WorldWideScience

Sample records for culminating experience requires

  1. The N4 plant: culmination of French PWR experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellet, J.; Houyez, A.; Journet, J.; Pierrard, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The model N4 series of 1400MWe class PWR plants has been developed in France from a unique base of technical and operating experience. It meets the French government's requirement for a reactor free of constraints due to licensing agreements with overseas companies, with enhanced safety features and incorporating the lessons of Three Mile Island. In particular, improvements have been made to the reactor vessel, the steam generators, the primary pumps and control systems. The units are capable of daily load following and extended operation between refuelling. The N4 plant includes a new design of turbine-generator. (author)

  2. Ongoing experiments: diagnostics requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerman, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews the fuel motion diagnostics needs for ongoing LMFBR safety experiments over approximately the next five years, with the discussion centered on TREAT. Brief comments on the direction in which clad motion diagnostics requirements are expected to develop are also presented

  3. The Senior Year: Culminating Experiences and Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Mary Stuart, Ed.; Keup, Jennifer R., Ed.; Kinzie, Jillian, Ed.; Maietta, Heather, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing pressures on colleges and universities to ensure degree completion and job placement as measures of success make it imperative that the path to graduation is clear and that seniors receive the support needed to earn a degree and make a successful transition to life beyond college. This new edited collection describes today's college…

  4. Operational Overreach or Academic Under Reach: Preventing Culmination Through Sustainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Third US Army, 1 August 1944-9 May 1945. Volume 1 & 2 reproduced jointly by 652nd Engineering (TOPO) Bn., CO. B, 942nd Engineer AVN ., (TOPO) Bn...942nd Engineer AVN ., (TOPO) Bn. 26Peter Dye, “To What Extent Were Logistics Shortages Responsible for Patton’s Culmination on the Meuse in 1944

  5. Instrumentation requirements for the ESF thermomechanical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, J.; Brechtel, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    In situ thermomechanical experiments are planned as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project that require instruments to measure stress and displacement at temperatures that exceed the typical specifications of existing geotechnical instruments. A high degree of instrument reliability will also be required to satisfy the objectives of the experiments, therefore a study was undertaken to identify areas where improvement in instrument performance was required. A preliminary list of instruments required for the experiments was developed, based on existing test planning and analysis. Projected temperature requirements were compared to specifications of existing instruments to identify instrumentation development needs. Different instrument technologies, not currently employed in geotechnical instrumentation, were reviewed to identify potential improvements of existing designs for the high temperature environment. Technologies with strong potentials to improve instrument performance with relatively high reliability include graphite fiber composite materials, fiber optics, and video imagery

  6. Some general requirements for irradiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, H P; Skjoeldebrand, R

    1960-05-15

    This paper is limited to the interests of the EAES-symposium, namely the use of reactors for materials research and testing, for convenience we exclude consideration of chemical effects and problems of coolant technology. Its purpose is to try to define the general requirements for irradiation experiments and the reactors housing them; to see what facilities for irradiation experiments are available within the European Atomic Energy Society countries and finally, to point out possible limitations of these facilities.

  7. Belle-II Experiment Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bell, Greg [ESnet; Carlson, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cowley, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dart, Eli [ESnet; Erwin, Brock [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Godang, Romulus [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States); Hara, Takanori [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Johnson, Jerry [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Ron [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Johnston, Bill [ESnet; Dam, Kerstin Kleese-van [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaneko, Toshiaki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Kubota, Yoshihiro [NII; Kuhr, Thomas [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany); McCoy, John [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miyake, Hideki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Monga, Inder [ESnet; Nakamura, Motonori [NII; Piilonen, Leo [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Pordes, Ruth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ray, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russell, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schram, Malachi [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schroeder, Jim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sevior, Martin [Univ. of Melbourne (Australia); Singh, Surya [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suzuki, Soh [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, Takashi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Williams, Jim [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2013-05-28

    The Belle experiment, part of a broad-based search for new physics, is a collaboration of ~400 physicists from 55 institutions across four continents. The Belle detector is located at the KEKB accelerator in Tsukuba, Japan. The Belle detector was operated at the asymmetric electron-positron collider KEKB from 1999-2010. The detector accumulated more than 1 ab-1 of integrated luminosity, corresponding to more than 2 PB of data near 10 GeV center-of-mass energy. Recently, KEK has initiated a $400 million accelerator upgrade to be called SuperKEKB, designed to produce instantaneous and integrated luminosity two orders of magnitude greater than KEKB. The new international collaboration at SuperKEKB is called Belle II. The first data from Belle II/SuperKEKB is expected in 2015. In October 2012, senior members of the Belle-II collaboration gathered at PNNL to discuss the computing and neworking requirements of the Belle-II experiment with ESnet staff and other computing and networking experts. The day-and-a-half-long workshop characterized the instruments and facilities used in the experiment, the process of science for Belle-II, and the computing and networking equipment and configuration requirements to realize the full scientific potential of the collaboration's work.

  8. Requirements for the GCFR plenum streaming experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R.G.; Rouse, C.A.; Hamilton, C.J.

    1980-09-01

    This report gives the experiment objectives and generic descriptions of experimental configurations for the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) plenum shield experiment. This report defines four experiment phases. Each phase represents a distinct area of uncertainty in computing radiation transport from the GCFR core to the plenums, through the upper and lower plenum shields, and ultimately to the prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) liner: (1) the shield heterogeneity phase; (2) the exit shield simulation phase; (3) the plenum streaming phase; and (4) the plenum shield simulation phase

  9. Presentation of research in anesthesia: Culmination into publication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the quality of research presentations made in conferences, its success or failure to be published in a peer-reviewed journal is a well-accepted marker. However, there is no data regarding the publication of research presentations made in Indian conferences of anesthesiology. Objective: The primary objective was to determine publication rate of research presented at the largest and best attended national conference in anesthesiology, the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists′ Conference (ISACON, and also compare it with the rate from an international conference American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA annual meeting held in the same year. Materials and Methods: All 363 abstracts presented as poster or podium presentations at the ISACON, and an equal number of randomly selected abstracts presented at ASA annual meeting were searched on Pubmed and Google Scholar for their full-text publications in peer-reviewed journals using a standardized search strategy. As secondary observations, abstracts were assessed for completeness by noting certain components central to research methodology. Also, changes between abstract of the presentation and published paper were noted with respect to certain components. Results: The publication rate of presentations at ISACON and ASA meetings was 5% and 22%, respectively. The abstracts from ISACON lacked central components of research such as methods and statistical tests. The commonest change in the full-text publications as compared with the original abstract from both conferences was a change in authorship. Conclusion: Steps are required to augment full-text publication of Indian research, including a more rigorous peer review of abstracts submitted to ISACON to ensure their completeness.

  10. Measuring Operational Success: Establishing Criteria to Benchmark the Point of Culmination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caraccilo, Dominic

    1997-01-01

    ... has for the establishment of criteria that measure operational success on the battlefield. This void, in-turn, impacts directly on the operational commander's capability to identify his point(s) of culmination...

  11. Academic Formation and Formative Research Integration Management for the Culmination of Studies Process in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Cruz Rizo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the up- dated international difficulties in the completion of studies process, theoretical and practical studies developed in this field are surprisingly scarce. Particularly, there has been a limited quantity of students that support their diploma thesis after completing their credits at the School of Languages and Linguistics at the University of Guayaquil. Consequently, this paper faces the problem of the insufficiencies in the culmination of studies process in relation to the management of the academic and scientific formation. Thus, the objective is: to improve the completion of studies or degree- obtaining processes in university education, through the implementation of a praxiological proposal of academic formation and formative research integration. Accordingly, the author´s experiences systematization is the methodology mainly used. The essential logic for the management of the academic formation and formative research integration was revealed as the main proposal, therefore this is the solution to the problem diagnosed. This is based on a curricular structure, in which each of the subjects was interrelated to each of the essential stages of the scientific research. As main results obtained, the students were able to solve real-life problems diagnosed at educative institutions, also they drew up the draft of their theses.

  12. Technical requirement of experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Tillak, M.; Gierszwski, P.; Grover, J.; Puigh, R.; Sze, D.K.; Berwald, D.

    1986-06-01

    The technical issues and requirements of experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology (FNT) have been investigated. The nuclear subsystems addressed are: a) blanket, b) radiation shield, c) tritium processing system, and d) plasma interactive components. Emphasis has been placed on the important and complex development problems of the blanket. A technical planning process for FNT has been developed and applied, including four major elements: 1) characterization of issues, 2) quantification of testing requirements, 3) evaluation of facilities, and 4) development of a test plan to identify the role, timing, characteristics and costs of major experiments and facilities

  13. Poster Presentations: Turning a Lab of the Week into a Culminating Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jennifer L.; Quin~ones, Rosalynn; Sunderland, Deborah P.

    2015-01-01

    An assignment incorporating posters into a second-year analytical chemistry lab is described. Students work in groups and are assigned one of the application-themed weekly laboratories as a topic. Course data acquired for these weekly laboratories are compiled into spreadsheets that the poster group then analyzes to present in an on-campus poster…

  14. Detector Control System for an LHC experiment - User Requirements Document

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the user requirements for a detector control system kernel for the LHC experiments following the ESA standard PSS-05 [1]. The first issue will be used to provide the basis for an evaluation of possible development philosophies for a kernel DCS. As such it will cover all the major functionality but only to a level of detail sufficient for such an evaluation to be performed. Many of the requirements are therefore intentionally high level and generic, and are meant to outline the functionality that would be required of the kernel DCS, but not yet to the level of the detail required for implementation. The document is also written in a generic fashion in order not to rule out any implementation technology.

  15. Resident Evaluation of a Required Telepsychiatry Clinical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, John; Hodgins, Michael; Boydell, Katherine M; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The authors explored resident experiences of telepsychiatry clinical training. This paper describes an analysis of evaluation forms completed by psychiatry residents following a required training experience in telepsychiatry. Retrospective numeric and narrative data were collected from 2005 to 2012. Using a five-point Likert-type scale (1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree), residents ranked the session based on the following characteristics: the overall experience, interest in participating in telepsychiatry in the future, understanding service provision to underserved areas, telepsychiatry as mode of service delivery, and the unique aspects of telepsychiatry work. The authors also conducted a content analysis of narrative comments in response to open-ended questions about the positive and negative aspects of the training experience. In all, 88% of residents completed (n = 335) an anonymous evaluation following their participation in telepsychiatry consultation sessions. Numeric results were mostly positive and indicated that the experience was interesting and enjoyable, enhanced interest in participating in telepsychiatry in the future, and increased understanding of providing psychiatric services to underserved communities. Narrative data demonstrated that the most valuable aspects of training included the knowledge acquired in terms of establishing rapport and engaging with patients, using the technology, working collaboratively, identifying different approaches used, and awareness of the complexity of cases. Resident desire for more training of this nature was prevalent, specifically a wish for more detail, additional time for discussion and debriefing, and further explanation of the unique aspects of telepsychiatry as mode of delivery. More evaluation of telepsychiatry training, elective or required, is needed. The context of this training offered potential side benefits of learning about interprofessional and collaborative care for the

  16. HTR-PM Safety requirement and Licensing experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fu; Zhang Zuoyi; Dong Yujie; Wu Zongxin; Sun Yuliang

    2014-01-01

    HTR-PM is a 200MWe modular pebble bed high temperature reactor demonstration plant which is being built in Shidao Bay, Weihai, Shandong, China. The main design parameters of HTR-PM were fixed in 2006, the basic design was completed in 2008. The review of Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) of HTR-PM was started in April 2008, completed in September 2009. In general, HTR- PM design complies with the current safety requirement for nuclear power plant in China, no special standards are developed for modular HTR. Anyway, Chinese Nuclear Safety Authority, together with the designers, developed some dedicated design criteria for key systems and components and published the guideline for the review of safety analysis report of HTR-PM, based on the experiences from licensing of HTR-10 and new development of nuclear safety. The probabilistic safety goal for HTR-PM was also defined by the safety authority. The review of HTR-PM PSAR lasted for one and a half years, with 3 dialogues meetings and 8 topics meetings, with more than 2000 worksheets and answer sheets. The heavily discussed topics during the PSAR review process included: the requirement for the sub-atmospheric ventilation system, the utilization of PSA in design process, the scope of beyond design basis accidents, the requirement for the qualification of TRISO coating particle fuel, and etc. Because of the characteristics of first of a kind for the demonstration plant, the safety authority emphasized the requirement for the experiment and validation, the PSAR was licensed with certain licensing conditions. The whole licensing process was under control, and was re-evaluated again after Fukushima accident to be shown that the design of HTR-PM complies with current safety requirement. This is a good example for how to license a new reactor. (author)

  17. Capacitor requirements for controlled thermonuclear experiments and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boicourt, G.P.; Hoffman, P.S.

    1975-01-01

    Future controlled thermonuclear experiments as well as controlled thermonuclear reactors will require substantial numbers of capacitors. The demands on these units are likely to be quite severe and quite different from the normal demands placed on either present energy storage capacitors or present power factor correction capacitors. It is unlikely that these two types will suffice for all necessary Controlled Thermonuclear Research (CTR) applications. The types of capacitors required for the various CTR operating conditions are enumerated. Factors that influence the life, cost and operating abilities of these types of capacitors are discussed. The problems of capacitors in a radiation environment are considered. Areas are defined where future research is needed. Some directions that this research should take are suggested. (U.S.)

  18. Capacitor requirements for controlled thermonuclear experiments and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boicourt, G.P.; Hoffman, P.S.

    1975-01-01

    Future controlled thermonuclear experiments as well as controlled thermonuclear reactors will require substantial numbers of capacitors. The demands on these units are likely to be quite severe and quite different from the normal demands placed on either present energy storage capacitors or present power factor correction capacitors. It is unlikely that these two types will suffice for all necessary Controlled Thermonuclear Research (CTR) applications. The types of capacitors required for the various CTR operating conditions are enumerated. Factors that influence the life, cost and operating abilities of these types of capacitors are discussed. The problems of capacitors in a radiation environment are considered. Areas are defined where future research is needed. Some directions that this research should take are suggested

  19. High gain requirements and high field Tokamak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Operation at sufficiently high gain (ratio of fusion power to external heating power) is a fundamental requirement for tokamak power reactors. For typical reactor concepts, the gain is greater than 25. Self-heating from alpha particles in deuterium-tritium plasmas can greatly reduce ητ/temperature requirements for high gain. A range of high gain operating conditions is possible with different values of alpha-particle efficiency (fraction of alpha-particle power that actually heats the plasma) and with different ratios of self heating to external heating. At one extreme, there is ignited operation, where all of the required plasma heating is provided by alpha particles and the alpha-particle efficiency is 100%. At the other extreme, there is the case of no heating contribution from alpha particles. ητ/temperature requirements for high gain are determined as a function of alpha-particle heating efficiency. Possibilities for high gain experiments in deuterium-tritium, deuterium, and hydrogen plasmas are discussed

  20. STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Geoffrey [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) facilities including accelerators, light sources and neutron sources and sensors that study, the environment, and the atmosphere, are producing streaming data that needs to be analyzed for next-generation scientific discoveries. There has been an explosion of new research and technologies for stream analytics arising from the academic and private sectors. However, there has been no corresponding effort in either documenting the critical research opportunities or building a community that can create and foster productive collaborations. The two-part workshop series, STREAM: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop (STREAM2015 and STREAM2016), were conducted to bring the community together and identify gaps and future efforts needed by both NSF and DOE. This report describes the discussions, outcomes and conclusions from STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop, the second of these workshops held on March 22-23, 2016 in Tysons, VA. STREAM2016 focused on the Department of Energy (DOE) applications, computational and experimental facilities, as well software systems. Thus, the role of “streaming and steering” as a critical mode of connecting the experimental and computing facilities was pervasive through the workshop. Given the overlap in interests and challenges with industry, the workshop had significant presence from several innovative companies and major contributors. The requirements that drive the proposed research directions, identified in this report, show an important opportunity for building competitive research and development program around streaming data. These findings and recommendations are consistent with vision outlined in NRC Frontiers of Data and National Strategic Computing Initiative (NCSI) [1, 2]. The discussions from the workshop are captured as topic areas covered in this report's sections. The report

  1. AAFE man-made noise experiment project. Volume 1: Introduction experiment definition and requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure and map the man-made radio frequency emanations which exist at earth orbital altitudes. The major objectives of the program are to develop a complete conceptual experiment and developmental hardware for the collection and processing of data required to produce meaningful statistics on man-made noise level variations as functions of time, frequency, and geographic location. A wide dispersion measurement receiver mounted in a spacecraft operating in a specialized orbit is used to obtain the data. A summary of the experiment designs goals and constraints is provided. The recommended orbit for the spacecraft is defined. The characteristics of the receiver and the antennas are analyzed.

  2. Structural evolution of the Semail Ophiolite metamorphic sole, Wadi Hawasina and Northern Jebel Nakhl Culmination, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, C.; Bailey, C.; Visokay, L.; Scharf, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Semail ophiolite is the world's largest and best-exposed ophiolite sequence, however the processes associated with both oceanic detachment and later emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin remain enigmatic. This study examines the upper mantle section of the ophiolite, its associated metamorphic sole, and the autochthonous strata beneath the ophiolite at two locations in northern Oman. Our purpose is to understand the structural history of ophiolite emplacement and evaluate the deformation kinematics of faulted and sheared rocks in the metamorphic sole. At Wadi Hawasina, the base of the ophiolite is defined by a 5- to 15-m thick zone of penetratively-serpentinized mylonitic peridotite. Kinematic indicators record top-to-the SW (reverse) sense-of-shear with a triclinic deformation asymmetry. An inverted metamorphic grade is preserved in the 300- to 500-m thick metamorphic sole that is thrust over deep-water sedimentary rocks of the Hawasina Group. The study site near Buwah, in the northern Jebel Nakhl culmination, contains a N-to-S progression of mantle peridotite, metamorphic sole, and underlying Jurassic carbonates. Liswanite crops out in NW-SE trending linear ridges in the peridotite. The metamorphic sole includes well-foliated quartzite, metachert, and amphibolite. Kinematic evidence indicates that the liswanite and a serpentinized mélange experienced top to-the north (normal) sense-of-shear. Two generations of E-W striking, N-dipping normal faults separate the autochthonous sequence from the metamorphic sole, and also cut out significant sections of the metamorphic sole. Fabric analysis reveals that the metamorphic sole experienced flattening strain (K<0.2) that accumulated during pure shear-dominated general shear (Wk<0.4). Normal faulting and extension at the Buwah site indicates that post-ophiolite deformation is significant in the Jebel Akhdar and Jebel Nakhl culminations.

  3. Requirements for a Next Generation Framework: ATLAS Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Kama, Sami; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The challenge faced by HEP experiments from the current and expected architectural evolution of CPUs and co-processors is how to successfully exploit concurrency and keep memory consumption within reasonable limits. This is a major change from frameworks which were designed for serial event processing on single core processors in the 2000s. ATLAS has recently considered this problem in some detail through its Future Frameworks Requirements group. Here we report on the major considerations of the group, which was charged with considering the best strategies to exploit current and anticipated CPU technologies. The group has re-examined the basic architecture of event processing and considered how the building blocks of a framework (algorithms, services, tools and incidents) should evolve. The group has also had to take special care to ensure that the use cases of the ATLAS high level trigger are encompassed, which differ in important ways from offline event processing (for example, 99% of events are rejected, w...

  4. Organisational reviews - requirements, methods and experience. Progress report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B.; Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U.

    2007-04-01

    Organisational reviews are important instruments in the continuous quest for improved performance. In the nuclear field there has been an increasing regulatory interest in organisational performance, because incidents and accidents often point to organisational deficiencies as one of the major precursors. Many methods for organisational reviews have been proposed, but they are mostly based on ad hoc approaches to specific problems. The absence of well-established techniques for organisational reviews has already shown to cause discussions and controversies on different levels. The aim of the OrRe project is to collect the experiences from organisational reviews carried out so far and to reflect them in a theoretical model of organisational performance. Furthermore, the project aims to reflect on the criteria for the definition of the scope and content of organisational reviews. Finally, recommendations will be made for guidance for people participating in organisational reviews. This progress report describes regulatory practices in Finland and Sweden together with some case examples of organizational reviews and assessment in both countries. Some issues of concern are raised and an outline for the next year's work is proposed. Issues of concern include the sufficient depth of the assessment, the required competence in assessments, data and criteria problems, definition of the boundaries of the system to be assessed, and the necessary internal support and organisational maturity required for successful assessments. Finally, plans for next year's work are outlined. (au)

  5. Organisational reviews - requirements, methods and experience. Progress report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U. [Maelardalen University (FI)

    2007-04-15

    Organisational reviews are important instruments in the continuous quest for improved performance. In the nuclear field there has been an increasing regulatory interest in organisational performance, because incidents and accidents often point to organisational deficiencies as one of the major precursors. Many methods for organisational reviews have been proposed, but they are mostly based on ad hoc approaches to specific problems. The absence of well-established techniques for organisational reviews has already shown to cause discussions and controversies on different levels. The aim of the OrRe project is to collect the experiences from organisational reviews carried out so far and to reflect them in a theoretical model of organisational performance. Furthermore, the project aims to reflect on the criteria for the definition of the scope and content of organisational reviews. Finally, recommendations will be made for guidance for people participating in organisational reviews. This progress report describes regulatory practices in Finland and Sweden together with some case examples of organizational reviews and assessment in both countries. Some issues of concern are raised and an outline for the next year's work is proposed. Issues of concern include the sufficient depth of the assessment, the required competence in assessments, data and criteria problems, definition of the boundaries of the system to be assessed, and the necessary internal support and organisational maturity required for successful assessments. Finally, plans for next year's work are outlined. (au)

  6. New calorimeters for space experiments: physics requirements and technological challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocchesi, Pier Simone

    2015-07-01

    Direct measurements of charged cosmic radiation with instruments in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), or flying on balloons above the atmosphere, require the identification of the incident particle, the measurement of its energy and possibly the determination of its sign-of-charge. The latter information can be provided by a magnetic spectrometer together with a measurement of momentum. However, magnetic deflection in space experiments is at present limited to values of the Maximum Detectable Rigidity (MDR) hardly exceeding a few TV. Advanced calorimetric techniques are, at present, the only way to measure charged and neutral radiation at higher energies in the multi-TeV range. Despite their mass limitation, calorimeters may achieve a large geometric factor and provide an adequate proton background rejection factor, taking advantage of a fine granularity and imaging capabilities. In this lecture, after a brief introduction on electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, an innovative approach to the design of a space-borne, large acceptance, homogeneous calorimeter for the detection of high energy cosmic rays will be described.

  7. Precise chronologies of Holocene glacial culminations in the Cordillera Vilcabamba of southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardi, J. M.; Schaefer, J. M.; Schweinsberg, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Records of past fluctuations in climatically sensitive tropical mountain glaciers are among the best indicators of regional paleoclimatic trends and controls. The majority of the world's present-day tropical glaciers are found in the Peruvian Andes, but accurate and precise chronologies of past glacial activity in this region remain relatively scarce, particularly during the Holocene. Here we present ~50 new 10Be exposure ages derived from boulders on well-preserved moraine successions in several glaciated drainages in the Cordillera Vilcabamba of southern Peru (13°20'S latitude). The new results suggest that prominent moraines in these valleys are correlative with previously published moraine ages near Nevado Salcantay in this range (Licciardi et al., 2009), but also expand on the initial surface exposure chronologies to reveal additional periods of glacier stabilization not found in previous work. A provisional composite chronology that merges the new and previously obtained moraine ages indicates at least five discrete glacial culminations from the Lateglacial to the late Holocene. Forthcoming 10Be ages from an additional ~50 samples collected from moraine boulders will increase the precision and completeness of the Vilcabamba moraine chronologies. Basal radiocarbon ages are being developed from bog and lake sediments in stratigraphic contact with the 10Be-dated moraines. These new 14C age data will help constrain the local cosmogenic 10Be production rate, thereby increasing the accuracy of the 10Be chronologies.

  8. UK experience of safety requirements for thermal reactor stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.R.; Dale, G.C.; Tweedy, J.N.

    1977-01-01

    The paper summarises the development of safety requirements since the first of the Generating Boards' Magnox reactors commenced operation in 1962 and includes A.G.R. safety together with the preparation of S.G.H.W.R. design safety criteria. It outlines the basic principles originally adopted and shows how safety assessment is a continuing process throughout the life of a reactor. Some description is given of the continuous effort over the years to obtain increased safety margins for existing and new reactors, taking into account the construction and operating experience, experimental information, and more sophisticated computer-aided design techniques which have become available. The main safeguards against risks arising from the Generating Boards' reactors are the achievement of high standards of design, construction and operation, in conjunction with comprehensive fault analyses to ensure that adequate protective equipment is provided. The most important analyses refer to faults which can lead to excessive fuel element temperatures arising from an increase in power or a reduction in cooling capacity. They include the possibility of unintended control rod withdrawal at power or at start-up, coolant flow failure, pressure circuit failure, loss of boiler feed water, and failure of electric power. The paper reviews the protective equipment, and the policy for reactor safety assessments which include application of maximum credible accident philosophy and later the limited use of reliability and probability methods. Some of the Generating Boards' reactors are now more than half way through their planned working lives and during this time safety protective equipment has occasionally been brought into operation, often for spurious reasons. The general performance, of safety equipment is reviewed particularly for incidents such as main turbo-alternator trip, circulator failure, fuel element failures and other similar events, and some problems which have given rise to

  9. Development of physiotherapy inherent requirement statements - an Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialocerkowski, Andrea; Johnson, Amanda; Allan, Trevor; Phillips, Kirrilee

    2013-04-16

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities promotes equal rights of people with a disability in all aspects of their life including their education. In Australia, Disability Discrimination legislation underpins this Convention. It mandates that higher education providers must demonstrate that no discrimination has occurred and all reasonable accommodations have been considered and implemented, to facilitate access and inclusion for a student with a disability. The first step to meeting legislative requirements is to provide students with information on the inherent requirements of a course. This paper describes the steps which were taken to develop inherent requirement statements for a 4-year entry-level physiotherapy program at one Australian university. Inherent requirement statements were developed using an existing framework, which was endorsed and mandated by the University. Items which described inherencies were extracted from Australian physiotherapy professional standards and statutory regulatory requirements, and units contained in the physiotherapy program. Data were integrated into the 8 prescribed domains: ethical behaviour, behavioural stability, legal, communication, cognition, sensory abilities, strength and mobility, and sustainable performance. Statements for each domain were developed using a 5-level framework (introductory statement, description of the inherent requirement, justification for inherency, characteristics of reasonable adjustments and exemplars) and reviewed by a University Review Panel. Refinement of statements continued until no further changes were required. Fifteen physiotherapy inherent requirement statements were developed. The eight domains identified in the existing framework, developed for Nursing, were relevant to the study of physiotherapy. The inherent requirement statements developed in this study provide a transparent, defensible position on the current requirements of physiotherapy study at

  10. Development of physiotherapy inherent requirement statements – an Australian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities promotes equal rights of people with a disability in all aspects of their life including their education. In Australia, Disability Discrimination legislation underpins this Convention. It mandates that higher education providers must demonstrate that no discrimination has occurred and all reasonable accommodations have been considered and implemented, to facilitate access and inclusion for a student with a disability. The first step to meeting legislative requirements is to provide students with information on the inherent requirements of a course. This paper describes the steps which were taken to develop inherent requirement statements for a 4-year entry-level physiotherapy program at one Australian university. Case presentation Inherent requirement statements were developed using an existing framework, which was endorsed and mandated by the University. Items which described inherencies were extracted from Australian physiotherapy professional standards and statutory regulatory requirements, and units contained in the physiotherapy program. Data were integrated into the 8 prescribed domains: ethical behaviour, behavioural stability, legal, communication, cognition, sensory abilities, strength and mobility, and sustainable performance. Statements for each domain were developed using a 5-level framework (introductory statement, description of the inherent requirement, justification for inherency, characteristics of reasonable adjustments and exemplars) and reviewed by a University Review Panel. Refinement of statements continued until no further changes were required. Fifteen physiotherapy inherent requirement statements were developed. The eight domains identified in the existing framework, developed for Nursing, were relevant to the study of physiotherapy. Conclusions The inherent requirement statements developed in this study provide a transparent, defensible position on the

  11. 42 CFR 482.80 - Condition of participation: Data submission, clinical experience, and outcome requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., clinical experience, and outcome requirements for initial approval of transplant centers. 482.80 Section... Hospitals Transplant Center Data Submission, Clinical Experience, and Outcome Requirements § 482.80 Condition of participation: Data submission, clinical experience, and outcome requirements for initial...

  12. Pupils' and Teachers' Perceptions of a Culminating Festival within a Sport Education Season in Irish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Gary D.; Macphail, Ann; Chroinin, Deirdre Ni

    2009-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable literature on Sport Education, little attention has been afforded to an investigation into the use of a specific festival as a culmination to a season. Aims: The purpose of this paper is to examine primary school pupils' and teachers' perceptions of an inter-school festival. Methods: Pupils from eight…

  13. Multiple glacial culminations from the Lateglacial to the late Holocene in central and southern Peru (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardi, J. M.; Schaefer, J. M.; Rodbell, D. T.; Stansell, N.; Schweinsberg, A.; Finkel, R. C.; Zimmerman, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Fluctuations in small tropical mountain glaciers serve as sensitive indicators of variations in past and present-day climate. Most of the world's modern tropical glaciers reside in the Peruvian Andes, where a growing number of well-dated glacial records have recently been developed. As additional records are documented, regional patterns of late Pleistocene to Holocene glacial activity have begun to emerge. Here we present a compilation of new and previously obtained 10Be surface exposure ages from boulders on well-preserved moraine successions in two glaciated Andean ranges: the Cordillera Vilcabamba of southern Peru (13°20'S, 72°32'W) and the Huaguruncho massif (10°32'S, 75°56'W), located in central Peru ~450 km northwest of the Vilcabamba. A high-resolution composite chronology that merges >100 10Be measurements on moraine sequences in five glaciated drainages of the Cordillera Vilcabamba reveals the occurrence of at least five discrete glacial culminations from the Lateglacial to the late Holocene. At the Huaguruncho massif, >20 10Be exposure ages obtained from moraine sequences in a south-facing cirque indicate at least three major glacial stages spanning the Lateglacial to the Little Ice Age. The moraine ages at Huaguruncho are broadly correlative with the Vilcabamba moraine chronologies, with some dated moraine belts exhibiting geomorphic expressions that closely resemble those of their coeval counterparts in the Vilcabamba. A recurring finding in both field areas is a mismatch between basal radiocarbon ages from bog and lake sediments and 10Be exposure ages on outboard moraines, which enclose the depositional basins. These age discrepancies suggest that cosmogenic 10Be production rates scaled to high altitudes in the tropics are substantially lower than previous estimates. While we anticipate that future refinements to scaled isotope production rates may significantly affect correlation of 10Be exposure ages in the high Andes with ages derived from

  14. Deep-sea impact experiments and their future requirements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    In recent years, several experiments to assess the potential impacts due to deep-sea mining in the Pacific as well as the Indian Oceans have indicated the immediate changes and restoration patterns of environmental conditions in the marine ecosystem...

  15. System Requirements Document for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, R.D.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the conversion process is to convert the {sup 233}U fluoride compounds that are being extracted from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) equipment to a stable oxide for long-term storage at Bldg. 3019.

  16. Requirements model generation to support requirements elicitation: The Secure Tropos experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiyavitskaya, N.; Zannone, N.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years several efforts have been devoted by researchers in the Requirements Engineering community to the development of methodologies for supporting designers during requirements elicitation, modeling, and analysis. However, these methodologies often lack tool support to facilitate their

  17. Practical Relevance of Experiments in Comprehensibility of Requirements Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Daneva, Maia; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Herrmann, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the Requirements Engineering (RE) community has become increasingly aware of the importance of carrying out industry-relevant research. Researchers and practitioners should be able to evaluate the relevance of their empirical research to increase the likely adoption of RE methods in

  18. Physics design requirements for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, G.H.; Goldston, R.J.; Jardin, S.C.; Reiersen, W.T.; Porkolab, M.; Ulrickson, M.

    1993-01-01

    The design of TPX is driven by physics requirements that follow from its mission. The tokamak and heating systems provide the performance and profile controls needed to study advanced steady state tokamak operating modes. The magnetic control systems provide substantial flexibility for the study of regimes with high beta and bootstrap current. The divertor is designed for high steady state power and particle exhaust

  19. Meeting blood requirements following terrorist attacks: the Israeli experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinar, Eilat; Yahalom, Vered; Silverman, Barbara G

    2006-11-01

    Blood services worldwide must be prepared to meet surges in demand for blood components needed by casualties of domestic disasters and acts of terrorism. Israel's National Blood Services, operated by Magen David Adom, has extensive experience in managing blood collections and supply in emergencies. This review summarizes the structure and function of Magen David Adom's national blood program, and relates its experience to other practices that have been reported in the medical literature. Between 2000 and 2005, 7497 victims (85% civilians) were involved in 1645 terrorist attacks in Israel. On-site triage resulted in 967 (13%) deaths at the scene, 615 (8%) with severe injuries, 897 (12%) with moderate injuries and 5018 (67%) with mild injuries. Requests for blood averaged 1.3 blood units and 0.9 components per casualty, or 6.7 units and 4.5 components per severe and moderately injured patient. Public appeals for blood donations were managed centrally to match supply with demand and prevent wastage. This experience illustrates the advantages of a comprehensive program for managing blood operations in emergency situations. A coordinated national program can stabilize in-hospital inventories during routine activities, ensure instant access to precisely defined inventories, facilitate sufficient supply in times of disasters, and minimize outdating and wastage.

  20. Animal experiments required for radiobiology applied to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    The relevant research at the Gray Laboratory includes multi-fraction experiments on tumours and normal tissues in mice. Modalities being assessed include: hypoxic-cell radiosensitizers, for example Ro-07-0582; fast neutrons; hyperthermia; and non-standard X-ray fractionation. Collaborative clinical work is under way. A carefully selected range of tumour types is being investigated, to cover both fast-growing and slow-growing carcinomas, and sarcomas. All our tumours arose spontaneously in the strain of mice into which they are always transplanted. No immunological effects on tumour take or growth rate have been found; it is important to avoid that artefact. Investigations for which ranges of tumour types have to be used will be exemplified. Different assay methods are compared. The topics discussed are: normal tissues, animal tumour systems (immunogenicity, contrasting types), shrinkage of tumours and cell loss, re-oxygenation, a clinical prediction, radiosensitizers of hypoxic cells, fast neutrons, multiple small fractions, hyperthermia, enhancement of cytotoxic drug action, choice of tumour assay methods, and the question: Is repair of radiation injury less in tumours. (author)

  1. Neutral Beam Injection Requirements and Design Issues for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H.W. Kugel; H. Neilson; W. Reiersen; M. Zarnstorff

    2002-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) will require 6 MW of 50 keV neutral beam injection (NBI) with initial pulse lengths of 500 msec and upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M[Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification] NBI system

  2. Neutral Beam Injection Requirements and Design Issues for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Neilson, H.; Reiersen, W.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2002-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) will require 6 MW of 50 keV neutral beam injection (NBI) with initial pulse lengths of 500 msec and upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M [Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification] NBI system

  3. A Series of Unfortunate Events: Prinzmetal Angina Culminating in Transmural Infarction in the Setting of Acute Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ruisi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prinzmetal angina or vasospastic angina is a clinical phenomenon that is often transient and self-resolving. Clinically it is associated with ST elevations on the electrocardiogram, and initially it may be difficult to differentiate from an acute myocardial infarction. The vasospasm induced in this setting occurs in normal or mildly to moderately diseased vessels and can be triggered by a number of etiologies including smoking, changes in autonomic activity, or drug ingestion. While the ischemia induced is usually transient, myocardial infarction and life-threatening arrhythmias can occur in 25% of cases. We present the case of a 65-year-old female where repetitive intermittent coronary vasospasm culminated in transmural infarction in the setting of gastrointestinal bleeding. This case highlights the mortality associated with prinzmetal angina and the importance of recognizing the underlying etiology.

  4. The construction of emotional experience requires the integration of implicit and explicit emotional processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirin, Markus; Lane, Richard D

    2012-06-01

    Although we agree that a constructivist approach to emotional experience makes sense, we propose that implicit (visceromotor and somatomotor) emotional processes are dissociable from explicit (attention and reflection) emotional processes, and that the conscious experience of emotion requires an integration of the two. Assessments of implicit emotion and emotional awareness can be helpful in the neuroscientific investigation of emotion.

  5. Definition of common support equipment and space station interface requirements for IOC model technology experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard A.; Waiss, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the common support equipment and Space Station interface requirements for the IOC (initial operating capabilities) model technology experiments. In particular, each principal investigator for the proposed model technology experiment was contacted and visited for technical understanding and support for the generation of the detailed technical backup data required for completion of this study. Based on the data generated, a strong case can be made for a dedicated technology experiment command and control work station consisting of a command keyboard, cathode ray tube, data processing and storage, and an alert/annunciator panel located in the pressurized laboratory.

  6. Conceptual requirements for large fusion experiment control, data, robotics, and management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    The conceptual system requirements for the control, data, robotics, and project management (CDRM) system for the next generation of fusion experiments are developed by drawing on the success of the Tara control and data system. The requirements are described in terms of an integrated but separable matrix of well-defined interfaces among the various systems and subsystems. The study stresses modularity, performance, cost effectiveness, and exportability

  7. 42 CFR 482.82 - Condition of participation: Data submission, clinical experience, and outcome requirements for re...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., clinical experience, and outcome requirements for re-approval of transplant centers. 482.82 Section 482.82... Hospitals Transplant Center Data Submission, Clinical Experience, and Outcome Requirements § 482.82 Condition of participation: Data submission, clinical experience, and outcome requirements for re-approval...

  8. Design for the magnetic field requirements of the tandem mirror experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.K.; Chargin, A.K.; Denhoy, B.S.; Waugh, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    The tandem mirror magnetic geometry is described, followed by an analysis of the magnet set designed to meet the requirements of the TMX experiment. The final magnet line-up is composed of a baseball coil with two C coils for each plug, six solenoidal coils for the central cell, and two RC coils plus one octupole coil for each transition

  9. 14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. Except as provided in § 65.117, an applicant for a senior parachute rigger certificate must— (a...

  10. JET-ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment safety analysis report and operational safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, P.H.

    1985-09-01

    An experiment to evaluate the suitability of beryllium as a limiter material has been completed on the ISX-B tokamak. The experiment consisted of two phases: (1) the initial operation and characterization in the ISX experiment, and a period of continued operation to the specified surface fluence (10 22 atoms/cm 2 ) of hydrogen ions; and (2) the disassembly, decontamination, or disposal of the ISX facility. During these two phases of the project, the possibility existed for beryllium and/or beryllium oxide powder to be produced inside the vacuum vessel. Beryllium dust is a highly toxic material, and extensive precautions are required to prevent the release of the beryllium into the experimental work area and to prevent the contamination of personnel working on the device. Details of the health hazards associated with beryllium and the appropriate precautions are presented. Also described in appendixes to this report are the various operational safety requirements for the project

  11. Marine redox structure at the culmination of the Great Oxidation Event: Insights from the Zaonega Formation, Karelia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, M.; Lepland, A.; Buick, R.

    2017-12-01

    The availability of dissolved oxygen is thought to have been the dominant throttle on the evolution and diversification of eukaryotic life during the Proterozoic Eon [1]. In the mid-Proterozoic, during the interval that presaged the rise of eukaryotes to ecological dominance, oxygen scarcity is thought to have relegated eukaryotic organisms to slivers of oxygenated shallow oceans [2]. However, recent work has suggested that oxygen levels rose dramatically during the early Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event before crashing to the low levels of the mid-Proterozoic [3]. Evidence from selenium isotopes in shales [4] and iodate concentrations in carbonates [5] has even suggested that wide swathes of continental shelves were oxic enough to support eukaryotic organisms at this time. How oxic though, and for how long, remain poorly constrained. Here we present new selenium geochemical data from the Zaonega Formation of Karelia, Russia that can help resolve those questions. Previous work has proposed that the Zaonega Formation, and correlative Francevillian Series of Gabon, record the establishment of an oxygen-rich atmosphere at the culmination of the GOE [6]. Our selenium isotope dataset provides a test for this hypothesis, and can also be used to assess the preservation of the geochemical signatures in the Zaonega Formation. These data point to regional redox fluctuations, but due to the short marine residence time of selenium, extrapolating these results to global phenomena remains difficult. 1. Reinhard, et al (2016) PNAS 2. Planavsky, et al (2014) Science 3. Bekker and Holland (2012) EPSL 4. Kipp, et al (2017) PNAS 5. Hardisty, et al (2014) Geology 6. Kump, et al (2011) Science

  12. Fuel utilization experience in Bohunice NPP and regulatory requirements for implementation of progressive fuel management strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patenyi, V [Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Bratislava (Slovakia); Darilek, P; Majercik, J [Vyskumny Ustav Jadrovych Elektrarni, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1994-12-31

    The experience gained in fuel utilization and the basic requirements for fuel licensing in the Slovak NPPs is described. The original project of WWER-440 reactors supposes 3-year fuel cycle with cycle length of about 320 full power days (FPD). Since 1984 it was reduced to 290 FPD. Based on the experience of other countries, a 4-year fuel cycle utilization started in 1987. It is illustrated with data from the Bohunice NPP units. Among 504 fuel assemblies left for the fourth burnup cycle no leakage was observed. The mean burnup achieved in the different units varied from 33.1 to 38.5 Mwd/kg U. The new fuel assemblies used are different from the recent ones in construction, thermohydraulics, water-uranium ratio, enrichment and material design. To meet the safety criteria, regulatory requirements for exploitation of new fuel in WWER-440 were formulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Slovak Republic. 1 tab., 5 refs.

  13. Christfried Jakob's Late Views (1930-1949) on the Psychogenetic Function of the Cerebral Cortex and Its Localization: Culmination of the Neurophilosophical Thought of a Keen Brain Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Zoe D.; Triarhou, Lazaros C.

    2012-01-01

    This article follows the culmination of the scientific thought of the neurobiologist Christfried Jakob (1866-1956) during the later part of his career, based on publications from 1930 to 1949, when he was between 64 and 83 years of age. Jakob emphasized the necessity of bridging philosophy to the biological sciences, neurobiology in particular.…

  14. Experience in initial training required for the recognition of the qualified RP expert in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Suarez, M.; Marco Arboli, M.; Menarguez, J.

