has been undertaken. In particular, hygienic and micro climatic characteristics (depth, temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, ventilation, etc.) and radiometric parameters (indoor radon concentration, radon decay products concentration, equilibrium factor F) have been investigated. In the present paper, the results of the two steps of the study are reported. In the first step, an operative protocol has been defined: the protocol was put through a series of measurements in two tuff tunnels in the area of Rome. In the second step, several tunnels used for mushroom cultivation, located in different Italian regions, have been monitored and experimental data have been used to estimate annual effective doses of workers due to radon inhalation.The experimental results have been analyzed in the context of the E.U. B.S.S.

  17. CULTIVATION OF THE EDIBLE MUSHROOM OUDEMANSIELLA CANARII (JUNGH. HÖHN. IN LIGNOCELLULOSIC SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruegger Marcelo José Silveira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii (Jungh. Höhn is common in the Brazilian territory, being found in different biomas, where they colonize several plant species. In this study, the O. canarii cultivation was evaluated in polypropilene bags containing sugar-cane bagasse (200 g or eucalyptus sawdust (200 g supplemented with wheat bran (50 g. The composts were sterilized at 121ºC for 1 hour, after cooling they were inoculated with 3 g of spawn and then remained incubated at 25ºC until the basidiomata primordia formation. The mushrooms, harvested after the pilei opening, presented varied sizes reaching 9 cm of diameter and 10 cm of height. The fresh mushrooms presented mild taste and soft consistency. When kept at 4ºC, they maintained good appearance and good consistency for 7 days. In a period of 60 days, the largest basidiomata production was obtained in the compost with sugar-cane bagasse, showing greater productivity (4.47% ± 1.34, biological efficiency (55.66% ± 20.41 and compost consumption (38.78% ± 4.59 averages. Wilcoxon's non-parametric statistical analysis used to compare the biomass production in the two composts, showed significant differences at 5% significance level.

  18. Mineral Composition of Four Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Mallikarjuna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivated mushroom species, namely, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus florida and two wild growing species Lentinus cladopus and Pleurotus djamor were studied for their mineral contents such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Se, Pb, and Cd by Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES and also Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, (AAS. Phosphorus was estimated by spectrophotometric method. K, Ca, Na, and P were in higher concentrations ranging from 59.3 mg to 3634 mg, 8.27 mg–174.9 mg, 22.2 mg–327.4 mg, and 100.5 mg–769.9 mg/100 g dry weight respectively in the four mushroom species studied. Fe, Zn, Mg and Se were ranging from 6.27 mg to 35.3 mg, 1.58 mg–9.44 mg, 21.1 mg–40.7 mg and 0.048 mg–0.182 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively, amongst the mushroom species analyzed. However, Ni, Cu, and Mn contents showed relatively lower concentrations, whereas Pb and Cd were below detectable level. The mushrooms were safe for consumption, in accordance with the permissible tolerance limits of the estimated toxic metals. Implications of the mineral contents on mushroom nutritional value are highlighted.

  19. Study on Screening the High Yield Cultivating Formula for Agaricus bisporus using Spent Pleurotus Substrate%利用平菇菌糠栽培双孢蘑菇高产配方筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭学文; 解文强; 周廷斌; 吴志会; 忻龙怍; 蔡海燕

    2015-01-01

    为筛选以平菇菌糠和牛粪为主要原料栽培双孢蘑菇的最佳配方,设主料菌糠与牛粪质量比〔m (菌糠)∶m(牛粪)〕5∶5(处理Ⅰ)、6∶4(处理Ⅱ)、7∶3(处理Ⅲ)、8∶2(处理Ⅳ)和9∶1(处理Ⅴ)5个处理,以尿素、过磷酸钙和石膏为辅料,研究了菌糠与牛粪不同质量配比对培养料发酵情况、菌丝生长情况以及鲜菇产量的影响。结果表明:以平菇菌糠和牛粪为主要原料栽培双孢蘑菇时,菌糠与牛粪的最佳质量比为6∶4。该配比下,培养料发酵温度上升较快,发菌速度和菌丝生长速度快,菌丝长势最好,现蕾密度最大,产量最高,达到了11.80 kg/hm2。%In order to screen the optimal formula for cultivation of Agaricus bisporus using spent pleurotus substrate and dry cow dung as the main materials, the mass ratios of fungus chaff and cow dung were conducted by 5∶5, 6∶4, 7∶3, 8∶2, 9∶1, respectively, and the urea, superphosphate and gypsum were taked as accessories, then the effects of different mass ratios of fungus chaff and cow dung on fermentation, growth of mycelium and fresh mushroom yield were studied.The results showed that when Agaricus bisporus cultivated with spent pleurotus substrate and dry cow dung as the main materials, the optimum mass ratio of fungus chaff and cow dung was 6∶4.In the condition, fermentation temperature of culture rose faster, the fungus sped and mycelium grew rapidly, the density was maximum, the yield of fresh mushroom was highest, it reached 11.80 kg/hm2.

  20. The cultivation experiment of Pleurotus ostreatus%冻蘑人工栽培试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉璞; 张海军; 刘玉玻; 韩良成

    2002-01-01

    @@冻蘑(Pleurotus ostreatus)又称元蘑、粗皮侧耳、侧耳,为担于菌纲、伞菌目、侧耳科、侧耳属,分布于我国东北、华北、西北等地。冻蘑在吉林省东部山区每年9月至10月出现,菌肉肥厚,细嫩清香,营养丰富,……

  1. Bioconversion of biomass residue from the cultivation of pea sprouts on spent Pleurotus sajor-caju compost employing Lumbricus rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Abu Bakar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting is a green technology for the purpose of nutrient enrichment from a variety of organic waste products. In this study, saw dust-based spent mushroom compost (SMC, an organic waste and biomass residue, was used as a medium for the cultivation of pea sprouts. After harvesting the pea sprouts, the growth medium was reused to culture earthworms, Lumbricus rubellus. The culturing activity was conducted for 50 days without any pre-composting or thermocomposting. Thus duration of vermicomposting process was shortened as opposed to previous work on vermicomposting of saw dust-based SMC (no amendment for 70 days. The culturing treatments were conducted in triplicate, including one treatment without earthworms as the control. The analysis showed that concentrations of macronutrients in vermicompost were higher compared to controls, in which N = 4.12%, P = 2.07% and K = 1.56%. The C:N ratio was 11.77, which indicates a stabilisation and maturity of the organic waste compost, compared with the C:N ratio for the control, which was 59.34. At the end of the experiment, increment of total biomass and number of earthworms were observed and no mortality was recorded. The results suggested that vermicomposting could be used as an environmentally valuable technology to convert saw dust used for mushroom and pea sprouts cultivation into vermicompost or bio-fertiliser by employing L. rubellus.

  2. Transition pathway for climate-neutral mushroom cultivation. The agenda for a climate-neutral and economic effective mushroom cultivation in 2020; Transitiepad klimaatneutrale paddenstoelenteelt. De agenda voor een klimaatneutrale en economisch rendabele paddenstoelenteelt in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suurmeijer, J.M. [Grontmij, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Hilkens, J. [AdVisie, Herkenbosch (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    To realize the ambition of climate-neutral and economically viable mushroom cultivation in new businesses as of 2020, a vision and a transition pathway need to be developed. The energy saving options discussed in the report 'Onderzoek naar het energiezuinig paddenstoelenbedrijf anno 2010' ('Study of an energy efficient mushroom cultivation business in 2010') serve as starting point. Three transition pathways have been developed. Each transition pathway contributes to a future-proof mushroom cultivation sector, to increasing energy efficiency or to deployment of sustainable energy in the mushroom cultivation sector [Dutch] Voor het realiseren van de ambitie om vanaf 2020 in nieuwe bedrijven klimaatneutraal en economisch rendabel paddenstoelen te kunnen telen, dient een visie en een transitiepad te worden opgesteld. De energiebesparingsopties uit het rapport 'Onderzoek naar het energiezuinig paddenstoelenbedrijf anno 2010' dienen hierbij als uitgangspunt. Er zijn drie transitiepaden ontwikkeld. Elk transitiepad geeft zijn bijdrage aan een toekomstbestendige paddenstoelensector, aan het verhogen van de energie-efficiency of aan de toepassing van duurzame energie in de paddenstoelensector.

  3. Cultivation Techniques of Bailing Mushroom Factory Production%白灵菇工厂化生产技术要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩作成

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces cultivation techniques of Bailing mushroom factory production, according to the growth characteristics of Bailing mushroom. Factory production use modern facilities to provide the most suitable growth conditions for Bailing mushroom growth, in order to promote factory production of Bailing mushroom.%本文依据白灵菇的生长特性,详细介绍了白灵菇的工厂化生产特点,利用现代化的设施、设备,制定工厂化条件下的生产技术指标,确定生产中的关键管理技术,为白灵菇提供适宜的生长发育条件,促进白灵菇生产的规范化、标准化。

  4. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortei, N K; Dzogbefia, V P; Obodai, M

    2014-01-01

    Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7) weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P < 0.05), indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom.

  5. New sesquiterpenoids from the edible mushroom Pleurotus cystidiosus and their inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and PTP1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qiao-Qiao; Ma, Ke; Bao, Li; Wang, Kai; Han, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Jin-Xia; Huang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Hong-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Nine new sesquiterpenoids, clitocybulol derivatives, clitocybulols G-O (1-9) and three known sesquiterpenoids, clitocybulols C-E (10-12), were isolated from the solid culture of the edible fungus Pleurotus cystidiosus. The structures of compounds 1-12 were determined by spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-9 were assigned via the circular dichroism (CD) data analysis. Compounds 1, 6 and 10 showed moderate inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) with IC50 values of 49.5, 38.1 and 36.0μM, respectively.

  6. BLANCHING PROCESS OF OYSTER MUSHROOMS (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS) AND ITS EFFECT ON PARAMETERS OF TECHNOLOGICAL INTEREST IN ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    M. B. Vullioud; R. Rusalen; A. De Michelis

    2011-01-01

    A fin de ampliar la variedad de productos elaborados para el consumidor argentino a base de gírgolas u hongos ostra (Pleurotus ostreatus), se estudiaron los parámetros que rigen el proceso de escaldado, incluyendo la presencia de enzimas (polifenol oxidasas, peroxidasas) y variables físicas (densidad, pérdida de peso, contracción volumétrica). Las gírgolas estudiadas se caracterizaron con base en el peso húmedo (humedad: 88.89%; carbohidratos totales: 7.74%; proteína (nitrógeno total x 6.25):...

  7. Expression of hygromycin B resistance in oyster culinary-medicinal mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.:Fr.)P. Kumm. (higher Basidiomycetes) using three gene expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoya; Zhang, Ke; Gao, Yuqian; Qi, Yuancheng; Shen, Jinwen; Qiu, Liyou

    2012-01-01

    Three hygromycin B phosphotransferase (hph) gene expression systems for culinary-medicinal Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, plasmid pSHC, pAN7-1, and pBHt1 were evaluated through PEG/CaCl(2)-mediated protoplast transformation. Plasmid pSHC is a newly constructed hph gene expression system, composed of Escherichia coli hph gene, the P. ostreatus sdi promoter, and the CaMV35S terminator. The vector pAN7-1 was commonly used for integrative transformation in filamentous fungi. Plasmid pBHtl is a T-DNA binary vector, usually introduced into fungi by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The results showed that plasmids pSHC, pAN7-1, and pBHt1 were all integrated into the host chromosomes and expressed hygromycin B resistance in P. ostreatus. pAN7-1 had the highest transformation efficiency and hph gene expression level, pSHC the second, and pBHt1 the lowest. Growth rates of the transformants on plates containing hygromycin B were in correspondence with their hph gene expression levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report on integrated transformation of plasmid pAN7-1 and pBHt1 in P. ostreatus.

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts of the Oyster Culinary Medicinal Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) and Identification of a New Antimicrobial Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Ahmed M; Wu, Fang-Sheng; El Shikh, Hussien H

    2015-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible mushroom that also has high medicinal values. In this study, P. ostreatus was tested for its ability to inhibit the growth of fungi and bacteria. The freeze-dried fruiting body, broth from submerged culture, and mycelial biomass of P. ostreatus were extracted using alcohols and water as solvents. The extracts were then tested for their antimicrobial activity against the growth of fungi and bacteria. It was observed that the water extract from fruiting bodies had the strongest effect in inhibiting the growth of most fungi. The most sensitive test microfungi to the inhibition were Candida albicans, Cryptococcus humicola, and Trichosporon cutaneum, and the most sensitive test bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus followed by Escherichia coli. Water extracts from culture broth or mycelial biomass were moderately inhibitive to the growth of fungi and bacteria. The alcohol-based solvents from all samples had much less antimicrobial activity against most test microorganisms. An antimicrobial compound was purified from the water extracts of fruiting bodies with Sephadex G 100 column chromatography and characterized by infrared absorption spectrum (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectroscopic analysis. We have identified this compound to be 3-(2-aminopheny1thio)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid. This purified compound had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 30 µg/mL and 20 µg/mL against the growth of fungi and bacteria, respectively.

  9. Immunomodulating and Antiprotozoal Effects of Different Extracts of the Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Coccidiosis in Broiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Muhammad Irfan; Akhtar, Masood; Iqbal, Zafar; Shahid, Muhammad; Awais, Mian Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The culinary-medicinal oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, procured from local sources, was processed for hot water and methanolic extraction. Extracts obtained were subjected to proximate analysis to determine the amount of crude protein, crude fiber, ash, ether, and nitrogen-free extracts. These extracts were evaluated for immunomodulating and antiprotozoal effects against coccidiosis in a broiler. Cellular immune investigation revealed significantly higher (P ostreatus extracts compared with controls. Humoral immune investigation revealed higher immunoglobulin (total Ig, IgG, and IgM) titers against sheep red blood cells in treated groups compared with controls. However, nonsignificant (P > 0.05) findings were observed in investigations of lymphoid organs. Antiprotozoal studies revealed a significantly higher (P ostreatus extracts when compared with controls. Moreover, lesion scoring and oocysts per gram of droppings observed in the control group were significantly higher (P ostreatus. Results concluded that hot water and methanolic extracts of P. ostreatus had strong immune-enhancing activities. Further, these extracts also had excellent antiprotozoal activities against coccidiosis in a broiler.

  10. Potential applications of the white rot fungus Pleurotus in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Yu, Ch.; Gurevich, Yu. L.; Liu, H.

    Earlier we demonstrated the possibility of using soil-like substrate SLS for plant cultivation in bioregenerative life support systems BLSS We suggest dividing the process of SLS bioregeneration at BLSS conditions into two stages At the first stage plant residues should be used for growing of white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus Pleurotus florida etc The fruit bodies could be used as food Spent mushroom compost is carried in SLS and treated by microorganisms and worms at the second stage The possibility of extension of human food ration is only one of the reasons for realization of the suggested two-stage SLS regeneration scheme people s daily consumption of mushrooms is limited to 200 -250 g of wet weight or 20 -25 g of dry weight Multiple tests showed what is more important is that inclusion of mushrooms into the system cycle scheme contributes through various mechanisms to the more stable functioning of vegetative cenosis in general Taking into account the given experimental data we determined the scheme of mushroom module material balance The technological peculiarities of mushroom cultivation at BLSS conditions are being discussed

  11. Bioaugmentation of tar-contaminated soils under field conditions using Pleurotus ostreatus refuse from commercial mushroom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hestbjerg, H.; Willumsen, P.A.; Christensen, M.; Andersen, O.; Jacobsen, C.S. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2003-04-01

    The influence of the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on the degradation of selected poly- and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (referred to as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) in soil was investigated under field conditions representing the Northern temperate zone. Pleurotus ostreatus was added to two contaminated soils in the form of homogenized refuse from the commercial production of fungus. The soils were collected from a former shipyard (the B&W soil) and underneath a former coal tar storage at an old asphalt factory in Denmark (the Ringe soil). Treatments (control, soil mixed with autoclaved sawdust medium, and soil mixed with P. ostreatus refuse) were set up in triplicate in concrete cylinders (height, 50 cm; diameter, 60 cm). The activity of P. ostreatus was measured as laccase activity and phenanthrene (PHE)- and pyrene (PYR)-degrading bacteria were enumerated. Twenty-one different PAHs were quantified. After nine weeks the concentrations of the 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-ring PAHs in the Ringe soil were reduced by 78, 41, and 4%, respectively. These reductions corresponded with high initial laccase activity, a decrease in pH caused by the fungus, and an increase in the number of PHE- and PYR-degrading bacteria. No significant PAH degradation was observed in the B&W soil. Reasons for the difference in performance of P. ostreatus in the two soils are discussed in terms of soil histories and bioavailability. The use of P. ostreatus refuse holds promising potential for bioremediation purposes.

  12. Bioaugmentation of tar-contaminated soils under field conditions using Pleurotus ostreatus refuse from commercial mushroom production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestbjerg, Helle; Willumsen, Pia Arentsen; Christensen, Mette; Andersen, Ole; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2003-04-01

    The influence of the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on the degradation of selected poly- and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (referred to as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) in soil was investigated under field conditions representing the Northern temperate zone. Pleurotus ostreatus was added to two contaminated soils in the form of homogenized refuse from the commercial production of fungus. The soils were collected from a former shipyard (the B&W soil) and underneath a former coal tar storage at an old asphalt factory in Denmark (the Ringe soil). Treatments (control, soil mixed with autoclaved sawdust medium, and soil mixed with P. ostreatus refuse) were set up in triplicate in concrete cylinders (height, 50 cm; diameter, 60 cm). The activity of P. ostreatus was measured as laccase activity and phenanthrene (PHE)- and pyrene (PYR)-degrading bacteria were enumerated. Twenty-one different PAHs were quantified. After nine weeks the concentrations of the 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-ring PAHs in the Ringe soil were reduced by 78, 41, and 4%, respectively. These reductions corresponded with high initial laccase activity, a decrease in pH caused by the fungus, and an increase in the number of PHE- and PYR-degrading bacteria. No significant PAH degradation was observed in the B&W soil. Reasons for the difference in performance of P. ostreatus in the two soils are discussed in terms of soil histories and bioavailability. The use of P. ostreatus refuse holds promising potential for bioremediation purposes.

  13. Pleurotus eryngii of Technical specification for high efficiency cultivation and integration of factory bags%杏鲍菇工厂化袋式高效栽培集成技术规程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金小花; 陈易飞; 顾林男

    2015-01-01

    通过探索,形成了杏鲍菇工厂化袋式高效集成栽培技术规程:严格无菌操作过程;选择优良菌种与培养料配方,并按工厂化工艺要求进行菌种制备;在菌丝生长期、菇蕾诱导期及菇生长发育期,合理调控相应的温度、湿度、光照及CO2浓度.%The technical specification of high integrated cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii factory production by exploring:strict aseptic operation process; choose excellent strains and culture material formula , according to the factory production process requirements for preparation of strain; in the mycelial growth stage, fruitbody primordium induction stage and mushroom growth and development stage, reasonable regulation and control of temperature, humidity, light and CO2 concentration.

  14. Uso de peróxido de hidrogênio e ácido cítrico na conservação de cogumelos Pleurotus sajor-caju in natura Use of hydrogen peroxide and citric acid for conservation of fresh Pleurotus sajor-caju mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Moncaio Moda

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Os cogumelos comestíveis Pleurotus sajor-caju apresentam uma delicada consistência, alto teor de umidade e aroma característico, sendo comercializados no varejo, preferencialmente in natura. Sua vida útil pode variar entre 2 a 7 dias, em função da umidade relativa e tmperatura de armazenamento. Neste trabalho, os cogumelos frescos foram imersos durante 2 minutos nas soluções de peróxido de hidrogênio, ácido cítrico e água destilada, drenados, acondicionados em bandejas de poliestireno e embalados em filme plástico. As bandejas foram mantidas sob refrigeração a 4°C e avaliou-se a cor, firmeza e variação de massa dos cogumelos no primeiro, quinto e décimo dia de armazenamento, após os tratamentos. Ocorreram perdas de firmeza e massa, bem como o escurecimento dos cogumelos em todos os tratamentos nas avaliações do quinto e décimo dia. Portanto, os tratamentos utilizados não apresentaram resultados satisfatórios na manutenção da firmeza, cor e massa dos cogumelos Pleurotus sajor-caju in natura nas concentrações utilizadas.The mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju are usually avaliable in natura and according to the storage conditions, it's shelf life varies from 3 to 7 days. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the increase of fresh mushrooms'shelf life by immersion into citric acid solution, hydrogen peroxide solutions and distilled water. Fresh mushrooms were immersed in these solutions for 2 minutes, dried, packed in trays and kept under refrigeration (4°C for 10 days. Color, texture and loss mass of the mushrooms were evaluated in the first, fifth and tenth days. A yellowish colour in the mushrooms appeared and their texture and mass decreased. The global aspect of the immersed mushrooms had no difference compared to the control; thus the process of immersion into different solutions did not extend the shelf life of fresh mushrooms.

  15. Potential of Cultivated Ganoderma lucidum Mushrooms for the Production of Supplements Enriched with Essential Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, Piotr; Mleczek, Mirosław; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Siwulski, Marek; Gąsecka, Monika

    2016-03-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is an important medicinal mushroom species and there is continuous interest in its bioactive properties. This study evaluated whether it may additionally serve as a nutritional supplement for the trace elements: selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Mushrooms were cultivated on substrates enriched with 0.1 to 0.8 mM of inorganic Se alone or in combination with Zn and/or Cu. Supplementation increased accumulation of the elements in fruiting bodies regardless of the applied cultivation model. G. lucidum demonstrated the ability to accumulate significant amounts of organic Se, maximally amounting to (i) over 44 mg/kg when the substrate was supplemented only with Se, (ii) over 20 mg/kg in the Se+Cu model, (iii) over 25 mg/kg in the Se+Zn model, and (iv) 15 mg/kg in the Se+Cu+Zn model. The accumulation of Cu and Zn steadily increased with their initial substrate concentrations. Maximum concentrations found after supplementation with 0.8 mM amounted to over 55 mg/kg (Se+Zn) and 52 mg/kg (Se+Cu+Zn) of Zn, and 29 mg/kg (Se+Cu) and over 31 mg/kg (Se+Cu+Zn) of Cu. The greater the supplemented concentration and number of supplemented elements, the lower the biomass of G. lucidum fruiting bodies. Nevertheless, it still remained high when the substrate was supplemented up to 0.4 mM with each element. These results highlight that G. lucidum can easily incorporate elements from the substrate and that, when biofortified, its dried fruiting bodies may serve as a nutritional source of these essential elements.

  16. Aflatoxin B1 degradation during co-cultivation of Aspergillus flavus and Pleurotus ostreatus strains on rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arijit; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Palaniswamy, Muthusamy; Angayarkanni, Jayaraman

    2015-06-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced by Aspergillus flavus is known to have carcinogenic and teratogenic effects on animal health. Accidental feeding of AFB1-contaminated rice straw may be detrimental to dairy cattle. White-rot basidiomycetous fungus Pleurotus ostreatus can grow on different agronomic wastes by synthesizing different ligninolytic enzymes. These extracellular enzymes are capable of degrading many environmentally hazardous compounds including AFB1. The present study examines the ability of different strains of P. ostreatus to degrade AFB1 in contaminated rice straw. Different strains of A. flavus were inoculated on rice straw for AFB1 production. The moldy straw was then subjected to co-cultivation by different strains of P. ostreatus. The extent of AFB1 degradation was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results indicated the presence of AFB1 in the moldy straw samples at levels of 27.95 ± 0.23 and 21.26 ± 0.55 µg/g of dry substrate for A. flavus MTCC 2798 and A. flavus GHBF09, respectively. Co-cultivation of P. ostreatus strains on AFB1-contaminated rice straw revealed their ability to rapidly colonize the substrate by profuse hyphal ramification. Highest degradation of AFB1 (89.41 %) was recorded in the straw containing co-cultures of A. flavus MTCC 2798 and P. ostreatus GHBBF10. Natural isolate P. ostreatus GHBBF10 demonstrated higher AFB1-degradation potential than P.ostreatus MTCC 142. This basidiomycete strain can be further exploited to effectively degrade moderate concentrations of AFB1 in contaminated moldy rice straw.

  17. Influence of the cultivation conditions on ligninolytic enzyme production in Pleurotus pulmonarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The highest level of laccase activity (391 Ul-1, as well as significant Mn-oxidizing peroxidases production, were found in solid-state culture with grapevine sawdust as the carbon source. After purification of extracellular crude enzyme mixture of Pleurotus pulmonarius, grown in the medium with the best carbon source (grapevine sawdust, three peaks of laccase activity were noted. The results obtained by purification also showed that the levels of phenol red oxidation, in absence of external Mn2+, were higher than phenol red oxidation levels in presence of external Mn2+. The highest laccase activity was in the medium with grapevine sawdust, as carbon source, and NH4Cl at a nitrogen concentration of 30 mM (441 Ul-1. The best nitrogen source for Mn-oxidizing peroxidase production was NH4NO3 at nitrogen concentration of 30 mM. The highest laccase activity was found in the presence of 5 mM Cu2+, and 5 mM Mn2+, respectively. The absence of Cu2+ and Mn2+, as well as their presence at the concentration of 1 mM, led to the peaks of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases activities. Zn2+ and Fe2+ caused a decrease, and Se, in all investigated forms, an increase of laccase and peroxidases activities.

  18. Cultivation of Flammulina velutipes mushroom using various agro-residues as a fruiting substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraishah Harith

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of different agro-residues as a carbon source in the fruiting substrates of Flammulina velutipes mushroom and the effect of supplementation with the nitrogen sources spent brewer's yeast and rice bran. The following fruiting substrates were evaluated: rubber wood sawdust (SD, paddy straw (PS, palm empty fruit bunches (EFB, and palm-pressed fiber (PPF. Cultivation was done on each agro-residue, based on formulations consisting of two substrates at the ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. Mycelial growth rate and basidiocarp yield were evaluated. The best fruiting substrates were PS+EFB (25:75, PS+PPF (50:50, and PPF (100, with biological efficiency of 185.09±36.98, 150.89±50.35, and 129.06±14.51%, respectively. No significant effects of supplementation with rice bran and spent yeast were observed on mycelial growth rate and biological efficiency. The cultivation of F. velutipes on oil palm wastes does not require additional nitrogen sources.

  19. Evaluation of edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii cultivation on different lignocellulosic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Li, Zhiming; Liu, Yu; Rong, Chengbo; Wang, Shouxian

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the mycelial growth rate, mycelial colonization time, yield, and biological efficiency of the edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii were determined, and the effects of different substrate combinations on productivity, chemical contents and amino acids were evaluated. Lignocellulosic wastes, such as cottonseed hull, sawdust, corncob, and their combinations supplemented with 18% wheat bran and 2% lime, were used for the cultivation of O. canarii. The biological efficiency (BE) and essential amino acid content of treatment T1, which consisted of 80% cottonseed hull, were the highest among all the tested treatments. Mixtures that included sawdust, such as treatments T2 (80% sawdust), T4 (40% sawdust + 40% cottonseed hull), and T6 (40% sawdust + 40% corncob), exhibited lower yield and BE. Corncob was good for O. canarii production in terms of yield and BE, whereas the mycelial growth rate and colonization time were lower compared to those on other substrates. Comparing the BE, essential amino acids, and other traits of the six treatments, treatment T1 (80% cottonseed hull) was the best formula for O. canarii cultivation and should be extended in the future.

  20. Evaluation of edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii cultivation on different lignocellulosic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the mycelial growth rate, mycelial colonization time, yield, and biological efficiency of the edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii were determined, and the effects of different substrate combinations on productivity, chemical contents and amino acids were evaluated. Lignocellulosic wastes, such as cottonseed hull, sawdust, corncob, and their combinations supplemented with 18% wheat bran and 2% lime, were used for the cultivation of O. canarii. The biological efficiency (BE and essential amino acid content of treatment T1, which consisted of 80% cottonseed hull, were the highest among all the tested treatments. Mixtures that included sawdust, such as treatments T2 (80% sawdust, T4 (40% sawdust + 40% cottonseed hull, and T6 (40% sawdust + 40% corncob, exhibited lower yield and BE. Corncob was good for O. canarii production in terms of yield and BE, whereas the mycelial growth rate and colonization time were lower compared to those on other substrates. Comparing the BE, essential amino acids, and other traits of the six treatments, treatment T1 (80% cottonseed hull was the best formula for O. canarii cultivation and should be extended in the future.

  1. Effects of Eryngii mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) and Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance, immunity and disease resistance of Pangasius catfish (Pangasius bocourti, Sauvage 1880).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doan, Hien; Doolgindachbaporn, Sompong; Suksri, Amnuaysilpa

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Eryngii mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii (PE), and Lactobacillus plantarum single or combined on growth, innate immune response and disease resistance of the Pangasius catfish, Pangasius bocourti. Two hundred forty fish were divided into four treatments, i.e., 0 g kg(-1) PE (Control, Diet 1), 3 g kg(-1) PE (Diet 2), 10(8) cfu g(-1) L. plantarum (Diet 3) and 3 g kg(-1) PE + 10(8) cfu g(-1) L. plantarum (Diet 4). Fish were culture in glass tanks with water volume approximately of 150 l, and each treatment had four replications with 15 fish per replication. Following 30, 60 and 90 days of the feeding trial, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum lysozyme, phagocytosis and respiratory burst activities were measured. SGR and FCR were significantly improved in fish fed supplemented diets after 90 days of the feeding trial. Serum lysozyme, phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of fish were significantly stimulated by both PE and L. plantarum diets; however, the highest innate immune response was observed in fish fed synbiotic diet. At the end of the experiment, five fish were randomly selected for a challenge test against Aeromonas hydrophila. The post-challenge survival rate of the fish fed supplemented diets was significantly greater than the control treatment, and the highest post-challenge survival rate was observed in synbiotic diet. The results revealed that dietary supplementation of PE and L. plantarum stimulated growth, immunity and disease resistance of the P. bocourti.

  2. PROS AND CONS OF P. FLORIDA CULTIVATION FOR MANAGING WASTE OF HANDMADE PAPER AND CARDBOARD INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Shweta Kulshreshtha, Nupur Mathur, and Pradeep Bhatnagar

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of utilizing handmade paper and cardboard industrial sludges in the production of edible mushrooms involves risk of introducing toxic substances into the human food chain. Therefore, in the present study, genotoxic assessment of P. florida (Pleurotus florida) cultivated on these industrial sludges and their combination with wheat straw was done by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA100. Interestingly, P. florida carpophores, cultivated on wheat straw did not sh...

  3. A Study on Cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus with Residue Medium of Hypericum perforatum%用贯叶金丝桃余渣种平菇的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏; 吴盛铨; 姜怀春; 陈光洪; 邹国林

    2001-01-01

    要提取金丝桃素后的贯叶金丝桃余渣作培养基适合于种平菇,在有的方面比用棉籽壳及锯木屑分别栽培的平菇品质更好,是一种新的,较好的培养基原料。%The residue medium of Hypericum perforatum after extraction of hyperforin was suitable for cultivation of Pleurot us ostreatus and in some aspects the quality of Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated with this residue medium was better than that of the same species cultivated with cotton shell and sawdust media,so the residue medium of Hy pericum perforatum was a new and good medium.

