WorldWideScience

Sample records for culminating experience requires

  1. Culminating paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Bousquet-Mélou

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Let a and b be two positive integers. A culminating path is a path of ℤ 2 that starts from (0,0, consists of steps (1,a and (1,-b, stays above the x-axis and ends at the highest ordinate it ever reaches. These paths were first encountered in bioinformatics, in the analysis of similarity search algorithms. They are also related to certain models of Lorentzian gravity in theoretical physics. We first show that the language on a two letter alphabet that naturally encodes culminating paths is not context-free. Then, we focus on the enumeration of culminating paths. A step by step approach, combined with the kernel method, provides a closed form expression for the generating function of culminating paths ending at a (generic height k. In the case a = b, we derive from this expression the asymptotic behaviour of the number of culminating paths of length n. When a > b, we obtain the asymptotic behaviour by a simpler argument. When a < b, we only determine the exponential growth of the number of culminating paths. Finally, we study the uniform random generation of culminating paths via various methods. The rejection approach, coupled with a symmetry argument, gives an algorithm that is linear when a ≥ b, with no precomputation stage nor non-linear storage required. The choice of the best algorithm is not as clear when a < b. An elementary recursive approach yields a linear algorithm after a precomputation stage involving O (n 3 arithmetic operations, but we also present some alternatives that may be more efficient in practice.

  2. Required Preliminary Administrative Service Credential Program Culminating Activities in California NCATE Accredited Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, Louis

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this effort is to share information about the variety of culminating activities used in the acquisition of the California Preliminary Administrative Services Credential. Knowledge of these varying culminating activities and related practices has not previously been readily available. The culminating activities among California's…

  3. Frustration, culmination, and inertia in Kimaragang grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kroeger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The FRUSTRATIVE particle in Kimaragang marks unrealized expectations or intentions, counterfactuals, etc. Copley & Harley (2010 propose a unified account for frustratives, non-culminating accomplishments (‘I killed the snake but it didn’t die’ and the “imperfective paradox”, based on Dowty’s (1979 concept of “inertia”. I argue that this analysis makes the wrong predictions for Kimaragang. The distribution of frustratives and non-culminating accomplishments in Kimaragang reveals a number of differences not predicted by the Copley & Harley analysis. These differences in distribution reflect in part a difference in the kind of expectation that is involved. In non-culminating accomplishments, the unachieved result is specified by the meaning of the verb, whereas frustrative clauses may involve expectations that are based on cultural factors, knowledge of the world, etc. I sketch out an alternative analysis of Kimaragang frustratives which treats expectation and intention as modal concepts.

  4. Culminating Point and the 38th Parallel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    interrelationship among the defense , the campaign plan and the culminating point. The Korean War illustrates his point in almost textbook fashion. The natural... defense . His talk of a "buffer zone" at the Chinese- Korean border was bombastic and superficial. His purpose was to totally destroy the NKPA and unify...the country of Korea . He never did transition to defense . Without imposing restrictions on recrossing the Parallel, Ridgeway’s purpose for the UN

  5. The Culminating Point and U.S. Army Tactical Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-18

    at the tactical level. 16 SECTION III CONTEMPORARY USE AND FUTURE APPLICABILITY Forewarned, forearmed; to be prepared is half the victory. Miguel de... Cervantes U.S ARMY CONTEMPORARY USE OF TACTICAL CULMINATION The U.S. Army has been actively attempting to address the ramifications of culmination at

  6. 14 CFR 63.55 - Experience requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Experience requirements. 63.55 Section 63.55 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Navigators § 63.55 Experience...

  7. Belle-II Experiment Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bell, Greg [ESnet; Carlson, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cowley, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dart, Eli [ESnet; Erwin, Brock [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Godang, Romulus [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States); Hara, Takanori [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Johnson, Jerry [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Ron [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Johnston, Bill [ESnet; Dam, Kerstin Kleese-van [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaneko, Toshiaki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Kubota, Yoshihiro [NII; Kuhr, Thomas [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany); McCoy, John [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miyake, Hideki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Monga, Inder [ESnet; Nakamura, Motonori [NII; Piilonen, Leo [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Pordes, Ruth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ray, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russell, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schram, Malachi [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schroeder, Jim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sevior, Martin [Univ. of Melbourne (Australia); Singh, Surya [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suzuki, Soh [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, Takashi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Williams, Jim [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2013-05-28

    The Belle experiment, part of a broad-based search for new physics, is a collaboration of ~400 physicists from 55 institutions across four continents. The Belle detector is located at the KEKB accelerator in Tsukuba, Japan. The Belle detector was operated at the asymmetric electron-positron collider KEKB from 1999-2010. The detector accumulated more than 1 ab-1 of integrated luminosity, corresponding to more than 2 PB of data near 10 GeV center-of-mass energy. Recently, KEK has initiated a $400 million accelerator upgrade to be called SuperKEKB, designed to produce instantaneous and integrated luminosity two orders of magnitude greater than KEKB. The new international collaboration at SuperKEKB is called Belle II. The first data from Belle II/SuperKEKB is expected in 2015. In October 2012, senior members of the Belle-II collaboration gathered at PNNL to discuss the computing and neworking requirements of the Belle-II experiment with ESnet staff and other computing and networking experts. The day-and-a-half-long workshop characterized the instruments and facilities used in the experiment, the process of science for Belle-II, and the computing and networking equipment and configuration requirements to realize the full scientific potential of the collaboration's work.

  8. An Observation of the Sluss-Tiller Civil Affairs Culmination Exercise at Freedom Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    ARL-MR-0958 ● AUG 2017 US Army Research Laboratory An Observation of the Sluss-Tiller Civil Affairs Culmination Exercise at...An Observation of the Sluss-Tiller Civil Affairs Culmination Exercise at Freedom Village by David R Scribner Human Research and Engineering... Observation of the Sluss-Tiller Civil Affairs Culmination Exercise at Freedom Village 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  9. Presentation of research in anesthesia: Culmination into publication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the quality of research presentations made in conferences, its success or failure to be published in a peer-reviewed journal is a well-accepted marker. However, there is no data regarding the publication of research presentations made in Indian conferences of anesthesiology. Objective: The primary objective was to determine publication rate of research presented at the largest and best attended national conference in anesthesiology, the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists′ Conference (ISACON, and also compare it with the rate from an international conference American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA annual meeting held in the same year. Materials and Methods: All 363 abstracts presented as poster or podium presentations at the ISACON, and an equal number of randomly selected abstracts presented at ASA annual meeting were searched on Pubmed and Google Scholar for their full-text publications in peer-reviewed journals using a standardized search strategy. As secondary observations, abstracts were assessed for completeness by noting certain components central to research methodology. Also, changes between abstract of the presentation and published paper were noted with respect to certain components. Results: The publication rate of presentations at ISACON and ASA meetings was 5% and 22%, respectively. The abstracts from ISACON lacked central components of research such as methods and statistical tests. The commonest change in the full-text publications as compared with the original abstract from both conferences was a change in authorship. Conclusion: Steps are required to augment full-text publication of Indian research, including a more rigorous peer review of abstracts submitted to ISACON to ensure their completeness.

  10. Hydrothermal processes in mylonitic rocks at the NW edge of the Grong culmination, central Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, H.

    1984-01-01

    The cataclasite and mylonites, and the brittle/ductile deformation processes that produced them, were studied in relation to the regional geology at exposures along the northern rim of the Grong culmination, a transverse basement antiform in the Scandinavian Caledonides.

  11. 14 CFR 65.83 - Recent experience requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.83 Recent experience requirements. A certificated mechanic may not exercise the privileges of his certificate and rating unless...) He has, for at least 6 months— (1) Served as a mechanic under his certificate and rating;...

  12. The 68's: Meeting of Many Stories and Culmination of Many Battles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pozas Horcasitas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay the author wanders through the events that forged the image and the representation of the sixties, culminating in the 1968 student movements. These movements are the cultural and political condensation of the transformations that emerged in the post- World War II period.

  13. Earth Sciences Requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, David E. (Editor); Katzberg, Steve J. (Editor); Wilson, R. Gale (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to further explore and define the earth sciences requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES), a proposed onboard data processor with real-time communications capability intended to support the Earth Observing System (Eos). A review of representative Eos instrument types is given and a preliminary set of real-time data needs has been established. An executive summary is included.

  14. Student Teaching Seminars: Ideas for a Collaborative and Meaningful Culminating Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Councill, Kimberly H.; Baumgartner, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    The student teaching seminar is a crucial component in the final course work of the music education curriculum, though research that examines the structure and content of this important course is minimal. In this article, we provide in-depth descriptions of sample seminar activities, assessments, resources, and suggestions for creating a…

  15. Poster Presentations: Turning a Lab of the Week into a Culminating Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jennifer L.; Quin~ones, Rosalynn; Sunderland, Deborah P.

    2015-01-01

    An assignment incorporating posters into a second-year analytical chemistry lab is described. Students work in groups and are assigned one of the application-themed weekly laboratories as a topic. Course data acquired for these weekly laboratories are compiled into spreadsheets that the poster group then analyzes to present in an on-campus poster…

  16. The ECE Culminating Design Experience: Analysis of ABET 2000 Compliance at Leading Academic Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    of components, datapath and control for a pipelined processor to implement the ISA. The design is performed using industry strength design tools and...477: VLSI II Provides a fairly deep understanding of how IC-based memory and datapath blocks are designed using static and dynamic CMOS technologies

  17. MIRAGE: the minimum information required for a glycomics experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William S; Agravat, Sanjay; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; McBride, Ryan; Campbell, Matthew P; Costello, Catherine E; Dell, Anne; Feizi, Ten; Haslam, Stuart M; Karlsson, Niclas; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Kolarich, Daniel; Liu, Yan; Novotny, Milos; Packer, Nicolle H; Paulson, James C; Rapp, Erdmann; Ranzinger, Rene; Rudd, Pauline M; Smith, David F; Struwe, Weston B; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wells, Lance; Zaia, Joseph; Kettner, Carsten

    2014-05-01

    The MIRAGE (minimum information required for a glycomics experiment) initiative was founded in Seattle, WA, in November 2011 in order to develop guidelines for reporting the qualitative and quantitative results obtained by diverse types of glycomics analyses, including the conditions and techniques that were applied to prepare the glycans for analysis and generate the primary data along with the tools and parameters that were used to process and annotate this data. These guidelines must address a broad range of issues, as glycomics data are inherently complex and are generated using diverse methods, including mass spectrometry (MS), chromatography, glycan array-binding assays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and other rapidly developing technologies. The acceptance of these guidelines by scientists conducting research on biological systems in which glycans have a significant role will facilitate the evaluation and reproduction of glycomics experiments and data that is reported in scientific journals and uploaded to glycomics databases. As a first step, MIRAGE guidelines for glycan analysis by MS have been recently published (Kolarich D, Rapp E, Struwe WB, Haslam SM, Zaia J., et al. 2013. The minimum information required for a glycomics experiment (MIRAGE) project - Improving the standards for reporting mass spectrometry-based glycoanalytic data. Mol. Cell Proteomics. 12:991-995), allowing them to be implemented and evaluated in the context of real-world glycobiology research. In this paper, we set out the historical context, organization structure and overarching objectives of the MIRAGE initiative.

  18. STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Geoffrey [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) facilities including accelerators, light sources and neutron sources and sensors that study, the environment, and the atmosphere, are producing streaming data that needs to be analyzed for next-generation scientific discoveries. There has been an explosion of new research and technologies for stream analytics arising from the academic and private sectors. However, there has been no corresponding effort in either documenting the critical research opportunities or building a community that can create and foster productive collaborations. The two-part workshop series, STREAM: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop (STREAM2015 and STREAM2016), were conducted to bring the community together and identify gaps and future efforts needed by both NSF and DOE. This report describes the discussions, outcomes and conclusions from STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop, the second of these workshops held on March 22-23, 2016 in Tysons, VA. STREAM2016 focused on the Department of Energy (DOE) applications, computational and experimental facilities, as well software systems. Thus, the role of “streaming and steering” as a critical mode of connecting the experimental and computing facilities was pervasive through the workshop. Given the overlap in interests and challenges with industry, the workshop had significant presence from several innovative companies and major contributors. The requirements that drive the proposed research directions, identified in this report, show an important opportunity for building competitive research and development program around streaming data. These findings and recommendations are consistent with vision outlined in NRC Frontiers of Data and National Strategic Computing Initiative (NCSI) [1, 2]. The discussions from the workshop are captured as topic areas covered in this report's sections. The report

  19. Requirements for a Next Generation Framework: ATLAS Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Kama, Sami; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The challenge faced by HEP experiments from the current and expected architectural evolution of CPUs and co-processors is how to successfully exploit concurrency and keep memory consumption within reasonable limits. This is a major change from frameworks which were designed for serial event processing on single core processors in the 2000s. ATLAS has recently considered this problem in some detail through its Future Frameworks Requirements group. Here we report on the major considerations of the group, which was charged with considering the best strategies to exploit current and anticipated CPU technologies. The group has re-examined the basic architecture of event processing and considered how the building blocks of a framework (algorithms, services, tools and incidents) should evolve. The group has also had to take special care to ensure that the use cases of the ATLAS high level trigger are encompassed, which differ in important ways from offline event processing (for example, 99% of events are rejected, w...

  20. The CREAM-CE First experiences, results and requirements of the four LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mendez Lorenzo, P; Sciaba, A; Thackray, N; Shiers, J; Renshall, H; Sgaravatto, M; Padhi, S

    2010-01-01

    In terms of the gLite middleware, the current LCG-CE used by the four LHC experiments is about to be deprecated. The new CREAM-CE service (Computing Resource Execution And Management) has been approved to replace the previous service. CREAM-CE is a lightweight service created to handle job management operations at the CE level. It is able to accept requests both via the gLite WMS service and also via direct submission for transmission to the local batch system. This flexible duality provides the experiments with a large level of freedom to adapt the service to their own computing models, but at the same time it requires a careful follow up of the requirements and tests of the experiments to ensure that their needs are fulfilled before real data taking. In this paper we present the current testing results of the four LHC experiments concerning this new service. The operations procedures, which have been elaborated together with the experiment support teams will be discussed. Finally, the experiments requiremen...

  1. Organisational reviews - requirements, methods and experience. Progress report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U. [Maelardalen University (FI)

    2007-04-15

    Organisational reviews are important instruments in the continuous quest for improved performance. In the nuclear field there has been an increasing regulatory interest in organisational performance, because incidents and accidents often point to organisational deficiencies as one of the major precursors. Many methods for organisational reviews have been proposed, but they are mostly based on ad hoc approaches to specific problems. The absence of well-established techniques for organisational reviews has already shown to cause discussions and controversies on different levels. The aim of the OrRe project is to collect the experiences from organisational reviews carried out so far and to reflect them in a theoretical model of organisational performance. Furthermore, the project aims to reflect on the criteria for the definition of the scope and content of organisational reviews. Finally, recommendations will be made for guidance for people participating in organisational reviews. This progress report describes regulatory practices in Finland and Sweden together with some case examples of organizational reviews and assessment in both countries. Some issues of concern are raised and an outline for the next year's work is proposed. Issues of concern include the sufficient depth of the assessment, the required competence in assessments, data and criteria problems, definition of the boundaries of the system to be assessed, and the necessary internal support and organisational maturity required for successful assessments. Finally, plans for next year's work are outlined. (au)

  2. Computationally driven, quantitative experiments discover genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Hess

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are central to many cellular processes including respiration, ion homeostasis, and apoptosis. Using computational predictions combined with traditional quantitative experiments, we have identified 100 proteins whose deficiency alters mitochondrial biogenesis and inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, we used computational predictions to perform targeted double-mutant analysis detecting another nine genes with synthetic defects in mitochondrial biogenesis. This represents an increase of about 25% over previously known participants. Nearly half of these newly characterized proteins are conserved in mammals, including several orthologs known to be involved in human disease. Mutations in many of these genes demonstrate statistically significant mitochondrial transmission phenotypes more subtle than could be detected by traditional genetic screens or high-throughput techniques, and 47 have not been previously localized to mitochondria. We further characterized a subset of these genes using growth profiling and dual immunofluorescence, which identified genes specifically required for aerobic respiration and an uncharacterized cytoplasmic protein required for normal mitochondrial motility. Our results demonstrate that by leveraging computational analysis to direct quantitative experimental assays, we have characterized mutants with subtle mitochondrial defects whose phenotypes were undetected by high-throughput methods.

  3. IEC 61850 interoperability : user requirements and implementation experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawidczak, H.; Englert, H. [Siemens AG, Nurnberg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    IEC 61850 edition 1 was published in 2004 as the global standard for communication networks and systems for power utility automation. As of 2010, there were over 100,000 Siemens intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) with IED 61850 interface in operation. This presentation discussed the IEC 61850 situation in Germany. Specific topics that were addressed included German transmission system operators (TSOs) and the high standardization of layouts and processes; the introduction of IEC 61850 as more than just a replacement; a working group of the German National Committee set up to design an object data model of an example substation with the substation configuration language IEC 61850; and German experiences and resulting requirements. The presentation provided a definition of interoperability as being the ability of two or more IEDs from the same vendor, or different vendors, to exchange information and use that information for correct co-operation. Interchangeability was defined as the ability to replace a device supplied by one manufacturer with a device supplied by another manufacturer, without making changes to the other elements in the system. The presentation concluded with a discussion of resulting engineering and testing by replacement of IED with a different object addressing scheme. figs.

  4. New calorimeters for space experiments: physics requirements and technological challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocchesi, Pier Simone

    2015-07-01

    Direct measurements of charged cosmic radiation with instruments in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), or flying on balloons above the atmosphere, require the identification of the incident particle, the measurement of its energy and possibly the determination of its sign-of-charge. The latter information can be provided by a magnetic spectrometer together with a measurement of momentum. However, magnetic deflection in space experiments is at present limited to values of the Maximum Detectable Rigidity (MDR) hardly exceeding a few TV. Advanced calorimetric techniques are, at present, the only way to measure charged and neutral radiation at higher energies in the multi-TeV range. Despite their mass limitation, calorimeters may achieve a large geometric factor and provide an adequate proton background rejection factor, taking advantage of a fine granularity and imaging capabilities. In this lecture, after a brief introduction on electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, an innovative approach to the design of a space-borne, large acceptance, homogeneous calorimeter for the detection of high energy cosmic rays will be described.

  5. System Requirements Document for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, R.D.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the conversion process is to convert the {sup 233}U fluoride compounds that are being extracted from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) equipment to a stable oxide for long-term storage at Bldg. 3019.

  6. Deep-sea impact experiments and their future requirements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    In recent years, several experiments to assess the potential impacts due to deep-sea mining in the Pacific as well as the Indian Oceans have indicated the immediate changes and restoration patterns of environmental conditions in the marine ecosystem...

  7. Experience in implementing regulatory requirements to protect against industrial sabotage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, D.F.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the problems and concerns in implementing the current regulatory requirements in physical protection of nuclear power plants are discussed. Until 1973, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was of the opinion that a determined group of professional saboteurs was beyond the scope of protection required. Since then regulatory changes have altered that concept; each successive regulatory change envisions a higher level of threat, and, hence, requires more provisions to protect the facilities. The author contends that, in some areas, NRC's decisions were hastily conceived with unrealistic implementation schedules. These decisions and regulations, if fully implemented, could be counterproductive to maintaining good security in a nuclear power plant, and are counterproductive to safety and operability of the plants.

  8. The Yulong Mountains Structural Culmination: Tectonic and Geomorphic Controls on Localized Uplift Rates and Exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki-Gizbert, C.; Wang, Y.; Burchfiel, B. C.; Chen, L.

    2005-12-01

    The active tectonics of the Eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau are characterised by left-lateral faults accommodating clockwise rotation of crustal fragments and normal faults accommodating generally east-west directed extension in the wake of the northward propagating eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Within the corridor of transtensional deformation that extends from Dali to Zhongdian, the Jinsha (Yangzi) river interacts with a closed circuit of normal and transtensional faults and results in localised high mean and maximum elevations, anomalously high rock uplift rates and the exposure of deep structural levels and metamorphic rocks in the core of fault-bounded antiformal dome. Flexural uplift of the footwalls of the bounding normal faults due to tectonic and erosional unroofing can plausibly explain the high elevations in the core of the range. However, geomorphic indicators of high uplift rates do not unequivocally coincide with the distribution of uplift and subsidence predicted by such a model. Nor does such a model yield any insight into the role of extreme fluvial incision in either accommodating or driving anomalously high uplift rates (and thus total exhumation). Moreover, unlike the association of antiformal culminations with transverse rivers reported in many compressional belts (Simpson 2004 and references therein), localised erosional unloading ought to relieve vertical stresses driving extensional faulting. Alternatively, we envisage a model somewhat analogous to the reactive diapirs well known from salt tectonics: both tectonic extension and geomorphic unloading weaken and thin the brittle upper crust and accommodate localized, anomalously high rock uplift rates.

  9. Exceptional running skill in dogs requires extensive experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, William S

    2009-07-01

    Performances across a wide variety of animal species share a similar pattern of development. Performance starts out low, over time increases to a peak, and then declines with old age. The increase of performance in early life is due to growth, adaptation, and learning. The author examined changes in running performance in 14 elite greyhound (Canis lupus familiaris) runners. The time to peak performance from initiation of a professional career took up 9.1% of a typical dog's lifespan. This amount of time devoted to skill development relative to species lifespan is similar to that of elite human track runners. Even with controll for changes in size (weight in kilograms), dogs' skill development showed marked improvement with increasing race experience. The author discusses the benefit of future research on motor-skill acquisition in nonhuman athletes.

  10. Large area crop inventory experiment crop assessment subsystem software requirements document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The functional data processing requirements are described for the Crop Assessment Subsystem of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment. These requirements are used as a guide for software development and implementation.

  11. Pupils' and Teachers' Perceptions of a Culminating Festival within a Sport Education Season in Irish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Gary D.; Macphail, Ann; Chroinin, Deirdre Ni

    2009-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable literature on Sport Education, little attention has been afforded to an investigation into the use of a specific festival as a culmination to a season. Aims: The purpose of this paper is to examine primary school pupils' and teachers' perceptions of an inter-school festival. Methods: Pupils from eight…

  12. Multiple glacial culminations from the Lateglacial to the late Holocene in central and southern Peru (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardi, J. M.; Schaefer, J. M.; Rodbell, D. T.; Stansell, N.; Schweinsberg, A.; Finkel, R. C.; Zimmerman, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Fluctuations in small tropical mountain glaciers serve as sensitive indicators of variations in past and present-day climate. Most of the world's modern tropical glaciers reside in the Peruvian Andes, where a growing number of well-dated glacial records have recently been developed. As additional records are documented, regional patterns of late Pleistocene to Holocene glacial activity have begun to emerge. Here we present a compilation of new and previously obtained 10Be surface exposure ages from boulders on well-preserved moraine successions in two glaciated Andean ranges: the Cordillera Vilcabamba of southern Peru (13°20'S, 72°32'W) and the Huaguruncho massif (10°32'S, 75°56'W), located in central Peru ~450 km northwest of the Vilcabamba. A high-resolution composite chronology that merges >100 10Be measurements on moraine sequences in five glaciated drainages of the Cordillera Vilcabamba reveals the occurrence of at least five discrete glacial culminations from the Lateglacial to the late Holocene. At the Huaguruncho massif, >20 10Be exposure ages obtained from moraine sequences in a south-facing cirque indicate at least three major glacial stages spanning the Lateglacial to the Little Ice Age. The moraine ages at Huaguruncho are broadly correlative with the Vilcabamba moraine chronologies, with some dated moraine belts exhibiting geomorphic expressions that closely resemble those of their coeval counterparts in the Vilcabamba. A recurring finding in both field areas is a mismatch between basal radiocarbon ages from bog and lake sediments and 10Be exposure ages on outboard moraines, which enclose the depositional basins. These age discrepancies suggest that cosmogenic 10Be production rates scaled to high altitudes in the tropics are substantially lower than previous estimates. While we anticipate that future refinements to scaled isotope production rates may significantly affect correlation of 10Be exposure ages in the high Andes with ages derived from

  13. The Jurassic of East Greenland: a sedimentary record of thermal subsidence, onset and culmination of rifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)]. Geological Inst.