    2003-01-01

    An important point of the actions inside the European framework to achieve the harmonisation of the training programmes and recognition was included in the European directive 96/29/Euratom which includes definition and specific tasks of the European Qualified Expert on Radiation Protection (RP). Basic syllabus for training of those experts was developed in the communication 98/C 133/03 concerning BSS applications. Although, in the Spanish education system, the training and recognition requirements of the high level qualified experts on RP was defined since 1977, until 2001, the figure of the Technical Qualified Expert on RP does not appear in the legal framework. In December 2002, a new regulation of the Spanish Regulatory Body, CSN, about qualifications to obtain the recognition of RP Expert in Spain (both high qualified and technical RP experts) was published. Concerning the qualified expert on RP, (RP Officer), responsible of the RP Service, which takes charge of the effective protection and advise radioactive and nuclear facilities in Rp aspects,has to be authorised by the regulatory body. to obtain the RP officer diploma, conceded by the CSN, an initial training of 300 hours and a three-year minimum experience are required (for X-ray installation a 6-month experience is enough). The technical qualified expert on RP is the worker who carried out the tasks in the a RP Service under the supervision of the RP officer. A Technician Qualified Expert on RP does not need an specific accreditation of the Regulatory Body, but an initial RP training and a three-month minimum experience are required and has hold a certificate by the RP officer. Continuous training is also required and as well has to receive a certificate from the RP officer. Since 1977, The Institute for energy Studies has been implementing specific training courses for those professionals who want to obtain the diploma of RP officer (high degree qualified RP expert), conceded by the CSN. Since then

  15. 'Chasing the numbers': Australian Bachelor of Midwifery students' experiences of achieving midwifery practice requirements for registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licqurish, Sharon; Seibold, Camel

    2013-06-01

    to explore one aspect of the findings from a qualitative study exploring Australian Bachelor of Midwifery students' experiences of achieving competency for beginning practice. a qualitative study using grounded theory, incorporating situational analysis. Data were collected by interviews, field observation and students' documents. one university in Victoria, Australia, which was a member of a consortium of universities that first implemented Bachelor of Midwifery curricula. 19 women, aged 20-40 years, completing the Bachelor of Midwifery course between the years 2005 and 2008. data analysis revealed an overarching social process of assimilation, and three related subprocesses namely realisation, adaptation and consolidation. This paper focuses on consolidation in terms of competency achievement in relation to set requirements. while generally found competent for beginning practice, the Bachelor of Midwifery students in this study felt that their ability to achieve competency according to professional midwifery standards, was constrained by the restricted nature of midwifery practice and medical dominance in the hospitals where they were placed. Furthermore, they found it challenging to achieve the minimum midwifery experience requirements, as well as their own personal learning objectives, within the clinical practicum hours provided in the curriculum. a review of the clinical hours provided by Bachelor of Midwifery curricula is required, with a view to ensure that clinical hours are consistent with recommended hours suggested by Australian Bachelor of Midwifery course accreditation standards. Universities implementing midwifery curricula in Australia need to be cognisant of the theory-practice gap and therefore the applicability of professional competency standards to the education of midwives. The concerns about the reliability of competency standards need to be addressed. Finally, further research is required to validate the current number of, minimum practice

  16. Time accuracy requirements for fusion experiments: A case study at ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupp, Gerhard; Behler, Karl; Eixenberger, Horst; Fitzek, Michael; Kollotzek, Horst; Lohs, Andreas; Lueddecke, Klaus; Mueller, Peter; Merkel, Roland; Neu, Gregor; Schacht, Joerg; Schramm, Gerold; Treutterer, Wolfgang; Zasche, Dieter; Zehetbauer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To manage and operate a fusion device and measure meaningful data an accurate and stable time is needed. As a benchmark, we suggest to consider time accuracy as sufficient if it is better than typical data errors or process timescales. This allows to distinguish application domains and chose appropriate time distribution methods. For ASDEX Upgrade a standard NTP method provides Unix time for project and operation management tasks, and a dedicated time system generates and distributes a precise experiment time for physics applications. Applying the benchmark to ASDEX Upgrade shows that physics measurements tagged with experiment time meet the requirements, while correlation of NTP tagged operation data with physics data tagged with experiment time remains problematic. Closer coupling of the two initially free running time systems with daily re-sets was an efficient and satisfactory improvement. For ultimate accuracy and seamless integration, however, continuous adjustment of the experiment time clock frequency to NTP is needed, within frequency variation limits given by the benchmark.

  17. Radiation therapists' perceptions of the minimum level of experience required to perform portal image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybovic, Michala; Halkett, Georgia K.; Banati, Richard B.; Cox, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Our aim was to explore radiation therapists' views on the level of experience necessary to undertake portal image analysis and clinical decision making. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was developed to determine the availability of portal imaging equipment in Australia and New Zealand. We analysed radiation therapists' responses to a specific question regarding their opinion on the minimum level of experience required for health professionals to analyse portal images. We used grounded theory and a constant comparative method of data analysis to derive the main themes. Results: Forty-six radiation oncology facilities were represented in our survey, with 40 questionnaires being returned (87%). Thirty-seven radiation therapists answered our free-text question. Radiation therapists indicated three main themes which they felt were important in determining the minimum level of experience: 'gaining on-the-job experience', 'receiving training' and 'working as a team'. Conclusions: Radiation therapists indicated that competence in portal image review occurs via various learning mechanisms. Further research is warranted to determine perspectives of other health professionals, such as radiation oncologists, on portal image review becoming part of radiation therapists' extended role. Suitable training programs and steps for implementation should be developed to facilitate this endeavour

  18. App Inventor for Android Build Your Own Apps - No Experience Required!

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Create Android mobile apps, no programming required! Even with limited programming experience, you can easily learn to create apps for the Android platform with this complete guide to App Inventor for Android. App Inventor for Android is a visual language that relies on simple programming blocks that users can drag and drop to create apps. This handy book gives you a series of fully worked-out apps, complete with their programming blocks, which you can customize for your own use or use as a starting point for creating the next killer app. And it's all without writing a single line of code. Don

  19. Health services management development: what formal knowledge should support the skills and experience required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, David J; Yen, Margaret L

    2013-05-01

    This study reports on an analysis of 17 postgraduate programs in health services management. Public information was collected from websites in February 2010. Data analysed included core subject abstracts, admission requirements and length and aims of each course. Findings indicate that only three out of 16 subjects identified as core are common to more than 50% of the programs, with the eight most common individual subjects appearing in only a third of programs. This suggests diversity in what is deemed core foundational knowledge in managing health services and the approach taken to management development. We believe there should be greater consensus on core subjects in a specialist health services management qualification. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? With changes in the organisational structure of health organisations in Australia over the past two decades, managerial positions and roles have also changed. The educational preparation for those managerial roles would also be expected to have changed but core foundational knowledge should remain similar between the various academic institutions.WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper indicates greater diversity in core knowledge areas in health services management education than expected despite a similar target audience.WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? There are differences in what are deemed to be core foundational areas of knowledge required in specialist management development between academic programs. Management development requires a balance between knowledge, skills and experience and intending st

  20. Steam generator tube integrity requirements and operating experience in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwoski, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Steam generator tube integrity is important to the safe operation of pressurized-water reactors. For ensuring tube integrity, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses a regulatory framework that is largely performance based. This performance-based framework is supplemented with some prescriptive requirements. The framework recognizes that there are three combinations of tube materials and heat treatments currently used in the United States and that the operating experience depends, in part, on the type of material used. This paper summarizes the regulatory framework for ensuring steam generator tube integrity, it highlights the current status of steam generators, and it highlights some of the steam generator issues and challenges that exist in the United States. (author)

  1. Safety requirements and safety experience of nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurer, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    Peaceful use of nuclear energy within the F.R.G. is rapidly growing. The Energy Programme of the Federal Government forecasts a capacity of up to 50.000 MW in 1985. Whereas most of this capacity will be of the LWR-Type, other activities are related to LMFBR - and HTGR - development, nuclear ships, and facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. Safety of nuclear energy is the pacemaker for the realization of nuclear programmes and projects. Due to a very high population - and industrialisation density, safety has the priority before economical aspects. Safety requirements are therefore extremely stringent, which will be shown for the legal, the technical as well as for the organizational area. They apply for each nuclear facility, its site and the nuclear energy system as a whole. Regulatory procedures differ from many other countries, assigning executive power to state authorities, which are supervised by the Federal Government. Another particularity of the regulatory process is the large scope of involvement of independent experts within the licensing procedures. The developement of national safety requirements in different countries generates a necessity to collaborate and harmonize safety and radiation protection measures, at least for facilities in border areas, to adopt international standards and to assist nuclear developing countries. However, different nationally, regional or local situations might raise problems. Safety experience with nuclear facilities can be concluded from the positive construction and operation experience, including also a few accidents and incidents and the conclusions, which have been drawn for the respective factilities and others of similar design. Another tool for safety assessments will be risk analyses, which are under development by German experts. Final, a scope of future problems and developments shows, that safety of nuclear installations - which has reached a high performance - nevertheless imposes further tasks to be solved

  2. Physics design requirements for the National Spherical Torus Experiment liquid lithium divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.; Bell, M.; Berzak, L.; Brooks, A.; Ellis, R.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.K.; Menard, J.; Stotler, D.; Zakharov, L.E.; Maingi, Rajesh; Nygren, R.E.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Wakeland, P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) high-power divertor experiments have shown significant and recurring benefits of solid lithium coatings on plasma facing components (PFCs) to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H-mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. The next step in this work is installation of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD) to achieve density control for inductionless current drive capability (e.g., about a 15 25% ne decrease from present highest non-inductionless fraction discharges which often evolve toward the density limit, ne/nGW 1), to enable ne scan capability (2) in the H-mode, to test the ability to operate at significantly lower density (e.g., ne/nGW = 0.25), for future reactor designs based on the Spherical Tokamak, and eventually to investigate high heat-flux power handling (10 MW/m2) with long pulse discharges (>1.5 s). The first step (LLD-1) physics design encompasses the desired plasma requirements, the experimental capabilities and conditions, power handling, radial location, pumping capability, operating temperature, lithium filling, MHD forces, and diagnostics for control and characterization.

  3. Development of the Visual Word Form Area Requires Visual Experience: Evidence from Blind Braille Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Judy S; Kanjlia, Shipra; Merabet, Lotfi B; Bedny, Marina

    2017-11-22

    Learning to read causes the development of a letter- and word-selective region known as the visual word form area (VWFA) within the human ventral visual object stream. Why does a reading-selective region develop at this anatomical location? According to one hypothesis, the VWFA develops at the nexus of visual inputs from retinotopic cortices and linguistic input from the frontotemporal language network because reading involves extracting linguistic information from visual symbols. Surprisingly, the anatomical location of the VWFA is also active when blind individuals read Braille by touch, suggesting that vision is not required for the development of the VWFA. In this study, we tested the alternative prediction that VWFA development is in fact influenced by visual experience. We predicted that in the absence of vision, the "VWFA" is incorporated into the frontotemporal language network and participates in high-level language processing. Congenitally blind ( n = 10, 9 female, 1 male) and sighted control ( n = 15, 9 female, 6 male), male and female participants each took part in two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments: (1) word reading (Braille for blind and print for sighted participants), and (2) listening to spoken sentences of different grammatical complexity (both groups). We find that in blind, but not sighted participants, the anatomical location of the VWFA responds both to written words and to the grammatical complexity of spoken sentences. This suggests that in blindness, this region takes on high-level linguistic functions, becoming less selective for reading. More generally, the current findings suggest that experience during development has a major effect on functional specialization in the human cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The visual word form area (VWFA) is a region in the human cortex that becomes specialized for the recognition of written letters and words. Why does this particular brain region become specialized for reading? We

  4. Requirements and Possibilities for Operational Experience Feedback from the Plant's Manufacturer's Point of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimann, P.

    2010-01-01

    A large amount of nations has realized that nuclear energy can contribute sustainable to secure their national energy supply. In the last few years, apart from the established nuclear nations, other, often smaller countries have also decided for themselves to apply the nuclear option to secure their energy supply. This partly takes place in multi-national cooperation between neighboring countries on one side, as well as otherwise between different companies on the manufacturers'/utilities' side. The endeavor of building absolutely safe reactors and of operating them safely requires the necessity on different levels of considering existing and up to date experiences gained in all the nuclear projects' phases. The long time period of many years between the decision on building a nuclear power plant, the licensing procedure, the detailed planning, the construction phase and the commissioning of the plants, results in the necessity of having to incorporate the constant experience gain on all technical and administrative levels. This applies to the safety-related boundary conditions in the frame of a new-build project in the same way as for updating measures performed on existing plants. An often neglected fact, this also applies to the right choice of the guidelines to be applied, to an efficient and competent authority and utility body or to the integration of the appropriate technical specialists and experts. Therefore the utilities and their tasks are confronted with different requirements, depending on whether they are located in the country of responsible nuclear power plant utilities' head quarters or whether they are simply co-owners of a foreign plant. AREVA as company covering the complete nuclear cycle including the corresponding plant construction supports its partners in all project phases including the development of national institutions and knowledge transfer. All of AREVA's existing knowledge - even the recently obtained - is integrated directly in the

  5. Physics Design Requirements for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Liquid Lithium Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, W.; Bell, M.; Berzak,L.; Brooks, A.; Ellis, R.; Gerhardt, S.; Harjes, H.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.; Menard, J.; Nygren,R. E.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stotler, D.; Wakeland, P.; Zakharov L. E.

    2008-09-26

    Recent NSTX high power divertor experiments have shown significant and recurring benefits of solid lithium coatings on PFC's to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. The next step in this work is installation of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD) to achieve density control for inductionless current drive capability (e.g., about a 15-25% ne decrease from present highest non-inductionless fraction discharges which often evolve toward the density limit, ne/nGW~1), to enable ne scan capability (x2) in the H-mode, to test the ability to operate at significantly lower density for future ST-CTF reactor designs (e.g., ne/nGW = 0.25), and eventually to investigate high heat-flux power handling (10 MW/m2) with longpulse discharges (>1.5s). The first step (LLD-1) physics design encompasses the desired plasma requirements, the experimental capabilities and conditions, power handling, radial location, pumping capability, operating temperature, lithium filling, MHD forces, and diagnostics for control and characterization.

  6. Physics Design Requirements for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Liquid Lithium Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, W.; Bell, M.; Berzak, L.; Brooks, A.; Ellis, R.; Gerhardt, S.; Harjes, H.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.; Menard, J.; Nygren, R. E.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stotler, D.; Wakeland, P.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2008-01-01

    Recent NSTX high power divertor experiments have shown significant and recurring benefits of solid lithium coatings on PFC's to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. The next step in this work is installation of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD) to achieve density control for inductionless current drive capability (e.g., about a 15-25% ne decrease from present highest non-inductionless fraction discharges which often evolve toward the density limit, ne/nGW∼1), to enable ne scan capability (x2) in the H-mode, to test the ability to operate at significantly lower density for future ST-CTF reactor designs (e.g., ne/nGW = 0.25), and eventually to investigate high heat-flux power handling (10 MW/m2) with long pulse discharges (>1.5s). The first step (LLD-1) physics design encompasses the desired plasma requirements, the experimental capabilities and conditions, power handling, radial location, pumping capability, operating temperature, lithium filling, MHD forces, and diagnostics for control and characterization

  7. Pollination Requirements of Almond (Prunus dulcis): Combining Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselek, Yuki; Eilers, Elisabeth J; Kremen, Claire; Hendrix, Stephen D; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2018-03-08

    Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb; Rosales: Rosaceae) is a cash crop with an estimated global value of over seven billion U.S. dollars annually and commercial varieties are highly dependent on insect pollination. Therefore, the understanding of basic pollination requirements of the main varieties including pollination efficiency of honey bees (Apis mellifera, Linnaeus, Hymenoptera: Apidae) and wild pollinators is essential for almond production. We first conducted two lab experiments to examine the threshold number of pollen grains needed for successful pollination and to determine if varietal identity or diversity promotes fruit set and weight. Further, we examined stigma and ovules of flowers visited by Apis and non-Apis pollinators in the field to study the proportion of almond to non-almond pollen grains deposited, visitation time per flower visit, and tube set. Results indicate that the threshold for successful fertilization is around 60 pollen grains, but pollen can be from any compatible variety as neither pollen varietal identity nor diversity enhanced fruit set or weight. Andrena cerasifolii Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) was a more effective pollinator on a per single visit basis than Apis and syrphid flies. Nevertheless, Apis was more efficient than A. cerasifolii and syrphid flies as they spent less time on a flower during a single visit. Hence, planting with two compatible varieties and managing for both Apis and non-Apis pollinators is likely to be an optimal strategy for farmers to secure high and stable pollination success.

  8. Experiences in Using Practitioner’s Checklists to Evaluate the Relevance of Experiments Reported in Requirements Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Herrmann, Andrea

    Background: Requirements Engineering (RE) researchers recognize that for RE methods to be adopted in industry, practitioners should be able to evaluate the relevance of a study to their practice. Kitchenham et al proposed a set of perspective-based checklists, which demonstrated to be a useful

  9. ISO 15189 accreditation: Requirements for quality and competence of medical laboratories, experience of a laboratory I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel, Omer; Guner, Ebru Ilhan

    2009-03-01

    Medical laboratories are the key partners in patient safety. Laboratory results influence 70% of medical diagnoses. Quality of laboratory service is the major factor which directly affects the quality of health care. The clinical laboratory as a whole has to provide the best patient care promoting excellence. International Standard ISO 15189, based upon ISO 17025 and ISO 9001 standards, provides requirements for competence and quality of medical laboratories. Accredited medical laboratories enhance credibility and competency of their testing services. Our group of laboratories, one of the leading institutions in the area, had previous experience with ISO 9001 and ISO 17025 Accreditation at non-medical sections. We started to prepared for ISO 15189 Accreditation at the beginning of 2006 and were certified in March, 2007. We spent more than a year to prepare for accreditation. Accreditation scopes of our laboratory were as follows: clinical chemistry, hematology, immunology, allergology, microbiology, parasitology, molecular biology of infection serology and transfusion medicine. The total number of accredited tests is 531. We participate in five different PT programs. Inter Laboratory Comparison (ILC) protocols are performed with reputable laboratories. 82 different PT Program modules, 277 cycles per year for 451 tests and 72 ILC program organizations for remaining tests have been performed. Our laboratory also organizes a PT program for flow cytometry. 22 laboratories participate in this program, 2 cycles per year. Our laboratory has had its own custom made WEB based LIS system since 2001. We serve more than 500 customers on a real time basis. Our quality management system is also documented and processed electronically, Document Management System (DMS), via our intranet. Preparatory phase for accreditation, data management, external quality control programs, personnel related issues before, during and after accreditation process are presented. Every laboratory has

  10. Development of flight experiment work performance and workstation interface requirements, part 1. Technical report and appendices A through G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatterick, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A skill requirement definition method was applied to the problem of determining, at an early stage in system/mission definition, the skills required of on-orbit crew personnel whose activities will be related to the conduct or support of earth-orbital research. The experiment data base was selected from proposed experiments in NASA's earth orbital research and application investigation program as related to space shuttle missions, specifically those being considered for Sortie Lab. Concepts for two integrated workstation consoles for Sortie Lab experiment operations were developed, one each for earth observations and materials sciences payloads, utilizing a common supporting subsystems core console. A comprehensive data base of crew functions, operating environments, task dependencies, task-skills and occupational skills applicable to a representative cross section of earth orbital research experiments is presented. All data has been coded alphanumerically to permit efficient, low cost exercise and application of the data through automatic data processing in the future.

  11. Understanding customer experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention.

  12. Web Services as Product Experience Augmenters and the Implications for Requirements Engineering: A Position Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, Pascal; Nijholt, Antinus; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    There is currently little insight into what requirement engineering for web services is and in which context it will be carried out. In this position paper, we investigate requirements engineering for a special kind of web services, namely web services that are used to augment the perceived value of

  13. Practical experience and lessons learned through implementation of Appendix VIII performance demonstration requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwin, P.J.; Becker, F.L.; Latiolais, C.L.; Spanner, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    To provide the US nuclear industry with a uniform implementation of the Performance Demonstration requirements within the 1989 edition of ASME Section XI, Appendix VIII, representatives from all US nuclear utilities formed the Performance Demonstration Initiative (PDI). The PDI recognized the potential benefits that Appendix VIII offered the nuclear industry and initiated a proactive approach to implement the requirements. In doing so it was expected that performance demonstration of ultrasonic examination procedures would allow for improvement in the efficiency and credibility of inservice inspection to be realized. Explicit within the performance demonstration requirements of Appendix VIII is the need for a Performance Demonstration Administrator, a difficult requirement to fulfill. Not only must the administrator exhibit the attributes of understanding the demonstration requirements, but also have solid technical knowledge, integrity and be able to interface with the industry at all levels, from operations to regulatory. For the nuclear industry, the EPRI NDE Center is an obvious choice to fulfill this position. This paper provides a brief background of the PDI, a nuclear industry-wide initiative to implement the performance demonstration requirements of Appendix VIII. Even though the consensus approach adopted by the PDI is discussed, the paper's primary objective is to provide examples of the lessons learned by the Center through the specific requirements of Appendix VIII

  14. System Requirements Document for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment 233U conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigner, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the conversion process is to convert the 233 U fluoride compounds that are being extracted from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) equipment to a stable oxide for long-term storage at Bldg. 3019

  15. Recent chemical engineering requirements as the result of TMI on-site experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksbank, R.E. Sr.

    1980-01-01

    From the experiences gained from the on-site experience at TMI, it is apparent that the role of chemical engineers should increase in order for the nuclear option to proceed in a safe and efficient fashion. It is also obvious that as the results of the reports investigating the causes and effects of the accident come to light and attempts to backfit system designs to prevent a recurrence are studied, more technical demands will be placed on the profession

  16. WORLD EXPERIENCE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION LAND USE AND PROTECTIONTAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE REQUIREMENTS OF ECOLOGICAL SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    l. Sviridova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Studied global trends of public administration land use and protection. In particular, zemleohoronni measures in the developed world are implemented through rural development policy, based on the conduct of the common agricultural policy, the creation of funds to support farmers, provide technical assistance, development of national programs and future development plans. For the European Union development policy documents on the development of land areas for 5-10 years - the overall trend. Land management activities are conducted in foreign countries on the basis of approved design documentation for land management different direction. Found that the use of land and resource potential in the world is subject to the requirements of environmental safety. Agrarian relations in these countries are based on incentive levers, with direct execution of the rules of use and protection of land. By 2020, the strategy of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union provides funding for joint agricultural market, direct subsidies to farmers and stimulate agricultural development. Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union for its activities fully demonstrates the ability of European economies to maintain the same level of development. State administration of environmental impact on the economic interests of the tenure or land use in countries with market economies include: tax exemptions (to make environmentally oriented activities, soft loans (available on interest rates for environmental investments, subsidies (for the implementation of environmental programs and subsidies (for growing products without pesticides entities. It is proved that the system of economic instruments in environmental policy Ukraine needs to improve, because it is poorly developed. Experience in other countries shows that as we strengthen land management tools (instruments for land administration, and its supporting tools to succeed in the system of rational land use

  17. Development of flight experiment task requirements. Volume 2: Technical Report. Part 2: Appendix H: Tasks-skills data series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatterick, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    The data sheets presented contain the results of the task analysis portion of the study to identify skill requirements of space shuttle crew personnel. A comprehensive data base is provided of crew functions, operating environments, task dependencies, and task-skills applicable to a representative cross section of earth orbital research experiments.

  18. Don't Waste My Time; Exploring the Reflective Journaling Requirement in the Student Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Amy

    2014-01-01

    For many years reflective journaling has been a required component of the student teaching experience at the University of Wyoming. Through action research, Amy Spiker, an instructor at the University of Wyoming, set out to explore the perceived disconnect between what faculty desires for and from student teachers and what student teachers view as…

  19. Required momentum, heat, and mass transport experiments for liquid-metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillack, M.S.; Sze, D.K.; Abdou, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Through the effects on fluid flow, many aspects of blanket behavior are affected by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects, including pressure drop, heat transfer, mass transfer, and structural behavior. In this paper, a set of experiments is examined that could be performed in order to reduce the uncertainties in the highly related set of issues dealing with momentum, heat, and mass transport under the influence of a strong magnetic field (i.e., magnetic transport phenomena). By improving our basic understanding and by providing direct experimental data on blanket behavior, these experiments will lead to improved designs and an accurate assessment of the attractiveness of liquid-metal blankets

  20. A Colorimetric Analysis Experiment Not Requiring a Spectrophotometer: Quantitative Determination of Albumin in Powdered Egg White

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Amanda K.; Sevcik, Richard S.; Tucker, Dorie A.; Schultz, Linda D.

    2007-01-01

    A general science experiment for high school chemistry students might serve as an excellent review of the concepts of solution preparation, solubility, pH, and qualitative and quantitative analysis of a common food product. The students could learn to use safe laboratory techniques, collect and analyze data using proper scientific methodology and…

  1. Computing and data handling requirements for SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] and LHC [Large Hadron Collider] experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, A.J.

    1990-05-01

    A number of issues for computing and data handling in the online in environment at future high-luminosity, high-energy colliders, such as the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC), are outlined. Requirements for trigger processing, data acquisition, and online processing are discussed. Some aspects of possible solutions are sketched. 6 refs., 3 figs

  2. 48 CFR 752.7005 - Submission requirements for development experience documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (referenced in paragraph (a)(1) of this clause) in electronic format and hard copy (one copy) to U.S. Agency... final equivalent of the hard copy submitted. (iv) Acceptable software formats for electronic documents... paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this clause. (2) Format. (i) Descriptive information is required for all Contractor...

  3. Welding for fusion grade neutral beam components - requirements, challenges, experiences and learnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Jaydeep; Patel, Hitesh; Yadav, Ashish; Rotti, Chandramouli; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Chakraborty, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Negative ion based Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are the integral part of large size fusion devices where Neutral Beams of Hydrogen/Deuterium atoms are injected into the fusion reactor to heat the plasma, drive a plasma current, provide fuel to the plasma and also help to diagnose the plasma through spectroscopic measurements. The presentation shares the experiences of handling, some of special welding activities applicable for fusion prototypes developments, experiments, methodology developed for the inspection/tests, criteria considered with the appropriate justifications. This also shares the view point of authors code should further be supplement and incorporate the fusion specific applications considering future needs. In addition, explorations to meet our future needs of welding with specific attention to indigenous developments have been described

  4. E-LEARNING SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF EFQUEL: VYATKA STATE UNIVERSITY EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Syrtsova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of various aspects of development and implementation of e-learning at higher education institutions. This system has been created according to the main approaches and criteria used by the European Foundation for quality assurance of e-learning (EFQUEL. The article presents the main results of the experiment on Vyatka State University's e-learning system development. The article reveals the feasibility of the development of e-learning in the region. The authors consider three main strategies of implementation of e-learning system at Vyatka State University. The authors substantiate the choice of the most effective and promising strategy of them based on the analysis and considering the peculiarities of the university and the region. In the article, the fundamental results of the experiment and description of the stages of the implementation of e-learning system are presented.

  5. Dogs’ recognition of human selfish and generous attitudes requires little but critical experience with people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidin, Esteban; Casanave, Emma B.

    2017-01-01

    There is some dispute regarding the role of experience in the development of dogs´ socio-cognitive abilities in their interaction with people. We sought to provide new evidence to this debate by comparing dogs with contrasting levels of experience with humans, in a task involving the discrimination of human generous and selfish attitudes. To this end, we compared the performance of adult family dogs against that of adult shelter dogs and puppies living in people´s homes. In training trials, the generous experimenter (G) signaled the bowl with food and allowed the dog to eat, whereas the selfish experimenter (S) also signaled the baited bowl, but she/he ate the food before the dog could have access to it. Then, subjects were allowed to freely choose between G and S in the choice test. The main finding was that adult subjects (both family and shelter dogs) developed a preference for G over S, but puppies did not. We conclude that the quality and/or quantity of everyday-contact with people did not affect the discrimination of human attitudes in the present protocol, but the amount of experience with people (in years) did matter. Finally, we discuss the relative role of domestication and ontogeny in the development of dogs´ socio-cognitive abilities. PMID:29045426

  6. A Data Management System Integrating Web-based Training and Randomized Trials: Requirements, Experiences and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroff, Jordana; Amodeo, Maryann; Larson, Mary Jo; Carey, Margaret; Loftin, Ralph D

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a data management system (DMS) developed to support a large-scale randomized study of an innovative web-course that was designed to improve substance abuse counselors' knowledge and skills in applying a substance abuse treatment method (i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy; CBT). The randomized trial compared the performance of web-course-trained participants (intervention group) and printed-manual-trained participants (comparison group) to determine the effectiveness of the web-course in teaching CBT skills. A single DMS was needed to support all aspects of the study: web-course delivery and management, as well as randomized trial management. The authors briefly reviewed several other systems that were described as built either to handle randomized trials or to deliver and evaluate web-based training. However it was clear that these systems fell short of meeting our needs for simultaneous, coordinated management of the web-course and the randomized trial. New England Research Institute's (NERI) proprietary Advanced Data Entry and Protocol Tracking (ADEPT) system was coupled with the web-programmed course and customized for our purposes. This article highlights the requirements for a DMS that operates at the intersection of web-based course management systems and randomized clinical trial systems, and the extent to which the coupled, customized ADEPT satisfied those requirements. Recommendations are included for institutions and individuals considering conducting randomized trials and web-based training programs, and seeking a DMS that can meet similar requirements.

  7. Spent fuel storage and transport cask decontamination and modification. An overview of management requirements and applications based on practical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    A large increase in the number of casks required for transport and/or storage of spent fuel is forecast into the next century. The principal requirement will be for increased number of storage and dual purpose (transport/storage) casks for interim storage of spent fuel prior to reprocessing or permanent disposal in both on-site and off-site storage facilities. Through contact with radioactive materials spent fuel casks will be contaminated on both internal and external surfaces. In broad terms, cask contamination management can be defined by three components: minimisation, prevention and decontamination. This publication is a compilation of international experience with cask contamination problems and decontamination practices. The objective is to present current knowledge and experience as well as developments, trends and potential for new applications in this field. Furthermore, the report may assist in new design or modification of existing casks, cask handling systems and decontamination equipment

  8. MODERN REQUIREMENTS TO THE GENERAL EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS LEADERS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES (FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Malitskaya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As a result of ICT integration into the school educational and administrative process, ICT competence is being included in normative educational documents and standards. In the article it has been considered modern requirements to the school leaders in foreign countries (The USA, Lithuania, European countries, it is presented the National educational technological standards (NETS•A. Performance indicators for administrators developed by International society for technology in education ISTE, which is used for development of their own standards in different foreign countries.

  9. Requirements of, and operating experience with, gas analyses on high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, R.

    1982-06-01

    Impurities in the helium coolant of the primary coolant circuit of HTGR's are mainly due to ingress of air or water, occasionally oil. Typical concentrations are given of H 2 O, H 2 , CO 2 , CO, N 2 , CH 4 and Ar in the AVR, Dragon, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain reactors. A characteristic is presented of measuring devices for measuring non-active impurities in helium; measuring methods are described and a list is given of required and actual detection limits. Also given are concentrations of solid fission and activation products and tritium in the primary circuit of the AVR reactor

  10. Staffing requirements for future small and medium reactors (SMRs) based on operating experience and projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    At the time of this study there were about 160 small and medium sized nuclear power reactors (referred to as SMRs) in operation worldwide, and about 25 more under construction. Operation and maintenance costs for operating SMRs represent a substantial portion of the cost of electricity produced. Of these costs, the direct and indirect cost of staff represents the major cost component. In recent years, particularly since 1990, there has been increased interest in SMRs by many developing countries wishing to take advantage of nuclear power and several small and medium reactor designs are in various stages of development. To enhance the economic competitive position of SMRs relative to alternative methods of electricity generation, it is essential to ensure that new SMRs can be operated reliably and efficiently using the optimum number of staff. This publication reviews the lessons learned from the reactor operation, and the insights gained through the design of new SMRs, with a view to optimizing staffing in order to improve overall plant economics without compromising safety.This publication is intended to evaluate the estimated staffing size of various SMRs, the staff qualification and training required for the operation of future SMRs. and the key issues which impact the staffing requirements that should be considered in the development and deployment of future SMRs

  11. Experience of two trauma-centers with pancreatic injuries requiring immediate surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouaïssi, Mehdi; Sielezneff, Igor; Chaix, Jean Baptiste; Mardion, Remi Bon; Pirrò, Nicolas; Berdah, Stéphane; Emungania, Olivier; Consentino, Bernard; Cresti, Silvia; Dahan, Laetitia; Orsoni, Pierre; Moutardier, Vincent; Brunet, C; Sastre, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic injury from blunt trauma is infrequent. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a simplified approach of management of pancreatic trauma injuries requiring immediate surgery consisting of either drainage in complex situation or pancreatectomy in the other cases. From January 1986 to December 2006, 40 pancreatic traumas requiring immediate surgery were performed. Mechanism of trauma, clinical and laboratories findings were noted upon admission, classification of pancreatic injury according to Lucas' classification were considered. Fifteen (100%) drainages were performed for stage I (n=15), 60% splenopancreatectomies and 40% drainage was achieved for stage II (n=18), 3 Pancreaticoduonectomies and 2 exclusion of duodenum with drainage and 2 packing were performed for stage IV (n=7). There were 30 men and 10 women with mean age of 29+/-13 years (15-65). Thirty-eight patients had multiple trauma. Overall, mortality and global morbidity rate were 17% and 65% respectively, and the rates increased with Lucas' pancreatic trauma stage. Distal pancreatectomy is indicated for distal injuries with duct involvement, and complex procedures such as pancreaticoduodenectomy should be performed in hemodynamically stable patients.

  12. Advantages and disadvantages of a risk - based regulatory requirement (the experience in Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Argentina has its own nuclear regulations, which include a risk-based criterion curve for the licensing of nuclear installations. This requirement, established in the early '70s, must be fulfilled with a PSA study. It has been applied to several installations, and the advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed in the paper through several examples. The main disadvantage is a somehow large amount of PSA work that needs to be performed for the licensing of a nuclear installation. The main advantage is the effective risk reduction that can be achieved by retrofitting the risk-based lessons learned into the design teams (not only for design of systems and components, but also for design of operation, testing and maintenance schemes). (author)

  13. Mountain biking injuries requiring trauma center admission: a 10-year regional trauma system experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Peter T W; Jangra, Dalbhir; Ritchie, Alec H; Lower, Mary Ellen; Kasic, Sharon; Brown, D Ross; Baldwin, Greg A; Simons, Richard K

    2006-02-01

    Mountain biking has become an increasingly popular recreational and competitive sport with increasingly recognized risks. The purpose of this study was to review a population based approach to serious injuries requiring trauma center admission related to mountain biking, identify trends and develop directions for related injury prevention programs. Three trauma centers in the Greater Vancouver area exclusively serve a major mountain bike park and the North Shore Mountains biking trails. The Trauma Registries and the patient charts were reviewed for mountain bike injuries from 1992 to 2002. The data were analyzed according to demographics, distribution, and severity of injuries, and need for operative intervention. Findings were reviewed with injury prevention experts and regional and national mountain-biking stakeholders to provide direction to injury prevention programs. A total of 1,037 patients were identified as having bicycling-related injuries. Of these, 399 patients sustained 1,092 injuries while mountain biking. There was a threefold increase in the incidence of mountain biking injuries over a 10-year period. Young males were most commonly affected. Orthopedic injuries were most common (46.5%) followed by head (12.2%), spine (12%), chest (10.3%), facial (10.2%), abdominal (5.4%), genitourinary (2.2%), and neck injuries (1%). High operative rate was observed: 38% of injuries and 66% of patients required surgery. One patient died from his injuries. Injury prevention programs were developed and successfully engaged the target population. Mountain biking is a growing cause of serious injuries. Young males are principally at risk and serious injuries result from intended activity and despite protective equipment. Injury prevention programs were developed to address these concerns.

  14. Customizable orthopaedic oncology implants: one institution's experience with meeting current IRB and FDA requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Alexander R; Ippolito, Joseph A; Patterson, Francis R; Benevenia, Joseph; Beebe, Kathleen S

    2016-01-01

    Customizable orthopaedic implants are often needed for patients with primary malignant bone tumors due to unique anatomy or complex mechanical problems. Currently, obtaining customizable orthopaedic implants for orthopaedic oncology patients can be an arduous task involving submitting approval requests to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). There is great potential for the delay of a patient's surgery and unnecessary paperwork if the submission pathways are misunderstood or a streamlined protocol is not in place. The objective of this study was to review the existing FDA custom implant approval pathways and to determine whether this process was improved with an institutional protocol. An institutional protocol for obtaining IRB and FDA approval for customizable orthopaedic implants was established with the IRB at our institution in 2013. This protocol was approved by the IRB, such that new patients only require submission of a modification to the existing protocol with individualized patient information. During the two-year period of 2013-2014, eight patients were retrospectively identified as having required customizable implants for various orthopaedic oncology surgeries. The dates of request for IRB approval, request for FDA approval, and total time to surgery were recorded, along with the specific pathway utilized for FDA approval. The average patient age was 12 years old (7-21 years old). The average time to IRB approval of a modification to the pre-approved protocol was 14 days (7-21 days). Average time to FDA approval after submission of the IRB approval to the manufacturer was 12.5 days (7-19 days). FDA approval was obtained for all implants as compassionate use requests in accordance with Section 561 of the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act's expanded access provisions. Establishment of an institutional protocol with pre-approval by the IRB can expedite the otherwise time-consuming and complicated

  15. Conventional approaches for assessment of caving behaviour and support requirement with regard to strata control experiences in longwall workings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S.P. Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective control of roof strata is very important for trouble free operation and regular face advance in mechanised longwall workings. It is now technically possible to exploit coal seams in difficult geo-mining conditions with the help of newer innovations in longwall face machineries. A reliable assessment of caving behaviour and support capacity requirement helps in selecting supports of adequate capacity and making operational preparedness for timely and confident solution of impending problems. This paper reviews the mechanism of roof caving and the conventional approaches of caving behaviour and support requirement in the context of major strata control experiences gained worldwide. The review shows that a number of approaches are being used for advance prediction of caving behaviour and support capacity requirement in a variety of geo-mining conditions. The theoretical explanation of the mechanism of roof caving and the design function of roof supports have been worked out through staged development of approaches, their evaluation followed by their gradual modification and enrichment of synthesized findings. This process is still continuing with consistently improved understanding through growing field experiences in the larger domain of geo-mining conditions and state-of-art strata analysis and monitoring techniques. These attempts have contributed significantly to improving the level of understanding and reducing the gap of uncertainty in planning and design of longwall operation in a given geo-mining condition.

  16. Radiation therapists' perceptions of the minimum level of experience required to perform portal image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybovic, Michala [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: mryb6983@mail.usyd.edu.au; Halkett, Georgia K. [Western Australia Centre for Cancer and Palliative Care, Curtin University of Technology, Health Research Campus, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)], E-mail: g.halkett@curtin.edu.au; Banati, Richard B. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute - Ramaciotti Centre for Brain Imaging, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: r.banati@usyd.edu.au; Cox, Jennifer [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: jenny.cox@usyd.edu.au

    2008-11-15

    Background and purpose: Our aim was to explore radiation therapists' views on the level of experience necessary to undertake portal image analysis and clinical decision making. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was developed to determine the availability of portal imaging equipment in Australia and New Zealand. We analysed radiation therapists' responses to a specific question regarding their opinion on the minimum level of experience required for health professionals to analyse portal images. We used grounded theory and a constant comparative method of data analysis to derive the main themes. Results: Forty-six radiation oncology facilities were represented in our survey, with 40 questionnaires being returned (87%). Thirty-seven radiation therapists answered our free-text question. Radiation therapists indicated three main themes which they felt were important in determining the minimum level of experience: 'gaining on-the-job experience', 'receiving training' and 'working as a team'. Conclusions: Radiation therapists indicated that competence in portal image review occurs via various learning mechanisms. Further research is warranted to determine perspectives of other health professionals, such as radiation oncologists, on portal image review becoming part of radiation therapists' extended role. Suitable training programs and steps for implementation should be developed to facilitate this endeavour.

  17. When sustainability of a tourism destination is a requirement: Does the consumer perceive sacrifices in diving experiences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyanna de Lourdes Saraiva do Nascimento

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour refers to some subjective characteristics of individuals, their cultural principles and living experiences throughout their lives, aspects that awaken the individual’s desire to consume certain products and services and sometimes the tendency to give up some personal and discretionary resources to concretize this consumption, in other words, to make sacrifices. In this present study, the emphasis focuses on the understanding of the way Dutch and Brazilian consumers carry out the sacrifice in diving experiences, while the practice of sustainability is required. Therefore, the aspects that motivated this study are related to the need to explore the sacrifice theme in consumer relations, mainly when associated with products and services where the hedonic experience is felt, as it is through diving. The research is interpretative, considering that it captures objective results from the studied phenomenon, by using semi-structured interviews collected with divers, totalling twenty-three interviews in Brazil and Netherlands. The collected data was analysed according to content analysis. The results pointed out the relationship between sacrifices and sustainability, in diving experiences associated with the abdication of resources such as: recreation, time, comfort and money. Moreover, the predisposition to sacrifice something is directly related to living experiences during the practice of the activity, considering that it awakens positive feelings and generates a strong individual affective commitment. These aspects emphasize the provision of the individuals to follow the rules for sustainability determined by tourist destinations for diving, as well as the desire to explore without destroying, aiming to keep practicing that activity are that location.