  4. Haematopoiesis radioprotection in Balb/c mice by an aqueous mycelium extract from the Basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauradó, G; Morris, H J; Tamayo, V; Lebeque, Y; Beltrán, Y; Marcos, J; Moukha, S; Creppy, E E; Bermúdez, R C

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the radioprotective activity of an aqueous extract from Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium administered to Balb/c mice. Male mice were whole-body irradiated on day 0 ((60)Co, at 0.43 Gy/min) and divided into two groups. The extract was administered intraperitoneally to one group (100 mg/kg) on days - 10 to - 6 and - 2 to +1 with respect to the irradiation. The irradiated-control group was injected with saline solution; non-irradiated mice were used as negative controls. The radioprotective effect was evident by increases in bone marrow cellularity (5.1 × 10(6)/femur vs. 1.1 × 10(6)/femur in saline-control mice, p < 0.05), leucocyte counts (10.5 × 10(9)/L vs. 4.5 × 10(9)/L, p < 0.05), and spleen cellularity (11.2 × 10(7)/spleen vs. 6.2 × 10(7)/spleen, p < 0.05). The extract stimulated macrophage phagocytic activity as judged by a faster rate of carbon clearance in terms of absorbance ratios (1.62 vs. 2.01, p < 0.05). Therefore, this extract may be a candidate therapeutic agent with radioprotective activity for haematopoiesis damage, particularly to cells involved in immune function.

  5. Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes), Growth in Grain-Based Diet Improves Broiler Chicken Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mateus P; Marcante, Rafael C; Santana, Thiago T; Tanaka, Henrique S; Funari, Pascoal; Alberton, Luiz R; Faria, Eliete V; Valle, Juliana S; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A

    2015-01-01

    Many alternative compounds have been tested to improve poultry performance but few of them have previously used mycelial-colonized substrate to partially replace standard diet in broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to evaluate broiler chicken production, health, and meat sensory characteristics, with partial replacement of the standard diet by Pleurotus ostreatus-colonized substrate. One hundred fifty 1-day-old male Cobb chicks were given standard diet partially replaced by 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 g·kg⁻¹ of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate and randomly distributed into five treatments. Each treatment had three replicates, with 10 birds per replicate, totaling 30 birds. The replacement of the standard diet by 10 g·kg⁻¹ of colonized substrate increased (P≤0.05) chicken body mass up to 57% at 21 days, and up to 28% at 42 days. In general, partial replacement of standard diet by colonized substrate increased hematocrits and typical lymphocytes, and reduced low density lipoproteins. Also, it reduced chicken production period up to 21% and there is no meat taste alteration. The use of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate in chicken feeding is an alternative method to improve broiler chicken production.

  6. Comparing Treatment Methods of Apple Tree Chips in Terms of Mycelia Growth of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. P. Kumm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jablonský

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we chemically treated apple tree chips and evaluated the colonisation of these substrates by the mycelium of Pleurotus. ostreatus. Chips were treated by a liquid surfactant Empigen OB (0.02 – 0.32 %, calcium hydroxide Ca(OH2 (1 – 3 % and sodium hypochlorite NaClO (0.5 – 1.5 %, and by their combinations. Substrates treated with a combination of the Empigen and NaClO reached the pH values of 6.5, with a combination of the Empigen and hydroxide, pH values did not exceed 7.9. Significantly higher gains of P. ostreatus mycelium 15 days after inoculation were found for the substrate treated with 2 % Ca(OH2 and in the substrate treated with 0.08 % Empigen. The majority of substrates treated with the combination of NaClO and the Empigen showed significantly higher mycelium gains 15 days after inoculation compared to the control. The best results were obtained with the combination 0.08 % Empigen + 1.5 % NaClO. These results indicate positive synergic effect of the Empigen and NaClO. Collectively, treatment of the substrate based on apple tree chips by surfactant Empigen, Ca(OH2 and NaClO (apart from the combination of the surfactant and Ca(OH2 seem to be a suitable approach for substrate preparation.

  7. 秀珍菇P21菌株的生物学特性及栽培技术要点%Biological characteristics and key cultivation techniques of Pleurotus geesteranus P_(21)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林显芬; 陈政明

    2011-01-01

    Pleurotus geesteranus P21 stain which possesses development prospect,was selected after many years of introduction and trail cultivation.This paper introduced the biological characteristics and key cultivation techniques of Pleurotus geesteranus P21.%经多年的引种、试验,选育出具有开发利用前景的秀珍菇P21菌株,该文简要介绍其生物学特性及栽培技术。

  8. Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sposina S. Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR, Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN, Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR, and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR. The colour removal was evaluated by considering dye concentration, reaction time, absence or presence of the mediator ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, and the source of laccase. The presence of ABTS was essential for decolourisation of DMR (80–90%, 1 h and RBBR (80–90%, 24 h with both laccases. The use of ABTS was not necessary in reactions containing DMBLR (85–97%, 1 h and DMBBLN (63–84%, 24 h. The decolourisation of DMBBLN by commercial laccase showed levels near 60% while the crude extract presented 80% in 24 h.

  9. Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina S; Pereira, Patrícia Maia; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana S

    2010-11-01

    Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR), Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN), Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR), and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR). The colour removal was evaluated by considering dye concentration, reaction time, absence or presence of the mediator ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and the source of laccase. The presence of ABTS was essential for decolourisation of DMR (80-90%, 1 h) and RBBR (80-90%, 24 h) with both laccases. The use of ABTS was not necessary in reactions containing DMBLR (85-97%, 1 h) and DMBBLN (63-84%, 24 h). The decolourisation of DMBBLN by commercial laccase showed levels near 60% while the crude extract presented 80% in 24 h.

  10. Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina S.; Pereira, Patrícia Maia; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana S.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR), Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN), Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR), and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR). The colour removal was evaluated by considering dye concentration, reaction time, absence or presence of the mediator ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and the source of laccase. The presence of ABTS was essential for decolourisation of DMR (80–90%, 1 h) and RBBR (80–90%, 24 h) with both laccases. The use of ABTS was not necessary in reactions containing DMBLR (85–97%, 1 h) and DMBBLN (63–84%, 24 h). The decolourisation of DMBBLN by commercial laccase showed levels near 60% while the crude extract presented 80% in 24 h. PMID:21052547

  11. Polyporus tenuiculus: a new naturally occurring mushroom that can be industrially cultivated on agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarini, Alejandra; Lechner, Bernardo E; Albertó, Edgardo

    2009-05-01

    Polyporus tenuiculus is a naturally occurring species from Central and South America that is consumed by different ethnic groups in the region. To determine the optimal conditions for fruiting body production, two strains were assayed on wheat straw and sawdust with or without supplements. Sixty days of incubation at 25 degrees C were needed to produce a solid block. The highest yield was obtained with strain ICFC 383/00 grown on supplemented willow sawdust. In a second experiment the strain ICFC 383/00 and different supplements were used to improve the biological efficiency (BE) and to determine the quality traits and its biodegradation capacity. The highest yields were obtained on sawdust with 25% of supplements reaching 82.7% of BE. Supplements raised the number of flushes, generally from four to five, contributing to increased yields. The type of substrate had a significant effect on fruiting body diameters of P. tenuiculus, and the largest mushrooms were harvested on supplemented substrate with the highest BE coinciding with the highest dry matter loss in substrates. P. tenuiculus showed a capacity to degrade sawdust, causing a decrease of 67.2-74.5% in cellulose, 80.4-85.7% in hemicellulose, and 60.6-66.2% in lignin content at the end of the cultivation cycle. The decrease in hemicellulose was relatively greater than that of cellulose and lignin on supplemented substrates. This is the first report of the cultivation of P. tenuiculus on lignocellulosic waste, and it is a promising species both for commercial production and for its potential use in the degradation of other biowastes.

  12. Pathogenic variation in isolates of Pseudomonas causing the brown blotch of cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abou-Zeid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven bacterial isolates were isolated from superficial brown discolorations on the caps of cultivated Agaricus bisporus. After White Line Assay (WLA and the assist of Biolog computer-identification system, isolates were divided into groups: (I comprised ninteen bacterial isolates that positively responded to a Pseudomonas "reactans" reference strain (NCPPB1311 in WLA and were identified as Pseudomonas tolaasii, (II comprised two isolates which were WLA+ towards the reference strain (JCM21583 of P. tolaasii and were proposed to be P. "reactans". The third group comprised six isolates, two of which weakly responded to the strain of P. tolaasii and were identified as P. gingeri whereas the other four were WLA- and identified as P. fluorescens (three isolates and P. marginalis (one isolate. Isolates of P. tolaasii showed high aggressiveness compared with those of P. "reactans" in pathogenicity tests. Cubes of 1 cm³ of A. bisporus turned brown and decreased in size when were inoculated with 10 µl of P. tolaasii suspension containing 10(8 CFU ml-1, whereas a similar concentration of P. "reactans" caused only light browning. Fifty µl of the same concentration of P. tolaasii isolates gave typical brown blotch symptoms on fresh mushroom sporophores whereas the two P. "reactans" isolates caused superficial light discoloration only after inoculation with 100 µl of the same concentration. Mixture from both bacterial suspensions increased the brown areas formed on the pileus. This is the first pathogenicity report of P. tolasii and P. "reactans" isolated from cultivated A. bisporus in Egypt.

  13. 河北省常栽平菇种质资源评价%Evaluation on Germplasm of Oyster Mushroom Cultivated in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 王朝江; 杨红敏; 高春燕

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the germplasm of oyster mushroom cultivated in Hebei province and find high-quality strains to be used as breeding samples, eighty-three oyster mushroom strains were collected. Antagonistic test of the 83 strains were employed to identify the same strain with different names. Internal Transcribe Spacer ( ITS) of the tested strains were sequenced to identify the molecular species. Mycelial growth rate on two natural substrates and antibacterial action to Trichoderma of the vegetative incompatible strains was determined. The results showed that the 83 tested strains were divided into 31 vegetative com⁃patibility groups including 15 strains of Pleurotus ostreatus,9 strains of P.floridanus,2 strains of P.cornu⁃copiae,one strain of P.pulmonarius and 4 strains of uncertain species. Two strains were screened that were most suitable for growing on cottonseed hull and two strains on cotton stalk. Seven strains were showed ex⁃cellent resistance to Trichoderma.These strains can be used as excellent samples for future breeding study.%为了解河北省栽培平菇种质资源情况,同时发掘优异种质资源,更好的为平菇育种工作提供基础材料,本研究收集了河北省常栽的平菇品种共83株,通过拮抗试验对其“同物异名”菌株进行初步鉴定;基于ITS序列分析进行分类鉴定.并进一步对体细胞营养非亲和菌株的天然基质生长速率、抗霉力等部分生物学特性进行了测定分析.结果表明:河北省平菇栽培品种“同物异名”现象较为严重,经拮抗试验将83个平菇菌株划分为31个不同营养亲和群;经ITS序列比对分析,31个体细胞营养非亲和菌株中包括15株糙皮侧耳( Pleurotus ostreatus)、9株佛州侧耳( P. floridanus)、2株白黄侧耳( P. cornucopiae)、1株肺形侧耳( P. pulmonarius)及4株未界定种;经生物学特性分析筛选出了2株棉籽壳基质生长最适宜菌株和2

  14. [Treatment of coloured industrial effluents with Pleurotus spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Suyén; Fernández, Maikel; Bermúdez, Rosa C; Morris, Humberto

    2003-12-01

    The decolouration of fermentation residues (vinasse) and liquid extract of coffee pulp by the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus was studied in addition to laccase activity. The fungus was inhibited in both residues when they remained undiluted. In submerged cultivation on wastewaters a good production of biomass (14.8 g/l for vinasse and 5.4 g/l for extract of coffee pulp) and also laccase activity (14.1 U/ml for vinasse and 3.0 U/ml for extract of coffee pulp) up to the 10 days of fermentation was observed, being significantly greater in the culture with vinasse. It was shown that treatment with this mushroom reduces both the chemical oxygen demand and the colour, contributing to their biological treatment.

  15. Cultural Characteristics and Log-Mediated Cultivation of the Medicinal Mushroom, Phellinus linteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Hyun

    2008-06-01

    The optimal conditions for mycelial growth of Phellinus linteus ATCC 26710 were determined to be a log length of 20 cm, temperature of 30℃ and pH of 6.0. Mycelial growth was excellent on the mushroom complete medium, and was optimal when sucrose, mannose and glucose were supplied as carbon sources. Potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate as nitrogen sources supported good mycelial growth. To evaluate P. linteus mycelial colonization on logs, sterilized short log inoculation, drilling inoculation and log-end sandwich inoculation techniques were used. Only sterilized short log inoculation produced good mycelial colonization. Initial mycelial growth and full mycelial colonization were best on 20 cm logs having 42% moisture content. The initial mycelial growth of P. linteus was accelerated over 12 hr of sterilization. Basidiocarp formation was optimal using a burying method of logs after 5~6 months, and fruiting body formation was superior in cultivation house conditions of 31~35℃ and in excess of 96% relative humidity.

  16. Ultrastructural Studies of Raw and Processed Tissue of the Major Cultivated Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinki, E. M.; Stemberger, B.; Walsh, R.; Kilara, A.

    1984-01-01

    Commercial mushroom processors currently lose approximately 30 percent of the mushroom weight due to shrinkage during processing (blanching and canning) , resulting in substantial economic losses . Microscopy was used to assess the extent and type of chemical and structural changes induced by processing mushrooms and causing shrinkage. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the processing operations including vacuum hydration , blanching , and thermal treatment do not damage the integrity...

  17. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of acetonitrile and hexane extracts of Lentinus tigrinus and Pleurotus djamour

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper highlighted the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Lentinus tigrinus and Pleurotus djamour. Extracts of mushroom fruiting bodies were obtained using hexane and acetonitrile solvents. Acetonitrile extracts of both mushrooms exhibited higher biological activities than hexane extrac...

  18. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-11-15

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation. Gamma, electron-beam and UV irradiation have been shown to be potential tools in extending the postharvest shelf-life of fresh mushrooms. Studies evaluating the effects of ionizing radiation are available mainly in cultivated species such as Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. This review comprises a comprehensive study of the effects of irradiation on physico-chemical parameters (weight, colour, texture and pH), chemical compounds including nutrients (proteins, sugars and vitamins) and non-nutrients (phenolics, flavonoids and flavour compounds), and on biochemical parameters such as enzymatic activity of mushrooms for different species and from different regions of the world.

  19. Preparation of a Fully Degraded Packaging Material by Using the Mushroom Cultivation Technology%食用菌制全降解包装材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚舒; 牛宏震; 林理量; 苏鑫; 陈万通; 林毅; 曾德芳

    2015-01-01

    In order to diminish the contamination of non -degradable plastic packaging waste on the environment,the straw and wood chips was used as the main raw materials,aided by mushroom cultivation technology,a new type of packaging material which can be completely degraded and is pollution free and cost-effective,was produced.The manufacturing method is simple and suitable for industrialized production. In this experiment,comparison methods are used to study the effect of different ratio of raw materials on my-celial's growth.The result shows that in the ratio of 57% straw,30%wood chips,10% wheat bran,1%gypsum and 2% lime,the mycelium cultivated by pure culture of pleurotus ostreatus is most abundant and has best firmness.By waterproof test and comparing the cushioning property of the materials,we find that the biomass material can totally replace EPS (expanded polystyrene),EPE (expanded polyethylene)and other packaging materials.Meanwhile,the biomass material can be fully degraded in the soil and provide organic fertilizer for soil.%为了解决不可降解的废弃塑料类包装材料对环境的污染,以秸秆和木屑为主要原料,利用食用菌栽培技术制备了一种新型的、可完全降解的包装材料。采用对比实验的方法,研究了不同原料配比对菌丝生长情况的影响,结果表明,在秸秆57%、木屑30%、麸皮10%、石膏1%、石灰2%的配比下,选用平菇菌种栽培的培养基菌丝体含量最多,紧实度最好。通过材料的防水性能测试和缓冲性能比较,表明该生物质材料完全可以替代 EPS(发泡聚苯乙烯)和 EPE (发泡聚乙烯)等包装材料。同时,该生物质材料在土壤中可实现完全降解,为土壤提供有机肥料。

  20. Lignocellulolytic enzymes profile during growth and fruiting of Pleurotus ostreatus on wheat straw and tree leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Penninckx, Michel J

    2008-06-01

    Cultivation of two commercial Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) strains was performed in plastic bags. Tree leaves appeared to be an excellent growth substrate for the conversion into fruiting bodies with biological efficiency of 108-118%. The level of enzyme activity was strongly regulated during the life cycle of mushrooms. However, despite the quantitative variations, each strain had a similar pattern of enzyme accumulation in fermentation of both substrates. Laccase and MnP activities were high during substrate colonization and declined rapidly during fruiting body development. On the contrary, in substrate colonization P. ostreatus expressed comparatively low activity of hydrolases. When primordia appeared, the activity of these enzymes sharply increased. Both cellulase and xylanase activity peaked at the mature fruiting body stage. When mushrooms shifted to the vegetative growth, the activity of ligninolytic enzymes again gradually increased, whereas the activity of hydrolases decreased.

  1. A Preliminary Study of Cultivation in Bag with Apple Pomace on Pleurotus geesteranus%苹果渣袋料栽培秀珍菇试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘姿彤; 王延峰; 刘海荣; 史磊; 潘春磊; 孙靖轩; 王金贺

    2013-01-01

    An experiment of cultivation in bag with apple pomace on Pleurotus geesteranus for the effective utili-zation of agricultural waste resources .On the basis of different apple pomace proportion ,it designed 5 treat-ments and the treatment without apple pomace as the control .The results showed that the addition of apple pomace in cultivating material could make the growth of mycelium fast ,improve the biological transfer rate and yield of Pleurotus geesteranus .So ,it was feasible to product Pleurotus geesteranus with apple pomace .When apple pomace in the cultivating material was 35% ,the growth status of mycelium was great ,there was maximal with biological transfer rate and yield .When apple pomace in the material was 50% ,the growth speed of myce-lium was the fastest .There was high pollution rate when apple pomace in the cultivating material was more than 65% .%  为有效利用农业废弃资源,使用苹果渣进行袋料栽培秀珍菇试验。根据栽培料中苹果渣比例的不同设置5个处理,以无苹果渣为对照。结果表明:栽培料中添加苹果渣可以加快秀珍菇菌丝生长速度,并提高其生物学转化率和产量。因此,将苹果渣作为替代料来生产秀珍菇切实可行。当栽培料中苹果渣含量为35%时,菌丝生长状况良好,生物学转化率和产量最高;当苹果渣含量为50%时,菌丝生长最快;当苹果渣含量超过65%时污染率过高。

  2. Influence of low dose of gamma radiation and storage on some vitamins and mineral elements of dried oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortei, Nii Korley; Odamtten, George Tawia; Obodai, Mary; Wiafe-Kwagyan, Michael; Addo, Edward Adotey

    2017-05-01

    Mushrooms contain some of the most potent natural medicines on the planet. Vitamins A, C, D, Mineral elements, contents, as well as total soluble solids (Brix(o)) of dried composition of Pleurotus ostreatus were investigated after exposing to gamma radiation doses of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 kGy at a dose rate of 1.7 kGy per hour in air from a Cobalt 60 source (SLL 515, Hungary) batch irradiator prior to storage (0 month) and after storage (12 months) at room temperature (28 ± 2°C). Results obtained showed some significant (p differences due to irradiation and storage. Before storage, vitamins A, C, and D contents of dried and irradiated mushrooms ranged 0.003 ± 0.08-0.014 ± 0.08, 0.042 ± 1.06-0.132 ± 1.06, and 0.040 ± 0.76-0.057 ± 0.76 mg/g, respectively. After 12 months, vitamin contents decreased and ranged 0.0029 ± 0.08-0.010 ± 0.08, 0.038 ± 1.06-0.125 ± 1.06, and 0.031 ± 0.76-0.05 ± 0.76 mg/g for vitamins A, C, and D, respectively. Total soluble solids recorded 1.5 Brix(o), however, showed no significant difference (p > .05) and did not change in 12 months after gamma irradiation up to 2 kGy. Sodium ranged from 14.00 ± 0.7 to 14.90 ± 0.8 mg/100 g. Potassium content varied from 30.20 ± 0.5 to 33.10 ± 0.6 mg/100 g. Magnesium content ranged 1.27 ± 0.15-3.53 ± 0.04 mg/100 g. Calcium ranged 11.00 ± 0.4-12.53 ± 0.4 ± 0.03 mg/100 g. Phosphorus content ranged 6.11 ± 0.30-6.41 ± 0.35 mg/100 g, whereas Nitrogen content was found to be 3.00 ± 0.03-3.60 ± 0.25 mg/100 g. Microelements or heavy metals included Copper; detected ranged 0.00 ± 0.00-0.02 ± 0.001 mg/100 g, Zinc content ranged 0.01 ± 0.002-0.03 ± 0.001 mg/100 g. Iron content was found to be in the range 0.29 ± 0.01-0.37 ± 0.1 mg/100 g. Manganese content was found to be in the range 0.03 ± 0.001-0.04 ± 0.01 mg/100 g. Lead content was found to be 0.00 ± 0.00-0.03 ± 0.001

  3. Utilización de Residuos Forestales Lignocelulósicos para Producción del Hongo Ostra (Pleurotus ostreatus) Use of Lignocellulosic Forest Residues for Oyster Mushroom Production (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    OpenAIRE

    María T Varnero; Madelaine S Quiroz; Cristian H Álvarez

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió el potencial de distintos residuos forestales como sustrato para el cultivo del hongo Pleurotus ostreatus. Para ello, se analizó la composición química de estos residuos, antes y después de la etapa de cosecha, y se midieron distintas variables fenológicas y morfológicas así como el rendimiento y la calidad de los cuerpos fructíferos de Pleurotus ostreatus tras la cosecha. Se fijaron cuatro tratamientos: astillas de álamo, astillas de eucalipto, mezcla de paja de trigo y eucalipto,...

  4. Development of crossbreeding high-yield-potential strains for commercial cultivation in the medicinal mushroom Wolfiporia cocos (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaozhao; Wang, Xiaoxia; Bian, Yinbing; Xu, Zhangyi

    2016-07-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is a well-known medicinal mushroom, and its dried sclerotia has been widely used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Asian countries for centuries. However, long-term asexual reproduction of the breeding system in W. cocos results in a current universal degeneration of cultivated strains. To develop a W. cocos breeding program that will benefit commercial cultivation, we previously developed an optimum method for indoor induction of W. cocos fruiting bodies and clarified the nature of preponderant binuclear sexual basidiospores. In this paper, we first show that the majority of W. cocos single-spore isolates cannot form sclerotium in field cultivation. We then investigated the possibility of breeding new strains by crossbreeding. Three types of mating reactions were observed in both intra-strain pairings and inter-strain pairings, and a total of fifty-five hybrids were selected by antagonistic testing and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Field cultivation of hybrids demonstrated that some hybrids can form sclerotium via two cultivated methods. Two new high-yield strains were identified. This report will stimulate new thinking on W. cocos and promote further extensive studies on crossbreeding in W. cocos, a new topic related to the development of more efficient protocols for the discrimination of hybrids in W. cocos.

  5. Climate Management System for mushroom cultivation (CMMC). First phase. Inventory and functional design; Klimaat Managementsysteem Champignonteelt (KMC). 1e fase. Inventarisatie en functioneel ontwerp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielen, J.H. [DLV Plant, Horst (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    This report describes the feasibility and the opportunities of developing a Climate Management System for Mushroom Cultivation (CMMC) software package, based on which a decision can be made to proceed with the realization of phase 2 of the project, i.e. the actual construction of the CMMC for mushroom cultivation [Dutch] Deze rapportage beschrijft de haalbaarheid en de mogelijkheden van de ontwikkeling van een KMC software pakket, op basis waarvan besloten kan worden tot de realisatie van fase 2 van het project, de daadwerkelijke bouw van de KMC voor de champignonteelt.

  6. Effects of Different Inoculation Amount on Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivation Using Fermented Corncob Compost and Semi-processed Materials in Early Autumn%不同接种量对早秋玉米芯发酵料及发酵半熟料栽培平菇的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春弘; 李九英; 魏银初; 班新河; 王震

    2013-01-01

    为确定平菇栽培的最佳接种量,分别以玉米芯发酵料和发酵半熟料为栽培基质,研究不同接种量对早秋季节平菇栽培的茵丝长势、污染率、茵丝满袋时间、首次采菇时间、子实体特征和产量、生物学效率、原料成本、菌种成本、产品销售价格及利润率的影响.结果表明:利用玉米芯发酵料栽培平菇茵株新831,接种量为栽培干料质量的13.6%时,平均生物学效率为74.99%,利润率最高,为158.41%;利用发酵半熟料栽培平菇茵株99,接种量为栽培干料质量的4.4%时,平均生物学效率为91.99%,利润率最高,为281.99%.不同的接种量,生产出的平菇子实体形态无明显变化.%In order to determine the optimum inoculation amount of Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation,the fermented corncob compost and semi-processed materials were used as culture substrate.The influence of different inoculation amount on the growth of hyphae,pollution rate,hyphal pocketful time,the first harvesting time,mushroom fruiting characteristics and yield,biological efficiency,the cost of raw materials,strain cost,the product sales price and profit rate in early autumn cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus were studied.The results showed that when Pleurotus ostreatus strain(new 831) was cultivated by fermented corncob compost and the inoculation amount was 13.6% of cultivated dry weight,the average biological efficiency was 74.99 %,with the highest profit margin of 158.41~when Pleurotus ostreatus strain(99) was cultivated by fermented and semi-processed materials and the inoculation amount was 4.4% of cultivated dry weight,the average biological efficiency was 91.99%,with the highest profit margin of 281.99%.The morphology of new produced fruiting body had no obvious change under different inoculation amount.

  7. Effects of Some Beneficial Bacteria in Casing Soil on Growth and Yield of Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çetin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the interaction between some bacteria naturally existing in casing soil and Agaricus bisporus (Sylvan Hauser A15 hypha in laboratory (in vitro and cultivation (in vivo conditions, and to confirm its effects on mushroom yield. Totally 32 bacteria (3 Gram (+ and 29 Fluorescent Pseudomonads was isolated from casing soil and healthy sporophores. As a result of in vitro experiment carried out to determine the effects of bacteria on mycelium growth of A. bisporus, 24 bacterial isolates were found more effective at the rate of 2 to 115% than control treatment. To determine the effects of bacterium, chosen at the end of in vitro experiments, on mushroom yield in cultivation conditions, three experiments were established in March, May and July in 2008. At the end of experiments, bacterial isolates provided 8 – 40 % increase in total yield. Population density and change in population number related to time was observed during growing period, after the inoculation of bacterial isolates into casing soil. According to the results, Pseudomonas fluorescens (T 4/2 and Ş 8, P.putida (Ş 2/1 and Ş 10 and Bacillus mycoides (T 7/2 bacterial isolates were colonized successfully both in casing soil and sporophores.

  8. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus Using Potato Residue%利用马铃薯渣栽培糙皮侧耳

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑安波; 杨立宾; 杨艳华; 郭盈; 高方

    2012-01-01

    以马铃薯渣和农作物秸秆为原料进行糙皮侧耳(Pleurotus ostreatus)栽培试验.结果表明:当马铃薯渣(折合干重)和秸秆(玉米芯)质量比为1∶2时,出菇潮次多、产量高、生物转化率高且商品品质好.

  9. 河南省栽培平菇品种的种质资源评价%Evaluation of germplasm resources with cultivated Pleurotus spp.strains in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申进文; 赵旭; 李燕; 关园园; 王震; 戚元成; 张金霞

    2011-01-01

    Using the methods of antagonism reaction, esterase isozyme electrophoresis analysis, ISSR and ITS sequence analysis, studies on the taxonomic identification and genetic diversity were conducted with the 61 cultivated Pleurotus spp. Strains in Henan province. They were divided into 13 vegetative compatibility groups according to antagonism reaction. The esterase isozyme electrophoresis analysis showed that the isozymograms of the non-antagonism strains showed no difference. However, the esterase isozymograms of 13 strains chosen from 13 vegetative compatibility groups were different. 106 loci were amplified through ISSR augmented, and the percentage of polymorphism loci (P) was 95.4%. The sequence amplified from the 13 chosen strains with ITS primer blasted and showed that one of the 13 strains is Pleurotus ostreatus, 4 strains are Pleurotus florida, 1 strain is Pleurotus pulmonarius and 7 strains are Pleurotus conucopinus. The results of cultivation indicated that the morphological characteristics of these 13 strains were significantly different and they can be separated into different species of Pleurotus, but no obvious difference was observed in the strains in the same vegetative compatibility groups. The results showed that 61 cultivated Pleurotus spp. Strains in Henan Province belong to 13 vegetative compatibility groups in four Pleurotus types, besides, with a rich genetic diversity.%通过拮抗试验,将供试的61个菌株划分为13个营养亲和群,酯酶同工酶电泳显示同一营养亲和群的菌株其同工酶带型一致.而从13个营养亲和群中分别选出1个菌株,酯酶同工酶分析,具有丰富的多态性;ISSR扩增共获得106个位点,多态性位点比例(P)为95.4%;对13个菌株进行ITS扩增,扩增片段测序比对结果表明,13个菌株中1株为糙皮侧耳(Pleurotus ostreatus)、1株为肺形侧耳(Pleurotus pulmonarius)、4株为佛罗里达侧耳(Pleurotus florida)、7株为白黄侧耳(Pleurotus cornucopiae

  10. Yield and nutritional composition of oyster mushroom strains newly introduced in Bangladesh Produtividade e composição nutricional de linhagens de cogumelo‑ostra recentemente lançadas em Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostak Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and chemical composition of oyster mushroom strains newly introduced in Bangladesh. Strains of Pleurotus high‑king (strain PHK, P. ostreatus (strain PO2, and P. geesteranus (strains PG1 and PG3 were evaluated as to yield components and proximate composition. Pleurotus ostreatus was used as control. Pleurotus high‑king showed fastest growth of primordia, but moderate flush of effective fruiting bodies. Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1 showed higher economic yield and biological performance, and better chemical composition, especially in terms of protein and mineral contents. Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1 shows better performance than P. ostreatus (PO2, the most commercially cultivated edible species in Bangladesh, and, therefore, it should be recommended for commercial cultivation.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e a composição química de linhagens de cogumelo‑ostra introduzidas recentemente em Bangladesh. Linhagens de Pleurotus high‑king (linhagem PHK, P. ostreatus (linhagem PO2 e P. geesteranus (linhagens PG1 e PG3 foram avaliadas quanto aos componentes da produção e à composição proximal. Pleurotus ostreatus foi utilizado como controle. Pleurotus high‑king apresentou rápido crescimento de primórdios, mas fluxo moderado de corpos de frutificação efetivos. Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1 apresentou maior produtividade econômica e desempenho biológico, além de melhor composição química, especialmente em termos de conteúdos de proteína e minerais. Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1 apresenta melhor desempenho que P. ostreatus (linhagem PO2, a espécie comestível mais cultivada comercialmente em Bangladesh, e, portanto, deve ser recomendado para plantio comercial.