    2003-07-01

    The Late Palaeozoic - Mesozoic extensional basin complex of East Greenland contains a record of deposition during a period of Rhaetian - Early Bajocian thermal subsidence, the onset of rifting in the Late Bajocian, its growth during the Bathonian-Kimmeridgian, culmination of rifting in the Volgian - Early Ryazanian, and waning in the Late Ryazanian - Hauterivian.,The area was centred over a palaeolatitude of about 45 deg C N in the Rhaetian and drifted northwards to about 50 deg C N in the Hauterivian. A major climate change from arid to humid subtropical conditions took place at the Norian-Rhaetian transition. Deposition was in addition governed by a long-term sea-level rise with highstands in the Toarcian-Aalenian, latest Callovian and Kimmeridgian, and lowstands in the latest Bajocian - earliest Bathonian, Middle Oxfordian and Volgian. The Rhaetian - Lower Bajocian succession is considered the upper part of a megasequence, termed Jl, with its base in the upper Lower Triassic, whereas the Upper Bajocian - Hauterivian succession forms a complete, syn-rift megasequence, termed J2. The southem part of the basin complex in Jameson Land contains a relatively complete Rhaetian-Ryazanian succession and underwent only minor tilting during Middle Jurassic - earliest Cretaceous rifting. Rhaetian - Lower Jurassic deposits are absent north of Jameson Land and this region was fragmented into strongly tilted fault blocks during the protracted rift event. The syn-rift successions of the two areas accordingly show different long-term trends in sedimentary facies. In the southern area, the J2 syn-rift megasequence forms a symmetrical regressive-transgressive-regressive cycle, whereas the J2 megasequence in the northem area shows an asymmetrical, stepwise deepening trend. A total of eight tectonostratigraphic sequences are recognised in the Rhaetian-Hauterivian interval. They reflect major changes in basin configuration, drainage systems, sediment transport and distribution

  14. 42 CFR 482.80 - Condition of participation: Data submission, clinical experience, and outcome requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... center. (3) A pancreas transplant center is not required to comply with the clinical experience... pancreas transplants performed at the center. (4) A center that is requesting initial Medicare approval...

  15. DSN radio science system description and requirements. [for satellite radio astronomy experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The data system created to collect the functions performed by the Deep Space Network in support of spacecraft radio science experiments is described. Some of the major functional requirements presently being considered for the system are delineated.

  16. DSN radio science system description and requirements. [for satellite radio astronomy experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The data system created to collect the functions performed by the Deep Space Network in support of spacecraft radio science experiments is described. Some of the major functional requirements presently being considered for the system are delineated.

  17. 14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. 65.119 Section 65.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and...

  18. 14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. 65.115 Section 65.115 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and...

  19. Depth Requirements for a Tonne-scale 76Ge Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aguayo, E; Back, H O; Barabash, A S; Bergevin, M; Bertrand, F E; Boswell, M; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Collar, J I; Combs, D C; Cooper, R J; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Efremenko, Yu; Egorov, V; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Esterline, J; Fast, J E; Fields, N; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Gehman, V M; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Guiseppe, V E; Gusey, K; Hallin, A L; Hazama, R; Henning, R; Hime, A; Hoppe, E W; Horton, M; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Johnson, R A; Keeter, K J; Keillor, M E; Keller, C; Kephart, J D; Kidd, M F; Knecht, A; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; LaRoque, B H; Leon, J; Leviner, L E; Loach, J C; MacMullin, S; Marino, M G; Martin, R D; Mei, D -M; Merriman, J H; Miller, M L; Mizouni, L; Nomachi, M; Orrell, J L; Overman, N R; Phillips, D G; Poon, A W P; Perumpilly, G; Prior, G; Radford, D C; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Ronquest, M C; Schubert, A G; Shima, T; Shirchenko, M; Snavely, K J; Sobolev, V; Steele, D; Strain, J; Thomas, K; Timkin, V; Tornow, W; Vanyushin, I; Varner, R L; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; Wilkerson, J F; Wolfe, B A; Yakushev, E; Young, A R; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V; Zhang, C

    2011-01-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments can potentially determine the Majorana or Dirac nature of the neutrino, and aid in understanding the neutrino absolute mass scale and hierarchy. Future 76Ge-based searches target a half-life sensitivity of >10^27 y to explore the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Reaching this sensitivity will require a background rate of ~5200 meters water equivalent is required for a tonne-scale experiment with a compact shield similar to the planned 40-kg MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The required overburden is highly dependent on the chosen shielding configuration and could be relaxed significantly if, for example, a liquid cryogen and water shield, or an active neutron shield were employed. Operation of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and GERDA detectors will serve to reduce the uncertainties on cosmic-ray background rates and will impact the choice of shielding style and location for a future tonne-scale experiment.

  20. 48 CFR 752.7005 - Submission requirements for development experience documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., technologies, management, research, results and experience as outlined in the Agency's ADS Chapter 540, section... paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this clause. (2) Format. (i) Descriptive information is required for all Contractor... descriptive information: (A) Name and version of the application software used to create the file, e.g.,...

  1. JET-ISX-B beryllium limiter experiment safety analysis report and operational safety requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, P.H.

    1985-09-01

    An experiment to evaluate the suitability of beryllium as a limiter material has been completed on the ISX-B tokamak. The experiment consisted of two phases: (1) the initial operation and characterization in the ISX experiment, and a period of continued operation to the specified surface fluence (10/sup 22/ atoms/cm/sup 2/) of hydrogen ions; and (2) the disassembly, decontamination, or disposal of the ISX facility. During these two phases of the project, the possibility existed for beryllium and/or beryllium oxide powder to be produced inside the vacuum vessel. Beryllium dust is a highly toxic material, and extensive precautions are required to prevent the release of the beryllium into the experimental work area and to prevent the contamination of personnel working on the device. Details of the health hazards associated with beryllium and the appropriate precautions are presented. Also described in appendixes to this report are the various operational safety requirements for the project.

  2. Estimation of the lead thickness required to shield scattered radiation from synchrotron radiation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    In the enclosure of synchrotron radiation experiments using a monochromatic beam, secondary radiation arises from two effects, namely fluorescence and scattering. While fluorescence can be regarded as isotropic, the angular dependence of Compton scattering has to be taken into account if the shielding shall not become unreasonably thick. The scope of this paper is to clarify how the different factors starting from the spectral properties of the source and the attenuation coefficient of the shielding, over the spectral and angular distribution of the scattered radiation and the geometry of the experiment influence the thickness of lead required to keep the dose rate outside the enclosure below the desired threshold.

  3. Computing requirements for high energy physics experiments at the LHC collider

    CERN Document Server

    Witek, Mariusz

    2002-01-01

    In this article the requirements for the future experiments of elementary particle physics are discussed. The nature of physics phenomena expected at the LHC collider at CERN leads to an unprecedented scale of the computing infrastructure for the data storage and analysis. The possible solution is based on the distributed computing model, and is presented within the context of the global unification of the computer resources as proposed by the GRID projects. (7 refs).

  4. Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    A number of investigations have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggest the deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. An important part of the DOE programs to develop new source technologies, in particular photovoltaic systems, is the experimental testing of complete or nearby complete power units. These experiments provide an opportunity to examine operational and integration issues which must be understood before widespread commercial deployment of these technologies can be achieved. Experiments may also be required to explicitly examine integration, operational, and control aspects of single and multiple new source technology power units within a utility system. An identification of utility information requirements, a review of planned experiments, and a preliminary determination of additional experimental needs and opportunities are presented. Other issues discussed include: (1) the impacts of on-site photovoltaic units on load duration curves and optimal generation mixes are considered; (2) the impacts of on-site photovoltaic units on utility production costs, with and without dedicated storage and with and without sellback, are analyzed; and (3) current utility rate structure experiments, rationales, policies, practices, and plans are reviewed.

  5. Verification and Validation of Requirements on the CEV Parachute Assembly System Using Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Peter Z.; Moore, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project conducts computer simulations to verify that flight performance requirements on parachute loads and terminal rate of descent are met. Design of Experiments (DoE) provides a systematic method for variation of simulation input parameters. When implemented and interpreted correctly, a DoE study of parachute simulation tools indicates values and combinations of parameters that may cause requirement limits to be violated. This paper describes one implementation of DoE that is currently being developed by CPAS, explains how DoE results can be interpreted, and presents the results of several preliminary studies. The potential uses of DoE to validate parachute simulation models and verify requirements are also explored.

  6. A mock "on-call" experience for pharmacy students in a pain and palliative care elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Christopher M; Lynch, J Christopher

    2010-12-01

    A pain and palliative care pharmacotherapy elective with a culminating experience requiring students to be "on-call," make a pharmacotherapy or monitoring decision in a short, specified period of time, and return the call of the health care professional (HCP) with an appropriate answer is described. The changing roles of pharmacists in pain management and end- of-life care are addressed. The structure of the experience and results from the first 74 students to complete it are discussed.

  7. App Inventor for Android Build Your Own Apps - No Experience Required!

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Create Android mobile apps, no programming required! Even with limited programming experience, you can easily learn to create apps for the Android platform with this complete guide to App Inventor for Android. App Inventor for Android is a visual language that relies on simple programming blocks that users can drag and drop to create apps. This handy book gives you a series of fully worked-out apps, complete with their programming blocks, which you can customize for your own use or use as a starting point for creating the next killer app. And it's all without writing a single line of code. Don

  8. Establishment and Implementation of a Required Medication Therapy Management Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Eric; Thompson, Megan; Griend, Joseph Vande

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To develop a community pharmacy-based medication therapy management (MTM) advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) that provides students with skills and knowledge to deliver entry-level pharmacy MTM services. Design. The University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences (SSPPS) partnered with three community pharmacy chains to establish this three-week, required MTM APPE. Students completed the American Pharmacists Association MTM Certificate Course prior to entering the APPE. Students were expected to spend 90% or more of their time at this experience working on MTM interventions, using store MTM platforms. Assessment. All 151 students successfully completed this MTM APPE, and each received a passing evaluation from their preceptor. Preceptor evaluations of students averaged above four (entry-level practice) on a five-point Likert scale. The majority of students reported engagement in MTM services for more than 80% of the time on site. Students’ self-reporting of their ability to perform MTM interventions improved after participation in the APPE. Conclusion. The SSPPS successfully implemented a required MTM APPE, preparing students for entry-level delivery of MTM services. PMID:28381896

  9. Astronaut operations requirements document for the White Light Coronagraph experiment s-052 for the Apollo Telescope Mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    Information necessary for successful performance of the observer's function in the White Light Coronagraph portion of the Apollo Telescope Mount experiments is presented. The pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight operations required to perform the S-052 experiment are described. A discussion of the scientific objectives of the experiment and a description of the hardware are provided.

  10. Instrumentation concepts and requirements for a space vacuum research facility. [molecular shield for spaceborne experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, H. N.

    1979-01-01

    An earth-orbiting molecular shield that offers a unique opportunity for conducting physics, chemistry, and material processing experiments under a combination of environmental conditions that are not available in terrestrial laboratories is equipped with apparatus for forming a molecular beam from the freestream. Experiments are carried out using a moderate energy, high flux density, high purity atomic oxygen beam in the very low density environment within the molecular shield. As a minimum, the following instruments are required for the molecular shield: (1) a mass spectrometer; (2) a multifunction material analysis instrumentation system; and (3) optical spectrometry equipment. The design is given of a furlable molecular shield that allows deployment and retrieval of the system (including instrumentation and experiments) to be performed without contamination. Interfaces between the molecular shield system and the associated spacecraft are given. An in-flight deployment sequence is discussed that minimizes the spacecraft-induced contamination in the vicinity of the shield. Design approaches toward a precursor molecular shield system are shown.

  11. Health services management development: what formal knowledge should support the skills and experience required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, David J; Yen, Margaret L

    2013-05-01

    This study reports on an analysis of 17 postgraduate programs in health services management. Public information was collected from websites in February 2010. Data analysed included core subject abstracts, admission requirements and length and aims of each course. Findings indicate that only three out of 16 subjects identified as core are common to more than 50% of the programs, with the eight most common individual subjects appearing in only a third of programs. This suggests diversity in what is deemed core foundational knowledge in managing health services and the approach taken to management development. We believe there should be greater consensus on core subjects in a specialist health services management qualification. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? With changes in the organisational structure of health organisations in Australia over the past two decades, managerial positions and roles have also changed. The educational preparation for those managerial roles would also be expected to have changed but core foundational knowledge should remain similar between the various academic institutions.WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper indicates greater diversity in core knowledge areas in health services management education than expected despite a similar target audience.WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? There are differences in what are deemed to be core foundational areas of knowledge required in specialist management development between academic programs. Management development requires a balance between knowledge, skills and experience and intending st

  12. Determining staffing requirements for blood donor clinics: the Canadian Blood Services experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, John T; Shimla, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Canadian Blood Services runs approximately 16,000 donor clinics annually. While there were more than 220 different clinic configurations used in 2011 and 2012, 67% of all clinic configurations followed one of 51 standard models. As part of operational planning for current and future configurations it was necessary for Canadian Blood Services to calculate staffing requirements for standard clinic models. In this article we present a method that incorporates both cost control and impact on donor experience. We calculate staffing requirements to minimize costs, but adjust using queuing theory to ensure donor wait time metrics are met. The method can be applied in a wide variety of situations. Although developed for a particular study, the methods described in this article can be applied in a wide variety of situations. A case study in which the model is used to review existing staffing arrangements at Canadian Blood Services is presented. The staffing model can be used to balance the requirements of minimizing staffing costs with that of ensuring that donors do not suffer unnecessary delays. Moreover, in an example application, savings of 3.4% were identified through the modeling process. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Christfried Jakob's Late Views (1930-1949) on the Psychogenetic Function of the Cerebral Cortex and Its Localization: Culmination of the Neurophilosophical Thought of a Keen Brain Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Zoe D.; Triarhou, Lazaros C.

    2012-01-01

    This article follows the culmination of the scientific thought of the neurobiologist Christfried Jakob (1866-1956) during the later part of his career, based on publications from 1930 to 1949, when he was between 64 and 83 years of age. Jakob emphasized the necessity of bridging philosophy to the biological sciences, neurobiology in particular.…

  14. Experiment requirements and implementation plan (Erip) for semiconductor materials growth in low-G environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, R. K.; Fripp, A. L.; Debnam, W. J.; Clark, I. O.

    1983-01-01

    The MEA-2 A facility was used to test the effect of the low gravity environment on suppressing convective mixing in the growth of Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te crystals. The need to eliminate convection, the furnace characteristics and operation that will be required for successful experimental implementation, and to the level that is presently known, the measured physical properties of the Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te system were discussed. In addition, a brief background of the present and potential utilization of Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te is given. Additional experiments are anticipated in future MEA-A, improved MEA and other dedicated materials processing in space flight apparatus.

  15. Impact of elective versus required medical school research experiences on career outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Alice N; McCaw, Tyler R; Fifolt, Matthew; Hites, Lisle; Lorenz, Robin G

    2017-06-01

    Many US medical schools have added a scholarly or research requirement as a potential intervention to increase the number of medical students choosing to become academic physicians and physician scientists. We designed a retrospective qualitative survey study to evaluate the impact of medical school research at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) on career choices. A survey tool was developed consisting of 74 possible questions with built-in skip patterns to customize the survey to each participant. The survey was administered using the web-based program Qualtrics to UAB School of Medicine alumni graduating between 2000 and 2014. Alumni were contacted 3 times at 2-week intervals during the year 2015, resulting in 168 completed surveys (11.5% response rate). MD/PhD graduates were excluded from the study. Most respondents completed elective research, typically for reasons relating to career advancement. 24 per cent said medical school research increased their desire for research involvement in the future, a response that positively correlated with mentorship level and publication success. Although completion of medical school research was positively correlated with current research involvement, the strongest predictor for a physician scientist career was pre-existing passion for research (p=0.008). In contrast, students motivated primarily by curricular requirement were less likely to pursue additional research opportunities. Positive medical school research experiences were associated with increased postgraduate research in our study. However, we also identified a strong relationship between current research activity and passion for research, which may predate medical school. Copyright © 2017 American Federation for Medical Research.

  16. Implosion and core heating requirements in subignition experiments FIREX-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Nakao, Yasuyuki; Mima, Kunioki

    2008-06-01

    In the fast ignition realization experiment project phase-I (FIREX-I) [H. Azechi and the FIREX Project, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 48, B267 (2006)], core heating up to an ion temperature of 5keV is expected for subignition-class carbon-deuterium (CD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) fuels. The dependence of the achieved ion temperature on heating pulse parameters, and core density is investigated using two-dimensional simulations. Since the core size in FIREX-I is insufficient for self-ignition, and the confinement time is comparable to the heating duration (˜10ps), the temperature relaxation between the bulk electrons and ions is important for efficient ion heating. High compression (a core density of ρ >200g/cm3) is required for pure DT fuel to shorten the relaxation time. In this case, a heating energy of Eh>2kJ and a duration of τh2kJ and τh˜10ps.

  17. Spaceflight payload design flight experience G-408

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgin, William W.; Looft, Fred J.; Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Thompson, Robert; Dixon, Anthony G.; Roberti, Dino; Labonte, Robert; Moschini, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Worcester Polytechnic Institute's first payload of spaceflight experiments flew aboard Columbia, STS-40, during June of 1991 and culminated eight years of work by students and faculty. The Get Away Special (GAS) payload was installed on the GAS bridge assembly at the aft end of the cargo bay behind the Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-1) laboratory. The Experiments were turned on by astronaut signal after reaching orbit and then functioned for 72 hours. Environmental and experimental measurements were recorded on three cassette tapes which, together with zeolite crystals grown on orbit, formed the basis of subsequent analyses. The experiments were developed over a number of years by undergraduate students meeting their project requirements for graduation. The experiments included zeolite crystal growth, fluid behavior, and microgravity acceleration measurement in addition to environmental data acquisition. Preparation also included structural design, thermal design, payload integration, and experiment control. All of the experiments functioned on orbit and the payload system performed within design estimates.

  18. Experiences in Using Practitioner’s Checklists to Evaluate the Relevance of Experiments Reported in Requirements Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Herrmann, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background: Requirements Engineering (RE) researchers recognize that for RE methods to be adopted in industry, practitioners should be able to evaluate the relevance of a study to their practice. Kitchenham et al proposed a set of perspective-based checklists, which demonstrated to be a useful instr

  19. Understanding customer experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention.

  20. Software architects’ experiences of quality requirements : what we know and what we do not know?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Buglione, Luigi; Herrmann, Andrea; Doerr, J.; Opdahl, A.

    2013-01-01

    [Context/motivation] Quality requirements (QRs) are a concern of both requirement engineering (RE) specialists and software architects (SAs). However, the majority of empirical studies on QRs take the RE analysts’/clients’ perspectives, and only recently very few included the SAs’ perspective. As a

  1. Required and Elective Experiences During the 4th Year: An Analysis of ACGME Accredited Psychiatry Residency Program Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestal, Heather S; Belitsky, Richard; Bernstein, Carol A; Chaukos, Deanna; Cohen, Mitchell B; Dickstein, Leah J; Hilty, Donald M; Hutner, Lucy; Sakman, Ferda; Scheiber, Stephen C; Wrzosek, Marika I; Silberman, Edward K

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and describe required and elective components of the 4th post-graduate year (PGY4) in psychiatry residency programs. We reviewed the websites of all 193 2014-2015 ACGME accredited psychiatry residency programs for content describing the specific components of the PGY4 year. Nearly all residency programs (99 %) had some form of required experiences during the PGY4 year. Ninety-four percent had clinical requirements for PGY4 residents, with longitudinal outpatient clinic being the most common (77 %). All programs offered some elective time during PGY4, but the amount of time ranged from 2 months to 100 %. Virtually all residency programs include some requirements in the 4th year (most commonly didactics and outpatient clinic) in addition to a broad array of elective experiences. Although 3 years may suffice for residents to complete ACGME requirements, a variety of factors may motivate programs to include required 4th year curricula. Future studies should explore the rationales for and possible benefits of programmatic requirements throughout 4 versus only 3 years of psychiatric training.

  2. Development of flight experiment task requirements. Volume 2: Technical Report. Part 2: Appendix H: Tasks-skills data series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatterick, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    The data sheets presented contain the results of the task analysis portion of the study to identify skill requirements of space shuttle crew personnel. A comprehensive data base is provided of crew functions, operating environments, task dependencies, and task-skills applicable to a representative cross section of earth orbital research experiments.

  3. Developing a Policy for an International Experience Requirement in a Graduate Teacher Education Program: A Cautionary Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczynski, Sandy; Lattimer, Heather; Inoue, Noriyuki; Alexandrowicz, Viviana

    2010-01-01

    This case study describes the process education faculty went through to craft a response to a school-wide international experience initiative. Analysis revealed three competing frames that shaped individual faculty members' expectations. This made developing an internationalization requirement in graduate teacher education multifaceted, often…

  4. 22 CFR 96.37 - Education and experience requirements for social service personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... practice; (2) Meet the INA requirements for home study preparers in 8 CFR 204.3(b); and (3) Are supervised... doctorate) in a related human service field, including, but not limited to, psychology,...

  5. Requirements for Electronic Delivery Systems in eGovernment - An Austrian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Arne

    Electronic mailing systems are the dominant communication systems in private and business matters. Public administrations deliver documents to citizens and businesses - subpoenas, legal verdicts, notifications, administrative penalties etc. However, official activities are more strongly linked to legal regulations than in civil law. Delivery of crucial and strictly personal documents raises the demand for qualified identification and non-repudiation services as featured by registered mail in the paper world. Legal requirements for electronic delivery carried-out by public administrations (eDelivery) cannot be fulfilled by standard certified mailing systems. Although the requirements for eDelivery systems may differ due to national legal regulations, this paper discusses common requirements and challenges on an abstract level. Moreover, we show how these requirements have been addressed by introducing the Austrian eDelivery system for eGovernment applications.

  6. Comparison of Resource Requirements for a Wind Tunnel Test Designed with Conventional vs. Modern Design of Experiments Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Richard; Micol, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The factors that determine data volume requirements in a typical wind tunnel test are identified. It is suggested that productivity in wind tunnel testing can be enhanced by managing the inference error risk associated with evaluating residuals in a response surface modeling experiment. The relationship between minimum data volume requirements and the factors upon which they depend is described and certain simplifications to this relationship are realized when specific model adequacy criteria are adopted. The question of response model residual evaluation is treated and certain practical aspects of response surface modeling are considered, including inference subspace truncation. A wind tunnel test plan developed by using the Modern Design of Experiments illustrates the advantages of an early estimate of data volume requirements. Comparisons are made with a representative One Factor At a Time (OFAT) wind tunnel test matrix developed to evaluate a surface to air missile.

  7. Experiment Requirements and Implementation Plan (ERIP) for semiconductor materials growth in low-G environment experiment no. MPS-77F087

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, R. K.; Fripp, A. L.; Debnam, W. J.; Clark, I. O.

    1981-01-01

    Crystals of the intermetallic compound Pb1-xSnxTe will be grown in furnaces on the Space Shuttle. The reasons for conducting this growth in space, the program of investigation to develop the space experiment and the requirements that are placed on the Space Shuttle furnace are discussed. Also included are relevent thermophysical properties of Pb1-xSnxTe to the degree which they are known.

  8. Experience-driven axon retraction in the pharmacologically inactivated visual cortex does not require synaptic transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Watanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experience during early postnatal development plays an important role in the refinement of specific neural connections in the brain. In the mammalian visual system, altered visual experiences induce plastic adaptation of visual cortical responses and guide rearrangements of afferent axons from the lateral geniculate nucleus. Previous studies using visual deprivation demonstrated that the afferents serving an open eye significantly retract when cortical neurons are pharmacologically inhibited by applying a gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor agonist, muscimol, whereas those serving a deprived eye are rescued from retraction, suggesting that presynaptic activity can lead to the retraction of geniculocortical axons in the absence of postsynaptic activity. Because muscimol application suppresses the spike activity of cortical neurons leaving transmitter release intact at geniculocortical synapses, local synaptic interaction may underlie the retraction of active axons in the inhibited cortex. METHOD AND FINDINGS: New studies reported here determined whether experience-driven axon retraction can occur in the visual cortex inactivated by blocking synaptic inputs. We inactivated the primary visual cortex of kittens by suppressing synaptic transmission with cortical injections of botulinum neurotoxin type E, which cleaves a synaptic protein, SNAP-25, and blocks transmitter release, and examined the geniculocortical axon morphology in the animals with normal vision and those deprived of vision binocularly. We found that afferent axons in the animals with normal vision showed a significant retraction in the inactivated cortex, as similarly observed in the muscimol-treated cortex, whereas the axons in the binocularly deprived animals were preserved. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the experience-driven axon retraction in the inactivated cortex can proceed in the absence of synaptic transmission. These results suggest that presynaptic mechanisms play

  9. E-LEARNING SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF EFQUEL: VYATKA STATE UNIVERSITY EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Syrtsova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of various aspects of development and implementation of e-learning at higher education institutions. This system has been created according to the main approaches and criteria used by the European Foundation for quality assurance of e-learning (EFQUEL. The article presents the main results of the experiment on Vyatka State University's e-learning system development. The article reveals the feasibility of the development of e-learning in the region. The authors consider three main strategies of implementation of e-learning system at Vyatka State University. The authors substantiate the choice of the most effective and promising strategy of them based on the analysis and considering the peculiarities of the university and the region. In the article, the fundamental results of the experiment and description of the stages of the implementation of e-learning system are presented.