  18. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Jurassic of East Greenland: a sedimentary record of thermal subsidence, onset and culmination of rifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Late Palaeozoic – Mesozoic extensional basin complex of East Greenland contains a record of deposition during a period of Rhaetian – Early Bajocian thermal subsidence, the onset of riftingin the Late Bajocian, its growth during the Bathonian–Kimmeridgian, culmination of rifting in the Volgian – Early Ryazanian, and waning in the Late Ryazanian – Hauterivian. The area was centred over a palaeolatitude of about 45°N in the Rhaetian and drifted northwards to about 50°N in the Hauterivian. A major climate change from arid to humid subtropical conditions took place at the Norian–Rhaetian transition. Deposition was in addition governed by a long-term sea-level rise with highstands in the Toarcian–Aalenian, latest Callovian and Kimmeridgian, and lowstands in the latest Bajocian – earliest Bathonian, Middle Oxfordian and Volgian.The Rhaetian – Lower Bajocian succession is considered the upper part of a megasequence, termed J1, with its base in the upper Lower Triassic, whereas the Upper Bajocian – Hauterivian succession forms a complete, syn-rift megasequence, termed J2. The southern part of the basin complex in Jameson Land contains a relatively complete Rhaetian–Ryazanian succession and underwent only minor tilting during Middle Jurassic – earliest Cretaceous rifting. Rhaetian – Lower Jurassic deposits are absent north of Jameson Land and this region was fragmented into strongly tilted fault blocks during the protracted rift event. The syn-rift successions of the two areas accordingly show different long-term trends in sedimentary facies. In the southern area, the J2 syn-rift megasequence forms a symmetrical regressive–transgressive–regressive cycle, whereas the J2 megasequence in the northern area shows an asymmetrical, stepwise deepening trend.A total of eight tectonostratigraphic sequences are recognised in the Rhaetian–Hauterivian interval. They reflect major changes in basin configuration, drainage systems

  19. The minimum information required for a glycomics experiment (MIRAGE) project: sample preparation guidelines for reliable reporting of glycomics datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struwe, Weston B; Agravat, Sanjay; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Campbell, Matthew P; Costello, Catherine E; Dell, Anne; Ten Feizi; Haslam, Stuart M; Karlsson, Niclas G; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Kolarich, Daniel; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Novotny, Milos V; Packer, Nicolle H; Paulson, James C; Rapp, Erdmann; Ranzinger, Rene; Rudd, Pauline M; Smith, David F; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wells, Lance; York, William S; Zaia, Joseph; Kettner, Carsten

    2016-09-01

    The minimum information required for a glycomics experiment (MIRAGE) project was established in 2011 to provide guidelines to aid in data reporting from all types of experiments in glycomics research including mass spectrometry (MS), liquid chromatography, glycan arrays, data handling and sample preparation. MIRAGE is a concerted effort of the wider glycomics community that considers the adaptation of reporting guidelines as an important step towards critical evaluation and dissemination of datasets as well as broadening of experimental techniques worldwide. The MIRAGE Commission published reporting guidelines for MS data and here we outline guidelines for sample preparation. The sample preparation guidelines include all aspects of sample generation, purification and modification from biological and/or synthetic carbohydrate material. The application of MIRAGE sample preparation guidelines will lead to improved recording of experimental protocols and reporting of understandable and reproducible glycomics datasets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Application of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) to determining science and user requirements for space-based missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) provide an effective method for evaluating the potential impact of proposed new observing systems, as well as for evaluating trade-offs in observing system design, and in developing and assessing improved methodology for assimilating new observations. As such, OSSEs can be an important tool for determining science and user requirements, and for incorporating these requirements into the planning for future missions. Detailed OSSEs have been conducted at NASA/ GSFC and NOAA/AOML in collaboration with Simpson Weather Associates and operational data assimilation centers over the last three decades. These OSSEs determined correctly the quantitative potential for several proposed satellite observing systems to improve weather analysis and prediction prior to their launch, evaluated trade-offs in orbits, coverage and accuracy for space-based wind lidars, and were used in the development of the methodology that led to the first beneficial impacts of satellite surface winds on numerical weather prediction. In this talk, the speaker will summarize the development of OSSE methodology, early and current applications of OSSEs and how OSSEs will evolve in order to enhance mission planning.

  1. Power requirements for superior H-mode confinement on Alcator C-Mod: experiments in support of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.W.; Reinke, M.L.; Terry, J.L.; Brunner, D.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A.E.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Ma, Y.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.J.; Loarte, A.

    2011-01-01

    Power requirements for maintaining sufficiently high confinement (i.e. normalized energy confinement time H 98 ≥ 1) in H-mode and its relation to H-mode threshold power scaling, P th , are of critical importance to ITER. In order to better characterize these power requirements, recent experiments on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak have investigated H-mode properties, including the edge pedestal and global confinement, over a range of input powers near and above P th . In addition, we have examined the compatibility of impurity seeding with high performance operation, and the influence of plasma radiation and its spatial distribution on performance. Experiments were performed at 5.4 T at ITER relevant densities, utilizing bulk metal plasma facing surfaces and an ion cyclotron range of frequency waves for auxiliary heating. Input power was scanned both in stationary enhanced D α (EDA) H-modes with no large edge localized modes (ELMs) and in ELMy H-modes in order to relate the resulting pedestal and confinement to the amount of power flowing into the scrape-off layer, P net , and also to the divertor targets. In both EDA and ELMy H-mode, energy confinement is generally good, with H 98 near unity. As P net is reduced to levels approaching that in L-mode, pedestal temperature diminishes significantly and normalized confinement time drops. By seeding with low-Z impurities, such as Ne and N 2 , high total radiated power fractions are possible, along with substantial reductions in divertor heat flux (>4x), all while maintaining H 98 ∼ 1. When the power radiated from the confined versus unconfined plasma is examined, pedestal and confinement properties are clearly seen to be an increasing function of P net , helping to unify the results with those from unseeded H-modes. This provides increased confidence that the power flow across the separatrix is the correct physics basis for ITER extrapolation. The experiments show that P net /P th of one or greater is likely to lead to H

  2. New strategies of the LHC experiments to meet the computing requirements of the HL-LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    Adamova, Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during the ongoing Run 2 is above expectations both concerning the delivered luminosity and the LHC live time. This resulted in a volume of data much larger than originally anticipated. Based on the current data production levels and the structure of the LHC experiment computing models, the estimates of the data production rates and resource needs were re-evaluated for the era leading into the High Luminosity LHC (HLLHC), the Run 3 and Run 4 phases of LHC operation. It turns out that the raw data volume will grow 10 times by the HL-LHC era and the processing capacity needs will grow more than 60 times. While the growth of storage requirements might in principle be satisfied with a 20 per cent budget increase and technology advancements, there is a gap of a factor 6 to 10 between the needed and available computing resources. The threat of a lack of computing and storage resources was present already in the beginning of Run 2, but could still be mitigated, e.g....

  3. Potency assay development for cellular therapy products: an ISCT review of the requirements and experiences in the industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravery, Christopher A; Carmen, Jessica; Fong, Timothy; Oprea, Wanda; Hoogendoorn, Karin H; Woda, Juliana; Burger, Scott R; Rowley, Jon A; Bonyhadi, Mark L; Van't Hof, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of potency plays a key role in defining the quality of cellular therapy products (CTPs). Potency can be defined as a quantitative measure of relevant biologic function based on the attributes that are linked to relevant biologic properties. To achieve an adequate assessment of CTP potency, appropriate in vitro or in vivo laboratory assays and properly controlled clinical data need to be created. The primary objective of a potency assay is to provide a mechanism by which the manufacturing process and the final product for batch release are scrutinized for quality, consistency and stability. A potency assay also provides the basis for comparability assessment after process changes, such as scale-up, site transfer and new starting materials (e.g., a new donor). Potency assays should be in place for early clinical development, and validated assays are required for pivotal clinical trials. Potency is based on the individual characteristics of each individual CTP, and the adequacy of potency assays will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis by regulatory agencies. We provide an overview of the expectations and challenges in development of potency assays specific for CTPs; several real-life experiences from the cellular therapy industry are presented as illustrations. The key observation and message is that aggressive early investment in a solid potency evaluation strategy can greatly enhance eventual CTP deployment because it can mitigate the risk of costly product failure in late-stage development. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Directives and general design requirements for a small PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta, L.A.

    1992-08-01

    A proposal of directives and general requirements for the development of a small PWR conceptual design is presented. These directives address the main safety, performance and economic design aspects. The purpose is to use this work as a base for a wide discussion, involving all project participants, culminating with the definition of the final directives and general requirements. (author)

  5. Experiments with data assimilation in comprehensive air quality models: Impacts on model predictions and observation requirements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R.

    2009-12-01

    Emerging regional scale atmospheric simulation models must address the increasing complexity arising from new model applications that treat multi-pollutant interactions. Sophisticated air quality modeling systems are needed to develop effective abatement strategies that focus on simultaneously controlling multiple criteria pollutants as well as use in providing short term air quality forecasts. In recent years the applications of such models is continuously being extended to address atmospheric pollution phenomenon from local to hemispheric spatial scales over time scales ranging from episodic to annual. The need to represent interactions between physical and chemical atmospheric processes occurring at these disparate spatial and temporal scales requires the use of observation data beyond traditional in-situ networks so that the model simulations can be reasonably constrained. Preliminary applications of assimilation of remote sensing and aloft observations within a comprehensive regional scale atmospheric chemistry-transport modeling system will be presented: (1) A methodology is developed to assimilate MODIS aerosol optical depths in the model to represent the impacts long-range transport associated with the summer 2004 Alaskan fires on surface-level regional fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations across the Eastern U.S. The episodic impact of this pollution transport event on PM2.5 concentrations over the eastern U.S. during mid-July 2004, is quantified through the complementary use of the model with remotely-sensed, aloft, and surface measurements; (2) Simple nudging experiments with limited aloft measurements are performed to identify uncertainties in model representations of physical processes and assess the potential use of such measurements in improving the predictive capability of atmospheric chemistry-transport models. The results from these early applications will be discussed in context of uncertainties in the model and in the remote sensing

  6. Study of requirements and performances of the electromagnetic calorimeter for the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleti, S. [Sapienza Univ. of Rome (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    In this thesis we discuss the simulation and tests carried out for the optimization and design of the electromagnetic calorimeter for the Mu2e (Muon to electron conversion) experiment, which is a proposed experiment part of the Muon Campus hosted at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Batavia, United States.

  7. Reconciling the expectations of community participants with the requirements of non-fossil fuel obligation: the experience of Harlock Hill windfarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrop, J.

    1998-01-01

    Is it possible to reconcile the aspirations of community participants in a wind energy project with the requirements imposed by the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation legislation and procedure? This paper considers the practical experience of the framework that was adopted at Harlock Hill wind farm for community participation and the legal structure that were required to ensure that the project retained the full benefit of the premium price arrangements with the Non-Fossil Purchasing Agency Limited. (Author)

  8. Science requirements for free-flying imaging radar (FIREX) experiment for sea ice, renewable resources, nonrenewable resources and oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    A future bilateral SAR program was studied. The requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by science and operations in sea-ice-covered waters, oceanography, renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources are addressed. The instrument, mission, and program parameters were discussed. Research investigations supporting a SAR flight and the subsequent overall mission requirements and tradeoffs are summarized.

  9. Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility (Building 7503) standards/requirements identification document adherence assessment plan at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This is the Phase 2 (adherence) assessment plan for the Building 7503 Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Facility standards/requirements identification document (S/RID). This document outlines the activities to be conducted from FY 1996 through FY 1998 to ensure that the standards and requirements identified in the MSRE S/RID are being implemented properly. This plan is required in accordance with the Department of Energy Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-2, November 9, 1994, Attachment 1A. This plan addresses the major aspects of the adherence assessment and will be consistent with Energy Systems procedure QA-2. 7 ''Surveillances.''

  10. An Examination of U.S. AACSB International Accounting-Accredited Schools to Determine Global Travel Experience Requirements in Accounting Masters Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Susan Lee; Finley, Jane B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the extent to which U.S. graduate accounting programs accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business have included some type of global travel experience in their graduate accounting curriculum. The authors contacted 137 member schools offering accounting masters degrees. Only one school required an…

  11. Acceptability and Impact of a Required Palliative Care Rotation with Prerotation and Postrotation Observed Simulated Clinical Experience during Internal Medicine Residency Training on Primary Palliative Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergo, Maxwell T; Sachs, Sharona; MacMartin, Meredith A; Kirkland, Kathryn B; Cullinan, Amelia M; Stephens, Lisa A

    2017-05-01

    Improving communication training for primary palliative care using a required palliative care rotation for internal medicine (IM) residents has not been assessed. To assess skills acquisition and acceptability for IM residents not selecting an elective. A consecutive, single-arm cohort underwent preobjective structured clinical examination (OSCE) with learner-centric feedback, two weeks of clinical experience, and finally a post-OSCE to crystallize learner-centric take home points. IM second year residents from Dartmouth-Hitchcock were exposed to a required experiential palliative care rotation. Pre- and post-OSCE using a standardized score card for behavioral skills, including patient-centered interviewing, discussing goals of care/code status, and responding to emotion, as well as a confidential mixed qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the experience. Twelve residents were included in the educational program (two were excluded because of shortened experiences) and showed statistically significant improvements in overall communication and more specifically in discussing code status and responding to emotions. General patient-centered interviewing skills were not significantly improved, but prerotation scores reflected pre-existing competency in this domain. Residents viewed the observed simulated clinical experience (OSCE) and required rotation as positive experiences, but wished for more opportunities to practice communication skills in real clinical encounters. A required palliative care experiential rotation flanked by OSCEs at our institution improved the acquisition of primary palliative care communication skills similarly to other nonclinical educational platforms, but may better meet the needs of the resident and faculty as well as address all required ACGME milestones.

  12. Report on the events of September 28, 2003 culminating in the separation of the Italian power system from the other UCTE networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    the events and the type and quality of information exchanged among the parties concerned (TSOs and Swiss electric utilities), both before and during the events. Subsequently, SFOE failed to deliver any information, either written or verbal, and proposed adopting the UCTE interim report, issued by UCTE on October 27, as the sole source of information for the investigation concerning the Swiss transmission grids. Furthermore, SFOE required the French and Italian TSOs and the integrated Swiss electricity companies to take part in the inquiry. AEEG and CRE could therefore not agree on the organisation of the investigation proposed by SFOE: they believed that the aforementioned participation was not compatible with the necessary independence of their inquiry. Moreover, on November 20, SFOE independently and unilaterally issued a Report on the black-out in Italy on September 28, 2003, without previously consulting AEEG and CRE. Following the afore mentioned unilateral position AEEG and CRE therefore decided to continue the investigation without SFOE and, in a letter dated December 1, signed by respective Directors of AEEG and CRE, invited the integrated Swiss electricity companies directly to provide the same information already requested and obtained from the Italian and French TSOs. In a letter from Swiss Electric dated December 23, the integrated Swiss electricity companies refused to submit information to the regulators' enquiry and stated that all relevant information had already been released for other investigations (e.g., UCTE investigation, SFOE investigation and Italian Government investigation). In spite of the absence of data from the Swiss parties, the amount and quality of information gathered from the Italian and French TSOs however enabled AEEG and CRE to reach a good and fair understanding of the events and the operational procedures jointly adopted by all the system operators involved. The information retrieved by AEEG and CRE also provided a mean of

  13. The Dedicated Aerosol Retrieval Experiment (DARE): scientific requirements for a dedicated satellite instrument to measure atmospheric aerosols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decae, R.; Courrèges-Lacoste, G.B.; Leeuw, G. de

    2004-01-01

    DARE (Dedicated Aerosol Retrieval Experiment) is a study to design an instrument for accurate remote sensing of aerosol properties from space. DARE combines useful properties of several existing instruments like TOMS, GOME, ATSR and POLDER. It has a large wavelength range, 330 to 1000 nm, to

  14. Learning and adapting to societal requirements for radioactive waste management. Key findings and experience of the forum on stakeholder confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) is an ongoing initiative of the Nea Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC). The FSC is composed of nominees from Nea member countries and consists mostly of representatives of national organisations (implementers, regulators, policy makers, research and development personnel) with responsibility for, and experience of, interacting with stakeholders. The FSC mandate includes the following: to define, oversee and carry out work programme activities in the strategic area of public perception and stakeholder confidence, as assigned by the RWMC; to advise the RWMC on major and emerging issues in the area of public perception and stakeholder confidence related to waste management; to act as a forum to share experience in achieving stakeholder confidence and, in particular, in how to obtain the confidence of local communities and their representatives and intermediaries with the technical decision makers; to analyse today processes for embedding waste management programmes into a socio-political, decision-making context; to identify opportunities for harmonized views of member countries regarding successful and unsuccessful experiences in interacting with stakeholders, technical concerns of stakeholders, effective means of communicating with technical and nontechnical audiences. This report presents the key FSC findings based on the substantial documentation and experience developed by the Forum during its first four years of activity (2000-2004). The historical context within which the FSC was established is also described and provides a perspective to those findings. An appendix recounts the collective experience of the FSC members, including their views of the impact of FSC activities on participating organisations. The FSC will build upon the present findings during its next phase of work. (author)

  15. Nurses', midwives' and key stakeholders' experiences and perceptions on requirements to demonstrate the maintenance of professional competence.

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Mary; Cooney, Adeline; O'Connell, Rhona; Hegarty, Josephine; Brady, Anne-Marie; O'Reilly, Pauline; Kennedy, Catriona; Heffernan, Elizabeth; Fealy, Gerard; Mcnamara, Martin; O'Connor, Laserina

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To present the qualitative findings from a study on the development of scheme(s) to give evidence of maintenance of professional competence for nurses and midwives. Background: Key issues in maintenance of professional competence include notions of self- assessment, verification of engagement and practice hours, provision of an evidential record, the role of the employer and articulation of possible consequences for non-adherence with the requirements. Schemes to demonstrate the maintena...

  16. Introducing radiology report checklists among residents: adherence rates when suggesting versus requiring their use and early experience in improving accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Daniel K; Lin, Eaton; Silberzweig, James E; Kagetsu, Nolan J

    2014-03-01

    To retrospectively compare resident adherence to checklist-style structured reporting for maxillofacial computed tomography (CT) from the emergency department (when required vs. suggested between two programs). To compare radiology resident reporting accuracy before and after introduction of the structured report and assess its ability to decrease the rate of undetected pathology. We introduced a reporting checklist for maxillofacial CT into our dictation software without specific training, requiring it at one program and suggesting it at another. We quantified usage among residents and compared reporting accuracy, before and after counting and categorizing faculty addenda. There was no significant change in resident accuracy in the first few months, with residents acting as their own controls (directly comparing performance with and without the checklist). Adherence to the checklist at program A (where it originated and was required) was 85% of reports compared to 9% of reports at program B (where it was suggested). When using program B as a secondary control, there was no significant difference in resident accuracy with or without using the checklist (comparing different residents using the checklist to those not using the checklist). Our results suggest that there is no automatic value of checklists for improving radiology resident reporting accuracy. They also suggest the importance of focused training, checklist flexibility, and a period of adjustment to a new reporting style. Mandatory checklists were readily adopted by residents but not when simply suggested. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Does Gender Influence Electroconvulsive Therapy Sessions Required across Psychiatric Diagnoses? A 5-Year Experience from a Single Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Harshini; Subramanian, Karthick; Menon, Vikas; Kattimani, Shivanand

    2017-01-01

    Context: There is a paucity of systematic data reflecting the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) from developing countries. Aim: We aimed to identify the number of ECT sessions required to yield response and gender diffeferences in the number of sessions across various diagnostic categories. Setting and Design: A record-based study from a teaching cum tertiary care hospital in South India. Subjects and Methods: Case records of patients who received modified ECT from January 2011 to January 2016 were reviewed. The sociodemographic details and ECT-related data were collected. Psychiatric diagnoses were ascertained as per the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Among 148 patients, 82 (55.4%) had mood disorder (bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder), 43 (29.1%) had schizophrenia, and 22 (14.9%) had other acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPDs). Patients with mood disorders, schizophrenia, and other ATPD received 7.3 (± 3.8), 9.7 (± 6.1), and 5.4 (± 2.0) ECT sessions, respectively, to achieve response. There was no gender difference in the number of sessions received. Conclusion: Our findings show that number of ECT sessions required to yield response may be disorder-specific. Gender does not influence the ECT dose requirement. Variations in ECT parameters across settings may limit the generalizability of results. PMID:28694625

  18. Experience within international transport and direct rail services in meeting the IAEA requirement for a radiation protection programme(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billing, D.

    2003-01-01

    BNFL International Transport and Direct Rail Services have successfully developed appropriate Radiation Protection Programmes for their business. The business supports BNFL's worldwide Nuclear Fuel Services with key customer bases in Europe, Japan and the UK, utilising marine, rail and road modal transports. Experience in this business spans over 4 decades. The preparation of RPP's for each aspect of its operations has been made relatively straight forward in that the key elements within the internationally recognised model RPP (by WNTI) were already in place in BNFL's procedures to satisfy current National UK and International Regulations and supported by Management systems which comply with International Standards for Quality Assurance. (author)

  19. Cuban experience in verification of the execution of the safety requirements during the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevedo Garcia, J.R.; Lopez Forteza, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The Cuban Regulatory Authority has paid special attention to the verification of the execution of the safety requirements during the transport of radioactive material in the country. With this purpose, the Authority has followed a consequent policy based on supplementary demands to those collections in the juridical mark settled down in 1987 in the sphere of transport of radioactive substances. In the work the technical approaches are exposed kept in mind when establishing the one referred politics, the current situation is characterized, the results are evaluated obtained in correspondence with the pursued objectives and the essential aspects are exposed to keep in mind for the adopted politics ulterior development. (author)

  20. A Required Rotation in Clinical Laboratory Management for Pathology Residents: Five-Year Experience at Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Arvind; Hoda, Syed T; Crawford, James M

    2016-01-01

    Leadership and management training during pathology residency have been identified repeatedly by employers as insufficient. A 1-month rotation in clinical laboratory management (CLM) was created for third-year pathology residents. We report on our experience and assess the value of this rotation. The rotation was one-half observational and one-half active. The observational component involved being a member of department and laboratory service line leadership, both at the departmental and institutional level. Observational participation enabled learning of both the content and principles of leadership and management activities. The active half of the rotation was performance of a project intended to advance the strategic trajectory of the department and laboratory service line. In our program that matriculates 4 residents per year, 20 residents participated from April 2010 through December 2015. Their projects either activated a new priority area or helped propel an existing strategic priority forward. Of the 16 resident graduates who had obtained their first employment or a fellowship position, 9 responded to an assessment survey. The majority of respondents (5/9) felt that the rotation significantly contributed to their ability to compete for a fellowship or their first employment position. The top reported benefits of the rotation included people management; communication with staff, departmental, and institutional leadership; and involvement in department and institutional meetings and task groups. Our 5-year experience demonstrates both the successful principles by which the CLM rotation can be established and the high value of this rotation to residency graduates.

  1. Mitigation of eutrophication in river basins, lakes, and coastal waters requires and integrated and adaptive approach; experiences from The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Jansen, S.; Villars, N.; Grift, B. V. D.

    2017-12-01

    We propose a guideline for mitigation of eutrophication in river basins, lakes, and coastal waters. The proposed strategy is based on our experiences with implementation of manure legislation and the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in Europe. These regulations led to reduced nutrient losses from highly productive agricultural areas. For example in The Netherlands, the worldwide second largest exporter of agricultural products, nutrient concentrations in agricultural headwaters reduced since the early 1990's. Our guideline builds on three basic principles: (1) a conceptual framework integrating water quality, water quantity, soil, groundwater, and surface water, (2) the `from catchment to coast' approach for up-scaling field-scale pilot results to downstream ecological effects, and (3) a mitigation order of preference from (a) optimizing nutrient uptake efficiency to (b) enhancing nutrient retention and recirculation to (c) nutrient discharge and applying effect oriented measures. The tools needed to mitigate eutrophication are system understanding, smart monitoring, smart modelling, smart measures, and smart governance. Following these principles and using these tools enables an integrated, adaptive approach for selecting, implementing, and evaluating the most cost-effective and sustainable set of mitigation actions.

  2. Nurses', midwives' and key stakeholders' experiences and perceptions on requirements to demonstrate the maintenance of professional competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Mary; Cooney, Adeline; O' Connell, Rhona; Hegarty, Josephine-Mary; Brady, Anne-Marie; O' Reilly, Pauline; Kennedy, Catriona; Heffernan, Elizabeth; Fealy, Gerard; McNamara, Martin; O' Connor, Laserina

    2017-03-01

    To present the qualitative findings from a study on the development of scheme(s) to give evidence of maintenance of professional competence for nurses and midwives. Key issues in maintenance of professional competence include notions of self- assessment, verification of engagement and practice hours, provision of an evidential record, the role of the employer and articulation of possible consequences for non-adherence with the requirements. Schemes to demonstrate the maintenance of professional competence have application to nurses, midwives and regulatory bodies and healthcare employers worldwide. A mixed methods approach was used. This included an online survey of nurses and midwives and focus groups with nurses and midwives and other key stakeholders. The qualitative data are reported in this study. Focus groups were conducted among a purposive sample of nurses, midwives and key stakeholders from January-May 2015. A total of 13 focus groups with 91 participants contributed to the study. Four major themes were identified: Definitions and Characteristics of Competence; Continuing Professional Development and Demonstrating Competence; Assessment of Competence; The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Ireland and employers as regulators and enablers of maintaining professional competence. Competence incorporates knowledge, skills, attitudes, professionalism, application of evidence and translating learning into practice. It is specific to the nurse's/midwife's role, organizational needs, patient's needs and the individual nurse's/midwife's learning needs. Competencies develop over time and change as nurses and midwives work in different practice areas. Thus, role-specific competence is linked to recent engagement in practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Measured and Modeled Downwelling Far-Infrared Radiances in Very Dry Environments and Calibration Requirements for Future Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Cageao, R.; Kratz, D. P.; Latvakoski, H.; Johnson, D. G.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    Downwelling radiances measured by the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument in an environment with integrated precipitable water as low as 0.03 cm are compared with calculated spectra in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. In its current ground-based configuration FIRST was deployed to 5.38 km on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile, from August to October 2009. There FIRST took part in the Radiative Heating in Unexplored Bands Campaign Part 2. Water vapor and temperature profiles from an optimal-estimation-based physical retrieval algorithm (using simultaneous radiosonde and multichannel 183 GHz microwave radiometer measurements) are input to the AER Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to compute radiances for comparison with FIRST. The AER v3.4 line parameter database is used. The low water vapor amounts and relatively cold atmosphere result in extremely small far-IR radiances (1.5 mW/m2/sr/cm-1) with corresponding brightness temperatures of 120 K. The residual LBLRTM minus FIRST is calculated to assess agreement between the measured and modeled spectra. Uncertainties in both the measured and modeled radiances are accounted for in the comparison. A goal of the deployment and subsequent analysis is the assessment of water vapor spectroscopy in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. While agreement is found between measured and modeled radiances within the combined uncertainties across all spectra, uncertainties in the measured water vapor profiles and from the laboratory calibration exceed those associated with water vapor spectroscopy in this very low radiance environment. Consequently, no improvement in water vapor spectroscopy is afforded by these measurements. However, we use these results to place requirements on instrument calibration accuracy and water vapor profile accuracy for future campaigns to similarly dry environments. Instrument calibration uncertainty needs to be at 2% (1-sigma) of measured radiance

  4. Time-of-flight data acquisition unit (DAU) for neutron scattering experiments. Specification of the requirements and design concept. Version 3.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdam, G.; Klessmann, H.; Wawer, W.; Adebayo, J.; David, G.; Szatmari, F.

    1989-12-01

    This specification describes the requirements for the Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) and defines the design concept for the functional units involved. The Data Acquisition Unit will be used in the following neutron scattering experiments: Time-of-Flight Spectrometer NEAT, Time-of-Flight Spectrometer SPAN. In addition, the data of the SPAN spectrometer in Spin Echo experiments will be accumulated. The Data Acquisition Unit can be characterised by the following requirements: Time-of-flight measurement with high time resolution (125 ns), sorting the time-of-flight in up to 4096 time channels (channel width ≥ 1 μs), selection of different time channel widths for peak and background, on-line time-of-flight correction for neutron flight paths of different lengths, sorting the detector position information in up to 4096 position channels, accumulation of two-dimensional spectra in a 32 Mbyte RAM memory (4 K time channels*4 K position channels*16 bits). Because of the stringent timing requirements the functional units of the DAU are hardware controlled via tables. The DAU is part of a process control system which has access to the functional units via the VMEbus in order to initialise, to load tables and control information, and to read status information and spectra. (orig.) With 18 figs

  5. Experiences in certification of packages for transportation of fresh nuclear fuel in the context of new safety requirements established by IAEA regulations (IAEA-96 regulations, ST-1) for air transportation of nuclear materials (requirements to C-type packages)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudai, V.I.; Kovtun, A.D.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Nilulin, V.M.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Yakushev, V.A.; Bobrovsky, V.S.; Rozhkov, V.V.; Agapov, A.M.; Kolesnikov, A.S. [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' MSZ' ' , Electrostal (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' NPCC' ' , Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)]|[Minatom of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Gosatomnadzor of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Every year in Russia, a large amount of domestic and international transportation of fresh nuclear fuel (FNF) used in Russian and foreign energy and research atomic reactors and referred to fissile materials based on IAEA Regulations is performed. Here, bulk transportation is performed by air, and it concerns international transportation in particular. According to national ''Main Regulations for Safe Transport and physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (OPBZ- 83)'' and ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Regulations), nuclear and radiation security under normal (accident free) and accident conditions of transport must be completely provided by the package design. In this context, high requirements to fissile packages exposed to heat and mechanical loads in transport accidents are imposed. A long-standing experience in accident free transportation of FM has shown that such approach to provide nuclear and radiation security pays for itself completely. Nevertheless, once in 10 years the International Atomic Energy Agency on every revision of the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' places more stringent requirements upon the FM and transportation thereof, resulting from the objectively increasing risk associated with constant rise in volume and density of transportation, and also strained social and economical situation in a number of regions in the world. In the new edition of the IAEA Regulations (ST-1), published in 1996 and brought into force in 2001 (IAEA-96 Regulations), the requirements to FM packages conveyed by aircraft were radically changed. These requirements are completely presented in new Russian ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' (PBTRM- 2004) which will be brought into force in the time ahead.

  6. The 10 basic requirements for a scientific paper reporting antioxidant, antimutagenic or anticarcinogenic potential of test substances in in vitro experiments and animal studies in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhagen, H.; Aruoma, O.I.; van Delft, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that chemicals/test substances cannot only have adverse effects, but that there are many substances that can (also) have a beneficial effect on health. As this journal regularly publishes papers in this area and has every intention in continuing to do so in the near......, provided they can be justified on scientific grounds. The 10 basic requirements for a scientific paper reporting antioxidant, antimutagenic or anticarcinogenic potential of test substances in in vitro experiments and animal studies in vivo concern the following areas: (1) Hypothesis-driven study design; (2......) The nature of the test substance; (3) Valid and invalid test systems; (4) The selection of dose levels and gender; (5) Reversal of the effects induced by oxidants, carcinogens and mutagens; (6) Route of administration; (7) Number and validity of test variables; (8) Repeatability and reproducibility; (9...

  7. Experience gained from high heat flux actively cooled PFCs in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosman, A.; Bayetti, P.; Brosset, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Cordier, J.J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Lipa, M.; Mitteau, R.; Pegourie, B.; Reichle, R.; Schlosser, J.; Tsitrone, E.; Vallet, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) is one of the major ingredients required for operating the Tore Supra tokamak with very long pulses. A pioneering activity has been developed in this field from the very beginning of the device operation that is today culminating with the routine operation of an actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) capable to sustain up to 10 MW/m 2 of nominal convected heat flux. Technical information is drawn from the whole development up to the industrialisation and focuses on a number of critical issues, such as bonding technology analysis, manufacture processes, repair processes, destructive and non-destructive testing. The actual experience in Tore Supra allows to address the question of D retention on carbon walls. Redeposition on surfaces without plasma flux is suspected to cause the final 'burial' of about half of the injected gas during long discharges

  8. Adaptive introductions: How multiple experiments and comparisons to wild populations provide insights into requirements for long-term introduction success of an endangered shrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Menges

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of an imperiled plant species may require augmentation of existing populations or creation of new ones. Hundreds of such projects have been conducted over the last few decades, but there is a bias in the literature favoring successes over failures. In this paper, we evaluate a series of introductions that experimentally manipulated microhabitat and fire in an adaptive introduction framework. Between 2002 and 2012, we (and our collaborators carried out ten introductions and augmentations of Florida ziziphus Pseudoziziphus (Condalia, Ziziphus celata, a clonal shrub limited to very small populations and narrowly endemic to pyrogenic central Florida sandhills. Six of the introductions were designed as experiments to test hypotheses about how demographic performance was affected by microhabitat, fire, and propagule type. Introduced transplants had high survival (<90% annually, inconsistent growth, and little transition to reproduction, while introduced seeds had low germination and survival. Transplants were more efficient than seeds as translocation propagules. Shaded (vs. open sites supported generally higher transplant and seedling survival and seed germination percentages, but growth responses varied among experiments. Supplemental irrigation increased transplant survival and seed germination, but otherwise seedling and plant survival and growth were not significantly affected. Contrary to expectations based on wild populations, introduced propagules have not been more successful in unshaded sites, suggesting that Florida ziziphus has broader microhabitat preferences than hypothesized. Compared to wild plants, introduced plants had similar survival and responses to fire, slower growth, and more delayed flowering. Introduced plants had no clonal spread. While no introduced population has demonstrated a capacity for long-term viability, one augmented population has flowered and produced viable fruits. Given that Florida ziziphus genets are

  9. Adaptive introductions: How multiple experiments and comparisons to wild populations provide insights into requirements for long-term introduction success of an endangered shrub

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric S.Menges; Stacy A.Smith; Carl W.Weekley

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of an imperiled plant species may require augmentation of existing populations or creation of new ones.Hundreds of such projects have been conducted over the last few decades,but there is a bias in the literature favoring successes over failures.In this paper,we evaluate a series of introductions that experimentally manipulated microhabitat and fire in an adaptive introduction framework.Between 2002 and 2012,we (and our collaborators) carried out ten introductions and augmentations of Florida ziziphus Pseudoziziphus (Condalia,Ziziphus) celata,a clonal shrub limited to very small populations and narrowly endemic to pyrogenic central Florida sandhills.Six of the introductions were designed as experiments to test hypotheses about how demographic performance was affected by microhabitat,fire,and propagule type.Introduced transplants had high survival (<90% annually),inconsistent growth,and little transition to reproduction,while introduced seeds had low germination and survival.Transplants were more efficient than seeds as translocation propagules.Shaded (vs.open) sites supported generally higher transplant and seedling survival and seed germination percentages,but growth responses varied among experiments.Supplemental irrigation increased transplant survival and seed germination,but otherwise seedling and plant survival and growth were not significantly affected.Contrary to expectations based on wild populations,introduced propagules have not been more successful in unshaded sites,suggesting that Florida ziziphus has broader microhabitat preferences than hypothesized.Compared to wild plants,introduced plants had similar survival and responses to fire,slower growth,and more delayed flowering.Introduced plants had no clonal spread.While no introduced population has demonstrated a capacity for long-term viability,one augmented population has flowered and produced viable fruits.Given that Florida ziziphus genets are long-lived,low levels of sexual

  10. Educational and laboratory base for the expert training on physical protection of nuclear materials: the requirements and experience of practical implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarev, P.V.; Pogozhin, N.S.; Ryzhukhin, D.V.; Tolstoy, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In expert training on physical protection of nuclear materials (NMPP) an educational and laboratory base has special importance. In these laboratories the students receive practical skills concerning physical protection systems (PPS). The basic requirements for creating such base are formulated in a certain educational program implemented at an educational institution. Thus it is necessary to take into account the following features of a modern nuclear object PPS: restriction of an object visiting with the purpose of acquaintance with features of a certain object PPS; dynamical change of PPS component nomenclature; increase of use of computer facilities for managing all PPS subsystems; increase of integration degree of separate subsystems in a uniform PPS complex; high cost of PPS components. Taking that into consideration a university, which assumes to begin the expert training on NMPP, is compelled to solve the following tasks: creation of its own laboratory base. The implementation of practical occupations with visiting a nuclear object cannot be executed practically; definition of quantity and structure of educational laboratories. Thus the features of the implemented educational plan should be taken into account in addition; optimization of expenses on laboratory creation. The regular updating of laboratory equipment structure is impossible in a practical manner. Therefore unique correct decision is to supply laboratories with the equipment, which uses the typical technological decisions on performing the basic PPS functions (detection, delay, estimation of a situation, neutralization); development of laboratory work conducting procedures (laboratory practical works); technical support of the created laboratories. The certain experience of solving the listed tasks is accumulated at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (MEPhl) while implementing 'Physical Protection, Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials' master

  11. Adult English Language Learners Constructing and Sharing Their Stories and Experiences: The Cultural and Linguistic Autobiography Writing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    This article is the culmination of the Cultural and Linguistic Autobiography (CLA) writing project, which details narrative descriptions of adult English language learners' (ELLs') cultural and linguistic experiences and how those experiences may have influenced the ways in which these learners constructed and reconstructed their identities.…

  12. EXPERIENCE OF APPLICATION OF A PORTABLE OPTICO – EMISSION SPECTROMETER FOR MONITORING OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HOT-ROLLED PRODUCTS TO IMPLEMENT THE CUSTOMER’S REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kazakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of requirements of customers in the automotive industry is the guarantee of lack of intermix of various brands of steel in a mill process of manufacture. For ensuring implementation of this requirement, it is necessary to carry out monitoring of chemical composition of each bar just before shipment, after its packing and application of the required marking. An optimal solution of this problem is application of the portable optico-emission spectrometer allowing to carry out tests of samples directly in place of location.

  13. Putting User Stories First: Experiences Adapting the Legacy Data Models and Information Architecture at NASA JPL's PO.DAAC to Accommodate the New Information Lifecycle Required by SWOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGibbney, L. J.; Hausman, J.; Laurencelle, J. C.; Toaz, R., Jr.; McAuley, J.; Freeborn, D. J.; Stoner, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Surface Water & Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission brings together two communities focused on a better understanding of the world's oceans and its terrestrial surface waters. U.S. and French oceanographers and hydrologists and international partners have joined forces to develop this new space mission. At NASA JPL's PO.DAAC, the team is currently engaged in the gathering of SWOT User Stores (access patterns, metadata requirements, primary and value added product requirements, data access protocols, etc.) to better inform the adaptive planning of what will be known as the next generation PO.DAAC Information Architecture (IA). The IA effort acknowledges that missions such as SWOT (and NISAR) have few or no precedent in terms of data volume, hot and cold storage, archival, analysis, existing system engineering complexities, etc. and that the only way we can better understand the projected impacts of such requirements is to interface directly with the User Community. Additionally, it also acknowledges that collective learning has taken place to understand certain limitations in the existing data models (DM) underlying the existing PO.DAAC Data Management and Archival System. This work documents an evolutionary, use case based, standards driven approach to adapting the legacy DM and accompanying knowledge representation infrastructure at NASA JPL's PO.DAAC to address forthcoming DAAC mission requirements presented by missions such as SWOT. Some of the topics covered in this evolution include, but are not limited to: How we are leveraging lessons learned from the development of existing DM (such as that generated for SMAP) in an attempt to map them to SWOT. What is the governance model for the SWOT IA? What are the `governing' entities? What is the hierarchy of the `governed entities'? How are elements grouped? How is the design-working group formed? How is model independence maintained and what choices/requirements do we have for the implementation language? The use of

  14. New experiences on the time required for the appearance of fluoric cachexia in the guinea pig following ingestion of various fluorine salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiani, H; Chausse, P

    1926-01-01

    Experiments were performed to compare the time it took guinea pigs to develop cachexia after being given sodium fluosilicate or sodium fluoride. Results indicate that a dose-response relationship existed following the ingestion of the fluorine salts in relation to the time it took to produce cachexia. In addition, sodium fluosilicate was found to be more toxic than sodium fluoride. In guinea pigs which were given approximately 1/30 to 1/36 of the lethal dose, cachexia was produced from 44 to 70 days later. In guinea pigs given even smaller doses, cachexia did not appear for one to two years.

  15. Analysis of existing data and specification of an experiment to determine the 252Cf half-life to the required degree of accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.; Kharitonov, I.A.

    1994-02-01

    The methods used and the results obtained in measurements of the 252 Cf half-life are analyzed. In calculating the weighted mean value, additional error components as well as those given by the authors are taken into account. In order to reduce the error in the weighted mean value to less than 0.1%, the need and the requirements for an exact measurement are specified. A half-life of 2.6473±0.0028 years is recommended. (author). 16 refs, 3 tabs

  16. Student Teaching Changed Me: A Look at Kolb's Learning Style Inventory Scores before and after the Student Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kasee L.; Rayfield, John

    2017-01-01

    Student teaching as the culminating experience of a teacher preparation program has been shown to be of great importance in the preparation of pre-service agricultural educators (Harlin, Roberts, Mowen, Edgar, & Briers, 2007; Roberts, Mowen, Edgar, Harlin, & Briers, 2007; Kitchel & Torres, 2006, 2007; Myers & Dyer, 2004). Kolb's…

  17. [Software as medical devices/medical apps : Tasks, requirements, and experiences from the point of view of a competent authority].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhechte, Arno

    2018-03-01

    Software can be classified as a medical device according to the Medical Device Directive 93/42/EEC. The number of software products and medical apps is continuously increasing and so too is the use in health institutions (e. g., in hospitals and doctors' surgeries) for diagnosis and therapy.Different aspects of standalone software and medical apps from the perspective of the authority responsible are presented. The quality system implemented to establish a risk-based systematic inspection and supervision of manufacturers is discussed. The legal framework, as well as additional standards that are the basis for inspection, are outlined. The article highlights special aspects that occur during inspection like verification of software and interfaces, and the clinical evaluation of software. The Bezirksregierung, as the local government authority responsible in North Rhine-Westphalia, is also in charge of inspection of health institutions. Therefore this article is not limited to the manufacturers placing the software on the market, but in addition it describes the management and use of software as a medical device in hospitals.The future legal framework, the Medical Device Regulation, will strengthen the requirements and engage notified bodies more than today in the conformity assessment of software as a medical device.Manufacturers, health institutions, notified bodies and the authorities responsible are in charge of intensifying their efforts towards software as a medical device. Mutual information, improvement of skills, and inspections will lead to compliance with regulatory requirements.

  18. Clinical Profile and Outcome of Patients with Acute Kidney Injury Requiring Hemodialysis: Two Years’ Experience at a Tertiary Hospital in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Igiraneza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute kidney injury (AKI requiring renal replacement therapy is associated with high mortality. The study assessed the impact of the introduction of hemodialysis (HD on outcomes of patients with AKI in Rwanda. Methods. A single center retrospective study that evaluated the clinical profile and survival outcomes of patients with AKI requiring HD [AKI-D] at a tertiary hospital in Rwanda. Data was collected on patients who received HD for AKI from September 2014 to December 2016. Patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical presentation, laboratory tests, and mortality were reviewed and analyzed. Predictors of mortality were assessed using age and gender adjusted multivariate analyses. Results. Of the 82 eligible patients, median age was 38 years (IQR 28–57 years. Males comprised 51% of the cohort. Infectious diseases including malaria, pneumonia, and sepsis (35.1% and pregnancy-related conditions (26.9% were the most frequent comorbidities. Pulmonary oedema (54.9% and uremic encephalopathy (50% were top indications for HD. Mortality was 34.1%. On multivariate analysis, receipt of <5 sessions of HD (OR = 4.01, 95% CI 1.185–13.61, P=0.026 and hyperkalemia (OR = 3.23, 95% CI 1.040–10.065, P=0.043 were associated with mortality. Conclusion. The availability of acute hemodialysis in Rwanda has resulted in improved patient survival and persistent hyperkalemia predicted higher mortality.