  11. The Determination of Pleurotus diamor Agronomic Characters%红平菇(Pleurotus diamor)培育条件和栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊芳; 朱坚; 邓优锦; 谢宝贵

    2011-01-01

    The variety characteristics of and cultivation techniques for Pleurotus diamor were elaborated on the morphological characteristics, growth and development, agronomic characteristics, cultivation mode, cultivation substrates, vaccination management and the mushroom management and so on. The result of the study showed that the fruit body of Pleurotus diamor clusters, composed of the cap and the lateral stipe. Pleurotus diamor fit clinker bag cultivation and tube caltivation, and it also fits raw material bag cultivation and bed cultivation. The temperature for hypha growth should be controlled at 28 X to 30 ℃. The space humidity should be controlled at about 75% and cultivated in the dark environment. The optimal temperature for primordium differentiation is 18 ℃ to 25 ℃, the temperature for the fruit body development is 20 ℃, to 28 ℃.%从形态特征、生长与发育、农艺性状、栽培方式、栽培基质、接种管理和出菇管理等几方面阐述红平菇的品种特性及其栽培技术要点.研究得出:红平菇子实体丛生,由菌盖和侧生菌柄构成;适宜熟料袋栽或菌筒栽培,也可进行生料袋栽或床栽;菌丝生长温度控制在28~30℃、空间湿度控制在75%左右、于黑暗环境中培养;原基分化的适宜温度为18~25℃,子实体发育温度20~28℃.

  12. 棉柴部分代替棉籽壳栽培杏鲍菇技术研究%Cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii with Cotton Stalk Instead of Cottonseed Hull

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭学文; 周廷斌; 解文强; 吴志会

    2016-01-01

    [目的]寻求价格低廉的物料代替棉籽壳栽培杏鲍菇,降低杏鲍菇培养料的成本。[方法]以杏鲍菇1218为试验材料,以棉籽壳为主的培养料为对照,采用一定比例的棉柴替代棉籽壳设置不同的培养料配方处理,研究不同棉柴比例对菌丝生长速度和鲜菇产量的影响。[结果]以棉柴40%、棉籽壳40%、麦麸15%、豆饼粉3%、石膏粉1%、石灰粉1%为配方的培养料处理经济效益最高,产投比为2.28。[结论]该研究可为杏鲍菇生产提供新的思路。%Objective] To find a cheap material to replace cottonseed hull for the cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii, and to reduce the cost of cul-ture medium for P.eryngii.[Method] With P.eryngii 1218 as the test material, cultivation material mainly containing cottonseed hull was used as the control.A certain proportion of cotton stalk was used to take the place if cottonseed hull, so as to design the substrate composition.Effects of cotton stalk proportion on the hypha growthand fresh mushroom yield were studied .[ Result] The optimal substrate composition was 40% cot-ton stalk, 40% cottonseed hull, 15% wheat bran, 3% bean powder, 1% gesso, and 1% lime powder.It could obtain the maximum economic benefit; and the ratio of output-input was 2.28.[Conclusion] This research provides new idea for the production of P.eryngii.

  13. Vitamin B12 is the active corrinoid produced in cultivated white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Sang-Chul; Cho, Kai Yip; Pang, Gerald

    2009-07-22

    Analysis of vitamin B(12) in freshly harvested white button mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus ) from five farms was performed by affinity chromatography and HPLC-ESI-MS techniques. The vitamin B(12) concentrations obtained varied from farm to farm, with higher concentrations of vitamin B(12) detected in outer peel than in cap, stalk, or flesh, suggesting that the vitamin B(12) is probably bacteria-derived. High concentrations of vitamin B(12) were also detected in the flush mushrooms including cups and flats. HPLC and mass spectrometry showed vitamin B(12) retention time and mass spectra identical to those of the standard vitamin B(12) and those of food products including beef, beef liver, salmon, egg, and milk but not of the pseudovitamin B(12), an inactive corrinoid in humans. The results suggest that the consumer may benefit from the consumption of mushroom to increase intake of this vitamin in the diet.

  14. Production of biomass and polysaccharides of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt. :Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), by submerged cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habijanic, Jozica; Berovic, Marin; Boh, Bojana; Wraber, Branka; Petravic-Tominac, Vlatka

    2013-01-01

    Submerged batch and repeated fed-batch cultivation techniques were used for mycelia cultivation and polysaccharide production of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Although most publications use various Asiatic G. lucidum strains, the growth of the strain Ga.l 4 (Biotechnical Faculty Strain Collection, Ljubljana, Slovenia), originally isolated from the Slovenian forest, is much faster. The results between the batch and repeated fed-batch cultivation are compared with the polysaccharide production in batch cultivation. From the aspect of biomass production, the best results were obtained in repeated fed-batch after 44 days, where 12.4 g/L of dry fungal biomass was obtained.

  15. Agaricus blazei production on non-composted substrates based on sunflower seed hulls and spent oyster mushroom substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Matute, R; Figlas, D; Curvetto, N

    2011-06-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill is usually cultivated using the same biphasic composting method employed for A. bisporus. Because cultivation of A. blazei on traditional A. bisporus composts poses some disadvantages, non-composted substrates were studied for A. blazei cultivation. Mycelial growth rate and productive performance of A. blazei were evaluated on substrates containing sunflower seed hulls, Pleurotus spp. spent mushroom substrate, or their combination, in the absence or in the presence of different supplements (vermicompost, peat or brewery residues). Substrates were prepared by initially soaking them and then they were sterilized (1 atm for 120 min). In addition, each substrate's degradation was measured after cultivation by obtaining the lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, organic matter, total fiber, ash, carbon and nitrogen contents before spawn-run and at the end of two flushes of A. blazei. The cultivation of A. blazei on non-composted substrates is possible and with a low rate of contamination when using the spent mushroom substrate as the main component or combined 50:50 with sunflower seed hulls. In addition, the best yields were obtained on those substrates containing spent Pleurotus mushroom substrate with supplements and those mixtures with sunflower seed hulls and vermicompost. These yields were similar to those reported on composted substrates. Substrate changes in composition measured at the end of two flushes indicate that the lignin-hemicellulose fraction was preferentially used and that the substrates exhibiting the best yield showed greater biodegradation of lignin-hemicellulose fraction than the others did.

  16. High Yield Cultivation Technology of Pleurotus abalonus%鲍鱼菇高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨念福

    2011-01-01

    @@ 鲍鱼菇(Pleurotus abalonus)又叫黑鲍菇、台湾平菇,是我国新推广的一种中高温型食用菌.鲍鱼菇是一种适于春末夏初和夏末秋初季节栽培出菇的食用菌,菌肉肥厚,菌柄粗壮,脆嫩可口,风味独特,营养丰富.因而,鲍鱼菇成为一种深受消费者欢迎的美味佳肴.

  17. 冬季平菇生产栽培料对比试验%Comparison of Three Cultivated Materials for Pleurotus ostreatus in Winter Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安冬; 赵彩云; 徐鹏

    2014-01-01

    We studied the effects of three cultivated materials, processed raw material, semi-processed raw material and non-processed raw material, on the yield and biotransformation rate of Pleurotus ostreatus. The results showed that, P. ostreatus cultivated on semi-processed raw material had basically the same yield and biotransformation rate as that on processed material. In addition, the semi -processed material had the advantages of energy saving and convenient operation, so the semi-processed material could be applied in the winter production of P. ostreatus.%比较了熟料、半熟料、生料3种不同栽培料对平菇的产量和生物转化率的影响。试验结果表明,半熟料栽培平菇的头三潮产量和生物转化率同熟料栽培基本相同;相对于熟料栽培,其优点是节约能源,便于操作,因此,在冬季平菇栽培中具有一定应用推广价值。

  18. Role of Bacillus spp. in antagonism between Pleurotus ostreatus and Trichoderma harzianum in heat-treated wheat-straw substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Cedeño, Marnyye; Farnet, Anne Marie; Mata, Gerardo; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to identify bacteria involved in Trichodermaharzianum inhibition while promoting Pleurotus ostreatus defences in order to favour cultivation-substrate selectivity for mushroom production. PCR-DGGE profiles of total DNA from wheat-straw substrate showed weak differences between bacterial communities from substrate inoculated with P. ostreatus with or without T. harzianum. The major cultivable bacteria were isolated from three batches of wheat-straw-based cultivation substrates showing an efficient selectivity. They were screened for their ability to inhibit T.harzianum. By using specific media for bacterial isolation and by sequencing certain 16S-rDNA, we observed that Bacillus spp. were the main inhibitors. Among them, a dominant species was identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa. This species was co-cultivated on agar media with P. ostreatus. The measurement of laccase activities from culture plugs indicated that P. polymyxa induced increases in enzyme activities. Bacillus spp. and specifically P. polymyxa from cultivation substrates are implicated in their selectivity by both inhibiting the growth of T.harzianum and stimulating defences of the mushroom P. ostreatus through the induction of laccases. The management of microbial communities during P.ostreatus cultivation-substrate preparation in order to favour P. polymyxa and other Bacillus spp. growth, can be a way to optimize the development of P. ostreatus for mushroom production or other environmental uses of this fungus.

  19. Effect of supplementing crop substrate with defatted pistachio meal on Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Giménez, Arturo; Catalán, Luis; Carrasco, Jaime; Álvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego; Pardo, José

    2016-08-01

    This work assesses the agronomic performance of defatted pistachio meal, after oil extraction, as a nutritional substrate supplement when growing the mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. Materials were applied at different doses at spawning. Along with non-supplemented substrates, commercial nutritional supplements were used as controls. Proximate analysis of mushrooms is also considered. For the cultivation of champignon, defatted pistachio meal has provided larger mushrooms (unitary weight and cap diameter) with firmer texture and greater content in dry weight and protein, without significant alterations in quantitative parameters. For Pleurotus ostreatus, the supplement led to significant yield increase, even providing up to 34.4% of increment compared to non-supplementation with meal, reaching a biological efficiency of 129.9 kg dt(-1) , when applied to the 15 g kg(-1) compost dose. Supplementation has also been conducted to increase dry weight, protein and fibre within carpophores and to decrease the energy value. Defatted pistachio meal has similar or better results compared to the commercial supplements used as reference. Compost supplementation with defatted pistachio meal in A. bisporus concerns mainly the quantitative parameters (size, texture, dry weight and protein). Based on the results obtained, this technique has greater potential of development for P. ostreatus commercial crops, basically due to expected increases in production, with a direct impact on benefits and crop profitability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Bacterial diversity in spent mushroom compost assessed by amplified rDNA restriction analysis and sequencing of cultivated isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Zervakis, Georgios I; Kavroulakis, Nektarios; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

    2004-11-01

    Spent mushroom compost (SMC) is the residual by-product of commercial Agaricus spp. cultivation, and it is mainly composed of a thermally treated cereal straw/animal manure mixture colonized by the fungal biomass. Research on the valorization of this material is mainly focusing on its use as soil conditioner and plant fertilizer. An investigation of the bacterial diversity in SMC was performed using molecular techniques in order to reveal the origin of SMC microflora and its potential effect on soil microbial communities after incorporation into agricultural soils. The bacterial population was estimated by the plate count method to a mean of 2.7 10(9) colony forming units (cfu) per g of dry weight, while the numbers of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were 1.9 10(9) and 4.9 10(8) cfu per g dw respectively as estimated by enumeration on semi-selective media. Fifty bacterial isolates were classified into 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) following ARDRA-PCR of the 16S rDNA gene. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA amplicon assigned 12 of the 14 OTUs to Gram-positive bacteria, associated with the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Exiguobacterium, Staphylococcus, Desemzia, Carnobacterium, Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter and Microbacterium of the bacterial divisions Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Two bacterial groups have phylogenetic links with the genera Comamonas and Sphingobacterium, which belong to beta-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes respectively. Two potentially novel bacteria are reported, which are associated with the genera Bacillus and Microbacterium. Most of the bacteria identified are of environmental origin, while strains related to species usually isolated from insects, animal and clinical sources were also detected. It appears that bacterial diversity in SMC is greatly affected by the origin of the initial material, its thermal pasteurization treatment and the potential unintended colonization of the mushroom substrate during the cultivation process.

  1. Standard cultivation techniques for producing green food of white mushroom%双孢蘑菇绿色食品标准化栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林程

    2012-01-01

    结合农业科技标准化项目进行蘑菇绿色食品生产模式的栽培研究,从绿色食品蘑菇的栽培环境、栽培基质选择、栽培期管理、病虫害防治,以及采收、包装、贮运等主要环节提出双孢蘑菇绿色食品标准化栽培技术。%Combined with agro-technological standardization,the green food production model of mushroom was studied.This paper put forward standard cultivation technique of white mushroom based on some main links such as cultivate environment,growing media selection,management in cultivating-stage,prevention and control of diseases and insect pests,harvest,packing,storage and transportation,and so on.

  2. Sensory Evaluation and Textural Properties of Mushroom Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Lu; Yuqin Chen; Chengyun He; Jia Li; Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Fresh mushroom was used as primary material to produce mushroom sausages and their qualities was assessed by sensory evaluation and textural analysis. The processing procedures include clean, slice, blanch, crush and pulp, add accessories, stuff, heat and cool. Ingredients for mushroom sausage are mushroom 100, chicken 0~10, soybean protein isolate 10, corn starch 10, oil 2, spice 2.4, salt 1, sugar 1 and carrageenan 0.8. The optimal mushroom for sausage processing is Pleurotus nebrodensis an...

  3. 棉秆粉碎料栽培平菇的配方研究%Medium Formula for Cultivating Oyster Mushroom in Crushed Cotton Stalks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国; 田泽国

    2012-01-01

    以棉秆粉碎料为平菇栽培主要基质,用棉籽壳等作对照进行栽培试验,从菌丝生长状况、出菇性能、生物转化率和平菇的商品性状等方面进行对比分析.结果表明:棉秆粉粹料与棉籽壳混合栽培平菇具有菌丝生长旺盛、出菇性能良好、生物转化率较高、商品性状良好等优点,最佳配方为:棉秆粉碎料50%,棉籽壳35%,麦麸15%.%Using crushed cotton stalks as main material for cultivation of oyster mushroom, cotton seed hull as the contrast to comparatively analyze mycelium growth, fruiting, biotransformation and commercial properties of oyster mushroom. The results showed that the oyster mushroom cultivated in medium of cotton stalks grooming operative material and cotton seed hull grew better, and the advantages were as follows: more thriving mycelium growth, more fruiting, a higher rate of biotransfonnation and better commercial properties. Tlie best medium formula for oyster mushroom cultivation were 50% cotton stalks crushing, 35% cotton seed hull and 15% wheat bran.

  4. Co-cultivation of mutant Penicillium oxalicum SAU(E)-3.510 and Pleurotus ostreatus for simultaneous biosynthesis of xylanase and laccase under solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Pallavi; Vivekanand, V; Pareek, Nidhi; Sharma, Amit; Singh, Rajesh P

    2011-10-01

    Co-cultivation of mutant Penicillium oxalicum SAU(E)-3.510 and Pleurotus ostreatus MTCC 1804 was evaluated for the production of xylanase-laccase mixture under solid-state fermentation (SSF) condition. Growth compatibility between mutant P. oxalicum SAU(E)-3.510 and white rot fungi (P. ostreatus MTCC 1804, Trametes hirsuta MTCC 136 and Pycnoporus sp. MTCC 137) was analyzed by growing them on potato dextrose agar plate. Extracellular enzyme activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Under derived conditions, paired culturing of mutant P. oxalicum SAU(E)-3.510 and P. ostreatus MTCC 1804 resulted in 58% and 33% higher levels of xylanase and laccase production, respectively. A combination of sugarcane bagasse and black gram husk in a ratio of 3:1 was found to be the most ideal solid substrate and support for fungal colonization and enzyme production during co-cultivation. Maximum levels of xylanase (8205.31 ± 168.31 IU g(-1)) and laccase (375.53 ± 34.17 IU g(-1)) during SSF were obtained by using 4 g of solid support with 80% of moisture content. Furthermore, expressions of both xylanase and laccase were characterized during mixed culture by zymogram analysis. Improved levels of xylanase and laccase biosynthesis were achieved by co-culturing the mutant P. oxalicum SAU(E)-3.510 and P. ostreatus MTCC 1804. This may be because of efficient substrate utilization as compared to their respective monocultures in the presence of lignin degradation compounds because of synergistic action of xylanase and laccase. Understanding and developing the process of co-cultivation appears productive for the development of mixed enzyme preparation with tremendous potential for biobleaching.

  5. Evaluation of productivity and antioxidant profile of solid-state cultivated macrofungi Pleurotus albidus and Pycnoporus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambato, Gabriela; Todescato, Kelly; Pavão, Elisa Maria; Scortegagna, Angélica; Fontana, Roselei Claudete; Salvador, Mirian; Camassola, Marli

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the production profile of Pleurotus albidus and Pycnoporus sanguineus on different waste substrates containing natural phenolics, and also to investigate whether phenolic-rich substrates can improve the phenolic content of these macrofungi. The medium formulated with Pinus sp. sawdust (PSW) made possible the highest yields (2.62±0.73%) of P. sanguineus. However, the supplementation of PSW with apple waste (AW) resulted in better P. albidus yields (23.94±2.92%). The results indicated that the substrate composition affected macrofungi production, also the chemical composition and the presence of phenolic compounds in the production media influence phenolic content and antioxidant activity in macrofungi.

  6. Pleurotus eryngii Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Kawai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii is consumed as a fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. eryngii in mice with acute lung injury (ALI. Intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS (10 μg/site/mouse induced marked lung inflammation (increase in the number of inflammatory cells, protein leakage, and production of nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as histopathological damage in the lung, 6 h after treatment. Mice administered heat-treated P. eryngii (0.3–1 g/kg, p.o. (HTPE 1 h before LPS challenge showed decreased pulmonary inflammation and ameliorated histopathological damage. These results suggest that HTPE has anti-inflammatory effects against ALI. Thus, P. eryngii itself may also have anti-inflammatory effects and could be a beneficial food for the prevention of ALI induced by bacterial infection.

  7. Degradation of aflatoxin B1 from naturally contaminated maize using the edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lauren W; Pryor, Barry M

    2017-12-01

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic secondary metabolites that can contaminate approximately 25% of crops and that cause or exacerbate multiple adverse health conditions, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South and Southeast Asia. Regulation and decontamination of aflatoxins in high exposure areas is lacking. Biological detoxification methods are promising because they are assumed to be cheaper and more environmentally friendly compared to chemical alternatives. White-rot fungi produce non-specific enzymes that are known to degrade aflatoxin in in situ and ex situ experiments. The aims of this study were to (1) decontaminate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in naturally contaminated maize with the edible, white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) using a solid-state fermentation system that followed standard cultivation techniques, and to (2) and to assess the risk of mutagenicity in the resulting breakdown products and mushrooms. Vegetative growth and yield characteristics of P. ostreatus were not inhibited by the presence of AFB1. AFB1 was degraded by up to 94% by the Blue strain. No aflatoxin could be detected in P. ostreatus mushrooms produced from AFB1-contaminated maize. Moreover, the mutagenicity of breakdown products from the maize substrate, and reversion of breakdown products to the parent compound, were minimal. These results suggest that P. ostreatus significantly degrades AFB1 in naturally contaminated maize under standard cultivation techniques to levels that are acceptable for some livestock fodder, and that using P. ostreatus to bioconvert crops into mushrooms can reduce AFB1-related losses.

  8. Komparasi Laju Pertumbuhan Miselium Jamur Tiram Putih (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr Kummer pada Komposisi Media Bibit (F3 dan Baglog yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUDARMA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate comparison of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex FrKummer mycelium in the composition of different seed (F3 and baglog media . Cultivation ofoyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr Kummer has grown rapidly along with the increasein income and health awareness. Oyster mushrooms growing need for media with a particular compositionin order to grow optimally. Oyster mushroom production is determined by the quality of the seeds (F3is used, which is sourced from the media with good quality and composition. The research aimed todetermine the rate of growth of white oyster mushroom mycelium in the different composition of seedmedium (F3 (sawdust: fine bran: corn flour: CaCO3 . The experiments was conducted at nurseriesand oyster mushroom development, Jl. Siulan Gang Zella No. 7 Denpasar, from June to August 2013.Each treatment contained 50 bottles, and 10 bottles only used as a sample, in environmental conditionswith temperature and humidity ranges, 20-29oC and 59-86% respectively . T-test was used todifferentiate the growth rate of white oyster mushroom mycelium with different compositions. Theresults showed that seeds (F3 derived from the growing media composition, sawdust (1 week old:fine bran: corn flour: CaCO3 (10:4:2:0,5 significantly different and better than the composition sawdust(age 1 month : fine bran: corn flour (20:2:1:0.5, with a growth rate of mycelium in a mean 6.14±0.56cm/week and 1,81±0,82 cm/week, respectively. Spawn running in baglog with media composition10:4:2:0.5 was 2.77±1.22cm/week, but with composition media 20:2:1:0.5 mycelium could not grow.Effect of temperature and humidity on the growth rate of white oyster mushroom mycelium in seedmedia (F3 is not significantly.

  9. Komparasi Laju Pertumbuhan Miselium Jamur Tiram Putih (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr Kummer pada Komposisi Media Bibit (F3 dan Baglog yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUDARMA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate comparison of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex FrKummer mycelium in the composition of different seed (F3 and baglog media . Cultivation ofoyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr Kummer has grown rapidly along with the increasein income and health awareness. Oyster mushrooms growing need for media with a particular compositionin order to grow optimally. Oyster mushroom production is determined by the quality of the seeds (F3is used, which is sourced from the media with good quality and composition. The research aimed todetermine the rate of growth of white oyster mushroom mycelium in the different composition of seedmedium (F3 (sawdust: fine bran: corn flour: CaCO3 . The experiments was conducted at nurseriesand oyster mushroom development, Jl. Siulan Gang Zella No. 7 Denpasar, from June to August 2013.Each treatment contained 50 bottles, and 10 bottles only used as a sample, in environmental conditionswith temperature and humidity ranges, 20-29oC and 59-86% respectively . T-test was used todifferentiate the growth rate of white oyster mushroom mycelium with different compositions. Theresults showed that seeds (F3 derived from the growing media composition, sawdust (1 week old:fine bran: corn flour: CaCO3 (10:4:2:0,5 significantly different and better than the composition sawdust(age 1 month : fine bran: corn flour (20:2:1:0.5, with a growth rate of mycelium in a mean 6.14±0.56cm/week and 1,81±0,82 cm/week, respectively. Spawn running in baglog with media composition10:4:2:0.5 was 2.77±1.22cm/week, but with composition media 20:2:1:0.5 mycelium could not grow.Effect of temperature and humidity on the growth rate of white oyster mushroom mycelium in seedmedia (F3 is not significantly.

  10. The potential of organic substrates based on mushroom substrate and straw to dissipate fungicides contained in effluents from the fruit-packaging industry - Is there a role for Pleurotus ostreatus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Panagiotis A; Makri, Sotirina; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2016-02-01

    Citrus fruit-packaging plants (FPP) produce large wastewater volumes with high loads of fungicides like ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) and imazalil (IMZ). No methods are in place for the treatment of those effluents and biobeds appear as a viable alternative. We employed a column study to investigate the potential of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of Pleurotus ostreatus, either alone or in mixture with straw and soil plus a mixture of straw /soil to retain and dissipate IMZ and OPP. The role of P. ostreatus on fungicides dissipation was also investigated by studying in parallel the performance of fresh mushroom substrate of P. ostreatus (FMS) and measuring lignolytic enzymatic activity in the leachates. All substrates effectively reduced the leaching of OPP and IMZ which corresponded to 0.014-1.1% and 0.120-0.420% of their initial amounts respectively. Mass balance analysis revealed that FMS and SMS/Straw/Soil (50/25/25 by vol) offered the most efficient removal of OPP and IMZ from wastewaters respectively. Regardless of the substrate, OPP was restricted in the top 0-20cm of the columns and was bioavailable (extractable with water), compared to IMZ which was less bioavailable (extractable with acetonitrile) but diffused at deeper layers (20-50, 50-80cm) in the SMS- and Straw/Soil-columns. PLFAs showed that fungal abundance was significantly lower in the top layer of all substrates from where the highest pesticide amounts were recovered suggesting an inhibitory effect of fungicides on total fungi in the substrates tested. Our data suggest that biobeds packed with SMS-rich substrates could ensure the efficient removal of IMZ and OPP from wastewaters of citrus FPP.

  11. Cultivation of three medicinal mushroom species on olive oil press cakes containing substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Gregori, Andrej; Pohleven, Franc

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil press cakes (OOPC) represent a waste that has a negative impact on environment. OOPC have little or no use and because of that solutions for their alternative use are sought after. In our experiments we investigated substrate mixtures composed of different proportions of OOPC, wheat bran, crushed corn seeds and beech sawdust for cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes and Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies. The increasing amount of OOPC in fruiting bodies cultivation subst...

  12. EVALUACIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO Y PRODUCCIÓN DE Pleurotus ostreatus SOBRE DIFERENTES RESIDUOS AGROINDUSTRIALES DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE CUNDINAMARCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia López-Rodríguez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The culture of Pleurotus ostreatus was evaluated to determine the best waste on which this mushroom canshow the highest growth and production rates.. The substrates evaluated were agroindustrial wastes of theDepartment of Cundinamarca (dry skin of goldenberries (Physalis, skin of pea pods and maize cobs. Thecontrol substrate was sawdust of oak. The mixtures evaluated were packed in bags of 1 kg containing 78 % ofagroindustrial waste of the volume of substrate mixture . Mixtures were sterilized and inoculated with 30 g ofseeds of Pleurotus ostreatus obtained commercially. Running time of the mycelium, diameter of fruit bodies,number of fruit bodies produced per bag, fresh weight, biological efficiency, and yield were evaluated on eachof the substrates. Finally, the best substrate for the growth and production of Pleurotus ostreatus was the dryskin of goldenberries (Physalis with a biological efficiency of 76.1% after a total production period of 41days and a yield of 39.03 Kg/m2 with excellent organoleptic characteristics, therefore being an adequate andefficient substrate for cultivating this mushroom.

  13. Produção de inóculo do cogumelo comestível Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr. Quélet - CCB19 a partir de resíduos da agroindústria Production of spawn for edible mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr. Quélet - CCB19 using agricultural wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Alves de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os cogumelos comestíveis são muito apreciados pelo sabor e qualidades nutricionais. Resíduos lignocelulósicos da agroindústria são excelentes substratos tanto para sua produção como para propagação do micélio (inóculo ou semente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar três resíduos oriundos do processamento de alimentos, palha de arroz (PA, sabugo de milho (SM e casca de amendoim (CA para produção de inóculo de Pleurotus pulmonarius CCB19. As sementes foram posteriormente inoculadas em sacos contendo 150 g de uma mistura de farelo de trigo:palha de milho:casca de amendoim na proporção 5:2:3. Os corpos de frutificação foram colhidos e a eficiência biológica (EB, produtividade e tamanho foram calculados. A semente proveniente de PA foi mais eficiente na colonização, com média de 43% de EB e com os maiores píleos. No entanto, o menor tempo para frutificação ocorreu nos cultivos semeados com sementes de SM. As médias de EB foram de 28 e 23% em SM e CA, respectivamente, demonstrando a viabilidade do processo.Edible mushrooms are appreciated for their taste and nutritional qualities. Lignocellulosic wastes are excellent substrates for their production and mycelium propagation (inoculum or spawn. The aim of this work was to evaluate three agricultural residues: rice straw, corncob and peanut husk to produce Pleurotus pulmonarius CCB19 spawn. The spawns were inoculated in bags containing 150 g of a mixture of wheat bran:corn husk:peanut husk (5:2:3. The fruit bodies were harvested from the substrate and biological efficiencies, yield and size were calculated. The rice straw spawn produced the highest body fruit, showing a biological efficiency of 43%. However, the least time for fructification was with corncob powder spawn. Larger mushrooms were obtained when rice straw was used as spawn. The means of the EB were 28 and 23% in corn cob and peanut husk, respectively.

  14. Yield, size, nutritional value, and antioxidant activity of oyster mushrooms grown on perilla stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizhen Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Perilla is an edible medical plant with rapidly increasing acreage in China. In this study, we investigated the potential of perilla stalks (PSs as an alternative substrate for the cultivation of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus. P. ostreatus was cultivated on cottonseed hulls (CSH alone or mixed with PSs in different ratios. The production parameters, physical characteristics, nutritional values, and antioxidant activity of mushrooms cultivated on different substrate mixtures were determined. The addition of PSs to CSH significantly improved the growth rate, yield, biological efficiency, and proximate composition and shortened the cultivation cycle. Cultivation on PSs alone increased the amino acid content in P. ostreatus fruiting bodies and the antioxidant activity of mushroom extracts. The PS75 (25% CSH + 75% PS substrate was deduced to be the most effective substrate on the basis of yield and biological efficiency obtained in a large area where perilla had been planted. The results demonstrate that mixtures of PS with CSHs could be used as novel, practical, and easily accessible alternative substrates for P. ostreatus cultivation.

  15. Yield, size, nutritional value, and antioxidant activity of oyster mushrooms grown on perilla stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huizhen; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Mengxue; Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Ziwen

    2017-02-01

    Perilla is an edible medical plant with rapidly increasing acreage in China. In this study, we investigated the potential of perilla stalks (PSs) as an alternative substrate for the cultivation of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). P. ostreatus was cultivated on cottonseed hulls (CSH) alone or mixed with PSs in different ratios. The production parameters, physical characteristics, nutritional values, and antioxidant activity of mushrooms cultivated on different substrate mixtures were determined. The addition of PSs to CSH significantly improved the growth rate, yield, biological efficiency, and proximate composition and shortened the cultivation cycle. Cultivation on PSs alone increased the amino acid content in P. ostreatus fruiting bodies and the antioxidant activity of mushroom extracts. The PS75 (25% CSH + 75% PS) substrate was deduced to be the most effective substrate on the basis of yield and biological efficiency obtained in a large area where perilla had been planted. The results demonstrate that mixtures of PS with CSHs could be used as novel, practical, and easily accessible alternative substrates for P. ostreatus cultivation.

  16. Effects of Different Ratios of Abandoned Grape Branches on Mushroom Cultivation%废弃葡萄枝条作香菇培养配料试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐剑波; 胡庆存

    2014-01-01

    Taking the waste grape branches pruned in winter as the main materials of cultivation substrates for mushroom, we studied the effects of substrates with different ratios of rape branches on mycelial growth, fruitbody morphology and yield of mushroom. The results showed that, it was feasible to use waste grape branches to cultivate mushrooms, and the best formula was 40% grape branches+38% sawdust+20% wheat bran+1% gypsum+1% sugar. Planted on the substrate, the mycelium grew quickly, and the fruitbody was bigger, in addition, the yield of mushroom and biological efficiency were higher.%以废弃葡萄冬剪枝条为主料设置不同培养料配方栽培香菇,观察、记录、分析不同培养料对香菇菌丝生长及子实体形态、产量的影响。试验结果表明,用废弃葡萄枝栽培香菇是可行的,其中以配方葡萄枝40%、杂木屑38%、麦麸20%、石膏1%、糖1%为最好,香菇菌丝发菌快,子实体个体大,产量高,生物效率高。

  17. Application of solid waste from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter in Agrocybe aegerita cultivation: mushroom production, lignocellulolytic enzymes activity and substrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvili, Nona A; Kelkar, Vinaya

    2009-06-01

    The degradation and utilization of solid waste (SW) from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter by Agrocybe aegerita was evaluated through mushroom production, loss of organic matter (LOM), lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, lignocellulose degradation and mushroom nutrients content. Among the substrate combinations (SCs) tested, substrates composed of 10-20% SW, 70-80% wheat straw and 10% millet was found to produce the highest mushroom yield (770.5 and 642.9 g per 1.5 kg of substrate). LOM in all SCs tested varied between 8.8 and 48.2%. A. aegerita appears to degrade macromolecule components (0.6-21.8% lignin, 33.1-55.2% cellulose and 14-53.9% hemicellulose) during cultivation on the different SCs. Among the seven extracellular enzymes monitored, laccase, peroxidase and CMCase activities were higher before fruiting; while xylanase showed higher activities after fruiting. A source of carbohydrates (e.g., millet) in the substrate is needed in order to obtain yield and biological efficiency comparable to other commercially cultivated exotic mushrooms.