  10. Army Experience and Requirements for Stability and Cleanliness of Diesel Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    X Cladosporium resinae Ft. Lewis, WA AL-6980-X Cladosporium resinae Ft. Lewis, WA AL-6981-X Cladosporium resinae plus unidentified yeast? Ft. Lewis...WA AL-6982-X Cladosporium residae plus unidentified yeast? Ft. Lewis, WA AL-6986-X Cladosporium resinae Ft. Lewis, WA AL-701I-F undergoing...conditions (shak- ing flasks at 30 0 C) are required for Cladosporium resinae to develop any volume of mycelia. In the field, extensive studies would be

  11. A Data Management System Integrating Web-based Training and Randomized Trials: Requirements, Experiences and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroff, Jordana; Amodeo, Maryann; Larson, Mary Jo; Carey, Margaret; Loftin, Ralph D

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a data management system (DMS) developed to support a large-scale randomized study of an innovative web-course that was designed to improve substance abuse counselors' knowledge and skills in applying a substance abuse treatment method (i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy; CBT). The randomized trial compared the performance of web-course-trained participants (intervention group) and printed-manual-trained participants (comparison group) to determine the effectiveness of the web-course in teaching CBT skills. A single DMS was needed to support all aspects of the study: web-course delivery and management, as well as randomized trial management. The authors briefly reviewed several other systems that were described as built either to handle randomized trials or to deliver and evaluate web-based training. However it was clear that these systems fell short of meeting our needs for simultaneous, coordinated management of the web-course and the randomized trial. New England Research Institute's (NERI) proprietary Advanced Data Entry and Protocol Tracking (ADEPT) system was coupled with the web-programmed course and customized for our purposes. This article highlights the requirements for a DMS that operates at the intersection of web-based course management systems and randomized clinical trial systems, and the extent to which the coupled, customized ADEPT satisfied those requirements. Recommendations are included for institutions and individuals considering conducting randomized trials and web-based training programs, and seeking a DMS that can meet similar requirements.

  12. Operational experience of load shedding and new requirements on frequency relays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, S. [ASEA-ATOM AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Runvik, G. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Stranne, G. [ABB Network Partner AB (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarises experience and analysis of underfrequency load shedding and power generator islanding. Most power systems can withstand the loss of a single generating unit or a single transmission line. Simultaneous loss of several power system components may cause a severe deficit in active and reactive power. The action of overexcitation limiters on the remaining generators may further aggravate the situation. Such infrequent events may cause severe drop in system frequency and voltage magnitude. Frequency relays for load shedding and power generator islanding must operate correctly even if the system frequency decays and the voltage magnitude decays rapidly at the same time. (author)

  13. Experiments on the Acquisition of the Semantics and Grammatical Constructions Required for Communicating Propositional Logic Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Josefina; Santibáñez, Josefina

    We describe some experiments which simulate a grounded approach to language acquisition in which a population of autonomous agents without prior linguistic knowledge tries to construct at the same time a conceptualisation of its environment and a shared language. The conceptualisation and language acquisition processes in each individual agent are based on general purpose cognitive capacities, such as categorisation, discrimination, evaluation and induction. The emergence of a shared language in the population results from a process of self-organisation of a particular type of linguistic interaction which takes place among the agents in the population.

  14. Using Slovenian Experience in the Croatian Agricultural Policy Adjustment to EU Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornella Kumrić

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Strict EU requirements in politics, legislation and economics on new and future member states pose a great challenge for Croatia, which strives to become its member. Agriculture, being an important economic sector, needs to be considerably reformed in the process of adjustment to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP. The Croatia decided to use the Slovenian case for better understanding of the requirements and their fulfilment. The Slovenian agricultural policy reform included change from market price supports towards direct payments, and implementation of different structural, environmental and rural development measures. Slovenia has implemented numerous reforms, plans and laws. Slovenian four-year pre-accession negotiations with the EU in agricultural sector comprised: implementing the acquis communitaire, exceptions from the acquis, and the financial part. To achieve the best negotiation results, Slovenia collected detailed and reliable data and engaged professionals who negotiated the most favourable position for Slovenian agriculture in the European agricultural sector. The Croatian agricultural policy reform is underway, so there is a tendency of decreasing and phasing out the system of guaranteed prices, direct payments are being introduced, Croatia is included in trade integration processes, steps need to be taken for strengthening of competitive capacity of domestic products both in domestic and foreign markets, and rural development and the whole social situation in agricultural sector needs to be improved.

  15. Using Slovenian Experience in the Croatian Agricultural Policy Adjustment to EU Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornella Kumrić

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Strict EU requirements in politics, legislation and economics on new and future member states pose a great challenge for Croatia, which strives to become its member. Agriculture, being an important economic sector, needs to be considerably reformed in the process of adjustment to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP. The Croatia decided to use the Slovenian case for better understanding of the requirements and their fulfilment. The Slovenian agricultural policy reform included change from market price supports towards direct payments, and implementation of different structural, environmentaland rural development measures. Slovenia has implemented numerous reforms, plans and laws. Slovenian four-year pre-accession negotiations with the EU in agricultural sector comprised: implementing the acquis communitaire, exceptions from the acquis, and the financial part. To achieve the best negotiation results, Slovenia collected detailed and reliable data and engaged professionals who negotiated the most favourable position for Slovenian agriculture in the European agricultural sector. The Croatian agricultural policy reform is underway, so there is a tendency of decreasing and phasing out the system of guaranteed prices, direct payments are being introduced, Croatia is included in trade integration processes, steps need to be taken for strengthening of competitive capacity of domestic products both in domestic and foreign markets, and rural development and the whole social situation in agricultural sector needs to be improved.

  16. Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    A number of investigations, including those conducted by The Aerospace Corporation and other contractors, have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggests the feasible deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. It is imperative that these integration issues be pursued in parallel with the development of each technology if the nation's electric utility systems are to effectively utilize these technologies in the near to intermediate term. Analyses of three of these issues are presented: utility information requirements, generation mix and production cost impacts, and rate structures in the context of photovoltaic units integrated into the utility system. (WHK)

  17. Evaluating an Online Cognitive Training Platform for Older Adults: User Experience and Implementation Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haesner, Marten; Steinert, Anika; O'Sullivan, Julie Lorraine; Weichenberger, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Decline of cognitive function is a part of aging. However, intensive cognitive training can improve important cognitive functions, such as attention and working memory. Because existing systems are not older adult-friendly and are usually not based on scientific evidence, an online platform was developed for cognitive training with information and communication features and evaluated in an 8-week field test. In a randomized clinical trial with 80 older adults, findings from log data analysis and questionnaires revealed a good use of the online platform. Communication or assistive features were not used often. Good usability ratings were given to the cognitive exercises. Subjective improvements of cognitive functions due to the training were reported. The current article presents concrete requirements and recommendations for deploying cognitive training software in older adult residential homes.

  18. [Requirements for drug approval and additional benefits assessment: Regulatory aspects and experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, K; Löbker, W; Schulte, A; Beinlich, P; Müller, T

    2016-04-01

    The early assessment of benefits of newly approved drugs with novel active substances or new applications, which came into force on 1 January 2011 still represents a challenge to all parties involved. This article highlights the definitions, regulatory requirements and interaction between drug marketing approval and early assessment of benefits in Germany. The constellation of an extensively harmonized European and even international drug authorization process with a predominantly national regulation of drug reimbursement situation inevitably causes friction, which could be markedly reduced through early joint advisory discussions during the planning phase for pivotal clinical trials. During the year 2015 the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) carried out 300 scientific advice procedures of which 34 were concerned with applications in the field of indications for the central nervous system (CNS). In comparison 98 advisory meetings were held by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) of which the BfArM provided advice in 12 instances and in 2 cases on CNS indications. Study design, endpoints and appropriate comparative therapies are the key issues in exchanges and discussions between the BfArM, the G‑BA and applicants. Under these aspects the BfArM and G‑BA promote an early and consistent involvement in early advice procedures regarding the prerequisites for drug approval and assessment of additional benefits.

  19. Conventional approaches for assessment of caving behaviour and support requirement with regard to strata control experiences in longwall workings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.S.P. Singh

    2015-01-01

    Effective control of roof strata is very important for trouble free operation and regular face advance in mechanised longwall workings. It is now technically possible to exploit coal seams in difficult geo-mining conditions with the help of newer innovations in longwall face machineries. A reliable assess-ment of caving behaviour and support capacity requirement helps in selecting supports of adequate capacity and making operational preparedness for timely and confident solution of impending problems. This paper reviews the mechanism of roof caving and the conventional approaches of caving behaviour and support requirement in the context of major strata control experiences gained worldwide. The re-view shows that a number of approaches are being used for advance prediction of caving behaviour and support capacity requirement in a variety of geo-mining conditions. The theoretical explanation of the mechanism of roof caving and the design function of roof supports have been worked out through staged development of approaches, their evaluation followed by their gradual modification and enrichment of synthesized findings. This process is still continuing with consistently improved understanding through growing field experiences in the larger domain of geo-mining conditions and state-of-art strata analysis and monitoring techniques. These attempts have contributed significantly to improving the level of understanding and reducing the gap of uncertainty in planning and design of longwall operation in a given geo-mining condition.

  20. Radiation therapists' perceptions of the minimum level of experience required to perform portal image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybovic, Michala [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: mryb6983@mail.usyd.edu.au; Halkett, Georgia K. [Western Australia Centre for Cancer and Palliative Care, Curtin University of Technology, Health Research Campus, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)], E-mail: g.halkett@curtin.edu.au; Banati, Richard B. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute - Ramaciotti Centre for Brain Imaging, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: r.banati@usyd.edu.au; Cox, Jennifer [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: jenny.cox@usyd.edu.au

    2008-11-15

    Background and purpose: Our aim was to explore radiation therapists' views on the level of experience necessary to undertake portal image analysis and clinical decision making. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was developed to determine the availability of portal imaging equipment in Australia and New Zealand. We analysed radiation therapists' responses to a specific question regarding their opinion on the minimum level of experience required for health professionals to analyse portal images. We used grounded theory and a constant comparative method of data analysis to derive the main themes. Results: Forty-six radiation oncology facilities were represented in our survey, with 40 questionnaires being returned (87%). Thirty-seven radiation therapists answered our free-text question. Radiation therapists indicated three main themes which they felt were important in determining the minimum level of experience: 'gaining on-the-job experience', 'receiving training' and 'working as a team'. Conclusions: Radiation therapists indicated that competence in portal image review occurs via various learning mechanisms. Further research is warranted to determine perspectives of other health professionals, such as radiation oncologists, on portal image review becoming part of radiation therapists' extended role. Suitable training programs and steps for implementation should be developed to facilitate this endeavour.

  1. Impact of regulatory requirements on medicine registration in African countries - perceptions and experiences of pharmaceutical companies in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsai, Kirti; Williams, Abeda; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje Kaija

    2012-07-01

    Access to medicines has long been and remains a challenge in African countries. The impact of medicines registration policies in these countries poses a challenge for pharmaceutical companies wanting to register medicines in these countries. The recent AMRHI (African Medicines Registration Harmonisation Initiative) has increased the focus on the need for harmonisation. Medicines registration regulations differ across African countries. Anecdotal evidence, based on the experience of pharmaceutical companies on progress towards harmonisation is somewhat different, i.e. that country specific requirements were a barrier to the registration of medicines. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nature and extent of regulatory hurdles experienced by pharmaceutical companies who wish to register and supply medicines to African countries. This cross-sectional descriptive pilot study was conducted across pharmaceutical companies, both local and multinational. These companies were based in South Africa and were also members of Pharmaceutical Industry Association of South Africa (PIASA). The pharmaceutical companies supply both the private and public sectors. An online survey was developed using Survey Monkey. Survey questions focused on the following strands: nature and level of current supply of medicines to African countries by companies, general regulatory requirements, region specific questions and country specific questions across four regional economic communities in Africa, namely; Southern African Development Community (SADC), East African Community (EAC), Economic Community of the West African States (ECOWAS) and Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). A total of 33 responses were received to the questionnaire of which 26 respondents were from the PIASA Regulatory working group and 7 were from the PIASA Export working group.It was noted that since most of the regulatory authorities in Africa are resource-constrained, harmonisation of

  2. Impact of regulatory requirements on medicine registration in African countries – perceptions and experiences of pharmaceutical companies in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsai, Kirti; Williams, Abeda; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje Kaija

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Access to medicines has long been and remains a challenge in African countries. The impact of medicines registration policies in these countries poses a challenge for pharmaceutical companies wanting to register medicines in these countries. The recent AMRHI (African Medicines Registration Harmonisation Initiative) has increased the focus on the need for harmonisation. Medicines registration regulations differ across African countries. Anecdotal evidence, based on the experience of pharmaceutical companies on progress towards harmonisation is somewhat different, i.e. that country specific requirements were a barrier to the registration of medicines. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nature and extent of regulatory hurdles experienced by pharmaceutical companies who wish to register and supply medicines to African countries. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive pilot study was conducted across pharmaceutical companies, both local and multinational. These companies were based in South Africa and were also members of Pharmaceutical Industry Association of South Africa (PIASA). The pharmaceutical companies supply both the private and public sectors. An online survey was developed using Survey Monkey. Survey questions focused on the following strands: nature and level of current supply of medicines to African countries by companies, general regulatory requirements, region specific questions and country specific questions across four regional economic communities in Africa, namely; Southern African Development Community (SADC), East African Community (EAC), Economic Community of the West African States (ECOWAS) and Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). Results: A total of 33 responses were received to the questionnaire of which 26 respondents were from the PIASA Regulatory working group and 7 were from the PIASA Export working group.It was noted that since most of the regulatory authorities in Africa are resource

  3. Christfried Jakob's late views (1930-1949) on the psychogenetic function of the cerebral cortex and its localization: culmination of the neurophilosophical thought of a keen brain observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théodoridou, Zoë D; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2012-04-01

    This article follows the culmination of the scientific thought of the neurobiologist Christfried Jakob (1866-1956) during the later part of his career, based on publications from 1930 to 1949, when he was between 64 and 83 years of age. Jakob emphasized the necessity of bridging philosophy to the biological sciences, neurobiology in particular. Thus, we consider him as one of the early protagonists in the emergence of neurophilosophy in the 20th century. The topics that occupied his mind were the foundations for a future philosophy of the brain, and the 'neurobiogenetic', 'neurodynamic', and 'neuropsychogenetic' problems in relation to how consciousness emerges. Jakob's views have many elements in common with great thinkers of philosophy and psychology, including Immanuel Kant, William James, Edmund Husserl, Henri Bergson, Jean Piaget and Willard Quine. A common denominator can also be discerned between Jakob's dynamic approach and certain aspects of cybernetics and neurophenomenology. Jakob propounded the interdisciplinarity of sciences as an indispensable tool for ultimately solving the enigma of consciousness.

  4. Zeno: Critical Fluid Light Scattering Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Robert W.; Shaumeyer, J. N.; Briggs, Matthew E.; Boukari, Hacene; Gent, David A.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    1996-01-01

    The Zeno (Critical Fluid Light Scattering) experiment is the culmination of a long history of critical fluid light scattering in liquid-vapor systems. The major limitation to making accurate measurements closer to the critical point was the density stratification which occurs in these extremely compressible fluids. Zeno was to determine the critical density fluctuation decay rates at a pair of supplementary angles in the temperature range 100 mK to 100 (mu)K from T(sub c) in a sample of xenon accurately loaded to the critical density. This paper gives some highlights from operating the instrument on two flights March, 1994 on STS-62 and February, 1996 on STS-75. More detail of the experiment Science Requirements, the personnel, apparatus, and results are displayed on the Web homepage at http://www.zeno.umd.edu.

  5. Qualitative evaluation of general university requirements in a new 4-year university curriculum: findings based on experiences of students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu; Wu, Florence K Y; Ng, Catalina S M; Chai, Wen Yu

    2017-02-01

    Following the North American model, the length of undergraduate program in Hong Kong has been extended from 3 to 4 years since 2012. To maximize the impact of the additional year, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) has implemented a new general education framework entitled "General University Requirements (GUR)" aiming to cultivate students in a holistic manner. This study explored students' impressions of the GUR subjects using a survey collecting primarily qualitative data. Results from 163 students of eight faculties showed that students perceived the GUR subjects favorably. Having opportunities to make new friends from other departments and the teaching and learning methods, particularly experiential learning stimulated students' interest and enriched their learning experiences which were reportedly are unforgettable. Some of the obstacles encountered by students in several subjects were identified. The beneficial effects of the GUR subjects in different domains were voiced by the students.

  6. Unique anti-glioblastoma activities of hypericin are at the crossroad of biochemical and epigenetic events and culminate in tumor cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama Dror

    Full Text Available Failure of conventional therapies to alleviate glioblastoma (GBM fosters search for novel therapeutic strategies. These include epigenetic modulators as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi, which relax abnormally compact tumor cell chromatin organization, enabling cells to overcome blockage in differentiation. However, in clinical settings, HDACi efficacy is confined to subsets of hematologic malignancies. We reasoned that molecules targeting multiple epigenetic mechanisms may exhibit superior anti-cancer activities. We focused on the redox perylene-quinone Hypericin (HYP and showed that HYP targets Hsp90 for polyubiquitination, degradation and inactivation. Hsp90 is implicated in mediating inheritable epigenetic modifications transferable to progeny. We therefore examined if HYP can induce epigenetic alterations in GBM cells and show here that HYP indeed, targets multiple mechanisms in human glioblastoma tumor cell lines via unique manners. These elicit major epigenetic signature changes in key developmentally regulated genes. HYP induces neuroglial tumor cell differentiation modulating the cytoarchitecture, neuroglial differentiation antigen expression and causes exit from cell proliferation cycles. Such activities characterize HDACi however HYP is not an HDAC inhibitor. Instead, HYP effectively down-regulates expression of Class-I HDACs, creating marked deficiencies in HDACs cellular contents, leading to histones H3 and H4 hyperacetylation. Expression of EZH2, the Polycomb repressor complex-2 catalytic subunit, which trimethylates histone H3K27 is also suppressed. The resulting histone hyperacetylation and diminished H3K27-trimethylation relax chromatin structure, activating gene transcription including differentiation-promoting genes. DNMT profiles are also modulated increasing global DNA methylation. HYP induces unique epigenetic down-regulations of HDACs, EZH2 and DNMTs, remodeling chromatin structure and culminating in tumor cell

  7. HDAC1 negatively regulates Bdnf and Pvalb required for parvalbumin interneuron maturation in an experience-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dawn X P; Sng, Judy C G

    2016-11-01

    During early postnatal development, neuronal circuits are sculpted by sensory experience provided by the external environment. This experience-dependent regulation of circuitry development consolidates the balance of excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) neurons in the brain. The cortical barrel-column that innervates a single principal whisker is used to provide a clear reference frame for studying the consolidation of E/I circuitry. Sensory deprivation of S1 at birth disrupts the consolidation of excitatory-inhibitory balance by decreasing inhibitory transmission of parvalbumin interneurons. The molecular mechanisms underlying this decrease in inhibition are not completely understood. Our findings show that epigenetic mechanisms, in particular histone deacetylation by histone deacetylases, negatively regulate the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and parvalbumin (Pvalb) genes during development, which are required for the maturation of parvalbumin interneurons. After whisker deprivation, increased histone deacetylase 1 expression and activity led to increased histone deacetylase 1 binding and decreased histone acetylation at Bdnf promoters I-IV and Pvalb promoter, resulting in the repression of Bdnf and Pvalb gene transcription. The decrease in Bdnf expression further affected parvalbumin interneuron maturation at layer II/III in S1, demonstrated by decreased parvalbumin expression, a marker for parvalbumin interneuron maturation. Knockdown of HDAC1 recovered Bdnf and Pvalb gene transcription and also prevented the decrease of inhibitory synapses accompanying whisker deprivation.

  8. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Jurassic of East Greenland: a sedimentary record of thermal subsidence, onset and culmination of rifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Late Palaeozoic – Mesozoic extensional basin complex of East Greenland contains a record of deposition during a period of Rhaetian – Early Bajocian thermal subsidence, the onset of riftingin the Late Bajocian, its growth during the Bathonian–Kimmeridgian, culmination of rifting in the Volgian – Early Ryazanian, and waning in the Late Ryazanian – Hauterivian. The area was centred over a palaeolatitude of about 45°N in the Rhaetian and drifted northwards to about 50°N in the Hauterivian. A major climate change from arid to humid subtropical conditions took place at the Norian–Rhaetian transition. Deposition was in addition governed by a long-term sea-level rise with highstands in the Toarcian–Aalenian, latest Callovian and Kimmeridgian, and lowstands in the latest Bajocian – earliest Bathonian, Middle Oxfordian and Volgian.The Rhaetian – Lower Bajocian succession is considered the upper part of a megasequence, termed J1, with its base in the upper Lower Triassic, whereas the Upper Bajocian – Hauterivian succession forms a complete, syn-rift megasequence, termed J2. The southern part of the basin complex in Jameson Land contains a relatively complete Rhaetian–Ryazanian succession and underwent only minor tilting during Middle Jurassic – earliest Cretaceous rifting. Rhaetian – Lower Jurassic deposits are absent north of Jameson Land and this region was fragmented into strongly tilted fault blocks during the protracted rift event. The syn-rift successions of the two areas accordingly show different long-term trends in sedimentary facies. In the southern area, the J2 syn-rift megasequence forms a symmetrical regressive–transgressive–regressive cycle, whereas the J2 megasequence in the northern area shows an asymmetrical, stepwise deepening trend.A total of eight tectonostratigraphic sequences are recognised in the Rhaetian–Hauterivian interval. They reflect major changes in basin configuration, drainage systems

  9. Historical perspective: Nuremberg, Tuskegee, and the radiation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, G L

    1997-01-01

    The National Research Act was passed as a result of the Tuskegee Study, a research study investigating syphilis in black males who received no treatment despite the discovery of penicillin. The Act requires the publication of regulations for the protection of human subjects, as well as requirements for informed consent and review of research by institutional research boards. The 1975 Declaration of Helsinki was also revised. President Clinton, spurned on by reports of humans unknowingly being injected with plutonium for research purposes, created the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. The Committee's report culminated in the creation of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission to act as a national deliberative body to advise on the ethical issues faced by the research community today. Despite codes, regulations, and policies, the ultimate protection of research subjects and the future of the research enterprise itself rests with individual investigators and their sense of ethical behavior in fulfilling their obligations to their research subjects.

  10. Study of requirements and performances of the electromagnetic calorimeter for the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleti, S. [Sapienza Univ. of Rome (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    In this thesis we discuss the simulation and tests carried out for the optimization and design of the electromagnetic calorimeter for the Mu2e (Muon to electron conversion) experiment, which is a proposed experiment part of the Muon Campus hosted at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Batavia, United States.

  11. Science requirements for free-flying imaging radar (FIREX) experiment for sea ice, renewable resources, nonrenewable resources and oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    A future bilateral SAR program was studied. The requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by science and operations in sea-ice-covered waters, oceanography, renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources are addressed. The instrument, mission, and program parameters were discussed. Research investigations supporting a SAR flight and the subsequent overall mission requirements and tradeoffs are summarized.

  12. An Examination of U.S. AACSB International Accounting-Accredited Schools to Determine Global Travel Experience Requirements in Accounting Masters Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Susan Lee; Finley, Jane B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the extent to which U.S. graduate accounting programs accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business have included some type of global travel experience in their graduate accounting curriculum. The authors contacted 137 member schools offering accounting masters degrees. Only one school required an…

  13. 42 CFR 482.82 - Condition of participation: Data submission, clinical experience, and outcome requirements for re...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performed at the center. (3) A pancreas transplant center is not required to comply with the clinical... section for pancreas transplants performed at the center. (4) A center that is approved to...