  19. Controlling chemistry parameters in nuclear reactors and power plants, plant chemistry specification requirements and compliance - an overview of TAPS 1 and 2 experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindranath; Muralidharan, K.; Save, C.B.; Patil, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station -TAPS 1 and 2 is a twin unit Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Nuclear Power Plant commissioned in the year 1969. Both units are running with capacity factor of more than 90 % in their 20 th cycle of operation as on today. The 220 MWe units were derated to 160 MWe during 1984 consequent to isolation of Secondary Steam Generators (SSG) in the 10 th cycle of operation due to SSG tube leaks. This paper presents an overview of Plant Chemistry Control measures and experiences during the last 38 years of operation. The overall plant chemistry performance of TAPS 1 and 2 observed is very good; which is evident from the material condition of various systems reflected in QC and I reports, NDT and ISI reports. This is also supported by the fact that both Units are showing excellent performance continuously during recent years. (author)

  20. The Model of Designing an Individual Program of Professional Development of Pedagogue-Psychologists According to the Requirements of the Professional Standard (Experience of Cheboksary, Chuvash Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udina T.N.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The approaches to design of individual program of professional development of Pedagogue-psychologist that were developed within the framework of the pilot site for approbation and introduction of the professional standard "Pedagogue-psychologist” in Cheboksary of the Chuvash Republic in 2015-2017 are outlined. Attention is drawn to the important role of territorial methodological services accompanying the professional development of psychology teachers in ensuring their transfer to "effective contracts". The article describes: an approximate special program for accompanying the professional development of psychological educators in accordance with the requirements of the professional standard; variants of the organization of the process of designing an individual program for the professional development of Pedagogue-psychologist; an approximate model for designing an individual program of professional development of Pedagogue-psychologist.

  1. Practical experience applied to the design of injection and sample manifolds to perform in-place surveillance tests according to ANSI/ASME N-510

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Wikoff, W.O.; Shaffer, L.L. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    At the current level of maturity and experience in the nuclear industry, regarding testing of air treatment systems, it is now possible to design and qualify injection and sample manifolds for most applications. While the qualification of sample manifolds is still in its infancy, injection manifolds have reached a mature stage that helps to eliminate the {open_quotes}hit or miss{close_quotes} type of design. During the design phase, manifolds can be adjusted to compensate for poor airflow distribution, laminar flow conditions, and to take advantage of any system attributes. Experience has shown that knowing the system attributes before the design phase begins is an essential element to a successful manifold design. The use of a spreadsheet type program commonly found on most personal computers can afford a greater flexibility and a reduction in time spent in the design phase. The experience gained from several generations of manifold design has culminated in a set of general design guidelines. Use of these guidelines, along with a good understanding of the type of testing (theoretical and practical), can result in a good manifold design requiring little or no field modification. The requirements for manifolds came about because of the use of multiple banks of components and unconventional housing inlet configurations. Multiple banks of adsorbers and pre and post HEPA`s required that each bank be tested to insure that each one does not exceed a specific allowable leakage criterion. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Line voltage distortions due to operation of the power supply devices required for plasma heating and magnetic field generation in the W7X thermonuclear fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, F.

    1997-03-01

    The operation of the W7-X plasma heating devices requires high voltage DC power supplies with a total electrical power of 40 MVA. For this purpose twelve-pulse AC/DC converters are projected. These converters enforce a non sinusoidal line current, whose harmonics are causing corresponding line voltage distortions. To evaluate the extent of these distortions, the reaction of the harmonic currents on the AC line, is investigated by numerical network analysis. This is done for both, the 20 kV-junction point of the converters and the 110 kV-line terminal of the electricity supply company. Furthermore the design of LC series-resonant circuits, projected for power factor correction and damping of the harmonic content of the line voltage, has been verified. The additional operation of the 1.5 MVA magnet power supplies also contributes, even though to a much smaller extent, to the line voltage distortion. The influence of these twelve-pulse AC/DC converters was investigated too. The numerical calculations have been done with the aid of the network simulation program 'Pspice'. In an equivalent circuit the transmission line network and the transformers are represented by their inductances respectively equivalent inductances. The rectifier units are simulated by a number of current sources, producing the current harmonics in amplitude, frequency and phase. The harmonics amplitudes of the plasma heating power supplies are frequency and phase. The harmonics amplitudes of the plasma heating power supplies are measured values given by the manufacturer. For the magnet power supplies, the harmonics are derived from the theoretical step like I(t) current shape by Fourier series decomposition. Due to the action of the LC circuits the achieved characteristic voltage quality values are far below the permissible values corresponding to the recommendations of VDE 0160. (orig.) [de

  3. Requirements for Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivens, R

    2013-01-01

    Ion sources produce beams for a large variety of different physical experiments, industrial processes and medical applications. In order to characterize the beam delivered by them, a list of requirements is necessary. In this chapter the list of principal requirements is specified and definitions for them are given. (author)

  4. Culminating anti-malaria efforts at long lasting insecticidal net?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Dhiman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs are a primary method in malaria control efforts. However, a decline in the biological efficacy and physical integrity over a period of comparatively lesser time than claimed, waning of naturally acquired immunity among regular users and misuse of LLINs are serious concerns. Search and selection of literature: The literature for the current review was searched in PubMed, SCOPUS Database and Google using combined search strings of related key-words. Literature with sufficient data and information on the current subject was selected to reach a valid conclusion. Findings: The World Health Organization (WHO has emphasized that LLINs should be considered a public good for people inhabiting malaria endemic settings. LLINs exhibited a cumulative effect on the vector density and may force anthropophilic mosquito vectors to find alternative animal hosts for blood meal. However, the physical integrity and biological activity of LLINs declines faster than the anticipated time due to different operational conditions and the spread of insecticide resistance. LLINs have been successful in reducing malaria incidences by either reducing or not allowing human exposure to the vector mosquitoes, but at the same time, LLINs debilitate the natural protective immunity against malaria parasite. Misuse of LLINs for deviant purposes is common and is a serious environmental concern, as people believe that traditional methods of prevention against malaria that have enabled them to survive through a long time are effective and sufficient. Moreover, people are often ill-informed regarding the toxic effects of LLINs. Conclusions: Specific criteria for determining the serviceable life and guidelines on the safe washing and disposal of LLINs need to be developed, kept well-informed and closely monitored. Malaria case management, environment management and community awareness to reduce the misuse of LLINs are crucial. Focused research on developing effective anti-malarial drugs, vaccines and new insecticides to reduce resistance is imperative to tackle malaria in the future. Keywords: LLIN, Insecticide resistance, Malaria, Immunity, Vector

  5. On the concept of vulnerability, identity and nostalgia affecting the immigrational experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkas, N

    2007-10-01

    Τhis paper focuses on the vicissitudes affecting the immigrational experience of Greeks in the United States. It is based on observations and insights emanating from psychotherapeutic work with Greek immigrants at the Transcultural Center of Human Relations in Chicago. These immigrants presented with specific symptomatologies including anxiety, depression, psychophysiologic manifestations and gross stress reactions sometimes culminating in transient psychotic episodes necessitating brief psychiatric hospitalization. This study proposes to elucidate the dynamic factors leading to specific psychopathologies observed including the feeling of increased vulnerability and helplessness felt by the immigrant in the new cultural environment in the host country along with feelings if alienation, the shattering of the sense of identity and the ensuing nostalgia motivating the quest to return to the homeland. The study also describes the treatment approaches including the psychotherapeutic interactions required to bring about significant operational changes to provide symptomatologic relief and stabilization towards an improved adaptation to the current life's circumstances. The presented three ongoing cases in point dramatically portray the intensity and complexity of the actual experiences of these immigrants and their response to the applicable therapeutic modalities.

  6. The role of space communication in promoting national development with specific reference to experiments conducted in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, E. V.

    The paper describes the role of space communication in promoting national development with special reference to experiments conducted in India, namely SITE (1975-1976), STEP (1977-1979) and APPLE (1981 onwards). The impact of these experiments in economic, cultural and educational terms are discussed, pointing out social implications involved in using advance space communication technology for instruction and information in the areas of education, national integration and development. The paper covers special requirements which arise when a communication system covers backward and remote rural areas in a developing country. The impact on the population measured by conducting social surveys has been discussed - especially the gains of predominently illiterate new media - participants have been highlighted. Possibilities of improving skills of teachers, the quality of the primary and higher education have been covered. The preparation required both on ground as well as space to derive benefits of space technology are considered. A profile of INSAT which marks the culmination of the experimental phase and the beginning of operational domestic satellite system is sketched.

  7. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  8. Waiting for oblivion: women's experiences with electroshock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie van Daalen-Smith, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings and analysis stemming from a two-year qualitative study that explored, in their own voices, women's lived experience of electroshock. Feminist standpoint theory frames and provides the moorings for both the validity and methodology of this woman-centered inquiry. In addition, nurses' experiences with and views of ECT are explored and compared to the experiences reported by the women recipients themselves. Vulnerability and disconnection as emergent themes are presented for the nursing profession's sober consideration. The nurses interviewed believed electroshock culminated in a net gain for patients, but for the majority of the women interviewed, electroshock resulted in damage and devastating loss. This article closes with pressing questions for nurses to ask ourselves as we enter the second decade of this new and promising millennium.

  9. Closure requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Closure of a waste management unit can be either permanent or temporary. Permanent closure may be due to: economic factors which make it uneconomical to mine the remaining minerals; depletion of mineral resources; physical site constraints that preclude further mining and beneficiation; environmental, regulatory or other requirements that make it uneconomical to continue to develop the resources. Temporary closure can occur for a period of several months to several years, and may be caused by factors such as: periods of high rainfall or snowfall which prevent mining and waste disposal; economic circumstances which temporarily make it uneconomical to mine the target mineral; labor problems requiring a cessation of operations for a period of time; construction activities that are required to upgrade project components such as the process facilities and waste management units; and mine or process plant failures that require extensive repairs. Permanent closure of a mine waste management unit involves the provision of durable surface containment features to protect the waters of the State in the long-term. Temporary closure may involve activities that range from ongoing maintenance of the existing facilities to the installation of several permanent closure features in order to reduce ongoing maintenance. This paper deals with the permanent closure features

  10. US utility experience in implementing the maintenance rule. Inputs to the Spanish programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia Ruperez, F.; Gregor, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    Following the issuance of the Maintenance Rule (10 CFR 50.65) the US Utility industry developed detailed guidance for the implementation of this performance-based rule. Methods, processes and procedures are very flexible and have culminated in a variety of plant-specific applications. The experience gained over the last three years provides a valuables input towards the development of the Spanish Maintenance Rule Program. Lessons learned and insights gained from the NRC and Utility meetings, workshops, plant audits and the interchange of documents, as well as results from the information-sharing utility working groups are summarized for possible application to the specific Spanish scenario. While most of the implementation issue have been resolved, some open issues remain to be negotiated within the NRC. With the deadline for the compliance of implementation set for July 1996, US Utilities are working diligently to settle these few differences. Once more, the results of these negotiations will provide good references for the specific application and licensing of these requirements in Spanish NNPs. The paper will describe the situation in the US and the benefits, sequence and methodologies for transferring these lessons to Spanish plants. (Author)

  11. Information Professional Job Advertisements in the U.K. Indicate Professional Experience is the Most Required Skill. A Review of: Orme, Verity. “You will be…: A Study of Job Advertisements to Determine Employers’ Requirements for LIS Professionals in the UK in 2007.” Library Review 57.8 (2008: 619-33.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J. Schulte

    2009-06-01

    Assistant Information Advisor.” Employers represented private, school, and university libraries, as well as legal firms and prisons. Fifty-nine skills were found a total of 1,021 times across all of the advertisements. Each advertisement averaged 5.67 requirements. These skills were classified in four categories: professional, generic, personal, and experience. The most highly noted requirement was professional experience, noted 129 times, followed by interpersonal/communication skills (94, general computing skills (63, enthusiasm (48, and team-working skills (39. Professional skills were noted just slightly more than generic and personal skills in the top twenty skills found. Other professional skills that were highly noted were customer service skills (34, chartership (30, cataloguing/classification/metadata skills (25, and information retrieval skills (20. Some notable skills that occurred rarely included Web design and development skills (6, application of information technology in the library (5, and knowledge management skills (3.Conclusion – Professional, generic, and personal qualities were all important to employers in the U.K.; however, without experience, possessing these qualities may not be enough for new professionals in the field.

  12. Users' requirements for IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, K.; Jitsukawa, S.; Ehrlich, K.; Moeslang, A.

    1998-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a high energy neutron irradiation facility which generates an intense neutron flux with D-Li stripping reactions for fusion materials testing. The role of IFMIF is (1) development of various fusion reactor materials, (2) determination of design-relevant engineering databases for the DEMO fusion reactor, (3) calibration and validation of data generated from fission reactor irradiations and the other simulation experiments, etc. The conceptual design activity (CDA) of IFMIF was initiated in February 1995 as an IEA collaborative activity to complete a reference conceptual design of IFMIF in December 1996. Users' requirements for the conceptual design of IFMIF were developed for materials to be tested, types of experiments, small specimen test technology and irradiation conditions. Furthermore, the neutron irradiation field characteristics (spectrum, flux/volume, etc.) of IFMIF were evaluated for the conceptual design parameters and were shown to meet the essential requirements of the users. (orig.)

  13. Parametric analyses of planned flowing uranium hexafluoride critical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R. J.; Latham, T. S.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical investigations were conducted to determine preliminary design and operating characteristics of flowing uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gaseous nuclear reactor experiments in which a hybrid core configuration comprised of UF6 gas and a region of solid fuel will be employed. The investigations are part of a planned program to perform a series of experiments of increasing performance, culminating in an approximately 5 MW fissioning uranium plasma experiment. A preliminary design is described for an argon buffer gas confined, UF6 flow loop system for future use in flowing critical experiments. Initial calculations to estimate the operating characteristics of the gaseous fissioning UF6 in a confined flow test at a pressure of 4 atm, indicate temperature increases of approximately 100 and 1000 K in the UF6 may be obtained for total test power levels of 100 kW and 1 MW for test times of 320 and 32 sec, respectively.

  14. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Plata, Charity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  15. Round table: moderated by Marco Bersanelli and François Bouchet - What next? science objectives and required observations: Objective: Open discussion of what are the strengths and weaknesses of possible future experiments, complementarity, what is our target science for the M5 proposal and what is the best strategy to get it

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Round table: moderated by Marco Bersanelli and François Bouchet - What next? science objectives and required observations: Objective: Open discussion of what are the strengths and weaknesses of possible future experiments, complementarity, what is our target science for the M5 proposal and what is the best strategy to get it

  16. Endosomal sorting complexes required for ESCRTing cells toward death during neurogenesis, neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Zenia; Chakrabarti, Oishee

    2018-03-25

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) proteins help in the recognition, sorting and degradation of ubiquitinated cargoes from the cell surface, long-lived proteins or aggregates, and aged organelles present in the cytosol. These proteins take part in the endo-lysosomal system of degradation. The ESCRT proteins also play an integral role in cytokinesis, viral budding and mRNA transport. Many neurodegenerative diseases are caused by toxic accumulation of cargo in the cell, which causes stress and ultimately leads to neuronal death. This accumulation of cargo occurs because of defects in the endo-lysosomal degradative pathway-loss of function of ESCRTs has been implicated in this mechanism. ESCRTs also take part in many survival processes, lack of which can culminate in neuronal cell death. While the role played by the ESCRT proteins in maintaining healthy neurons is known, their role in neurodegenerative diseases is still poorly understood. In this review, we highlight the importance of ESCRTs in maintaining healthy neurons and then suggest how perturbations in many of the survival mechanisms governed by these proteins could eventually lead to cell death; quite often these correlations are not so obviously laid out. Extensive neuronal death eventually culminates in neurodegeneration. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  18. Experience with MODSIM II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streets, J.; Berg, D.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Slimmer, D.

    1992-02-01

    We present results of computer simulations for Data Acquisition systems for large fixed target experiments in an object oriented simulation language, MODSIM. This paper summarizes our experiences and presents preliminary results from the simulation already completed. We also indicate the resources required for this project

  19. Investigations of impurity control in JET using fuelling, and interpretation of experiments using the LIM impurity code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, A.; Stangeby, P.C.; Elder, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Inhibition of contamination of the plasma core in JET by edge impurities during high power heating of deuterium plasmas in limiter configuration using fuelling is demonstrated. By injecting deuterium gas during heating, in the presence of a much larger recycling deuterium flux, a reduction of more than a factor of 2 was effected in n z (0)/Φ z , the ratio of central impurity density to impurity influx at the plasma edge. The reduction in n z (0) was obtained without much effect on peak electron temperature and density. Reduction of plasma contamination by gas fuelling was observed also when hot spots formed on the limiter, a condition that without simultaneous gas fuelling culminated in runaway plasma contamination. Detailed analysis of the experiments is undertaken with the purpose of identifying the processes by which plasma contamination was inhibited, employing standard limiter plasma contamination modelling. Processes which might produce the observed impurity inhibiting effects of gas injection include: (a) reduction in impurity production at the limiter; (b) increase in impurity screening in the scrape-off layer; (c) increase in radial impurity transport at the plasma edge; (d) increase in average deuteron flow velocity to the limiter along the scrape-off layer. These are examined in detail using the Monte Carlo limiter impurity transport code LIM. Bearing in mind that uncertainties exist both in the choice of appropriate modelling assumptions to be used and in the measurement of required edge plasma parameters, changes in n z (0)/Φ z by a factor of 2 are at the limit of the present modelling capability. However, comparison between LIM code simulations and measurements of plasma impurity content indicate that the standard limiter plasma contamination model may not be adequate and that other processes need to be added in order to be able to describe the experiments in JET. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  20. Smashing physics inside the world's biggest experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson made headlines around the world. Two scientists, Peter Higgs and Francois Englert, whose theories predicted its existence, shared a Nobel Prize. The discovery was the culmination of the largest experiment ever run, the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. But what really is a Higgs boson and what does it do? How was it found? And how has its discovery changed our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature? And what did it feel like to be part of it? Jon Butterworth is one of the leading physicists at CERN and this book is the first popular inside account of the hunt for the Higgs. It is a story of incredible scientific collaboration, inspiring technological innovation and ground-breaking science. It is also the story of what happens when the world's most expensive experiment blows up, of neutrinos that may or may not travel faster than light, and the reality of life in an underground bunker in Switzerland. This book will also leave you with a working...

  1. Notch2 Is Required for Inflammatory Cytokine-Driven Goblet Cell Metaplasia in the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Danahay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The balance and distribution of epithelial cell types is required to maintain tissue homeostasis. A hallmark of airway diseases is epithelial remodeling, leading to increased goblet cell numbers and an overproduction of mucus. In the conducting airway, basal cells act as progenitors for both secretory and ciliated cells. To identify mechanisms regulating basal cell fate, we developed a screenable 3D culture system of airway epithelial morphogenesis. We performed a high-throughput screen using a collection of secreted proteins and identified inflammatory cytokines that specifically biased basal cell differentiation toward a goblet cell fate, culminating in enhanced mucus production. We also demonstrate a specific requirement for Notch2 in cytokine-induced goblet cell metaplasia in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that inhibition of Notch2 prevents goblet cell metaplasia induced by a broad range of stimuli and propose Notch2 neutralization as a therapeutic strategy for preventing goblet cell metaplasia in airway diseases.

  2. Beauty Requires Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Pelli, Denis G

    2017-05-22

    The experience of beauty is a pleasure, but common sense and philosophy suggest that feeling beauty differs from sensuous pleasures such as eating or sex. Immanuel Kant [1, 2] claimed that experiencing beauty requires thought but that sensuous pleasure can be enjoyed without thought and cannot be beautiful. These venerable hypotheses persist in models of aesthetic processing [3-7] but have never been tested. Here, participants continuously rated the pleasure felt from a nominally beautiful or non-beautiful stimulus and then judged whether they had experienced beauty. The stimuli, which engage various senses, included seeing images, tasting candy, and touching a teddy bear. The observer reported the feelings that the stimulus evoked. The time course of pleasure, across stimuli, is well-fit by a model with one free parameter: pleasure amplitude. Pleasure amplitude increases linearly with the feeling of beauty. To test Kant's claim of a need for thought, we reduce cognitive capacity by adding a "two-back" task to distract the observer's thoughts. The distraction greatly reduces the beauty and pleasure experienced from stimuli that otherwise produce strong pleasure and spares that of less-pleasant stimuli. We also find that strong pleasure is always beautiful, whether produced reliably by beautiful stimuli or just occasionally by sensuous stimuli. In sum, we confirm Kant's claim that only the pleasure associated with feeling beauty requires thought and disprove his claim that sensuous pleasures cannot be beautiful. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  4. School Library Media Certification Requirements: 1990 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perritt, Patsy H.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a compilation of school library media certification requirements taken from responses to a national survey. For each state, existing certificates or endorsements are listed, along with credit hours and/or experience required, whether it is an accredited or approved program, and required subject areas or competencies. A directory of…

  5. Analytical chemistry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Jo; Paeng, Seong Gwan; Jang, Cheol Hyeon

    1992-08-01

    This book deals with analytical chemistry experiment with eight chapters. It explains general matters that require attention on experiment, handling of medicine with keep and class, the method for handling and glass devices, general control during experiment on heating, cooling, filtering, distillation and extraction and evaporation and dry, glass craft on purpose of the craft, how to cut glass tube and how to bend glass tube, volumetric analysis on neutralization titration and precipitation titration, gravimetric analysis on solubility product, filter and washing and microorganism experiment with necessary tool, sterilization disinfection incubation and appendixes.

  6. LDR structural experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    A system study to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector on the Space Station was accomplished by the Boeing Aerospace Company for NASA's Langley Research Center. The objective of the study was to use a Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration as the basis for focusing an experiment definition, so that the resulting accommodation requirements and interface constraints could be used as part of the mission requirements data base for Space Station. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of an optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments, and alignment of the optical components, would occur on a second experiment. The structure would then be moved to the payload point system for pointing, optical control, and scientific optical measurement for a third experiment. Experiment 1 will deploy the primary support truss while it is attached to the instrument module structure. The ability to adjust the mirror attachment points and to attach several dummy primary mirror segments with a robotic system will also be demonstrated. Experiment 2 will be achieved by adding new components and equipment to experiment one. Experiment 3 will demonstrate advanced control strategies, active adjustment of the primary mirror alignment, and technologies associated with optical sensing.

  7. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  8. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  9. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  10. Customer experience

    OpenAIRE

    Koperdáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with the theme of customer experience and terms related to this topic. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part explains the terms generally, as the experience or customer loyalty. The second part is dedicated to medotology used for Customer Experience Management. In the third part is described application of Customer Experience Management in practice, particularly in the context Touch Point Analyses in GE Money Bank.

  11. Preliminary Assessment of Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements for Airborne Trajectory Management (ABTM) Roadmap Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, William B.; Hilb, Robert; Koczo, Stefan, Jr.; Wing, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A set of five developmental steps building from the NASA TASAR (Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests) concept are described, each providing incrementally more efficiency and capacity benefits to airspace system users and service providers, culminating in a Full Airborne Trajectory Management capability. For each of these steps, the incremental Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements are identified for later use in future formal safety assessments intended to lead to certification and operational approval of the equipment and the associated procedures. Two established safety assessment methodologies that are compliant with the FAA's Safety Management System were used leading to Failure Effects Classifications (FEC) for each of the steps. The most likely FEC for the first three steps, Basic TASAR, Digital TASAR, and 4D TASAR, is "No effect". For step four, Strategic Airborne Trajectory Management, the likely FEC is "Minor". For Full Airborne Trajectory Management (Step 5), the most likely FEC is "Major".

  12. Application and licensing requirements of the Framatome ANP RLBLOCA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.P.; Dunn, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    fission product barrier. 4. A structure, system, or component which operating experience or probabilistic risk assessment has shown to be significant to public health and safety. The application of safety analysis methodologies has evolved to become the primary elements in support of a plant's licensing basis. In general, the licensing basis of every plant regulated by the NRC is the evolution of each plant's individual communication with the NRC. A utility's use of a safety analysis methodology may have unique elements to provide the desired licensing basis support; hence, a generic safety analysis methodology must maintain a certain amount of flexibility in anticipation of such plant-specific needs. The second component related to plant-specific RLBLOCA analyses stems from the NRC's generic review of the methodology. A key component of this review was focused on quantifying the methodology's broader range-of-applicability. The broader range-of-applicability includes the quantification of the range-of-applicability of individual models and correlations in terms of limits on parameters considered important in specific models. The broader range-of-applicability also includes qualitative limits based on unquantifiable uncertainties associated with the extension of both test facility and computer code numerical methods to the full-scale nuclear power plant of interest. These uncertainties include those associated with test facility scale effects, computer code nodalization capabilities, and code model compensating errors. The NRC's review culminated with the release of a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) documenting the NRC's conclusions about the suitability of FANP's RLBLOCA methodology. The contents of the SER include discussions on the NRC's approach to the review, review activities, acceptance rationale for key constituents of the methodology, and an itemized list of additional requirements and restrictions. This list, also referred to as the SER restrictions, reconfirms

  13. Diagnostics for pellet experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    The target diagnostics which are being used and planned in current laser driven ICF Experiments are described. Most of these diagnostics can be easily applied to future ion-beam fusion experiments. The status of laser fusion diagnostics has been much improved in the last 5 years and further improvements can be expected and should be available when the first ICF experiments using ion beams are performed. As an example, x-ray temporal and spatial resolutions are now approximately 5 psec and 3 μm, which is approximately a factor of 4 better than the resolution reported in the first implosion experiments. As one plans ahead for ion-beam fusion experiments it should be emphasized that high yield experiments are easier to diagnose provided adequate shielding is employed. However, in the event that the first high yield experiments fail it will be necessary to have diagnostics available to determine where the problems lie. In laser fusion it is interesting to note that higher laser powers are required now for breakeven experiments than first anticipated, mainly because some aspects of the laser-interaction physics were not recognized until the experiments were carefully diagnosed. Thus as has been pointed out, it may be necessary to increase the energy of the ion-beam driver to enable us to do breakeven experiments with high confidence

  14. [Colonoscopy quality control as a requirement of colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Enrique; Alarcón-Fernández, Onofre; Jover, Rodrigo

    2013-11-01

    The strategies used in population-based colorectal screening strategies culminate in colonoscopy and consequently the success of these programs largely depends on the quality of this diagnostic test. The main factors to consider when evaluating quality are scientific-technical quality, safety, patient satisfaction, and accessibility. Quality indicators allow variability among hospitals, endoscopy units and endoscopists to be determined and can identify those not achieving recommended standards. In Spain, the working group for colonoscopy quality of the Spanish Society of Gastroenterology and the Spanish Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy have recently drawn up a Clinical Practice Guideline that contains the available evidence on the quality of screening colonoscopy, as well as the basic requirements that must be met by endoscopy units and endoscopists carrying out this procedure. The implementation of training programs and screening colonoscopy quality controls are strongly recommended to guarantee the success of population-based colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing Requirements Quality through Requirements Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ajitha; Heimdahl, Mats; Woodham, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    In model-based development, the development effort is centered around a formal description of the proposed software system the model. This model is derived from some high-level requirements describing the expected behavior of the software. For validation and verification purposes, this model can then be subjected to various types of analysis, for example, completeness and consistency analysis [6], model checking [3], theorem proving [1], and test-case generation [4, 7]. This development paradigm is making rapid inroads in certain industries, e.g., automotive, avionics, space applications, and medical technology. This shift towards model-based development naturally leads to changes in the verification and validation (V&V) process. The model validation problem determining that the model accurately captures the customer's high-level requirements has received little attention and the sufficiency of the validation activities has been largely determined through ad-hoc methods. Since the model serves as the central artifact, its correctness with respect to the users needs is absolutely crucial. In our investigation, we attempt to answer the following two questions with respect to validation (1) Are the requirements sufficiently defined for the system? and (2) How well does the model implement the behaviors specified by the requirements? The second question can be addressed using formal verification. Nevertheless, the size and complexity of many industrial systems make formal verification infeasible even if we have a formal model and formalized requirements. Thus, presently, there is no objective way of answering these two questions. To this end, we propose an approach based on testing that, when given a set of formal requirements, explores the relationship between requirements-based structural test-adequacy coverage and model-based structural test-adequacy coverage. The proposed technique uses requirements coverage metrics defined in [9] on formal high-level software

  16. Iconic memory requires attention

    OpenAIRE

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when co...

  17. Nightshade Prototype Experiments (Silverleaf)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielson, Jeremy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bauer, Amy L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-23

    The Red Sage campaign is a series of subcritical dynamic plutonium experiments designed to measure ejecta. Nightshade, the first experiments in Red Sage scheduled for fiscal year 2019, will measure the amount of ejecta emission into vacuum from a double-­shocked plutonium surface. To address the major technical risks in Nightshade, a Level 2 milestone was developed for fiscal year 2016. Silverleaf, a series of four experiments, was executed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in July and August 2016 to demonstrate a prototype of the Nightshade package and to satisfy this Level 2 milestone. This report is documentation that Red Sage Level 2 milestone requirements were successfully met.

  18. Cryogenics for LHC experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Cryogenic systems will be used by LHC experiments to maximize their performance. Institutes around the world are collaborating with CERN in the construction of these very low temperature systems. The cryogenic test facility in hall 180 for ATLAS magnets. High Energy Physics experiments have frequently adopted cryogenic versions of their apparatus to achieve optimal performance, and those for the LHC will be no exception. The two largest experiments for CERN's new flagship accelerator, ATLAS and CMS, will both use large superconducting magnets operated at 4.5 Kelvin - almost 270 degrees below the freezing point of water. ATLAS also includes calorimeters filled with liquid argon at 87 Kelvin. For the magnets, the choice of a cryogenic version was dictated by a combination economy and transparency to emerging particles. For the calorimeters, liquid argon was selected as the fluid best suited to the experiment's physics requirements. High Energy Physics experiments are the result of worldwide collaborations and...

  19. Linoleic acid intake and vitamin E requirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, F.C.

    1973-01-01

    In experiments with rats and Peking ducklings it has been investigated to what extent the linoleic acid content of the diet is of influence on the requirement of vitamin E. This requirement was determined by adding D-α-tocopheryl acetate in increasing doses to vitamin E-free diets and to determine

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - General Agent's requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... chest items required for the intended voyage. Purchase for the account of the NSA, from recognized bona... respective domestic ports, only such items and quantities reflecting past experience of actual requirements. (b) Arrange for delivery on board to the custody of the Master all slop chest items purchased...

  1. Postmarket Requirements and Commitments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides information to the public on postmarket requirements and commitments. The phrase postmarket requirements and commitments refers to studies and clinical...

  2. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  3. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  4. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  5. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  6. Future Home Network Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbonnier, Benoit; Wessing, Henrik; Lannoo, Bart

    This paper presents the requirements for future Home Area Networks (HAN). Firstly, we discuss the applications and services as well as their requirements. Then, usage scenarios are devised to establish a first specification for the HAN. The main requirements are an increased bandwidth (towards 1...

  7. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the elicitation process. Cases and user requirement elements discussed in the book include: User requirements elicitation processes for children, construction workers, and farmers User requirements for personalized services of a broadcast company Variations in user involvement Practical elements of user...

  8. Knowledge engineering for health: A new discipline required to bridge the “ICT gap” between research and healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Tim; Gollapudi, Sirisha; Brunak, Søren

    2012-01-01

    on “knowledge engineering for health” is needed to facilitate knowledge transmission across the research–healthcare gap. This discipline is required to engineer the bidirectional flow of data: processing research data and knowledge to identify clinically relevant advances and delivering these into healthcare...... the key aims and objectives, namely “integrating and interpreting information for individualized healthcare,” by developing the “knowledge engineering for health” domain. Hum Mutat 33:797–802, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc........ A series of meetings, culminating in the “I‐Health 2011” workshop, have brought together interdisciplinary experts to map the challenges and requirements for such a system. Here, we describe the main conclusions from these meetings. An “I4Health” interdisciplinary network of experts now exists to promote...

  9. Experiments versus simultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltser, Jana

    The world of instrumentation utilising X-ray radiation is expanding and leading to more sophisticated experiments. Every step of this process requires accurate calculation, and this is where simulation plays an important role. With the advert of modern computers and technologies, simulation has...

  10. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document establishes the Transportation system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are derived from the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document (CRD). The Transportation System Requirements Document (TSRD) was developed in accordance with LP-3.1Q-OCRWM, Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of National Transportation Level-2 Baseline Requirements. As illustrated in Figure 1, the TSRD forms a part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Technical Baseline

  11. Conducting organizational safety reviews - requirements, methods and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B.; Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U.

    2008-03-01

    Organizational safety reviews are part of the safety management process of power plants. They are typically performed after major reorganizations, significant incidents or according to specified review programs. Organizational reviews can also be a part of a benchmarking between organizations that aims to improve work practices. Thus, they are important instruments in proactive safety management and safety culture. Most methods that have been used for organizational reviews are based more on practical considerations than a sound scientific theory of how various organizational or technical issues influence safety. Review practices and methods also vary considerably. The objective of this research is to promote understanding on approaches used in organizational safety reviews as well as to initiate discussion on criteria and methods of organizational assessment. The research identified a set of issues that need to be taken into account when planning and conducting organizational safety reviews. Examples of the issues are definition of appropriate criteria for evaluation, the expertise needed in the assessment and the organizational motivation for conducting the assessment. The study indicates that organizational safety assessments involve plenty of issues and situations where choices have to be made regarding what is considered valid information and a balance has to be struck between focus on various organizational phenomena. It is very important that these choices are based on a sound theoretical framework and that these choices can later be evaluated together with the assessment findings. The research concludes that at its best, the organizational safety reviews can be utilised as a source of information concerning the changing vulnerabilities and the actual safety performance of the organization. In order to do this, certain basic organizational phenomena and assessment issues have to be acknowledged and considered. The research concludes with recommendations on issues that should be considered and taken into account as far as is practically applicable in any assessment where organizational safety issues are considered. Finally, further research needs in the area of organizational factors and organizational safety assessment are outlined. (au)

  12. Quality control in PET/CT systems. Experiences and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geworski, Lilli; Fitz, Eduard; Knoop, Bernd; Karwarth, Cornelia; Plotkin, Michail

    2010-01-01

    Today, in most cases PET examinations are performed using PET/CT hybrid systems. While acceptance testing and routine control of the basic modalities PET and CT, respectively, are described by appropriate regulations, corresponding instructions with regard to the interface connecting both are still missing. This interface includes the adjustment of gantries and patient bed to each other as well as the energy scaling of attenuation coefficients from CT energy to 511 keV. Measurements checking the mechanical adjustment (determination of off-set parameters) are performed following manufacturer's recommendation, with a typical frequency twice a year. On a Biograph 16 (Siemens, Inc.), these measurements were systematically extended to a weekly frequency over an observation period of 10 months, supplemented by measurements with additional load to the patient bed (up to 135 kg), and different vertical bed positions. The results show, that for the construction tested additional off-set measurements for routine control extending well beyond manufacturer's recommendation are not necessary. The energy scaling of attenuation coefficients is depending on methodological aspects and software implementation, and therefore is not part of routine control. On the contrary, the development of appropriate methods for acceptance testing to assess and to determine the mechanical adjustment in all its degrees of freedom as well as the accuracy of attenuation corrected emission data is urgently needed. (orig.)

  13. Experience with Energy Efficiency Requirements for Electrical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This publication has been produced as part of the work programme in support of the Gleneagles Plan of Action (GPOA), where the IEA was requested to 'undertake a study to review existing global appliance standards and codes'. In accordance with the G8 request, this study investigates the coverage and impact of forms of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and comparative energy labelling programmes; which comprise the cornerstone of most IEA countries national energy efficiency strategy. This scope also reflects governments' aspirations to achieve ambitious targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, this study does not address endorsement labelling and associated voluntary programmes, although these are also important policy tools for national energy efficiency strategies.

  14. Conducting organizational safety reviews - requirements, methods and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland); Rollenhagen, C. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, (Sweden); Kahlbom, U. [RiskPilot (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    Organizational safety reviews are part of the safety management process of power plants. They are typically performed after major reorganizations, significant incidents or according to specified review programs. Organizational reviews can also be a part of a benchmarking between organizations that aims to improve work practices. Thus, they are important instruments in proactive safety management and safety culture. Most methods that have been used for organizational reviews are based more on practical considerations than a sound scientific theory of how various organizational or technical issues influence safety. Review practices and methods also vary considerably. The objective of this research is to promote understanding on approaches used in organizational safety reviews as well as to initiate discussion on criteria and methods of organizational assessment. The research identified a set of issues that need to be taken into account when planning and conducting organizational safety reviews. Examples of the issues are definition of appropriate criteria for evaluation, the expertise needed in the assessment and the organizational motivation for conducting the assessment. The study indicates that organizational safety assessments involve plenty of issues and situations where choices have to be made regarding what is considered valid information and a balance has to be struck between focus on various organizational phenomena. It is very important that these choices are based on a sound theoretical framework and that these choices can later be evaluated together with the assessment findings. The research concludes that at its best, the organizational safety reviews can be utilised as a source of information concerning the changing vulnerabilities and the actual safety performance of the organization. In order to do this, certain basic organizational phenomena and assessment issues have to be acknowledged and considered. The research concludes with recommendations on issues that should be considered and taken into account as far as is practically applicable in any assessment where organizational safety issues are considered. Finally, further research needs in the area of organizational factors and organizational safety assessment are outlined. (au)

  15. Air-operated valve diagnostics: requirements, programmes and experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervilla, Remedios; Vallana, Fernando; Laporta, Jose Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present some elements in the field of air-operated valve (AOV) diagnostics from the perspective of Tecnatom, as a testing services provider in the national and international nuclear park. Throughout the following lines, we summarize the regulatory framework existing in Spain and the current practices in Spanish nuclear power plants regarding the AOV programs, the role of Tecnatom as a service provider and our testing techniques. Finally, a real test case is presented, to illustrate the value of diagnostic as predictive maintenance and early degradation detection tool. (authors)

  16. Solar sorptive cooling. Technologies, user requirements, practical experience, future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treffinger, P. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Hardthausen (Germany); Hertlein, H.P. [eds.] [Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Sorptive cooling techniques permit the use of low-temperature solar heat, i.e. a renewable energy of low cost and world-wide availability. The Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie intends to develop solar sorptive cooling technologies to the prototype stage and, in cooperation with the solar industry and its end users, to promote practical application in air conditioning of buildings and cold storage of food. The workshop presents an outline of the state of development of solar sorptive cooling from the view of users and developers. Exemplary solar cooling systems are described, and the potential of open and closed sorptive processes is assessed. Future central activities will be defined in an intensive discussion between planners, producers, users and developers. [German] Der Einsatz von Sorptionstechniken zur Kaelteerzeugung erlaubt es, als treibende Solarenergie Niedertemperatur-Solarwaerme einzusetzen, also eine regenerative Energie mit sehr geringen Kosten und weltweiter Verfuegbarkeit. Der Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie hat sich als Aufgabe gestellt, die Techniken der solaren Sorptionskuehlung bis zum Prototyp zu entwickeln und mit Industrie und Nutzern die praktische Anwendung voranzubringen. Die Anwendungsfelder sind die Klimatisierung von Gebaeuden und die Kaltlagerung von Lebensmitteln. Der Workshop gibt einen Ueberblick zum Entwicklungsstand der solaren Sorptionskuehlung aus der Sicht der Anwender und Entwickler. Bereits ausgefuehrte Beispiele zur solaren Kuehlung werden vorgestellt und das Potential geschlossener und offener Sorptionsverfahren angegeben. In intensiver Diskussion zwischen Planern, Herstellern, Nutzern und Entwicklern sollen kuenftige Arbeitsschwerpunkte herausgearbeitet werden. (orig.)

  17. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  18. Critical experiments at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, G.A.; Ford, J.T.; Barber, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    reactor physics data to support validation of the reactor physics codes used to design commercial reactor fuel elements in an enrichment range above the current 5% enrichment cap. A first set of critical experiments in the 7uPCX has been completed. More experiments are planned in the 7uPCX series. The critical experiments at Sandia National Laboratories are currently funded by the US Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). The NCSP has committed to maintain the critical experiment capability at Sandia and to support the development of a critical experiments training course at the facility. The training course is intended to provide hands-on experiment experience for the training of new and re-training of practicing Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineers. The current plans are for the development of the course to continue through the first part of fiscal year 2011 with the development culminating is the delivery of a prototype of the course in the latter part of the fiscal year. The course will be available in fiscal year 2012. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Critical experiments at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, G.A.; Ford, J.T.; Barber, A.D., E-mail: gaharms@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-07-01

    benchmark reactor physics data to support validation of the reactor physics codes used to design commercial reactor fuel elements in an enrichment range above the current 5% enrichment cap. A first set of critical experiments in the 7uPCX has been completed. More experiments are planned in the 7uPCX series. The critical experiments at Sandia National Laboratories are currently funded by the US Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). The NCSP has committed to maintain the critical experiment capability at Sandia and to support the development of a critical experiments training course at the facility. The training course is intended to provide hands-on experiment experience for the training of new and re-training of practicing Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineers. The current plans are for the development of the course to continue through the first part of fiscal year 2011 with the development culminating is the delivery of a prototype of the course in the latter part of the fiscal year. The course will be available in fiscal year 2012. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Critical experiments at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, Gary A.; Ford, John T.; Barber, Allison Delo

    2010-01-01

    reactor physics data to support validation of the reactor physics codes used to design commercial reactor fuel elements in an enrichment range above the current 5% enrichment cap. A first set of critical experiments in the 7uPCX has been completed. More experiments are planned in the 7uPCX series. The critical experiments at Sandia National Laboratories are currently funded by the US Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). The NCSP has committed to maintain the critical experiment capability at Sandia and to support the development of a critical experiments training course at the facility. The training course is intended to provide hands-on experiment experience for the training of new and re-training of practicing Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineers. The current plans are for the development of the course to continue through the first part of fiscal year 2011 with the development culminating is the delivery of a prototype of the course in the latter part of the fiscal year. The course will be available in fiscal year 2012.

  1. Requirements for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, F.

    2009-01-01

    The EUR (European Utilities Requirements) is an organization founded in 1991 whose aim was to write down the European specifications and requirements for the future reactors of third generation. EUR gathers most of the nuclear power producers of Europe. The EUR document has been built on the large and varied experience of EUR members and can be used to elaborate invitations to tender for nuclear projects. 4000 requirements only for the nuclear part of the plant are listed, among which we have: -) the probability of core meltdown for a reactor must be less than 10 -6 per year, -) the service life of every component that is not replaceable must be 60 years, -) the capacity of the spent fuel pool must be sufficient to store 10-15 years of production without clearing out. The EUR document is both open and complete: every topic has been considered, it does not favor any type of reactor but can ban any technology that is too risky or has an unfavourable feedback experience. The assessment of the conformity with the EUR document of 7 reactor projects (BWR 90/, EPR, EP1000, SWR1000, ABWR, AP1000 and VVER-AES-92) has already be made. (A.C.)