  18. Ethnomedicinal uses, pharmacological activities, and cultivation of Lignosus spp. (tiger׳s milk mushrooms) in Malaysia - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Beng Fye; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Lee, Hong Boon; Tan, Pei Jean

    2015-07-01

    Several members of the genus Lignosus, which are collectively known as cendawan susu rimau (in Malay) or tiger׳s milk mushrooms (TMM), are regarded as important local medicine particularly by the indigenous communities in Malaysia. The mushroom sclerotia are purportedly effective in treating cancer, coughs, asthma, fever, and other ailments. The most commonly encountered Lignosus spp. in Malaysia was authenticated as Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (synonym: Polyporus rhinocerus), which is also known as hurulingzhi in China and has been used by Chinese physicians to treat liver cancer, gastric ulcers, and chronic hepatitis. In spite of growing interest in the therapeutic potential of TMM, there is no compilation of scientific evidence that supports the ethnomedicinal uses of these mushrooms. Therefore, the present review is intended (i) to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of the ethnomedicinal uses, pharmacological activities, and cultivation of TMM in general and L. rhinocerotis in particular, (ii) to demonstrate how recent scientific findings have validated some of their traditional uses, and (iii) to identify opportunities for future research and areas to prioritize for TMM bioprospecting. A detailed literature search was conducted via library search (books, theses, reports, newspapers, magazines, and conference proceedings) and electronic search (Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar) for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. These sources were scrutinized for information on TMM and specifically for L. rhinocerotis. Ethnomycological knowledge about TMM, with an emphasis on cultural associations and use as local medicine, has been comprehensively and systematically compiled for the first time. Some of the reported medicinal properties of TMM have been validated by scientific studies. The anti-tumor, immuno-modulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, neurite outgrowth stimulation, and other pharmacological

  19. Genoprotective Capacity of Alternatively Cultivated Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes), Basidiocarps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilerdzic, Jasmina; Stajic, Mirjana; Zivkovic, Lada; Vukojevic, Jelena; Bajic, Vladan; Spremo-Potparevic, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is traditionally used in Eastern medicine to preserve vitality, promote longevity, and treat disease. It possesses immunomodulatory, antitumor, antimicrobial, and antiaging activities, among others, but one of the most important is its antioxidant property, which is the basis for other effects, because free radicals trigger many diseases. The substrate commonly used for commercial cultivation of G. lucidum is not environmentally friendly nor economically justified, so there is a need to find new alternative substrates. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of substrate composition on the bioactivity of G. lucidum basidiocarps. G. lucidum was cultivated on 2 different substrates: (1) a mixture of wheat straw, grapevine branches, and wheat bran, and (2) wheat straw. Commercial fruiting bodies, cultivated on oak sawdust, were used as the control. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, total phenols, and flavonoid content were determined spectrophotometrically to define the antioxidative potential of basidiocarp extracts. The comet test was performed to detect the degree of DNA damage in the cells that were exposed to G. lucidum extracts before and after the effect of oxidants. Higher antioxidative potential was observed for the extract of G. lucidum basidiocarps cultivated on wheat straw compared with that from the mixed substrate and especially with commercial ones. The alternatively cultivated basidiocarps also showed stronger antigenotoxic potential compared with commercial ones. The study showed that fruiting bodies produced on wheat straw, one of the most accessible and cheapest crop residues, are more potent antioxidant and antigenotoxic agents than commercially cultivated ones.

  20. Correlation Parameters to Measure and Safety evaluation of cultivating level mushroom using Mixed drug processing residues%混合药渣栽培平菇试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金茜; 罗宿星; 曾启华; 朱彬; 魏福能; 张世仙

    2012-01-01

    为混合药渣栽培平菇提供参考依据,进行了混合药渣栽培平菇试验。结果表明:用混合药渣栽培平菇的生物转化率高,粗蛋白、总糖等含量高,微量元素含量丰富,重金属元素砷、铅、镉、汞等符合国家食品(食用菌)卫生限量标准,六六六、滴滴涕等未检出。%The level mushroom was cultivated by using mixed drug processing residues and its biological transformation rate was high. The to- tal sugar and crude protein in cultivated level mushroom were higher than that of the contrast and the trace elements was in rich. The heavy metals content,includingarsenic, plumbum, hydrargyrum, cadmium, was in accords with national relevant test standard of food and sanitation (edible fungi ). Dichlorodiphenyhrichloroethane and ? hexachlorocyclohexane were not detected in cultivated level mushroom. This method was nutritious and safe.

  1. Growth and fruit body formation of Pleurotus ostreatus on media supplemented with inorganic selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Milena D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a trace mineral chemically related to sulfur and tellurium. In the body selenium combines with protein molecules to form selenoproteins and it is distributed in low concentrations and unequally in air, soil and water all over the world. Edible mushrooms are known to be selenium accumulators. Since mushrooms contain relatively high protein levels, and they can accumulate large amounts of selenium, it is reasonable to expect that selenium could be incorporated into proteins. The growth of mycelia and fruit body formation of different medicinal mushroom strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (Hk-35 and P70 over the wide range of concentrations of inorganic form of selenium were examined. Mushrooms were cultivated on agar base media and on substrates based on sawdust. Vegetative growths of mycelium were measured as colony diameter in pure cultures supplemented with inorganic form of Se supplements, prepared as Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3 in concentrations of: 1, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mg/l. Inorganic form of Se supplements, showed stimulation effects (in concentration of 1-50 mg/l and toxic effects in higher concentration. On the standard industrial sawdust based substrate, supplemented with 100 mg/kg Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3, accumulation of Se in fruit bodies was determined by the method of flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The readings were performed on Varian SpectrAA-10 spectrophotometer equipped with VGA-76. Se as Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3 was effectively taken up from substrates and accumulated in fruit bodies. Mushrooms accumulated selenium between 120 and 250 mg/kg dry weight. In mushrooms cultivated without Se supplement, Se contents were only about 1 mg/kg and in substrate about 0.1 mg/kg.

  2. Transformation of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) using T-DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T.S.P.; Lavrijssen, B.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2001-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is known to transfer parts of its tumour-inducing plasmid, the T-DNA, to plants, yeasts and filamentous fungi. We have used this system to transform germinating basidiospores and vegetative mycelium of a commercial strain of the cultivated basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus. A

  3. IMPACT OF CARBOHYDRATES AND MINERAL CONTENTS OF DIFFERENT INDIGENOUS STRAINS OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (Jacq.Fr. CULTIVATED ON DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad S. Gondal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Different strains of Pleurotus ostreatus were cultivated on different agro-cellulosic wastes viz. cotton waste, wheat straw and paddy straw to determine the effect of these agro wastes on biological efficiency, carbohydrate and mineral contents including Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn and Fe. Maximum biological efficiency was recorded on P. ostreatus (grey strain, 134.4% and (white strain, 113.7% on wheat straw. P. sajor-caju showed maximum biological efficiency (195.9% on wheat straw. Maximum amount of Na was found (0.18g/100g on P. ostreatus (grey strain and K was found on P. sajor-caju (4.58g/100g cultivated on paddy straw followed by wheat straw and cotton waste. P. ostreatus (white strain cultivated on paddy straw showed maximum amount of Cu (0.0009g/100g while maximum amount of Zn was found (0.017g/100g on P. ostreatus (white strain. Maximum amount of Fe was found (0.008g/100g on P. sajor-caju cultivated on cotton waste. P. sajor-caju cultivated on cotton waste showed significantly highest carbohydrate (0.079g/100g.

  4. Yield and nutritional composition of oyster mushroom strains newly introduced in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mostak Ahmed; Noorlidah Abdullah; Kamal Uddin Ahmed; M. H. M. Borhannuddin Bhuyan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and chemical composition of oyster mushroom strains newly introduced in Bangladesh. Strains of Pleurotus high‑king (strain PHK), P. ostreatus (strain PO2), and P. geesteranus (strains PG1 and PG3) were evaluated as to yield components and proximate composition. Pleurotus ostreatus was used as control. Pleurotus high‑king showed fastest growth of primordia, but moderate flush of effective fruiting bodies. Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1) ...

  5. Sensory Evaluation and Textural Properties of Mushroom Sausages

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    Fei Lu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh mushroom was used as primary material to produce mushroom sausages and their qualities was assessed by sensory evaluation and textural analysis. The processing procedures include clean, slice, blanch, crush and pulp, add accessories, stuff, heat and cool. Ingredients for mushroom sausage are mushroom 100, chicken 0~10, soybean protein isolate 10, corn starch 10, oil 2, spice 2.4, salt 1, sugar 1 and carrageenan 0.8. The optimal mushroom for sausage processing is Pleurotus nebrodensis and the following is Pleurotus ostreatus and other white or light color mushrooms. Mushroom sausages possess many advantages as far as nutrition, safety, cost and processing compared to normal sausages. This study shows that sausage is a potential and effective method for mushroom processing.

  6. Interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozaki, Naofumi; Ozaki, Takuro; Samadfam, Mohammad [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    Uptake of uranium by higher fungi, such as mushroom is little elucidated. We have studied the interaction of uranium with Pleurotus sp. (a mushroom) in pure culture over a wide range of U concentration (50-3000 mg/L). The Pleurotus sp. was cultured in two different media. One was rice bran medium, and the other was agar (yeast extract, peptone and dextrose) medium. The uptake of uranium in Pleurotus sp. was examined by alpha ray autoradiography (A,A), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and scanning microcopy (SEM) equipped with EDS. In the agar medium, the higher uranium concentration gave lower growth of mycelia, and no fruiting body was observed. In the rice bran medium, the fruiting body was grown at U concentrations up to 1000 mg/L. The AA and XRF analysis showed that uranium taken up in the fruiting body was below the detection limit. The SEM-EDS analysis indicated that U was distributed in the limited region and was not transported to the mycelia far from U containing medium. It is concluded that uranium affects the growth of Pleurotus sp., and little uranium is taken up by Pleurotus sp. during the growth of both mycelia and fruiting body. (author)

  7. A novel laccase with inhibitory activity towards HIV-I reverse transcriptase and antiproliferative effects on tumor cells from the fermentation broth of mushroom Pleurotus cornucopiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangli; Huang, Chenyang; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Hexiang; Zhang, Jinxia

    2014-04-01

    A novel laccase with a molecular mass of 67 kDa was isolated from the fermentation broth of Pleurotus cornucopiae through ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The optimal pH and temperature for the laccase was pH 4.2 and 30°C, respectively. The laccase activity was remarkably inhibited by Fe(3+) and Hg(2+) , while it was stimulated by Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) . It inhibited proliferation of the hepatoma cells HepG2 and the breast cancer cells MCF-7, and the activity of HIV-I reverse transcriptase with IC50 values of 3.9, 7.6 and 3.7 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K “Agaricus Bisporus” Activity in Cultivated Edible Mushroom formed in Tehran Province- Iran

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    Vahid Changizi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Natural and man made radioactive sources exist in our environment they can enter into our food chains. One of these is the soil-mushroom-human chain. High level doses of natural radiation can cause hazards to humans. Materials and Methods Samples of Agaricus bisporus cultivated edible mushroom in Tehran province- Iran were collected from 7 farms. Specific activity of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137Cs, 40K and 235U of the samples were measured by two HPGe detectors. Results Specific activity of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137Cs and 40K in the edible mushroom samples were equal to 0.06 ± 0.03 - 0.7 ± 0.2 Bq kg-1 dry, 1.4 ± 0.7 Bq kg-1 dry, 0.1 ± 0.03- 0.3 ± 0.1 Bq kg-1dry and 920 ± 400 - 1370 ± 900 Bq kg-1dry , respectively. Conclusion As the measured concentrations of the radionuclides of interest are close or lower than MDA (Minimum Detectable Activity. Consumption of the mushrooms would impose no health consequences to the consumers.

  9. Cloning of a chitinase gene from Ewingella americana, a pathogen of the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Inglis

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated a gene encoding a chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14 from Ewingella americana, a recently described pathogen of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. This gene, designated chiA (EMBL/Genbank/DDBJ accession number X90562, was cloned by expression screening of a plasmid-based E. americana HindIII genomic library in Escherichia coli using remazol brilliant violet-stained carboxymethylated chitin incorporated into selective medium. The chiA gene has a 918-bp ORF, terminated by a TAA codon, with a calculated polypeptide size of 33.2 kDa, likely corresponding to a previously purified and characterised 33-kDa endochitinase from E. americana. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 33% identity with chitinase II from Aeromonas sp. No. 10S-24 and 7.8% identity with a chitinase from Saccharopolyspora erythraeus. Homology to other chitinase sequences was otherwise low. The peptide sequence deduced from chiA lacks a typical N-terminal signal sequence and also lacks the chitin binding and type III fibronectin homology units common to many bacterial chitinases. The possibility that this chitinase is not primarily adapted for the environmental mineralisation of pre-formed chitin, but rather for the breakdown of nascent chitin, is discussed in the context of mushroom disease.O gene que codifica uma quitinase (EC 3.2.1.14 foi isolado de Ewingella americana, recentemente descrita como patógeno do cogumelo Agaricus bisporus. Este gene, denominado chiA (EMBL/Genebank/DDBJ número de acesso X9061, foi clonado e selecionado a partir de livraria genômica construída por digestão do DNA de E. americana com HindIII e ligação em plasmídio de expressão em E. coli, utilizando meio seletivo contendo quitina carboximetilada, corada com "remazol brilliant violet'' para seleção de clones. O gene chiA apresenta uma ORF de 918 bp, código terminador TAA, tendo o tamanho do polipeptídeo sido calculado como 33,2 kDa, o qual corresponde ao tamanho de 33 kDa da endoquitinase

  10. EFEKTIVITAS PEMBERIAN AIR LERI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL JAMUR TIRAM PUTIH (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ummu Kalsum; Siti Fatimah; Catur Wasonowati

    2011-01-01

    White oyster mushroom is kind of consumed mushroom that has delicious taste and efficacious drug. Mushroom need nutrition addition to increase growth and development so that better production, like nutrition from rice washing water. The contain are carbon element, nitrogen, mineral and vitamin B. This experiment aim to determine addition of rice washing water effect, optimal volume and time interval on growth and yield of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). This experiment is carried...

  11. Paddy straw as a substrate for the cultivation of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, S S; Pandey, Meera

    2011-01-01

    Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, is generally cultivated on hardwood logs or sawdust/woodchips based formulations. More than 100 million tonnes of paddy straw is being produced in India per year, and almost 50% of the straw is potentially available for growing mushrooms. In the present study an attempt was made to use paddy straw as a substrate to cultivate G. lucidim. Different proportions of paddy straw were mixed with 0, 22.5%, 45%, and 67.5% sawdust and 10% rice bran. Spawn run period, fruiting initiation period, yield, moisture content, dry recovery, and fruiting body characteristics were recorded and compared. Fructification was observed with all the substrate formulations and they did not show any significant difference in yield. The highest biological efficiency (BE) (29.9%) was observed with the combination sawdust:paddy straw:rice bran 22.5:67.5:10, followed by saw dust:paddy straw:rice bran 45:45:10 with BE 27.3%. The current study demonstrated for the first time that the cultivation of G. lucidum is possible with paddy straw as the base substrate and indicated the enormous potential of paddy straw for the cultivation of G. lucidum.

  12. Bioconversion of sugar cane crop residues with white-rot fungiPleurotus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, G M; Martínez, E O; Betancourt, D; González, A E; Otero, M A

    1992-07-01

    Four mushroom strains ofPleurotus spp. were cultivated on sugar cane crop residues for 30 days at 26°C. Biochemical changes affected the substrate as a result of fungal growth, in terms of nitrogen, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose contents. All strains showed a strong ligninolytic activity together with variable cellulolytic and xylanolytic action.Pleurotus sajor-caju attacked lignin and cellulose at the same rate, showing a degradation of 47% and 55%, respectively. A better balance was shown by theP. ostreatus-P. pulmonarius hybrid, which exhibited the poorest cellulolytic action (39%) and the highest ligninolytic activity (67%). The average composition of mushroom fruit bodies, in terms of nitrogen, carbohydrates, fats and amino acid profiles, was determined. Crude protein and total carbohydrate varied from 23% to 33% and 36% to 68% of dry matter, respectively. Fat ranged from 3.3% to 4.7% and amino acid content from 12.2% to 22.2%. Slight evidence for a nitrogen fixing capability was encountered in the substrate to fruit body balance.

  13. Bacteria associated with compost used for cultivation of Indian edible mushroom Lentinus tuber-regium (Fr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manjunathan,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria involved in an outdoor single phase composting using sawdust and wheat bran as substrates for cultivation of Lentinus tuber-regium (Fr. Composting was carried out for 15 days. The highestcore and peripheral temperatures were 66 and 45ºC, respectively, while the lowest temperature was 36ºC. The highest number of bacteria in the core and peripheral compost were 5.81x106 and 6.51x106 cfu/ml,respectively. Bacteria isolated and characterized from the fermenting agricultural substrates include Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus polymyxa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus luteus, Citrobacter freundii, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus cereus,Proteus mirabilis. The implication of the presence of these bacteria is discussed.

  14. Use of Areca nut pericarp as a substrate for the straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripheuk, P.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut pericarp and pararubber sawdust were used as a substrates for Volvariella volvacea cultivation. The five formulas of substrates were used as spawing media : entirely Areca nut pericarp, Areca nut pericarp : pararubber sawdust (ratios 3:1, 1:1, 1:3 and entirely pararubber sawdust. Five kilograms of each substrates was spread in baskets for 15 days until harvesting time. The average yields obtained were 600.0 (B.E. = 34.20%, 250.0 (B.E. = 14.25%, 380.0 (B.E. = 21.66%, 250.0 (B.E. = 14.25% and 330.0 (B.E. = 18.81% g/basket, respectively. Using entirely Areca nut pericarp gave thehighest yield, which was significantly different (p<0.05 from using entirely pararubber sawdust.

  15. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN LAKASE DARI JAMUR TIRAM PUTIH (Pleurotus ostreatus TERHADAP AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN TEH HIJAU [Effect of The Addition of Laccase from White Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus Towards Antioxidant Activity of Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagor M. Siregar1*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laccase is one of the enzymes that can be used in organic synthesis using aromatic compounds (polyphenols and aminofenol as substrates. Polyphenol compound in green tea is flavan-3-ols or catechin which are susceptible to enzymatic reaction with laccase. In this research laccase isolated from white oyster mushroom was added into the green tea extract. Addition of laccase is expected to yield products with a higher antioxidant activity. Prior to it’s use, laccase activity was determined and had a specific activity of 0.54 Unit/mg. The green tea extract was prepared using methanol and water as solvents. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging activity method and the total flavonoid content was assayed by spectrophotometry. Antioxidant compounds are identified by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and GC-MS. Addition of laccase into green tea extract resulted in precipitates showing a significant increase in flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Use of methanol as solvent resulted in extract with higher antioxidant activity and total flavonoid than that extracted with water. Qualitative analysis with spectrophotometer UV-Vis and GC-MS showed that the new components in the precipitates were a variety of dimeric products with increased molecular weight and antioxidant activity. Addition of laccase into green tea extract has yielded products with higher antioxidant activity.

  16. Taxonomic Status of Pleurotus sajor-caju Cultivated in China Based on ITS Sequence Analysis%基于ITS序列分析探讨我国栽培凤尾菇的分类地位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄龙花; 吴清平; 杨小兵; 张菊梅

    2009-01-01

    In order to clarify the taxonomic status of Pleurotus sajor-caju, we determined ITS sequences from six Pleurotus (including one strain of P. sajor-caju) and four Lentinula strains cultivated in China. Data were combined with ITS sequences from 11 related strains, including Pleurotus, Lentinus, Lentinula, Cordyceps and Ophiocordyceps, obtained from GenBank to construct a phylogenetic tree using the Neighbor-joining method with Cordyceps militaris and Ophiocordyceps sinensis as the outgroups. The P. sajor-caju test strain was located on a branch that incorporated all the other Pleurotus strains examined with a shared similarity value >98.5%. Similarity values among Lentinus and Lentinula strains was also >98%, but only 80% when all three genera were compared. In a further "complete alignment"study, comparison of sections of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences from four P. sajor-caju strains with corresponding sequences from strains of P. pulmonarius, P.ostreatus and P. eryngii revealed that the sequences from P. sajor-caju and P. pulmonarius strains were identical but were different from the other Pleurotus strains. Our data indicate that the P. sajor-caju test strain was synonymous with P. pulmonarius and recommend that it be renamed accordingly.-%针对我国栽培凤尾菇(Pleurotus sajor-caju)及其近缘种共10个菌株的ITS序列,应用特异引物进行PCR扩增,对其产物进行测序,并从GenBank上下载侧耳属(Pleurotus)3个种7条ITS序列、韧伞属(Lentinus)的4条ITS序列和香菇属(Lentinula)的3条ITS序列,以冬虫夏草(Cordyceps sinensis)和蛹虫草(Cordyceps militaris)为外类群,用NJ(Neighbor-joining)法构建系统发育树,结果表明:凤尾菇在侧耳属分支上与侧耳属内种的相似性达98.5%以上,韧伞属和香菇属的属内相似性也均为98%以上,而侧耳属和韧伞属、香菇属的属间相似性仅约80%,故凤尾菇应归于侧耳属;在进一步研究中,将该凤尾菇与其近缘种的ITS1-5.8S-ITS2序列作碱

  17. Characterisation of Potential Antidiabetic-Related Proteins from Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr. Quél. (Grey Oyster Mushroom by MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Azwa Abd. Wahab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus pulmonarius has been reported to have a potent remedial effect on diabetic property and considered to be an alternative for type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. This study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic properties of ammonium sulphate precipitated protein fractions from P. pulmonarius basidiocarps. Preliminary results demonstrated that 30% (NH42SO4 precipitated fraction (F30 inhibited Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-glucosidase activity (24.18%, and 100% (NH42SO4 precipitated fraction (F100 inhibited porcine pancreatic α-amylase activity (41.80%. Following RP-HPLC purification, peak 3 from F30 fraction demonstrated inhibition towards α-glucosidase at the same time with meagre inhibition towards α-amylase activity. Characterisation of proteins using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS demonstrated the presence of four different proteins, which could be implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level via various mechanisms. Therefore, this study revealed the presence of four antidiabetic-related proteins which are profilin-like protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-like protein, trehalose phosphorylase-like (TP-like protein, and catalase-like protein. Hence, P. pulmonarius basidiocarps have high potential in lowering blood glucose level, reducing insulin resistance and vascular complications.

  18. Nonvolatile Taste Components and Antioxidant Properties of Fruiting Body and Mycelium with High Ergothioneine Content from the Culinary-Medicinal Golden Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus citrinopileatus (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Chien, Shih-Chang; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2016-01-01

    Pleurotus citrinopileatus mycelium was prepared with high ergothioneine (Hi-Ergo) content and its proximate composition, nonvolatile taste components, and antioxidant properties were studied. The ergothioneine contents of fruiting bodies and Hi-Ergo and regular mycelia were 3.89, 14.57, and 0.37 mg/g dry weight, respectively. Hi-Ergo mycelium contained more dietary fiber, soluble polysaccharides, and ash but less carbohydrates, reducing sugar, fiber, and fat than regular mycelium. However, Hi-Ergo mycelium contained the smallest amounts of total sugars and polyols (47.43 mg/g dry weight). In addition, Hi-Ergo mycelium showed the most intense umami taste. On the basis of the half-maximal effective concentration values obtained, the 70% ethanolic extract from Hi-Ergo mycelium showed the most effective antioxidant activity, reducing power, and scavenging ability, whereas the fruiting body showed the most effective antioxidant activity, chelating ability, and Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity. Overall, Hi-Ergo mycelium could be beneficially used as a food-flavoring material or as a nutritional supplement.

  19. Pleurotus ostreatus, an edible mushroom, enhances glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, ascorbate peroxidase and reduces xanthine dehydrogenase in major organs of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philip Aloysius; Geraldine, Pitchairaj; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran

    2014-05-01

    Aging is now considered to be associated with an elevation in oxidative damage to macromolecules and enhanced levels of inflammation. Therefore, inhibition of age-related oxidative stress by natural supplement is an important study. To investigate whether the treatment with Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr) Kumm, (Pleurotaceae) can ameliorate oxidative damage in aged rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of six each: group 1, normal young rats; group 2, normal aged untreated rats; group 3, normal aged rats treated with P. ostreatus (200 mg/kg body wt administered intraperitoneally for 21 days). On the 22nd day, rats were sacrificed by decapitation; the liver, kidneys, heart and brain were removed from each rat for the biochemical and isozyme analyses of the antioxidant enzymes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), ascorbate peroxidase (Apx) and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH). An elevated activity of XDH was observed in the liver (G2:13.72 ± 4.1 versus G1: 7.57 ± 1.15; p ostreatus to aged rats resulted in decreased XDH and increased G6PDH and Apx activities in liver, kidneys, heart and brain. Interestingly, analyses of isozyme pattern of these enzymes are support the results obtained from the spectrophotometric determinations. These results suggest that an extract of P. ostreatus can protect the age-related oxidative damage in major organs of Wistar rats by enhancing the antioxidant enzymes G6PDH and Apx and by reducing XDH.

  20. Lignocellulolytic enzyme production of Pleurotus ostreatus growth in agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Nunes, Mateus Dias; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Torres, Denise Pereira; de Cássia Soares da Silva, Marliane; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2012-10-01

    The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus has nutritional and medicinal characteristics that depend on the growth substrate. In nature, this fungus grows on dead wood, but it can be artificially cultivated on agricultural wastes (coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust, corncobs and sugar cane bagasse). The degradation of agricultural wastes involves some enzyme complexes made up of oxidative (laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase) and hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases and tanases). Understanding how these enzymes work will help to improve the productivity of mushroom cultures and decrease the potential pollution that can be caused by inadequate discharge of the agroindustrial residues. The objective of this work was to assess the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by two P. ostreatus strains (PLO 2 and PLO 6). These strains were used to inoculate samples of coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust or eucalyptus bark add with or without 20 % rice bran. Every five days after substrate inoculation, the enzyme activity and soluble protein concentration were evaluated. The maximum activity of oxidative enzymes was observed at day 10 after inoculation, and the activity of the hydrolytic enzymes increased during the entire period of the experiment. The results show that substrate composition and colonization time influenced the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes.

  1. Lignocellulolytic enzyme production of Pleurotus ostreatus growth in agroindustrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus has nutritional and medicinal characteristics that depend on the growth substrate. In nature, this fungus grows on dead wood, but it can be artificially cultivated on agricultural wastes (coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust, corncobs and sugar cane bagasse. The degradation of agricultural wastes involves some enzyme complexes made up of oxidative (laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase and hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases and tanases. Understanding how these enzymes work will help to improve the productivity of mushroom cultures and decrease the potential pollution that can be caused by inadequate discharge of the agroindustrial residues. The objective of this work was to assess the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by two P. ostreatus strains (PLO 2 and PLO 6. These strains were used to inoculate samples of coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust or eucalyptus bark add with or without 20 % rice bran. Every five days after substrate inoculation, the enzyme activity and soluble protein concentration were evaluated. The maximum activity of oxidative enzymes was observed at day 10 after inoculation, and the activity of the hydrolytic enzymes increased during the entire period of the experiment. The results show that substrate composition and colonization time influenced the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes.

  2. Effect of asafoetida extract on growth and quality of Pleurotus ferulic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zuoshan; Bai, Yujia; Lu, Fanglin; Huang, Wenshu; Li, Xinmin; Hu, Xiaosong

    2009-12-29

    Different concentrations of asafoetida extract were added to the medium of Pleurotus ferulic and the effects of the extract on growth of P. ferulic mycelium and fruiting bodies was observed. As the amount of asafoetida extract additive was increased, the growth of Pleurotus mycelium was faster, the time formation of buds was shorter and that yield of fruiting bodies was stimulated. However, overdosing of asafoetida extract hampered the growth of Pleurotus ferulic. The amino acid composition and volatile components in three kinds of pleurotus' were contrasted, including wild pleurotus (WP), cultivated pleurotus with asafoetida extract (CPAE) and cultivated pleurotus without asafoetida extract (CP). CPAE with 2.3 g/100 g asafoetida extract addition had the highest content of total amino acids, as well as essential amino acids. WP had a higher content of total amino acids and essential amino acids than CP. In addition, CPAE with 2.3 g/100 g had the highest score of protein content of pleurotus fruiting bodies, while WP had a higher score than CP. In the score of essential amino acid components of pleurotus fruiting bodies, CP had the highest score, while CPAE was higher than WP. Asafoetida extract influenced the volatile components of Pleurotus ferulic greatly, making the volatile components of cultivated pleurotus more similar to those of wild pleurotus (WP).

  3. Studies towards the stabilisation of a mushroom phytase produced by submerged cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spier, Michele Rigon; Behsnilian, Diana; Zielinski, Acácio; Konietzny, Ursula; Greiner, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    A novel phytase from Ganoderma australe G24 was produced by submerged cultivation and recovery. Liquid and solid forms of phytase were developed; both types of product were formulated using different additives. Ganoderma australe G24 phytase was very stable in liquid form with NaCl and sodium acetate buffer. Solid form products were obtained by spray-drying using different polymers to encapsulate the phytase and the capsules obtained were analyzed by electron microscopy. Micrographs confirmed micro and nanoparticles formed with maltodextrin (300 nm to 7-8 µm) without the presence of agglomerates. The use of maltodextrin for solid formulation of G. australe G24 phytase is recommended, and resulted in good stability after the drying process and during storage (shelf life). Kinetic models of phytase inactivation in the microencapsulated powders over time were proposed for the different stabilizing additives. Inactivation rate constants, half-lives and D values (decimal reduction time) were obtained. Phytase encapsulated with maltodextrin remained stable after 90 days, with k 0.0019 day(-1) and a half-life (t1/2) of 367.91 days(-1).

  4. Effect of water extract from spent mushroom substrate after Ganoderma balabacense cultivation by using JUNCAO technique on production performance and hematology parameters of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Zhao, Chao; Lin, Dongmei; Lin, Hui; Lin, Zhanxi

    2015-09-01

    The spent mushroom substrate of Ganoderma balabacense cultivation (SMSGB) contains a large amount of bioactive substances. However, the potentials of SMSGB for improving milk production in dairy cows have not been thoroughly studied. In this study, the effects of hot water extract (HWE) from spent mushroom substrate after G. balabacense cultivated with JUNCAO, the herbaceous plants long-known to be suitable for cultivating edible and medicinal fungi, on production performance and hematology parameters of dairy cows, were determined. Holstein dairy cows were fed different doses of HWE. After a 60-day administration period with 100 g/day of HWE, milk yield, milk protein and triglyceride (TG) levels increased by 4.02% (P < 0.01), 4.49% (P < 0.05) and 32.65% (P < 0.05), respectively; somatic cell count (SCC) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The production performance of dairy cows suggests that HWE with SMSGB treatment is effective in improving milk yield (P < 0.01) and hematology parameters of dairy cows, and may be useful as a functional feed additive.