  14. The Dedicated Aerosol Retrieval Experiment (DARE): scientific requirements for a dedicated satellite instrument to measure atmospheric aerosols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decae, R.; Courrèges-Lacoste, G.B.; Leeuw, G. de

    2004-01-01

    DARE (Dedicated Aerosol Retrieval Experiment) is a study to design an instrument for accurate remote sensing of aerosol properties from space. DARE combines useful properties of several existing instruments like TOMS, GOME, ATSR and POLDER. It has a large wavelength range, 330 to 1000 nm, to discrim

  15. Measuring work activities and skill requirements of occupations: experiences from a European pilot study with a web-survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.G.; de Ruijter, J.; de Ruijter, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this article is to evaluate a method for measuring work activities and skill requirements of 160 occupations in eight countries, used in EurOccupations, an EU-FP6 project. Additionally, it aims to explore how the internet can be used for measuring work activities and skill r

  16. Trends of fluid requirement in dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever: a single centre experience in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Weerakoon, Kosala G A D; Munasinghe, Ruwan; Ralapanawa, Udaya K; Pathirage, Manoji

    2015-04-08

    Meticulous fluid management is the mainstay of treatment in dengue fever that is currently governed by consensus guidelines rather than by strong research evidence. To examine this issue we audited the fluid requirement of a cohort of adult patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) in a tertiary care clinical setting. This retrospective cohort study was conducted from July 2012 to January 2013 in Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Adult patients with confirmed dengue infection managed according to the national and WHO guidelines were included. Their fluid requirement was audited once data collection was over in both DF and DHF groups. Out of 302 patients, 209 (69%) had serological confirmation of dengue infection, comprising 62 (30%) patients gone into critical phase of DHF. Mean age of the DHF group was 30 years (range 12-63 years) and included more males (n = 42, 68%, p fever on admission and total duration of fever were 4 days and 6 days respectively. DHF group had high incidence of vomiting, abdominal pain and flushing, lowest platelet counts and highest haematocrit values compared to DF group. In DHF group, the mean total daily requirements of fluid from 2(nd) to 7(th) day were 2123, 2733, 2846, 2981, 3139 and 3154 milliliters respectively to maintain a safe haematocrit value and the vital parameters. However, in DF group the fluid requirement was lowest on 3(rd) day (2158 milliliters). DHF group had significantly high fluid requirement on 5(th) -7(th) day compared to DF group (p fever and again on 5(th) to 7(th) day of fever. Despite being an audit, these finding could be useful in future updates of guidelines and designing research.

  17. Initial Experience of Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Radical Prostatectomy Requiring Well-Equipped Appliances and a Skilled Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Yong Lee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We report an initial experience in laparoendoscopic single-site radical prostatectomy (LESSRP using a homemade single-port device for prostate cancer. A 63-year-old man was diagnosed with prostate cancer. The patient underwent LESSRP using an Alexis® wound retractor, which was inserted through an umbilical incision. A homemade single-port device was made by fixing a 61/2 surgical glove to the retractor’s outer ring and securing the glove finger to the end of 4 trocars with a tie. Using the flexible laparoscopic and rigid instruments, LESSRP was performed using a procedure similar to conventional laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP. In the current case, we could not perform complete LESSRP, so we report our initial experience and consider the reason why laparoendoscopic single-site surgery was converted to conventional LRP.

  18. The GATA transcription factor gene gtaG is required for terminal differentiation in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh-Kurasawa, Mariko; Santhanam, Balaji; Shaulsky, Gad

    2016-03-09

    The GATA transcription factor GtaG is conserved in Dictyostelids and essential for terminal differentiation in Dictyostelium discoideum, but its function is not well understood. Here we show that gtaG is expressed in prestalk cells at the anterior region of fingers and in the extending stalk during culmination. The gtaG(-) phenotype is cell-autonomous in prestalk cells and non-cell-autonomous in prespore cells. Transcriptome analyses reveal that GtaG regulates prestalk gene expression during cell differentiation before culmination and is required for progression into culmination. GtaG-dependent genes include genetic suppressors of the Dd-STATa-defective phenotype as well as Dd-STATa target-genes, including extra cellular matrix genes. We show that GtaG may be involved in the production of two culmination-signaling molecules, cyclic di-GMP and the spore differentiation factor SDF-1 and that addition of c-di-GMP rescues the gtaG(-) culmination and spore formation deficiencies. We propose that GtaG is a regulator of terminal differentiation that functions in concert with Dd-STATa and controls culmination through regulating c-di-GMP and SDF-1 production in prestalk cells.

  19. The 10 basic requirements for a scientific paper reporting antioxidant, antimutagenic or anticarcinogenic potential of test substances in in vitro experiments and animal studies in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhagen, H.; Aruoma, O.I.; van Delft, J.H.M.;

    2003-01-01

    future, it has become essential that studies reported in this journal reflect an adequate level of scientific scrutiny. Therefore a set of essential characteristics of studies has been defined. These basic requirements are default properties rather than non-negotiables: deviations are possible and useful......, provided they can be justified on scientific grounds. The 10 basic requirements for a scientific paper reporting antioxidant, antimutagenic or anticarcinogenic potential of test substances in in vitro experiments and animal studies in vivo concern the following areas: (1) Hypothesis-driven study design; (2...

  20. Nurses', midwives' and key stakeholders' experiences and perceptions on requirements to demonstrate the maintenance of professional competence.

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Mary; Cooney, Adeline; O'Connell, Rhona; Hegarty, Josephine; Brady, Anne-Marie; O'Reilly, Pauline; Kennedy, Catriona; Heffernan, Elizabeth; Fealy, Gerard; McNamara, Martin; O' Connor, Laserina

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To present the qualitative findings from a study on the development of scheme(s) to give evidence of maintenance of professional competence for nurses and midwives. Background: Key issues in maintenance of professional competence include notions of self- assessment, verification of engagement and practice hours, provision of an evidential record, the role of the employer and articulation of possible consequences for non-adherence with the requirements. Schemes to demonstrate the maintena...

  1. Teaching Representation Translations with Magnetic Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, Wilson Andrew; McCaskey, Timothy; Nasser, Luis

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory exercise designed to help students translate between different field representations. It starts with students qualitatively mapping field lines for various bar magnet configurations and continues with a Hall probe experiment in which students execute a series of scaffolded tasks, culminating in the prediction and…

  2. Teaching Representation Translations with Magnetic Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, Wilson Andrew; McCaskey, Timothy; Nasser, Luis

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory exercise designed to help students translate between different field representations. It starts with students qualitatively mapping field lines for various bar magnet configurations and continues with a Hall probe experiment in which students execute a series of scaffolded tasks, culminating in the prediction and…

  3. Introducing radiology report checklists among residents: adherence rates when suggesting versus requiring their use and early experience in improving accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Daniel K; Lin, Eaton; Silberzweig, James E; Kagetsu, Nolan J

    2014-03-01

    To retrospectively compare resident adherence to checklist-style structured reporting for maxillofacial computed tomography (CT) from the emergency department (when required vs. suggested between two programs). To compare radiology resident reporting accuracy before and after introduction of the structured report and assess its ability to decrease the rate of undetected pathology. We introduced a reporting checklist for maxillofacial CT into our dictation software without specific training, requiring it at one program and suggesting it at another. We quantified usage among residents and compared reporting accuracy, before and after counting and categorizing faculty addenda. There was no significant change in resident accuracy in the first few months, with residents acting as their own controls (directly comparing performance with and without the checklist). Adherence to the checklist at program A (where it originated and was required) was 85% of reports compared to 9% of reports at program B (where it was suggested). When using program B as a secondary control, there was no significant difference in resident accuracy with or without using the checklist (comparing different residents using the checklist to those not using the checklist). Our results suggest that there is no automatic value of checklists for improving radiology resident reporting accuracy. They also suggest the importance of focused training, checklist flexibility, and a period of adjustment to a new reporting style. Mandatory checklists were readily adopted by residents but not when simply suggested. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does Gender Influence Electroconvulsive Therapy Sessions Required across Psychiatric Diagnoses? A 5-Year Experience from a Single Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Harshini; Subramanian, Karthick; Menon, Vikas; Kattimani, Shivanand

    2017-01-01

    Context: There is a paucity of systematic data reflecting the practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) from developing countries. Aim: We aimed to identify the number of ECT sessions required to yield response and gender diffeferences in the number of sessions across various diagnostic categories. Setting and Design: A record-based study from a teaching cum tertiary care hospital in South India. Subjects and Methods: Case records of patients who received modified ECT from January 2011 to January 2016 were reviewed. The sociodemographic details and ECT-related data were collected. Psychiatric diagnoses were ascertained as per the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Among 148 patients, 82 (55.4%) had mood disorder (bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder), 43 (29.1%) had schizophrenia, and 22 (14.9%) had other acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPDs). Patients with mood disorders, schizophrenia, and other ATPD received 7.3 (± 3.8), 9.7 (± 6.1), and 5.4 (± 2.0) ECT sessions, respectively, to achieve response. There was no gender difference in the number of sessions received. Conclusion: Our findings show that number of ECT sessions required to yield response may be disorder-specific. Gender does not influence the ECT dose requirement. Variations in ECT parameters across settings may limit the generalizability of results. PMID:28694625

  5. Experience in initial training required for the recognition of the qualified RP expert in Spain; Experiencia en la formacion requerida para el reconocimiento del experto cualificado en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Suarez, M.; Marco Arboli, M.; Menarguez, J.

    2003-07-01

    An important point of the actions inside the European framework to achieve the harmonisation of the training programmes and recognition was included in the European directive 96/29/Euratom which includes definition and specific tasks of the European Qualified Expert on Radiation Protection (RP). Basic syllabus for training of those experts was developed in the communication 98/C 133/03 concerning BSS applications. Although, in the Spanish education system, the training and recognition requirements of the high level qualified experts on RP was defined since 1977, until 2001, the figure of the Technical Qualified Expert on RP does not appear in the legal framework. In December 2002, a new regulation of the Spanish Regulatory Body, CSN, about qualifications to obtain the recognition of RP Expert in Spain (both high qualified and technical RP experts) was published. Concerning the qualified expert on RP, (RP Officer), responsible of the RP Service, which takes charge of the effective protection and advise radioactive and nuclear facilities in Rp aspects,has to be authorised by the regulatory body. to obtain the RP officer diploma, conceded by the CSN, an initial training of 300 hours and a three-year minimum experience are required (for X-ray installation a 6-month experience is enough). The technical qualified expert on RP is the worker who carried out the tasks in the a RP Service under the supervision of the RP officer. A Technician Qualified Expert on RP does not need an specific accreditation of the Regulatory Body, but an initial RP training and a three-month minimum experience are required and has hold a certificate by the RP officer. Continuous training is also required and as well has to receive a certificate from the RP officer. Since 1977, The Institute for energy Studies has been implementing specific training courses for those professionals who want to obtain the diploma of RP officer (high degree qualified RP expert), conceded by the CSN. Since then

  6. A Required Rotation in Clinical Laboratory Management for Pathology Residents: Five-Year Experience at Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Arvind; Hoda, Syed T; Crawford, James M

    2016-01-01

    Leadership and management training during pathology residency have been identified repeatedly by employers as insufficient. A 1-month rotation in clinical laboratory management (CLM) was created for third-year pathology residents. We report on our experience and assess the value of this rotation. The rotation was one-half observational and one-half active. The observational component involved being a member of department and laboratory service line leadership, both at the departmental and institutional level. Observational participation enabled learning of both the content and principles of leadership and management activities. The active half of the rotation was performance of a project intended to advance the strategic trajectory of the department and laboratory service line. In our program that matriculates 4 residents per year, 20 residents participated from April 2010 through December 2015. Their projects either activated a new priority area or helped propel an existing strategic priority forward. Of the 16 resident graduates who had obtained their first employment or a fellowship position, 9 responded to an assessment survey. The majority of respondents (5/9) felt that the rotation significantly contributed to their ability to compete for a fellowship or their first employment position. The top reported benefits of the rotation included people management; communication with staff, departmental, and institutional leadership; and involvement in department and institutional meetings and task groups. Our 5-year experience demonstrates both the successful principles by which the CLM rotation can be established and the high value of this rotation to residency graduates.

  7. Superfluid helium orbital resupply - The status of the SHOOT flight experiment and preliminary user requirements. [Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipirro, Michael J.; Kittel, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) flight experiment is designed to demonstrate the components and techniques necessary to resupply superfluid helium to satellites or Space Station based facilities. A top level description as well as the development status of the critical components to be used in SHOOT are discussed. Some of these components include the thermomechanical pump, the fluid acquisition system, the normal helium and superfluid helium phase separators, Venturi flow meter, cryogenic valves, burst disks, and astronaut-compatible EVA coupler and transfer line. The requirements for the control electronics and software are given. A preliminary description of the requirements that must be met by a satellite requiring superfluid helium servicing is given. In particular, minimum and optimum plumbing arrangements are shown, transfer line flow impedance and heat input impacts are assessed, instrumentation is described, and performance parameters are considered.

  8. Flexible attosecond beamline for high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV/near-IR pump probe experiments requiring long acquisition times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. J., E-mail: sebastien.weber@cea.fr; Manschwetus, B.; Billon, M.; Bougeard, M.; Breger, P.; Géléoc, M.; Gruson, V.; Lin, N.; Ruchon, T.; Salières, P.; Carré, B. [Commissariat l’Energie Atomique, Laser, Interactions and Dynamics Laboratory (LIDyL), DSM/IRAMIS, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Böttcher, M.; Huetz, A.; Picard, Y. J. [ISMO, UMR 8214, Université Paris-Sud, Batiment 350, Orsay (France)

    2015-03-15

    We describe the versatile features of the attosecond beamline recently installed at CEA-Saclay on the PLFA kHz laser. It combines a fine and very complete set of diagnostics enabling high harmonic spectroscopy (HHS) through the advanced characterization of the amplitude, phase, and polarization of the harmonic emission. It also allows a variety of photo-ionization experiments using magnetic bottle and COLTRIMS (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Microscopy) electron spectrometers that may be used simultaneously, thanks to a two-foci configuration. Using both passive and active stabilization, special care was paid to the long term stability of the system to allow, using both experimental approaches, time resolved studies with attosecond precision, typically over several hours of acquisition times. As an illustration, applications to multi-orbital HHS and electron-ion coincidence time resolved spectroscopy are presented.

  9. Outcome of Recipients of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants Who Require Intensive Care Unit Support: A Single Institution Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Becerra, Samantha; Labastida-Mercado, Nancy; Rosales-Padrón, Jaime; García-Chavez, Jessica; Soto-Vega, Elena; Rivadeneyra-Espinoza, Liliana; León-Peña, Andres A; Fernández-Lara, Danitza; Dominguez-Cid, Monica; Anthon-Méndez, Javier; Arizpe-Bravo, Daniel; Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo J; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J

    2015-01-01

    Admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a patient who has been grafted with hematopoietic stem cells is a serious event, but the role of the ICU in this setting remains controversial. Data were analyzed from patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation at the Centro de Hematología y Medicina Interna de Puebla, México, between May 1993 and October 2014. In total, 339 patients were grafted: 150 autografts and 189 allografts; 68 of the grafted patients (20%) were admitted to the ICU after transplantation: 27% of the allografted and 11% of the autografted patients (p = 0.2). Two of 17 autografted patients (12%) and 5 of 51 allografted patients (10%) survived. All patients who required insertion of an endotracheal tube died, whereas 7 of 11 patients without invasive mechanical ventilation survived (p = 0.001). Only 10% of the grafted patients survived their stay in the ICU; this figure is lower than those reported from other centers and may reflect several facts, varying from the quality of the ICU support to ICU admission criteria to the initial management of all the grafts in an outpatient setting, which could somehow delay the arrival of patients to the hospital. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Requirement Analysis of Data Preprocessing in Exploratory Simulation Experiment%探索性仿真数据预处理需求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 李春洪; 刘苏洋; 谢涌纹

    2012-01-01

    探索性仿真是一种研究复杂系统的科学手段,而数据挖掘是处理探索性仿真所产生的海量数据,而在实施数据挖掘前如何进行有效的数据预处理成为当前仿真领域面临的难题.为解决目前在探索性仿真中数据预处理工作存在的目标不够明确、重点不够突出等问题,提出了探索性仿真数据预处理需求分析,结合探索性仿真数据的特点,首先分析了通用数据预处理需求,之后对决策树挖掘、关联规则挖掘、聚类分析三种典型数据挖掘算法的数据预处理需求进行了分析.研究成果较好地满足了探索性仿真数据预处理工作的需求.%Exploratory simulation experiment is a scientific method to research complicated system, while data mining is an important method to process a great deal of data produced in an exploratory simulation experiment. How to preprocess data effectively before data mining is a problem to be solved for the domestic simulation realm. In order to solve the problem of the ambiguity of goal and unapparent emphasis of data preprocessing, requirement analysis of data preprocessing in exploratory simulation experiment was put forward. Combing with the specialty of data produced in exploratory simulation experiment, the general requirement of data preprocessing was analyzed in the paper firstly. The requirements of the algorithms of decision tree, association rules, and cluster analysis of data preprocessing were analyzed then. The research results of this paper can meet the requirement of data preprocessing in exploratory simulation experiment.

  11. Evaluating the Charged Background Rejection Requirement in an Experiment to Measure BR(K L → π0 νν -) at the CERN SPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A.

    2016-11-01

    Measuring the rate at which the long-lived, neutral kaon decays into a neutral pion, neutrino, and anti-neutrino allows physicists an opportunity to test precise predictions made by the Standard Model. Differences between theoretical predictions and experimental measurements may point to new physics. Not only does the Standard Model predict a very low probability at approximately 3 KL→ π0 νν -) decay in 100 billion KL decays, but many of the common decays leave false signals in the detector that look the same as the true signal. Charged decays have been studied to determine the required detection efficiency necessary to eliminate them. The conclusion of these studies is that a reduction by a factor of 1/(3 × 109) will be required to achieve the 10:1 signal to charged background ratio necessary for the experiment.

  12. Experiences in certification of packages for transportation of fresh nuclear fuel in the context of new safety requirements established by IAEA regulations (IAEA-96 regulations, ST-1) for air transportation of nuclear materials (requirements to C-type packages)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudai, V.I.; Kovtun, A.D.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Nilulin, V.M.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Yakushev, V.A.; Bobrovsky, V.S.; Rozhkov, V.V.; Agapov, A.M.; Kolesnikov, A.S. [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' MSZ' ' , Electrostal (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' NPCC' ' , Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)]|[Minatom of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Gosatomnadzor of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Every year in Russia, a large amount of domestic and international transportation of fresh nuclear fuel (FNF) used in Russian and foreign energy and research atomic reactors and referred to fissile materials based on IAEA Regulations is performed. Here, bulk transportation is performed by air, and it concerns international transportation in particular. According to national ''Main Regulations for Safe Transport and physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (OPBZ- 83)'' and ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Regulations), nuclear and radiation security under normal (accident free) and accident conditions of transport must be completely provided by the package design. In this context, high requirements to fissile packages exposed to heat and mechanical loads in transport accidents are imposed. A long-standing experience in accident free transportation of FM has shown that such approach to provide nuclear and radiation security pays for itself completely. Nevertheless, once in 10 years the International Atomic Energy Agency on every revision of the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' places more stringent requirements upon the FM and transportation thereof, resulting from the objectively increasing risk associated with constant rise in volume and density of transportation, and also strained social and economical situation in a number of regions in the world. In the new edition of the IAEA Regulations (ST-1), published in 1996 and brought into force in 2001 (IAEA-96 Regulations), the requirements to FM packages conveyed by aircraft were radically changed. These requirements are completely presented in new Russian ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' (PBTRM- 2004) which will be brought into force in the time ahead.

  13. Cardiac Sarcoidosis Culminating in Severe Biventricular Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takefumi Ozaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old woman with a history of lung sarcoidosis developed general edema and exertional dyspnea. An electrocardiogram showed first-degree atrioventricular block with complete right bundle branch block. Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly. Echocardiography showed diffuse and severe hypokinesis of the left ventricle (LV and biventricular enlargement with severe tricuspid regurgitation. Myocardial scintigraphy disclosed a perfusion defect at the ventricular septum and hypoperfusion at the posterior wall and the apex. On cardiac catheterization, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, right ventricular, and right atrial pressures were elevated. Coronary angiograms were normal. Myocardial biopsy of the right ventricle histologically revealed epithelioid cell granuloma with infiltration of fibrous cells. The patient's symptom and LV function were improved with conventional medical therapy for heart failure. This is a rare case of cardiac sarcoidosis resulting in biventricular failure.

  14. Near-term lander experiments for growing plants on Mars: requirements for information on chemical and physical properties of Mars regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Newsom, Horton E.; Ferl, Robert J.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2002-01-01

    In order to support humans for long-duration missions to Mars, bioregenerative Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems have been proposed that would use higher plants as the primary candidates for photosynthesis. Hydroponic technologies have been suggested as the primary method of plant production in ALS systems, but the use of Mars regolith as a plant growth medium may have several advantages over hydroponic systems. The advantages for using Mars regolith include the likely bioavailability of plant-essential ions, mechanical support for plants, and easy access of the material once on the surface. We propose that plant biology experiments must be included in near-term Mars lander missions in order to begin defining the optimum approach for growing plants on Mars. Second, we discuss a range of soil chemistry and soil physics tests that must be conducted prior to, or in concert with, a plant biology experiment in order to properly interpret the results of plant growth studies in Mars regolith. The recommended chemical tests include measurements on soil pH, electrical conductivity and soluble salts, redox potential, bioavailability of essential plant nutrients, and bioavailability of phytotoxic elements. In addition, a future plant growth experiment should include procedures for determining the buffering and leaching requirements of Mars regolith prior to planting. Soil physical tests useful for plant biology studies in Mars regolith include bulk density, particle size distribution, porosity, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity.

  15. Experiences in Eliciting Security Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    FODA ) FODA is a domain analysis and engineer- ing method that focuses on developing reusable assets [9]. By examining related software systems and...systems in the form of a domain model, and a set of approaches for their implementation. The FODA method was founded on two modeling concepts...SSM QFD CORE IBIS JAD FODA CDA ARM Adaptability 3 1 3 2 2 3 2 1 2 CASE Tool 1 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 Stakeholder Acceptance 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 3 3 Easy

  16. Adaptive introductions: How multiple experiments and comparisons to wild populations provide insights into requirements for long-term introduction success of an endangered shrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Menges

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of an imperiled plant species may require augmentation of existing populations or creation of new ones. Hundreds of such projects have been conducted over the last few decades, but there is a bias in the literature favoring successes over failures. In this paper, we evaluate a series of introductions that experimentally manipulated microhabitat and fire in an adaptive introduction framework. Between 2002 and 2012, we (and our collaborators carried out ten introductions and augmentations of Florida ziziphus Pseudoziziphus (Condalia, Ziziphus celata, a clonal shrub limited to very small populations and narrowly endemic to pyrogenic central Florida sandhills. Six of the introductions were designed as experiments to test hypotheses about how demographic performance was affected by microhabitat, fire, and propagule type. Introduced transplants had high survival (<90% annually, inconsistent growth, and little transition to reproduction, while introduced seeds had low germination and survival. Transplants were more efficient than seeds as translocation propagules. Shaded (vs. open sites supported generally higher transplant and seedling survival and seed germination percentages, but growth responses varied among experiments. Supplemental irrigation increased transplant survival and seed germination, but otherwise seedling and plant survival and growth were not significantly affected. Contrary to expectations based on wild populations, introduced propagules have not been more successful in unshaded sites, suggesting that Florida ziziphus has broader microhabitat preferences than hypothesized. Compared to wild plants, introduced plants had similar survival and responses to fire, slower growth, and more delayed flowering. Introduced plants had no clonal spread. While no introduced population has demonstrated a capacity for long-term viability, one augmented population has flowered and produced viable fruits. Given that Florida ziziphus genets are

  17. A Natural Experiment on the Effect of Time Given for Quizzes on Veterinary Student Performance in a Required Principles of Anesthesia Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik H

    2017-09-08

    Assessments can cause significant distress in veterinary students and are listed as some of the greatest causes of academic stress. The purpose of this natural experiment was to determine if there is a relationship between amount of time given to complete quizzes and the students' score on the quiz. The Principles of Anesthesia course is required of all students. Quizzes are administered at the start of a class period and spaced throughout the course to cover 2-4 lectures per quiz. Once the allotted time has passed (3-6 minutes), students are notified they have 2 minutes to return the quiz to the instructor. To complete the quiz, students had 3 minutes in 2012 and 2013, 4 minutes in 2014, 5 minutes in 2015, and 6 minutes in 2016. The average quiz score was significantly lower with 3 minutes than with 4 or 6 minutes. Students in the bottom quartile scored significantly higher with 4, 5, or 6 minutes than with 3 minutes. Students in the upper quartile scored significantly higher with 4 minutes than with 3 minutes and with 4 minutes than with 5 minutes. The time provided for students to complete a free-response quiz was not associated with student performance once a certain minimum time (4 minutes) was provided. Providing students an appropriate, but not excessive, amount of time to complete assessments will allow for appropriately applied assessments and preserve time dedicated to instruction.

  18. 导管室护士的素质要求及护理体会%Quality Requirements and Nursing Experience of Catheter Room Nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽珈

    2015-01-01

    随着21世纪老龄化社会的到来,心血管病已成为威胁人类生命的头号杀手,以心导管为基础的介入性诊疗技术逐渐成为临床诊治心血管疾病的有效方法。心血管介入诊疗工作离不开相应的护理技术的发展,而心导管室护理则是从心血管病护理中演变出来的一门全新的技术。本文从医疗角度阐明导管室护士的素质要求与护理配合。%With aging society coming in 21st century, cardiovascular disease had been the leading murder of human life threat, at present, interventional diagnosis and treatment technology, based on the cardiac catheterization, was getting the most effective methods of clinical diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular interventional diagnosis and treatment work was closely related to the corresponding nursing technology development, and, conduit room nursing was a kind of whole new cardiovascular nursing plan. For that, in this paper, it will be discussed that conduit room nursing workers’ quality requirement and nursing experience.