  2. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... for using LED lighting in lighting design practice. The speculative experiments that have been set-up have aimed to clarify the variables that can be used as parameters in the design of lighting applications; including, for example, the structuring and software control of light. The experiments also...... elucidate and exemplify already well-known problems in relation to the experience of vertical and horizontal lighting. Pixel Experiments exist as a synergy between speculative test setups and lighting design in practice. This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research...

  3. TRIO experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.

    1984-09-01

    The TRIO experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an anaytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the experiment the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the experiment was successfully recovered. The results of the experiment showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the experiment follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion

  4. Classic experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Franklin, M

    2001-01-01

    These will be a set of lectures on classic particle physics experiments, with emphasis on how the emasurements are made. I will discuss experiments made to measure the electric charge distribution of particles, to measure the symmetries of the weak decays, to measure the magnetic moment of the muon. As well as experiments performed which discovered new particles or resonances, like the tAU2and the J/Psi. The coverage will be general and should be understandable to someone knowing little particle physics.

  5. Simulated experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerknes, R.

    1977-01-01

    A cybernetic model has been developed to elucidate some of the main principles of the growth regulation system in the epidermis of the hairless mouse. A number of actual and theoretical biological experiments have been simulated on the model. These included simulating the cell kinetics as measured by pulse labelling with tritiated thymidine and by continuous labelling with tritiated thymidine. Other simulated experiments included steady state, wear and tear, painting with a carcinogen, heredity and heredity and tumour. Numerous diagrams illustrate the results of these simulated experiments. (JIW)

  6. Researching experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods......, dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas. Researching Experiences is relevant not only...

  7. Sexual Experience Enhances Drosophila melanogaster Male Mating Behavior and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Sehresh; Ruggles, Patrick H.; Abbott, Wiley K.; Carney, Ginger E.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments. PMID:24805129

  8. Sexual experience enhances Drosophila melanogaster male mating behavior and success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehresh Saleem

    Full Text Available Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments.

  9. Environmental Requirements Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  10. Muon ionization cooling experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    A neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring is the ultimate tool for studies of neutrino oscillations, including possibly leptonic CP violation. It is also the first step towards muon colliders. The performance of this new and promising line of accelerators relies heavily on the concept of ionisation cooling of minimum ionising muons, for which much R&D is required. The concept of a muon ionisation cooling experiment has been extensively studied and first steps are now being taken towards its realisation by a joint international team of accelerator and particle physicists. The aim of the workshop is to to explore at least two versions of an experiment based on existing cooling channel designs. If such an experiment is feasible, one shall then select, on the basis of effectiveness, simplicity, availability of components and overall cost, a design for the proposed experiment, and assemble the elements necessary to the presentation of a proposal. Please see workshop website.

  11. Utilizing inheritance in requirements engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindl, Hermann

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the utilization of inheritance for requirements specification, i.e., the tasks of analyzing and modeling the domain, as well as forming and defining requirements. Our approach and the tool supporting it are named RETH (Requirements Engineering Through Hypertext). Actually, RETH uses a combination of various technologies, including object-oriented approaches and artificial intelligence (in particular frames). We do not attempt to exclude or replace formal representations, but try to complement and provide means for gradually developing them. Among others, RETH has been applied in the CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Rechereche Nucleaire) Cortex project. While it would be impossible to explain this project in detail here, it should be sufficient to know that it deals with a generic distributed control system. Since this project is not finished yet, it is difficult to state its size precisely. In order to give an idea, its final goal is to substitute the many existing similar control systems at CERN by this generic approach. Currently, RETH is also tested using real-world requirements for the Pastel Mission Planning System at ESOC in Darmstadt. First, we outline how hypertext is integrated into a frame system in our approach. Moreover, the usefulness of inheritance is demonstrated as performed by the tool RETH. We then summarize our experiences of utilizing inheritance in the Cortex project. Lastly, RETH will be related to existing work.

  12. Antimatter Experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Antimatter should behave in identical fashion to matter if a form of spacetime symmetry called CPT invariance holds. Two experiments at CERN near Geneva are testing this hypothesis using antihydrogen atoms

  13. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... lighting design in practice, one quickly experiences and realises that there are untapped potentials in the attributes of LED technology. In this research, speculative studies have been made working with the attributes of LEDs in architectural contexts, with the ambition to ascertain new strategies...... for using LED lighting in lighting design practice. The speculative experiments that have been set-up have aimed to clarify the variables that can be used as parameters in the design of lighting applications; including, for example, the structuring and software control of light. The experiments also...

  14. Experiment Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik

    Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.

  15. REQUIREMENTS FOR DESIGN, EQUIPMENT AND OPERATION MODE OF TAXI VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norayr Oganesovich Bludyan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of international experience in application of requirements for the taxi vehicles design and equipment. The approaches to improvement of cabbing have been defined by determination of requirements for taxi vehicles.

  16. Entrepreneurial learning requires action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2014-01-01

    that is enhanced by essential large-scale industry players and other SME managers are required to create action and value in learning. An open-mindedness to new learning approaches by SME managers and an open-mindedness to multi- and cross-disciplinary collaboration with SME managers by facilitators is required....

  17. Writing testable software requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirk, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial identifies common problems in analyzing requirements in the problem and constructing a written specification of what the software is to do. It deals with two main problem areas: identifying and describing problem requirements, and analyzing and describing behavior specifications.

  18. Engineering Requirements for crowds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogeiro Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the software project the interested parts are highly distributed and form numerous and heterogeneous groups, online or face, constituting what could be called crowds. The development of social applications and cloud computing and mobile has generated a marked increase in environments based requirements in crowds. Technical Requirements Engineering (RE traditional face these scalability issues, and require the co-presence of interested and engineers in joint meetings that can not be made in common physical environments. While different approaches have been introduced to partially automate RE in these contexts, still is required a multi-method approach to semi-automate all activities related to work with crowds. In this paper is propose an approach that integrates existing elicitation techniques and requirements analysis and is complemented by introducing new concepts. The information is collected through direct interaction and social collaboration, and through data mining techniques.

  19. LDR structural experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard A.; Gates, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector that would utilize the Space Station. The objective of the study was to use the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration for focusing on experiment definition activity which would identify the Space Station accommodation requirements and interface constraints. Results of the study defined three Space Station based experiments to demonstrate the technologies needed for an LDR type structure. The basic experiment configurations are the same as the JPL baseline except that the primary mirror truss is 10 meters in diameter instead of 20. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of the optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments and alignment of the optical components occur on the second experiment. The structure will then be moved to the payload pointing system for pointing, optical control and scientific optical measurement for the third experiment.

  20. The Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana Nicoara, Floare

    2016-04-01

    My name is Nicoara Floarea and I am teacher at Secondary School Calatele and I teach students from preparatory class and the second grade . They are six-eight years old. In my activity, for introducing scientific concepts to my students, I use various and active methods or traditional methods including experiments. The experiment stimulates students' curiosity, their creativity, the understanding and knowledge taught accessibility. I propose you two such experiments: The life cycle of the plants (long-term experiment, with rigorous observation time):We use beans, wheat or other; They are grown in pots and on the cotton soaked with water,keeping under students' observation protecting them ( just soak them regularly) and we waiting the plants rise. For discussions and comments of plant embryo development we use the plants which rose on the cotton soaked with water plants at the end of the first week. Last school year we had in the pot climbing beans which in May made pods. They were not too great but our experiment was a success. The students could deduce that there will develop those big beans which after drying will be planted again. The influence of light on plants (average duration experiment with the necessary observation time): We use two pots in which plants are of the same type (two geraniums), one of them is situated so as to get direct sunlight and other plant we put in a closed box. Although we wet both plants after a week we see that the plant that benefited from sunlight has turned strain in direct sunlight, developing normally in return the plant out of the box I have yellowed leaves, photosynthesis does not She has occurred . Students will understand the vital role of the Sun in plants' life, both in the classroom and in nature. The experiment is a method of teaching students extremely pleasant, with a remarkable percentage of acquiring more knowledge.

  1. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  2. Requirements in engineering projects

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, João M

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on various topics related to engineering and management of requirements, in particular elicitation, negotiation, prioritisation, and documentation (whether with natural languages or with graphical models). The book provides methods and techniques that help to characterise, in a systematic manner, the requirements of the intended engineering system.  It was written with the goal of being adopted as the main text for courses on requirements engineering, or as a strong reference to the topics of requirements in courses with a broader scope. It can also be used in vocational courses, for professionals interested in the software and information systems domain.   Readers who have finished this book will be able to: - establish and plan a requirements engineering process within the development of complex engineering systems; - define and identify the types of relevant requirements in engineering projects; - choose and apply the most appropriate techniques to elicit the requirements of a giv...

  3. Iconic memory requires attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load). However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load), observers' performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.

  4. Iconic memory requires attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan ePersuh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change-detection paradigm (Experiment 1 or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2. In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load. However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load, observers’ performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.

  5. Creativity in Requirement Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Olesen, Henning

    Traditional requirements engineering focuses mainly on analysis and elicitation. However, current trends in new system, device and software are towards involving all stakeholders in the early stages of the engineering process to define the user requirements. Creativity is here seen as a major...... keystone in this process in order to open up stakeholder's mind to new technologies, which do not yet exist. This paper dis-cusses the application of creativity in the requirements process and illustrate through cases from the MAGNET and MAGNET Beyond projects....

  6. Collaborative experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker

    -Doerr, 1996) and has been shown to have a positive effect to the outcome of collaborative R&D (Sampson, 2005). Anand & Khanna (2000), furthermore, hypothesized that research joint ventures are more ambiguous than marketing joint ventures and even more the licensing and showed that the effect of collaborative......Literature review: Collaborative experience has been shown to have a positive effect on the collaborative outcome in general (Anand & Khanna, 2000; Kale, Dyer & Singh, 2002). Furthermore, it has been linked to the ability to exploit the network of the firm for learning (Powell, Koput and Smith...... experience was largest the higher the hypothesized ambiguity. Theoretically contribution: This research project aims at contributing to existing literature by arguing, that collaborative experience is a moderating variable which moderates the effects on collaborative outcome from the level of complexity...

  7. Channeling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, H.; Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1990-07-01

    Channeling of water flow and tracer transport in real fractures in a granite body at Stripa have been investigated experimentally. The experimental site was located 360 m below the ground level. Two kinds of experiments were performed. In the single hole experiments, 20 cm diameter holes were drilled about 2.5 m into the rock in the plane of the fracture. Specially designed packers were used to inject water into the fracture in 5 cm intervals all along the fracture trace in the hole. The variation of the injection flowrates along the fracture were used to determine the transmissivity variations in the fracture plane. Detailed photographs were taken from inside the hole and the visual fracture aperture was compared with the injection flowrates in the same locations. Geostatistical methods were used to evaluate the results. Five holes were measured in great detail. In addition 7 holes were drilled and scanned by simpler packer systems. A double hole experiment was performed where two parallel holes were drilled in the same fracture plane at nearly 2 m distance. Pressure pulse tests were made between the holes in both directions. Tracers were injected in 5 locations in one hole and monitored for in many locations in the other hole. The single hole experiment and the double hole experiment show that most of the fracture planes are tight but that there are open sections which form connected channels over distances of at least 2 meters. It was also found in the double hole experiment that the investigated fracture was intersected by at least one fracture between the two holes which diverted a large amount of the injected tracers to several distant locations at the tunnel wall. (authours)

  8. Poetic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Yar Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature of poetic experience is hereby redefined. The present article initially deals with the perennial nature of true poetic experience and its essential relevance to the world. It attempts to elaborate the process through which a poet is uplifted in a creative moment beyond terrestrial boundaries and is aligned with the ‘state of Perfection'. The role of successive generations of audiences in rediscovering the meaning of a poetic image is defined as life principle of all great poetry. Shakespeare is discussed as the ultimate example of this principle since his popularity remains an irreversible phenomenon

  9. 20 CFR 627.245 - Work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definition. Work experience means a short-term or part-time training assignment with a public or private... requirements. It is prohibited in the private for-profit sector. (b) Suitability. Work experience should be...

  10. To What Extent Were Logistics Shortages Responsible for Patton's Culmination on the Meuse in 1944?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dye, Peter

    1999-01-01

    ... halt for want of gasoline. In Patton's view, the failure to deliver the fuel needed by his divisions would ensure, hereafter many pages will be written on it--or rather, on the events that produced it.

  11. Seychelles alkaline suite records the culmination of Deccan Traps continental flood volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Smith, T. M.; Ashwal, L. D.; Torsvik, T. H.; Ganerød, M.; Nebel, O.; Webb, S. J.; Werner, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Silhouette and North Islands in the Seychelles represent an alkaline plutonic-volcanic complex, dated at 63 to 63.5 Ma by U-Pb zircon and 40Ar/39Ar methods. This magmatism coincides with the final stages of the cataclysmic Deccan Traps continental flood volcanism in India (67 to 63 Ma), and thus a causal link has been suggested. Recent reconstructions have placed the Seychelles islands adjacent to the Laxmi Ridge and at the western margin of the Réunion mantle plume at the time of formation of the complex. Here we present geochemical evidence in support of the notion that the Seychelles alkaline magmatism was initiated by the peripheral activity of the Réunion mantle plume and is thus part of the Deccan magmatic event. Positive εNd (0.59 to 3.76) and εHf (0.82 to 6.79) and initial Sr of 0.703507 to 0.705643 at 65 Ma indicate derivation of the Seychelles alkaline magmas from a Réunion-like mantle source with an additional minor enriched component, suggesting entrainment of sub-continental lithospheric mantle. The similarity in trace element composition between the Seychelles suite and Deccan alkaline felsic and mafic rocks provides additional evidence for a common mantle source for the Seychelles and Deccan magmatism. Furthermore, we demonstrate the role of fractional crystallisation in the evolution of the alkaline suite. Modelling using major elements suggests that fractional crystallisation and varying degrees of accumulation of olivine, plagioclase, ilmenite, clinopyroxene, alkali feldspar and apatite can describe the spectrum of rock types, from gabbro, through syenite, to granite.

  12. Long vigil in Athabasca oil sands culminates in rapid expansion plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-05-01

    Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd. needs to earn $40 million or more per year to get a reasonable return on the investment, vice president and general manager R.D. Humphreys told delegates at the Petroleum Accountants Society of W. Canada annual conference at Jasper Park Lodge. The conference then was ''the Alberta Oil Sands.'' Sun Oil Co. has taken no return yet, but has paid off the loans and taken shares in return so it owns nearly all the equity capital. The operation is not really breaking even at present, but should improve because GCOS is getting the full effect of the oil price increase under the original royalty agreement with the Alberta government. It is hoped that this will enable the company to recoup an accumulated deficit of more than $90 million. Money is the biggest problem for the current expansion designed to raise production to the authorized 65,000 bpd. Manpower is second and delivery of materials third. There is a lead time of 15 to 18 mo. on critical materials. Over the long term, tailings disposal is the greatest single problem facing all oil sands operators.

  13. An Observation of the Sluss-Tiller Civil Affairs Culmination Exercise at Freedom Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    of everyday life. Arab-style modern music filled the air as we walked to meet our “guides” for the day. In addition, smoke from a small fire...Adaptive Thinking and Leadership (ATL) coach, the Special Operations Cognitive Enhancement Program (SOCEP) coach, and a unit psychologist. These...think of your next question while staying engaged? • Self-awareness: Were you able you calm yourself and remain focused? • Brain power ( cognitive

  14. To What Extent Were Logistics Shortages Responsible for Patton's Culmination on the Meuse in 1944?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dye, Peter

    1999-01-01

    .... At this very moment, having hotly pursued the retreating German Army for more than 350 miles, Patton's mood changed from euphoria to frustration and then to despair as his armour ground to an abrupt...

  15. To What Extent Were Logistics Shortages Responsible for Patton's Culmination on the Meuse in 1944?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dye, Peter

    1999-01-01

    On 31 August 1944, the leading elements of General Patton's Third Army crossed the Meuse at Commercy and Pont-sur-Meuse while, 30 miles to the north, a task force entered Verdun some 200 days earlier...

  16. FAA Financial Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-04

    In June 1995, the FAA developed a "total requirements" estimate for the period : FY 97-FY 02 to help explain the difficulty of supporting a dynamic, growing : aviation industry under a federal budget picture which projected flat or reduced : funding ...

  17. TWRSview system requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  18. Estimating ISABELLE shielding requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.J.; Thorndike, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates were made of the shielding thicknesses required at various points around the ISABELLE ring. Both hadron and muon requirements are considered. Radiation levels at the outside of the shield and at the BNL site boundary are kept at or below 1000 mrem per year and 5 mrem/year respectively. Muon requirements are based on the Wang formula for pion spectra, and the hadron requirements on the hadron cascade program CYLKAZ of Ranft. A muon shield thickness of 77 meters of sand is indicated outside the ring in one area, and hadron shields equivalent to from 2.7 to 5.6 meters in thickness of sand above the ring. The suggested safety allowance would increase these values to 86 meters and 4.0 to 7.2 meters respectively. There are many uncertainties in such estimates, but these last figures are considered to be rather conservative

  19. An Undergraduate Research Experience that Integrates Traditional Field Mapping, LiDAR, and 3D Numerical Modeling: Applying Lessons from a Recent Report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in an Intermediate-Level Tectonic Landscapes Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinen, L. A.; Brenner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing efforts to improve undergraduate education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields focus on increasing active student participation and decreasing traditional lecture-based teaching. Undergraduate research experiences (UREs), which engage students in the work of STEM professionals, are an example of these efforts. A recent report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (Undergraduate Research Experiences for STEM Students: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities; 2017) provides characteristics of UREs, and indicates that participation in UREs increases student interest and persistence in STEM as well as provides opportunities to broaden student participation in these fields. UREs offer an excellent opportunity to engage students in research using the rapidly evolving technologies used by STEM professionals. In the fall of 2016, students in the Tectonic Landscapes class at Pomona College participated in a course-based URE that combined traditional field mapping methods with analysis of high-resolution topographic data (LiDAR) and 3D numerical modeling to investigate questions of active local faulting. During the first ten weeks students developed skills in: creation of fault maps from both field observations (GPS included) and high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), assessment of tectonic activity through analyses of DEMs of hill slope diffusion models and geomorphic indices, and evaluation of fault geometry hypotheses via 3D elastic modeling. Most of these assignments were focused on a single research site. While students primarily used Excel, ArcMap, and Poly3D, no previous knowledge of these was required or assumed. Through this iterative approach, students used increasingly more complex methods as well as gained greater ownership of the research process with time. The course culminated with a 4-week independent research project in which each student investigated a question of their own

  20. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  1. Research Experience for Undergraduates: Understanding the Arctic as a System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Walsh, J. E.; Arp, C. D.; Hock, R.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Kaden, U.; Polyakov, I.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Trainor, S.

    2017-12-01

    Today, more than ever, an integrated cross-disciplinary approach is necessary to understand and explain changes in the Arctic and the implications of those changes. Responding to needs in innovative research and education for understanding high-latitude rapid climate change, scientists at the International Arctic research Center of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) established a new REU (=Research Experience for Undergraduates) NSF-funded site, aiming to attract more undergraduates to arctic sciences. The science focus of this program, building upon the research strengths of UAF, is on understanding the Arctic as a system with emphasis on its physical component. The goals, which were to disseminate new knowledge at the frontiers of polar science and to ignite the enthusiasm of the undergraduates about the Arctic, are pursued by involving undergraduate students in research and educational projects with their mentors using the available diverse on-campus capabilities. IARC hosted the first group of eight students this past summer, focusing on a variety of different disciplines of the Arctic System Science. Students visited research sites around Fairbanks and in remote parts of Alaska (Toolik Lake Field Station, Gulkana glacier, Bonanza Creek, Poker Flats, the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel and others) to see and experience first-hand how the arctic science is done. Each student worked on a research project guided by an experienced instructor. The summer program culminated with a workshop that consisted of reports from the students about their experiences and the results of their projects.

  2. Smashing physics. Inside the world's biggest experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, Jon

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson made headlines around the world. Two scientists, Peter Higgs and Francois Englert, whose theories predicted its existence, shared a Nobel Prize. The discovery was the culmination of the largest experiment ever run, the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. But what really is a Higgs boson and what does it do? How was it found? And how has its discovery changed our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature? And what did it feel like to be part of it? Jon Butterworth is one of the leading physicists at CERN and this book is the first popular inside account of the hunt for the Higgs. It is a story of incredible scientific collaboration, inspiring technological innovation and ground-breaking science. It is also the story of what happens when the world's most expensive experiment blows up, of neutrinos that may or may not travel faster than light, and the reality of life in an underground bunker in Switzerland. This book will also leave you with a working knowledge of the new physics and what the discovery of the Higgs particle means for how we define the laws of nature. It will take you to the cutting edge of modern scientific thinking.

  3. Requirements Analysis in the Value Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, Alison Marie

    2001-05-01

    The Value Methodology (VM) study brings together a multidisciplinary team of people who own the problem and have the expertise to identify and solve it. With the varied backgrounds and experiences the team brings to the study, come different perspectives on the problem and the requirements of the project. A requirements analysis step can be added to the Information and Function Analysis Phases of a VM study to validate whether the functions being performed are required, either regulatory or customer prescribed. This paper will provide insight to the level of rigor applied to a requirements analysis step and give some examples of tools and techniques utilized to ease the management of the requirements and functions those requirements support for highly complex problems.

  4. Glovebox and Experiment Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Gerard

    2005-12-01

    Human spaceflight hardware and operations must comply with NSTS 1700.7. This paper discusses how a glovebox can help.A short layout is given on the process according NSTS/ISS 13830, explaining the responsibility of the payload organization, the approval authority of the PSRP and the defined review phases (0 till III).Amongst others, the following requirement has to be met:"200.1 Design to Tolerate Failures. Failure tolerance is the basic safety requirement that shall be used to control most payload hazards. The payload must tolerate a minimum number of credible failures and/or operator errors determined by the hazard level. This criterion applies when the loss of a function or the inadvertent occurrence of a function results in a hazardous event.200.1a Critical Hazards. Critical hazards shall be controlled such that no single failure or operator error can result in damage to STS/ISS equipment, a nondisabling personnel injury, or the use of unscheduled safing procedures that affect operations of the Orbiter/ISS or another payload.200.1b Catastrophic Hazards. Catastrophic hazards shall be controlled such that no combination of two failures or operator errors can result in the potential for a disabling or fatal personnel injury or loss of the Orbiter/ISS, ground facilities or STS/ISS equipment."For experiments in material science, biological science and life science that require real time operator manipulation, the above requirement may be hard or impossible to meet. Especially if the experiment contains substances that are considered hazardous when released into the habitable environment. In this case operation of the experiment in a glovebox can help to comply.A glovebox provides containment of the experiment and at the same time allows manipulation and visibility to the experiment.The containment inside the glovebox provides failure tolerance because the glovebox uses a negative pressure inside the working volume (WV). The level of failure tolerance is dependent of

  5. EXPERIENCE WITH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SURGERY DEPT

    Abstract. Background:Island flap techniques currently used in urethroplasty utilize the prepuce and the dorsal penile skin. Our experience with a one-stage island flap urethroplasty for urethral strictures utilizing the ventral penile skin is described. Patients and Method: This is a longitudinal study of seventy six consecutive ...

  6. The Monbusho/US shielded HFIR irradiation experiment: HFIR-MFE-RB-11J and 12J (P3-3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossbeck, M.L.; Lenox, K.E.; Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This experiment is a joint project between the Japanese Monbushu, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program. It is the first of a series of experiments using europium oxide as a thermal neutron shield to minimize transmutations in vanadium alloys and ferritic/martensitic steels. The europium oxide shields were developed using ceramic processing techniques culminating in cold pressing and sintering. This experiment, which is a prototype for future fast neutron experiments in the HFIR, contains approximately 3200 specimens of 18 different types. The experiment began operating at 300 and 500{degrees}C in February 1997 and is projected to attain its goal fluence of {approximately} 5 dpa in February 1998.

  7. The ACE experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) as shown by Michael Holzscheiter (spokesperson), Niels Bassler (co-spokesperson) and Helge Knudsen. ACE is located on the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN. An antiproton annihilates a proton in the nucleus of a cancer cell, producing a pair of gamma rays, destroying the entire cell and some surrounding cells. Many fewer antiprotons are required in this treatment than in the equivalent proton hadron therapy, so there is less risk of healthy tissue damage.

  8. Review of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.; Yodh, G.; Cutts, D.; Lanou, R.; Engels, E.; Kramer, M.; Danby, G.

    1977-01-01

    A study was made to examine the effects which raising the ISA from 200 x 200 GeV to 400 x 400 GeV would have on the ''canonical'' experiments. These were ''canonical'' in the sense that they span the full range of foreseeable physics and have served as topics in previous Summer Studies and Workshops which resulted in quite explicit hardware designs and experimental goals. The study results indicate that all of the ''canonical'' experiments survive. Some are actually improved, some are unaffected, and some require changes which are suggested. In general, the 90 0 experiments are relatively unaffected. The single arm small angle spectrometer, the wide aperture (FATS-WASP) spectrometer and the Coulomb interference experiment have the largest number of modifications suggested. No uniqueness to these solutions are claimed, and there may be more desirable radical approaches. It is, however, felt that the 400 x 400 GeV ISA not only permits the work on conceptual experiments from previous Summer Studies to be taken over entirely, but indicates areas of improvement in many of them. Specifics of the individual experiments are discussed

  9. Assessing Prior Experience in the Selection of Air Traffic Control Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) human resources personnel. In addition to general and specialized experience and education requirements , the ATC...experience. The alternate requirements also include the general experience requirement , accompanied by an additional written test requirement ...had attended the Academy and did not have IFR experience. Alternate Requirement 2. Hold or have held an FAA certificate as a dispatcher for an air

  10. Physics Requirements for the ALICE DAQ system

    CERN Document Server

    Vande Vyvre, P

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Abstract The goal of this note is to review the requirements for the DAQ system originated from the various physics topics that will be studied by the ALICE experiment. It summarises all the current requirements both for Pb-Pb and p-p interactions. The consequences in terms of throughput at different stages of the DAQ system are presented for different running scenarios.

  11. An MHD Dynamo Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, R.; Forest, C. B.; Plard, F.; Kendrick, R.; Lovell, T.; Thomas, M.; Bonazza, R.; Jensen, T.; Politzer, P.; Gerritsen, W.; McDowell, M.

    1997-11-01

    A MHD experiment is being constructed which will have the possibility of showing dynamo action: the self--generation of currents from fluid motion. The design allows sufficient experimental flexibility and diagnostic access to study a variety of issues central to dynamo theory, including mean--field electrodynamics and saturation (backreaction physics). Initially, helical flows required for dynamo action will be driven by propellers embedded in liquid sodium. The flow fields will first be measured using laser doppler velocimetry in a water experiment with an identical fluid Reynolds number. The magnetic field evolution will then be predicted using a MHD code, replacing the water with sodium; if growing magnetic fields are found, the experiment will be repeated with sodium.

  12. Thought experiment with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.F.; Everhart, J.L.; Hobrock, D.L.; Seabaugh, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment is proposed in which a minimum of thirty (30) grams of tritium is packaged as lithium tritide in a steel container weighing several kilograms. After decontamination of the outside surface, calorimetry measurements would be made, and the unit would be weighed very accurately. After several decades, the calorimeter and weight measurements would be repeated. If the weight measurements could be made with the required accuracy, it would be possible to correlate the observed change in mass with the total energy emitted (calculated from the mean energy measured by calorimetry) over the time interval. If successful, this experiment would, in the opinion of the authors, be the first laboratory experiment to directly verify the equivalency of mass and energy. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  14. Authoring experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knox, Jeanette Bresson Ladegaard; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the storytelling aspect inphilosophizing with rehabilitating cancer patients in small Socratic dialogue groups (SDG). Recounting an experienceto illustrate a philosophical question chosen by the participantsis the traditional point of departure for the dialogicalexchange....... However, narrating is much more than abeginning point or the skeletal framework of events and itdeserves more scholarly attention than hitherto given. Storytelling pervades the whole Socratic process and impactsthe conceptual analysis in a SDG. In this article weshow how the narrative aspect became a rich...... an experiencethrough a collaborative effort, most participants hadtheir initial experience existentially refined and the chosenconcept of which the experience served as an illustrationtransformed into a moral compass to be used in self-orientationpost cancer....

  15. Dirac experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Afanasev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Doudarev, A.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Goldin, D.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Hosek, R.; Iliescu, M.; Jabitski, M.; Kalinina, N.; Karpoukhine, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Koulikov, A.; Kouptsov, A.; Krouglov, V.; Krouglova, L.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshine, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Rykaline, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Trusov, S.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime τ of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of π + and π - mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode π + π - → π 0 π 0 due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference |a 0 - a 2 | for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of τ with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of |a 0 - a 2 | at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies

  16. Dirac experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Afanasev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Doudarev, A.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Goldin, D.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Hosek, R.; Iliescu, M.; Jabitski, M.; Kalinina, N.; Karpoukhine, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Koulikov, A.; Kouptsov, A.; Krouglov, V.; Krouglova, L.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshine, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Rykaline, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Trusov, S.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P

    2001-04-01

    The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime {tau} of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup -} mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference |a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}| for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of {tau} with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of |a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}| at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies.

  17. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  18. Russian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabalka, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Soviet research in terrestrial decontamination appears to have paralleled that of the US in many respects. However, the probability exists that long-term evaluations of decontamination techniques (over 10 to 20 years) have been carried out at one nuclear accident site (a marked divergence from US experience). The area of aquatic decontamination seems to offer the most intriguing possibilities for new information acquisition from the USSR; at this point only its potential importance can be speculated upon

  19. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  20. Experiments expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Gorini, B; Meschi, E

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the expectations and the constraints of the experiments relatively to the commissioning procedure and the running conditions for the 2015 data taking period. The views about the various beam parameters for the p-p period, like beam energy, maximum pileup, bunch spacing and luminosity limitation in IP2 and IP8, are discussed. The goals and the constraints of the 2015 physics program are also presented, including the heavy ions period as well as the special...

  1. Media experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses mediated experiences from the perspective of the visual modality in combination with the multimodal interaction. ICT-studies has a rapid influx of new words and concepts. Digital technology led to a need to describe the convergence of images, text and sound has taken various w...... to educational practices as still more advanced technology emerge and intertwine the scientific areas in new and cross-disciplinary frameworks....

  2. Materials science experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, S. H.; Giessen, B. C.; Glicksman, M. E.; Margrave, J. L.; Markovitz, H.; Nowick, A. S.; Verhoeven, J. D.; Witt, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    The criteria for the selection of the experimental areas and individual experiments were that the experiment or area must make a meaningful contribution to the field of material science and that the space environment was either an absolute requirement for the successful execution of the experiment or that the experiment can be more economically or more conveniently performed in space. A number of experimental areas and individual experiments were recommended for further consideration as space experiments. Areas not considered to be fruitful and others needing additional analysis in order to determine their suitability for conduct in space are also listed. Recommendations were made concerning the manner in which these materials science experiments are carried out and the related studies that should be pursued.

  3. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  4. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  5. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ely, James H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haas, Derek A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harper, Warren W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heimbigner, Tom R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hubbard, Charles W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Humble, Paul H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Madison, Jill C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Panisko, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ripplinger, Mike D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stewart, Timothy L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  6. Requirements for enrichment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; Winkels, R.; Trompper, M.

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a high level overview of requirements for Enrichment tools in the Openlaws.eu project. Openlaws.eu aims to initiate a platform and develop a vision for Big Open Legal Data (BOLD): an open framework for legislation, case law, and legal literature from across Europe.

  7. Human Systems Integration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    52 Stratofortress, C/ KC -135 Stratotanker, E-3 Sentry and contractor logistics support aircraft; as well as a substantial jet engine inventory...www.hqda.army.mil/ teo /Sutability%20Terms%20MOA%20Oct%2005.pdf q. ISO 9241-11, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs

  8. Spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.

    1982-06-01

    Spent fuel storage requirements, as projected through the year 2000 for U.S. LWRs, were calculated using information supplied by the utilities reflecting plant status as of December 31, 1981. Projections through the year 2000 combined fuel discharge projections of the utilities with the assumed discharges of typical reactors required to meet the nuclear capacity of 165 GWe projected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the year 2000. Three cases were developed and are summarized. A reference case, or maximum at-reactor (AR) capacity case, assumes that all reactor storage pools are increased to their maximum capacities as estimated by the utilities for spent fuel storage utilizing currently licensed technologies. The reference case assumes no transshipments between pools except as currently licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This case identifies an initial requirement for 13 MTU of additional storage in 1984, and a cumulative requirement for 14,490 MTU additional storage in the year 2000. The reference case is bounded by two alternative cases. One, a current capacity case, assumes that only those pool storage capacity increases currently planned by the operating utilities will occur. The second, or maximum capacity with transshipment case, assumes maximum development of pool storage capacity as described above and also assumes no constraints on transshipment of spent fuel among pools of reactors of like type (BWR, PWR) within a given utility. In all cases, a full core discharge capability (full core reserve or FCR) is assumed to be maintained for each reactor, except that only one FCR is maintained when two reactors share a common pool. For the current AR capacity case the indicated storage requirements in the year 2000 are indicated to be 18,190 MTU; for the maximum capacity with transshipment case they are 11,320 MTU

  9. ATLAS Future Framework Requirements Group Report

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Future Frameworks Requirements Group was constituted in Summer 2013 to consider and summarise the framework requirements from trigger and offline for configuring, scheduling and monitoring the data processing software needed by the ATLAS experiment. The principal motivation for such a re-examination arises from the current and anticipated evolution of CPUs, where multiple cores, hyper-threading and wide vector registers require a shift to a concurrent programming model. Such a model requires extensive changes in the current Gaudi/Athena frameworks and offers the opportunity to consider how HLT and offline processing can be better accommodated within the ATLAS framework. This note contains the report of the Future Frameworks Requirements Group.

  10. A fuzzy model for exploiting customer requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Javadirad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Quality function deployment (QFD is one of the total quality management tools, where customers’ views and requirements are perceived and using various techniques improves the production requirements and operations. The QFD department, after identification and analysis of the competitors, takes customers’ feedbacks to meet the customers’ demands for the products compared with the competitors. In this study, a comprehensive model for assessing the importance of the customer requirements in the products or services for an organization is proposed. The proposed study uses linguistic variables, as a more comprehensive approach, to increase the precision of the expression evaluations. The importance of these requirements specifies the strengths and weaknesses of the organization in meeting the requirements relative to competitors. The results of these experiments show that the proposed method performs better than the other methods.

  11. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  12. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  13. Standard reporting requirements for biological samples in metabolomics experiments: Microbial and in vitro biology experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M.J. van der; Takors, R.; Smedsgaard, J.; Nielsen, J.; Ferenci, T.; Portais, J.C.; Wittmann, C.; Hooks, M.; Tomassini, A.; Oldiges, M.; Fostel, J.; Sauer, U.

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing use of metabolomics as a means to study a large number of different biological research questions, there is a need for a minimal set of reporting standards that allow the scientific community to evaluate, understand, repeat, compare and re-investigate metabolomics studies. Here

  14. TRISTAN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Seigi

    1994-01-01

    Any successor to PETRA and PEP colliders was expected to extend the energy range to the region where the weak interaction effect becomes sizable in annihilation process. The aim was to reach the level, at which the all round study of the standard model can be performed in a clean system of e + e - collision. Also it was aimed to explore the energy region where top quark pair production is likely. Considering the available site for accelerator construction and the expected size of the electroweak interference effect, the target energy was set at 60 GeV at the lowest. TRISTAN-1 experiment is a big initial step in the long range physics program. The laboratory established the plan to move on to TRISTAN-2 (B Factory) project. The TRISTAN accelerator including the main storage ring, the time sequence of storage ring operation, three experimental groups of AMY, TOPAZ and VENUS, and so on are explained. The experiments on basic annihilation process, the search for new particles, the electroweak interaction, QCD studies and so on are reported. The optimum TRISTAN ring was estimated as 3 km in diameter, but the largest possible size in the site was 1/3 of that. Hard decision was made to equip the ring with unusually many accelerating RF cavities and to apply superconducting technology. (K.I.)

  15. Optical CDMA components requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, James K.

    1998-08-01

    Optical CDMA is a complementary multiple access technology to WDMA. Optical CDMA potentially provides a large number of virtual optical channels for IXC, LEC and CLEC or supports a large number of high-speed users in LAN. In a network, it provides asynchronous, multi-rate, multi-user communication with network scalability, re-configurability (bandwidth on demand), and network security (provided by inherent CDMA coding). However, optical CDMA technology is less mature in comparison to WDMA. The components requirements are also different from WDMA. We have demonstrated a video transport/switching system over a distance of 40 Km using discrete optical components in our laboratory. We are currently pursuing PIC implementation. In this paper, we will describe the optical CDMA concept/features, the demonstration system, and the requirements of some critical optical components such as broadband optical source, broadband optical amplifier, spectral spreading/de- spreading, and fixed/programmable mask.

  16. Preanalytical requirements of urinalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanghe, Joris; Speeckaert, Marijn

    2014-01-01

    Urine may be a waste product, but it contains an enormous amount of information. Well-standardized procedures for collection, transport, sample preparation and analysis should become the basis of an effective diagnostic strategy for urinalysis. As reproducibility of urinalysis has been greatly improved due to recent technological progress, preanalytical requirements of urinalysis have gained importance and have become stricter. Since the patients themselves often sample urine specimens, urinalysis is very susceptible to preanalytical issues. Various sampling methods and inappropriate specimen transport can cause important preanalytical errors. The use of preservatives may be helpful for particular analytes. Unfortunately, a universal preservative that allows a complete urinalysis does not (yet) exist. The preanalytical aspects are also of major importance for newer applications (e.g. metabolomics). The present review deals with the current preanalytical problems and requirements for the most common urinary analytes. PMID:24627718

  17. LHCb Online Networking Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, B

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the networking requirements of the LHCb online installation. It lists both quantitative aspects such as the number of required switch ports, as well as some qualitative features of the equipment, such as minimum buffer sizes in switches. The document comprises both the data acquisition network and the controls/general-purpose network. While the numbers represent our best current knowledge and are intended to give (in particular) network equipment manufacturers an overview of our needs, this document should not be confused with a market survey questionnaire or a formal tendering document. However the information contained in this document will be the input of any such document. A preliminary schedule for procurement and installation is also given.

  18. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  19. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment. The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations Projects or that Operations/Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any DOE Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or NOC for an inclusive listing of requirements

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment. The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all SST and DST waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm ESD implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations/Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any DOE Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or NOC for an inclusive listing of requirements

  2. BER Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  3. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM

  4. Misplaced Cervical Screws Requiring Reoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jeremy C; Arnold, Paul M; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Fehlings, Michael G; Hart, Robert A; Hilibrand, Alan S; Nassr, Ahmad; Rahman, Ra'Kerry K; Tannoury, Chadi A; Tannoury, Tony; Mroz, Thomas E; Currier, Bradford L; De Giacomo, Anthony F; Fogelson, Jeremy L; Jobse, Bruce C; Massicotte, Eric M; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A multicenter, retrospective case series. In the past several years, screw fixation of the cervical spine has become commonplace. For the most part, this is a safe, low-risk procedure. While rare, screw backout or misplaced screws can lead to morbidity and increased costs. We report our experiences with this uncommon complication. A multicenter, retrospective case series was undertaken at 23 institutions in the United States. Patients were included who underwent cervical spine surgery from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011, and had misplacement of screws requiring reoperation. Institutional review board approval was obtained at all participating institutions, and detailed records were sent to a central data center. A total of 12 903 patients met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 11 instances of screw backout requiring reoperation, for an incidence of 0.085%. There were 7 posterior procedures. Importantly, there were no changes in the health-related quality-of-life metrics due to this complication. There were no new neurologic deficits; a patient most often presented with pain, and misplacement was diagnosed on plain X-ray or computed tomography scan. The most common location for screw backout was C6 (36%). This study represents the largest series to tabulate the incidence of misplacement of screws following cervical spine surgery, which led to revision procedures. The data suggest this is a rare event, despite the widespread use of cervical fixation. Patients suffering this complication can require revision, but do not usually suffer neurologic sequelae. These patients have increased cost of care. Meticulous technique and thorough knowledge of the relevant anatomy are the best means of preventing this complication.

  5. CSI: Dognapping workshop : an outreach experiment designed to produce students that are hooked on science.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Gorman, Anna K.; Pratt, Harry D., III; Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ottley, Leigh Anna M.; Baros, Christina Marie

    2008-04-01

    The CSI: Dognapping Workshop is a culmination of the more than 65 Sandian staff and intern volunteers dedication to exciting and encouraging the next generation of scientific leaders. This 2 hour workshop used a 'theatrical play' and 'hands on' activities that was fun, exciting and challenging for 3rd-5th graders while meeting science curriculum standards. In addition, new pedagogical methods were developed in order to introduce nanotechnology to the public. Survey analysis indicated that the workshop had an overall improvement and positive impact on helping the students to understand concepts from materials science and chemistry as well as increased our interaction with the K-5 community. Anecdotal analyses showed that this simple exercise will have far reaching impact with the results necessary to maintain the United States as the scientific leader in the world. This experience led to the initiation of over 100 Official Junior Scientists.

  6. Experimenting with a design experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The design experiment is an experimental research method that aims to help design and further develop new (policy instruments. For the development of a set of guidelines for the facilitation of citizens’ initiatives by local governments, we are experimenting with this method. It offers good opportunities for modeling interventions by testing their instrumental validity –the usefulness for the intended practical purposes. At the same time design experiments are also useful for evaluating the empirical validity of theoretical arguments and the further development of these arguments in the light of empirical evidence (by using e.g. the technique of pattern matching. We describe how we have applied this methodology in two cases and discuss our research approach. We encountered some unexpected difficulties, especially in the cooperation with professionals and citizens. These difficulties complicate the valid attribution of causal effects to the use of the new instrument. However, our preliminary conclusion is that design experiments are useful in our field of study

    El experimento de diseño es un método de investigación experimental que tiene como objetivo diseñar y desarrollar posteriormente nuevas herramientas (políticas. En este artículo experimentamos con este método para desarrollar un conjunto de directrices que permitan a los gobiernos locales facilitar las iniciativas ciudadanas. El método ofrece la oportunidad de modelar las intervenciones poniendo a prueba su validez instrumental (su utilidad para el fin práctico que se proponen. Al mismo tiempo, los experimentos de diseño son útiles también para evaluar la validez empírica de las discusiones teóricas y el posterior desarrollo de esas discusiones a la luz de la evidencia empírica (usando, por ejemplo, técnicas de concordancia de patrones. En este trabajo describimos cómo hemos aplicado este método a dos casos y discutimos nuestro enfoque de

  7. Operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRae, L.P.; Six, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company began operating a first-generation integrated safeguards system in the Plutonium Finishing Plant storage vaults. This Vault Safety and Inventory System is designed to integrate data into a computer-based nuclear material inventory monitoring system. The system gathers, in real time, measured physical parameters that generate nuclear material inventory status data for thousands of stored items and sends tailored report to the appropriate users. These data include canister temperature an bulge data reported to Plant Operations and Material Control and Accountability personnel, item presence and identification data reported to Material Control and Accountability personnel, and unauthorized item movement data reported to Security response forces and Material Control and Accountability personnel. The Westinghouse Hanford Company's experience and operational benefits in using this system for reduce radiation exposure, increase protection against insider threat, and real-time inventory control are discussed in this paper

  8. Management Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popovici

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the survey about the changes in modern management, identified from the experience of Romanian managers. By this online study one presents both the obstacles encountered and the recommendations for such a type of management that the present and future mangers must take into account. What motivated the respondent Romanian managers most to open their own business is the independence it offered them. They work in the field they have liked since they were young. The second reason was the perspective to have an additional income from the business development. The third argument in favour of opening a business is the possibility to assure the balance between personal life and career.