  5. Edible mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju production on washed and supplemented sugarcane bagasse Produção do cogumelo comestível Pleurotus sajor-caju em bagaço de cana-de-açúcar lavado e suplementado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Moncaio Moda

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju is performed on different composted and pasteurized agricultural residues. The objective of this study was to investigate whether traditional composting and pasteurization processes could be replaced by washed and supplemented (mineral or organic sugarcane bagasse. In one experiment, fresh sugarcane bagasse was immersed in hot water at 80°C for two hours (control or washed in fresh water for one hour using an adapted machine for residue treatment. In another experiment, fresh sugarcane bagasse was washed in fresh water (control, and supplemented with corn grits (organic supplementation, or supplemented with nutrient solution (mineral supplementation. In the first experiment, the washed bagasse presented a average biological efficiency (ABE of 19.16% with 44% contamination, and the pasteurized bagasse presented a ABE of 13.86% with 70% contamination. In the second experiment, corn grits presented the poorest performance, with a ABE of 15.66% and 60% contamination, while supplementation with the nutrient solution presented a ABE of 30.03%, whereas the control of 26.62%. Washing fresh sugarcane bagasse could suppress the pasteurized substrate in Pleurotus sajor-caju production, compensating a reduced ABE with a faster process.Tradicionalmente, o cultivo do Pleurotus sajor-caju é realizado utilizando-se diversos resíduos agrícolas, precedido dos processos de compostagem e pasteurização. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar o processo de pasteurização com a lavagem do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e avaliar formas de suplementação do bagaço, visando aumento na produtividade. No primeiro experimento, os colmos da cana-de-açúcar passaram por moenda para a extração do caldo, sendo em seguida desfibrados. No tratamento controle, o bagaço fresco foi pasteurizado em água a 80°C durante 2 horas e o outro tratamento consistiu na lavagem do bagaço fresco em centrífuga com

  6. Pleurotus Tuberregium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Induced By Lead Toxicity in Liver and Kidney of Wistar Albino. Rats. Enagbonma ... The tissues of the pre-experimental stages showed normal tissues as those of the control except in the liver .... inflammatory cell. Mushroom may cause slight.

  7. Characterization of interspecific hybrid dikaryons of the oyster mushrooms, Pleurotus florida PAU-5 and P. sajor-caju PAU-3 (higher Basidiomycetes) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Ravinder Kumar; Sodhi, Harpreet Singh; Sharma, Shivani

    2014-01-01

    Five Pleurotus hybrid dikaryons, developed through cross-breeding of P. florida PAU-5 (PF-5) and P. sajor-caju PAU-3 (PSC-3) were characterized with respect to textural properties, color, and enzymatic and genetic variability. Texture profile revealed significant differences in springiness, resilience, cohesiveness, and chewiness between all hybrids compared to the parents. Among the hybrid cultures, maximum whiteness was reported in hybrid 37, whereas hybrid 8 had minimum whiteness. Three hybrids (16, 37, 42) showed an increased linear growth rate in relation to PF-5, whereas no hybrid showed a higher growth rate than PSC-3. Maximum endoglucanase and xylanase activity was observed in hybrid 46, whereas minimum activity occurred in hybrid 42. Laccase and protease activity was higher in hybrid 37 and 46, respectively. Four hybrids (16, 37, 42, 46) showed increased peroxidase activity in relation to PF-5, whereas hybrid 46 showed activity higher than the parent PSC-3. Comparison of isozyme patterns confirmed the hybrid nature of hybrid 16. The large variation in the intensity of bands could be a result of recombination. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracellular enzymes revealed 60.3- and 43-KDa bands in all the hybrids. An additional 25-KDa band was reported in hybrids 37, 42, and 46 and the parent PF-5, indicating their close relatedness. Parental strains showed higher divergence in small-subunit ribosomal DNA region compared with the internal transcribed spacer region, indicating their significance in varietal discrimination. Hybrid 46 had a small-subunit ribosomal DNA region more similar to that of PSC-3 compared with PF-5, whereas the internal transcribed spacer region of hybrids 42 and 46 revealed close resemblance to that of PF-5 and PSC-3, respectively.

  8. 迷迭香(Rosmarinus officinalis)提取残渣栽培糙皮侧耳%Use of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Processing Waste for Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrej GREGORI; Bojan PAHOR; Franc POHLEVEN

    2008-01-01

    食品工业中用迷迭香提取抗氧化物质后的残渣(rosemary processing waste RPW)拌入粉碎的玉米粒可以用作栽培糙皮侧耳的培养料.提取抗氧化剂后的迷迭香残渣RPW-1中所含提取残留的丙酮对栽培有害,RPW-1直接栽培糙皮侧耳所获子实体产量比用RPW-2(废料充分通气,去除残存的丙酮)平均低49%.试验中获得最高生物效率(67%)的培养料配比为RPW-2中加入30%(w/w)粉碎的玉米粒(crushed corn seeds CCS)和2%CaCO3.增加培养料中的麸皮(wheat bran WB)比例(降低C/N比)可加快菌丝生长速度,但通常导致子实体产量降低.试验中菌丝生长最快(23 d生长9.9 cm)的培养料配比为RPW-2中添加30%(w/w) CCS 和30% (w/w) WB,/N比为24.%Rosemary processing waste (RPW) generated after extraction of antioxidant components for the food industry, in combination with crushed corn seeds, represented a suitable growth substrate for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus . On average, fruit body yields were 49% lower on substrate mixtures containing RPW1, containing residual acetone from the antioxidant extraction process, compared to substrates incorporating RPW2 which had been allowed to stand in wellaerated conditions in order to remove residual solvent. The highest Biological Efficiency value (67%) were recorded with a substrate mixture containing 30% (w/w) crushed corn seeds (CCS) mixed with RPW2 and 2% CaCO3. Increasing proportions of wheat bran (WB) in the mixtures decreased the C/N ratio, had a positive effect on mycelial growth rates, but generally resulted in lower fruit body yields. The highest vegetative growth rate (9.9 cm in 23 days) was recorded on substrate mixtures with a C/N ratio of 24 and containing RPW2 supplemented with 30% (w/w) CCS and 30% (w/w) WB.

  9. The ligninolytic peroxidases in the genus Pleurotus: divergence in activities, expression, and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, Doriv; Yarden, Oded; Hadar, Yitzhak

    2015-02-01

    Mushrooms of the genus Pleurotus are comprised of cultivated edible ligninolytic fungi with medicinal properties and a wide array of biotechnological and environmental applications. Like other white-rot fungi (WRF), they are able to grow on a variety of lignocellulosic biomass substrates and degrade both natural and anthropogenic aromatic compounds. This is due to the presence of the non-specific oxidative enzymatic systems, which are mainly consisted of lacasses, versatile peroxidases (VPs), and short manganese peroxidases (short-MnPs). Additional, less studied, peroxidase are dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) and heme-thiolate peroxidases (HTPs). During the past two decades, substantial information has accumulated concerning the biochemistry, structure and function of the Pleurotus ligninolytic peroxidases, which are considered to play a key role in many biodegradation processes. The production of these enzymes is dependent on growth media composition, pH, and temperature as well as the growth phase of the fungus. Mn(2+) concentration differentially affects the expression of the different genes. It also severs as a preferred substrate for these preoxidases. Recently, sequencing of the Pleurotus ostreatus genome was completed, and a comprehensive picture of the ligninolytic peroxidase gene family, consisting of three VPs and six short-MnPs, has been established. Similar enzymes were also discovered and studied in other Pleurotus species. In addition, progress has been made in the development of molecular tools for targeted gene replacement, RNAi-based gene silencing and overexpression of genes of interest. These advances increase the fundamental understanding of the ligninolytic system and provide the opportunity for harnessing the unique attributes of these WRF for applied purposes.

  10. Reasoned opinion on the review of the existing MRLs for carbofuran, carbosulfan, benfuracarb and furathiocarb and the setting of an import tolerance for carbofuran in cultivated mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 43 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the information provided by the European Spice Association (ESA with a view to setting an import tolerance on cultivated mushrooms and considering in parallel, a review of all existing EU MRLs for the N-methyl-carbamate insecticides; carbofuran, carbosulfan, benfuracarb and furathiocarb, including the CXLs that were taken over in the EU legislation. EFSA recommends the withdrawal of the carbofuran and/or carbosulfan CXLs transposed in the EU legislation for mandarin, orange, sunflower, rape seed and spices. EFSA recommends, to maintain the MRL for carbofuran in fresh cultivated mushrooms at the current LOQ of 0.01* mg/kg, since higher values will result in an acute consumer intake concern. No changes are proposed to the benfuracarb and furathiocarb MRLs (LOQs listed in Annex V of Regulation (EC No 396/2005. In contrast, for carbofuran and having regard to the low toxicological reference values proposed for this active substance, the setting of MRLs below the default LOQ value of 0.01*mg/kg would be requested, especially for the food commodities that contribute significantly to consumer diets.

  11. Effect of Pleuran ( β-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) supplementation on cellular immune response after intensive exercise in elite athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabri ž, Ján; Bobov čák, Marián; Kuniaková, Renata; Majtán, Juraj

    2010-01-01

    .... The goal of this study was to determine whether β-glucan dietary supplementation from the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus decreases the suppressed immune system responses induced by short-term high-intensity exercise in humans...

  12. PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT STRAINS OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS USING VARIOUS CELLOLUSIC AGRO-WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Khaliq

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Different local strains of Oyster mushroom were evaluated using different cellulosic agro-wastes including cotton waste, paddy straw and wheat straw for mycelial growth, spawn running and  production efficiency of different strains of Pleurotus ostreatsus. Maximum production efficiency of P. Sajur caju was observed (195.9% on wheat straw while minimum production efficiency was recorded (132.1% on paddy straw followed by cotton waste where the production efficiency was 107.9%. P. ostreatus (white strain showed maximum production efficiency (113.7% on wheat straw and minimum (88.8% on cotton waste. While the production efficiency of P. ostreatus (gray strain was almost same on cotton waste and wheat straw but greater than paddy straw (128.3%. The Overall performance of P. Ostreatus (gray strain remained best during its cultivation

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF PLEUROTUS ERYNGII AND LENTINUS EDODES HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Popa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Besides superior nutritional values mushrooms posed significant medicinal properties. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of several isolates of Pleurotus eryngii and Lentinus edodes mushroom species were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against pathogenic microorganisms with medicinal importance. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method. Results revealed that the 70% ethylic alcohol extracts have significant inhibitory activities against Bacillus subtilis var. spizizinii, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that the 70% ethanol extracts of Pleurotus eryngii and Lentinus edodes mushroom isolates may have biopharmaceutical potentiality.

  14. 平菇菌糠饲料的营养价值与安全性评估分析%The Nutritional Value and Safety Assessment Analysis on Spent Mushroom Substrate of Pleurotus ostreatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫福臣; 张东雷; 张玉铎; 韩梅琳; 孙晓红; 李杰

    2012-01-01

    According to the method of the national feed hygienic standards, the experiment detected and safetly evaluated the different growth stages of Pleurotus ostreatus medium matrix component. In order to evaluate the feed value of the Pleuro tus ostreatus and realize reasonable utilization of spent mushroom substrate(SMS) resources by detecting on the nutrient components of spent mushroom substrate after different harvest times, we found that the fourth harvest of SMS used as feed had a higher nutrition value and lower production cost. The crude protein content was 10. 10% at this moment. Compared with original substrate,the crude protein content was increased by 59. 31 % ,crude fiber content was reduced by 29. 57% .and the degradation rate of ligin, hemicellulose and cellulose were increased by 63. 62% , 46. 60% and 77. 06%. Based on the national feed hygiene standards,the content of free gossypol, aflatoxin B1 and heavy metal in SMS (the fourth harvest) were measured. The results showed that the free gossypol content was only 67. 90 mg/kg,aflatoxin B1 was not detected (<10 μg/kg). And the content of lead, fluorine, chromium, cadmium and mercury all met the national feed hygiene standards. So it was feasible to use SMS(the fourth harvest) as a new non-conventional roughage resource for ruminants.%试验依据国家饲料卫生标准(GB13078-2001)中的检测方法对平菇不同生长阶段培养基的基质组分进行了检测和安全性评定.通过对平菇不同生长阶段培养基(以棉籽壳和玉米芯为主)基质组分的检测及对基质饲料价值的评定,结果发现,第4潮菌糠用作饲料营养价值较高且生产成本较低.此时粗蛋白质含量为10.10%,较初始培养基提高了59.31%,而粗纤维含量降低了29.57%,木质素、纤维素和半纤维素的降解率分别提高到63.62%、46.60%和77.06%;并依据国家饲料卫生标准要求对第4潮菌糠中的游离棉酚、黄曲霉毒素B1和重金属含量等指标

  15. PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LEELEE FAMII ZITTE

    environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbon is caused by leakage from ... to three different treatment regimes as in the experimental design below. .... Thus mushrooms have been used to significantly decrease the toxicity of wastes, degrade mineral contaminants such as arsenic, barium, manganese and many ...

  16. Utilização do composto exaurido de Pleurotus sajor caju em rações de frangos de corte e seus efeitos no desempenho dessas aves - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.4811 Utilization of the spent substrate of Pleurotus sajor caju mushroom in broiler chicks ration and the effect on broiler chicken performance - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.4811

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Gilberto Bertechini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a adição dietética de um composto exaurido da produção do cogumelo Pleurotus sajor caju sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte nos períodos de um a 21, 22 a 38 e um a 38 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 500 pintos de um dia Ross-308, machos, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos, obtidos pelos níveis do composto na ração (0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0% com quatro repetições de 20 aves cada. Foram avaliados ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, rendimento de carcaça, gordura abdominal e altura das microvilosidades do intestino. A adição do composto não influenciou no consumo da ração e na conversão alimentar. Para o ganho de peso houve efeito positivo somente na fase inicial (um a 21 dias, sendo o valor máximo obtido com a adição de 0,67% do composto. A adição do composto não alterou o rendimento de carcaça e gordura abdominal, porém, alterou a altura das microvilosidades do intestino. A adição de composto exaurido da produção do fungo Pleurotus sajor caju, na concentração de 0,67%, melhora o ganho de peso dos frangos nos primeiros 21 dias de idadeThis research evaluated the effect of the addition of a spent mushroom substrate (SMS Pleurotus sajor caju at different levels on the performance of broiler chicks from 1 to 21, 22 to 38 and 1 to 38 days of age. Five hundred one-day-old Ross-308 chicks were utilized, allocated in a completely randomized design, with five treatments obtained by increased levels of compost on ration (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0%, with four replicates of 20 birds per experimental unit. The intake, weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield, abdominal fat and villus height were evaluated. No effect was observed on intake and feed conversion when the compost was included in the feeding. A positive effect was observed for weight gain from 1 to 21 days of age, with maximum value of 0.67% of SMS, but its addition did not modify the carcass yield and

  17. Essential and toxic element determination in edible mushrooms by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais e toxicos em cogumelos comestiveis por analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia Landim da Costa

    2008-07-01

    In this study concentrations of As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined in edible mushrooms acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from Mogi das Cruzes, Suzano, Juquitiba and Mirandopolis producers. The analytical technique used for determining these elements in edible mushrooms was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Species of the Agaricus, Lentinus and Pleurotus genera were acquired during the period from November, 2006 to March, 2007. About 150 to 200 mg of freeze-dried mushrooms were irradiated in a neutron flux of 1012 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for 8 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor at IPEN-CNEN-SP. In order to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methodology, four reference materials: INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves, NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver, and the material Mushroom from IAEA were analyzed. Results showed some variation in the element concentrations among the different genera. In some samples, arsenic was found but in low concentrations. Arsenic is probably derived from the contamination from pesticides used in the cultivation, in their the substrates where mushrooms uptake their nutrients. Although there are element concentration variations, mushrooms can still be considered a very rich nutritional source, mainly because of their low concentrations of Na, and due to the good source of K, Fe and Zn. (author)

  18. Anti-Growth Factors Associated with Pleurotus ostreatus in a Submerged Liquid Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet B. Akinyele

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Previous studies had revealed that cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus is often met with a lot of challenges ranging from environmental to biological factors which adversely affect the successful cultivation of the mushroom. Hence, a need to determine factors against mycelia colonization of substrate during mushroom’s cultivation.Methodology and Result: Conventional streak method was employed to establish the percentage inhibition as well as intercolony distance between the test organisms obtained from the infected substrate and mycelia of the mushroom during substrate colonization. The test organisms are: a fungus, Kutilakesopsis macalpineae and a bacterium,Pseudomonas tolaasii. The effect of pH and temperature on the mycelia growth of P. ostreatus was also investigated. There was a gradual increase in the percentage inhibition from 33.3 % at 24 h to 75.0 % at 168 h for K. macalpineae and 37.5 % at 24 h to 70.0 at 168 h for P. tolaasii. The inter-colony distance between the antagonists and the mushroom mycelium gradually decreased. Optical density of the mycelium growth was at its optimum at pH 4.5 and temperature of25 °C respectively. In vitro study also showed a significant increase in the optical density from 0.855±0.03 at 24 h to 1.316±0.02 at 168 h in the absence of test antagonist as against 0.812±0.06 and 0.79±0.02 at 24 h to 1.103±0.03 and 0.902±0.03 at 168 h when K. macalpineae and P.tolaasii were used as test antagonistic respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Sterilization of substrate is essential to avoid contamination during mycelia colonization. Also, slightly acidic medium and temperature control is necessary for high yield of fruit bodies.

  19. Screening of Lignocellulose-Degrading Superior Mushroom Strains and Determination of Their CMCase and Laccase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains ten strains of mushrooms (Lentinus edodes939, Pholiota nameko, Lentinus edodes868, Coprinus comatus, Macrolepiota procera, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus nebrodensis, and Shiraia bambusicola were inoculated onto carboxymethylcellulose agar-Congo red plates to evaluate their ability to produce carbomethyl cellulase (CMCase. The results showed that the ratio of transparent circle to mycelium circle of Hericium erinaceus was 8.16 (P<0.01 higher than other strains. The filter paper culture screening test showed that Hericium erinaceus and Macrolepiota procera grew well and showed extreme decomposition of the filter paper. When cultivated in guaiacol culture medium to detect their abilities to secrete laccase, Hericium erinaceus showed the highest ability with the largest reddish brown circles of 4.330 cm. CMCase activity determination indicated that Coprinus comatus and Hericium erinaceus had the ability to produce CMCase with 33.92 U/L on the 9th day and 22.58 U/L on the 10th day, respectively, while Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus nebrodensis had the ability to produce laccase with 496.67 U/L and 489.17 U/L on the 16th day and 18th day. Based on the results, Coprinus comatus might be the most promising lignocellulose-degrading strain to produce both CMCase and laccase at high levels.

  20. First Preliminary Report on Isolation and Characterization of Novel Acinetobacter spp. in Casing Soil Used for Cultivation of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Choudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite evaluation of large number of agroindustrial wastes for their use as casing material for Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach cultivation, scant attention has been given to the importance of biological properties of casing materials. In the present study, an attempt was made to characterize the bacterial flora in casing layer, namely, Farm Yard Manure (FYM and Spent Mushroom Substrate/spent compost (SMS/SC (FYM+SC, 3 : 1 and FYM and Vermi Compost (VC (FYM+VC, 3 : 1, employing partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Available data showed a significant variety of organisms that included Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas of the γ-proteobacteria, that were the most frequently encountered genera. This is the first preliminary report on the microbial diversity of casing soils and demonstrates the presence of Acinetobacter spp. that has not been previously described in casing material.

  1. Off-season cultivation technology for Pleurotus erynjii in cold region%杏鲍菇寒地反季节栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟文涛; 王丽敏; 江守起

    2011-01-01

    杏鲍菇(Pleurotus eryngii Quel.)反季节栽培是指反南方的常规栽培季节,在北方寒地采取春、秋两季进行栽培,通过对出菇设施、生产季节、原料与配方、出菇管理等方面进行调控,从而达到反季节栽培的高产、稳产.

  2. Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia L.C.; Maihara, Vera A.; Castro, Lilian P. de [Instituto de Pesquisa e Energetica e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: patricialandim@ig.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; lilian.Pavanelli@terra.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)

  3. Yield performances and changes in enzyme activities of Pleurotus spp. (P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju) cultivated on different agricultural wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Sebnem; Buyukalaca, Saadet

    2010-05-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were studied for their ability to produce laccase and carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) enzymes on different agricultural wastes under solid state fermentation. The spawns of P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju were inoculated on different agricultural wastes including viticulture wastes, wheat straw, paddy straw, sesame straw, sawdust as well as the mixtures of these wastes with wheat bran. The carbon and nitrogen contents of substrates containing bran were the highest. The laccase activities of P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju reached the highest values on the day 10 of mycelial growth. This enzyme activity was higher on the substrates containing bran which had high nitrogen and low C/N ratio than the other tested substrates with no bran. The CMCase activities of P. sajor-caju and P. ostreatus had two peaks on the 5th day of mycelial growth and after first flash. P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju grown on substrates containing wheat bran had higher biological efficiencies and total yields as well as higher CMCase and laccase activities. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 杏鲍菇、白灵菇对芦笋老茎中木质纤维素的分解利用%Decomposition in Lignocellulose Old Stem of Asparagus by Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus nebrodensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申挺挺; 郭珺; 李欣欣; 韩建荣; 宋志刚

    2011-01-01

    采用袋栽研究了杏鲍菇、白灵菇对芦笋老茎中木质纤维素的分解利用情况,结果表明,在菌丝生长阶段,杏鲍菇、白灵菇对木质纤维素的降解量分别为18.08,17.39 g,分别占培养料失质量的74.43%,76.01%;在子实体发育阶段,杏鲍菇对木质纤维素的降解量占培养料失质量的80.15%~94.03%,白灵菇对木质纤维素的降解量占培养料失质量的70.49%~94.56%;在整个栽培过程中,杏鲍菇、白灵菇对培养料木质纤维素的降解量分别为105.79,104.50 g,分别占培养料失质量的83.22%,80.51%.这说明杏鲍菇、白灵菇生长发育所需要的83.22%,80.51%的碳源来自于木质纤维素.杏鲍菇、白灵菇对芦笋老茎培养料中木质素的分解率分别为81.31%,80.38%,对纤维素的分解率分别为72.20%,69.03%,对半纤维素的分解率分别为56.14%,59.72%,说明杏鲍菇分解利用芦笋老茎中木质纤维素的能力强于白灵菇.在试验条件下,杏鲍菇的发菌时间、出菇时间均比白灵菇短,出菇产量和绝对生物学效率也较白灵菇高,这从另一个角度证明了杏鲍菇具有比白灵菇更强的分解利用芦笋老茎中木质纤维素的能力.%Using bag cultivation, a study on the decomposition lignocellulose in old stem of asparagus by Ptewotus eryngii and Pleurotus nebrodensis was carried out. The result showed: at their mycelial growth stage, the degradation amounts of lignocellulose by Ptewotus eryngii and Pleurotus nebrodensis were 18.08 g and 17.39 g respectively, which accounted for 74.43% and 76.01% of substrate weightlessness; at the developmental stage of fruiting bodies, the degradation of lignocellulose by Pleurotus eryngii accounted for 80.15%~94.03% of substrate weightlessness, the degradation of lignocellulose by Pleurotus nebrodensis accounted for 70.49% ~ 94.56 % of substrate weightlessness; in the whole process of cultivation, the degradation amounts of

  5. Review on Natural Enemies and Diseases in the Artificial Cultivation of Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zenghui; Shi, Ping; He, Yuanchuan; Zhang, Deli; He, Zongyi; Chen, Shijiang; Tu, Yongqin; Li, Li; Liu, Fei; Zeng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), well known as DongChongXiaCao (DCXC), is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicinal species. In this article, we provide a systematic review of natural enemies and diseases encountered in artificial cultivation of DCXC. Unfortunately, DCXC has been endangered over the past decades due to overharvesting and a worsening ecological environment. Therefore, the artificial cultivation of DCXC has been extensively investigated in recent years. Complete indoor artificial cultivation and semi-field cultivation are the two most common strategies used to cultivate DCXC. However, cultured DCXCs are often attacked by various natural enemies and diseases, which have resulted in substantial loss of the valuable medicinal resource. In this study, we have summarized the species of natural enemies and types of diseases confronted by DCXC. Twenty reported natural enemy species are categorized into four classes, one of which is reported for the first time in this study. Moreover, six microbial pathogens are also discussed. The recapitulation of the natural enemies and diseases in DCXC artificial cultivation not only promote the development of integrated pest management of DCXC cultivation but also provide important information to help preserve and develop this valuable resource.

  6. Crescimento micelial de Pleurotus ostreatus em resíduo de Simarouba amara Mycelial growth of Pleurotus ostreatus in Simarouba amara sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceci Sales-Campos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento micelial do cogumelo Pleurotus ostreatus, cultivado na serragem da espécie madeireira Simarouba amara. Avaliaram-se: o efeito das temperaturas de 22, 25, 27, 30 e 35ºC sobre o crescimento micelial de P. ostreatus, nos meios malte-ágar 3% e SDA-MA (infusão da serragem de S. amara, enriquecida com farelo de soja-dextrose-ágar; e o crescimento micelial em substrato de cultivo de serragem de S. amara, com e sem suplementação de farelo de soja, a 25 e 30ºC. O melhor desenvolvimento de P. ostreatus ocorreu em meio malte-ágar 3% a 25ºC. A suplementação de farelo de soja na serragem de S. amara favorece o crescimento micelial.The objective of this work was to assess the mycelial growth of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated in sawdust of Simarouba amara. Evaluations were made for the effect of temperatures 22, 25, 27, 30 and 35ºC on the mycelial growth of P. ostreatus in 3% malt-agar and SDA-MA (infusion of S. amara sawdust, enriched with soybean meal-dextrose-agar media; and the mycelial growth in cultivation substrate of S. amara sawdust, with and without supplementation of soybean meal, at 25 and 30ºC. The best development of P. ostreatus was in 3% malt-agar medium at 25ºC. Soybean meal supplementation on S. amara sawdust promoted mycelial growth.

  7. Yield and nutritional composition of oyster mushroom strains newly introduced in Bangladesh Produtividade e composição nutricional de linhagens de cogumelo‑ostra recentemente lançadas em Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mostak Ahmed; Noorlidah Abdullah; Kamal Uddin Ahmed; M. H. M. Borhannuddin Bhuyan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and chemical composition of oyster mushroom strains newly introduced in Bangladesh. Strains of Pleurotus high‑king (strain PHK), P. ostreatus (strain PO2), and P. geesteranus (strains PG1 and PG3) were evaluated as to yield components and proximate composition. Pleurotus ostreatus was used as control. Pleurotus high‑king showed fastest growth of primordia, but moderate flush of effective fruiting bodies. Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1) ...

  8. Selenium in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (cesarea, A. campestris, A. edulis, A. macrosporus, and A. silvaticus. A particularly rich source of selenium could be obtained from selenium-enriched mushrooms that are cultivated on a substrate fortified with selenium (as inorganic salt or selenized-yeast). The Se-enriched Champignon Mushroom could contain up to 30 or 110 microg Se/g dw, while the Varnished Polypore (Ganoderma lucidum) could contain up to 72 microg Se/g dw. An increasingly growing database on chemical forms of selenium of mushrooms indicates that the seleno-compounds identified in carpophore include selenocysteine, selenomethionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenite, and several unidentified seleno-compounds; their proportions vary widely. Some aspects of environmental selenium occurrence and human body pharmacokinetics and nutritional needs will also be briefly discussed in this review.

  9. 利用平菇菌渣栽培鸡腿菇的配方研究%Study on the Formula of Cultivating Coprinus comatus by Using Pleurotus ostreatus Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶陶; 黄承钧; 朱志国; 许忠

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to provide the basis for the recycling use of edible fungus residues and obtain the best formula of cultivating Coprinus comatus by using Pleurotus ostreatus residues. [Method]Different proportion of P. ostreatus residues was added into the cultivation base of C. comatus. The randomized block design was used in the experiment with three repetitions. The variance analysis was made on the yield. [Result]The mycelial growth situations were good in the formula with no more than 35% P. ostreatus residues and the biological efficiency in the first 3 flushes was over 126%, which could ensure the expected income. [Conclusion]It was feasible to cultivate C. comatus by using P. ostreatus residues.%[目的]为实现食用菌菌渣的循环利用提供依据,获得利用平菇菌渣栽培鸡腿菇的最佳配方.[方法]在鸡腿菇栽培原料中添加不同比例的平菇菌渣,试验采用随机区组设计,3次重复,对产量结果进行方差分析.[结果]在配方中添加比例不超过35%的平菇菌渣,菌丝生长情况良好,前三潮菇的生物学效率在126%以上,能够确保投入获得预期收益.[结论]利用平菇菌渣栽培鸡腿菇是切实可行的.

  10. 平菇代料栽培中污染木霉菌的鉴定%Identification of Trichoderma Species from Contaminated Substrate During Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高苇; 李宝聚; 孙军德; 石延霞

    2007-01-01

    从北京平菇(Pleurotus ostreatus)产区收集的木霉病害样本,通过分离纯化及显微观察,确定了5种引起袋栽平菇发病的木霉菌,分别是绿色木霉(Trichoderma viride)、康氏木霉(Trichoderma koningii)、拟康氏木霉(Trichoderma pseudokoningii)、哈茨木霉(Trichoderma harzianum)和桔绿木霉(Trichoderma citrinoviride),并发现了平菇栽培中的优势污染种--绿色木霉和康氏木霉.

  11. 南方高山夏季地栽香菇栽培技术%Ground cultivation techniques of shiitake mushroom at high mountainous area of Southern China in summer season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟松花

    2015-01-01

    总结了南方高山地栽香菇的栽培技术,主要包括栽培场所选择、品种选择、栽培时间、生产工艺、发菌管理、菇房管理、病虫害防治、采收等方面内容。%This paper summarized ground cultivation techniques of shiitake mushroom at high mountainous area of southern China in summer season including field selection,variety selection,cultivation date,productive technology,management during mycelial growth,management of mushroom house,control of diseases and pests and harvest.

  12. Furlough Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript provides a protocol for preserving two species of mushroom (Agaricus campestris or meadow mushroom, and A. arvensis or horse mushroom) in strong wine. Mushrooms are kept at a low boil for 10 minutes, placed in clean canning jars, and covered with wine (12% ethanol) or fortified wine (...