  19. Petascale system management experiences.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, N.; Bradshaw, R.; Lueninghoener, C.; Cherry, A.; Coghlan, S.; Scullin, W. (LCF); ( MCS)

    2008-01-01

    Petascale High-Performance Computing (HPC) systems are among the largest systems in the world. Intrepid, one such system, is a 40,000 node, 556 teraflop Blue Gene/P system that has been deployed at Argonne National Laboratory. In this paper, we provide some background about the system and our administration experiences. In particular, due to the scale of the system, we have faced a variety of issues, some surprising to us, that are not common in the commodity world. We discuss our expectations, these issues, and approaches we have used to address them. HPC systems are a bellwether for computing systems at large, in multiple regards. HPC users are motivated by the need for absolute performance; this results in two important pushes. HPC users are frequently early adopters of new technologies and techniques. Successful technologies, like Infiniband, prove their value in HPC before gaining wider adoption. Unfortunately, this early adoption alone is not sufficient to achieve the levels of performance required by HPC users; parallelism must also be harnessed. Over the last 15 years, beowulf clustering has provided amazing accessibility to non-HPC-savvy and even non-technical audiences. During this time, substantial adoption of clustering has occurred in many market segments unrelated to computational science. A simple trend has emerged: the scale and performance of high-end HPC systems are uncommon at first, but become commonplace over the course of 3-5 years. For example, in early 2003, several systems on the Top500 list consisted of either 1024 nodes or 4096-8192 cores. In 2008, such systems are commonplace. The most recent generation of high-end HPC systems, so called petascale systems, are the culmination of years of research and development in research and academia. Three such systems have been deployed thus far. In addition to the 556 TF Intrepid system at Argonne National Laboratory, a 596 TF Blue Gene/L-based system has been deployed at Lawrence Livermore

  20. Successfully Managing the Experimental Area of a Large Physics Experiment from Civil Engineering to the First Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Butin, F

    2010-01-01

    The role of "Experimental Area Manager" supported by a well organized, charismatic and motivated team is absolutely essential for managing the huge effort needed for a multi-cultural, multi-disciplinary installation of cathedral-size underground caverns housing a billion dollar physics experiment. Between the years 2002 and 2008, we supervised and coordinated the ATLAS work site at LHC, from the end of the civil engineering to the first circulating beams, culminating with 240 workers on the site, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, with activities taking place simultaneously on the surface, in the 60 m shafts and in the 100 m underground experimental cavern. We depict the activities preparation scheme (including tasks ranging from the installation of 280 ton cranes to super-delicate silicon detectors), the work-site organization method, the safety management that was a top priority throughout the whole project, and the opencommunication strategy that required maintaining permanent public visits. The accumulation o...

  1. Positive Life Experiences: A Qualitative, Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal Study of Gifted Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde; Canady, Kate; Duncan, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    At the culmination of an 11-year qualitative, cross-sectional study of life events, 48 high-ability high school graduates fitting common stereotypes associated with giftedness completed an open-ended questionnaire, part of which focused on positive life experiences and sources of support. Findings included that intense investment in academics,…

  2. Putting User Stories First: Experiences Adapting the Legacy Data Models and Information Architecture at NASA JPL's PO.DAAC to Accommodate the New Information Lifecycle Required by SWOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGibbney, L. J.; Hausman, J.; Laurencelle, J. C.; Toaz, R., Jr.; McAuley, J.; Freeborn, D. J.; Stoner, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Surface Water & Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission brings together two communities focused on a better understanding of the world's oceans and its terrestrial surface waters. U.S. and French oceanographers and hydrologists and international partners have joined forces to develop this new space mission. At NASA JPL's PO.DAAC, the team is currently engaged in the gathering of SWOT User Stores (access patterns, metadata requirements, primary and value added product requirements, data access protocols, etc.) to better inform the adaptive planning of what will be known as the next generation PO.DAAC Information Architecture (IA). The IA effort acknowledges that missions such as SWOT (and NISAR) have few or no precedent in terms of data volume, hot and cold storage, archival, analysis, existing system engineering complexities, etc. and that the only way we can better understand the projected impacts of such requirements is to interface directly with the User Community. Additionally, it also acknowledges that collective learning has taken place to understand certain limitations in the existing data models (DM) underlying the existing PO.DAAC Data Management and Archival System. This work documents an evolutionary, use case based, standards driven approach to adapting the legacy DM and accompanying knowledge representation infrastructure at NASA JPL's PO.DAAC to address forthcoming DAAC mission requirements presented by missions such as SWOT. Some of the topics covered in this evolution include, but are not limited to: How we are leveraging lessons learned from the development of existing DM (such as that generated for SMAP) in an attempt to map them to SWOT. What is the governance model for the SWOT IA? What are the `governing' entities? What is the hierarchy of the `governed entities'? How are elements grouped? How is the design-working group formed? How is model independence maintained and what choices/requirements do we have for the implementation language? The use of

  3. New experiences on the time required for the appearance of fluoric cachexia in the guinea pig following ingestion of various fluorine salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiani, H.; Chausse, P.

    1926-01-01

    Experiments were performed to compare the time it took guinea pigs to develop cachexia after being given sodium fluosilicate or sodium fluoride. Results indicate that a dose-response relationship existed following the ingestion of the fluorine salts in relation to the time it took to produce cachexia. In addition, sodium fluosilicate was found to be more toxic than sodium fluoride. In guinea pigs which were given approximately 1/30 to 1/36 of the lethal dose, cachexia was produced from 44 to 70 days later. In guinea pigs given even smaller doses, cachexia did not appear for one to two years.

  4. The minimum information required for a glycomics experiment (MIRAGE) project: improving the standards for reporting mass-spectrometry-based glycoanalytic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarich, Daniel; Rapp, Erdmann; Struwe, Weston B; Haslam, Stuart M; Zaia, Joseph; McBride, Ryan; Agravat, Sanjay; Campbell, Matthew P; Kato, Masaki; Ranzinger, Rene; Kettner, Carsten; York, William S

    2013-04-01

    The MIRAGE guidelines are being developed in response to a critical need in the glycobiology community to clarify glycoanalytic results so that they are more readily evaluated (in terms of their scope and depth) and to facilitate the reproduction of important results in the laboratory. The molecular and biological complexity of the glycosylation process makes thorough reporting of the results of a glycomics experiment a highly challenging endeavor. The resulting data specify the identity and quantity of complex structures, the precise molecular features of which are sometimes inferred using prior knowledge, such as familiarity with a particular biosynthetic mechanism. Specifying the exact methods and assumptions that were used to assign and quantify reported structures allows the interested scientist to appreciate the scope and depth of the analysis. Mass spectrometry (MS) is the most widely used tool for glycomics experiments. The interpretation and reproducibility of MS-based glycomics data depend on comprehensive meta-data describing the instrumentation, instrument setup, and data acquisition protocols. The MIRAGE guidelines for MS-based glycomics have been designed to facilitate the collection and sharing of this critical information in order to assist the glycoanalyst in generating data sets with maximum information content and biological relevance.

  5. Teaching Representation Translations with Magnetic Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, Wilson Andrew; McCaskey, Timothy; Nasser, Luis

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory exercise designed to help students translate between different field representations. It starts with students qualitatively mapping field lines for various bar magnet configurations and continues with a Hall probe experiment in which students execute a series of scaffolded tasks, culminating in the prediction and measurement of the spatial variation of magnetic field components along a line near magnets. We describe the experimental tasks, various difficulties students have throughout, and ways this lab makes even their incorrect predictions better. We suggest that developing lab activities of this nature brings a new dimension to the ways students learn and interact with field concepts.

  6. Fragile X mental retardation protein is required for rapid experience-dependent regulation of the potassium channel Kv3.1b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumbos, John G; Brown, Maile R; Kronengold, Jack; Polley, Daniel B; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2010-08-04

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein that regulates synaptic plasticity by repressing translation of specific mRNAs. We found that FMRP binds mRNA encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.1b in brainstem synaptosomes. To explore the regulation of Kv3.1b by FMRP, we investigated Kv3.1b immunoreactivity and potassium currents in the auditory brainstem sound localization circuit of male mice. The unique features of this circuit allowed us to control neuronal activity in vivo by exposing animals to high-frequency, amplitude-modulated stimuli, which elicit predictable and stereotyped patterns of input to the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) and medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). In wild-type (WT) animals, Kv3.1b is expressed along a tonotopic gradient in the MNTB, with highest levels in neurons at the medial, high-frequency end. At baseline, Fmr1(-/-) mice, which lack FMRP, displayed dramatically flattened tonotopicity in Kv3.1b immunoreactivity and K(+) currents relative to WT controls. Moreover, after 30 min of acoustic stimulation, levels of Kv3.1b immunoreactivity were significantly elevated in both the MNTB and AVCN of WT, but not Fmr1(-/-), mice. These results suggest that FMRP is necessary for maintenance of the gradient in Kv3.1b protein levels across the tonotopic axis of the MNTB, and are consistent with a role for FMRP as a repressor of protein translation. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that Kv3.1b tonotopicity may be required for accurate encoding of stimulus features such as modulation rate, and that disruption of this gradient, as occurs in Fmr1(-/-) animals, degrades processing of this information.

  7. Practical experience applied to the design of injection and sample manifolds to perform in-place surveillance tests according to ANSI/ASME N-510

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Wikoff, W.O.; Shaffer, L.L. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    At the current level of maturity and experience in the nuclear industry, regarding testing of air treatment systems, it is now possible to design and qualify injection and sample manifolds for most applications. While the qualification of sample manifolds is still in its infancy, injection manifolds have reached a mature stage that helps to eliminate the {open_quotes}hit or miss{close_quotes} type of design. During the design phase, manifolds can be adjusted to compensate for poor airflow distribution, laminar flow conditions, and to take advantage of any system attributes. Experience has shown that knowing the system attributes before the design phase begins is an essential element to a successful manifold design. The use of a spreadsheet type program commonly found on most personal computers can afford a greater flexibility and a reduction in time spent in the design phase. The experience gained from several generations of manifold design has culminated in a set of general design guidelines. Use of these guidelines, along with a good understanding of the type of testing (theoretical and practical), can result in a good manifold design requiring little or no field modification. The requirements for manifolds came about because of the use of multiple banks of components and unconventional housing inlet configurations. Multiple banks of adsorbers and pre and post HEPA`s required that each bank be tested to insure that each one does not exceed a specific allowable leakage criterion. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  9. Energy requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of the appropriate energy and nutritional requirements of a newborn infant requires a clear goal of the energy and other compounds to be administered, valid methods to measure energy balance and body composition, and knowledge of the neonatal metabolic capacities. Providing an appr

  10. Energy requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    The determination of the appropriate energy and nutritional requirements of a newborn infant requires a clear goal of the energy and other compounds to be administered, valid methods to measure energy balance and body composition, and knowledge of the neonatal metabolic capacities. Providing an

  11. Plasma Cells For Hire: Prior Experience Required

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Activation of IgG+ memory B cells accounts for much of the antibodies in secondary immune responses. Here, Khometani et al. (2013) demonstrate that reduced amounts of Bach2 in antigen-experienced memory B cells control the robust production of IgG1+ plasma cells.

  12. Requirements dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Knowing ‘what’ to build is an integral part of an Information System Development, and it is generally understood that this, which is known as Requirements, is achievable through a process of understanding, communication and management. It is currently maintained by the Requirements theorists that successful system design clarifies the interrelations between information and its representations...

  13. CLIC Detector Power Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2013-01-01

    An estimate for the CLIC detector power requirements is outlined starting from the available data on power consumptions of the four LHC experiments and considering the differences between a typical LHC Detector (CMS) and the CLIC baseline detector concept. In particular the impact of the power pulsing scheme for the CLIC Detector electronics on the overall detector consumption is considered. The document will be updated with the requirements of the sub-detector electronics once they are more defined.

  14. Forest Brothers, 1945: The Culmination of the Lithuanian Partisan Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-11

    Russian liberation from "capitalist and Fascist exploiters," and the second in 1941 was a German liberation from "Bolshevik bondage .,,34 With each...1941 was a German "liberation" from "Bolshevik bondage " (Daumantas 1975, 10). With each consecutive wave of occupation, the elders, public officials

  15. The Operational Culminating Point Can You See It Coming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-16

    Tobruk port and was only temporarily slowed down by the British abortive defensive efforts at Mersa Matruh. Ro-mrel’s goal was the complete expulsion of...have with- dr-awn at onrce to-- Mersa Matrub. ... I tol-,d (Hi tier,) we had lost the init iat ive fromi June 1942 onrwards, anid that a nation which

  16. Operational Overreach or Academic Under Reach: Preventing Culmination Through Sustainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    European Theater of Operations, The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge (Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, 1965), 377. 6Ibid., 664-667...ordered to relieve the 560th Volks Grenadier Division in the battle at Fraiture, Belgium. However the 2d SS Panzer Division was unable to begin...Nawoichyk, “MDMP: One Tool in the Commander’s Tool Chest,” Army Logistician 40 (September-October 2008): 18- 19. Theater Sustainment Battle Book, ST4-2

  17. Information Professional Job Advertisements in the U.K. Indicate Professional Experience is the Most Required Skill. A Review of: Orme, Verity. “You will be…: A Study of Job Advertisements to Determine Employers’ Requirements for LIS Professionals in the UK in 2007.” Library Review 57.8 (2008: 619-33.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J. Schulte

    2009-06-01

    Assistant Information Advisor.” Employers represented private, school, and university libraries, as well as legal firms and prisons. Fifty-nine skills were found a total of 1,021 times across all of the advertisements. Each advertisement averaged 5.67 requirements. These skills were classified in four categories: professional, generic, personal, and experience. The most highly noted requirement was professional experience, noted 129 times, followed by interpersonal/communication skills (94, general computing skills (63, enthusiasm (48, and team-working skills (39. Professional skills were noted just slightly more than generic and personal skills in the top twenty skills found. Other professional skills that were highly noted were customer service skills (34, chartership (30, cataloguing/classification/metadata skills (25, and information retrieval skills (20. Some notable skills that occurred rarely included Web design and development skills (6, application of information technology in the library (5, and knowledge management skills (3.Conclusion – Professional, generic, and personal qualities were all important to employers in the U.K.; however, without experience, possessing these qualities may not be enough for new professionals in the field.

  18. Aesthetic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, François J

    2008-02-01

    An initial clinical question, 'Why does an analysand talk about his/her relationship with an aesthetic object?' opens an investigation into the nature of aesthetic experience. Three principal aspects of the psychoanalytic approach are presented: sublimation, a Freudian concept concerning the vicissitudes of the drives; reparation, a Kleinian concept linked to depressive anxiety; and transformation, a concept of object-relations theory about primitive ego-states. The article discusses the psychic function of aesthetic feelings in mastering anxiety as related to ego, id and superego. The transformation of the experience of passivity is a common link underlying these aspects. Such transformation relies on tolerating ambiguous and contrary feelings within the self, fostered by contact with an aesthetic object. This balance can, however, be upset: two excessive forms of aesthetic experience ensue, namely, fascination and bewitchment. The first belongs to the experience of awe; the second can lead to claustrophobic anxiety. The initial clinical question requires an elaboration of aesthetic transference, a variant of the narcissistic transference, whereby the analysand invites the analyst to share his/her internal state as a common unspoken object.

  19. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Plata, Charity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  20. Experiment Dashboard for the LHC Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, Julia; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Herrala, Juha; Maier, Gerhild; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Sidorova, Irina; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the Grid is to provide a coherent access to distributed computing resources. All LHC experiments are using several Grid infrastructures and a variety of the middleware flavors. Due to the complexity and heterogeinity of a distributed system the monitoring represents a challenging task. Independently of the underlying platform , the experiments need to ave a complete and uniform picture of their activities on the Grid ideally seen by the users as a single powerful computing resource. Overall operation of the infrastructure used by experiments is defined both by the quality of the Grid and the quality of the tools and services developed/used by the experiments. Correspondingly the required monitoring information should combine both Grid-related and experiment/application specific data. On the other hand, users of the LHC experiments have various roles and need different levels of details regarding monitoring data. The paper will focus on the Grid monitoring from the experiment/user perspectives with...

  1. Round table: moderated by Marco Bersanelli and François Bouchet - What next? science objectives and required observations: Objective: Open discussion of what are the strengths and weaknesses of possible future experiments, complementarity, what is our target science for the M5 proposal and what is the best strategy to get it

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Round table: moderated by Marco Bersanelli and François Bouchet - What next? science objectives and required observations: Objective: Open discussion of what are the strengths and weaknesses of possible future experiments, complementarity, what is our target science for the M5 proposal and what is the best strategy to get it

  2. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  3. Fluorescence Experiments with Quinine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, James E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a series of experiments which illustrate the analytical capabilities of fluorescence, and outlines two straightforward analyses involving real analyses. These experiments are suitable for an undergraduate instrumental analysis course and require approximately six to seven hours of laboratory time. (MLH)

  4. Snubber qualification and test requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onesto, A.T.; Larson, D.A.

    1983-05-02

    The use of snubbers for safety related piping systems has increased significantly during the last decade. A corresponding increase in snubber requirements (criteria) has also occurred. A review of these criteria indicates inconsistencies and contradictions, and reflects how rapidly knowledge and experience has been gained and applied. This study reviews and summarizes existing criteria, illustrates inconsistencies and recommends research to resolve conflicts.

  5. Groupware requirements evolution patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumareja, Dulce Trinidad

    2013-01-01

    Requirements evolution is a generally known problem in software development. Requirements are known to change all throughout a system's lifecycle. Nevertheless, requirements evolution is a poorly understood phenomenon. Most studies on requirements evolution focus on changes to written specifications

  6. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  7. The Franck-Hertz Experiments, 1911-1914 Experimentalists in Search of a Theory. With an appendix, "On the History of our Experiments on the Energy Exchange between Slow Electrons and Atoms" by Gustav Hertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Clayton A.

    2014-09-01

    In 1911, James Franck and Gustav Hertz began a collaboration to investigate the nature of collisions of slow electrons with gas molecules that led to a series of carefully planned and executed experiments, culminating in their discovery of inelastic collisions of electrons with mercury vapor atoms in 1914. This paper tells the story of their collaboration and the eventual reinterpretation of their results as a confirmation of Niels Bohr's new atomic theory, largely as a result of experiments done in North America during the Great War.

  8. The Franck-Hertz Experiments, 1911-1914 Experimentalists in Search of a Theory - With an appendix, "On the History of our Experiments on the Energy Exchange between Slow Electrons and Atoms" by Gustav Hertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Clayton A.

    2014-09-01

    In 1911, James Franck and Gustav Hertz began a collaboration to investigate the nature of collisions of slow electrons with gas molecules that led to a series of carefully planned and executed experiments, culminating in their discovery of inelastic collisions of electrons with mercury vapor atoms in 1914. This paper tells the story of their collaboration and the eventual reinterpretation of their results as a confirmation of Niels Bohr's new atomic theory, largely as a result of experiments done in North America during the Great War.

  9. Experiences of teenage pregnancy among Xhosa families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sindiwe; Van Rooyen, Dalena; Strümpher, Juanita

    2012-04-01

    to explore and describe the experiences of teenage pregnancy among Xhosa families, and, depending on the results of the study, to recommend a strategy to assist midwives to enhance pregnancy outcomes. a qualitative, explorative, descriptive, phenomenological and contextual research design. In-depth face-to-face interviews were performed to collect data. 10 pregnant teenagers, eight mothers, two fathers, seven grandmothers and three grandfathers from the same families were interviewed independently and privately. pregnant teenagers experienced emotional turmoil as they strived to cope with their pregnancy, and experienced a change in their relationships with significant others due to expectations that were not met and role confusion which led to crisis. Parents experienced overwhelming emotions due to the unexpected pregnancy of their child, and loss of control as the pregnancy could not be reversed. Grandparents of pregnant teenagers experienced the pregnancy as a family disturbance, and acknowledged that healing should take place in the family. teenage pregnancy was experienced differently by different generations within the same family, but all the experiences culminated in anger that hampered the necessary parental support for the pregnant teenager. Lack of support during pregnancy can easily affected the well-being of the unborn child, as teenagers are not supervised and experience acute emotional stress. Intervention by a midwife could help to relieve the teenager's stress and optimise the pregnancy outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Smashing physics inside the world's biggest experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson made headlines around the world. Two scientists, Peter Higgs and Francois Englert, whose theories predicted its existence, shared a Nobel Prize. The discovery was the culmination of the largest experiment ever run, the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. But what really is a Higgs boson and what does it do? How was it found? And how has its discovery changed our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature? And what did it feel like to be part of it? Jon Butterworth is one of the leading physicists at CERN and this book is the first popular inside account of the hunt for the Higgs. It is a story of incredible scientific collaboration, inspiring technological innovation and ground-breaking science. It is also the story of what happens when the world's most expensive experiment blows up, of neutrinos that may or may not travel faster than light, and the reality of life in an underground bunker in Switzerland. This book will also leave you with a working...

  11. Convergence and extrusion are required for normal fusion of the mammalian secondary palate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungil Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The fusion of two distinct prominences into one continuous structure is common during development and typically requires integration of two epithelia and subsequent removal of that intervening epithelium. Using confocal live imaging, we directly observed the cellular processes underlying tissue fusion, using the secondary palatal shelves as a model. We find that convergence of a multi-layered epithelium into a single-layer epithelium is an essential early step, driven by cell intercalation, and is concurrent to orthogonal cell displacement and epithelial cell extrusion. Functional studies in mice indicate that this process requires an actomyosin contractility pathway involving Rho kinase (ROCK and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK, culminating in the activation of non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA. Together, these data indicate that actomyosin contractility drives cell intercalation and cell extrusion during palate fusion and suggest a general mechanism for tissue fusion in development.

  12. Cuban experience in verification of the execution of the safety requirements during the transport of radioactive materials; Experiencia cubana en verificacion del cumplimento de los requerimientos de seguridad durante el transporte de materiales radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo Garcia, J.R.; Lopez Forteza, Y. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The Cuban Regulatory Authority has paid special attention to the verification of the execution of the safety requirements during the transport of radioactive material in the country. With this purpose, the Authority has followed a consequent policy based on supplementary demands to those collections in the juridical mark settled down in 1987 in the sphere of transport of radioactive substances. In the work the technical approaches are exposed kept in mind when establishing the one referred politics, the current situation is characterized, the results are evaluated obtained in correspondence with the pursued objectives and the essential aspects are exposed to keep in mind for the adopted politics ulterior development. (author)

  13. An alternative explanation for the dibaryon suggested by experiments at the WASA facility at Julich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, D.V. [Queen Mary, University of London, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    A series of publications of the WASA Collaboration culminates in a recent paper of Pricking, Bashkanov and Clement claiming a ΔΔ dibaryon resonance at 2370 MeV. However, as explained here, there are logical flaws in this result. A natural alternative arises from the reaction pd → NN*(1440)p{sub s}, where p{sub s} is a spectator proton. There is supporting evidence from a recent experiment of Mielke et al. on dp → {sup 3}He π{sup +}π{sup -}. (orig.)

  14. Panofsky Prize Talk: The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolsky, Pierre

    2008-04-01

    The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment was the second-generation air fluorescence experiment proposed, built, and run by the HiRes collaboration, with members from the University of Utah, Columbia University, the University of Illinois, the University of New Mexico, Rutgers University, the University of Tokyo and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. I will report on the history of the project, the technical capabilities of the instrument built in the Utah desert and the physics results, culminating in the discovery of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off. The HiRes experiment also pioneered many of the calibration and atmospheric monitoring techniques now in use by the Pierre Auger experiment and the Telescope Array experiment and I will describe a number of them in my talk.

  15. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  16. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  17. 基于需求分析的《金融综合实验》课程建设%Course Construction of Financial Comprehensive Experiment Based on Requirement Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱佳俊

    2012-01-01

    《金融综合实验》是本科金融专业重要的实训、实践类课程,是提升学生实际动手操作能力和业务水平的重要环节。该课程的改革与建设已经具备了理论与实践的基础,分阶段、任务型、模块化的课程建设思路,有利于完善现有的金融投资类专业教学目标和课程体系,提高金融理财人才的专业技能和业务水平,满足金融行业及相关行业投资理财业务发展的需要,提升本科金融类专业的办学水平。%Financial comprehensive experiment is not only an important professional practice curriculum of un- dergraduate financial, but also an important practice step to enhance operational capability and professional skill of students. A periodical, modular, task - based curriculum - building ideas were presented based on theories and practice of curriculum reform; as a result, teaching aims and curriculum system of the existing financial and invest- ment professional can be perfected, and business skills and level of investment and financial management personnel can be improved, thus meeting the needs of business development of financial investment in financial and allied in- dustries and improving the educational level of undergraduate financial.