  9. Authoring Immersive Mixed Reality Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misker, Jan M. V.; van der Ster, Jelle

    Creating a mixed reality experience is a complicated endeavour. From our practice as a media lab in the artistic domain we found that engineering is “only” a first step in creating a mixed reality experience. Designing the appearance and directing the user experience are equally important for creating an engaging, immersive experience. We found that mixed reality artworks provide a very good test bed for studying these topics. This chapter details three steps required for authoring mixed reality experiences: engineering, designing and directing. We will describe a platform (VGE) for creating mixed reality environments that incorporates these steps. A case study (EI4) is presented in which this platform was used to not only engineer the system, but in which an artist was given the freedom to explore the artistic merits of mixed reality as an artistic medium, which involved areas such as the look and feel, multimodal experience and interaction, immersion as a subjective emotion and game play scenarios.

  10. Safety Research Experiment Facility project. Conceptual design report. Volume IX. Experiment handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Information on the SAREF Reactor experiment handling system is presented concerning functions and design requirements, design description, operation, casualty events and recovery procedures, and maintenance

  11. The genetic interaction network of CCW12, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene required for cell wall integrity during budding and formation of mating projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    12p. A compensatory response, culminating in cell wall remodelling and transport/recycling pathways is required to buffer the loss of CCW12. Moreover, the enrichment of Ccw12p in bud, septum and mating projection is consistent with a role of Ccw12p in preserving cell wall integrity at sites of active growth. The microarray data produced in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database and GSE22649 record was assigned. PMID:21320323

  12. A national comparison of biochemistry and molecular biology capstone experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguanno, Ann; Mertz, Pamela; Martin, Debra; Bell, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the increasingly integrative nature of the molecular life sciences, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) recommends that Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) programs develop curricula based on concepts, content, topics, and expected student outcomes, rather than courses. To that end, ASBMB conducted a series of regional workshops to build a BMB Concept Inventory containing validated assessment tools, based on foundational and discipline-specific knowledge and essential skills, for the community to use. A culminating activity, which integrates the educational experience, is often part of undergraduate molecular life science programs. These "capstone" experiences are commonly defined as an attempt to measure student ability to synthesize and integrate acquired knowledge. However, the format, implementation, and approach to outcome assessment of these experiences are quite varied across the nation. Here we report the results of a nation-wide survey on BMB capstone experiences and discuss this in the context of published reports about capstones and the findings of the workshops driving the development of the BMB Concept Inventory. Both the survey results and the published reports reveal that, although capstone practices do vary, certain formats for the experience are used more frequently and similarities in learning objectives were identified. The use of rubrics to measure student learning is also regularly reported, but details about these assessment instruments are sparse in the literature and were not a focus of our survey. Finally, we outline commonalities in the current practice of capstones and suggest the next steps needed to elucidate best practices. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  14. BES Science Network Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian; Biocca, A.; Carlson, R.; Chen, J.; Cotter, S.; Dattoria, V.; Davenport, J.; Gaenko, A.; Kent, P.; Lamm, M.; Miller, S.; Mundy, C.; Ndousse, T.; Pederson, M.; Perazzo, A.; Popescu, R.; Rouson, D.; Sekine, Y.; Sumpter, B.; Wang, C.-Z.; Whitelam, S.; Zurawski, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  15. Notch2 is required for inflammatory cytokine-driven goblet cell metaplasia in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danahay, Henry; Pessotti, Angelica D; Coote, Julie; Montgomery, Brooke E; Xia, Donghui; Wilson, Aaron; Yang, Haidi; Wang, Zhao; Bevan, Luke; Thomas, Chris; Petit, Stephanie; London, Anne; LeMotte, Peter; Doelemeyer, Arno; Vélez-Reyes, Germán L; Bernasconi, Paula; Fryer, Christy J; Edwards, Matt; Capodieci, Paola; Chen, Amy; Hild, Marc; Jaffe, Aron B

    2015-01-13

    The balance and distribution of epithelial cell types is required to maintain tissue homeostasis. A hallmark of airway diseases is epithelial remodeling, leading to increased goblet cell numbers and an overproduction of mucus. In the conducting airway, basal cells act as progenitors for both secretory and ciliated cells. To identify mechanisms regulating basal cell fate, we developed a screenable 3D culture system of airway epithelial morphogenesis. We performed a high-throughput screen using a collection of secreted proteins and identified inflammatory cytokines that specifically biased basal cell differentiation toward a goblet cell fate, culminating in enhanced mucus production. We also demonstrate a specific requirement for Notch2 in cytokine-induced goblet cell metaplasia in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that inhibition of Notch2 prevents goblet cell metaplasia induced by a broad range of stimuli and propose Notch2 neutralization as a therapeutic strategy for preventing goblet cell metaplasia in airway diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Top-tier requirements for KNGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung-Jae, Ch.; Kwangho, L.; Dong Wook, J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1992, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) has launched the next generation reactor project to develop the standard design of an advanced pressurized water reactor by 2000. This advanced reactor aims to have the sufficient capability to be a safe, environmentally sound and economical energy source for 2000's in Korea. In conjunction with the project development, the program phase I is studied and it is in the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) first phase project that the requirements of this specification called ''Top-tier'' have been established. These functional requirements are of the first importance for the design, construction and operation of a nuclear power plant. These requirements are divided into safety requirements, serious accidents control, design base requirements, definition of the system characteristics, performance, construction feasibility, economical objectives, site parameters and design processes. The ''Top-tier'' requirements are concentrated on the improvement of the safety and reliability. Safety is one of the first priorities. In particular, the requirements for the design of the next reactors generation must include the capacity to control serious accidents because when an accident occurs, the protection degree is crucial. The KNGR requirements include the existing nuclear power plants competitiveness as well as those of the coal thermal plants. Moreover, when safety is reinforced, the economic competitiveness can be assured. At the present time, a subsequent specification for the KNGR considering the bases of the domestic technology and experimenting the running. (O.M.)

  17. Microwave Tokamak Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The Microwave Tokamak Experiment, now under construction at the Laboratory, will use microwave heating from a free-electron laser. The intense microwave pulses will be injected into the tokamak to realize several goals, including a demonstration of the effects of localized heat deposition within magnetically confined plasma, a better understanding of energy confinement in tokamaks, and use of the new free-electron laser technology for plasma heating. The experiment, soon to be operational, provides an opportunity to study dense plasmas heated by powers unprecedented in the electron-cyclotron frequency range required by the especially high magnetic fields used with the MTX and needed for reactors. 1 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  18. Section 4: Requirements Intertwining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucopoulos, Pericles

    Business analysts are being asked to develop increasingly complex and varied business systems that need to cater to the changing and dynamic market conditions of the new economy. This is particularly acute in today’s turbulent business environment where powerful forces such as deregulation, globalisation, mergers, advances in information and telecommunications technologies, and increasing education of people provide opportunities for organising work in ways that have never before been possible. Enterprises attempt to create wealth either by getting better at improving their products and services or by harnessing creativity and human-centred management to create innovative solutions. In these business settings, requirements become critical in bridging system solutions to organisational and societal problems. They intertwine organisational, social, cognitive, and implementation considerations and they can provide unique insights to change in systems and their business context. Such design situations often involve multiple stakeholders from different participating organisations, subcontractors, divisions, etc., who may have a diversity of expertise, come from different organisational cultures and often have competing goals. The success or failure of many projects depends, to a large extent, on understanding the contextual setting of requirements and their interaction amongst a diverse population of stakeholders.

  19. Ignition experiment - alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch, A.F.

    1979-10-01

    This report comprises three short papers on cost estimates, integral burn time and alternative versions of Tokamak ignition experiments. These papers were discussed at the ZEPHYR workshop with participants from IPP Garching, MIT Cambridge and PPPL Princeton (Garching July 30 - August 2 1979) (Chapters A, B, C). It is shown, that starting from a practical parameter independent minimum integral burn time of Tokamak ignition experiments (some 10 3 s) by adding a shield for protection of the magnet insulation (permitted neutron dose 10 9 rad) an integral burn time of some 10 4 s can be achieved for only about 30% more outlay. For a substantially longer integral burn time the outlay approaches rather quickly that for a Tokamak reactor. Some examples for alternatives to ZEPHYR are being given, including some with low or no compression. In a further chapter D some early results of evaluating an ignition experiment on the basis of the energy confinement scaling put forward by Coppi and Mazzucato are presented. As opposed to the case of the Alcator scaling used in chapters A through C the minimum integral burn time of Tokamak ignition experiments here depends on the plasma current. Provided neutral injectors up to about 160 keV are available compression boosting is not required with this scaling. The results presented have been obtained neglecting the effects of the toroidal field ripple. (orig.) 891 HT/orig. 892 RKD [de

  20. An Engineering Method of Civil Jet Requirements Validation Based on Requirements Project Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Gao, Dan; Mao, Xuming

    2018-03-01

    A method of requirements validation is developed and defined to meet the needs of civil jet requirements validation in product development. Based on requirements project principle, this method will not affect the conventional design elements, and can effectively connect the requirements with design. It realizes the modern civil jet development concept, which is “requirement is the origin, design is the basis”. So far, the method has been successfully applied in civil jet aircraft development in China. Taking takeoff field length as an example, the validation process and the validation method of the requirements are detailed introduced in the study, with the hope of providing the experiences to other civil jet product design.

  1. Aerospace engineering training: universities experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mertins Kseniya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary professional working in aerospace engineering must have a set of soft and hard skills. The experience gained in universities shows that training of a competent professional is impossible without an employer involved in this process. The paper provides an analysis of missions, tasks and experience of aerospace professionals and identifies the present and future roles, missions and required skills of a highly qualified specialist in aerospace engineering. This analysis can be used to design a master’s program aiming at providing students with the required knowledge, know-how and attitudes needed to succeed as professionals in industrial companies.

  2. Display Parameters and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC

  3. Knowing requires data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Ramon C.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater-flow models are often calibrated using a limited number of observations relative to the unknown inputs required for the model. This is especially true for models that simulate groundwater surface-water interactions. In this case, subsurface temperature sensors can be an efficient means for collecting long-term data that capture the transient nature of physical processes such as seepage losses. Continuous and spatially dense network of diverse observation data can be used to improve knowledge of important physical drivers, conceptualize and calibrate variably saturated groundwater flow models. An example is presented for which the results of such analysis were used to help guide irrigation districts and water management decisions on costly upgrades to conveyance systems to improve water usage, farm productivity and restoration efforts to improve downstream water quality and ecosystems.

  4. SOFG: Standards requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerganov, T.; Grigorov, S.; Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.

    2005-01-01

    It is well-known that Solid Oxide Fuel Cells will have industrial application in the nearest future. In this context, the problem of SOFC materials and SOFC systems standardization is of high level of priority. In the present study the attention is focused on the methods for physical and chemical characterization of the materials for SOFC components fabrication and about requirements on single SOFC cells tests. The status of the CEN, ISO, ASTM (ANSI, ASSN) and JIS class of standards has been verified. Standards regarding the test methods for physical-chemical characterization of vitreous materials (as sealing SOFC component), ceramic materials (as electrodes and electrolyte components, including alternative materials used) and metallic materials (interconnect components) are subject of overview. It is established that electrical, mechanical, surface and interfacial phenomena, chemical durability and thermal corrosion behaviour are the key areas for standardization of the materials for SOFC components

  5. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2009 ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by ASCR. The ASCR facilities anticipate significant increases in wide area bandwidth utilization, driven largely by the increased capabilities of computational resources and the wide scope of collaboration that is a hallmark of modern science. Many scientists move data sets between facilities for analysis, and in some cases (for example the Earth System Grid and the Open Science Grid), data distribution is an essential component of the use of ASCR facilities by scientists. Due to the projected growth in wide area data transfer needs, the ASCR supercomputer centers all expect to deploy and use 100 Gigabit per second networking technology for wide area connectivity as soon as that deployment is financially feasible. In addition to the network connectivity that ESnet provides, the ESnet Collaboration Services (ECS) are critical to several science communities. ESnet identity and trust services, such as the DOEGrids certificate authority, are widely used both by the supercomputer centers and by collaborations such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Earth System Grid (ESG). Ease of use is a key determinant of the scientific utility of network-based services. Therefore, a key enabling aspect for scientists beneficial use of high

  6. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  7. More about software requirements thorny issues and practical advice

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2006-01-01

    No matter how much instruction you've had on managing software requirements, there's no substitute for experience. Too often, lessons about requirements engineering processes lack the no-nonsense guidance that supports real-world solutions. Complementing the best practices presented in his book, Software Requirements, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers tackles even more of the real issues head-on in this book. With straightforward, professional advice and practical solutions based on actual project experiences, this book answers many of the tough questions rais

  8. Requirements of quality standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture traces the development of nuclear standards, codes, and Federal regulations on quality assurance (QA) for nuclear power plants and associated facilities. The technical evolution of the last twelve years, especially in the area of nuclear technology, led to different activities and regulatory initiatives, and the present result is: several nations have their own homemade standards. The lecture discusses the former and especially current activities in standard development, and gives a description of the requirements of QA-standards used in USA and Europe, especially Western Germany. Furthermore the lecture attempts to give a comparison and an evaluation of the international quality standards from the author's viewpoint. Finally the lecture presents an outlook for the future international implications of QA-standards. There is an urgent need within the nuclear industry for simplification and standardization of QA-standards. The relationship between the various standards, and the applicability of the standards need clarification and a better transparancy. To point out these problems is the purpose of the lecture. (orig.) [de

  9. Multiphase Transport in Porous Media: Gas-Liquid Separation Using Capillary Pressure Gradients International Space Station (ISS) Flight Experiment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Holtsnider, John T.; Dahl, Roger W.; Deeks, Dalton; Javanovic, Goran N.; Parker, James M.; Ehlert, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of multiphase flow characteristics under variable gravity conditions will ultimately lead to improved and as of yet unknown process designs for advanced space missions. Such novel processes will be of paramount importance to the success of future manned space exploration as we venture into our solar system and beyond. In addition, because of the ubiquitous nature and vital importance of biological and environmental processes involving airwater mixtures, knowledge gained about fundamental interactions and the governing properties of these mixtures will clearly benefit the quality of life here on our home planet. The techniques addressed in the current research involving multiphase transport in porous media and gas-liquid phase separation using capillary pressure gradients are also a logical candidate for a future International Space Station (ISS) flight experiment. Importantly, the novel and potentially very accurate Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) modeling of multiphase transport in porous media developed in this work offers significantly improved predictions of real world fluid physics phenomena, thereby promoting advanced process designs for both space and terrestrial applications.This 3-year research effort has culminated in the design and testing of a zero-g demonstration prototype. Both the hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (Teflon) media Capillary Pressure Gradient (CPG) cartridges prepared during the second years work were evaluated. Results obtained from ground testing at 1-g were compared to those obtained at reduced gravities spanning Martian (13-g), Lunar (16-g) and zero-g. These comparisons clearly demonstrate the relative strength of the CPG phenomena and the efficacy of its application to meet NASAs unique gas-liquid separation (GLS) requirements in non-terrestrial environments.LB modeling software, developed concurrently with the zero-g test effort, was shown to accurately reproduce observed CPG driven gas-liquid separation

  10. Regulations for training and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The requirements to become a Corporate Member of the UK Institution of Nuclear Engineers are stated. These include a formal education at degree level, training in the practice of nuclear engineering, and a period of responsible experience in nuclear engineering at professional level. Similar conditions at the appropriate level apply to Associate Membership. (U.K.)

  11. Functional requirements of road lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The functional, technical and visual requirements for public lighting are discussed. The improvement of the presentation of information to the road user is the main functional requirement. The visual requirements can be deduced from the functional requirement of enabling drivers to follow the

  12. 76 FR 20298 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers; Required To File Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss experiences. An... the agency. Each insurer's report includes information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles... more vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of motor vehicles, other than...

  13. 75 FR 1548 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers Required To File Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss experiences. An.... Each insurer's report includes information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles, the rating... state and; (3) rental and leasing companies with a fleet of 20 or more vehicles not covered by theft...

  14. 77 FR 28343 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers Required To File Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss experiences. An... vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of motor vehicles, other than any... than any governmental entity) used for rental or lease whose vehicles are not covered by theft...

  15. 75 FR 34966 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers Required To File Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss experiences. An... the agency. Each insurer's report includes information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles... vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of motor vehicles, other than any...

  16. Operating and test experience of EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    EBR-II has operated for 27 years, the longest for any Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) power plant. During that time, much has been learned about successful LMR operation and design. The basic lesson is that conservatism in design can pay significant dividends in operating reliability. Furthermore, such conservatism need not mean high cost. The EBR-II system emphasizes simplicity, minimizing the number of valves in the heat transport system, for example, and simplifying the primary heat-transport-system layout. Another lesson is that emphasizing reliability of the steam generating system at the sodium-water interface (by using duplex tubes in the case of EBR-II) has been well worth the higher initial costs; no problems with leakage have been encountered in EBR-II's operating history. Locating spent fuel storage in the primary tank and providing for decay heat removal by natural connective flow have also been contributors to EBR-II's success. The ability to accommodate loss of forced cooling or loss of heat sink passively has resulted in benefits for simplification, primarily through less reliance on emergency power and in not requiring the secondary sodium or steam systems to be safety grade. Also, the 'piped-pool' arrangement minimizes thermal stress to the primary tank and enhances natural convective flow. These benefits have been realized through a history of operation that has seen EBR-II evolve through four major phases in its test programs, culminating in its present mission as the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) prototype. (author)

  17. Operating and test experience of EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    EBR-2 has operated for 27 years, the longest for any Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) power plant. During that time, much has been learned about successful LMR operation and design. The basic lesson is that conversatism in design can pay significant dividends in operating reliability. Furthermore, such conservatism need not mean high cost. The EBR-2 system emphasizes simplicity, minimizing the number of valves in the heat transport system, for example, and simplifying the primary heat-transport-system layout. Another lesson is that emphasizing reliability of the steam generating system at the sodium-water interface (by using duplex tubes in the case of EBR-2) has been well worth the higher initial costs; no problems with leakage have been encountered in EBR-2's operating history. Locating spent fuel storage in the primary tank and providing for decay heat removal by natural connective flow have also been contributors to EBR-2's success. The ability to accommodate loss of forced cooling or loss of heat sink passively has resulted in benefits for simplification, primarily through less reliance on emergency power and in not requiring the secondary sodium or steam systems to be safety grade. Also, the ''piped-pool '' arrangement minimizes thermal stress to the primary tank and enhances natural convective flow. These benefits have been realized through a history of operation that has seen EBR-2 evolve through four major phases in its test programs, culminating in its present mission as the Integral Fast Rector (IFR) prototype. 20 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Neutrosophy for software requirement prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Barriga Dias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Software engineers are involved in complex decisions that require multiples viewpoints. A specific case is the requirement prioritization process. This process is used to decide which software requirement to develop in certain release from a group of candidate requirements. Criteria involved in this process can involve indeterminacy. In this paper a software requirement prioritization model is develop based SVN numbers. Finally, an illustrative example is presented in order to show the proposed model.

  19. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  20. Particle physics experiments 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The report describes work carried out in 1983 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  1. Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies

  2. Remote participation for LHD experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Komada, S.; Nagayama, Y.

    2006-01-01

    To accomplish a large-scale experiment, such as large helical device (LHD) experiment, effective cooperation among institutes is necessary. In order to establish such cooperation, the NIFS provides the following remote participation facilities for the LHD experiments. (1) Remote access: The user can use a virtual private network (VPN) to connect to the LAN. This is the most flexible technique to participate in the experiments. The users who are not familiar with the experiments can log into the remote server running MetaFrame and Linux. In these computers, the required software is already installed. Therefore, the user need not be concerned with installing software. (2) Remote data reference: A mirror server exists to provide physical data to remote users. Moreover, the users can retrieve summarized data via a web server, which provides summarized information of each discharge experiment and graphs of the principal physical data. These graphs are useful for finding the required data quickly. (3) Remote communication and monitoring: For effective remote cooperation, communication between researchers is very important. For this purpose, a video conferencing system and a video streaming service are available. In addition to these facilities, the NIFS introduced Super SINET in 2002. This is an optical-fiber-based network. The backbone speed of this network is 10 Gbps, and the speed is 1 Gbps for direct connections

  3. Remote participation for LHD experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)]. E-mail: emoto.masahiko@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Yamamoto, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Komada, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nagayama, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    To accomplish a large-scale experiment, such as large helical device (LHD) experiment, effective cooperation among institutes is necessary. In order to establish such cooperation, the NIFS provides the following remote participation facilities for the LHD experiments. (1) Remote access: The user can use a virtual private network (VPN) to connect to the LAN. This is the most flexible technique to participate in the experiments. The users who are not familiar with the experiments can log into the remote server running MetaFrame and Linux. In these computers, the required software is already installed. Therefore, the user need not be concerned with installing software. (2) Remote data reference: A mirror server exists to provide physical data to remote users. Moreover, the users can retrieve summarized data via a web server, which provides summarized information of each discharge experiment and graphs of the principal physical data. These graphs are useful for finding the required data quickly. (3) Remote communication and monitoring: For effective remote cooperation, communication between researchers is very important. For this purpose, a video conferencing system and a video streaming service are available. In addition to these facilities, the NIFS introduced Super SINET in 2002. This is an optical-fiber-based network. The backbone speed of this network is 10 Gbps, and the speed is 1 Gbps for direct connections.

  4. Being emotionally abused: a phenomenological study of adult women's experiences of emotionally abusive intimate partner relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Josie; Nurse, Army; Brackley, Margaret H; Williams, Gail B

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe individual perceptions, meanings, and definitions of emotional abuse through the lived experience of women who identified themselves as being emotionally abused by an intimate partner (IP). To answer the research question, "What is it like to live the life of a woman who is emotionally abused by her intimate partner?" A descriptive, phenomenological research design was undertaken. Unstructured individual interviews with 15 emotionally abused adult women resulted in the discovery of seven essential themes: captivity, defining moments, disassociation from self, fixing, mindful manipulation, relentless terror, and taking a stand. A combination of a hermeneutic approach and Diekelmann's approach to data analysis was used to explore differences in perceptions and develop essential themes that portrayed the essence of a woman's lived experience of being emotionally abused by her IP. The data also demonstrated that (1) IP emotional abuse has no prerequisite for partner rage or obvious emotional manipulation, (2) the absence of caring and respectful partner behaviors was just as powerful in creating an emotionally abusive experience as openly abusive behaviors, and (3) being emotionally abused was a life journey, encompassing multiple culminations, secondary physical and mental health symptoms, and quality of life issues that extended well beyond the immediate abuse experience.

  5. Music and the mind: a new interdisciplinary course on the science of musical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, J Roxanne; Cornett-Murtada, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the instructors describe a new team-taught transdisciplinary seminar, "Music and Mind: The Science of Musical Experience." The instructors, with backgrounds in music and neuroscience, valued the interdisciplinary approach as a way to capture student interest and to reflect the inherent interconnectivity of neuroscience. The course covered foundational background information about the science of hearing and musical perception and about the phenomenology of musical creation and experience. This two-credit honors course, which attracted students from eleven majors, integrated experiential learning (active listening, journaling, conducting mini-experiments) with rigorous reflection and discussion of academic research. The course culminated in student-led discussions and presentations of final projects around hot topics in the science of music, such as the 'Mozart Effect,' music and religious experience, etc. Although this course was a two-credit seminar, it could easily be expanded to a four-credit lecture or laboratory course. Student evaluations reveal that the course was successful in meeting the learning objectives, that students were intrinsically motivated to learn more about the discipline, and that the team-taught, experiential learning approach was a success.

  6. Waste management system requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This volume defines the top level requirements for the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). It is designed to be used in conjunction with Volume 1 of the WMSR, General System Requirements. It provides a functional description expanding the requirements allocated to the MGDS in Volume 1 and elaborates on each requirement by providing associated performance criteria as appropriate. Volumes 1 and 4 of the WMSR provide a minimum set of requirements that must be satisfied by the final MGDS design. This document sets forth specific requirements that must be fulfilled. It is not the intent or purpose of this top level document to describe how each requirement is to be satisfied in the final MGDS design. Each subsequent level of the technical document hierarchy must provide further guidance and definition as to how each of these requirements is to be implemented in the design. It is expected that each subsequent level of requirements will be significantly more detailed. Section 2 of this volume provides a functional description of the MGDS. Each function is addressed in terms of requirements, and performance criteria. Section 3 provides a list of controlling documents. Each document cited in a requirement of Chapter 2 is included in this list and is incorporated into this document as a requirement on the final system. The WMSR addresses only federal requirements (i.e., laws, regulations and DOE orders). State and local requirements are not addressed. However, it will be specifically noted at the potentially affected WMSR requirements that there could be additional or more stringent regulations imposed by a state or local requirements or administering agency over the cited federal requirements

  7. High heat flux components in fusion devices: from nowadays experience in Tore Supra towards the ITER challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosman, A.; Bayetti, P.; Chappuis, P.; Cordier, J.J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Guilhem, D.; Lipa, M.; Marbach, G.; Mitteau, R.; Schlosser, J.

    2003-01-01

    A pioneering activity has been developed by CEA and the European industry in the field of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components in Tore Supra operation, which is today culminating with the routine operation of an actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) capable to sustain up to 10 MW.m -2 of nominal convected heat flux. This success is the result of a long lead development and industrialization program (about 10 years) marked out with a number of technical and managerial challenges that were taken up and has allowed us to build up an unique experience feedback database. This is illustrated in this paper with the specific example of the development of high heat flux CFC-on-CuCrZr (carbon-carbon fibre composite on hardened copper alloy CuCrZr) component from design phase to tokamak operation. (authors)

  8. High heat flux components in fusion devices: from nowadays experience in Tore Supra towards the ITER challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosman, A.; Bayetti, P.; Chappuis, P.; Cordier, J.J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Guilhem, D.; Lipa, M.; Marbach, G.; Mitteau, R.; Schlosser, J

    2003-07-01

    A pioneering activity has been developed by CEA and the European industry in the field of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components in Tore Supra operation, which is today culminating with the routine operation of an actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) capable to sustain up to 10 MW.m{sup -2} of nominal convected heat flux. This success is the result of a long lead development and industrialization program (about 10 years) marked out with a number of technical and managerial challenges that were taken up and has allowed us to build up an unique experience feedback database. This is illustrated in this paper with the specific example of the development of high heat flux CFC-on-CuCrZr (carbon-carbon fibre composite on hardened copper alloy CuCrZr) component from design phase to tokamak operation. (authors)

  9. Software for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Corti, Gloria; Belyaev, Ivan; Cattaneo, Marco; Charpentier, Philippe; Frank, Markus; Koppenburg, Patrick; Mato-Vila, P; Ranjard, Florence; Roiser, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    LHCb is an experiment for precision measurements of CP-violation and rare decays in B mesons at the LHC collider at CERN. The LHCb software development strategy follows an architecture-centric approach as a way of creating a resilient software framework that can withstand changes in requirements and technology over the expected long lifetime of the experiment. The software architecture, called GAUDI, supports event data processing applications that run in different processing environments ranging from the real-time high- level triggers in the online system to the final physics analysis performed by more than one hundred physicists. The major architectural design choices and the arguments that lead to these choices will be outlined. Object oriented technologies have been used throughout. Initially developed for the LHCb experiment, GAUDI has been adopted and extended by other experiments. Several iterations of the GAUDI software framework have been released and are now being used routinely by the physicists of...

  10. The spent fuel safety experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmms, G.A.; Davis, F.J.; Ford, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy is conducting an ongoing investigation of the consequences of taking fuel burnup into account in the design of spent fuel transportation packages. A series of experiments, collectively called the Spent Fuel Safety Experiment (SFSX), has been devised to provide integral benchmarks for testing computer-generated predictions of spent fuel behavior. A set of experiments is planned in which sections of unirradiated fuel rods are interchanged with similar sections of spent PWR fuel rods in a critical assembly. By determining the critical size of the arrays, one can obtain benchmark data for comparison with criticality safety calculations. The integral reactivity worth of the spent fuel can be assessed by comparing the measured delayed critical fuel loading with and without spent fuel. An analytical effort to model the experiments and anticipate the core loadings required to yield the delayed critical conditions runs in parallel with the experimental effort

  11. 14 CFR 61.153 - Eligibility requirements: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the English language. If the applicant is unable to meet one of these requirements due to medical... rating issued under this part; (2) Meet the military experience requirements under § 61.73 of this part... military pilot or former rated military pilot of an Armed Force of the United States; or (3) Holds either a...

  12. Interaction between periodic in-service inspection requirements and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prot, A.C.; Saglio, R.

    1979-03-01

    After reviewing the requirements specific of periodic In-Service Inspection related to safety problems, especially for the pressure vessels, and taking into account the experience gained with several PWR reactors, the authors show these requirements could lead to modify the primary circuit design

  13. Device description and general physics requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, G.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    To accomplish the dual goals set forth in the mission statement - determination of burning plasma physics and demonstration of fusion power production - requires a tokamak with special characteristics. A conceptual design for such a facility has been developed by the CIT/BPX Project team over a period of about 5 years. The process has drawn extensively upon the world tokamak physics data base as well as engineering experience gained on actual machines like Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Alcators and on design studies for machines like the Long-Pulse Ignited Test experiment (LITE) and the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX). The Joint European Torus (JET) and Doublet III-D (DIII-D) experiments in particular have had a significant influence on the physics base. The resulting design incorporates features that have proven successful in tokamak experiments, combined with new features that are needed in the regime of high-power-density deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion plasmas

  14. IRET: requirements for service platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Baresi, Luciano; Ripa, Gianluca; Pasquale, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed This paper describes IRENE (Indenica Requirements ElicitatioN mEthod), a methodology to elicit and model the requirements of service platforms, and IRET (IREne Tool), the Eclipse-based modeling framework we developed for IRENE

  15. Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

    1996-01-01

    Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)

  16. Diagnostics for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, B.C.; Johnson, D.; Feder, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Neilson, H.; Takahashi, H.; Zarnstorf, M.; Cole, M.; Goranson, P.; Lazarus, E.; Nelson, B.

    2003-01-01

    The status of planning of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) diagnostics is presented, with the emphasis on resolution of diagnostics access issues and on diagnostics required for the early phases of operation

  17. Tribology theory versus experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, John

    1987-01-01

    Tribology, the study of friction and wear of materials, has achieved a new interest because of the need for energy conservation. Fundamental understanding of this field is very complex and requires a knowledge of solid-state physics, material science, chemistry, and mechanical engineering. This paper is meant to be didactic in nature and outlines some of the considerations needed for a tribology research program. The approach is first to present a simple model, a field emission tip in contact with a flat surface, in order to elucidate important considerations, such as contact area, mechanical deformations, and interfacial bonding. Then examples from illustrative experiments are presented. Finally, the current status of physical theories concerning interfacial bonding are presented.

  18. Gas Detection for Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hay, D

    2001-01-01

    Flammable gases are often used in detectors for physics experiments. The storage, distribution and manipulation of such flammable gases present several safety hazards. As most flammable gases cannot be detected by human senses, specific well-placed gas detection systems must be installed. Following a request from the user group and in collaboration with CERN safety officers, risk analyses are performed. An external contractor, who needs to receive detailed user requirements from CERN, performs the installations. The contract is passed on a guaranteed results basis. Co-ordination between all the CERN groups and verification of the technical installation is done by ST/AA/AS. This paper describes and focuses on the structured methodology applied to implement such installations based on goal directed project management techniques (GDPM). This useful supervision tool suited to small to medium sized projects facilitates the task of co-ordinating numerous activities to achieve a completely functional system.

  19. A communist teaching experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Morten

    teaching. A form of mutual teaching where (student)teachers have good knowledge of the students’ learning problems. The role of the (conventional) teacher: To initiate and supervise the process and act as “final” teacher when this is required. The experiment produced various problems and the students...... of teaching is an improvement? I can only show two (poor?) methods: a) asking the students and b) use their examination results.......At the beginning of the course, students were told all the examination questions for the oral examination, and that they, in groups, should produce a report with a) A pedagogical presentation of (the selected part of) the theory/syllabus b) This theory put into perspective by self...

  20. Physician Requirements-1990. For Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Octavious; Birchette-Pierce, Cheryl

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in cardiology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. The determination of physician requirements was based on an adjusted needs rather than a demand or utilization model. For each illness, manpower requirements were modified by the…

  1. Waste Management System Requirement document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This volume defines the top level technical requirements for the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. It is designed to be used in conjunction with Volume 1, General System Requirements. Volume 3 provides a functional description expanding the requirements allocated to the MRS facility in Volume 1 and, when appropriate, elaborates on requirements by providing associated performance criteria. Volumes 1 and 3 together convey a minimum set of requirements that must be satisfied by the final MRS facility design without unduly constraining individual design efforts. The requirements are derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (NWPAA), the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (40 CFR 191), NRC Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear and High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR 72), and other federal statutory and regulatory requirements, and major program policy decisions. This document sets forth specific requirements that will be fulfilled. Each subsequent level of the technical document hierarchy will be significantly more detailed and provide further guidance and definition as to how each of these requirements will be implemented in the design. Requirements appearing in Volume 3 are traceable into the MRS Design Requirements Document. Section 2 of this volume provides a functional breakdown for the MRS facility. 1 tab

  2. Capital Requirements and Banks' Leniency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...... in the required return, the interest rate premium paid for leniency isincreased in recession at a given level of required capital....

  3. The Early Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    Stuart Freedman obtained his PhD at Berkley with an experimental thesis providing very strong evidence against theories requiring local hidden variables. He then came to Princeton in 1972 and began collaboration on a search for second-class currents. These measurements are quite difficult as the effects are the order of 1%, demonstrating Freedman's drive to take on hard but important experiments. After carrying out some relatively standard nuclear physics measurements he moved on to Stanford in 1976. There, Freedman was involved in identifying measurements sensitive to the existence of light axions. He also carried out searches for various exotica that might be produced from cosmic rays or the SLAC beam stop. During this time he was collaborating with us at Argonne investigating nuclear parity violation and time-like axial beta decay. In 1982 Freedman came to Argonne where he worked on fundamental issues in neutron beta decay. He also initiated what was to become one of his trademarks, demonstrating that surprising peaks in the e^+-e^- spectrum observed in very heavy ion collisions were spurious. He further launched his first neutrino oscillation experiment. This period of early research was marked by a remarkable diversity of subject matter and approach.

  4. Collaborative engagement experiment (CEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Robert L.; Reames, Joseph M.

    2005-05-01

    Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Ground and air collaborative engagements potentially offer force conservation, perform timely acquisition and dissemination of essential combat information, and can eliminate high value and time critical targets. These engagements can also add considerably to force survivability by reducing soldier and equipment exposure during critical operations. The Office of the Secretary of Defense, Joint Robotics Program (JRP) sponsored Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts to provide a Joint capability. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Material and Manufacturing Directorate, Aerospace Expeditionary Force Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRLMLQF), The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC)/Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL), and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center-San Diego (SSC San Diego) are conducting technical research and proof of principle for an envisioned operational concept for extended range, three dimensional, collaborative operations between unmanned systems, with enhanced situational awareness for lethal operations in complex terrain. This program will assess information requirements and conduct experiments to identify and resolve technical risks for collaborative engagements using Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). It will research, develop and physically integrate multiple unmanned systems and conduct live collaborative experiments. Modeling and Simulation systems will be upgraded to reflect engineering fidelity levels to greater understand technical challenges to operate as a team. This paper will provide an update of a multi-year program and will concentrate primarily on the JTC

  5. Electronics for LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, Francois

    1995-01-01

    Full text: A major effort is being mounted to prepare the way handling the high interaction rates expected from CERN's new LHC proton-proton collider (see, for example, November, page 6). September saw the First Workshop on Electronics for LHC Experiments, organized by Lisbon's Particle Physics Instrumentation Laboratory (LIP) on behalf of CERN's LHC Electronics Review Board (LERB - March, page 2). Its purpose was not only for the LERB to have a thorough review of ongoing activities, but also to promote cross fertilization in the engineering community involved in electronics design for LHC experiments. The Workshop gathered 187 physicists and engineers from 20 countries including USA and Japan. The meeting comprised six sessions and 82 talks, with special focus on radiation-hard microelectronic processes, electronics for tracking, calorimetry and muon detectors, optoelectronics, trigger and data acquisition systems. Each topic was introduced by an invited speaker who reviewed the requirements set by the particular detector technology at LHC. At the end of each session, panel discussions were chaired by each invited speaker. Representatives from four major integrated circuit manufacturers covered advanced radiation hard processes. Two talks highlighted the importance of obsolescence and quality systems in the long-lived and demanding environment of LHC. The Workshop identified areas and encouraged efforts for rationalization and common developments within and between the different detector groups. As a result, it will also help ensure the reliability and the long term maintainability of installed equipment. The proceedings of the Workshop are available from LIP Lisbon*. The LERB Workshop on Electronics for LHC Experiments will become a regular event, with the second taking place in Hungary, by Lake Balaton, from 23-27 September 1996. The Hungarian institutes KFKIRMKI have taken up the challenge of being as successful as LIP Lisbon in the organization

  6. Anticipating requirements changes-using futurology in requirements elicitation

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel, João Henrique; Santos, Emanuel; Castro, Jaelson; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that requirements changes in a later phase of software developments is a major source of software defects and costs. Thus, the need of techniques to control or reduce the amount of changes during software development projects. The authors advocate the use of foresight methods as a valuable input to requirements elicitation, with the potential to decrease the number of changes that would be required after deployment, by anticipating them. In this paper, the authors define a pr...

  7. Tool-based requirement traceability between requirement and design artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Turban, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Processes for developing safety-critical systems impose special demands on ensuring requirements traceability. Achieving valuable traceability information, however, is especially difficult concerning the transition from requirements to design. Bernhard Turban analyzes systems and software engineering theories cross-cutting the issue (embedded systems development, systems engineering, software engineering, requirements engineering and management, design theory and processes for safety-critical systems). As a solution, the author proposes a new tool approach to support designers in their thinkin

  8. The Information Science Experiment System - The computer for science experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudriat, Edwin C.; Husson, Charles

    1989-01-01

    The concept of the Information Science Experiment System (ISES), potential experiments, and system requirements are reviewed. The ISES is conceived as a computer resource in space whose aim is to assist computer, earth, and space science experiments, to develop and demonstrate new information processing concepts, and to provide an experiment base for developing new information technology for use in space systems. The discussion covers system hardware and architecture, operating system software, the user interface, and the ground communication link.

  9. Design of modern experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Hweon

    1984-03-01

    This book is for researchers and engineers, which is written to focus on practical design of experiments. It gives descriptions of conception of design of experiments, basic statistics theory, one way design of experiment, two-way layout without repetition, two-way layout with repetition, partition, a correlation analysis and regression analysis, latin squares, factorial design, design of experiment by table of orthogonal arrays, design of experiment of response surface, design of experiment on compound, Evop, and design of experiment of taguchi.

  10. The Capillary Flow Experiments Aboard the International Space Station: Increments 9-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Ryan M.; Weislogel, Mark M.; Tavan, Noel T.; Chen, Yongkang; Semerjian, Ben; Bunnell, Charles T.; Collicott, Steven H.; Klatte, Jorg; dreyer, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the experimental, analytical, and numerical results of the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE) performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments were conducted in space beginning with Increment 9 through Increment 16, beginning August 2004 and ending December 2007. Both primary and extra science experiments were conducted during 19 operations performed by 7 astronauts including: M. Fincke, W. McArthur, J. Williams, S. Williams, M. Lopez-Alegria, C. Anderson, and P. Whitson. CFE consists of 6 approximately 1 to 2 kg handheld experiment units designed to investigate a selection of capillary phenomena of fundamental and applied importance, such as large length scale contact line dynamics (CFE-Contact Line), critical wetting in discontinuous structures (CFE-Vane Gap), and capillary flows and passive phase separations in complex containers (CFE-Interior Corner Flow). Highly quantitative video from the simply performed flight experiments provide data helpful in benchmarking numerical methods, confirming theoretical models, and guiding new model development. In an extensive executive summary, a brief history of the experiment is reviewed before introducing the science investigated. A selection of experimental results and comparisons with both analytic and numerical predictions is given. The subsequent chapters provide additional details of the experimental and analytical methods developed and employed. These include current presentations of the state of the data reduction which we anticipate will continue throughout the year and culminate in several more publications. An extensive appendix is used to provide support material such as an experiment history, dissemination items to date (CFE publication, etc.), detailed design drawings, and crew procedures. Despite the simple nature of the experiments and procedures, many of the experimental results may be practically employed to enhance the design of spacecraft engineering

  11. An SME's quality management experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, B.; Scott, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SME's) that supply services to nuclear power plants have to meet the station's quality requirements. To improve its quality program, Atlantic Nuclear (an SME) adopted the ISO 9001 standard for its management system. Vendor registrations are then achieved by adding specific elements as required by the clients. This paper discusses the experience, both positive and negative, from implementing and continually improving the quality management program for Atlantic Nuclear, a small nuclear engineering service provider. We also discuss how quality management principles are implemented and embraced by the company. (author)

  12. Secondary school teachers' experiences of teaching pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... learners, and this requires a health facilitation model to enable teachers to assist pregnant learners such that they might better benefit from their schooling, and experience a positive health outcome. Key words: high risk pregnancy; learner pregnancy; school health services; teacher experiences; teenage pregnancy ...