  13. Effect of Spent Mushroom(Pleurotus ostreatus)Substrate on Ruminal Fermentation of Goat%平菇菌糠对山羊瘤胃消化代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘军; 曹玉凤; 韩志国; 高腾云; 付彤; 李改英; 廉红霞

    2011-01-01

    为了研究平菇菌糠对山羊瘤胃内环境和瘤胃消失率的影响,选用6只年龄、体质量接近(35.42 kg士3.96 kg)并装有永久瘤胃瘘管的本地白山羊羯羊,随机分为对照组(0%菌糠)和试验组(菌糠替代40%的花生秧),进行25 d(10 d预试期,15 d正式期)试验,于试验期第5天晨饲后0、2、4、6、8、10和12 h采集瘤胃液进行氨态氮和pH的测定,并于试验期第12天采用尼龙袋技术,测定苜蓿青干草在瘤胃中0、6、12、24、36、48和72 h的消失率.结果表明:①与对照组相比,试验组各个时间点瘤胃液的pH和氨态氮的质量浓度差异均不显著(P>0.05),并且其总体变化趋势一致;②试验组苜蓿青干草有机物72 h瘤胃消失率显著低于对照组(P<0.05),其余各个时间点差异均不显著(P>0.05);试验组显著提高了苜蓿青干草36、48和72 h粗蛋白质的瘤胃消失率(P<0.05),6 h粗蛋白质的瘤胃消失率极显著提高了14.17%(P<0.01);菌糠替代花生秧对苜蓿青干草干物质、中性洗涤纤维和酸性洗涤纤维各个时间点瘤胃消失率的影响差异均不显著(P>0.05).因此,菌糠替代山羊粗饲料中40%的花生秧不影响瘤胃的pH和氨氮质量浓度,但可提高苜蓿干草粗蛋白的瘤胃消失率.%In order to study the effect of spent mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus ) substrate (SMS) on ruminal fermentation of local goat , six ruminally cannulated local white wether goats (35. 42±3. 96 kg initial BW) were divided into control group (0%SMS) and experimental group (40% SMS instead of peanut vines). experiment trial period was 25 days including pre-test period 10 days and experiment period 15 days, on the 5th day of the experiment period, the ruminal liquid was extracted every 2 h (from 0 to 12 h after feeding) from all the animals through the cannula for measuring ruminal liquid pH and ammonium nitrogen concentration. In the last 3 days of the experiment, nylon bag technique was used to

  14. Statistical optimization of polysaccharide production by submerged cultivation of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. MTCC 1039 (Aphyllophoromycetideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Gurunathan; Sathya, Shree Rajesh K Lakshmi Jai; Jinnah, Riswana Begum; Sahadevan, Renganathan

    2011-01-01

    Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the concentration of four important cultivation media components such as cottonseed oil cake, glucose, NH4Cl, and MgSO4 for maximum medicinal polysaccharide yield by Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum MTCC 1039 in submerged culture. The second-order polynomial model describing the relationship between media components and polysaccharide yield was fitted in coded units of the variables. The higher value of the coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.953) justified an excellent correlation between media components and polysaccharide yield, and the model fitted well with high statistical reliability and significance. The predicted optimum concentration of the media components was 3.0% cottonseed oil cake, 3.0% glucose, 0.15% NH4Cl, and 0.045% MgSO4, with the maximum predicted polysaccharide yield of 819.76 mg/L. The experimental polysaccharide yield at the predicted optimum media components was 854.29 mg/L, which was 4.22% higher than the predicted yield.

  15. Improving the nutritive value of Olive Cake by solid state cultivation of the medicinal mushroom Fomes fomentarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neifar, Mohamed; Jaouani, Atef; Ayari, Amani; Abid, Olfa; Salem, Hichem Ben; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Najar, Taha; Ghorbel, Raoudha Ellouze

    2013-03-01

    Olive Cake (OC) generated by the olive oil industries, well implanted in Tunisia, represents a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem. This work presents the study of bioconversion of OC in solid state fermentation with the medicinal mushroom, Fomes fomentarius so as to upgrade its nutritional values and digestibility for its use as ruminants feed. The fungus was cultured on OC for 7-30 d, and subsequently the chemical composition, lignocellulolytic enzyme activities and in vitro digestibility of the resultant substrate were determined. The results obtained showed an increase in the crude protein ranging from 6% to 22% for the control and for treated OC, respectively. Significant (P<0.05) decreases in the values of neutral detergent fiber (hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin), acid detergent fiber (lignin and cellulose) and acid detergent lignin were detected (23%, 13% and 10%, respectively). The estimated in vitro digestibility improved from 9% (control) to 25% (treated OC). The present findings revealed F. fomentarius to be an efficient organism for lignocellulolytic enzymes production and simultaneous enhancement in crude protein and in vitro digestibility of OC.

  16. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  17. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus Using Waste Tobacco Leaf Residues%利用废弃烟叶栽培糙皮侧耳初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李殿殿; 李志能; 林娟

    2011-01-01

    以棉籽壳培养料为对照,测定了烟叶渣培养料中糙皮侧耳(Pleurotus ostreatus)的菌丝满袋时间及子实体中氨基酸、无机盐、重金属和烟碱的含量.结果表明,当配方为79%烟叶渣、10%谷壳、10%麸皮,辅料添加量为1%(其中石膏:碳酸钙:过磷酸钙=2:2:1)时,糙皮侧耳的采收时间比棉籽壳组缩短了3d,且子实体中有15种氨基酸的含量高于棉籽壳组,重金属汞、铅、镉、砷的含量均符合《中华人民共和国农业部行业标准》(绿色食品食用菌NY/T 749-2003),烟碱含量<7.8mg/kg.

  18. 平菇污染料栽培鸡腿菇研究%Cultivation of Coprinus comatus Using Contaminated Pleurotus ostreatus Composts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文清; 张明斗; 张锐; 张功

    2009-01-01

    以平菇(Pleurotus ostreatus)生产污染料为主料,添加麦草秸杆、尿素等辅料,经发酵处理,进行鸡腿菇(Coprinus comatus)栽培试验.结果表明,培养料(/kg):污染料790 g,新鲜麦草秸秆150 g,生石灰20 g,过磷酸钙20 g,尿素10 g,种料10 g(其中,首次建堆种料为干制牛粪,其他批次为前一次发酵培养料),料水比1∶1.5,pH 7~8,用于鸡腿菇栽培,发菌成功率达90%~95%,出菇率达80%以上,生物学效率为43.5%~59.4%;试验期间,培养料建堆越晚,所需发酵时间也越短,鸡腿菇产量越高.

  19. Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M; Milner, John A; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L; Haytowitz, David B; Hubbard, Van S; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D; Woteki, Catherine E; Wu, Dayong

    2014-07-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality.

  20. Optimization of the Yield of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes), Cultivated on a Sunflower Seed Hull Substrate Produced in Argentina: Effect of Olive Oil and Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain, Maximiliano A; Cubitto, Maria Amelia; Curvetto, Nestor Raul

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower seed hulls were used as the main component of a solid substrate for the cultivation of the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. This study evaluated the effects of supplementing the substrate with olive oil and copper (II) on the mushroom production (MP) parameters and fruiting body total triterpenoid content. The addition of 1.5% olive oil increased total MP by 21.7% (dry basis) in 3 flushes. Copper (60 ppm) increased the daily productivity of the first flush (MP per day) by both reducing the time needed to harvest the crop and increasing the MP. However, the MP at the second and third flushes was reduced. When both supplements were combined, the MP at the first flush was 43% higher than with control treatment. No significant change in mushroom total triterpenoid content was observed by the addition of supplements to the substrate. An increase of 145-155% in the mushroom copper content was obtained by the addition of 60 ppm copper to the substrate. It is thus recommended to use substrate formulations containing both olive oil and copper (II) and harvest just the first flush.

  1. Thin layer convection-drying of mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, U.S.; Chakraverty, A. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    1997-06-01

    Dehydration characteristics of the Oyster Pleurotus variety of mushroom were studied. Both untreated and treated (steam blanching followed by sulphiting and citric acid pretreatment before drying) mushrooms were dried in the thin layer experimental equipment at each of the drying air temperatures of 45, 50 and 60{sup o}C with air velocities of 0.9 and 1.6 m/s. Studies on the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of both untreated and treated dehydrated mushrooms were performed at different relative humidities ranging from 11.2 to 86.3% at 30{sup o}C. Taking drying time and quality of the dehydrated product into account, a combination of a drying air temperature of 50{sup o}C and an air velocity of 0.9 m/s appears to be suitable for drying of both untreated and treated mushrooms for a good dehydrated product. (author)

  2. The effect of Pleurotus spp. fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, M A; Nikkhah, A; Sadeghi, A A; Chamani, M

    2007-08-01

    This study was carried out to test the potentially of using rice straw substrate for the cultivation of four Pleurotus species including Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Pleurotus ostreatus and the effect of these species on the chemical composition, cell wall degradation and digestibility of rice straw. Rice straw soaked in water for 24 h and then it was pasteurized at 100 degrees C for 6 h. Rice straw was inoculated with spawns of four Pleurotus fungi (Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Pleurotus ostreatus) and packed in the plastic bags and incubated in a fermentation chamber at 23-27 degrees C and 75-85% relative humidity. After 60th day, rice straw samples from all groups were taken and analyzed for chemical composition and in vitro digestibility. The data obtained were analyzed according to the complete randomized design model consisting of four treatments plus one control and four replicates. The results of this study showed that fungal treatment increased (pstraw but the hemicellulose, Organic Matter (OM), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) contents decreased. However, the ability of the fungi to degrade these components varied among the species. The ability of Pleurotus sajor-caju and Pleurotus ostreatus were higher than the other species in decreasing the hemicellulose, NDF, ADF and ADL contents. The highest Biological Efficiency (BE) was produced by sajor-caju species with 56.02 and the lowest was belong to Pleurotus djamor species with an average 51.17%. All species of fungi incubated on rice straw showed increased (pstraw treated with sajor-caju fungus had the highest in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) with 80.10 and 82.18%, respectively. In general this experiment cleared that treatment with sajor-caju can improve the quality of rice straw to be useful feed for ruminant nutrition.

  3. Feasibility study on the use of waste heat in mushroom cultivation; Haalbaarheid benutting restwarmte in de paddenstoelenteelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielen, J.H. [DLV Plant, Horst (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    This study has examined the technical as well as the economic feasibility of waste heat utilization in a standard cultivation business [Dutch] In dit onderzoek zijn zowel de technische als ook de economische haalbaarheid van toepassingen voor het hergebruik van restwarmte in een standaard teeltbedrijf onderzocht. Gebruikte informatiebronnen voor dit onderzoek waren praktijkervaringen, literatuur en ontwikkelingen in andere sectoren. Behalve de mogelijkheden in de huidige teeltsystemen zijn er mogelijk ook toepassingen denkbaar in de recente ontwikkelingen op het vlak van bedkoeling en bedverwarming. In een dergelijk systeem zal laagwaardige warmte naar verwachting makkelijker inzetbaar zijn.

  4. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  5. Antioxidant Potential of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) Cultivated on Artocarpus heterophyllus Sawdust Substrate in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, P; Lal, Merlin Rajesh; Maheshwari, Uma; Krishnan, Sreeram

    2015-01-01

    The artificial cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum (MTCC1039) using Artocarpus heterophyllus as sawdust substrate was optimized and free radical scavenging activities of the generated fruiting bodies were investigated. The choice of A. heterophyllus as substrate was due to its easy availability in South India. Sawdust supplemented with dextrose medium yielded better spawn hyphae and early fruiting body initiation (15 days). The biological yield obtained was 42.06 ± 2.14 g/packet and the biological efficiency was 8.41 ± 0.48%. Both aqueous and methanolic extracts of fruiting body were analyzed for radical scavenging activity. Methanolic extract showed maximum scavenging activity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (IC50 = 290 μg/ml) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid (IC50 = 580 μg/ml), whereas aqueous extract had better scavenging for ferric reducing antioxidant power (IC50 = 5 μg/ml). Total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were significantly higher in methanolic extract (p < 0.01). A positive correlation existed between the phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Our results indicated that fruiting bodies of G. lucidum cultivated in sawdust medium possess antioxidant property, which can be exploited for therapeutic application.

  6. Comparative evaluation of five Pleurotus species for their growth behaviour and yield performance using wheat straw as a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holkar, Somnath Kadappa; Chandra, Ram

    2016-01-01

    Pleurotus spp. is one of the most important edible mushrooms cultivated in India. The present study was an attempt to compare five Pleurotus species in context of actual time required for each growth stage viz., spawn run period, number of days required for initiation of pin heads of sporophores, average weight of fruiting bodies in all the flushes and total yield. The spawn run period in all the five species were recorded between 18 days-21 days, similarly for initiation of pinheads 5 days -7 days were required after spawn run period. A total of 24 days to 27 days, 34 days to 37 days and 47 days to 53 days were required for harvesting the I, II and III flushes respectively. An average number of 41 to 70 sporophores per bag containing 1 kg of dry substrates were obtained from all the Pleurotus species. Maximum 14 g weight of single sporophore was recorded from P. florida, similarly, an average maximum diameter of 5.3 cm of sporophores of P. florida was observed whereas the diameter of sporophores in rest of the species ranged from 3.0 cm to 3.2 cm. The number of sporophores were obtained from P. sajor-caju (n-70) and all the species showed significant difference with respect to the number of sporophores in a bunch at probability level of P = 0.05. Maximum weight of single bunch was recorded (58 g) in P. florida and total yield of 740 gkg(-1) of dry matter was recorded in P. florida.

  7. Comparison of yielding of button mushrooms carpophores of strains cultivated in Poland and dry matter content in them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Sobieralski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the studies was to compare yielding of Agaricus bisporus carpophores of strains, which were cultivated in Poland in previous years and nowadays, as well as dry matter content in them. The following old strains were investigated: ‘Hauser A6’, ‘Hauser A6.5’, ‘Somycel 11’, ‘Hauser A3.2’, ‘Somycel 53’, ‘Somycel 209’, ‘Somycel 91’ and ‘Hauser A8.8’. From among new strains ‘Amycel 29’, ‘SP-251’, ‘SP-252’, ‘Amycel 2200’, ‘SP-312’, ‘Italspawn F59’, ‘Polmycel 29’ and ‘Polmycel 31’ were tested. It was recorded that the yield of old strains varied from 17.3 to 23.7 kg·m-2. The biggest yield was given by ’Hauser A8.8’ strain. New strains gave the yield from 16.9 to 23.6 kg·m-2. The biggest yield of carpophores was obtained from ‘Amycel 2200’, ‘SP-251’, as well as ‘Polmycel 29’ strains. Dry matter content of old strains varied from8 to 9.6%. Three strains, i.e. ‘Hauser A6’, ‘Somycel 11’ and ‘Somycel 53’ were characterised by dry matter content of above 9%. Dry matter content of new A. bisporus strains was lower than of earlier cultivated strains and varied from 7.1 to 8.4%.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a novel mycovirus, PeSV, in Pleurotus eryngii and the development of a diagnostic system for it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Hyeon-Su; Kang, Eon-Ju; Yu, Jae-San; Lee, Tae-Soo; Lee, Chang-Won; Lee, Hyun-Sook

    2007-01-01

    A novel mycovirus was isolated from a cultivated edible mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii, with severe epidemic symptoms. Purification of the virus was carried out by a sequential procedure of polyethylene glycol precipitation, differential centrifugation, and equilibrium centrifugation in a CsCl gradient. Nuclease digestion assay and protein analysis revealed that the virus consisted of a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome of 7.8 kbp which was encapsulated by a coat protein of 22 kDa. Transmission electron microscope showed that it was spherical with a diameter of 31 nm. Since there was neither a previous report on discovery of a virus in P. eryngii, nor known mushroom viruses with similar characteristics, we concluded that this is a novel virus and thus have named it as P. e ryngii Spherical Virus (PeSV). Because of a diagnostic test would be helpful in preventing the PeSV-related disease outbreaks, we developed a triple antibody sandwich-ELISA (TAS-ELISA) system using anti-PeSV mouse monoclonal and anti-PeSV rabbit polyclonal antibodies. The TAS-ELISA system successfully detected less than 0.5 microg of the virus particles in 1 g diseased mushroom tissue collected from various commercial farms.

  9. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr. Kummer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Kortei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr. Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7 weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P<0.05 with the compost heights (0.8 m and 1.5 m. The yield on compost height of 1.5 m, composted for 5 days, differed significantly (P<0.05 from that of 0.8 m and gave increasing yields as follows: cassava peels and manure, cassava peels only, cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio, and cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5 m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1 : 1 ratio with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P<0.05, indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom.

  10. Determination of Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn by ICP-OES in mushroom samples from Sakarya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Altıntığ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Russula cyanoxantha, Russula delica, Lactarius salmonicolor, Lactarius deliciosus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus spp and Boletus edulis were collected from Sakarya-Turkey respectively. Also canned food in the form of the Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lactarius salmonicolor mushrooms were used for the examination. Trace metal concentrations found in these mushrooms were determined inductively using coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry microwave processes. The results were obtained for (Cr 0.3-26.65, (Cu 17.38-132.75, (Fe 26.3-225.40, (Ni 2.57-39.28, (Pb 11.52-185.20, and (Zn 22.86-126.84 mg/kg. The accuracy of the method was checked by the standard reference material; tea leaves (INCY-TL-1 and tomato leaves (1573a.

  11. DNA-based taxonomic identification of basidiospores in hallucinogenic mushrooms cultivated in "grow-kits" seized by the police: LC-UV quali-quantitative determination of psilocybin and psilocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaro, Veniero; Roda, Gabriella; Visconti, Giacomo Luca; Arnoldi, Sebastiano; Casagni, Eleonora; Dell'Acqua, Lucia; Farè, Fiorenza; Paladino, Eleonora; Rusconi, Chiara; Arioli, Stefania; Mora, Diego

    2016-06-01

    The taxonomic identification of the biological material contained in the hallucinogenic mushrooms culture media, was carried out using a DNA-based approach, thus highlighting the usefulness of this approach in the forensic identification of illegal samples also when they are present as basidiospores mixed in culture media and spore-bearing fruiting body are not present. This approach is very useful as it allows the unequivocal identification of potentially illicit material before the cultivation and it enables to stop the material to the Customs and to destroy it due to its dangerousness without cultivating the "grow-kits" and without instructing a criminal case. In fact, even if psilocin and psilocybin and the whole mushrooms are illegal in many countries, there is no specific indication in the law about the so called "grow-kits", containing the spores. To confirm the data obtained by the taxonomic identification, a simple, reliable, efficient LC-UV method, using tryptamine as internal standard, suitable for the forensic quali-quantitative determination of psilocin and psilocybin in hallucinogenic mushroom was optimized, validated and applied to the mushrooms grown after the cultivation of the grow-kits seized by the judicial authority, with the authorization of the Ministry of Health. A cation exchange column was used in a gradient elution mode (Phase A: 50mMK2HPO4; 100mM NaCl pH=3 Phase B: methanol). The developed method was linear over the calibration range with a R(2)>0.9992 for both the analytes. The detection and quantification limits were respectively 0.01 and 0.1μg/mL for psilocybin and 0.05μg/mL and 0.1μg/mL for psilocin and the intra- and inter-day precision was satisfactory (coefficients of variation psilocybin in the mushrooms grown from the seized "grow-kits" ranged from 1.02 to 7.60mg/g of dry vegetable material, while the content of psilocin from 0.415 to 8.36mg/g.

  12. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  13. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-10-27

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  14. Carbohydrate changes during growth and fruiting in Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuai; Ma, Fuying; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jingsong

    2016-01-01

    The carbohydrate distribution in mushrooms is reported changing greatly in its different regions during growth and fruiting. In this study, the carbohydrate distribution in the compost and fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus was analysed. Sugar, polyol, polysaccharide, and chitin content during different growth phases and in different regions of the mushroom were determined. Results indicate that trehalose, mannitol, and glucose were first accumulated in the compost and then decreased during differentiation and growth of fruiting bodies. Meanwhile, trehalose, mannitol, and glucose also accumulated in the fruiting bodies and primarily distributed in the stipe, base, and pileus region, respectively. Polysaccharides mainly accumulated within the pileus and stipe regions, and chitin was mainly observed in the base region. These findings provide insights into carbohydrate function and utilisation during mushroom growth. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biodegradation of wheat straw by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V K; Singh, M P

    2014-12-24

    Wheat straw pretreated with chemicals as well as hot water was subjected to degradation by edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses component of both chemically as well as hot water treated wheat straw was degraded by the fungus and in turn the edible and nutritious fruiting body of the mushroom was produced. Biodegradation of wheat straw in terms of loss of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose showed positive correlation with cellulases, xylanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the fungus. During vegetative growth of the fungus, lignin degradation was faster and during fructification, lignin degradation was slower than cellulose and hemicellulose. The carbon content of the wheat straw decreased while, nitrogen content increased during degradation of the waste. Hot water treated wheat straw supported better production of enzymatic activity and degraded more efficiently than chemically sterilized substrate. The cumulative yield and biological efficiency (BE) of the mushroom was maximum on the hot water treated substrate. Degradation of the hot water treated wheat straw was better and faster than chemically treated substrate.

  16. Effects of different proportion of leaves residual of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv on the cultivation of pleurotus%不同比例杜仲叶渣对平菇栽培效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昌伟; 彭胜; 张琳杰; 王志宏; 周云雷; 张水寒; 彭密军

    2013-01-01

    采用不同比例杜仲叶渣栽培平菇,考察其对平菇菌丝长势、满瓶时间、生长速度和总黄酮、蛋白质、脂肪以及相关微量元素含量的影响.结果表明:杜仲叶渣替代10% ~ 40%棉籽壳时,菌丝满瓶时间最短、生长速度最快,且长势最好;替代100%棉籽壳时,总黄酮含量最高,为对照组的3.72倍;替代70%棉籽壳时,蛋白质含量最高,为对照组的1.04倍;替代40%棉籽壳时,脂肪含量最低,为对照组的0.660倍;替代60%棉籽壳时,Fe、Zn、Na、K含量最高,分别为对照组的2.47、1.82、1.85、1.27倍;替代90%棉籽壳时,Ca、Mg、Mn、Cu含量最高,分别为对照组的1.68、1.80、1.79、1.58倍.%Different proportion of leaves residual of Eucommia ulmoides oliv were used to cultivate Pleurotus and its effects on the time of full bottle of mycelium,growth rate,growth vigor of mycelium,contents of general flavonoids,protein,fat and related trace elements of Pleurotus were studied.The results showed that when 10% ~40%cotton seed hull were replaced by Eucommia ulmoides oliv leaves residual,the time of full bottle of mycelium was the shortest,the growth rate of mycelium was the fastest and the growth vigor of mycelium was the best.When 100% cotton seed hull was replaced,the content of general flavonoids was the highest,which was 3.72 times than the control group.When 70% cotton seed hull was replaced,the content of protein was the highest,which was 1.04 times of the control group.When 40% cotton seed hull was substituted,the content of fat was the lowest,which was 0.660 times of the control group.When 60% cotton seed hull was superseded,the content of iron,zinc,sodium and potassium were the highest,which were 2.47,1.82,1.85,1.27 times of the control group.When 60% cotton seed hull was replaced,the content of calcium,magnesium,manganese and copper were the highest,which were 1.68,1.80,1.79,1.58 times of the control group.

  17. 林地栽培生产香菇和平菇的多糖蛋白质及脂肪含量的测定研究%Study on Determination of Polysaccharide, Protein and Fat Contents of Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated in Woodland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟全勃; 柳青; 廖坤明; 段丽丽; 贾红亮; 张晓菁; 王振龙; 李宗贺

    2013-01-01

    The polysaccharide, protein and fat contents of Lentinus eddo es and Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated in woodland of Science Station of Weishanzhuang Town of Daxing District in Beijing City were determined respectively by phenol-sulfuric acid method ( NY/T 1676-2008 ) , kjeldahl method ( GB ∕ T 15673-2009 ) and soxhlet extraction method ( GB ∕ T 15674-2009 ) in order to explore the levels of the three nutritive materials.The results showed that the polysaccharide, protein and fat contents in Lentinus edodes ( dried) respectively were 35.5%, 35.3% and 2.5%, and the three nutritive materials contents in Pleurotus ostera tus ( dried) respectively were 49.2%, 27.3% and 2.0%.The order of three nutritive materials contents of Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus was polysaccharide>protein>fat.However, the contents of protein and fat in Lentinus edodes were more higher than that of Pleurotus ostreatus, and the content of polysaccharide in Pleurotus ostreatus was higher than that of Lentinus edodes.%  为探究林地栽培生产的食用菌子实体中多糖、蛋白质和脂肪的含量,以北京市大兴区魏善庄镇科技站林地栽培生产的香菇和平菇为试材,分别利用硫酸-苯酚法(NY/T 1676-2008)、凯氏定氮法(GB∕T 15673-2009)、索氏抽提法(GB∕T 15674-2009),测定了食用菌中的多糖、蛋白质和脂肪含量。结果表明:香菇(干品)多糖含量为35.5%,蛋白质含量为35.3%,脂肪含量为2.5%;平菇(干品)多糖含量为49.2%,蛋白质含量为27.3%,脂肪含量为2.0%。2种食用菌的三大营养成分含量顺序均为多糖>蛋白质>脂肪,其中,香菇的蛋白质和脂肪含量>平菇,而平菇的多糖含量>香菇。

  18. Arsenic and its compounds in mushrooms: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Rizal, Leela M

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the detail concentration of arsenic in some species of mushrooms as well as organic and inorganic forms of arsenic in the substrates where wild and cultivated edible mushrooms grow. We also briefly review the molecular forms of arsenic in mushrooms. There is still a lack of experimental data from the environment for a variety of species from different habitats and for different levels of geogenic arsenic in soil. This information will be useful for mushrooms consumers, nutritionists, and food regulatory agencies by describing ways to minimize arsenic content in edible mushrooms and arsenic intake from mushroom meals.

  19. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  20. Iron translocation in Pleurotus ostreatus basidiocarps: production, bioavailability, and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, M E; Frison, P S; Marcante, R C; Jorge, L F; Valle, J S; Dragunski, D C; Colauto, N B; Linde, G A

    2016-02-22

    Translocation of minerals from substrate to mushrooms can change the medicinal characteristics, commercial value, and biological efficiency of mushroom. In the present study, we demonstrated that addition of iron to the substrate reduces the yield of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom. The biological efficiency of the mushroom varied from 36.53% on the unsupplemented substrate to 2.08% for the substrate with 500 mg/kg iron added. The maximum iron concentration obtained for mushroom was 478.66 mg/kg (dry basis) and the maximum solubility in vitro was 293.70 mg/kg (dry basis). Iron translocation increased the ash and protein content, reduced antioxidant activity, and enhanced the aroma and flavor characteristics of the mushroom. However mushroom has higher amounts of iron than vegetables like collard greens, it is not feasible to use mushrooms as the only dietary source of iron. The study also indicated that because of more bioaccumulation of iron in mycelium than in the mushroom, mycelium and not mushroom, could be a better alternative as a non-animal iron source.

  1. wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in nigeria abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Department of Crop and Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323 ... (Received 20 September, 2016; accepted 10 February, 2017) ... was cultivated using standard methods for mushroom cultivation and both ...

  2. Penetapan Kadar Besi dan Kalsium dalam Jamur Merang (Volvariella volvacea) dan Jamur Tiram (Pleurotus ostreatus) secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhama, Putri Tri

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom is a vegetable food source of considerable potensial as a source of nutrition around us. Even some type of mushroom from nature has long been cultivated for human consumption. The mushroom has considerable potensial as a source of nutrious food for nutrients and minerals are high enough complete. Iron and calcium are found in mushroom and oyster mushroom can be used as an additional intake of prevention of anemia (lack of blood) and osteoporosis (bone loss). The purpose is to find ou...

  3. Identification and characterization of Trichoderma species aggressive to Pleurotus in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo S L; Di Benedetto P; Senatore M; Abadi K; Gigante S; Soriente I; Ferraioli S; Scala F; Lorito M

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the late 1980's the development of a severe epidemic of green mold caused by Trichoderma spp.was noted in the commercial production of Agaricus bisporus (champignon) in the United Kingdom,North America, Spain and Holland, which caused extensive economic losses. The parasitic fungi isolated from the edible mushroom belonged to four biotypes, Thl, Th2, Th3 and Th4 of T.harzianum. However, among these biotypes, only Th2 (since classified as T. aggressivum f.europaeum) and Th4 (T. aggressivum f. aggressivum) were identified as the fungi causing problems in Agaricus production. In general, mushroom compost hosts both aggressive and innocuous isolates of Trichoderma, which are not morphologically distinguishable. About four years ago, a problem with green mold became apparent in the production of Pleurotus ostreatus in Northern Italy,which eventually developed to a crisis situation in the South two years later and threatened to seriously compromise the Pleurotus market. This study was initiated to: isolate and identify the aggressive fungi, then morphologically, physiologically and genetically characterize the isolates, determine the source and phases of infection, and study methods of control. Samples were obtained from different phases of compost preparation at the locality of a major producer and supplier of compost to the mushroom industry in Southern Italy, and microbial counts were conducted. Although the presence of Trichoderma was detected in the initial stages of composting, this value was reduced to zero from the phase of pasteurization to seeding with Pleurotus. Trichoderma infestations were noted in the packaged Pleurotus bales at various times during the incubation phase (7-15 days after seeding) and after shipping to the mushroom greenhouses, where the pathogen infestations greatly reduced the quality and quantity of the mushroom yield, as well as the number of potential harvest cycles.Preliminary results from the morphological and genetic

  4. Determination of heavy metals in edible mushrooms consumed in Shahrekord

    OpenAIRE

    Khodabakhshi A; Sedehi M; Shakeri K

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Heavy metal pollution is a major problem in the environmental and health concerns of food. Toxic elements in the environment of mushrooms may be attracted to them, in which case the problem will create mushroom consumption. This study was aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals, manganese, chromium, iron, lead, zinc and copper in mushroom consumed in Shahrekord. Methods: This study was a cross- sectional research. 6 samples of the edible mushroom cultiv...

  5. Pleurotus ostreatus opposes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in acetaminophen-induced hepato-renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Yahya M; Azmy, Rania M; Samaka, Rehab M; Salem, Mohamed F

    2014-12-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced toxicity is a predominant cause of acute hepatic and renal failure. In both humans and rodents toxicity begins with a reactive metabolite that binds to proteins. This leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and nuclear DNA fragmentation resulting in necrotic cell death. Pleurotus ostreatus (an edible oyster mushroom) is well recognized as a flavourful food, as well as a medicinal supplement. In the present study, we evaluated the role of Pleurotus ostreatus in the protection against APAP-induced hepato-renal toxicity. We also explored the mechanism by which Pleurotus ostreatus exerts its effects. Ninety adult male Swiss albino mice were divided into three groups (30 mice/group). Mice were offered normal diet (control and APAP groups), or diet supplemented with 10% Pleurotus ostreatus (APAP + Pleurotus ostreatus) for 10 days. Mice were either treated with vehicle (control group, single intra-peritoneal injection.), or APAP (APAP and APAP + Pleurotus ostreatus groups, single intra-peritoneal injection, 500 mg/kg), 24 hours after the last meal. APAP increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and hepatic and renal malondialdehyde (MDA) content. APAP decreased hepatic and renal glutathione (GSH) content, as well as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Supplementation with Pleurotus ostreatus significantly reduced APAP-induced elevated levels of ALT, AST, GDH, creatinine, BUN, KIM-1and MDA, while GSH level, and GSH-Px and SOD activities were significantly increased. Our findings were further validated by histopathology; treatment with Pleurotus ostreatus significantly decreased APAP-induced cell necrosis in liver and kidney tissues. We report here that the antioxidant effect of Pleurotus ostreatus opposes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative

  6. Optimization of liquid culture conditions of Philippine wild edible mushrooms as potential source of bioactive lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    With remarkable bioactivities and delightful taste, mushrooms have been a commercial nutraceutical around the world. Mushrooms are cultivated on solid materials. Here we report the successful cultivation of four Philippine edible mushrooms in liquid medium. This work highlights the optimal liquid cu...