  18. Internationalization of regulatory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillet, Y

    2003-02-01

    The aim of harmonisation of medicines regulatory requirements is to allow the patient quicker access to new drugs and to avoid animal and human duplications. Harmonisation in the European Union (EU) is now completed, and has led to the submission of one dossier in one language study leading to European marketing authorizations, thanks in particular to efficacy guidelines published at the European level. With the benefit of the European experience since 1989, more than 40 guidelines have been harmonised amongst the EU, Japan and the USA through the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). ICH is a unique process gathering regulators and industry experts from the three regions. Its activity is built on expertise and trust. The Common Technical Document (CTD), an agreed common format for application in the three regions, is a logical follow-up to the ICH first phase harmonising the content of the dossier. The CTD final implementation in July 2003 will have considerable influence on the review process and on the exchange of information in the three regions.

  19. Experiments for a Special Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Special events like science days, teacher's meetings and physics recruiting efforts require spectacular and, if possible, interactive experiments for the audience. Based on past experience with such events, we have gathered and present here a series of demonstration experiments in mechanics, optics, waves and electricity which are suitable, and…

  20. Customer experience

    OpenAIRE

    Koperdáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with the theme of customer experience and terms related to this topic. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part explains the terms generally, as the experience or customer loyalty. The second part is dedicated to medotology used for Customer Experience Management. In the third part is described application of Customer Experience Management in practice, particularly in the context Touch Point Analyses in GE Money Bank.

  1. Discovering system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  2. Psychology Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  3. Psychology Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  4. Ontology Requirements Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen; Gómez-Pérez, A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the ontology requirements specification activity is to state why the ontology is being built, what its intended uses are, who the end users are, and which requirements the ontology should fulfill. This chapter presents detailed methodological guidelines for specifying ontology requirements efficiently. These guidelines will help ontology engineers to capture ontology requirements and produce the ontology requirements specification document (ORSD). The ORSD will play a key role dur...

  5. Nightshade Prototype Experiments (Silverleaf)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielson, Jeremy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bauer, Amy L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-23

    The Red Sage campaign is a series of subcritical dynamic plutonium experiments designed to measure ejecta. Nightshade, the first experiments in Red Sage scheduled for fiscal year 2019, will measure the amount of ejecta emission into vacuum from a double-­shocked plutonium surface. To address the major technical risks in Nightshade, a Level 2 milestone was developed for fiscal year 2016. Silverleaf, a series of four experiments, was executed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in July and August 2016 to demonstrate a prototype of the Nightshade package and to satisfy this Level 2 milestone. This report is documentation that Red Sage Level 2 milestone requirements were successfully met.

  6. Assessing Requirements Quality through Requirements Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ajitha; Heimdahl, Mats; Woodham, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    In model-based development, the development effort is centered around a formal description of the proposed software system the model. This model is derived from some high-level requirements describing the expected behavior of the software. For validation and verification purposes, this model can then be subjected to various types of analysis, for example, completeness and consistency analysis [6], model checking [3], theorem proving [1], and test-case generation [4, 7]. This development paradigm is making rapid inroads in certain industries, e.g., automotive, avionics, space applications, and medical technology. This shift towards model-based development naturally leads to changes in the verification and validation (V&V) process. The model validation problem determining that the model accurately captures the customer's high-level requirements has received little attention and the sufficiency of the validation activities has been largely determined through ad-hoc methods. Since the model serves as the central artifact, its correctness with respect to the users needs is absolutely crucial. In our investigation, we attempt to answer the following two questions with respect to validation (1) Are the requirements sufficiently defined for the system? and (2) How well does the model implement the behaviors specified by the requirements? The second question can be addressed using formal verification. Nevertheless, the size and complexity of many industrial systems make formal verification infeasible even if we have a formal model and formalized requirements. Thus, presently, there is no objective way of answering these two questions. To this end, we propose an approach based on testing that, when given a set of formal requirements, explores the relationship between requirements-based structural test-adequacy coverage and model-based structural test-adequacy coverage. The proposed technique uses requirements coverage metrics defined in [9] on formal high-level software

  7. Preliminary Assessment of Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements for Airborne Trajectory Management (ABTM) Roadmap Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, William B.; Hilb, Robert; Koczo, Stefan, Jr.; Wing, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A set of five developmental steps building from the NASA TASAR (Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests) concept are described, each providing incrementally more efficiency and capacity benefits to airspace system users and service providers, culminating in a Full Airborne Trajectory Management capability. For each of these steps, the incremental Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements are identified for later use in future formal safety assessments intended to lead to certification and operational approval of the equipment and the associated procedures. Two established safety assessment methodologies that are compliant with the FAA's Safety Management System were used leading to Failure Effects Classifications (FEC) for each of the steps. The most likely FEC for the first three steps, Basic TASAR, Digital TASAR, and 4D TASAR, is "No effect". For step four, Strategic Airborne Trajectory Management, the likely FEC is "Minor". For Full Airborne Trajectory Management (Step 5), the most likely FEC is "Major".

  8. Cryogenics for LHC experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Cryogenic systems will be used by LHC experiments to maximize their performance. Institutes around the world are collaborating with CERN in the construction of these very low temperature systems. The cryogenic test facility in hall 180 for ATLAS magnets. High Energy Physics experiments have frequently adopted cryogenic versions of their apparatus to achieve optimal performance, and those for the LHC will be no exception. The two largest experiments for CERN's new flagship accelerator, ATLAS and CMS, will both use large superconducting magnets operated at 4.5 Kelvin - almost 270 degrees below the freezing point of water. ATLAS also includes calorimeters filled with liquid argon at 87 Kelvin. For the magnets, the choice of a cryogenic version was dictated by a combination economy and transparency to emerging particles. For the calorimeters, liquid argon was selected as the fluid best suited to the experiment's physics requirements. High Energy Physics experiments are the result of worldwide collaborations and...

  9. [Colonoscopy quality control as a requirement of colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Enrique; Alarcón-Fernández, Onofre; Jover, Rodrigo

    2013-11-01

    The strategies used in population-based colorectal screening strategies culminate in colonoscopy and consequently the success of these programs largely depends on the quality of this diagnostic test. The main factors to consider when evaluating quality are scientific-technical quality, safety, patient satisfaction, and accessibility. Quality indicators allow variability among hospitals, endoscopy units and endoscopists to be determined and can identify those not achieving recommended standards. In Spain, the working group for colonoscopy quality of the Spanish Society of Gastroenterology and the Spanish Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy have recently drawn up a Clinical Practice Guideline that contains the available evidence on the quality of screening colonoscopy, as well as the basic requirements that must be met by endoscopy units and endoscopists carrying out this procedure. The implementation of training programs and screening colonoscopy quality controls are strongly recommended to guarantee the success of population-based colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  10. Postmarket Requirements and Commitments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides information to the public on postmarket requirements and commitments. The phrase postmarket requirements and commitments refers to studies and clinical...

  11. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  12. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  13. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  14. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  15. OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Komatsu, M

    2003-01-01

    OPERA is an accelerator experiment designed to explore Super- Kamiokande suggested nu//mu arrow left right nu//tau oscillation region in CNGS beam from CERN to LNGS. The key technique in OPERA is modern emulsion read out which applied to CHORUS and DONUT experiments. ECC technique which used in DONUT and OPERA has good modularity to enlarge apparatus for future Neutrino Factory experiments.

  16. Future Home Network Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbonnier, Benoit; Wessing, Henrik; Lannoo, Bart;

    This paper presents the requirements for future Home Area Networks (HAN). Firstly, we discuss the applications and services as well as their requirements. Then, usage scenarios are devised to establish a first specification for the HAN. The main requirements are an increased bandwidth (towards 1...

  17. Future Home Network Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbonnier, Benoit; Wessing, Henrik; Lannoo, Bart

    This paper presents the requirements for future Home Area Networks (HAN). Firstly, we discuss the applications and services as well as their requirements. Then, usage scenarios are devised to establish a first specification for the HAN. The main requirements are an increased bandwidth (towards 1...

  18. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  19. Solar Total Energy System: Large Scale Experiment, Shenandoah, Georgia. Final technical progress report. Volume I. Section 1. Conclusions and recommendations. Section 2. Systems requirements. [1. 72-MW thermal and 383. 6-kW electric power for 42,000 ft/sup 2/ knitwear plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1977-10-17

    The Stearns-Roger Engineering Company conceptual design of ERDA's Large Scale Experiment No. 2 (LSE No. 2) is described. The various LSE's are part of ERDA's Solar Total Energy Program (STES) and a separate activity of the National Solar Thermal Power Systems Program. The object of this LSE is to design, construct, test, evaluate and operate a STES for the purpose of obtaining experience with large scale hardware systems and to establish engineering capability for subsequent demonstration projects. This particular LSE is to be located at Shenandoah, Georgia and will provide power to the Bleyle knitwear factory. The Solar Total Energy system is sized to supply 1.720 MW thermal power (both space heating and process heat) and 383.6 KW electrical power. The STES is sized for the extended knitwear plant of 3902 M/sup 2/ (42,000 sq-ft) which will eventually employ 300 people. The section on conclusions and recommendations described the baseline design recommendation, facility requirements, the solar system, power conversion system, schedules and cost, and additional candidate systems. The systems requirements analysis includes detailed descriptions and analyses of the following subtasks: load analysis, energy displacement, local laws and ordinances, life cycle cost, health and safety, environmental assessment, reliability assessment, and utility interface. (WHK)

  20. A national comparison of biochemistry and molecular biology capstone experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguanno, Ann; Mertz, Pamela; Martin, Debra; Bell, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the increasingly integrative nature of the molecular life sciences, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) recommends that Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) programs develop curricula based on concepts, content, topics, and expected student outcomes, rather than courses. To that end, ASBMB conducted a series of regional workshops to build a BMB Concept Inventory containing validated assessment tools, based on foundational and discipline-specific knowledge and essential skills, for the community to use. A culminating activity, which integrates the educational experience, is often part of undergraduate molecular life science programs. These "capstone" experiences are commonly defined as an attempt to measure student ability to synthesize and integrate acquired knowledge. However, the format, implementation, and approach to outcome assessment of these experiences are quite varied across the nation. Here we report the results of a nation-wide survey on BMB capstone experiences and discuss this in the context of published reports about capstones and the findings of the workshops driving the development of the BMB Concept Inventory. Both the survey results and the published reports reveal that, although capstone practices do vary, certain formats for the experience are used more frequently and similarities in learning objectives were identified. The use of rubrics to measure student learning is also regularly reported, but details about these assessment instruments are sparse in the literature and were not a focus of our survey. Finally, we outline commonalities in the current practice of capstones and suggest the next steps needed to elucidate best practices.

  1. Transportation System Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  2. Language Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugh, Marylou

    1978-01-01

    When a child uses his words and his ideas in learning to read, he also assists in the normal integration of his personality. Starting with a method of language experience developed by Sylvia Ashton-Warner, the author, a reading consultant, describes a language experience-reading program which utilizes the student's own curiosity and interests. (RK)

  3. Choice experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P Holmes; Wiktor L Adamawicz; Fredrik Carlsson

    2017-01-01

    There has been an explosion of interest during the past two decades in a class of nonmarket stated-preference valuation methods known as choice experiments. The overall objective of a choice experiment is to estimate economic values for characteristics (or attributes) of an environmental good that is the subject of policy analysis, where...

  4. The experience of an experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Alexandra Marie

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines a popular phenomenon that allows us to see ourselves from various perspectives, and allows us to perpetuate moments enabling us to relive experiences in a different state of mind or at a different time. To examine the phenomenon of experiencing an experience hermeneutic...... phenomenological research was employed. The empirical data gathered in relation to this research emphasizes the experience of own experience. On a daily basis we create and are exposed to, what I have termed, the secondary experience (Exp2 ), which occurs when we review a video and/or pictures we have taken. I...... is a tool to create a particular mindset, in the developer, to generate a new way of thinking. This model is dynamic by nature and although it is not completed in every branch, it is complete in relation to experiencing your own experience. A company can apply the PoC to gain insight into primary...

  5. Collaborative experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker

    sample of firms, an establish way of measuring the outcome of product development and a new way of measuring experience. Where the previous research in this field primarily uses secondary databases, this research project collects primary data by an online questionnaire to the NPD manager from one......, that the largest effects from collaborative experience is from recent collaborative experience, since knowledge depreciates when it is not used. Methodologically contribution: The research project studies the dyad and aims at introducing, to this field of research, an established way of collecting data, a new...... of the new product development as a performance measure. Finally, where previous research primarily has used the number of collaborations as a measure of collaborative experience, this research includes the recency in the measure of collaborative experience. Results: Since data has not yet been collected...

  6. TRIO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Misra, B.; Billone, M.C.; Bowers, D.L.; Fischer, A.K.; Greenwood, L.R.; Mattas, R.F.; Tam, S.W.

    1984-09-01

    The TRIO experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an anaytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the experiment the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the experiment was successfully recovered. The results of the experiment showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the experiment follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion.

  7. Collaborative experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker

    Literature review: Collaborative experience has been shown to have a positive effect on the collaborative outcome in general (Anand & Khanna, 2000; Kale, Dyer & Singh, 2002). Furthermore, it has been linked to the ability to exploit the network of the firm for learning (Powell, Koput and Smith...... experience was largest the higher the hypothesized ambiguity. Theoretically contribution: This research project aims at contributing to existing literature by arguing, that collaborative experience is a moderating variable which moderates the effects on collaborative outcome from the level of complexity......, that the largest effects from collaborative experience is from recent collaborative experience, since knowledge depreciates when it is not used. Methodologically contribution: The research project studies the dyad and aims at introducing, to this field of research, an established way of collecting data, a new...

  8. Conducting organizational safety reviews - requirements, methods and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland); Rollenhagen, C. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, (Sweden); Kahlbom, U. [RiskPilot (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    Organizational safety reviews are part of the safety management process of power plants. They are typically performed after major reorganizations, significant incidents or according to specified review programs. Organizational reviews can also be a part of a benchmarking between organizations that aims to improve work practices. Thus, they are important instruments in proactive safety management and safety culture. Most methods that have been used for organizational reviews are based more on practical considerations than a sound scientific theory of how various organizational or technical issues influence safety. Review practices and methods also vary considerably. The objective of this research is to promote understanding on approaches used in organizational safety reviews as well as to initiate discussion on criteria and methods of organizational assessment. The research identified a set of issues that need to be taken into account when planning and conducting organizational safety reviews. Examples of the issues are definition of appropriate criteria for evaluation, the expertise needed in the assessment and the organizational motivation for conducting the assessment. The study indicates that organizational safety assessments involve plenty of issues and situations where choices have to be made regarding what is considered valid information and a balance has to be struck between focus on various organizational phenomena. It is very important that these choices are based on a sound theoretical framework and that these choices can later be evaluated together with the assessment findings. The research concludes that at its best, the organizational safety reviews can be utilised as a source of information concerning the changing vulnerabilities and the actual safety performance of the organization. In order to do this, certain basic organizational phenomena and assessment issues have to be acknowledged and considered. The research concludes with recommendations on issues that should be considered and taken into account as far as is practically applicable in any assessment where organizational safety issues are considered. Finally, further research needs in the area of organizational factors and organizational safety assessment are outlined. (au)

  9. 46 CFR 11.807 - Experience requirements for registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or territory of the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or the District of Columbia. (6) Professional nurse. A valid license as a registered nurse issued under authority of a state or territory of the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or the District of Columbia. (7) Marine...

  10. Experience with Energy Efficiency Requirements for Electrical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This publication has been produced as part of the work programme in support of the Gleneagles Plan of Action (GPOA), where the IEA was requested to 'undertake a study to review existing global appliance standards and codes'. In accordance with the G8 request, this study investigates the coverage and impact of forms of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and comparative energy labelling programmes; which comprise the cornerstone of most IEA countries national energy efficiency strategy. This scope also reflects governments' aspirations to achieve ambitious targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, this study does not address endorsement labelling and associated voluntary programmes, although these are also important policy tools for national energy efficiency strategies.

  11. Solar sorptive cooling. Technologies, user requirements, practical experience, future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treffinger, P. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Hardthausen (Germany); Hertlein, H.P. [eds.] [Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Sorptive cooling techniques permit the use of low-temperature solar heat, i.e. a renewable energy of low cost and world-wide availability. The Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie intends to develop solar sorptive cooling technologies to the prototype stage and, in cooperation with the solar industry and its end users, to promote practical application in air conditioning of buildings and cold storage of food. The workshop presents an outline of the state of development of solar sorptive cooling from the view of users and developers. Exemplary solar cooling systems are described, and the potential of open and closed sorptive processes is assessed. Future central activities will be defined in an intensive discussion between planners, producers, users and developers. [German] Der Einsatz von Sorptionstechniken zur Kaelteerzeugung erlaubt es, als treibende Solarenergie Niedertemperatur-Solarwaerme einzusetzen, also eine regenerative Energie mit sehr geringen Kosten und weltweiter Verfuegbarkeit. Der Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie hat sich als Aufgabe gestellt, die Techniken der solaren Sorptionskuehlung bis zum Prototyp zu entwickeln und mit Industrie und Nutzern die praktische Anwendung voranzubringen. Die Anwendungsfelder sind die Klimatisierung von Gebaeuden und die Kaltlagerung von Lebensmitteln. Der Workshop gibt einen Ueberblick zum Entwicklungsstand der solaren Sorptionskuehlung aus der Sicht der Anwender und Entwickler. Bereits ausgefuehrte Beispiele zur solaren Kuehlung werden vorgestellt und das Potential geschlossener und offener Sorptionsverfahren angegeben. In intensiver Diskussion zwischen Planern, Herstellern, Nutzern und Entwicklern sollen kuenftige Arbeitsschwerpunkte herausgearbeitet werden. (orig.)

  12. Mixture Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.

    2007-12-01

    A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

  13. Software Requirements Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Altalbe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Requirements are defined as the desired set of characteristics of a product or a service. In the world of software development, it is estimated that more than half of the failures are attributed towards poor requirements management. This means that although the software functions correctly, it is not what the client requested. Modern software requirements management methodologies are available to reduce the occur-rence of such incidents. This paper performs a review on the available literature in the area while tabulating possible methods of managing requirements. It also highlights the benefits of following a proper guideline for the requirements management task. With the introduction of specific software tools for the requirements management task, better software products are now been developed with lesser resources.

  14. Researching experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods...... for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the reflexivity lab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body...

  15. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... these experiences we discuss problems in the process, requirements for design tools, and issues involved in getting going with cooperative prototyping with active user involvement....

  16. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses and accessi......This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses...... and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  17. Turning Desirements into Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    budgets, assessment teams must wonder when to consider the cost of a particular solution. The DoD management systems wisely separate requirements gen...analysis so the The warfighter—the man or woman who goes into harm’s way— has every imperative to expect much of us as requirements managers, program...the man or woman who goes into harm’s way—has every imperative to expect much of us as requirements managers, program managers, and resource

  18. Anthropometric Requirements for Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah; Dory, Jonathan; Rochlis, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirement from an Anthropometric standpoint for the development of the Constellation's programs hardware, specifically the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The NASA JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) provides anthropometry, strength, mobility, and mass properties requirements; gathers, interprets, manages and maintains the flight crew anthropometry database; and participates and provides input during crew selection. This is used to assist in requirements for vehicle and space suit design and for crew selection.

  19. Testing agile requirements models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BOTASCHANJAN Jewgenij; PISTER Markus; RUMPE Bernhard

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a model-based approach to validate software requirements in agile development processes by simulation and in particular automated testing. The use of models as central development artifact needs to be added to the portfolio of software engineering techniques, to further increase efficiency and flexibility of the development beginning already early in the requirements definition phase. Testing requirements are some of the most important techniques to give feedback and to increase the quality of the result. Therefore testing of artifacts should be introduced as early as possible, even in the requirements definition phase.

  20. Environmental Requirements Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  1. Utilizing inheritance in requirements engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindl, Hermann

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the utilization of inheritance for requirements specification, i.e., the tasks of analyzing and modeling the domain, as well as forming and defining requirements. Our approach and the tool supporting it are named RETH (Requirements Engineering Through Hypertext). Actually, RETH uses a combination of various technologies, including object-oriented approaches and artificial intelligence (in particular frames). We do not attempt to exclude or replace formal representations, but try to complement and provide means for gradually developing them. Among others, RETH has been applied in the CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Rechereche Nucleaire) Cortex project. While it would be impossible to explain this project in detail here, it should be sufficient to know that it deals with a generic distributed control system. Since this project is not finished yet, it is difficult to state its size precisely. In order to give an idea, its final goal is to substitute the many existing similar control systems at CERN by this generic approach. Currently, RETH is also tested using real-world requirements for the Pastel Mission Planning System at ESOC in Darmstadt. First, we outline how hypertext is integrated into a frame system in our approach. Moreover, the usefulness of inheritance is demonstrated as performed by the tool RETH. We then summarize our experiences of utilizing inheritance in the Cortex project. Lastly, RETH will be related to existing work.

  2. Expanding Dress Code Requirements in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naughton, Cynthia A; Schweiger, Teresa A; Angelo, Lauren B; Lea Bonner, C; Dhing, Conrad W; Farley, Joel F

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of a professional dress code is standard practice across colleges and schools of pharmacy during introductory and advanced pharmacy practice experiences, requiring professional attire...

  3. Digestible lysine requirements of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEP Bernal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern broilers have been submitted to continuous genetic improvement, and therefore, their nutritional requirements must be constantly updated to ensure their performance. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate different digestible lysine levels for starter (1021 days and grower (22-35 days phases. The experiments were carried out with male and female Cobb 500 broilers, distributed according to a randomized block experimental design in a 5x2 factorial arrangement (5 increasing digestible lysine levels x 2 sexes, totaling 10 treatments, with 8 replicates of 22 and 20 birds during the starter and grower phase, respectively. Digestible lysine levels of 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24, and 1.30 were used in the starter diets (10-21 days and 0.9, 0.98, 1.04, 1.10, and 1.16% in the grower diets (22-35 days. Based on the statistical analyses of the evaluated performance parameters, digestible lysine requirements for maximum performance were determined as 1.22% for males and 1.24% for females in the starter phase, and 1.16% for both sexes in the grower phase. Carcass and performance results indicate that digestible lysine requirements vary with sex and evaluated production parameter. Considering the most relevant broiler production parameters, in 22- to 35-d-old males, digestible lysine requirement for breast meat yield (1.16% was higher than those for feed conversion ratio (1.07% and weight gain (1.05%.

  4. Antimatter Experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Antimatter should behave in identical fashion to matter if a form of spacetime symmetry called CPT invariance holds. Two experiments at CERN near Geneva are testing this hypothesis using antihydrogen atoms

  5. Wanted: Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Floyd D.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a project to produce a series of laboratory manuals and instructional materials in which nuclear experiments are presented for the undergraduate advanced laboratory. The manuals are being compiled in the areas of physics, chemistry, geology and environmental sciences. (BR)

  6. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... design it became relevant to investigate the use of LEDs as the physical equivalent of a pixel as a design approach. In this book our interest has been in identifying how the qualities of LEDs can be used in lighting applications. With experiences in the planning and implementation of architectural...... elucidate and exemplify already well-known problems in relation to the experience of vertical and horizontal lighting. Pixel Experiments exist as a synergy between speculative test setups and lighting design in practice. This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research...

  7. Authoring experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knox, Jeanette Bresson Ladegaard; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the storytelling aspect inphilosophizing with rehabilitating cancer patients in small Socratic dialogue groups (SDG). Recounting an experienceto illustrate a philosophical question chosen by the participantsis the traditional point of departure for the dialogicalexchange. Ho...... an experiencethrough a collaborative effort, most participants hadtheir initial experience existentially refined and the chosenconcept of which the experience served as an illustrationtransformed into a moral compass to be used in self-orientationpost cancer....