  13. Prospects for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.

    1991-01-01

    Several recent development have motivated consideration of neutrino experiments located hundreds or thousand of kilometers from an accelerator. The motivations and experimental challenges for such experiments are examined. Three proposals for using the Fermilab Main Injector are compared. The requirements on mass, distance and resolution for an ''ideal'' detector for such an experimental are considered

  14. Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemon, Katherine N.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding customer experience and the customer journey over time is critical for firms. Customers now interact with firms through myriad touch points in multiple channels and media, and customer experiences are more social in nature. These changes require firms to integrate multiple business

  15. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for Tevatron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korjenevski, Sergey

    2004-01-01

    The Silicon Microstrip Tracking detectors at the CDF and D0 experiments have now been operating for almost three years at Fermilab. These detectors were designed originally for an integrated luminosity of 2fb -1 . As the expected luminosity for Run IIb at the Tevatron collider was initially envisioned to reach 15fb -1 , radiation tolerances of both devices were revisited, culminating in proposals for new systems. With reduced expectations for total luminosity at ∼6fb -1 , the full detector-replacement projects were terminated. The CDF detector is expected nevertheless to cope efficiently with the lower anticipated dose, however, the D0 experiment is planning a smaller-scale project: a Layer-0 (L0) upgrade of the silicon tracker (D0SMT). The new device will fit between the beam line and the inner layer of the current Tracker. Built of single-sided sensors, this upgrade is expected to perform well in the harsh radiation environment, and be able to withstand an integrated luminosity of 15fb -1 . Prototypes of Run IIb sensors were irradiated using 10MeV protons at the tandem Van de Graaff at the James R. McDonald Laboratory at Kansas State University. A fit to the 10MeV proton data yields a damage parameter αp=11x10-17Acm. This is consistent with results from RD48 (αp=9.9x10-17Acm). The scaling of damage to 1MeV neutron fluence uses a hardness factor (κ) derived from the non-ionizing components of the energy loss (NEIL). NEIL predicts a hardness factor of 3.87 for 10MeV protons. We obtained an experimental value of this factor of 2.54, or 34% smaller than scaling predictions from NEIL

  16. Customer experience management in digital channels with marketing automation

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, J. (Juho)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Superior customer experience and successful customer experience management can create a competitive advantage that is difficult to match by the competitors. However managing customer experience successfully the customer experience needs to be considered in the context of multiple marketing channels and multiple customer segments which requires a lot of resources. With the difficult financial conditions today the us...

  17. National Ignition Facility site requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Site Requirements (SR) provide bases for identification of candidate host sites for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and for the generation of data regarding potential actual locations for the facilities. The SR supplements the NIF Functional Requirements (FR) with information needed for preparation of responses to queries for input to HQ DOE site evaluation. The queries are to include both documents and explicit requirements for the potential host site responses. The Sr includes information extracted from the NIF FR (for convenience), data based on design approaches, and needs for physical and organization infrastructure for a fully operational NIF. The FR and SR describe requirements that may require new construction or may be met by use or modification of existing facilities. The SR do not establish requirements for NIF design or construction project planning. The SR document does not constitute an element of the NIF technical baseline

  18. UTM TCL2 Software Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Irene S.; Rios, Joseph L.; McGuirk, Patrick O.; Mulfinger, Daniel G.; Venkatesan, Priya; Smith, David R.; Baskaran, Vijayakumar; Wang, Leo

    2017-01-01

    The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Technical Capability Level (TCL) 2 software implements the UTM TCL 2 software requirements described herein. These software requirements are linked to the higher level UTM TCL 2 System Requirements. Each successive TCL implements additional UTM functionality, enabling additional use cases. TCL 2 demonstrated how to enable expanded multiple operations by implementing automation for beyond visual line-of-sight, tracking operations, and operations flying over sparsely populated areas.

  19. Capital Requirements and Credit Rationing

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Agur

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trade-off between financial stability and credit rationing that arises when increasing capital requirements. It extends the Stiglitz-Weiss model of credit rationing to allow for bank default. Bank capital structure then matters for lending incentives. With default and rationing endogenous, optimal capital requirements can be analyzed. Introducing bank financiers, the paper also shows that uninsured funding raises the sensitivity of rationing to capital requirements. In...

  20. Information requirements for enterprise systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerville, Ian; Lock, Russell; Storer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss an approach to system requirements engineering, which is based on using models of the responsibilities assigned to agents in a multi-agency system of systems. The responsibility models serve as a basis for identifying the stakeholders that should be considered in establishing the requirements and provide a basis for a structured approach, described here, for information requirements elicitation. We illustrate this approach using a case study drawn from civil emergenc...

  1. Data acquisition. GRAAL experiment. Hybrid reactor experiment. AMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barancourt, D.; Barbier, G.; Bosson, G.; Bouvier, J.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Meillon, B.; Stassi, P.; Tournier, M.

    1997-01-01

    The main activity of the data acquisition team has consisted in hardware and software developments for the GRAAL experiment with the trigger board, for the 'Reacteurs Hybrides' group with an acquisition board ADCVME8V and for the AMS experiment with the monitoring of the aerogel detector. (authors)

  2. Functional requirements for core surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, T.

    2000-01-01

    Operating experience at Ringhals-2 has demonstrated the feasibility of a mixed core surveillance system comprised of fixed in-core detectors combined with the original movable detector system. A small number of fixed in-core detectors provide continuous measurement of the thermal margins while the movable detectors are used mainly at start-up to verify the expected power distribution. Reactor noise diagnostics and neural networks can further improve the monitoring system. The reliability of the movable detector system can be improved by mechanical simplification. Wear and maintenance costs are lowered if the required flux-mapping frequency is reduced. Improved computer codes make the measurement uncertainties less dependent on the number of instrumented positions. A mixed system requires new types of technical specifications. (author)

  3. Frequency Control Performance Measurement and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illian, Howard F.

    2010-12-20

    Frequency control is an essential requirement of reliable electric power system operations. Determination of frequency control depends on frequency measurement and the practices based on these measurements that dictate acceptable frequency management. This report chronicles the evolution of these measurements and practices. As technology progresses from analog to digital for calculation, communication, and control, the technical basis for frequency control measurement and practices to determine acceptable performance continues to improve. Before the introduction of digital computing, practices were determined largely by prior experience. In anticipation of mandatory reliability rules, practices evolved from a focus primarily on commercial and equity issues to an increased focus on reliability. This evolution is expected to continue and place increased requirements for more precise measurements and a stronger scientific basis for future frequency management practices in support of reliability.

  4. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited

  5. Transport package maintenance requirements and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyacke, M.J.; Ball, L.J.; Ayers, A.L. Jr.; Hayes, G.R.; Anselmo, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The NuPac 125-B rail cask, which transports the damaged core debris from Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), is the only new spent-fuel rail shipping cask to be licensed in the United States within the last decade. EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. (EG ampersand G), acting on behalf of the US Department of Energy, is responsible for ensuring that those new casks and rail cars are properly maintained per regulatory requirements. Both the casks and rail cars have comprehensive in-service inspection and preventive maintenance programs, which are more involved than implied by the requirements. The TMI-2 shipping campaign is the most ambitious spent-fuel transport activity being conducted in the nuclear industry. The experience gained in this campaign, as it relates to maintenance of a transport system, should be of interest and have direct applicability to similar shipping activities planned in the years ahead

  6. Requirements of office air conditioners. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, W

    1988-01-01

    New building designs and experiences gained in the past are reponsible for the considerable changes the requirements of air conditioners have gone through in recent years. Details are given on an exemplary air conditioning system designed for the Colonia Insurances building complex located in the city of Cologne. The ventilation requirements and hygienic conditions set out for air conditioned rooms call for outside air supplies, the careful selection of air intakes, and the filtering of intake air. Details are given on the efficiency and limits of combined natural window ventilation/artificial ventilation systems, the influence of window types, and the influence of building structures. The pressure conditions to be expected for larger building complexes in the case of natural ventilation should be assessed with the help of models put to wind tunnel tests.

  7. Dosimetry requirements derived from the sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main standards for radiation sterilization, ISO 11137 and EN 552, rest the documentation for the properly executed sterilization process on dosimetry. Both standards describe general requirements to the dosimetry system: The dose measurements must be traceable to national standards...... and documented uncertainty limits of the dose measurements can be used to specify process control limits. This is also useful, for example, when dose setting experiments are carried out according to the methods described in ISO 11137, where product samples shall be irradiated within narrow limits......., the uncertainty of the dose measurement and the environmental influences must be known. This paper discusses how to obtain and maintain traceability and how to document measurement uncertainty. The implications of these requirements in the process control of radiation sterilization are further discussed. Known...

  8. Simulation Data Management - Requirements and Design Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay, Robert L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Friedman-Hill, Ernest J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gibson, Marcus J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoffman, Edward L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olson, Kevin H. [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Reston, VA (United States); Laney, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Simulation Data Management (SDM), the ability to securely organize, archive, and share analysis models and the artifacts used to create them, is a fundamental requirement for modern engineering analysis based on computational simulation. We have worked separately to provide secure, network SDM services to engineers and scientists at our respective laboratories for over a decade. We propose to leverage our experience and lessons learned to help develop and deploy a next-generation SDM service as part of a multi-laboratory team. This service will be portable across multiple sites and platforms, and will be accessible via a range of command-line tools and well-documented APIs. In this document, we’ll review our high-level and low-level requirements for such a system, review one existing system, and briefly discuss our proposed implementation.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  10. The oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, O.; Hasenstein, K.

    Experiments for earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and often germinated in orbit in order to study gravity effects on developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds and respiration. In orbit the formation of a water layer around the seed may further limit oxygen availability. Therefore, the oxygen content of the available gas volume is one of the limiting factors for seed germination. In preparation for an upcoming shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware. We tested per seed chamber (gas volume = 14 mL, O2 = 2.9 mL) between 4 to 32 seeds glued to germination paper by 1% (w/v) gum guar. A lexan cover and a gasket hermetically sealed each of the eight chambers. For imbibition of the seeds a previously optimized amount of distilled water was dispensed through sealed inlets. The seedlings were allowed to grow for either 32 to 48 h on a clinostat or without microgravity simulation. Then their root length was measured. With 32 seeds per chamber, four times the intended number of seeds for the flight, the germination rate decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%. Experiments on the germination and root length in controlled atmospheres (5, 10, 15 and 21% O2 ) suggest that germination and growth for two days requires about 200 :l of O (1 mL air) per seed. Our2 experiments correlate oxygen dependency from seed mass and germination temperature, and analyze accumulation of gaseous metabolites (supported by NASA grant NAG10-0190).

  11. Get Your Requirements Straight: Storyboarding Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haesen, Mieke; Luyten, Kris; Coninx, Karin

    Current user-centred software engineering (UCSE) approaches provide many techniques to combine know-how available in multidisciplinary teams. Although the involvement of various disciplines is beneficial for the user experience of the future application, the transition from a user needs analysis to a structured interaction analysis and UI design is not always straightforward. We propose storyboards, enriched by metadata, to specify functional and non-functional requirements. Accompanying tool support should facilitate the creation and use of storyboards. We used a meta-storyboard for the verification of storyboarding approaches.

  12. Requirements for a multifunctional code architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiihonen, O. [VTT Energy (Finland); Juslin, K. [VTT Automation (Finland)

    1997-07-01

    The present paper studies a set of requirements for a multifunctional simulation software architecture in the light of experiences gained in developing and using the APROS simulation environment. The huge steps taken in the development of computer hardware and software during the last ten years are changing the status of the traditional nuclear safety analysis software. The affordable computing power on the safety analysts table by far exceeds the possibilities offered to him/her ten years ago. At the same time the features of everyday office software tend to set standards to the way the input data and calculational results are managed.

  13. Requirements for a multifunctional code architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiihonen, O.; Juslin, K.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper studies a set of requirements for a multifunctional simulation software architecture in the light of experiences gained in developing and using the APROS simulation environment. The huge steps taken in the development of computer hardware and software during the last ten years are changing the status of the traditional nuclear safety analysis software. The affordable computing power on the safety analysts table by far exceeds the possibilities offered to him/her ten years ago. At the same time the features of everyday office software tend to set standards to the way the input data and calculational results are managed

  14. Construction plant requirements for nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, C.B.; Harris, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Planning and developing the temporary construction plant facilities for a nuclear project is equivalent to providing utility services for a small city. Provision of adequate facilities is an important factor in the productivity of both the manual and non-manual work force. This paper summarizes construction facility requirements for a two unit (1300 MWe each) nuclear project. Civil, mechanical and electrical facilities are described, including design, installation and operation. Assignment of responsibility for specific work tasks regarding the construction plant is also discussed. In presenting this data, the authors seek to transfer experience and assist in the provision of adequate facilities on future projects

  15. World enrichment requirements to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The primary enrichment suppliers-Eurodif, Techsnabexport, Urenco, and the US DOE - are positioning themselves to take advantage of the post - 1995 market. Overall, unfilled requirements represent about 40 percent of world requirements in the year 2000. The USA will be the primary market, as US utilities' unfilled enrichment requirements account for over 60 percent of the world's total unfilled requirements. The enrichment market is moving toward more global competition, as each supplier tries to maintain its current regional market base and then to capture additional market share in other regions

  16. Addressing the Resource Requirements Mismatch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braun, William

    2003-01-01

    ... on the other, appear to be developing a requirements-resource mismatch. The goals and objectives of the transformation rhetoric intuitively resonate with the military's increasingly technologic culture...

  17. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  18. Military Message Experiment. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    elements of the Department of Defense. This resulted in a memorandum from the Director, Telecomunications and Comand and Control, OSD, in June 1975...1978 to April 1979 and provides a discussion of the telecomunications inter- face aspects of the experiment. This Final Report covers the period of...arise in the telecomunication system which require A retransmission of an outgoing message. A "service" message may be created within the

  19. DIM and diagnostic placement for NIF experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, D.

    1999-01-01

    The input that has been provided on the NIF experiment setup sheets has allowed us to review the diagnostic and DIM placement as well as the baseline unconverted light management plan. We have done an iteration to identify common diagnostic lines of sight, and with additional requirements defined by specific experiments, we propose (1) a baseline plan for DIM placement requiring only five DIMs that may be moved between up to seven DIM ports, and (2) a modified baseline unconverted light management plan. We request additional input to identify primary vs. secondary diagnostics for each experiment definition

  20. Schwann cell myelination requires Dynein function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langworthy Melissa M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction of Schwann cells with axons triggers signal transduction that drives expression of Pou3f1 and Egr2 transcription factors, which in turn promote myelination. Signal transduction appears to be mediated, at least in part, by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP because elevation of cAMP levels can stimulate myelination in the absence of axon contact. The mechanisms by which the myelinating signal is conveyed remain unclear. Results By analyzing mutations that disrupt myelination in zebrafish, we learned that Dynein cytoplasmic 1 heavy chain 1 (Dync1h1, which functions as a motor for intracellular molecular trafficking, is required for peripheral myelination. In dync1h1 mutants, Schwann cell progenitors migrated to peripheral nerves but then failed to express Pou3f1 and Egr2 or make myelin membrane. Genetic mosaic experiments revealed that robust Myelin Basic Protein expression required Dync1h1 function within both Schwann cells and axons. Finally, treatment of dync1h1 mutants with a drug to elevate cAMP levels stimulated myelin gene expression. Conclusion Dync1h1 is required for retrograde transport in axons and mutations of Dync1h1 have been implicated in axon disease. Our data now provide evidence that Dync1h1 is also required for efficient myelination of peripheral axons by Schwann cells, perhaps by facilitating signal transduction necessary for myelination.

  1. Particle physics experiments 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairstow, R.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1989 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel of Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  2. Particle physics experiments 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1987 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel (United Kingdom). The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  3. Particle physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The report of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory describes the work carried out in 1985 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  4. Metabolic profiling of hypoxic cells revealed a catabolic signature required for cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Frezza

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is one of the features of poorly vascularised areas of solid tumours but cancer cells can survive in these areas despite the low oxygen tension. The adaptation to hypoxia requires both biochemical and genetic responses that culminate in a metabolic rearrangement to counter-balance the decrease in energy supply from mitochondrial respiration. The understanding of metabolic adaptations under hypoxia could reveal novel pathways that, if targeted, would lead to specific death of hypoxic regions. In this study, we developed biochemical and metabolomic analyses to assess the effects of hypoxia on cellular metabolism of HCT116 cancer cell line. We utilized an oxygen fluorescent probe in anaerobic cuvettes to study oxygen consumption rates under hypoxic conditions without the need to re-oxygenate the cells and demonstrated that hypoxic cells can maintain active, though diminished, oxidative phosphorylation even at 1% oxygen. These results were further supported by in situ microscopy analysis of mitochondrial NADH oxidation under hypoxia. We then used metabolomic methodologies, utilizing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, to determine the metabolic profile of hypoxic cells. This approach revealed the importance of synchronized and regulated catabolism as a mechanism of adaptation to bioenergetic stress. We then confirmed the presence of autophagy under hypoxic conditions and demonstrated that the inhibition of this catabolic process dramatically reduced the ATP levels in hypoxic cells and stimulated hypoxia-induced cell death. These results suggest that under hypoxia, autophagy is required to support ATP production, in addition to glycolysis, and that the inhibition of autophagy might be used to selectively target hypoxic regions of tumours, the most notoriously resistant areas of solid tumours.

  5. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors required during Trypanosoma cruzi parasitophorous vacuole development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Juan Agustín; Vanrell, María Cristina; Salassa, Betiana Nebaí; Nola, Sébastien; Galli, Thierry; Colombo, María Isabel; Romano, Patricia Silvia

    2017-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is an obligate intracellular parasite that exploits different host vesicular pathways to invade the target cells. Vesicular and target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) are key proteins of the intracellular membrane fusion machinery. During the early times of T. cruzi infection, several vesicles are attracted to the parasite contact sites in the plasma membrane. Fusion of these vesicles promotes the formation of the parasitic vacuole and parasite entry. In this work, we study the requirement and the nature of SNAREs involved in the fusion events that take place during T. cruzi infection. Our results show that inhibition of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor protein, a protein required for SNARE complex disassembly, impairs T. cruzi infection. Both TI-VAMP/VAMP7 and cellubrevin/VAMP3, two v-SNAREs of the endocytic and exocytic pathways, are specifically recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane in a synchronized manner but, although VAMP3 is acquired earlier than VAMP7, impairment of VAMP3 by tetanus neurotoxin fails to reduce T. cruzi infection. In contrast, reduction of VAMP7 activity by expression of VAMP7's longin domain, depletion by small interfering RNA or knockout, significantly decreases T. cruzi infection susceptibility as a result of a minor acquisition of lysosomal components to the parasitic vacuole. In addition, overexpression of the VAMP7 partner Vti1b increases the infection, whereas expression of a KIF5 kinesin mutant reduces VAMP7 recruitment to vacuole and, concomitantly, T. cruzi infection. Altogether, these data support a key role of TI-VAMP/VAMP7 in the fusion events that culminate in the T. cruzi parasitophorous vacuole development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Particle physics experiments 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents research work carried out in 1986 on 52 elementary particle experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. Most of the experiments were collaborative and involved research groups from different countries. About half of the experiments were conducted at CERN, the remaining experiments employed the accelerators: LAMPT, LEP, PETRA, SLAC, and HERA. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (U.K.)

  7. Personal attitudes toward time: The relationship between temporal focus, space-time mappings and real life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Cao, Yu

    2017-06-01

    What influences how people implicitly associate "past" and "future" with "front" and "back?" Whereas previous research has shown that cultural attitudes toward time play a role in modulating space-time mappings in people's mental models (de la Fuente, Santiago, Román, Dumitrache & Casasanto, 2014), we investigated real life experiences as potential additional influences on these implicit associations. Participants within the same single culture, who are engaged in different intermediate-term educational experiences (Study 1), long-term living experiences (Study 2), and short-term visiting experiences (Study 3), showed their distinct differences in temporal focus, thereby influencing their implicit spatializations of time. Results across samples suggest that personal attitudes toward time related to real life experiences may influence people's space-time mappings. The findings we report on shed further light on the high flexibility of human conceptualization system. While culture may exert an important influence on temporal focus, a person's conceptualization of time may be attributed to a culmination of factors. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Nuclear energy and investment requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voeltzel, D.

    1978-01-01

    The author assesses the investment requirements of the French nuclear programme within the framework of the national economy. He then evokes the means of financing these requirements as well as drawing attention to certain constraints which must be taken into account [fr

  9. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man month study was undertaken to identify utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980s. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items that must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  10. Requirements Engineering for Pervasive Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolos, L.; Poulisse, Gert-Jan; van Eck, Pascal; Videira lopes, C.; Schaefer, S.; Clarke, S.; Elrad, T.; Jahnke, J.

    2005-01-01

    Developing pervasive mobile services for a mass market of end customers entails large up-front investments and therefore a good understanding of customer requirements is of paramount importance. This paper presents an approach for developing requirements engineering method that takes distinguishing

  11. Consensus standard requirements and guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents information from the ANS Criticality Alarm System Workshop relating to the consensus standard requirements and guidance. Topics presented include: definition; nomenclature; requirements and recommendations; purpose of criticality alarms; design criteria; signal characteristics; reliability, dependability and durability; tests; and emergency preparedness and planning

  12. Humidity requirements in WSCF Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a position on Relative Humidity (RH) requirements in the WSCF Laboratories. A current survey of equipment vendors for Organic, Inorganic and Radiochemical laboratories indicate that 25% - 80% relative humidity may meet the environmental requirements for safe operation and protection of all the laboratory equipment

  13. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man-month study, jointly funded by EPRI and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company-EAST, was undertaken to identify the utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980's. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items which must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  14. Security and trust requirements engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giorgini, P.; Massacci, F.; Zannone, N.; Aldini, A.; Gorrieri, R.; Martinelli, F.

    2005-01-01

    Integrating security concerns throughout the whole software development process is one of today’s challenges in software and requirements engineering research. A challenge that so far has proved difficult to meet. The major difficulty is that providing security does not only require to solve

  15. Subsurface Contamination Focus Area technical requirements. Volume 1: Requirements summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document summarizes functions and requirements for remediation of source term and plume sites identified by the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area. Included are detailed requirements and supporting information for source term and plume containment, stabilization, retrieval, and selective retrieval remedial activities. This information will be useful both to the decision-makers within the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area (SCFA) and to the technology providers who are developing and demonstrating technologies and systems. Requirements are often expressed as graphs or charts, which reflect the site-specific nature of the functions that must be performed. Many of the tradeoff studies associated with cost savings are identified in the text

  16. The NLC Software Requirements Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaee, Hamid

    2002-08-20

    We describe the software requirements and development methodology developed for the NLC control system. Given the longevity of that project, and the likely geographical distribution of the collaborating engineers, the planned requirements management process is somewhat more formal than the norm in high energy physics projects. The short term goals of the requirements process are to accurately estimate costs, to decompose the problem, and to determine likely technologies. The long term goal is to enable a smooth transition from high level functional requirements to specific subsystem and component requirements for individual programmers, and to support distributed development. The methodology covers both ends of that life cycle. It covers both the analytical and documentary tools for software engineering, and project management support. This paper introduces the methodology, which is fully described in [1].

  17. Evaluation Methodologies for Information Management Systems; Building Digital Tobacco Industry Document Libraries at the University of California, San Francisco Library/Center for Knowledge Management; Experiments with the IFLA Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR); Coming to Term: Designing the Texas Email Repository Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Emile L.; Schmidt, Heidi; Butter, Karen; Rider, Cynthia; Hickey, Thomas B.; O'Neill, Edward T.; Toves, Jenny; Green, Marlan; Soy, Sue; Gunn, Stan; Galloway, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss evaluation methods for information management systems under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; building digital libraries at the University of California San Francisco's Tobacco Control Archives; IFLA's Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records; and designing the Texas email repository model…

  18. CAREER GUIDANCE EXPERIENCE ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Tolstoguzov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the experience of careeroriented activities carried out with students of schools in developed and developing countries. Career Guidance in Russia, despite the vast experience of its implementation, is experiencing serious difficulties. In this regard, it is important to take into account the international experience career-oriented activities, such as in the developed countries of North America and the European Union as well as in several Asian countries with rapidly growing economies and a large demographic potential, taking into account the best variants for the Russian education system. Methods. The experience of career-oriented work undertaken with pupils of the USA, Canada, Israel, France, UK, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Japan, Singapore, China and India is shown on the basis of the comparative analysis of different publications and information sources. The author has made an attempt to generalize the principles of psycho-pedagogical and administrative assistance in professional self-determination of senior pupils abroad. Scientific novelty. The approaches to career-oriented activities in countries with different levels of economic development are compared for the first time. Some principles are revealed. Firstly, the higher the income level per capita in the country, the greater attention is given to vocational guidance. The politics in the developed countries is based on interests of the individual: children’s acquaintance with the world of professions begins already at younger school and the moment of definitive selfdetermination is postponed till the end of their senior stage of education; the possibility of direction change of professional preparation in case of detection of discrepancy of qualities of the pupil to originally selected profile is provided. Career-oriented activity in developing countries, on the contrary, is rigidly coordinated to requirements of economy and a labour market

  19. Neutron experiments at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of the nucleon-nucleon force is the most fundamental in nuclear physics and is basic to particle physics. However, in the energy range from pion production threshold to 1 GeV, the N-N interaction is rather poorly determined. In general, at these energies, there is no unique set of phase shifts and coupling parameters; the I = 1 parameters are known at least quantitatively, but the I = 0 parameters are not even known qualitatively. This is illustrated by the variation of 3 S 1 phase shift from -17 to 35 0 in the three solutions of the energy-independent nucleon-nucleon phase shift analysis of Glonti. In addition, these results are in considerable disagreement with the analyses of MacGregor. This is due to the paucity of the n-p scattering data including polarization and triple scattering parameters. Furthermore, as will be shown later, there is considerable disagreement between the results from different groups in the intermediate energy region of even so basic an observable as the n-p differential cross section. Therefore, a long range program was started for the definitive determination of the n-p interaction at LAMPF energies (300 to 800 MeV). This is an ambitious project which will ultimately require the performance of many experiments. Each successive set of measurements will clarify our understainding of the n-p system to some degree and simplify the problems of the subsequent measurements. In this communication a general description of the experimental setup and the various neutron experiments performed at LAMPF is given

  20. Septorhinoplasty: Our Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Jaimanti; Patro, Sourabha K

    2017-09-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the oldest known surgeries to the human kind. However, being a cosmetic of surgery of utmost importance, it has been an attractive and fascinating surgery for the otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons. Along with the evolution of improved techniques and better surgical modalities, this surgery has been growing in panorama including its indications, needs and techniques. We present our experience with rhinoplasty in a tertiary care center of north India. We have included all cases operated with septorhinoplasty from 2001 to 2014 by the senior author in the manuscript. We reviewed their presentations, investigations, preoperative counselling records, operative details and post-operative clinical records to audit our results and hence to document our experiences in septorhinoplasties. A total of 53 cases including 37 males and 16 females had undergone rhinoplasty surgeries. The most common reason of disfigurement was road traffic accident (58.5%). All these patients included different deformities and required varied corrections. There were no major post-operative complications except persistent edema with longest lasting for 23 weeks. Thermal splints gave a better patient satisfaction in post-op compared to POP splints. Results were completely and partially satisfying for 50 patients and not satisfying for three. Unrealistic expectations from the procedure might be the reason for non-satisfactory results in rhinoplasty. Rhinoplasty is a delicate procedure and has greater aesthetic implications in planning surgical techniques and approaches. For better satisfaction of patients, adequate preoperative counseling and realistic expectations are warranted. Skillful surgical techniques null chances of complications.

  1. Exploring employer job requirements: An analysis of pharmacy job announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James S; Ngo, Tien; Cecil, Jasmine; Borja-Hart, Nancy

    Postgraduate training, dual degrees, and board certifications are credentials viewed by academic pharmacy communities and professional organizations as positive assets for those seeking pharmacist jobs; however, a key question merits further investigation: do these views match employer expectations? The primary objective of this study was to identify the most common qualifications employers require as stated in job advertisements. Pharmacist job postings from the aggregate jobs website Indeed.com were evaluated for the 20 largest metropolitan areas in the United States. Search criteria included: pharmacist, full-time, and within a 50-mile radius of the metropolitan area. Positions were excluded if they were not pharmacist specific, did not require a pharmacy degree, were part-time, or were temporary. Required and preferred qualifications were collected in the following categories: practice type, experience needed, training, certification, and desired skills. Six hundred and eleven of 1356 postings met inclusion criteria. Positions were classified as community (113), health-system (264), industry (149), academia (9), or other (76). Four hundred and six (66.4%) required a minimum of a Bachelor's of Pharmacy degree, while 174 (28.4%) required a Doctor of Pharmacy degree. Experience was required for 467 positions (range of 6 months to 14 years). Postgraduate training was required for 73 positions (66 residency/7 fellowship). One job required a Master's degree, type unspecified. BPS certifications were required for 7 positions (1.1%) and preferred for 22 positions (3.6%). Certifications and skills most required by employers were verbal and written skills (248), Microsoft Office proficiency (93), immunization certifications (51), and Basic Life Support/Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation certifications (37). Postgraduate training, dual degrees, and board certification were not significant factors in the qualification criteria for the positions identified. The qualifications

  2. The SUPER Program: A Research-based Undergraduate Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernakovich, J. G.; Boone, R. B.; Boot, C. M.; Denef, K.; Lavallee, J. M.; Moore, J. C.; Wallenstein, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Producing undergraduates capable of broad, independent thinking is one of the grand challenges in science education. Experience-based learning, specifically hands-on research, is one mechanism for increasing students' ability to think critically. With this in mind, we created a two-semester long research program called SUPER (Skills for Undergraduate Participation in Ecological Research) aimed at teaching students to think like scientists and enhancing the student research experience through instruction and active-learning about the scientific method. Our aim was for students to gain knowledge, skills, and experience, and to conduct their own research. In the first semester, we hosted active-learning workshops on "Forming Hypotheses", "Experimental Design", "Collecting and Managing Data", "Analysis of Data", "Communicating to a Scientific Audience", "Reading Literature Effectively", and "Ethical Approaches". Each lesson was taught by different scientists from one of many ecological disciplines so that students were exposed to the variation in approach that scientists have. In the second semester, students paired with a scientific mentor and began doing research. To ensure the continued growth of the undergraduate researcher, we continued the active-learning workshops and the students attended meetings with their mentors. Thus, the students gained technical and cognitive skills in parallel, enabling them to understand both "the how" and "the why" of what they were doing in their research. The program culminated with a research poster session presented by the students. The interest in the program has grown beyond our expectations, and we have now run the program successfully for two years. Many of the students have gone on to campus research jobs, internships and graduate school, and have attributed part of their success in obtaining their positions to their experience with the SUPER program. Although common in other sciences, undergraduate research experiences are

  3. Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2003-05-01

    Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume = 14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 μl O 2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O 2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O 2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination.

  4. Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Hasentein, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume=14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 microliters O2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination. c2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  5. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  6. Development of transportation operations requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, S.T.; Best, R.E.; Danese, F.L.; Peterson, R.W.; Pope, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Transport conditions at various utility sties vary dramatically in terms of characteristics at and near the site, requirements, administrative procedures, and other factors. Continuation of design efforts for the OCRWM transportation operations system requires that the operating requirements for the transportation system -- quantity of fuel per unit time per site -- be identified so that the effect the variations have on the system can be accommodated. The approach outlined in this paper provides for an identification of specific sites, evaluation of shipment capabilities at each site, and integration of the sites into multi-site shipping campaigns to scope the logistics management problem for the transportation operations system. 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Particle physics experiments 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, M.D.; Stuart, G.

    1983-01-01

    Work carried out in 1982 on 52 experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel is described. Each experiment is listed under title, collaboration, technique, accelerator, year of running, status and spokesman. Unedited contributions are given from each experiment. (U.K.)

  8. Framework of product experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.; Hekkert, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a general framework for product experience that applies to all affective responses that can be experienced in human-product interaction. Three distinct components or levels of product experiences are discussed: aesthetic experience, experience of meaning, and emotional

  9. Engineering education for youth: Diverse elementary school students' experiences with engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Theresa

    Lingering concerns over the persistent achievement gap amidst the trend of an increasingly diverse society have been compounded by calls from the Oval Office, the National Science Board, and nationwide media to also address our current creativity crisis. Now, more than ever, we have a responsibility to produce a STEM-capable (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) workforce to meet the demands of our rapidly changing local and global economic landscape. Barriers exist in our traditional educational system, which has historically limited underrepresented groups' affiliation and membership in the disciplines of science and engineering. The recent incorporation of engineering into the latest science education reform efforts presents an opportunity to expose students as early as elementary school to engineering practices and habits of mind, which have the potential to stimulate creative thinking skills through engineering design. This qualitative study was designed to examine the ways in which engineering education has the potential to promote creativity and academic competence in elementary science classrooms. As a part of my study, a diverse group of students from two fifth-grade classrooms took part in a 10-12 hour, engineering-based curriculum unit (Engineering is Elementary) during their regular science instructional time. Using a sociocultural lens, to include cultural production and identities in practice as part of my framework, I analyzed group and individual performances through classroom observations, student interviews, and teacher reflections to better understand the meaning students made of their experiences with engineering. Findings from the study included the ways in which creativity was culturally produced in the classroom to include: 1) idea generation; 2) design and innovation; 3) gumption/resourcefulness; and 4) social value. Opportunities for collaboration increased through each stage of the unit culminating with the design challenge

  10. The AEGIS experiment at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerbauer, A., E-mail: a.kellerbauer@cern.ch [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Allkofer, Y.; Amsler, C. [University of Zurich, Physics Institute (Switzerland); Belov, A. S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Bonomi, G. [University of Brescia, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (Italy); Braeunig, P. [University of Heidelberg, Kirchhoff Institute for Physics (Germany); Bremer, J. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department (Switzerland); Brusa, R. S. [University of Trento, Department of Physics (Italy); Burghart, G. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department (Switzerland); Cabaret, L. [Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Laboratoire Aime Cotton (France); Canali, C. [University of Zurich, Physics Institute (Switzerland); Castelli, F. [University of Milano, Department of Physics (Italy); Chlouba, K. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Department of Physics (Czech Republic); Cialdi, S. [University of Milano, Department of Physics (Italy); Comparat, D. [Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Laboratoire Aime Cotton (France); Consolati, G. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Physics (Italy); Dassa, L. [University of Brescia, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (Italy); Noto, L. Di [University of Trento, Department of Physics (Italy); Donzella, A. [University of Brescia, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (Italy); Doser, M. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department (Switzerland); Collaboration: AEGIS Collaboration; and others

    2012-05-15

    After the first production of cold antihydrogen by the ATHENA and ATRAP experiments ten years ago, new second-generation experiments are aimed at measuring the fundamental properties of this anti-atom. The goal of AEGIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) is to test the weak equivalence principle by studying the gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter with a pulsed, cold antihydrogen beam. The experiment is currently being assembled at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator. In AEGIS, antihydrogen will be produced by charge exchange of cold antiprotons with positronium excited to a high Rydberg state (n > 20). An antihydrogen beam will be produced by controlled acceleration in an electric-field gradient (Stark acceleration). The deflection of the horizontal beam due to its free fall in the gravitational field of the earth will be measured with a moire deflectometer. Initially, the gravitational acceleration will be determined to a precision of 1%, requiring the detection of about 10{sup 5} antihydrogen atoms. In this paper, after a general description, the present status of the experiment will be reviewed.

  11. Nurses' experiences of ethnographic fieldwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Lucas Pereira; Stofel, Natália Sevilha; Gualda, Dulce Maria Rosa; de Campos, Edemilson Antunes

    2014-09-01

    To reflect on the experiences of nurses performing ethnographic fieldwork in three studies. The application of ethnography to nursing research requires discussion about nurses' experiences of ethnographic fieldwork. This article examines some of the dilemmas that arise during the research process. Three ethnographic studies conducted by the authors in the south and southeast of Brazil. Excerpts from field diaries created during each research are presented at the end of each topic discussed. This is a reflexive paper that explores the nurses' experience in ethnographic fieldwork. This article discusses the main tasks involved in ethnographic research, including defining the study aim, reading and understanding anthropological theoretical bases, and setting a timeframe for the study. The article also discusses the idiosyncrasies of the cultural contexts studied, the bureaucracy that may be confronted when gaining access to the field, the difficulty of transforming the familiar into the strange, why ethnocentric perspectives should be avoided, and the anthropological doubt that places the ethnographer in the position of apprentice. It also discusses the importance of listening to others, reflexivity and strategies to stay in the field. For researchers, ethnographic fieldwork can be a rite of passage, but one that provides invaluable experiences that emphasise the value of relationships based on dialogue, reflexivity and negotiation. The main tasks undertaken in ethnographic research discussed in this article could contribute to the nurse' experience of conducting ethnographic fieldwork.

  12. Signage Required Term and Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recipient is required to place a sign at construction sites supported under this award displaying the EPA logo in a manner that informs the public that the project is funded in part or wholly by the EPA.

  13. LH2 airport requirements study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the facilities and equipment which will be required at a representative airport is provided so liquid hydrogen LH2 can be used as fuel in long range transport aircraft in 1995-2000. A complete facility was conceptually designed, sized to meet the projected air traffic requirement. The facility includes the liquefaction plant, LH2, storage capability, and LH2 fuel handling system. The requirements for ground support and maintenance for the LH2 fueled aircraft were analyzed. An estimate was made of capital and operating costs which might be expected for the facility. Recommendations were made for design modifications to the reference aircraft, reflecting results of the analysis of airport fuel handling requirements, and for a program of additional technology development for air terminal related items.

  14. Deaf mobile application accessibility requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-08-01

    Requirement for deaf mobile applications need to be analysed to ensure the disabilities need are instilled into the mobile applications developed for them. Universal design is understandable to comply every user needs, however specific disability is argued by the authors to have different need and requirements. These differences are among the reasons for these applications being developed to target for a specific group of people, however they are less usable and later abandoned. This study focuses on deriving requirements that are needed by the deaf in their mobile applications that are meant specifically for them. Studies on previous literature was conducted it can be concluded that graphic, text, multimedia and sign language interpreter are among mostly required features to be included in their mobile application to ensure the applications are usable for this community.

  15. Guest Comment: Universal Language Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Bruce Arne

    1979-01-01

    Explains that reading English among Scientists is almost universal, however, there are enormous problems with spoken English. Advocates the use of Esperanto as a viable alternative, and as a language requirement for graduate work. (GA)

  16. Fusion technology status and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of fusion technology and discusses the requirements to be met in order to build a demonstration fusion plant. Strategies and programmatic considerations in pursuing engineering feasibility are also outlined

  17. Grant Closeout Requirements and Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requirements and reports to comply with grant closeout, including Final Federal Financial Report (FFR, SF425); Final Research Performance Progress Report (FRPPR); Interim Research Performance Progress Report (IRPPR); Final Invention Statement (FIS, HHS

  18. Electrocardiogram Scanner-System Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-01

    An experimental and analytical study has been conducted to establish the feasibility for scanning and digitizing electrocardiogram records. The technical requirements and relative costs for two systems are discussed herein. One is designed to automat...

  19. PFP requirements development planning guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINCLAIR, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The PFP Requirements Development Planning Guide presents the strategy and process used for the identification, allocation, and maintenance of requirements within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) integrated project baseline. Future revisions to this document will be included as attachments (e.g., results of the PFP Requirements Analysis attributable to this approach). This document is intended be a Project-owned management tool. As such, this document will periodically require revisions resulting from improvements of the information, processes, and techniques as now described. Future updates may be made to this document by PFP management and final approval of the content will be accomplished in a Baseline Change Request as it impacts the Multi-Year Work Plan, or baseline information managed in the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Baseline

  20. Requirements for Space Settlement Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2004-02-01

    When large space settlements are finally built, inevitably the customers who pay for them will start the process by specifying requirements with a Request for Proposal (RFP). Although we are decades away from seeing the first of these documents, some of their contents can be anticipated now, and provide insight into the variety of elements that must be researched and developed before space settlements can happen. Space Settlement Design Competitions for High School students present design challenges in the form of RFPs, which predict basic requirements for space settlement attributes in the future, including structural features, infrastructure, living conveniences, computers, business areas, and safety. These requirements are generically summarized, and unique requirements are noted for specific space settlement locations and applications.

  1. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  2. Capturing Requirements for Autonomous Spacecraft with Autonomy Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike

    2014-08-01

    The Autonomy Requirements Engineering (ARE) approach has been developed by Lero - the Irish Software Engineering Research Center within the mandate of a joint project with ESA, the European Space Agency. The approach is intended to help engineers develop missions for unmanned exploration, often with limited or no human control. Such robotics space missions rely on the most recent advances in automation and robotic technologies where autonomy and autonomic computing principles drive the design and implementation of unmanned spacecraft [1]. To tackle the integration and promotion of autonomy in software-intensive systems, ARE combines generic autonomy requirements (GAR) with goal-oriented requirements engineering (GORE). Using this approach, software engineers can determine what autonomic features to develop for a particular system (e.g., a space mission) as well as what artifacts that process might generate (e.g., goals models, requirements specification, etc.). The inputs required by this approach are the mission goals and the domain-specific GAR reflecting specifics of the mission class (e.g., interplanetary missions).

  3. Sustained spheromak physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B.; Bulmer, R.H.; Cohen, B.I.

    2001-01-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX, will study spheromak physics with particular attention to energy confinement and magnetic fluctuations in a spheromak sustained by electrostatic helicity injection. In order to operate in a low collisionality mode, requiring T e >100 eV, vacuum techniques developed for tokamaks will be applied, and a divertor will be used for the first time in a spheromak. The discharge will operate for pulse lengths of several milliseconds, long compared to the time to establish a steady-state equilibrium but short compared to the L/R time of the flux conserver. The spheromak and helicity injector ('gun') are closely coupled, as shown by an ideal MHD model with force-free injector and edge plasmas. The current from the gun passes along the symmetry axis of the spheromak, and the resulting toroidal magnetic field causes the safety factor, q, to diverge on the separatrix. The q-profile depends on the ratio of the injector current to spheromak current and on the magnetic flux coupling the injector to the spheromak. New diagnostics include magnetic field measurements by a reflectometer operating in combined O- and X-modes and by a transient internal probe (TIP). (author)

  4. Sustained spheromak physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B.; Bulmer, R.H.; Cohen, B.I.

    1999-01-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX, will study spheromak physics with particular attention to energy confinement and magnetic fluctuations in a spheromak sustained by electrostatic helicity injection. In order to operate in a low collisionality mode, requiring T e > 100 eV, vacuum techniques developed for tokamaks will be applied, and a divertor will be used for the first time in a spheromak. The discharge will operate for pulse lengths of several milliseconds, long compared to the time to establish a steady-state equilibrium but short compared to the L/R time of the flux conserver. The spheromak and helicity injector ('gun') are closely coupled, as shown by an ideal MHD model with force-free injector and edge plasmas. The current from the gun passes along the symmetry axis of the spheromak, and the resulting toroidal magnetic field causes the safety factor, q, to diverge on the separatrix. The q-profile depends on the ratio of the injector current to spheromak current and on the magnetic flux coupling the injector to the spheromak. New diagnostics include magnetic field measurements by a reflectometer operating in combined O- and X-modes and by a transient internal probe (TIP). (author)

  5. Young students experience theory

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Three sixteen-year-old students from the International School of Geneva, La Chataigneraie have spent a week finding out about the life of a theoretical physicist at CERN. Student Peter Bishop at the blackboard with Robert Fleischer of Theory Division. Peter Bishop, Sam Schoenholz and Alexander Hultin spent the time with the Theory Unit of the Physics department. The visit was at the suggestion of the students themselves, who are required to undertake work experience at an organization, gaining insights into professional life, as part of their studies. After an introduction to CERN at Microcosm, each student had the opportunity to learn about physics at a level well beyond their current academic training. They were mentored by theoretical physicists who introduced them to the basics of particle physics, discussing physics in general as well as topics such as predicting the mass of the Higgs boson and cosmology. A visit to CMS, guided by Ariane Frey, proved very impressive, but the working conditions of physi...