  7. Simmered Mushrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Ingredients: 150 grams dried mushrooms, 75 grams oil, 25 grams sugar, cooking wine, soy sauce, scallions and minced ginger for taste. Method: 1. Clean and soak the mushrooms until they become soft. Put them in a bowl With some Water, sugar, minced Scallions and ginger and steam for about

  8. Comparison of Three Comprehensive Adjustment Modes of Environment Factors in Modern Industrial Cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii%3种杏鲍菇工厂化栽培环境综合控制模式的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘伟彬; 蔡跃庆

    2015-01-01

    通过对杏鲍菇工厂化栽培的主要环境因素(温度、湿度、光照强度、CO 2浓度)的综合调控,比较了3个不同调控模式在平均总产量、单袋产量、商品菇比例和生产稳定性、同步性方面的表现。结果表明,模式3(菌丝恢复期温度设置在16~19℃、CO 2浓度控制在2000~3000 mg/kg,原基形成期温度15~18℃、CO 2浓度2500~4000 mg/kg,菇蕾形成期温度14~17℃、CO 2浓度3500~5000 mg/kg,子实体生长期温度13~16℃、CO 2浓度4000~6000 mg/kg,子实体成熟期温度13~15℃、CO 2浓度4000~5000 mg/kg;原基形成期和菇蕾形成期前期光照强度500~600 lx;子实体生长期相对湿度控制在90%~95%,其余时期控制在80%~85%)的效果最优。%Three comprehensive adjustment modes were established in the industrial cultivation of P leurotus eryngii by regulating main environmental factors including temperature,humidity,light intensity and CO 2 concentration.Three regulation modes were compared in the average total yield,the yield per bag,the commercial mushroom proportion and the stability and synchronization of products. The results showed that the third mode has the best effect.(that is,in the recovery period of hyphae, the temperature was arranged between 1 6~1 9 ℃ with CO 2 concentration controlled between 2 000~3 000 mg/kg;in the period of primordium formation,the temperature was arranged between 15 ~18℃ with CO 2 concentration controlled between 2 500~4 000 mg/kg;in mushroom bud formation,the temperature was arranged between 14~17 ℃ with CO 2 concentration between 3 500~5 000 mg/kg;in fruit body growth,the temperature was controlled between 13~1 6 ℃ with CO 2 concentration be-tween 4 000~6 000 mg/kg;in fruit body maturity,the temperature was arranged between 13~15 ℃with CO 2 concentration between 4 000~5 000 mg/kg;in the period of primordium formation and the early stage of the mushroom bud formation,light intensity was arranged between 500~600 lx;in the

  9. A rapid HPLC post-column reaction analysis for the quantification of ergothioneine in edible mushrooms and in animals fed a diet supplemented with extracts from the processing waste of cultivated mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The Han; Giri, Anupam; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2012-07-15

    For establishing an efficient and sensitive method for the quantitative determination of 2-thiol-l-histidine-betaine (ergothioneine, ERG) in edible mushrooms and the blood and muscles of animals, a technique using reversed-phase separation and post-column reaction between 2'-dipyridyl disulphide and ERG was developed. A corresponding derivative 2-thiopyridone, detected at 343 nm, was used for estimating ERG concentration. The flow rate, temperature, pH, and composition of the solution were optimised. A low limit of quantification (1.41 ppm) and a simpler sample preparation made this technique more rapid compared to other methods using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The coefficient of variation (CV) values for the reproducibility and recovery of ERG were within the acceptable values of 6% and 97.5-100.0%, respectively. The efficiency of this methodology was compared with that of spectrophotometric and mass-spectrometric quantitative methods, and was assessed in the light of previous studies. The ERG contents in different mushrooms were 12.69-234.85 mg/kg wet weight basis. Dietary supplementation with extracts from mushroom processing waste significantly improved ERG bioavailability in the blood of yellowtail fish and muscle tissue of cattle.

  10. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikineswary Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  11. Assessment of Gardening Wastes as a Co-Substrate for Diapers Degradation by the Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Espinosa-Valdemar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Waste with high biomass content generated in cities in developing countries is sent to landfills or open dumps. This research aims to degrade biomass content in urban waste through cultivation, at pilot scale, of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. First, the number of diapers used by one baby per week was measured with a survey in day care facilities. Then, cellulose content of diapers was assessed. Finally, cultivation of P. ostreatus was carried out using as substrate a mixture of diapers with gardening waste, a co-substrate readily available at urban settings. The factors assessed were strain of P. ostreatus (grey BPR-81, white BPR-5, conditioning of the substrate (diapers with and without plastic and co-substrate (wheat straw, grass, and withered leaves. Results show that diapers are a valuable source of biomass, as generation of diapers with urine is 15.3 kg/child/month and they contain 50.2% by weight of cellulose. The highest reductions in dry weight and volume (>64% of substrates was achieved with the substrate diaper without plastic and co-substrate wheat straw. Although diapers with plastic and grass and leaves showed lower degradation, they achieved efficiencies that make them suitable as a co-substrate (>40%, considering that their biomass is currently confined in landfills.

  12. A secretomic view of woody and nonwoody lignocellulose degradation by Pleurotus ostreatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Fueyo, E.; Ruiz-Duenas, F.J.; Lopez-Lucendo, M.F.; Perez-Boada, M.; Rencorat, J.; Gutierrez, A.; Pisabarro, A.G.; Ramirez, L.; Martinez, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pleurotus ostreatus is the second edible mushroom worldwide, and a model fungus for delignification applications, with the advantage of growing on woody and nonwoody feedstocks. Its sequenced genome is available, and this gave us the opportunity to perform proteomic studies to identify t

  13. The use of sensory analysis in biotechnology of the cultivation of macromycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Vlasenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensory analysis is the most ancient and inexpensive method of assessing the quality of food products. Consumer demand for the fruit bodies of mushrooms is due to their unique taste and aroma. Profile methods of sensory analysis are used in quality control, for characterising the differences between food products and for determining the impact of various factors on the quality of the test product. The aim of this research is to study the influence of different types of substrates on the character and intensity of arom     a of the dried fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr. Kumm. IBK–1535 using the sensory profile method. The substrates for the cultivation of mushrooms were selected from waste from the agricultural and wood processing industries: sunflower husks, wheat straw, waste from the cleaning of seed corn, and sawdust of deciduous trees and oak bark. The preparation and sterilization of substrates was performed according to standard techniques. During the process of cultivation we determined the culture-morphological indices of development of the mycelium: the duration of growth in the substrate, time of appearance of the primordia, the number of formed fruiting bodies of mushrooms, the average biomass of the fruiting bodies. We did not detect any significant differences between substrates in the growth rate of mycelia. The best culture-morphological indices of growth and development of mycelia were identified for the corn waste substrate. This substrate had the greatest number of primordia, while the lowest was for wheat straw. The mycelium of P. ostreatus IBK-1535 was white, fluffy, and denser on substrates of corn waste, sunflower husks and oak bark. The sensory profile analysis was performed according to ISO 6564:1885.1 g of dried fruiting bodies was crushed, placed in glass vials with stoppers and heated to +35…+40 °C for a better emission of volatile compounds. A five person degustation commission was trained to

  14. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species Determinação de cádmio em cogumelos da espécie Lentinus edodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.Muitos estudos têm encontrado elementos tóxicos em cogumelos. Sabe-se que algumas espécies de cogumelos comestíveis acumulam elevados níveis de contaminantes inorgânicos, como cádmio, mercúrio e chumbo. Há cerca de duas mil espécies de cogumelos comestíveis, mas apenas 25 espécies são cultivadas e usadas como alimentos. No Brasil, as espécies mais comercializadas e consumidas são Agaricus bisporus, conhecida como Champignon de Paris; Lentinus edodes ou Shitake, e Pleurotus sp, também chamada de Shimeji ou Hiratake. Neste trabalho, o cádmio (Cd foi determinado em amostras de cogumelos da espécie Lentinus edodes cultivadas em diversas cidades do Estado de São Paulo e algumas amostras importadas do Japão e da China. O cádmio foi determinado por espectrometria de absor

  15. Folk taxonomy and use of mushrooms in communities around Ngorongoro and Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tibuhwa, Donatha Damian

    2012-01-01

    .... This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly...

  16. Miscellaneous notes on Pleurotus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albertó, Edgardo O.; Petersen, Ronald H.; Hughes, Karen W.; Lechner, Bernardo

    2002-01-01

    The paper takes up four points: 1) A previously unnamed intersterility group in Pleurotus (ISG XIII) has been identified as P. albidus, which fruits from Central America to central Argentina. The species is genetically isolated and phylogenetically it is placed in the ‘P. ostreatus’ group of monomit

  17. Composição mineral de uma linhagem de Pleurotus ostreatus cultivada em resíduos madeireiros e agroindustriais da região amazônica Mineral composition of Pleurotus ostreatus strain grown in wood and agroindustrial residues from the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceci Sales-Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os cogumelos do gênero Pleurotus são cultivados em diversos substratos lignocelulósicos, dada a atividade decompositora desses organismos proveniente de seu metabolismo enzimático. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a composição mineral de Pleurotus ostreatus e dos substratos de cultivo preparados à base de resíduos madeireiros e agroindustriais da região amazônica. Foram analisados macro (P, K, Ca e Mg e micronutrientes (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn e Na dos cogumelos e dos substratos. Os substratos foram formulados a partir da serragem de Simarouba amara Aubl. (marupá, Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. (pau de balsa e de bagaços de Bactris gasipaes Kunth (pupunheira e de Saccharum officinarum (cana-de-açúcar. As amostras foram solubilizadas mediante digestão ácida (nítrico-peridrol. Os elementos Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn foram determinados por espectrometria de absorção atômica; o Na e K, por emissão atômica e o P, por colorimetria. A composição mineral do cogumelo variou com o substrato de cultivo. Os diferentes substratos possibilitaram a produção de um cogumelo rico em K, P, Mg e Fe, essenciais à nutrição e à saúde humana. O potássio foi o mineral de maior teor no cogumelo em todos os substratos testados (36,83-42,18 g.kg-1, seguido de fósforo (6,95-10,60 g.kg-1 e do magnésio (1,57-2,50 g.kg-1.Mushrooms belonging to the Pleurotus gender are grown in several lignocellulosic substrates due to the decomposing activity of these organisms that result from their enzymatic metabolism. The objective of the present study was to analyze the mineral composition of Pleurotus ostreatus and the cultivation substrates prepared with wood and agroindustrial residues from the Amazon region. Macro (P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Na of mushroom and substrates were analyzed. Substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. and Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. sawdust and crushed Bactris gasipaes Kunth

  18. Medicinal mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargano, Maria Letizia; Griensven, van Leo J.L.D.; Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S.; Lindequist, Ulrike; Venturella, Giuseppe; Wasser, Solomon P.; Zervakis, Georgios I.

    2017-01-01

    Higher Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes mushrooms possess various immunological and anticancer properties. They also offer important health benefits and exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, cytotoxic, immunomodulating,

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates in mouse ears treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Pérez, Nallely; Ayala-Martínez, Maricela; Zepeda-Bastida, Armando; Meneses-Mayo, Marcos; Ojeda-Ramírez, Deyanira

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the application of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates, enriched or not with medicinal herbs, as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds. P. ostreatus was cultivated on five different substrates: Barley straw (BS) and BS combined 80:20 with medicinal herbs (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [BS/CA], Rosmarinus officinalis L. [BS/RO], Litsea glaucescens Kunth [BS/LG], and Tagetes lucida Cav. [BS/TL]). The anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of spent mushroom substrates (SMSs) (4 mg/ear) was studied using an acute inflammation model in the mouse ear induced with 2.5 μg/ear 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol13-acetate (TPA). Groups treated with BS/CA, BS/RO, and BS/LG aqueous extracts exhibited the best anti-inflammatory activity (94.0% ± 5.5%, 92.9% ± 0.6%, and 90.4% ± 5.0% inhibition of auricular edema [IAO], respectively), and these effects were significantly different (P ostreatus substrate of BS possesses a slight anti-inflammatory effect. The addition of CA L. to mushroom substrate showed a slightly synergistic effect while RO L. had an additive effect. In addition, LG Kunth and TL Cav. enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of SMS. However, to determine whether there is a synergistic or additive effect, it is necessary to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of each medicinal herb.

  20. Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda NAGY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the consumption of mushrooms has significantly increased due to the scientific evidence of their ability to help the organism in the combat and prevention of several diseases (Kalac, 2009. Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are consumed as a delicacy for their texture and flavour, but also for their nutritional properties that makes them even more attractable (Heleno S. 2015. In this paper data were collected from several scientific studies with the aim to characterize the chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds of various mushrooms species: Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lactarius piperatus. The chemical composition of 5 wild edible studied mushrooms, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total sugars, crude fat, crude protein and energy were determined according to AOAC procedures.

  1. Bioethanol production from spent mushroom compost derived from chaff of millet and sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryden, Peter; Efthymiou, Maria-Nefeli; Tindyebwa, Teddy A M; Elliston, Adam; Wilson, David R; Waldron, Keith W; Malakar, Pradeep K

    2017-01-01

    In Uganda, the chaff remaining from threshed panicles of millet and sorghum is a low value, lignocellulose-rich agricultural by-product. Currently, it is used as a substrate for the cultivation of edible Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). The aim of this study was to assess the potential to exploit the residual post-harvest compost for saccharification and fermentation to produce ethanol. Sorghum and millet chaff-derived spent oyster mushroom composts minus large mycelium particles were assessed at small-scale and low substrate concentrations (5% w/v) for optimal severity hydrothermal pre-treatment, enzyme loading and fermentation with robust yeasts to produce ethanol. These conditions were then used as a basis for larger scale assessments with high substrate concentrations (30% w/v). Millet-based compost had a low cellulose content and, at a high substrate concentration, did not liquefy effectively. The ethanol yield was 63.9 g/kg dry matter (DM) of original material with a low concentration (19.6 g/L). Compost derived from sorghum chaff had a higher cellulose content and could be liquefied at high substrate concentration (30% w/v). This enabled selected furfural-resistant yeasts to produce ethanol at up to 186.9 g/kg DM of original material and a concentration of 45.8 g/L. Spent mushroom compost derived from sorghum chaff has the potential to be an industrially useful substrate for producing second-generation bioethanol. This might be improved further through fractionation and exploitation of hemicellulosic moieties, and possibly the exploitation of the mycelium-containing final residue for animal feed. However, spent compost derived from millet does not provide a suitably high concentration of ethanol to make it industrially attractive. Further research on the difficulty in quantitatively saccharifying cellulose from composted millet chaff and other similar substrates such as rice husk is required.

  2. 蘑菇废弃菌棒及其与猪粪混合发酵对沼气产量及质量的影响%Influence of Anaerobic Co-digestion of Mushroom Cultivation Wastes and Pig Manure on the Biogas Production and Its Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓媛方; 邱凌; 孙全平; 井良霄; Hassanein A.AM

    2012-01-01

    为了研究厌氧消化过程中日产气量、累计产气量和甲烷含量随厌氧消化时间的变化规律,在中温35℃±1℃条件下,采用批式单相厌氧消化工艺,分别用香菇、杏鲍菇和平菇废弃菌棒与猪粪混合发酵.结果表明,蘑菇菌棒具有很好的产气潜力,其中香菇菌棒TS产气量最高,为142.9 mL·g-1,平均产气量664.1 mL·d-1,杏鲍菇菌棒所产气体甲烷含量最高,平均63.8%;添加猪粪调节蘑菇菌棒C/N至25/1,对香菇菌棒前期严重酸化现象起到了很好的缓冲作用,使香菇菌棒、杏鲍菇菌棒和平菇菌棒累计产气量较单一物料分别提高了131.5%、97.9%和79.9%.研究结论为:香菇、杏鲍菇和平菇废弃菌棒均具有良好的产气潜力;添加猪粪能显著提高蘑菇菌棒累计产气量,同时提高香菇菌棒甲烷含量,降低杏鲍菇菌棒甲烷含量,对平菇菌棒甲烷含量影响不大.%In this research, the variations with time of daily biogas production, cumulative gas production and the fraction volume of methane during the anaerobic digestion have been investigated. The anaerobic batch digestion experiments were carried out at mesophilic condition 35 °C±l°C with three different kinds of mushrooms cultivation wastes alone, and mixed feedstock of mushroom cultivation waste and pig manure, separately. The results showed that the TS gas production rate of Shiitake cultivation waste had the highest production of 142. 9 mL·g-1, with daily biogas production of 664.1 mL. Plelmtus eqngiu cultivation waste had the highest CH4 content, the averages methane content was 63.8%; Mixing the mushrooms cultivation wastes with pig manure and adjusting the C/N to 25/1, the acidification phenomenon in the early stage of Shiitake cultivation waste had been well improved. Compared with the single mushroom cultivation wastes, the cumulative gas production of Shiitake cultivation waste, Plelmtus eqngiu cultivation waste and oyster mushroom

  3. Characterization of polysaccharides with marked inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Yong, Yangyang; Xing, Meichun; Gu, Yifan; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2013-09-12

    Mushrooms have a great potential for the production of useful bioactive metabolites. To explore the bioactive compounds from edible mushrooms for interfering with the development of macrophage-derived foam cells, which is recognized as the hallmark of early atherosclerosis, eight types of mushrooms polysaccharides had been selected to be tested. Consequently, different mushrooms polysaccharides displayed diverse component profiles. Of polysaccharides that we tested, the Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharide had the strongest inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation. Furthermore, through fractionation of DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100, the polysaccharide from P. eryngii had been successfully purified and identified. By the analysis of IR, GC, and HPLC, the purified polysaccharide was estimated to be 30-38 kDa for the average molecular weight with the monosaccharide composition mainly composed of D-types of mannose, glucose and galactose. Findings presented in this report firstly provide direct evidence, which links the purified polysaccharide moiety with the biological function in foam-cell model.

  4. Drying and rehydration of oyster mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini Pasiznick Apati; Sandra Aparecida Furlan; João Borges Laurindo

    2010-01-01

    Dehydration and rehydration processes of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies were investigated in this work. Mushroom samples were dehydrated at 40, 50 and 60 ºC, using drying air with relative humidity of 75 %. The rehydration was investigated at different temperatures of immersion water (25, 55 and 85 ºC) and different immersion times (30, 75 and 120 minutes). The best rehydration occurred for the samples dried at 40 ºC. The rehydration could be done in water at room temperature, during 30 ...

  5. Type specimen studies in Pleurotus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard

    1999-01-01

    An epitype specimen is designated for Pleurotus cornucopiae. Morphological examination of Mexican material and the type specimen of P. opuntiae showed that the distribution of this species includes North Africa and the highlands of Mexico. The type specimen of Lentinus (Pleurotus) eugrammus reveals

  6. Nutritional values and antioxidant potential of some edible mushrooms of Kashmir valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Rouf Hamza; Wani, Abdul Hamid; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal; Ganie, Bashir Ahmad; Wani, Bilal Ahmad; Ganie, Showkat Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Mushrooms are considered rich in proteins, carbohydrates and other nutrients. The present study was carried out to evaluate some edible mushrooms of Kashmir valley for their protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents. The highest protein content was found in Boletus edulis (2.20g) followed by Agaricus bisporus (1.80g), Pleurotus ostreatus (1.68g), Morchella esculenta (1.62g) and Pleurotus sajor caju (1.6g). Carbohydrate content also showed variation in all the five tested edible mushroom species, the highest carbohydrate content observed in Boletus edulis (6.0g) followed by Agaricus bisporus (4.85g), Pleurotus ostreatus (4.30g), Morchella esculenta (4.25g) and Pleurotus sajor caju (3.35g) respectively. Similar results were observed for lipid content. The present study was also investigated for the antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of mushroom species by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent, which were compared with standard antioxidant Catechin.

  7. Can mushrooms fix atmospheric nitrogen?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H S Jayasinghearachchi; Gamini Seneviratne

    2004-09-01

    It is generally reported that fungi like Pleurotus spp. can fix nitrogen (N2). The way they do it is still not clear. The present study hypothesized that only associations of fungi and diazotrophs can fix N2. This was tested in vitro. Pleurotus ostreatus was inoculated with a bradyrhizobial strain nodulating soybean and P. ostreatus with no inoculation was maintained as a control. At maximum mycelial colonization by the bradyrhizobial strain and biofilm formation, the cultures were subjected to acetylene reduction assay (ARA). Another set of the cultures was evaluated for growth and nitrogen accumulation. Nitrogenase activity was present in the biofilm, but not when the fungus or the bradyrhizobial strain was alone. A significant reduction in mycelial dry weight and a significant increase in nitrogen concentration were observed in the inoculated cultures compared to the controls. The mycelial weight reduction could be attributed to C transfer from the fungus to the bradyrhizobial strain, because of high C cost of biological N2 fixation. This needs further investigations using 14C isotopic tracers. It is clear from the present study that mushrooms alone cannot fix atmospheric N2. But when they are in association with diazotrophs, nitrogenase activity is detected because of the diazotrophic N2 fixation. It is not the fungus that fixes N2 as reported earlier. Effective N2 fixing systems, such as the present one, may be used to increase protein content of mushrooms. Our study has implications for future identification of as yet unidentified N2 systems occurring in the environment.

  8. Hallucinogenic mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R H; Smith, D E

    1988-02-01

    Ingestion of mushrooms containing psilocybin produces hallucinogenic effects and has become a popular form of substance abuse among some adolescents and young adults. We have reviewed the medical literature on psilocybin mushrooms and describe current patterns of use, provide background material on the botony and pharmacology of these crude drugs, and report results of a small study on usage patterns among identified adolescent drug abusers. Among 174 adolescents already identified as substance abusers, 45 (26%) reported having used hallucinogenic mushrooms, frequently in conjunction with alcohol or other drugs. An average intake of 2-4 mushrooms was obtained for about +8, and led to intoxication for 5-6 hours. Mixing of intoxicants such as alcohol, marijuana, and psilocybin mushrooms was the rule. The acute adverse reactions may have been the result of drug synergy. Pediatricians should become aware of the specific patterns of the use of hallucinogenic drugs by adolescents and consider the possibility of such use when evaluating a delirious or psychotic adolescent.

  9. Pengukuran Kadar Protein, Lemak, Karbohidrat Dan Air Untuk Penentuan Usia Panen Terbaik Ditinjau Dari Segi Nutrisi Dan Ekonomi Pada Jamur Tiram Putih (Pleurotus ostreatus).

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanita, Lisya

    2011-01-01

    A measurement has been done to determine the protein, fat, carbohydrates and water content to determine the harvesting time based on the nutrition content and economic advantages of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). The research begins with the manufacture of growing media made from sawdust, followed by sterilization, inoculation, incubation and sample preparation. Samples of White Oyster Mushrooms with variation of growth time is 3, 4 and 5 days. Then do the determination...

  10. ANTIOXIDANT AND NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE OF SOME PLEUROTUS SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Adebayo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient compositions (dry matter, moisture content, ash content, fat content, crude fibre, total carbohydrate and crude protein, antioxidant and yielding potential of Pleurotus pulmonarius (LAU 09, P. cornucopiae (NE 02, P. sapidus (NE 07 and P. ostreatus (LAU 10 were evaluated. The highest percentage spawn productivity (28.33% was obtained in NE 02, while the lowest value of 23.33% obtained in NE 07. The highest total weight of fresh mushroom (580g, highest biological efficiency (59.10±12.41% and production rate (1.85±0.65% were obtained in LAU 09. The phytochemical screening of the mushroom extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, phlobatannins, flavonoids and anthraquinones. The antioxidant activity of all evaluated mushroom extracts gave a positive result with free radical scavenging potentials found to be in the order of NE 02 > NE 07 > LAU 09 > LAU 10 considering all used in vitro methods. The highest percentage protein of 34 ±3.06% was produced in NE 02, while other strains gave satisfactory yields in terms of nutritional and mineral compositions. The results obtained from this study showed the nutritional and antioxidant potential of mushroom species.

  11. Morphological and Pathogenic Characteristics of the Fungus Cladobotryum dendroides, the Causal Agent of Cobweb Disease of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty isolates were isolated from diseased fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus collected from Serbian mushroom farms during 2003-2007. The isolates formed white, cottony, aerial colonies on agar media. With age, conidia and colonies turned yellow and redish.Pathogenicity of these isolates was confirmed by inoculation of harvested basidiomes of A. bisporus and by casing inoculation. Symptoms similar to natural infection were recorded. Based on pathogenicity tests and morphological characteristics, the isolates were identified as Cladobotryum dendroides (Bulliard : Fries W. Gams & Hoozemans.

  12. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas.

  13. The use of residual geothermal energy in an edible mushroom production plant, Los Humeros geothermal fields (Mexico): Achievements and alternatives; El uso de la energia geotermica residual en la planta productora de hongos comestibles del campo geotermico Los Humeros (Mexico): Logros y alternativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel Rangel, Maria Elena [Proteccion ambiental, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    A plant for raising edible mushrooms with residual geothermal energy is a project of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The results reflect important achievements in the development of technology for the productions of wholesome and available food with geothermal heat instead of conventional energy sources. The installations have an enormous technological and commercial potential- demonstrated by the cultivation of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), which success has awakened the interest of research institutions. The Instituto of Ecologia, A.C., has begun a joint project with CFE cultivating shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) with geothermal energy. These achievements mark a clear trend toward the integral use of facilities, the establishment of a crop with greater economic advantages, and the diffusion of this project. [Spanish] La planta productora de hongos comestibles es un proyecto de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) para dar un uso alterno a la energia geotermica residual. Los resultados obtenidos hasta el momento reflejan logros importantes en la generacion de tecnologia propia para la produccion de un alimento sano y accesible, sustituyendo la energia proveniente de combustibles convencionales por calor geotermico. Las instalaciones creadas cuentan con un enorme potencial tecnologico y comercial demostrando con el cultivo de las setas (Pleurotus ostreatus) con un exito tal que ha despertado el interes de instituciones dedicadas a la investigacion. Tal es el caso de Instituto de Ecologia, A.C que acualmente se encuentra involucrado en un proyecto conjunto sobre el cultivo del hongo Lentinula edodes (shiitake) utilizando energia geotermica en su proceso productivo. Con lo anterior, se esta marcando una clara tendencia hacia el aprovechamiento integral de las instalaciones, el establecimiento de un cultivo con mayores ventajas economicas y la difusion de este proyecto.

  14. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercu, V., E-mail: vbercu@gmail.co [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Negut, C.D., E-mail: dnegut@nipne.r [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Duliu, O.G., E-mail: duliu@b.astral.r [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania)

    2010-12-15

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of {gamma}-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel-Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom-Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle-Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom-Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  15. 麦秸渣培养料在平菇栽培中的应用%Use of Wheat Straw Residue from a Paper Mill for Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秉峰

    2010-01-01

    以造纸厂下脚料麦秸渣为原料制成不同配方的培养料(麦秸渣含量分别为42.5%,63.8%和85%)栽培平菇(Pleurotus ostreatus).结果表明,以麦秸渣为原料栽培平菇生物学效率比以棉籽壳为主料栽培的低5%~12%,商品质量稍差,但菌丝生长快,出菇早,生产周期可缩短4~7 d.

  16. Genomics and transcriptomics characterization of genes expressed during postharvest at 4°C by the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Lucía; Oguiza, José Antonio; Pérez, Gúmer; Lavín, José Luis; Omarini, Alejandra; Santoyo, Francisco; Alfaro, Manuel; Castanera, Raúl; Parenti, Alejandra; Muguerza, Elaia; Pisabarro, Antonio G

    2011-06-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is an industrially cultivated basidiomycete with nutritional and environmental applications. Its genome, which was sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute, has become a model for lignin degradation and for fungal genomics and transcriptomics studies. The complete P. ostreatus genome contains 35 Mbp organized in 11 chromosomes, and two different haploid genomes have been individually sequenced. In this work, genomics and transcriptomics approaches were employed in the study of P. ostreatus under different physiological conditions. Specifically, we analyzed a collection of expressed sequence tags (EST) obtained from cut fruit bodies that had been stored at 4°C for 7 days (postharvest conditions). Studies of the 253 expressed clones that had been automatically and manually annotated provided a detailed picture of the life characteristics of the self-sustained fruit bodies. The results suggested a complex metabolism in which autophagy, RNA metabolism, and protein and carbohydrate turnover are increased. Genes involved in environment sensing and morphogenesis were expressed under these conditions. The data improve our understanding of the decay process in postharvest mushrooms and highlight the use of high-throughput techniques to construct models of living organisms subjected to different environmental conditions.

  17. Identification and functional analysis of pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 mating locus of Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Young Min; Im, Chak Han; Ali, Asjad; Kim, Sun Young; Je, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Min-Keun; Rho, Hyun Su; Lee, Hyun Sook; Kong, Won-Sik; Ryu, Jae-San

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii has recently become a major cultivated mushroom; it uses tetrapolar heterothallism as a part of its reproductive process. Sexual development progresses only when the A and B mating types are compatible. Such mating incompatibility occasionally limits the efficiency of breeding programs in which crossing within loci-shared strains or backcrossing strategies are employed. Therefore, understanding the mating system in edible mushroom fungi will help provide a short cut in the development of new strains. We isolated and identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and performed a functional analysis of the genes in the mating process by transformation. A genomic DNA library was constructed to map the entire mating-type locus. The B3 locus was found to contain four pheromone precursor genes and four receptor genes. Remarkably, receptor PESTE3.3.1 has just 34 amino acid residues in its C-terminal cytoplasmic region; therefore, it seems likely to be a receptor-like gene. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (real-time qRT-PCR) revealed that most pheromone and receptor genes showed significantly higher expression in monokaryotic cells than dikaryotic cells. The pheromone genes PEphb3.1 and PEphb3.3 and the receptor gene PESTE3.3.1 were transformed into P5 (A3B4). The transformants were mated with a tester strain (A4B4), and the progeny showed clamp connections and a normal fruiting body, which indicates the proposed role of these genes in mating and fruiting processes. This result also confirms that PESTE3.3.1 is a receptor gene. In this study, we identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and found that some of those genes appear to play a role in the mating and fruiting processes. These results might help elucidate the mechanism of fruiting differentiation and improve breeding efficiency.

  18. Identification and functional analysis of pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 mating locus of Pleurotus eryngii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii has recently become a major cultivated mushroom; it uses tetrapolar heterothallism as a part of its reproductive process. Sexual development progresses only when the A and B mating types are compatible. Such mating incompatibility occasionally limits the efficiency of breeding programs in which crossing within loci-shared strains or backcrossing strategies are employed. Therefore, understanding the mating system in edible mushroom fungi will help provide a short cut in the development of new strains. We isolated and identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and performed a functional analysis of the genes in the mating process by transformation. A genomic DNA library was constructed to map the entire mating-type locus. The B3 locus was found to contain four pheromone precursor genes and four receptor genes. Remarkably, receptor PESTE3.3.1 has just 34 amino acid residues in its C-terminal cytoplasmic region; therefore, it seems likely to be a receptor-like gene. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (real-time qRT-PCR revealed that most pheromone and receptor genes showed significantly higher expression in monokaryotic cells than dikaryotic cells. The pheromone genes PEphb3.1 and PEphb3.3 and the receptor gene PESTE3.3.1 were transformed into P5 (A3B4. The transformants were mated with a tester strain (A4B4, and the progeny showed clamp connections and a normal fruiting body, which indicates the proposed role of these genes in mating and fruiting processes. This result also confirms that PESTE3.3.1 is a receptor gene. In this study, we identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and found that some of those genes appear to play a role in the mating and fruiting processes. These results might help elucidate the mechanism of fruiting differentiation and improve breeding efficiency.