  8. USML-1 Glovebox experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the development of and results from three experiments that were flown in the Materials Science Glovebox on USML-1: Marangoni convection in Closed Containers (MCCC), Double Float Zone (DFZ), and Fiber Pulling in Microgravity (FPM). The Glovebox provided a convenient, low cost method for doing simple 'try and see' experiments that could test new concepts or elucidate microgravity phenomena. Since the Glovebox provided essentially one (or possibly two levels of confinement, many of the stringent verification and test requirements on the experiment apparatus could be relaxed and a streamlined test and verification plan for flight qualification could be implemented. Furthermore, the experiments were contained in their own carrying cases whose external configurations could be identified early in the integration sequence for stowage considerations while delivery of the actual experiment apparatus could be postponed until only a few months before flight. This minimized the time fluids must be contained and reduced the possibility of corrosive reactions that could ruin the experiment. In many respects, this exercise was as much about developing a simpler, cheaper way of doing crew-assisted science as it was about the actual scientific accomplishments of the individual experiments. The Marangoni Convection in Closed Containers experiment was designed to study the effects of a void space in a simulated Bridgman crystal growth configuration and to determine if surface tension driven convective flows that may result from thermal gradients along any free surfaces could affect the solidification process. The Fiber Pulling in Microgravity experiment sought to separate the role of gravity drainage from capillarity effects in the break-up of slender cylindrical liquid columns. The Stability of a Double Float Zone experiment explored the feasibility of a quasi-containerless process in which a solidifying material is suspended by two liquid bridges of its own melt.

  9. Sexual experience enhances Drosophila melanogaster male mating behavior and success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehresh Saleem

    Full Text Available Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments.

  10. Writing testable software requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirk, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial identifies common problems in analyzing requirements in the problem and constructing a written specification of what the software is to do. It deals with two main problem areas: identifying and describing problem requirements, and analyzing and describing behavior specifications.

  11. Ecodesign requirements for televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea; Dalgaard, Randi; Merciai, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This paper concerns the Ecodesign Directive (2009/125/EC) and the implementing measures (IM) in which ecodesign requirements are set up for energy-using and energy-related products. Previous studies have found that the requirements have a unilateral focus on energy consumption and the use...

  12. Getting the Requirements Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    27 Defense AT&L: July–August 2015 Getting the Requirements Right Sean J. Stackley, USN Stackley is Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research...getting the requirements right . The author can be contacted through brian.a.metcalf@navy.mil. We’re Looking for a Few Good Authors Got opinions to

  13. Experiments versus simultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltser, Jana

    The world of instrumentation utilising X-ray radiation is expanding and leading to more sophisticated experiments. Every step of this process requires accurate calculation, and this is where simulation plays an important role. With the advert of modern computers and technologies, simulation has...... become a very powerful tool, which allows prediction of experimental outcomes with high precision and accuracy. The present Ph. D. work is dedicated to development of such a simulation tool based on a ray-tracing technique, McXtrace, its application for modelling of experiments at a synchrotron beamline...

  14. The Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana Nicoara, Floare

    2016-04-01

    My name is Nicoara Floarea and I am teacher at Secondary School Calatele and I teach students from preparatory class and the second grade . They are six-eight years old. In my activity, for introducing scientific concepts to my students, I use various and active methods or traditional methods including experiments. The experiment stimulates students' curiosity, their creativity, the understanding and knowledge taught accessibility. I propose you two such experiments: The life cycle of the plants (long-term experiment, with rigorous observation time):We use beans, wheat or other; They are grown in pots and on the cotton soaked with water,keeping under students' observation protecting them ( just soak them regularly) and we waiting the plants rise. For discussions and comments of plant embryo development we use the plants which rose on the cotton soaked with water plants at the end of the first week. Last school year we had in the pot climbing beans which in May made pods. They were not too great but our experiment was a success. The students could deduce that there will develop those big beans which after drying will be planted again. The influence of light on plants (average duration experiment with the necessary observation time): We use two pots in which plants are of the same type (two geraniums), one of them is situated so as to get direct sunlight and other plant we put in a closed box. Although we wet both plants after a week we see that the plant that benefited from sunlight has turned strain in direct sunlight, developing normally in return the plant out of the box I have yellowed leaves, photosynthesis does not She has occurred . Students will understand the vital role of the Sun in plants' life, both in the classroom and in nature. The experiment is a method of teaching students extremely pleasant, with a remarkable percentage of acquiring more knowledge.

  15. KEK GRID for ILC Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Akiya; Ikematsu, Katsumasa

    2010-01-01

    The LCG GRID system is the indispensable infrastructure for large scale computing required for ILC experiments. It had been used extensively for ILD LOI studies and its use will be further increased in coming DBD studies. Experiences during the LOI era and plan towards DBD study in KEK are presented.

  16. Spacecraft Fire Experiment (Saffire) Development Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos

    2014-01-01

    modeling effort will complement the experimental effort. An international topical team is collaborating with the NASA team in the definition of experiment requirements and performing supporting analysis, experimentation and technology development. The status of the overall experiment are summarized...

  17. Experiência estética como experiência formativa a partir da ontologia de Hans-Georg Gadamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clenio Lago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article are discussed the relationship between aesthetic experience and education from the ontology of Hans-Georg Gadamer, considering the aesthetic experience in man's encounter with the artwork and in the encounter between men. The arguments were made according to Philosophical Hermeneutics, course that allowed greater understanding of the educational process, in that it shows that anyone who experiences art puts himself into action, is challenged to be another. Thus, the experience of art, characterized by a plurality of experiences, constitutes in important self-formative moments, as it can generate both opening and culmination of processes, demarcating identities, without falling into methodological monism or in pure relativism. And it can be seen both in man's experience with the artwork and the experience between men, different ways of being. This way, when designing the aesthetic experience as an ontological one, Gadamer not only reconfigured the philosophical thought, giving rise to new aesthetic, but also updated Bildung amid the challenges of the rupture of metaphysics.

  18. Requirements in engineering projects

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, João M

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on various topics related to engineering and management of requirements, in particular elicitation, negotiation, prioritisation, and documentation (whether with natural languages or with graphical models). The book provides methods and techniques that help to characterise, in a systematic manner, the requirements of the intended engineering system.  It was written with the goal of being adopted as the main text for courses on requirements engineering, or as a strong reference to the topics of requirements in courses with a broader scope. It can also be used in vocational courses, for professionals interested in the software and information systems domain.   Readers who have finished this book will be able to: - establish and plan a requirements engineering process within the development of complex engineering systems; - define and identify the types of relevant requirements in engineering projects; - choose and apply the most appropriate techniques to elicit the requirements of a giv...

  19. Creativity in Requirement Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Olesen, Henning

    Traditional requirements engineering focuses mainly on analysis and elicitation. However, current trends in new system, device and software are towards involving all stakeholders in the early stages of the engineering process to define the user requirements. Creativity is here seen as a major...... keystone in this process in order to open up stakeholder's mind to new technologies, which do not yet exist. This paper dis-cusses the application of creativity in the requirements process and illustrate through cases from the MAGNET and MAGNET Beyond projects....

  20. Extending Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A computer game's player is experiencing not only the game as a designer-made artefact, but also a multitude of social and cultural practices and contexts of both computer game play and everyday life. As a truly multidisciplinary anthology, Extending Experiences sheds new light on the mesh...... of possibilities and influences the player engages with. Part one, Experiential Structures of Play, considers some of the key concepts commonly used to address the experience of a computer game player. The second part, Bordering Play, discusses conceptual and practical overlaps of games and everyday life...

  1. Poetic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Yar Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature of poetic experience is hereby redefined. The present article initially deals with the perennial nature of true poetic experience and its essential relevance to the world. It attempts to elaborate the process through which a poet is uplifted in a creative moment beyond terrestrial boundaries and is aligned with the ‘state of Perfection'. The role of successive generations of audiences in rediscovering the meaning of a poetic image is defined as life principle of all great poetry. Shakespeare is discussed as the ultimate example of this principle since his popularity remains an irreversible phenomenon

  2. Contextualized science? An Indian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder

    1997-11-01

    This study asserts that science is contextualized and should therefore be taught as contextualized. Works of major philosophers in 20th century history, philosophy and sociology of science and recent developments in cognition are discussed in developing a foundation and outlining three themes for contextualized science: (a) science curriculum should emphasize scientific methodology through the generation and testing of knowledge in a specific context, (b) it should validate and evaluate everyday contextual experiences, and (c) develop a context for action by engaging in science, technology and society issues. School science is a major instrument for diffusion and utilization of scientific knowledge. In India, textbooks are often the only classroom source of information for students other than the teacher. The most widely used standard curriculum materials in Indian schools are the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) textbooks. For schools in the Hoshingabad district of Madhya Pradesh, the state prescribes NCERT materials and materials developed for the Hoshingabad Science Teaching Program (HSTP), a grassroots science education initiative. In this study, the investigation of these curriculum materials and interviews with educators (curriculum developers/textbook authors/teachers at New Delhi and Hoshingabad) are used to establish criteria for both the need and the feasibility of contextualized science. Results of the investigation indicate that the centralized NCERT system of curriculum development has undermined context specific treatment of subject matter in their textbooks. While HSTP attempted to contextualize science in rural schools, the present status of the program may be interpreted as either development and legitimization of another standardized curriculum, or, as the culmination of a gradual erosion and dissipation of conceptually valid and concrete educational practices. There are major situational and institutional constraints

  3. Vacancy Duration, Wage Offers, and Job Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Chen, Long-Hwa

    Besides wage offers, credentials like education, work experience and skill requirements are key screening tools for firms in their recruitment of new employees. This paper adds some new evidence to a relatively tiny literature on firms' recruitment behaviour. In particular, our analysis...... is concerned with how vacancy durations vary with firms' minimum wage offers and minimum job requirements (regarding education, skills, age, gender and earlier work experience). The empirical analysis is based on ten employer surveys carried out by the DGBAS on Taiwan during the period 1996-2006. We estimate...... the business cycle. However, firms vary their skills requirements over the business cycle: our empirical analysis shows that, for a given wage offer, requirements are stricter in recessions and downturns. Separating between reasons for posting vacancies turned out important in explaining differences in vacancy...

  4. The ACE experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) as shown by Michael Holzscheiter (spokesperson), Niels Bassler (co-spokesperson) and Helge Knudsen. ACE is located on the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN. An antiproton annihilates a proton in the nucleus of a cancer cell, producing a pair of gamma rays, destroying the entire cell and some surrounding cells. Many fewer antiprotons are required in this treatment than in the equivalent proton hadron therapy, so there is less risk of healthy tissue damage.

  5. Science in Requirements Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suhaimi Jaafar

    2014-01-01

    Based on a review of the articles about methodological principles, and some research classifications, in this work an overview of the nature and status of science in Requirements Engineering is done...

  6. Ecodesign requirements for televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea; Dalgaard, Randi; Merciai, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    to analyse if other environmental hotspots and life cycle phases should be included in the requirements in the IM of the Ecodesign Directive besides energy consumption in the use phase analysis. Methods The consequential approach is used. The data for the LCA have been gathered from two manufacturers of TVs......Purpose This paper concerns the Ecodesign Directive (2009/125/EC) and the implementing measures (IM) in which ecodesign requirements are set up for energy-using and energy-related products. Previous studies have found that the requirements have a unilateral focus on energy consumption and the use...... phase. This is not in line with the scientific understanding of ecodesign, where attention should be put on all life cycle phases and all relevant environmental impact categories. This study focuses on the requirements for televisions (TV). A life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out on two TVs...

  7. Innovations for Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    for the Evolution of Requirements Models Allyson Hoss, Doris Carver 129 Text Classification and Machine Learning Support for Requirements...Hoss and Doris L. Carver Department of Computer Science Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA ahoss1@lsu.edu, dcarver@lsu.edu...Algunas reflexiones en el 40° aniversario de los Sistemas de Gerencia de Bases de Datos, ARTech, 2003 www.genexus.com/whitepapers 13. Humphrey

  8. BRD usability requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-12

    This document describes the usability requirements for the Biosurveillance resource directory (BRD); that is, who will be using the tool and what tasks they will be using it for. It does not include information on technical implementation (e.g., whether specific information is contained in the database or pulled on demand from other sources). It also avoids specific design ideas (such as widget descriptions) unless they are necessary to illustrate a requirement.

  9. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Uniform requirements are instructions to authors on how to prepare manuscripts.If authors prepare their manuscripts in the style specified in these requirements, editors of the participating journals will not return the manuscripts for changes in style before considering them for publication.In the publishing process, however, the journals may alter accepted manuscripts to conform with details of their publication styles.

  10. Issues in Requirements Elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    oriented domain analysis ( FODA ) continues that the re- quirements analyst uses the products of domain analysis when implementing a new system [Kang 90, p...5]. Therefore, FODA does have applicability to requirements elicitation, and will be overviewed in this section. All requirements originate with the...information. For example, with FODA both an entity relationship model and features model are created. The entity relationship model is particularly useful

  11. Utility requirements for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

  12. Media experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses mediated experiences from the perspective of the visual modality in combination with the multimodal interaction. ICT-studies has a rapid influx of new words and concepts. Digital technology led to a need to describe the convergence of images, text and sound has taken various...

  13. Structuring a palliative care service in Brazil: experience report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Santos Garcia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: in Brazil, palliative care (PC is not properly structured and that reality transforms this theme in a public health problem; therefore, initiatives become relevant in this context. This paper aims to share the experience that occurred in an oncology referral hospital in the State of Maranhão and present initiatives that helped in the development of PC Service. EXPERIENCE REPORT: the hospital had an outpatient Pain and PC Service, but without specialized beds. The terminally ill patients stayed in common wards, which caused much unrest. A sensitization process was initiated in the hospital through initiatives, such as a photo contest called Flashes of Life and a ward called Room of Dreams, designed in partnership with the architecture course at the Universidade Estadual do Maranhão. The process culminated in the granting of wards to the PC and in the commitment of the Foundation, sponsor of the hospital, to run the project. CONCLUSION: this experience was a reproducible local initiative for the establishment of PC in a cancer hospital. Local initiatives are valuable in Brazil because they favor a significant number of patients and show its effectiveness in practice to governments and society. To structure a PC service, it is essential to establish priorities that include the assignment of drugs for management of symptoms, humanization, multidisciplinarity, sensitization and education of professionals.

  14. Study on Reserve Requirement System from Macro-Prudential Perspective---Experience of Emerging Markets and the Empirical Study of China%宏观审慎视角下的准备金制度研究--新兴市场国家经验借鉴与中国实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志洋

    2014-01-01

    Recent experience of emerging markets shows that using reserve requirement system as a tool to implement countercyclical macro-prudential regulation can effectively mitigate the di-lemma of monetary policy implementation in adjusting economy. The empirical analysis of China based on the VAR model proves that although increasing reserve requirement can lower credit growth rate,increase loan rate and interbank offered rate,and widen the difference between six-month loan rate and deposit rate,it does not cause sharp decrease of GDP growth rate in the short run. When the negative impact of increasing reserve requirement on GDP growth rate can be found,cred-it growth rate rebounds,which prevents the further decline of GDP growth rate. This proves that u-sing reserve requirement as a countercyclical macro-prudential tool does not have pro-cyclicality effect which is a self enhancing mechanism between credit supply and real economy.%近期新兴市场国家的实践经验表明,运用准备金制度实施逆周期的宏观审慎监管,能够有效缓解货币政策调控经济中遇到的尴尬。基于VAR模型的中国实证分析表明,提高准备金要求在降低信贷增长率,增加贷款利率、同业拆借利率以及6个月贷存利率差的同时,短期内并没有造成GDP增长率的迅速下降。当提高准备金要求对GDP增长率的负面影响开始显现时,信贷增长率又开始回升,阻止了GDP增长率的进一步下跌。这说明运用准备金制度进行逆周期调控没有出现信贷供给与实体经济相互加强的顺周期性问题,准备金制度是非常有效的宏观审慎监管逆周期调控工具。

  15. Materials science experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, S. H.; Giessen, B. C.; Glicksman, M. E.; Margrave, J. L.; Markovitz, H.; Nowick, A. S.; Verhoeven, J. D.; Witt, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    The criteria for the selection of the experimental areas and individual experiments were that the experiment or area must make a meaningful contribution to the field of material science and that the space environment was either an absolute requirement for the successful execution of the experiment or that the experiment can be more economically or more conveniently performed in space. A number of experimental areas and individual experiments were recommended for further consideration as space experiments. Areas not considered to be fruitful and others needing additional analysis in order to determine their suitability for conduct in space are also listed. Recommendations were made concerning the manner in which these materials science experiments are carried out and the related studies that should be pursued.

  16. Dirac experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, F; Afanasev, L; Benayoun, M; Brekhovskikh, V; Caragheorgheopol, G; Cechák, T; Chiba, M; Constantinescu, S; Doudarev, A; Dreossi, D; Drijard, Daniel; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Gallas, M V; Gerndt, J; Giacomich, R; Gianotti, P; Goldin, D; Gorin, A; Gortchakov, O; Guaraldo, C; Hansroul, M; Hosek, R; Iliescu, M; Jabitski, M; Kalinina, N; Karpoukhine, V; Kluson, J; Kobayshi, M; Kokkas, P; Komarov, V; Koulikov, A; Kouptsov, A; Krouglov, V; Krouglova, L; Kuroda, K I; Lanaro, A; Lapshine, B; Lednicky, R; Leruste, P; Levisandri, P; López-Aguera, A; Lucherini, V; Mäki, T; Manuilov, I; Montanet, L; Narjoux, J L; Nemenov, L; Nikitin, M; Nunez Pardo, T; Okada, K; Olchevskii, V; Pazos, A; Pentia, M; Penzo, Aldo L; Perreau, J M; Petrascu, C; Pló, M; Ponta, T; Pop, D; Riazantsev, A; Rodríguez, J M; Rodriguez Fernandez, A; Rykaline, V; Santamarina, C; Saborido, J; Schacher, J; Sidorov, A; Smolik, J; Takeutchi, F; Tarasov, A; Tauscher, L; Tobar, M J; Trusov, S; Vasquez, P; Vlachos, S; Yazkov, V; Yoshimura, Y; Zrelov, P

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime tau of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of pi /sup +/ and pi /sup -/ mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ to pi /sup 0/ pi /sup 0/ due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference a/sub 0/-a/sub 2/ for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of tau with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of a/sub 0/-a/sub 2/at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies. (19 refs).

  17. The Monbusho/US shielded HFIR irradiation experiment: HFIR-MFE-RB-11J and 12J (P3-3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossbeck, M.L.; Lenox, K.E.; Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This experiment is a joint project between the Japanese Monbushu, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program. It is the first of a series of experiments using europium oxide as a thermal neutron shield to minimize transmutations in vanadium alloys and ferritic/martensitic steels. The europium oxide shields were developed using ceramic processing techniques culminating in cold pressing and sintering. This experiment, which is a prototype for future fast neutron experiments in the HFIR, contains approximately 3200 specimens of 18 different types. The experiment began operating at 300 and 500{degrees}C in February 1997 and is projected to attain its goal fluence of {approximately} 5 dpa in February 1998.

  18. Arginine requirement of starting broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, M; Jensen, L S

    1990-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to estimate the arginine requirement of male broiler chicks from 0 to 3 wk of age. The experiments were conducted in battery brooders with wires floors, and the birds received water and feed ad libitum. In the first experiment, chicks were fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, casein, and corn-gluten meal containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg and either 20 or 23% crude protein. Regression analysis indicated an arginine requirement of 1.22% for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency with the 20% protein diet. For chicks fed the 23% protein diet, neither growth rate nor feed efficiency was significantly different among the diets containing arginine ranging from 1.13 to 1.43%. In the second experiment, a basal diet was used containing 17.5% casein and 22.5% protein with arginine ranging from 1.03 to 1.43%. An arginine requirement of 1.18% for maximum body weight gain was estimated by regression analysis, but no significant response to arginine above the basal level was observed for feed efficiency. Performance of chicks fed the basal diet was somewhat reduced because of a difficulty with adherence of feed to the beaks. In a third experiment, three basal diets containing 21, 22, or 23% protein were formulated from practical ingredients without use of casein. The requirement for maximum growth rate and feed efficiency was estimated to be 1.24 to 1.28% for the three diets. The results of these investigations indicate that the arginine requirement for starting chicks suggested by the National Research Council in 1984 of 1.44% in diets containing 3,200 kcal ME per kg is too high for practical diets. The data presented here support an arginine requirement of 1.25%.

  19. Crucible Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Wang, Xin-Hua; Pak, Jong-Jin

    2014-08-01

    ZrO2 crucible experiments were carried out in the laboratory to study the formation of low-melting-point inclusions in steel, during which aluminum deoxidization and a high-basicity calcium aluminate refining slag (CaO/SiO2: 6 to 8, Al2O3 40 to 45 pct) were used. Four experiments were done with different slag/steel reaction times (30, 60, 90, and 180 minutes). It was found that inclusions were mainly composed of CaO-Al2O3-ZrO2 with very limited SiO2, in spherical morphology and with sizes mainly less than 5 μm. They can be classified into two types according to the ZrO2 content. The first type contained much lower ZrO2, whereas a much higher level of ZrO2 was detected in the other type. An evolution of inclusions with the reaction time was observed and studied. The obtained results indicated that chemical compositions of inclusions were widely scattered in the CaO-Al2O3-ZrO2 phase diagram after 30 min reaction. However, the composition of inclusions became much more uniform and concentrated in low-melting-temperature regions at 60, 90, and 180 minutes, which would be favorable to prevent nozzle clogging and fatigue problems. Compared with the authors' previous results obtained in MgO crucible experiments, it was found that low-melting-temperature inclusions can be targeted in shorter time in ZrO2 crucible experiments, without any degradation of cleanliness.

  20. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  1. Key requirements for future control room functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornelli, Carlo; Zuelli, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    This internal report provides the key requirements for the future control centres. R8.1 represents the starting point of WP8 activities and wants to achieve a double objective. On the one hand it collects general requirements on future control centres emerging from the general trends in power...... system operation as well as experiences and results from other European projects. On the other hand, it analyses what requirements for future control rooms arise from the ELECTRA proposed control solutions. Hence, different points of view are taken into account. The ELECTRA Use Cases (UCs...... requirements for the future control centres discussed within this report. The analysis of what happened before the European system disturbance occurred on 4th November 2006 and of the existing trends by vendors helped T8.1 in the definition of the requirements for the future control centres. Volunteer...

  2. ATLAS Future Framework Requirements Group Report

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Future Frameworks Requirements Group was constituted in Summer 2013 to consider and summarise the framework requirements from trigger and offline for configuring, scheduling and monitoring the data processing software needed by the ATLAS experiment. The principal motivation for such a re-examination arises from the current and anticipated evolution of CPUs, where multiple cores, hyper-threading and wide vector registers require a shift to a concurrent programming model. Such a model requires extensive changes in the current Gaudi/Athena frameworks and offers the opportunity to consider how HLT and offline processing can be better accommodated within the ATLAS framework. This note contains the report of the Future Frameworks Requirements Group.

  3. A fuzzy model for exploiting customer requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Javadirad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Quality function deployment (QFD is one of the total quality management tools, where customers’ views and requirements are perceived and using various techniques improves the production requirements and operations. The QFD department, after identification and analysis of the competitors, takes customers’ feedbacks to meet the customers’ demands for the products compared with the competitors. In this study, a comprehensive model for assessing the importance of the customer requirements in the products or services for an organization is proposed. The proposed study uses linguistic variables, as a more comprehensive approach, to increase the precision of the expression evaluations. The importance of these requirements specifies the strengths and weaknesses of the organization in meeting the requirements relative to competitors. The results of these experiments show that the proposed method performs better than the other methods.

  4. Army Sociocultural Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    L., Crafts, J. L., & Brooks, J. E. (July 1995). Intercultural communication requirements for Special Forces teams. (Study Report 1683). Arlington... Communication Uses alternative, sometimes novel, methods to communicate when verbal language is not shared; conveys information about mood, intent...status, and demeanor via gestures, tone of voice, and facial expressions; improvises communication techniques as necessary. WI Works with Interpreters

  5. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  6. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Harper, Warren W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Humble, Paul H.; Madison, Jill C.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Stewart, Timothy L.

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  7. Lunar base construction requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Steve; Helleckson, Brent

    1990-01-01

    The following viewgraph presentation is a review of the Lunar Base Constructibility Study carried out in the spring and summer of 1990. The objective of the study was to develop a method for evaluating the constructibility of Phase A proposals to build facilities on orbit or on extraterrestrial surfaces. Space construction was broadly defined as all forms of assembly, disassembly, connection, disconnection, deployment, stowage, excavation, emplacement, activation, test, transportation, etc., required to create facilities in orbit and on the surfaces of other celestial bodies. It was discovered that decisions made in the face of stated and unstated assumptions early in the design process (commonly called Phase A) can lock in non-optimal construction methods. Often, in order to construct the design, alterations must be made to the design during much later phases of the project. Such 'fixes' can be very difficult, expensive, or perhaps impossible. Assessing constructibility should thus be a part of the iterative design process, starting with the Phase A studies and continuing through production. This study assumes that there exists a minimum set of key construction requirements (i.e., questions whose answers form the set of discriminators) that must be implied or specified in order to assess the constructibility of the design. This set of construction requirements constitutes a 'constructibility filter' which then becomes part of the iterative design process. Five inherently different, dichotomous design reference missions were used in the extraction of these requirements to assure the depth and breath of the list.