  6. Some Qualitative Requirements for Testing of Nuclear Emergency Response Robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heungseop; Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Youngsoo; Jeong, Kyungmin

    2014-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is carrying out the project 'Development of Core Technology for Remote Response in Nuclear Emergency Situation', and as a part of the project, we are studying the reliability and performance requirements of nuclear emergency response robots. In this paper, we described some qualitative requirements for testing of nuclear emergency response robots which are different to general emergency response robots. We briefly introduced test requirements of general emergency response robots and described some qualitative aspects of test requirements for nuclear emergency response robots. When considering an immature field-robot technology and variety of nuclear emergency situations, it seems hard to establish quantitative test requirements of these robots at this time. However, based on studies of nuclear severe accidents and the experience of Fukushima NPP accident, we can expect some test requirements including quantitative ones for nuclear emergency response robots

  7. Nuclear power manpower and training requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whan, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A broad spectrum of technical personnel is required to conduct a national nuclear power program, predominantly electrical, mechanical, and nuclear engineers and health physicists. The need for nuclear education and training, even in the early planning states, is the topic of this paper. Experience gained in the United States can provide useful information to Asia-Pacific countries developing nuclear power programs. Including both on-site and off-site personnel, U.S. plants average about 570 workers for BWRs and 700 for PWRs. The need for an additional 57,000 technical employees over the next decade is projected. The technical backgrounds of the manpower required to operate and support a nuclear power plant are distinctly different from those used by non-nuclear utilities. Manpower cannot be transferred from fossil fuel plants without extensive training. Meeting the demand for nuclear education and training must be a friendly partnership among universities, government, and industry. The long-term supply of nuclear-educated personnel requires strong, government-supported universities. Most specific training, however, must be provided by industry. (author)

  8. Beam Stability: Raytracing Requirements and Implementations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.; Bissen, Mark J.; Pedley, Robert T.; Severson, Mary C.; Stott, John P.; Hallin, Emil L.

    2004-01-01

    Stability to-the-user fundamentally starts with present needs and future goals from the user community conveyed to facility staff in terms of user observables into the sample chamber. These are then projected onto the requirements for both the beamlines and the sources. In turn, specifications unfold for performance of subsystems, individual components, and facility services. Altogether, this process involves users, and facility staff from beamlines, operations, engineering, controls, and machine physics.This paper focuses on the transformation of user-to-source requirements, which is a small, but critical, part of the general subject. This translation has been expedited by semi-automated use, via scripting, of the SHADOW raytracing software. The dependence of each user observable on each source parameter is functionally determined, and inverted, for variable values of the user observables. In this way, source stability requirements can be readily determined for the needs of a given experiment on a given beamline in a particular mode. A description of the algorithms, with a working example on a new, slitless undulator beamline at SRC are presented

  9. Design Requirements for Communication-Intensive Interactive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolchini, Davide; Garzotto, Franca; Paolini, Paolo

    Online interactive applications call for new requirements paradigms to capture the growing complexity of computer-mediated communication. Crafting successful interactive applications (such as websites and multimedia) involves modeling the requirements for the user experience, including those leading to content design, usable information architecture and interaction, in profound coordination with the communication goals of all stakeholders involved, ranging from persuasion to social engagement, to call for action. To face this grand challenge, we propose a methodology for modeling communication requirements and provide a set of operational conceptual tools to be used in complex projects with multiple stakeholders. Through examples from real-life projects and lessons-learned from direct experience, we draw on the concepts of brand, value, communication goals, information and persuasion requirements to systematically guide analysts to master the multifaceted connections of these elements as drivers to inform successful communication designs.

  10. Coated fuel particles: requirements and status of fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huschka, H.; Vygen, P.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel cycle, design, and irradiation performance requirements impose restraints on the fabrication processes. Both kernel and coating fabrication processes are flexible enough to adapt to the needs of the various existing and proposed high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Extensive experience has demonstrated that fuel kernels with excellent sphericity and uniformity can be produced by wet chemical processes. Similarly experience has shown that the various multilayer coatings can be produced to fully meet design and specification requirements. Quality reliability of coated fuel particles is ensured by quality control and quality assurance programs operated by an aduiting system that includes licensing officials and the customer

  11. Operating experience gained during the copper oxide plugging incident in Koeberg unit 1 generator stator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor, S.P.; Matthee, F.W. [ESKOM, Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (South Africa)

    2002-07-01

    In June 1999 Koeberg's unit 1 started to experience adverse operating conditions which were later ascribed to blockages in the hollow conductors of the generator stator. These blockages were attributed to copper oxide plugs which developed progressively during the following year and culminated in reduced power operation. Many attempts were made to address the plugging by implementing various off-line and on-line cleaning processes. Subsequent to a successful on-line cleaning operation, the unit was returned to full power and the chemistry regime for the stator cooling water system was changed to allow for operation at an elevated pH. This paper discusses Koeberg's experience with copper oxide blockages, describes the initial indications of the problem and the impact on the operating parameters. The remainder of the paper focuses on the actions taken to address the deteriorating situation and the different cleaning methods implemented to remove the copper oxide deposits. The paper concludes with the current status of the unit 1 generator stator and the lessons learned during the resolution of this problem. (authors)

  12. Operating experience gained during the copper oxide plugging incident in Koeberg unit 1 generator stator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellor, S.P.; Matthee, F.W.

    2002-01-01

    In June 1999 Koeberg's unit 1 started to experience adverse operating conditions which were later ascribed to blockages in the hollow conductors of the generator stator. These blockages were attributed to copper oxide plugs which developed progressively during the following year and culminated in reduced power operation. Many attempts were made to address the plugging by implementing various off-line and on-line cleaning processes. Subsequent to a successful on-line cleaning operation, the unit was returned to full power and the chemistry regime for the stator cooling water system was changed to allow for operation at an elevated pH. This paper discusses Koeberg's experience with copper oxide blockages, describes the initial indications of the problem and the impact on the operating parameters. The remainder of the paper focuses on the actions taken to address the deteriorating situation and the different cleaning methods implemented to remove the copper oxide deposits. The paper concludes with the current status of the unit 1 generator stator and the lessons learned during the resolution of this problem. (authors)

  13. Pilgrimage Experience and Consumption of Travel to the City of Makkah for Hajj Ritual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razaq Raj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern society which, by definition is increasingly secular and culturally motivated, the Hajj is considered the culmination of each Muslim's religious duty and aspiration. It is stated in the Holy Qur'an, that every physically and financially able Muslim should make the Hajj to the Holy City of Makkah once in his or her lifetime. This paper explores what people do during their pilgrimage, providing a brief description of the principle rites and experiences and their meaning to an individual participants travelling from the USA. The paper will draw upon previously published literature as well as an analysis of findings from a quantitative study in which steps within the pilgrimage process were explored. These findings include participants’ descriptions of the significance and value of the experience which individual pilgrims face during travel to the holy city of Makkah. The results from the quantitative study indicated that the main motivations to attend the annual pilgrimage of Hajj were to fulfil religious obligation, spiritual enhancement and to follow teachings of the Quran and the Prophet Muhammad.

  14. 14 CFR 125.285 - Pilot qualifications: Recent experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot qualifications: Recent experience... Requirements § 125.285 Pilot qualifications: Recent experience. (a) No certificate holder may use any person, nor may any person serve, as a required pilot flight crewmember unless within the preceding 90...

  15. Puberty menorrhagia Requiring Inpatient Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Khosla

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Puberty menorrhagia is a significant health problem in adolescent age group and severe cases may require admission and blood transfusion. Aim of this study was to evaluate the causes, associated complications and management of puberty menorrhagia. METHODS: Hospital records of all patients of puberty menorrhagia requiring admission were analyzed for etiology, duration since menarche, duration of bleeding, investigation profile and management. RESULTS: There were 18 patients of puberty menorrhagia requiring hospital admission. Etiology was anovulatory bleeding in 11 patients, bleeding disorders in five which included idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura in three and one each with Von-Willebrand disease and leukemia. Two patients had hypothyroidism as the cause. Fourteen patients presented with severe anaemia and required blood transfusion. All except one responded to oral hormonal therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Puberty menorrhagia can be associated with severe complications and requiring blood transfusion. Although most common cause is anovulation but bleeding disorder, other medical condition and other organic causes must be ruled out in any patient of Puberty menorrhagia. KEYWORDS: anovulation, bleeding disorder, puberty, menorrhagia, anaemia.

  16. The JPL functional requirements tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Geoff; Skinner, Judith; Stoller, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are complex vehicles which are built according to many thousands of requirements. Problems encountered in documenting and maintaining these requirements led to the current attempt to reduce or eliminate these problems by a computer automated data base Functional Requirements Tool. The tool developed at JPL and in use on several JPL Projects is described. The organization and functionality of the Tool, together with an explanation of the data base inputs, their relationships, and use are presented. Methods of interfacing with external documents, representation of tables and figures, and methods of approval and change processing are discussed. The options available for disseminating information from the Tool are identified. The implementation of the Requirements Tool is outlined, and the operation is summarized. The conclusions drawn from this work is that the Requirements Tool represents a useful addition to the System Engineer's Tool kit, it is not currently available elsewhere, and a clear development path exists to expand the capabilities of the Tool to serve larger and more complex projects.

  17. Quality Assurance Requirements and Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram Murthy

    2002-01-01

    The Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) is the principal Quality Assurance (QA) document for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program (Program). It establishes the minimum requirements for the QA program [INTRODUCTION :1p2s (NOT A REQUIREMENT)]. The QARD contains regulatory requirements and program commitments necessary for the development of an effective QA program [INTRODUCTION :1p3s (NOT A REQUIREMENT)]. Implementing documents must be based on, and be consistent with the QARD. The QARD applies to the following: (1) Acceptance of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. (2) Transport of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. (3) Storage of spent nuclear fuel through receipt of storage cask certification or a facility operating license. (4) Monitored Geologic Repository, including the site characterization activities [Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and surface based testing], through receipt of an operating license. (5) High-level waste form development through qualification, production, and acceptance. (6) Characterization of DOE spent nuclear fuel, and conditioning through acceptance of DOE spent nuclear fuel. Section 2.0, Quality Assurance Program, defines in greater detail criteria for determining work subject to the QARD

  18. The ERASMUS experiment archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakeit, Dieter; Sabbatini, Massimo; Carey, William

    2005-08-01

    The Erasmus Experiment Archive is an electronic database, accessible through the Internet, that collects in a single reference repository scientific, technical and operational information regarding the experiments performed in the experiment facilities which fall under the responsibility of the ESA Directorate of Human Spaceflight, Microgravity and Exploration. The archive is operated, filled with content and kept up-to-date by the Erasmus User Centre. which forms part of the Directorate. The archive shares its records and is interoperable with similar experiment archives of the partner agencies NASA USA) and JAXA (Japan) through a mutually agreed standard for experiment records called the International Distributed Experiment Archive (IDEA).

  19. Glufosinate Ammonium-Induced Pathogen Inhibition and Defense Responses Culminate in Disease Protection in bar-Transgenic Rice1[C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2008-01-01

    Glufosinate ammonium diminished developments of rice (Oryza sativa) blast and brown leaf spot in 35S:bar-transgenic rice. Pre- and postinoculation treatments of this herbicide reduced disease development. Glufosinate ammonium specifically impeded appressorium formation of the pathogens Magnaporthe grisea and Cochliobolus miyabeanus on hydrophobic surface and on transgenic rice. In contrast, conidial germination remained unaffected. Glufosinate ammonium diminished mycelial growth of two pathogens; however, this inhibitory effect was attenuated in malnutrition conditions. Glufosinate ammonium caused slight chlorosis and diminished chlorophyll content; however, these alterations were almost completely restored in transgenic rice within 7 d. Glufosinate ammonium triggered transcriptions of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) genes and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in transgenic rice and PR1 transcription in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) wild-type ecotype Columbia harboring 35S:bar construct. All transgenic Arabidopsis showed robust hydrogen peroxide accumulation by glufosinate ammonium. This herbicide also induced PR1 transcription in etr1 and jar1 expressing bar; however, no expression was observed in NahG and npr1. Fungal infection did not alter transcriptions of PR genes and hydrogen peroxide accumulation induced by glufosinate ammonium. Infiltration of glufosinate ammonium did not affect appressorium formation of M. grisea in vivo but inhibited blast disease development. Hydrogen peroxide scavengers nullified blast protection and transcriptions of PR genes by glufosinate ammonium; however, they did not affect brown leaf spot progression. In sum, both direct inhibition of pathogen infection and activation of defense systems were responsible for disease protection in bar-transgenic rice. PMID:17981989

  20. Glufosinate ammonium-induced pathogen inhibition and defense responses culminate in disease protection in bar-transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2008-01-01

    Glufosinate ammonium diminished developments of rice (Oryza sativa) blast and brown leaf spot in 35S:bar-transgenic rice. Pre- and postinoculation treatments of this herbicide reduced disease development. Glufosinate ammonium specifically impeded appressorium formation of the pathogens Magnaporthe grisea and Cochliobolus miyabeanus on hydrophobic surface and on transgenic rice. In contrast, conidial germination remained unaffected. Glufosinate ammonium diminished mycelial growth of two pathogens; however, this inhibitory effect was attenuated in malnutrition conditions. Glufosinate ammonium caused slight chlorosis and diminished chlorophyll content; however, these alterations were almost completely restored in transgenic rice within 7 d. Glufosinate ammonium triggered transcriptions of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) genes and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in transgenic rice and PR1 transcription in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) wild-type ecotype Columbia harboring 35S:bar construct. All transgenic Arabidopsis showed robust hydrogen peroxide accumulation by glufosinate ammonium. This herbicide also induced PR1 transcription in etr1 and jar1 expressing bar; however, no expression was observed in NahG and npr1. Fungal infection did not alter transcriptions of PR genes and hydrogen peroxide accumulation induced by glufosinate ammonium. Infiltration of glufosinate ammonium did not affect appressorium formation of M. grisea in vivo but inhibited blast disease development. Hydrogen peroxide scavengers nullified blast protection and transcriptions of PR genes by glufosinate ammonium; however, they did not affect brown leaf spot progression. In sum, both direct inhibition of pathogen infection and activation of defense systems were responsible for disease protection in bar-transgenic rice.

  1. The Greenland ice sheet - a model for its culmination and decay during and after the last glacial maximum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby; Hansen, Louise

    1996-01-01

    there was little change at all. The driving factor during this step was calving caused by rising sea level. This lasted until c. 10 ka, but may have been consumated before the Younger Dryas. The second step began with a glacier-readvance between 10 and 9.5 ka, and after this the fjord glaciers began to retreat....... Maximum Holocene uplift was attained in areas of the 10 ka ice margin, indicating that the uplift is essentially a response to the melting and unloading of ice that began at this time. In suppport of this, recent results in West, North and East Greenland indicate that the...

  2. Scoulerine affects microtubule structure, inhibits proliferation, arrests cell cycle and thus culminates in the apoptotic death of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habartova, Klara; Havelek, Radim; Seifrtova, Martina; Kralovec, Karel; Cahlikova, Lucie; Chlebek, Jakub; Cermakova, Eva; Mazankova, Nadezda; Marikova, Jana; Kunes, Jiri; Novakova, Lucie; Rezacova, Martina

    2018-03-19

    Scoulerine is an isoquinoline alkaloid, which indicated promising suppression of cancer cells growth. However, the mode of action (MOA) remained unclear. Cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties were determined in this study. Scoulerine reduces the mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity of the evaluated leukemic cells with IC 50 values ranging from 2.7 to 6.5 µM. The xCELLigence system revealed that scoulerine exerted potent antiproliferative activity in lung, ovarian and breast carcinoma cell lines. Jurkat and MOLT-4 leukemic cells treated with scoulerine were decreased in proliferation and viability. Scoulerine acted to inhibit proliferation through inducing G2 or M-phase cell cycle arrest, which correlates well with the observed breakdown of the microtubule network, increased Chk1 Ser345, Chk2 Thr68 and mitotic H3 Ser10 phosphorylation. Scoulerine was able to activate apoptosis, as determined by p53 upregulation, increase caspase activity, Annexin V and TUNEL labeling. Results highlight the potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic function of scoulerine in cancer cells caused by its ability to interfere with the microtubule elements of the cytoskeleton, checkpoint kinase signaling and p53 proteins. This is the first study of the mechanism of scoulerine at cellular and molecular level. Scoulerine is a potent antimitotic compound and that it merits further investigation as an anticancer drug.

  3. Experiment WA1 (CDHS Neutrino Experiment)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    Experiment WA1, also known under CDHS (CERN, Dortmund, Heidelberg, Saclay; spokesman Jack Steinberger), was the first neutrino experiment on the SPS, in its West Area. Magnetized iron (with a toroidal field) forms the core of the detector. On its outside we see drift chambers and photomultipliers (detecting the light from the plastic scintillators further in). Peter Schilly is wearing a white coat. See also CERN Annual Report 1976, p.57.

  4. U.S. integral and benchmark experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    Verification of methods for analysis of radiation-transport (shielding) problems in Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactors has required a series of experiments that can be classified as benchmark, parametric, or design-confirmation experiments. These experiments, performed at the Oak Ridge Tower Shielding Facility, have included measurements of neutron transport in bulk shields of sodium, steel, and inconel and in configurations that simulate lower axial shields, pipe chases, and top-head shields. They have also included measurements of the effects of fuel stored within the reactor vessel and of gamma-ray energy deposition (heating). The paper consists of brief comments on these experiments, and also on a recent experiment in which neutron streaming problems in a Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor were studied. The need for additional experiments for a few areas of LMFBR shielding is also cited

  5. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  6. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In December 2011, ESnet and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), of the DOE Office of Science (SC), organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by FES. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  7. Non-functional Avionics Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulitsch, Michael; Ruess, Harald; Sorea, Maria

    Embedded systems in aerospace become more and more integrated in order to reduce weight, volume/size, and power of hardware for more fuel-effi ciency. Such integration tendencies change architectural approaches of system ar chi tec tures, which subsequently change non-functional requirements for plat forms. This paper provides some insight into state-of-the-practice of non-func tional requirements for developing ultra-critical embedded systems in the aero space industry, including recent changes and trends. In particular, formal requi re ment capture and formal analysis of non-functional requirements of avionic systems - including hard-real time, fault-tolerance, reliability, and per for mance - are exemplified by means of recent developments in SAL and HiLiTE.

  8. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation

  9. Clinical history and physical examination skills - A requirement for radiographers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaith, Beverly A.; Lancaster, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Radiographer's roles have evolved with their scope broadening over the last 20 years culminating in the development of advanced and consultant posts. Yet one development has not been embraced, despite being inherent in medicine and a common extension of nurse and other allied health professionals' roles, is that of clinical assessment. This article explores the evolving role of the radiographer and discusses whether this should include skills in clinical history taking and physical examination. Issues for education and development will be addressed together with examples of current and potential roles

  10. Overview of SSC accelerator requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper will present a general overview of the requirements of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) accelerators. Each accelerator in the injector chain will be discussed separately, followed by a discussion of the collider itself. In conclusion, the top level requirements of the overall accelerator system will be presented. For each accelerator, the primary operating parameters will be presented in tabular form. A brief narrative discussion of the principal technical features of each machine will be given. Finally, the principal technical design challenges for the machine will be noted, together with the currently planned solution to these challenges

  11. Containment leakage rate testing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the status of several documents under revision or development that provide requirements and guidance for testing nuclear power plant containment systems for leakage rates. These documents include the general revision to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix J; the regulatory guide affiliated with the revision to Appendix J; the national standard that the regulatory guide endorses, ANSI/ANS-56.8, 'Containment System Leakage Rate Testing Requirements'; and the draft industry Licensing Topical Report, 'Standardized Program for Primary Containment Integrity Testing'. The actual or potential relationships between these documents are also explored

  12. Requirements Modeling with Agent Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Aniruddha; Krishna, Aneesh; Ghose, Aditya K.

    Agent-oriented conceptual modeling notations are highly effective in representing requirements from an intentional stance and answering questions such as what goals exist, how key actors depend on each other, and what alternatives must be considered. In this chapter, we review an approach to executing i* models by translating these into set of interacting agents implemented in the CASO language and suggest how we can perform reasoning with requirements modeled (both functional and non-functional) using i* models. In this chapter we particularly incorporate deliberation into the agent design. This allows us to benefit from the complementary representational capabilities of the two frameworks.

  13. Buddy Tag CONOPS and Requirements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotz, Jay Kristoffer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deland, Sharon M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document defines the concept of operations (CONOPS) and the requirements for the Buddy Tag, which is conceived and designed in collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Princeton University under the Department of State Key VerificationAssets Fund. The CONOPS describe how the tags are used to support verification of treaty limitations and is only defined to the extent necessary to support a tag design. The requirements define the necessary functions and desired non-functional features of the Buddy Tag at a high level

  14. Neutron delayed choice experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Delayed choice experiments for neutrons can help extend the interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena. They may also rule out alternative explanations which static interference experiments allow. A simple example of a feasible neutron test is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  15. Particle physics experiments 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Rutherford Appleton laboratory report describes work carried out in 1984 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics selection panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  16. GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was the first major international experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). It was conducted over...

  17. Double beta decay: experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2006-01-01

    The results obtained so far and those of the running experiments on neutrinoless double beta decay are reviewed. The plans for second generation experiments, the techniques to be adopted and the expected sensitivities are compared and discussed

  18. Proposing an Evidence-Based Strategy for Software Requirements Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindoerfer, Doris; Mansmann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses an evidence-based approach to software requirements engineering. The approach is called evidence-based, since it uses publications on the specific problem as a surrogate for stakeholder interests, to formulate risks and testing experiences. This complements the idea that agile software development models are more relevant, in which requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing cross-functional teams. The strategy is exemplified and applied to the development of a Software Requirements list used to develop software systems for patient registries.

  19. Cost-optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike

    2011-01-01

    The CA conducted a study on experiences and challenges for setting cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements. The results were used as input by the EU Commission in their work of establishing the Regulation on a comparative methodology framework for calculating cost optimal levels...... of minimum energy performance requirements. In addition to the summary report released in August 2011, the full detailed report on this study is now also made available, just as the EC is about to publish its proposed Regulation for MS to apply in their process to update national building requirements....

  20. The LHC machine-experiment interface

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Tsesmelis, Emmanuel; Brüning, Oliver Sim

    2002-01-01

    This series of three lectures will provide an overview of issues arising at the interface between the LHC machine and the experiments, which are required for guiding the interaction between the collider and the experiments when operation of the LHC commences. A basic description of the LHC Collider and its operating parameters, such as its energy, currents, bunch structure and luminosity, as well as variations on these parameters, will be given. Furthermore, the optics foreseen for the experimental insertions, the sources and intensities of beam losses and the running-in scenarios for the various phases of operation will be discussed. A second module will cover the specific requirements and expectations of each experiment in terms of the layout of experimental areas, the matters related to radiation monitoring and shielding, the design of the beam pipe and the vacuum system, alignment issues and the measurement of the total cross-section and absolute luminosity by the experiments. Finally an analysis of infor...

  1. Organic chemistry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-01

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  2. The Experiment Factory: standardizing behavioral experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa V Sochat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (de Leeuw (2015; McDonnell et al. (2012; Mason and Suri (2011; Lange et al. (2015 have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker (2015; Open Science Collaboration (2015 highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms.

  3. Energy Experiments for STEM Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchi, John

    2011-03-01

    Texas Christian University (TCU) is developing an undergraduate program that prepares students to become engineers with an emphasis in energy systems. One of the courses in the program is a technical overview of traditional energy (coal, oil and gas), nuclear energy, and renewable energy that requires as a pre-requisite two semesters of calculus-based physics. Energy experiments are being developed that will facilitate student involvement and provide hands-on learning opportunities. Students participating in the course will improve their understanding of energy systems; be introduced to outstanding scientific and engineering problems; learn about the role of energy in a global and societal context; and evaluate contemporary issues associated with energy. This talk will present the status of experiments being developed for the technical energy survey course.

  4. Support for the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Butin, François; Gastal, M; Lacarrère, D; Macina, D; Perrot, A L; Tsesmelis, E; Wilhelmsson, M; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2008-01-01

    Experimental Area Teams have been put in place and charged with the general co-ordination and management of the LHC experimental areas and of the zones in the LHC tunnel hosting near-beam detectors of the experiments. This organization is responsible for the in situ co-ordination of work with the aim of providing a structure that enables the experiment collaborations and accelerator groups to carry out their work effectively and safely. This presentation will review some key elements in the support given to the LHC experimental areas and, given the track record and successful implementation during the LHC installation and commissioning phase, will argue that such an organization structure will be required also for the period of LHC exploitation for physics.

  5. Photodetection in the LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joram, C.

    2012-01-01

    The challenging requirements on photodetection in the LHC experiments have motivated large-scale R and D efforts on various detector technologies, which started already in the 1990s. The state-of-the-art of the LEP era would not have allowed satisfying the demanding needs, particularly from calorimetry and particle identification. After almost two decades of intense development, construction and integration efforts, the LHC and its four major experiments are performing in a just exemplary manner, in many respects exceeding the expectations. Hundreds of thousands of photodetectors with millions of readout channels contribute to this success story. This article aims at reviewing the main activities in photodetection, the initial achieved performance as well as some consolidation and first upgrade efforts.

  6. Future of neutrino experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    them are under construction. The next generation double beta decay experiments are sensitive to the inverted mass hierarchy. In order to explore the normal mass hierarchy, the sensitivity of the experiments still needs to be improved substantially. For example, see [32] for more details of the double beta decay experiments.

  7. Particle physics experiments 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairstow, R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes work carried out in 1988 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. More than forty projects at different accelerators (SPS, ISIS, PETRA, LAMPF, LEP, HERA, BNL, ILL, LEAR) are listed. Different organisations collaborate on different projects. A brief progress report is given. References to published articles are given. (author)

  8. The Game Experience Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselsteijn, W.A.; de Kort, Y.A.W.; Poels, K.

    2013-01-01

    This document contains the English version of the Game Experience Questionnaire. The development and testing of the Game Experience Questionnaire is described in project Deliverable 3.3. The Game Experience Questionnaire has a modular structure and consists of : 1. The core questionnaire 2. The

  9. Requirements Engineering: Solutions and Trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, C.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Aurum, A.; Wohlin, C.

    2005-01-01

    This last chapter of the book describes solutions and trends in the discipline of RE. Starting from a wrap-up of what was presented throughout this book, it suggests a framework of requirements engineering and indicates what current solutions are available in this framework. Beyond providing a short

  10. An Introduction to Requirements Traceability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    This report surveys the requirements traceability literature and gives some recommendations for further research and for an approach to consultancy concerning traceability in the 2RARE project. The problem of maintaining traceability in a development project is viewed as the problem of maintaining

  11. 76 FR 39259 - Manual Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... established new requirements for the certification, operation, and maintenance of light-sport aircraft under...-6474; e-mail [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA published a final rule entitled ``Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft,'' in the Federal...

  12. Requirements in Functional IT Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer, F.A.; Blaauboer, F.A.

    Requirements engineering and functional IT management have never been researched as to containing similar activities. This paper describes and compares both disciplines, where the BiSL-framework is used for functional IT management. The similarities and differences between the two disciplines are

  13. Requirements management: A CSR's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joanie

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: customer service overview of network service request processing; Customer Service Representative (CSR) responsibility matrix; extract from a sample Memorandum of Understanding; Network Service Request Form and its instructions sample notification of receipt; and requirements management in the NASA Science Internet.

  14. Requirements for flexible learner monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Glahn, C., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2007). Requirements for flexible learner monitoring. In T. Navarette, J. Blat & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the 3rd TENCompetence Open Workshop 'Current Research on IMS Learning Design and Lifelong Competence Development Infrastructures' (pp. 89-96). June,

  15. SRS control system upgrade requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.F.

    1998-01-01

    This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document

  16. Coke quality requirements in POSCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J.; Yi, J.; Wang, H. [POSCO (Republic of Korea). Cokemaking Dept.

    2001-07-01

    The 26 overheads describes coke quality requirements in POSCO, Republic of Korea. It is concluded that it is necessary to develop new coal and to prompt technical development in order to produce high quality coke. To improve coke quality. Posco had applied DMAIC (define, measurement, analysis, improvement, control) technique which is part of Six-Sigma activity.

  17. Measuring the Economic Value of Pre-MBA Work Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaple, Ronald N.; Johnston, Mark W.; Whittingham, Keith L.

    2010-01-01

    Pre-MBA work experience is required for admission to many graduate schools of business. In the present study, MBA graduates with a wide range of pre-MBA work experience were surveyed to assess the economic value of such work experience. No evidence was found of a systematic financial advantage to students from working for several years before…

  18. Remote participation at JET Task Force work: users' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttrop, W.; Kinna, D.; Farthing, J.; Hemming, O.; How, J.; Schmidt, V.

    2002-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) fusion experiment is now operated with strong involvement of physicists from outside research laboratories, which often requires remote participation in JET physics experiments. Users' experience with tools for remote collaborative work is reported, including remote computer and data access, remote meetings, shared documentation and various other communication channels

  19. FIREX mission requirements document for renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Dixon, T.

    1982-01-01

    The initial experimental program and mission requirements for a satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system FIREX (Free-Flying Imaging Radar Experiment) for renewable resources is described. The spacecraft SAR is a C-band and L-band VV polarized system operating at two angles of incidence which is designated as a research instrument for crop identification, crop canopy condition assessments, soil moisture condition estimation, forestry type and condition assessments, snow water equivalent and snow wetness assessments, wetland and coastal land type identification and mapping, flood extent mapping, and assessment of drainage characteristics of watersheds for water resources applications. Specific mission design issues such as the preferred incidence angles for vegetation canopy measurements and the utility of a dual frequency (L and C-band) or dual polarization system as compared to the baseline system are addressed.

  20. Licensing procedure and requirements in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1981-01-01

    The investigations of the different dynamic stresses of pressure suppression systems after the Wuergassen incident in 1972 and their theoretical and experimental solutions required an extraordinary effort from all participants of the licensing procedures. As a consequence of these new problems a lot of mathematical models and computer codes had been developed and a lot of experimental work had been performed. Numerous highly qualified scientists and engineers had been involved for a long time in the licensing procedures and innumerable discussions had been necessary. These investigations and discussions had a great influence on the licensing procedures and on the project running. Too pessimistic assumptions and wrong interpretations of experiments led to fictitious problems and a lot of time and money was necessary to overcome these difficulties. Finally at 1977 it could be proved that the construction was able to control stresses so that additional investigations were not necessary. (orig./HP)

  1. Building on the AGR experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    Experience with AGR reactors has indicated that quality assurance applied to procurement of plant and services throughout the hierarchy of purchasers and suppliers is a main area where there is scope for improvement. In view of this, improvements for procurement have been undertaken. These include a) the rationalisation of specified requirements for quality assurance systems, with the particular needs of each contract, and b) the rationalisation of purchasers' involvement in suppliers' quality assurance activities. Both aspects of procurement are described and discussed. (U.K.)

  2. The interaction between theory and experiment in charge density analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    The field of x-ray charge density analysis has gradually morphed into an area benefiting from the strong interactions between theoreticians and experimentalists, leading to new concepts on chemical bonding and of intermolecular interactions in condensed phases. Some highlights of the developments culminating in the 2013 Aminoff Award are described in this paper. (comment)

  3. Conversion of dependability deterministic requirements into probabilistic requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgade, E.; Le, P.

    1993-02-01

    This report concerns the on-going survey conducted jointly by the DAM/CCE and NRE/SR branches on the inclusion of dependability requirements in control and instrumentation projects. Its purpose is to enable a customer (the prime contractor) to convert into probabilistic terms dependability deterministic requirements expressed in the form ''a maximum permissible number of failures, of maximum duration d in a period t''. The customer shall select a confidence level for each previously defined undesirable event, by assigning a maximum probability of occurrence. Using the formulae we propose for two repair policies - constant rate or constant time - these probabilized requirements can then be transformed into equivalent failure rates. It is shown that the same formula can be used for both policies, providing certain realistic assumptions are confirmed, and that for a constant time repair policy, the correct result can always be obtained. The equivalent failure rates thus determined can be included in the specifications supplied to the contractors, who will then be able to proceed to their previsional justification. (author), 8 refs., 3 annexes

  4. WOLF REXUS EXPERIMENT - European Planetary Science Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzdugan, A.

    2017-09-01

    WOLF experiment is developing a reaction wheel-based control system, effectively functioning as active nutation damper. One reaction wheel is used to reduce the undesirable lateral rates of spinning cylindrically symmetric free falling units, ejected from a sounding rocket. Once validated in REXUS flight, the concept and the design developed during WOLF experiment can be used for other application which require a flat spin of the free falling units.

  5. Magnet system studies for the Zeus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baynham, D.E.; Coombs, R.C.; Uden, C.N.

    1985-11-01

    The ZEUS experiment will be mounted at the HERA accelerator complex currently under construction at DESY, Hamburg. A large volume of magnetic field will be required for charge selection of particles and track fitting. Two superconducting magnet systems which meet the parameters of the ZEUS Experiment are described; a small solenoid with good radiation transparency and a large aperture Helmholtz coil configuration. Basic design concepts and parameters are presented. (author)

  6. CFD validation experiments for hypersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    A roadmap for CFD code validation is introduced. The elements of the roadmap are consistent with air-breathing vehicle design requirements and related to the important flow path components: forebody, inlet, combustor, and nozzle. Building block and benchmark validation experiments are identified along with their test conditions and measurements. Based on an evaluation criteria, recommendations for an initial CFD validation data base are given and gaps identified where future experiments could provide new validation data.

  7. Leak before break experience in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.G.; Moan, G.D.; Coleman, C.E.

    1988-04-01

    The paper describes how the requirements for Leak-Before-Break are met in CANDU reactors. The requirements are based on operational and laboratory experience. After the onset of leakage in a fuel channel from a delayed hydride crack, time is available to the operator to take action before the crack grows to an unstable length. The time available is calculated using different models which use crack growth data from small specimen tests. When the results from crack growth behaviour experiments, carried out on components removed from reactor are used in the model, the time available for operator response is about 100 hours

  8. GNF2 Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schardt, John

    2007-01-01

    GNF's latest generation fuel product, GNF2, is designed to deliver improved nuclear efficiency, higher bundle and cycle energy capability, and more operational flexibility. But along with high performance, our customers face a growing need for absolute fuel reliability. This is driven by a general sense in the industry that LWR fuel reliability has plateaued. Too many plants are operating with fuel leakers, and the impact on plant operations and operator focus is unacceptable. The industry has responded by implementing an INPO-coordinated program aimed at achieving leaker-free reliability by 2010. One focus area of the program is the relationship between fuel performance (i.e., duty) and reliability. The industry recognizes that the right balance between performance and problem-free fuel reliability is critical. In the development of GNF2, GNF understood the requirement for a balanced solution and utilized a product development and introduction strategy that specifically addressed reliability: evolutionary design features supported by an extensive experience base; thoroughly tested components; and defense-in-depth mitigation of all identified failure mechanisms. The final proof test that the balance has been achieved is the application of the design, initially through lead use assemblies (LUAs), in a variety of plants that reflect the diversity of the BWR fleet. Regular detailed surveillance of these bundles provides the verification that the proper balance between performance and reliability has been achieved. GNF currently has GNF2 lead use assemblies operating in five plants. Included are plants that have implemented extended power up-rates, plants on one and two-year operating cycles, and plants with and without NobleChem TM and zinc injection. The leading plant has undergone three pool-side inspections outages to date. This paper reviews the actions taken to insure GNF2's reliability, and the lead use assembly surveillance data accumulated to date to validate

  9. Postpartum consultation: Occurrence, requirements and expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlgren Ingrid

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a matter of routine, midwives in Sweden have spoken with women about their experiences of labour in a so-called 'postpartum consultation'. However, the possibility of offering women this kind of consultation today is reduced due to shortage of both time and resources. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence, women's requirements of, and experiences of a postpartum consultation, and to identify expectations from women who wanted but did not have a consultation with the midwife assisting during labour. Methods All Swedish speaking women who gave birth to a live born child at a University Hospital in western Sweden were consecutively included for a phone interview over a three-week period. An additional phone interview was conducted with the women who did not have a postpartum consultation, but who wanted to talk with the midwife assisting during labour. Data from the interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Of the 150 interviewed women, 56% (n = 84 had a postpartum consultation of which 61.9% (n = 52 had this with the midwife assisting during labour. Twenty of the 28 women who did not have a consultation with anyone still desired to talk with the midwife assisting during labour. Of these, 19 were interviewed. The content the women wanted to talk about was summarized in four categories: to understand the course of events during labour; to put into words, feelings about undignified management; to describe own behaviour and feelings, and to describe own fear. Conclusion The survey shows that the frequency of postpartum consultation is decreasing, that the majority of women who give birth today still require it, but only about half of them receive it. It is crucial to develop a plan for these consultations that meets both the women's needs and the organization within current maternity care.

  10. Poloidal flux requirement: Analysis and application to the Ignitor configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassi, M.

    1993-01-01

    The definitions and correlations existing between different terms used by physicists and engineers are clarified in order to deal with the assessment of the poloidal flux requirement in a fusion experiment. The theoretical formulation of both the Faraday and the Poynting methods, for the internal flux evaluation, is briefly reviewed. Heuristic expressions that allow estimates of internal flux consumption are reported for the specific case of an ignition experiment represented by the Ignitor configuration. The analytical and heuristic results for both internal and external poloidal flux requirements are checked against numerical evaluations carried out by using the TSC transport and magnetohydrodynamics code and the TEQ equilibrium code. A fairly good agreement between the different estimates is found. This suggests that simple heuristic expressions can be used to evaluate the poloidal flux requirement of future experiments, even if a detailed simulation of the plasma current penetration process is strongly recommended to correctly assess and optimize the resistive poloidal flux consumption. Finally, the poloidal flux requirement for different plasma scenarios in the Ignitor experiment is compared with the magnetic flux variation that can be delivered by the poloidal field system. 28 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  11. Safety of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities. Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication covers the broad scope of requirements for fuel cycle facilities that, in light of the experience and present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure safety for the lifetime of the facility. Topics of specific relevance include aspects of nuclear fuel generation, storage, reprocessing and disposal

  12. 13 CFR 120.1705 - Pool formation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements. SBA may adjust the Pool characteristics periodically based on program experience and market... a Pool involving a Pool Loan it does not own, it must purchase the Loan Interest it proposes to pool... purchase the Loan Interest and take it into inventory or settle the purchase of the Loan Interest through...

  13. Frictional Forces Required for unrestrained locomotion in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van der P.P.J.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Back, W.; Braam, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    Most free-stall housing systems in the Netherlands are equipped with slatted or solid concrete floors with manure scrapers. A slipping incident occurs when the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) exceeds the coefficient of friction (COF) at the claw–floor interface. An experiment was conducted

  14. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) requirements of Heterobranchus longifilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding experiment was conducted to quantify the minimum dietary vitamin C requirement of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings. Fish were fed a basal diet with 42.5% crude protein for a conditioning period of 2 weeks. Following conditioning, fingerlings with initial mean weight, 2.3 ± 0.3 g were stocked as groups of 20 ...

  15. Threonine and lysine requirements for maintenance in chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maintenance requirement for threonine and lysine were estimated in two different experiments by measuring the nitrogen balance of adult male cockerels. Measured amounts of a diet first-limiting in threonine or lysine were fed by intubation each day for 4 d to give a range of intakes (unbalanced series) of from 0 to 239 ...

  16. 14 CFR 65.101 - Eligibility requirements: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., appropriate to the job for which he is employed; (3) Be employed for a specific job requiring those special... aircraft or components, appropriate to the job for which he is employed; (5) Have either— (i) At least 18 months of practical experience in the procedures, practices, inspection methods, materials, tools...

  17. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2017-01-01

    . In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus......We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering...

  18. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  19. The Belle II Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, J

    2017-01-01

    Set to begin data taking at the end of 2018, the Belle II experiment is the next-generation B-factory experiment hosted at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan. The experiment represents the cumulative effort from the collaboration of experimental and detector physics, computing, and software development. Taking everything learned from the previous Belle experiment, which ran from 1998 to 2010, Belle II aims to probe deeper than ever before into the field of heavy quark physics. By achieving an integrated luminosity of 50 ab−1 and accumulating 50 times more data than the previous experiment across its lifetime, along with a rewritten analysis framework, the Belle II experiment will push the high precision frontier of high energy physics. This paper will give an overview of the key components and development activities that make the Belle II experiment possible.

  20. Operation and maintenance requirements of system design bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.K.; Hanley, N.E.

    1989-01-01

    All system designs make assumptions about system operation testing, inspection, and maintenance. Existing industry codes and standards explicitly address design requirements of new systems, while issues related to system and plant reliability, life, design margins, effects of service conditions, operation, maintenance, etc., usually are implicit. However, system/component design documents of existing power plants often address the code requirements without considering the operation, maintenance, inspection, and testing (OMIT) requirements. The nuclear industry is expending major efforts at most nuclear power plants to reassemble and/or reconstitute system design bases. Stone ampersand Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) recently addressed the OMIT requirements of system/component design as an integral part of a utility's preventive maintenance program. For each component, SWEC reviewed vendor recommendations, NPRDS data/industry experience, the existing maintenance program, component service conditions, and actual plant experience. A maintenance program that considers component service conditions and plant experience ensures a connection between maintenance and design basis. Root cause analysis of failure and engineering evaluation of service condition are part of the program. System/component OMIT requirements also are compared against system design, service condition, degradation mechanism, etc., through system/component life-cycle evaluation