  19. Combined remediation of Cd-phenanthrene co-contaminated soil by Pleurotus cornucopiae and Bacillus thuringiensis FQ1 and the antioxidant responses in Pleurotus cornucopiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Juan; Liu, Hongying; Li, Qiao; Gao, Ni; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Heng

    2015-10-01

    Remediation of soil co-contaminated with heavy metals and PAHs by mushroom and bacteria is a novel technique. In this study, the combined remediation effect of mushroom (Pleurotus cornucopiae) and bacteria (FQ1, Bacillus thuringiensis) on Cd and phenanthrene co-contaminated soil was investigated. The effect of bacteria (B. thuringiensis) on mushroom growth, Cd accumulation, phenanthrene degradation by P. cornucopiae and antioxidative responses of P. cornucopiae were studied. P. cornucopiae could adapt easily and grow well in Cd-phenanthrene co-contaminated soil. It was found that inoculation of FQ1 enhanced mushroom growth (biomass) and Cd accumulation with the increment of 26.68-43.58% and 14.29-97.67% respectively. Up to 100% and 95.07% of phenanthrene were removed in the bacteria-mushroom (B+M) treatment respectively spiked with 200mg/kg and 500mg/kg phenanthrene. In addition, bacterial inoculation alleviated oxidative stress caused by co-contamination with relative decreases in lipid peroxidation and enzyme activity, including malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD). This study demonstrated that the integrated remediation strategy of bacteria and mushroom is an effective and promising method for Cd-phenanthrene co-contaminated soil bioremediation.

  20. The Edible Mushroom Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Anna Del; Læssøe, Thomas

    A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats.......A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats....

  1. Assessment of arsenic bioaccessibility in raw and cooked edible mushrooms by a PBET method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Llorens-Muñoz, Mariona; Funes-Collado, Virginia; Sahuquillo, Àngels; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2016-03-01

    The present study reports arsenic analysis in Lentinula edodes, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus before and after being cooked. Furthermore, arsenic in raw and cooked mushroom was determined in the gastric and gastrointestinal bioaccessible fractions obtained after simulating human digestion by means of an in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Several certified reference materials (SRM 1568a, SRM 1570a, CRM 7503-a, BC211 and IPE-120) were analysed to evaluate the proposed methods. Total arsenic content was 1393, 181 and 335μgAskg(-1) for L. edodes, A. bisporus and P. ostreatus, respectively, and decreased by between 53% and 71% in boiled mushroom and less than 11% in griddled mushroom. High bioaccessibility was observed in raw, boiled and griddled mushroom, ranging from 74% to 89% and from 80% to 100% for gastric and gastrointestinal extracts, respectively, suggesting the need to consider the potential health risk of consumption of the mushrooms analysed.

  2. Enrichment of mushrooms: an interesting strategy for the acquisition of lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assunção, Laélia Soares; da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Vieira, Patrícia Aparecida Fontes; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2012-09-15

    The capability of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom to accumulate lithium (Li) and the accessibility of this Li compared with lithium carbonate (Li(2)CO(3)), often used as psychiatric medicine, were investigated. Mushrooms were produced on a substrate-based on coffee husk, with different added concentrations of lithium chloride (LiCl). Biological efficiency (BE), the crude protein content, the concentration of Li and other elements present in mushrooms were determined. The sequential extraction and in vitro test were used to verify the accessibility and the degree of solubility of this element. Li concentration in mushrooms was directly influenced by increasing LiCl concentration in the substrate (Postreatus mushrooms, enriched with lithium can be an alternative source of Li, as well as being a food with high nutritional value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural Features and Healthy Properties of Polysaccharides Occurring in Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guillamón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve several steps, and different techniques are actually available in order to increase extraction yield and purity. Studies have demonstrated that the molecular structure and arrangement significantly influence the biological activity; therefore, there is a wide range of analytical techniques for the elucidation of chemical structures. Different polysaccharides have been isolated from mushrooms, most of them consisting of β-linked glucans, such as lentinan from Lentinus edodes, pleuran from Pleurotus species, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, calocyban from Calocybe indica, or ganoderan and ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum. This article reviews the main methods of polysaccharide isolation and structural characterization, as well as some of the most important polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms and the healthy benefits they provide.

  4. Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, M.E.R. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1998-12-01

    There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

  5. Laccases production by A.blazei mushroom grown either in composted or non-composted substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Matute, Ramiro; Figlas, Norma Débora; Curvetto, Néstor

    2013-01-01

    Agaricus blazei is an edible and medicinal mushroom commonly cultivated on compost. However, non-composted substrates are being particularly studied for specialty mushrooms because their economic and labour advantages. Addition of salt minerals to the substrate or casing materials may stimulate both the synthesis and activity of enzymes involved in the mushroom substrate biotransformation and eventually lead to an increase not only in mushroom productivity but in the fruitbody mineral content...

  6. 桑枝栽培长根菇的试验研究%Cultivation Experiments of the Edible Mushroom Oudemansiella radicata Using Sawdust Based Substrate Made of Mulberry Branch Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方少钦; 沈维治; 高云超; 廖森泰; 肖更生; 邹宇晓; 施英; 刘凡; 刘军; 穆利霞

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully utilize mulberry twigs resources in silk production and expand sources of raw materials in edible fungus production, the mushroom cultivation experiments for Oudemansiella radicata with different methods and proportions of mulberry branch powder was studied. The mulberry twigs powder proportion was from 75%-80%in the formula of mushroom growth medium, the mycelia growth rate was faster than other media, it might reach the 1.96-2.63 mm/date. Oudemansiella radicata yield determination showed that, beginning from June of 2011 for the first yield fluctuation to September for the end, every 2 to 3 days harvests one time in the period. The fruit body growth and development was faster in the summer than other seasons, and higher yield and biological efficiency could reach 75%-84.4%, fruiting body was higher, thicker in pileus and larger and thicker for its caps. Economic analysis showed that 100 kg raw material could be obtain net economic income more than ¥300 , and as to expand the planting scale showed better economic benefits. The experimental results showed that the mulberry branches as a kind of raw materials for mushroom production was a best way of comprehensive utilization in mulberry and mushroom production, it saved the cost of production and increased benefits, especially production of Oudemansiella radicata in the summer and had broad application prospects.%为了充分利用蚕桑生产中废弃的桑枝资源以及扩展食用菌产业的原材料来源,笔者进行了利用桑枝栽培长根菇的试验,结果表明,长根菇在桑木屑比例为70%~97%范围内的菌丝生长较好,培养基配方中桑枝比例为75%~80%左右,生长速度较快,可达1.96~2.63 mm/d。产量测定表明,从2011年6月开始出菇,至9月结束,期间每隔2~3天既出产1潮次,表现出子实体生长发育较快,主要的生长季节在夏季,并且产量较高,生物学效率高,可达75%~84.4%,子实体高大挺拔

  7. 利用荻枯茎栽培糙皮侧耳和美味扇菇%Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and Panellus edulis using Dry Stems of Triarrhena sacchariflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建瑞; 刘宇; 鲁铁; 王庆洲; 图力古尔

    2013-01-01

    利用荻枯茎栽培糙皮侧耳(Pleurotus ostrea tus)和美味扇菇(Panellus edulis),结果表明:以荻枯茎为主料栽培的两种食用菌菌丝生长速度和子实体原基形成均较棉籽壳慢约2~3 d,但绝对生物转化率均(糙皮侧耳为21.0%、美味扇菇为20.1%)高于棉籽壳栽培组(糙皮侧耳为17.7%,美味扇菇为16.0%).

  8. Fermentation Materials Cultivation and Key Technology for Environmental Control Facilities about Pollution-Free Pleurotus Ostreatus%发酵料无公害栽培平菇的设施环境调控关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海霞; 陈艳玲; 王东云; 邓杰中

    2015-01-01

    从设施平菇[Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.ex Fr.)Quel.]的场地选择、栽培季节及品种选择、培养料配方、培养料发酵、菌袋选择及处理、菌丝的培养、子实体形成阶段的管理、出菇、采菇后期管理、采收等方面介绍了发酵料无公害栽培平菇的设施环境调控关键技术,以供生产上参考.

  9. Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivation Using Processing Wastes Generated During the Production of Acute Bronchitis Syrup%急支糖浆药渣栽培野生平菇的效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小晶; 邓宇; 方德华

    2008-01-01

    采用瓶栽试验研究了急支糖浆药渣主料四季青(Euonymus japonicus)药渣和苦荞头(Fagopyrum tataricum)药渣对野生平菇(Pleurotus ostreatus)生长和产量的影响.结果表明,野生平菇丰野一号在以四季青、苦养头混合药渣为主料的D配方和以四季青药渣为主料的A配方培养料上,菌丝长势强,子实体圆整、产量高,鲜菇产量(66.1 g/瓶和59.1 g/瓶)分别比以棉籽壳为主料栽培的野生平菇提高29.10%和15.43%.

  10. Biodegradation of sugarcane bagasse by Pleurotus citrinopileatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V K; Singh, M P; Srivastava, A K; Vishwakarma, S K; Takshak, S

    2012-12-22

    The chemically as well as hot water treated agrowaste sugarcane bagasse was subjected to degradation by Pleurotus citrinopileatus. The fungus degraded lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and carbon content of both chemically as well as hot water treated waste and produced in turn the edible and nutritious fruiting body. Biodegradation of the waste in terms of loss of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose showed positive correlation with cellulases, xylanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the fungus. During mycelial growth of the fungus, lignin degradation was faster and during fructification, lignin degradation was slower than cellulose and hemicellulose. The carbon content of the sugarcane bagasse decreased while, nitrogen content increased during degradation of the waste. Hot water treated substrate supported better production of enzymatic activity and degraded more efficiently than chemically sterilized substrate. The total yield and biological efficiency of the mushroom was maximum on the hot water treated substrates. Degradation of the hot water treated sugarcane bagasse was better and faster than chemically treated substrates.

  11. Redundancy among manganese peroxidases in Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Tomer M; Knop, Doriv; Levinson, Dana; Yarden, Oded; Hadar, Yitzhak

    2013-04-01

    Manganese peroxidases (MnPs) are key players in the ligninolytic system of white rot fungi. In Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom) these enzymes are encoded by a gene family comprising nine members, mnp1 to -9 (mnp genes). Mn(2+) amendment to P. ostreatus cultures results in enhanced degradation of recalcitrant compounds (such as the azo dye orange II) and lignin. In Mn(2+)-amended glucose-peptone medium, mnp3, mnp4, and mnp9 were the most highly expressed mnp genes. After 7 days of incubation, the time point at which the greatest capacity for orange II decolorization was observed, mnp3 expression and the presence of MnP3 in the extracellular culture fluids were predominant. To determine the significance of MnP3 for ligninolytic functionality in Mn(2+)-sufficient cultures, mnp3 was inactivated via the Δku80 strain-based P. ostreatus gene-targeting system. In Mn(2+)-sufficient medium, inactivation of mnp3 did not significantly affect expression of nontargeted MnPs or their genes, nor did it considerably diminish the fungal Mn(2+)-mediated orange II decolorization capacity, despite the significant reduction in total MnP activity. Similarly, inactivation of either mnp4 or mnp9 did not affect orange II decolorization ability. These results indicate functional redundancy within the P. ostreatus MnP gene family, enabling compensation upon deficiency of one of its members.

  12. Nutrition and safety assessments of Pleurotus ostreatus cultured with tea tree residues%澳洲茶树树渣栽培平菇的营养与安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李挺; 宋斌; 林敏; 黄浩; 郑永发

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional components and the safety of Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) cultured with tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) residues were evaluated.The results showed that the content of crude protein,crude fiber,crude fat and ash of the oyster mushroom was 37.0%,10.5%,1.2% and 6.1%,respectively.The content of total amino acids was higher than those in the control groups from the references.The evaluation of nutritional value of protein showed that amino acids of the oyster mushrooms cultured with tea tree could meet the basic human needs.The trace elements ratios of zinc to copper and zinc to iron were in the appropriate range respectively.The contents of mercury,lead,arsenic and cadmium were conformed to the green food standards-edible mushrooms (NY/T 749-2012).The acute oral toxicity test indicated that the oyster mushroom cultured with tea tree residues was non-toxic food.The results showed that the tea tree residues were the excellent materials to cultivate oyster mushroom.They are worthy of popularization and application.%对澳洲茶树(互叶白千层)树渣栽培的平菇子实体进行营养和安全性评价.结果显示,澳洲茶树平菇的粗蛋白、粗纤维、粗脂肪和灰分含量分别为37.0%、10.5%、1.2%和6.1%,氨基酸总量高于文献对照组.蛋白质营养评价表明,澳洲茶树平菇的氨基酸能满足人体基本需要;微量元素中铜、铁与锌的比值较为合理;重金属汞、铅、砷、镉的含量均符合绿色食品——食用菌(NY/T 749-2012)的卫生指标要求;急性经口毒性试验证明,澳洲茶树平菇为无毒级食品.

  13. Application of Sycamores Leaves Biomass Resources in Mushroom Cultivation%悬铃木落叶生物质资源在平菇栽培中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 王文静; 虎嘉祥; 张根梅

    2016-01-01

    With sycamores leaves,sycamores deciduous+auxiliary materials,sycamores fermented leaves,sycamores fermentation+auxiliary materials,the cotton seed shell(control)as substrates,the application study of deciduous resources in mushroom cultivation was carried out. The results are as follows:①The mycelia growth in the fermentation process of blades faster,the mushroom time and harvest time are earlier than those in no leaves fermentation,but their biological efficiency and quality are no difference;②The mycelia adding with bran,calcium superphosphate,urea and gypsum powder as main material,has faster processing growth,earlier budding and harvest times,and higher yield and biological efficiency than those without adding accessories processing(dry leaves, half fermented leaves);③With the cotton seed shells as a control,all of the speed of mycelia growth,the budding time,the harvest time,the production,the quality and the biological efficiency are better than that of the leaves processings. But the end of harvest time is later than the two processing with fermented leaves;its product quality and fermentation of leaf+accessories processing are well-matched;④Although the cultivation effect of sycamores leaves with all kinds of processing is not as good as the cotton seed shells,the sycamores leaves have abundant resources,a low price,low cost of cultivation,it can turn waste into wealth,has a broad application prospect.%以悬铃木落叶、悬铃木落叶+辅料、悬铃木发酵叶、悬铃木发酵叶+辅料、棉籽壳(对照)为培养料,开展落叶资源在平菇栽培中的实验研究.结果表明:①种植在经发酵处理叶片上的菌丝要比没有发酵叶片上的菌丝生长速度快,出菇时间早,收获时间早,但生物效率和品质没有差异;②添加以麸皮、过磷酸钙、尿素和石膏粉为主要辅料的处理,要比没有添加辅料的处理(干叶、半发酵叶)菌丝生长的速度快,现蕾时间早、采收时间早、结

  14. [Disinfection of wood in mushroom growing cellars with Mycetox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymański, J; Wazny, J

    1995-01-01

    Since the use od phenolic disinfectants for impregnating and disinfecting of wood in mushroom--growing cellars was banned in Poland for ecologic and hygienic reasons, the new product, namely Mycetox, containing quaternary ammonium compound and boric acid has been registered for this purpose. Mycetox belongs to new generation products and is non toxic for man and the environment. It is first Polish product developed for the general disinfection as well as for impregnating purposes in mushroom farms. The efficacy of Mycetox in mushroom-growing cellars has been evaluated basing on its fungicidal properties in the different substrates used for the cultivation of mushrooms. Also its influence on mushroom spawn growth, crop yield, and the penetration of spawn into wooden cages impregnated with Mycetox as well as its influence on blanching of mushrooms has been investigated.

  15. Heterologous expression of the Pleurotus ostreatus MnP3 gene by the laccase gene promoter in Lentinula edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshitsugu; Irie, Toshikazu; Yoshino, Fumihiko

    2017-08-01

    Lentinula edodes (shiitake), which have a powerful ligninolytic system, is one of the most important edible mushrooms in Asia. In this study, we introduced the manganese peroxidase (MnP, EC 1.11.1.13) gene from Pleurotus ostreatus driven by L. edodes laccase 1 gene promoter into L. edodes for expression. The resulting transformant expressed the recombinant gene and showed a higher level of MnP activity than that of the wild-type strain.

  16. Research Advance on Pleurotus citrinipileatus Sing%榆黄蘑研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蒙

    2013-01-01

    The current situation about the Pleurotus citrinipileatus Sing of the cultivation,nutrient composition,chemical constituents,medicinal value were summarized.And some suggestions for future research were put forward so as to provide the reference for the study of Pleurotus citrinipileatus Sing.%综述了榆黄蘑的栽培、营养成分、化学成分、药用价值等方面的研究现状,并提出今后研究的建议,以期为榆黄蘑的研究提供参考。

  17. Effects of Illumination Pattern during Cultivation of Fruiting Body and Bioactive Compound Production by the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chiu-Yeh; Liang, Zeng-Chin; Tseng, Chin-Yin; Hu, Shu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of light intensity in the 3 cultivation stages separately-the mycelium colonization stage, the primordial initiation stage, and the fruiting stage (in order)-on fruiting body and bioactive compound production by Cordyceps militaris. In the mycelium colonization stage, rice substrates were incubated in a spawn running room at 23°C. During the primordial initiation stage, C. militaris was grown at 18°C and illuminated 12 hours/day. In the fruiting stage the temperature was 23°C, with illumination provided 12 hours/day. The highest fruiting body yield and biological efficiency were 4.06 g dry weight/bottle and 86.83%, respectively, under 1750 ± 250 lux during the second and third stages. The cordycepin content was highest during the second and third stages under 1250 ± 250 lux. The mannitol and polysaccharide contents were highest under 1250 ± 250 and 1750 ± 250 lux during the primordial initiation stage and the fruiting stage, respectively. Thus, with controlled lighting, C. militaris can be cultivated in rice-water medium to increase fruiting body yield and bioactive compound production.

  18. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay.

  19. Pleurotus eryngii Polysaccharide Promotes Pluripotent Reprogramming via Facilitating Epigenetic Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenwen; Cao, Xia; Wang, Yan; Yu, Qingtong; Zhang, Zhijian; Qu, Rui; Chen, Jingjing; Shao, Genbao; Gao, Xiangdong; Xu, Ximing; Yu, Jiangnan

    2016-02-17

    Pleurotus eryngii is a medicinal/edible mushroom with great nutritional value and bioactivity. Its polysaccharide has recently been developed into an effective gene vector via cationic modification. In the present study, cationized P. eryngii polysaccharide (CPS), hybridized with calcium phosphate (CP), was used to codeliver plasmids (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc) for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The results revealed that the hybrid nanoparticles could significantly enhance the process and efficiency of reprogramming (1.6-fold increase) compared with the CP nanoparticles. The hybrid CPS also facilitated epigenetic modification during the reprogramming. Moreover, these hybrid nanoparticles exhibited multiple pathways (both caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis) in their cellular internalization, which accounted for the improved iPSCs generation. These findings therefore present a novel application of P. eryngii polysaccharide in pluripotent reprogramming via active epigenetic modification.

  20. Production of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt. :Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), biomass and polysaccharides by solid state cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berovic, Marin; Habijanic, Jozica; Boh, Bojana; Wraber, Branka; Petravic-Tominac, Vlatka

    2012-01-01

    Solid state cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum biomass, strain BFWS Gal 4, originally isolated from the Slovenian forest, was studied in a horizontal stirred tank reactor. Periodic mixing of N = 80 rpm, 2 min/day was used. Production of fungal polysaccharides and fungal biomass on solid substrate based on beech sawdust, olive oil, and mineral salts was studied. Optimal moisture of the solid matrix was in the range of 80% to 74%. When the moisture content dropped below 57%, the growth of the mycelium and polysaccharide production stopped, but it revived when wet air was applied in further processing. Final concentration of biomass was 0.68 mg/g of solid substrate, while proportions of extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides were 4.5 mg/g and 1.05 mg/g, respectively.

  1. Laccase production by the aquatic ascomycete Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03 and the white rot basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus DSM 1833 during submerged cultivation on banana peels and enzyme applicability for the removal of endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardi, Nelson; Gern, Regina Maria Miranda; Furlan, Sandra Aparecida; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to study the production of laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus DSM 1833 and Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03 using banana peels as alternative carbon source, the subsequent partial purification and characterization of the enzyme, as well the applicability to degrade endocrine disruptors. The laccase stability with pH and temperature, the optimum pH, the K (m) and V(max) parameters, and the molar mass were determined. Tests were conducted for assessing the ability of degradation of the endocrine disruptors t-nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and 17α-ethinylestradiol. Laccase production of 752 and 1,117 U L⁻¹ was obtained for Phoma sp. and P. ostreatus, respectively. Phoma sp. laccase showed higher stability with temperature and pH. The laccase from both species showed higher affinity by syringaldazine. The culture broth with banana peels induced the production of two isoforms of P. ostreatus (58.7 and 21 kDa) and one of Phoma sp. laccase (72 kDa). In the first day of incubation, the concentrations of bisphenol A and 17α-ethinylestradiol were reduced to values close to zero and after 3 days the concentration of t-nonylphenol was reduced in 90% by the P. ostreatus laccase, but there was no reduction in its concentration by the Phoma sp. laccase.

  2. Agrocybe aegerita and Auricularia auricula Fruit Body Yields on Cultivation Substrates Containing Different Amounts of Spent Pleurotus ostreatus Substrate%平菇菌糠替代木屑栽培茶薪菇和黑木耳

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂云; 龚振杰; 陈欢

    2009-01-01

    采用平菇(Pleurotus ostreatus)菌糠不同比例替代木屑栽培茶薪菇 (Agrocybe aegerita)和黑木耳(Auricularia auricula),以常规培养料(木屑85%,麸皮12.5%,石膏1.5%,蔗糖1%)为对照,探讨平菇菌糠部分替代木屑栽培两种食用菌的可行性.结果表明,平菇菌糠代替部分木屑栽培茶薪菇和黑木耳是可行的;且在供试替代比范围内,两种食用菌产量随替代比的增加而增加;供试配方中,配方D(木屑40%,菌糠45%,麸皮12.5%,石膏1.5%,蔗糖1%)栽培的茶薪菇和黑木耳产量均最高,筛选为适宜配方.

  3. Collection of Group Characteristics of Pleurotus Eryngii Using Machine Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunsheng; Wan, Changzhao; Yang, Juan; Chen, Jianlin; Yuan, Tao; Zhao, Jingyin

    An information collection system which was used to group characteristics of pleurotus eryngii was introduced. The group characteristics of pleurotus eryngii were quantified using machine vision in order to inspect and control the pleurotus eryngii house environment by an automated system. Its main contents include the following: collection of pleurotus eryngii image; image processing and pattern recognition. Finally, by analysing pleurotus eryngii image, the systems for group characteristics of pleurotus eryngii are proved to be greatly effective.

  4. Reuse of degraded Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. P. Kumm. substrate by supplementation with wheat bran. Quantitative parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Raquel Picornell Buendía

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work was conducted in order to investigate the agronomic feasibility of Pleurotus ostreatus by reusing spent substrates previously in crops of the same mushroom. After the physical and chemical characterization of the substrates, we have evaluated quantitative production parameters in one growing season. As base material, the experiment was arranged in wheat straw (WS and spent Pleurotus substrate (SPS to generate prepared substrates with the participation of the same, alone, and mixed in different proportions with wheat bran (WB. Unsupplemented SPS, supplemented SPS with 600 g of WB, mixture of WS + unsupplemented SPS, and mixture of WS + supplemented SPS with 600 g of WB, are prepared substrates with biological efficiencies (BE ranging between 41 and 66% and an excellent unit weight of sporophores harvested. All correlations established among the germination index (GI, earliness (expressed as days to first harvest, yield components and BE were significant and positive correlation coefficients expressed.

  5. Iron bioaccumulation in mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Almeida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus ostreatus is able to bioaccumulate several metals in its cell structures; however, there are no reports on its capacity to bioaccumulate iron. The objective of this study was to evaluate cultivation variables to increase iron bioaccumulation in P. ostreatusmycelium. A full factorial design and a central composite design were utilized to evaluate the effect of the following variables: nitrogen and carbon sources, pH and iron concentration in the solid culture medium to produce iron bioaccumulated in mycelial biomass. The maximum production of P. ostreatus mycelial biomass was obtained with yeast extract at 2.96 g of nitrogen L−1 and glucose at 28.45 g L−1. The most important variable to bioaccumulation was the iron concentration in the cultivation medium. Iron concentration at 175 mg L−1 or higher in the culture medium strongly inhibits the mycelial growth. The highest iron concentration in the mycelium was 3500 mg kg−1 produced with iron addition of 300 mg L−1. The highest iron bioaccumulation in the mycelium was obtained in culture medium with 150 mg L−1 of iron. Iron bioaccumulation in P. ostreatus mycelium is a potential alternative to produce non-animal food sources of iron.

  6. Iron bioaccumulation in mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Sandra M; Umeo, Suzana H; Marcante, Rafael C; Yokota, Meire E; Valle, Juliana S; Dragunski, Douglas C; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A

    2015-03-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is able to bioaccumulate several metals in its cell structures; however, there are no reports on its capacity to bioaccumulate iron. The objective of this study was to evaluate cultivation variables to increase iron bioaccumulation in P. ostreatus mycelium. A full factorial design and a central composite design were utilized to evaluate the effect of the following variables: nitrogen and carbon sources, pH and iron concentration in the solid culture medium to produce iron bioaccumulated in mycelial biomass. The maximum production of P. ostreatus mycelial biomass was obtained with yeast extract at 2.96 g of nitrogen L (-1) and glucose at 28.45 g L (-1) . The most important variable to bioaccumulation was the iron concentration in the cultivation medium. Iron concentration at 175 mg L (-1) or higher in the culture medium strongly inhibits the mycelial growth. The highest iron concentration in the mycelium was 3500 mg kg (-1) produced with iron addition of 300 mg L (-1) . The highest iron bioaccumulation in the mycelium was obtained in culture medium with 150 mg L (-1) of iron. Iron bioaccumulation in P. ostreatus mycelium is a potential alternative to produce non-animal food sources of iron.

  7. Degradation Kinetics of the Pyraclostrpbin Residue in Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus citrinipileatus%平菇和榆黄蘑中吡唑醚菌酯残留动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡月; 刘萌萌; 侯志广; 赵晓峰; 张浩

    2016-01-01

    利用液相色谱仪建立吡唑醚菌酯在平菇和榆黄蘑中残留分析方法,测定吡唑醚菌酯在平菇和榆黄蘑及培养料中的消解动态规律。结果表明:吡唑醚菌酯在平菇和榆黄蘑及培养料中的消解半衰期分别为2.8、2.9 d和14.1 d。培养料灭菌会减少吡唑醚菌酯的残留量。平菇和榆黄蘑及在含有吡唑醚菌酯的培养料中栽培90 d后,培养料中供试农药残留量0.68 mg/kg,在收获期同步采集的平菇和榆黄蘑子实体中均未检测到吡唑醚菌酯的残留量。因此,培养料中吡唑醚菌酯残留不会向平菇和榆黄蘑子实体转移,对食用菌产品质量安全的影响较小。%A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of pyraclostrobin residues in Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus citrinopileatus. The degradation kinetics of the pyraclostrobin in Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and substrates was thus studied. The results indicated that the half-life period of pyraclostrobin in Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and substrates were 2.8, 2.9 d and 14.1 d respectively. Sterilization remarkably reduced pyraclostrobin residues in the substrates. After Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus citrinopileatus were cultivated for 90 days in the substrates with pyraclostrobin, with the tested pesticide residues in the substrates being 0.68 mg/kg, no residual volume was detected in the substance of Pleurotus ostreatus or Pleurotus citrinopileatus that were harvested at the same time. Therefore, pyraclostrobin residues in substrates didn't transfer to the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus or Pleurotus citrinopileatus and thus had little impact on the quality safety of the edible fungus.

  8. Glass distilling collector applied for HCN recovery from submerged culture broth and fruiting body of Pleurotus eryngii for identification and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Pei-Yu; Hong, Chian-Huei; Chen, Wenlung; Li, Yu-Jang; Chen, Yen-Shang; Chiou, Robin Y-Y

    2006-03-08

    Detection and surveillance of food commodities containing cyanide is a crucial issue of food safety. In this study, five strains of Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) were grown in submerged culture of yeast malt broth (YMB) with the suspected production of HCN. A safety-warranted U-bent glass distilling collector with three enlarged bulbs on each arm was designed to recover the broth vapor. When AgNO(3) solution was used as an absorbent to interact with the vapor, a white precipitate was formed. The precipitate was isolated and identified as AgCN by FT-Raman spectroscopic analysis. When the absorbent was substituted by KOH, after evaporation to dryness, dissolved in D(2)O, and followed by (13)C-NMR analysis, a KCN spectrum was achieved. Formation of AgCN and KCN confirmed HCN production in the broth by P. eryngii. When a sodium picrate solution (1.4%) was used as an absorbent and various authentic KCN solutions were applied for distillation and followed by absorbance determination at 510 nm, a linear dose-dependent relationship was obtained and the procedure was applied for HCN quantification of the marketed P. eryngii mushrooms (fruiting body). As estimated, 67.3% of the products contained HCN less than 1.0 mg/kg, 17.3% between 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, and 15.4% higher than 2.0 mg/kg. When the mushrooms were sliced and cooked in water at 95 degrees C for 6 min, 89.1% of the original HCN was lost. When the P. eryngii strains were respectively grown by submerged cultivation in YMB or YMB supplemented with 2.5% glycine for 16 days, HCN content was slightly higher in the latter than in the former for each strain.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates in mouse ears treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Pérez, Nallely; Ayala-Martínez, Maricela; Zepeda-Bastida, Armando; Meneses-Mayo, Marcos; Ojeda-Ramírez, Deyanira

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the application of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates, enriched or not with medicinal herbs, as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds. Subjects and Methods: P. ostreatus was cultivated on five different substrates: Barley straw (BS) and BS combined 80:20 with medicinal herbs (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [BS/CA], Rosmarinus officinalis L. [BS/RO], Litsea glaucescens Kunth [BS/LG], and Tagetes lucida Cav. [BS/TL]). The anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of spent mushroom substrates (SMSs) (4 mg/ear) was studied using an acute inflammation model in the mouse ear induced with 2.5 μg/ear 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol13-acetate (TPA). Results: Groups treated with BS/CA, BS/RO, and BS/LG aqueous extracts exhibited the best anti-inflammatory activity (94.0% ± 5.5%, 92.9% ± 0.6%, and 90.4% ± 5.0% inhibition of auricular edema [IAO], respectively), and these effects were significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of the positive control indomethacin (0.5 mg/ear). BS/TL and BS were also able to reduce TPA-induced inflammation but to a lesser extent (70.0% ± 6.7% and 43.5% ± 6.6% IAO, respectively). Conclusions: Spent P. ostreatus substrate of BS possesses a slight anti-inflammatory effect. The addition of CA L. to mushroom substrate showed a slightly synergistic effect while RO L. had an additive effect. In addition, LG Kunth and TL Cav. enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of SMS. However, to determine whether there is a synergistic or additive effect, it is necessary to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of each medicinal herb. PMID:27127316

  10. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAUKET AHMED PALA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Boda RH, Wani BA. 2014. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 173-185. Mushroom can serve as food, tonic, and as medicine thus make people healthier, fitter and happier. They have a cracking potential for generating great socioeconomic impact in human welfare at local, national and international level. With the help of allied mushroom farming we can easily tackle the problem of food for growing world population; reduce environmental pollution by bioconversion of huge organic wastes into mushrooms; recycle huge quantity of organic wastes to mushroom crops, biofertilizers, and biogas; restore damaged environment by mushroom mycelia through mycoforestry, mycoremediation, mycofiltration and mycopesticides in a zero emission fashion. They can be used to degrade radioactive industrial biocide wastes in an eco-friendly fashion. Since mushroom cultivation is an indoor agribusiness, it could have great economic impact by generating employment, income and functional food requirements for rural people especially in developing countries. How far mushroom cultivation can meet the functional food requirements; address the domestic food challenges, rising food prices and crisis vis a vis environmental sustainability will be t