  8. INDECT Advanced Security Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Uruena, Manuel; Martinez, Maria; Niemiec, Marcin; Stoianov, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the requirements for the security mechanisms that are currently being developed in the framework of the European research project INDECT. An overview of features for integrated technologies such as Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), Cryptographic Algorithms, Quantum Cryptography, Federated ID Management and Secure Mobile Ad-hoc networking are described together with their expected use in INDECT.

  9. Protein Requirements during Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Courtney-Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein recommendations for elderly, both men and women, are based on nitrogen balance studies. They are set at 0.66 and 0.8 g/kg/day as the estimated average requirement (EAR and recommended dietary allowance (RDA, respectively, similar to young adults. This recommendation is based on single linear regression of available nitrogen balance data obtained at test protein intakes close to or below zero balance. Using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO method, we estimated the protein requirement in young adults and in both elderly men and women to be 0.9 and 1.2 g/kg/day as the EAR and RDA, respectively. This suggests that there is no difference in requirement on a gender basis or on a per kg body weight basis between younger and older adults. The requirement estimates however are ~40% higher than the current protein recommendations on a body weight basis. They are also 40% higher than our estimates in young men when calculated on the basis of fat free mass. Thus, current recommendations may need to be re-assessed. Potential rationale for this difference includes a decreased sensitivity to dietary amino acids and increased insulin resistance in the elderly compared with younger individuals.

  10. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    technologies or software has been developed. A variety of user requirements are provided illustrating the effect of changing the targeted user group with respect to age,; to the context and the different technologies or software as well as to the difference in viewpoint on ways of involving users...

  11. Membrane requirements for high-flux and convective therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowry, Sudhir Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, high-flux dialysis (HF-HD) has now surpassed low-flux dialysis (LF-HD) as the predominant treatment modality, recognition that removal of larger uremic retention solutes is desirable for the treatment of patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). An even more advanced form of HF-HD in terms of removal of a broad spectrum of uremic toxins is on-line hemodiafiltration (HDF), involving convective transport mechanisms for solute removal. With the modality reaching considerable technical maturity over the last two decades, on-line HDF is now recognized for its clinical efficiency and effectiveness, versatility and safety. Such has been the success of on-line HDF that, in Europe, more patients are treated with on-line HDF than even peritoneal dialysis. Fabrication of high-flux membranes for convective therapies is more than a matter of simply making the membrane 'more open' or of increasing the membrane pore size which is not the only determinant for achieving higher convection. While convective transport of larger uremic retention solutes primarily demands membranes with high hydraulic permeability and sieving capabilities, the making of a modern dialysis membrane involves several other considerations that culminate in the delivery of an effective and safe therapy. In this communication I outline the essential membrane requirements and principles for solute removal by convection, as well of meeting additional features related to the therapy. The basic principles of the membrane manufacturing processes by which desired membrane morphology is derived for the separation phenomena involved in dialysis are further described. An awareness of this enables one to appreciate that, depending on the individual constituents and variations of the manufacturing processes, fabrication of all high-flux membranes entails achieving a balance between the ideal or desired criteria for blood purification. Dialysis membranes for convective therapies, even from the same

  12. Benefits of Required Counseling for Counseling Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Holm, Jessica M.; Daly, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Graduate students experience mental health distress. The authors investigated the benefits of required counseling services at a training clinic for students enrolled in counseling courses. Results indicated that after receiving services, students ("N" = 55) reported decreases in overall problems, depressive symptoms, and anxiety…

  13. 76 FR 8923 - Explosive Siting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... vehicle or a related device,\\2\\ such as an attitude control propulsion system. A monopropellant serves as... requirements with the presence of other industrial chemicals, such as aircraft fuels. Based on experience with...); Aircraft Fuel Storage, Handling, and Dispensing on Airports, Advisory Circular (AC) No. 150/ 5230-4A (Jun...

  14. Experiment summary

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of the production of particles coming from hard scattering processes covers a fundamental role in the characterization of the system formed in heavy-ion collisions, allowing to probe the microscopic processes underlying the interaction of high energy partons with the medium. An impressive amount of measurements related to jet, quarkonia, open heavy flavor, and electroweak signal production in nucleus-nucleus as well as p(d)-nucleus collisions was delivered by experiments at RHIC and LHC in past years. In these proceedings, the main experimental results presented during the Hard Probes conference are summarized.

  15. QUBIC Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Stolpovskiy, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    QUBIC is a ground-based experiment, currently under construction, that uses the novel bolometric interferometry technology. It is dedicated to measure the primordial B-modes of CMB. As a bolometric interferometer, QUBIC has high sensitivity and good systematics control. Dust contamination is controlled by operating with two bands -- 150 and 220 GHz. There are two possible sites for QUBIC: either Concordia station in Antarctic or in the Argentinian Puna desert. It is planned to see the first light in 2018-2019.

  16. Media experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2010-01-01

    be interpreted as legible signs, i.e. their meaning can be translated into written or oral language (Kress and van Leuwen 1996; Kress 2003). However, the embodied sense-based qualities involved in images and visualisations cannot be fully comprehended from a discursive perspective. Images and visualisations draw...... on their particular iconic systems of meaning perceived through form, lines, contrasts, colours, structures textures, rhythm and composite qualities with embedded interdependent codes and culturally conditioned potential for construction of knowledge and meaning. Mediated experience adds new perspectives...

  17. Thomson Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    This experiment, conducted by JJ Thomson in 1897, established the existence of the electron. Thomson won the Nobel physics prize for this work in 1906. A beam of electrons crosses the chamber emitting blue light. Adding an electric field (E) or a magnetic field (B) exerts a force on the moving electrons.Use switch E to turn on the electric field in the chamber. Then, by turning knob B, you can increase the current in the coils, generating a magnetic field. By balancing the electric and magnetic fields, Thomson was able to keep the electron beam level and deduce the ratio of the electron's charge to its mass.

  18. Response requirements as constraints on output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, M D; Buchman, I B

    1979-07-01

    Two experiments studied how added response requirements affected fixed-interval schedule performance. Experiment 1 involved tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedules, and Experiment 2 studied conjunctive fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedules. In both, pigeons' output, defined as overall response rate or as responses during the interval, first increased and then decreased as the ratio was raised. With small ratio requirements, the frequency of reinforcement in time either did not change or decreased slightly. With progressively larger ratios, reinforcement frequency decreased consistently. Alternative explanations were discussed. The first, a reinforcement theory account, was that response strength is an increasing monotonic function of both the response requirement and reinforcement frequency, and the bitonic output function represents interacting effects. Increases in the response requirement accompanied by small changes in reinforcement frequency enhance output, but further increases result in large enough decrements in reinforcement frequency so that output is lowered. The second explanation does not view reinforcement as a basic process but, instead, derives from concepts of economics and conservation. Organisms allocate their behavior among alternatives so as to maximize value, where value is a function of the responses that can occur in a given situation under the set of restrictions imposed by particular schedules. One form of this theory explicitly predicts that output is a bitonic function of ratio requirements in simple ratio schedules. However, it was not clear that this model could explain the present effects involving joint ratio and interval schedule restrictions.

  19. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  20. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML--the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltemath, Dagmar; Adams, Richard; Bergmann, Frank T; Hucka, Michael; Kolpakov, Fedor; Miller, Andrew K; Moraru, Ion I; Nickerson, David; Sahle, Sven; Snoep, Jacky L; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    .... In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments...

  1. Defining reclaimed water potability requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    Water used during previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will probably have to utilize some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little applied experience in either the US or foreign space programs with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitutes an engineering challenge of the broadest nature and will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed US spacestation. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specification will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Perhaps the most strigent specifications will involve water to be consumed. NASA's present Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled potable water. No specifications for reclaimed or recycled potable water presently exist either inside or outside NASA. NASA's past experience with potable water systems is reviewed, limitations of the present Potable Water Specifications are examined, present world expertise with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and system analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent Reclaimed/Recycled Potable Water Specifications for spacecraft is presented.

  2. Vacancy Duration, Wage Offers, and Job Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Chen, Long-Hwa

    is concerned with how vacancy durations vary with firms' minimum wage offers and minimum job requirements (regarding education, skills, age, gender and earlier work experience). The empirical analysis is based on ten employer surveys carried out by the DGBAS on Taiwan during the period 1996-2006. We estimate......Besides wage offers, credentials like education, work experience and skill requirements are key screening tools for firms in their recruitment of new employees. This paper adds some new evidence to a relatively tiny literature on firms' recruitment behaviour. In particular, our analysis...... logistic discrete hazard models with a rich set of job and firm characteristics as explanatory variables. The results show that vacancies associated with higher wage offers take, ceteris paribus, longer to be filled. The impact of firms' wage offers and credential requirements does not vary over...

  3. 16 CFR 1702.8 - Human experience data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human experience data. 1702.8 Section 1702.8... REQUIREMENTS § 1702.8 Human experience data. Human experience data constitutes the primary criterion used by... literature, and (d) For drugs, where the human experience data submitted is based on data required by FDA to...

  4. Standard reporting requirements for biological samples in metabolomics experiments: Microbial and in vitro biology experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M.J. van der; Takors, R.; Smedsgaard, J.; Nielsen, J.; Ferenci, T.; Portais, J.C.; Wittmann, C.; Hooks, M.; Tomassini, A.; Oldiges, M.; Fostel, J.; Sauer, U.

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing use of metabolomics as a means to study a large number of different biological research questions, there is a need for a minimal set of reporting standards that allow the scientific community to evaluate, understand, repeat, compare and re-investigate metabolomics studies. Here w

  5. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  6. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  7. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  8. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  9. Creativity, Requirements and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Hoffmann

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Is there room for more creativity in information systems? This article grew out of an AWRE’04 panel discussion on creativity in requirements engineering, and the impact of requirements engineering on creativity in systems engineering and systems use. Both panel and article were motivated by the goal of identifying a framework for understanding creativity in a larger context and thus establishing a potential structure for future research. The authors’ research backgrounds differ widely and, at times, our views conflict – occasionally, quite sharply. We make underlying world views - our own and those of relevant disciplines – explicit; identify the paradox caused by the need to be functionally creative while leaving room for creativity in successive stages; and argue for a multi-paradigm framework for resolving this paradox.

  10. Entrepreneurial learning requires action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2014-01-01

    apply in industry. The findings of this study show that SME managers employ a practice-shaped holistic multi- and cross-disciplinary approach to learning. This learning approach is supported by theory dissemination, business challenge applications, and organisational prerequisites. Diversified learning......This paper reveals how managers of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can utilise their participation in research-based training. Empirical research from a longitudinal study of 10 SMEs managers in the wind turbine industry is provided to describe a learning approach that SME managers can...... that is enhanced by essential large-scale industry players and other SME managers are required to create action and value in learning. An open-mindedness to new learning approaches by SME managers and an open-mindedness to multi- and cross-disciplinary collaboration with SME managers by facilitators is required....

  11. Human Systems Integration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Performance Parameter (NR-KPP) Products (aka Architectures )  Appendix B: References  Appendix C: Acronym List  Appendix D: Analysis methodology...Force Specialty Codes 36 HSI REQUIREMENTS GUIDE Universal Joint Task List Full Mission Trainers ( FMT ) Field Training Detachments On-the-Job...Occupational Health F3I Form-Fit-Function Interface FM Field Manual FMT Full Mission Trainers FOA Field Operating Agencies FOC Full Operational

  12. Reusable Security Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    2003 by Carnegie Mellon University page 1 Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute Reusable Security Requirements RE’2003 RHAS’03 Workshop...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University , Software Engineering Institute,Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING...Carnegie Mellon University page 2 Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute In a Nut Shell • Similar Assets, Attackers, and Threats • Security

  13. Stylistic Requirement for Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yin-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Stylistic research is subordinate to language use research. The fast maturing modern stylistics has greatly boosted trans-lation studies. Translation has a close relationship with stylistics. Many problems can be solved in translation practice by stylis-tic theories and analysis methods. Based on a brief introduction of stylistics and the relationship between stylistics and transla-tion, this paper will give a specific analysis of the stylistic requirement for translation.

  14. Phi factory detector requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisaka, K.; Atac, M.; Berg, R.; Buchanan, C.; Calvette, M.; Khazin, B.; Kinoshita, K.; Muller, T.; Ohshima, T.; Olsen, S.; Park, J.; Santoni, C.; Shirai, J.; Solodov, E.; Thompson, J.; Triggiani, G.; Ueno, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Detector and Simulation Working Group

    1991-08-01

    We identify the experimental problems and the conditions required for successful phi-factory operation, and show the range of detector parameters which, in conjunction with different machine designs, may meet these conditions. We started by considering, comparing and criticizing the Italian and Novosibirsk designs. With this discussion as a background, we defined the apparent experimental problems and detector constraints. In this article we summarize our understanding. (orig./HSI).

  15. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-12-14

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

  16. BER Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  17. Experimenting with a design experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The design experiment is an experimental research method that aims to help design and further develop new (policy instruments. For the development of a set of guidelines for the facilitation of citizens’ initiatives by local governments, we are experimenting with this method. It offers good opportunities for modeling interventions by testing their instrumental validity –the usefulness for the intended practical purposes. At the same time design experiments are also useful for evaluating the empirical validity of theoretical arguments and the further development of these arguments in the light of empirical evidence (by using e.g. the technique of pattern matching. We describe how we have applied this methodology in two cases and discuss our research approach. We encountered some unexpected difficulties, especially in the cooperation with professionals and citizens. These difficulties complicate the valid attribution of causal effects to the use of the new instrument. However, our preliminary conclusion is that design experiments are useful in our field of study

    El experimento de diseño es un método de investigación experimental que tiene como objetivo diseñar y desarrollar posteriormente nuevas herramientas (políticas. En este artículo experimentamos con este método para desarrollar un conjunto de directrices que permitan a los gobiernos locales facilitar las iniciativas ciudadanas. El método ofrece la oportunidad de modelar las intervenciones poniendo a prueba su validez instrumental (su utilidad para el fin práctico que se proponen. Al mismo tiempo, los experimentos de diseño son útiles también para evaluar la validez empírica de las discusiones teóricas y el posterior desarrollo de esas discusiones a la luz de la evidencia empírica (usando, por ejemplo, técnicas de concordancia de patrones. En este trabajo describimos cómo hemos aplicado este método a dos casos y discutimos nuestro enfoque de

  18. Rutherford Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    This experiment, carried out by Ernest Rutherford in 1910, revolutionised understanding of the structure of matter, showing that almost all the mass of an atom is concentrated in a very small, positively charged nucleus. Alpha particles emitted at bombard a thin gold foil. A detector records the number of alpha particles crossing the foil per second. The number is displayed on the counter and updated every minute. Alpha particles are helium nuclei, they consist of 2 protons and 2 neutrons. Rotate the central knob to change the angle between the foil and the detector. The number of alpha particles detected depends on the angle. Most of the alpha particles travel straight through the foil because the gold atoms are mainly empty space. However some hit the atomic nucleus and are deflected.

  19. Management Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popovici

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the survey about the changes in modern management, identified from the experience of Romanian managers. By this online study one presents both the obstacles encountered and the recommendations for such a type of management that the present and future mangers must take into account. What motivated the respondent Romanian managers most to open their own business is the independence it offered them. They work in the field they have liked since they were young. The second reason was the perspective to have an additional income from the business development. The third argument in favour of opening a business is the possibility to assure the balance between personal life and career.

  20. Fusion plasma experiments on TFTR: A 20 year retrospective*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R. J.; Batha, S.; Blanchard, W.; Beer, M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Berk, H.; Bernabei, S.; Bitter, M.; Breizman, B.; Bretz, N. L; Budny, R.; Bush, C. E.; Callen, J.; Camp, R.; Cauffman, S.; Chang, Z.; Cheng, C. Z.; Darrow, D. S.; Dendy, R. O.; Dorland, W.; Duong, H.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ernst, D.; Fisch, N. J.; Fisher, R.; Fonck, R. J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Fu, G. Y.; Furth, H. P.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L. R.; Hammett, G. W.; Hanson, G. R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hill, K. W.; Hogan, J.; Hosea, J. C.; Houlberg, W. A.; Hughes, M.; Hulse, R. A.; Jassby, D. L.; Jobes, F. C.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kim, J. S.; Kissick, M.; Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kugel, H.; Kumar, A.; Leblanc, B.; Levinton, F. M.; Ludescher, C.; Majeski, R. P.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D. K.; Mazzucato, E.; McChesney, J.; McCune, D. C.; McGuire, K. M.; Meade, D. M.; Medley, S. S.; Mika, R.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mirnov, S. V.; Mueller, D.; Nagy, A.; Navratil, G. A.; Nazikian, R.; Okabayashi, M.; Park, H. K.; Park, W.; Paul, S. F.; Pearson, G.; Petrov, M. P.; Phillips, C. K.; Phillips, M.; Ramsey, A. T.; Redi, M. H.; Rewoldt, G.; Reznik, S.; Roquemore, A. L.; Rogers, J.; Ruskov, E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sasao, M.; Schilling, G.; Schivell, J.; Schmidt, G. L.; Scott, S. D.; Semenov, I.; Skinner, C. H.; Stevenson, T.; Stratton, B. C.; Strachan, J. D.; Stodiek, W.; Synakowski, E.; Takahashi, H.; Tang, W.; Taylor, G.; Thompson, M. E.; Von Goeler, S.; Von Halle, A.; Walters, R. T.; White, R.; Wieland, R. M.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Wong, K. L.; Wurden, G. A.; Yamada, M.; Yavorski, V.; Young, K. M.; Zakharov, L.; Zarnstorff, M. C.; Zweben, S. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) (R. J. Hawryluk, to be published in Rev. Mod. Phys.) experiments on high-temperature plasmas, that culminated in the study of deuterium–tritium D–T plasmas containing significant populations of energetic alpha particles, spanned over two decades from conception to completion. During the design of TFTR, the key physics issues were magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium and stability, plasma energy transport, impurity effects, and plasma reactivity. Energetic particle physics was given less attention during this phase because, in part, of the necessity to address the issues that would create the conditions for the study of energetic particles and also the lack of diagnostics to study the energetic particles in detail. The worldwide tokamak program including the contributions from TFTR made substantial progress during the past two decades in addressing the fundamental issues affecting the performance of high-temperature plasmas and the behavior of energetic particles. The progress has been the result of the construction of new facilities, which enabled the production of high-temperature well-confined plasmas, development of sophisticated diagnostic techniques to study both the background plasma and the resulting energetic fusion products, and computational techniques to both interpret the experimental results and to predict the outcome of experiments. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Structuring a palliative care service in Brazil: experience report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, João Batista Santos; Rodrigues, Rayssa Fiterman; Lima, Sara Fiterman

    2014-01-01

    in Brazil, palliative care (PC) is not properly structured and that reality transforms this theme in a public health problem; therefore, initiatives become relevant in this context. This paper aims to share the experience that occurred in an oncology referral hospital in the State of Maranhão and present initiatives that helped in the development of PC Service. the hospital had an outpatient Pain and PC Service, but without specialized beds. The terminally ill patients stayed in common wards, which caused much unrest. A sensitization process was initiated in the hospital through initiatives, such as a photo contest called Flashes of Life and a ward called Room of Dreams, designed in partnership with the architecture course at the Universidade Estadual do Maranhão. The process culminated in the granting of wards to the PC and in the commitment of the Foundation, sponsor of the hospital, to run the project. this experience was a reproducible local initiative for the establishment of PC in a cancer hospital. Local initiatives are valuable in Brazil because they favor a significant number of patients and show its effectiveness in practice to governments and society. To structure a PC service, it is essential to establish priorities that include the assignment of drugs for management of symptoms, humanization, multidisciplinarity, sensitization and education of professionals. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. [Structuring a palliative care service in Brazil: experience report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, João Batista Santos; Rodrigues, Rayssa Fiterman; Lima, Sara Fiterman

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, palliative care (PC) is not properly structured and that reality transforms this theme in a public health problem; therefore, initiatives become relevant in this context. This paper aims to share the experience that occurred in an oncology referral hospital in the State of Maranhão and present initiatives that helped in the development of PC Service. The hospital had an outpatient Pain and PC Service, but without specialized beds. The terminally ill patients stayed in common wards, which caused much unrest. A sensitization process was initiated in the hospital through initiatives, such as a photo contest called Flashes of Life and a ward called Room of Dreams, designed in partnership with the architecture course at the Universidade Estadual do Maranhão. The process culminated in the granting of wards to the PC and in the commitment of the Foundation, sponsor of the hospital, to run the project. This experience was a reproducible local initiative for the establishment of PC in a cancer hospital. Local initiatives are valuable in Brazil because they favor a significant number of patients and show its effectiveness in practice to governments and society. To structure a PC service, it is essential to establish priorities that include the assignment of drugs for management of symptoms, humanization, multidisciplinarity, sensitization and education of professionals. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. 21st Century Cyber Security: Legal Authorities and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    include the product of individual expression (such as music, art, poetry , architectural design, etc.) as well as the culmination of years of business...authorities. Incorporating nearly a dozen federal agencies it has reached a high level of success after nearly 23 years of experimental and iterative growth

  4. On the characteristic form of histograms appearing at the culmination of solar eclipse

    CERN Document Server

    Shnoll, S E

    2006-01-01

    As shown in a number of our works, the form of histograms - distributions of amplitude fluctuations - varies regularly in time, with these variations being similar for processes of any nature, from biochemical reactions to noise in the gravitational antenna and all types of the radioactive decay. In particular, we have revealed basic laws, suggesting a cosmo-physical nature of these phenomena, in the time series created by the noise generators of the global GCP net. On the basis of all the results obtained, a conclusion has been made that the histogram form is determined by fluctuations of the spacetime, which depend on the movement of the measured system (laboratory) relative to the heavenly bodies. An important step to understand the nature of these phenomena was the finding that at the moments of the new Moon, a specific histogram form appears practically simultaneously at different geographical points, from Arctic to Antarctic, in middle latitudes of West and East hemispheres. This effect seems to be not ...

  5. Culminating Action Plan: From Successfully Teaching All to Read (STAR) to Rising Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lori E.

    2009-01-01

    According to Serafini (n.d.), reading aloud is the single most important activity to develop proficient readers. However, more and more children do not have access to books, are read to regularly, and do not have exposure to the written language. Ms. Wolfe is a teacher at Gwendolyn Woolley Elementary School, which is a Title I school with a 65%…

  6. The Culminating Point - A Viable Operational Concept or Some Theoretical Nonsense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-31

    assumed command of Eighth Army forces himself. British defenses at Mersa Matruh were reduced much like the ones at Tobruk, but Rommel’s forces...for Mersa Matruh and all the hardships of the previous days’--his staff were unable to supply him with a very accurate picture of what lay ahead in...8217Q- 112Ind In *SIR SIIINEINA OM NOAR QAIMI 1%,Eighth A,., ?9 1 Amsid Div Atternonsn hodprzrattacks27Jn SIR ElALDA. (MAP E) MERSA MATRUH Ital i

  7. Keeping America on Top: Preventing Culmination in the War of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-04

    epitomize the contentious relationship between the executive and legislative branches. Later in the war, the Watergate scandal would hamper Nixon’s...emergency funding for disaster relief efforts and the military. 73 Like previous administrations, political scandals such as that which embroiled Richard...of energy company ENRON has the potential to affect members of the administration, though no one has as yet been directly implicated. 75 President

  8. Balancing Structure and Creativity in Culminating Projects for Liberal Arts Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasman, Reva

    2014-01-01

    Liberal arts mathematics courses can provide non-majors the opportunity to connect mathematical topics with areas of personal interest. This article describes two end-of-unit writing assignments (on voting and graph theory) that have been structured so that each student is able to synthesize course material in a unique way, while ensuring a…

  9. Intuitive Decision Making as the Culmination of Continuing Education: A Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Leslie Karns

    2015-07-01

    The ability to make sound clinical decisions is the cornerstone of excellent nursing care and the goal of continuing nurse educators. Research has revealed that expert nurses make fewer errors in decision making; it also has shown differences in the decision-making process of expert nurses, compared with novice nurses. Specifically, expert nurses report a greater use of intuitive decision making. Accordingly, an important goal for continuing nurse educators is the development of intuitive decision making by nurses. This article proposes a pattern-based, constructivist educational framework that synthesizes Benner's novice to expert (NTE) theory, Damascio's somatic marker hypothesis (SMH), and Hammond's cognitive continuum theory (CCT). This framework provides a foundation for continuing education that fosters the development of intuitive decision making in nurses. Although this framework needs further empirical validation, it is theoretically sound and applicable to all areas of nursing, and its implementation could help reduce errors in decision making by nurses, thus improving patient outcomes.

  10. 14 CFR 61.109 - Aeronautical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience. 61.109 Section 61... Aeronautical experience. (a) For an airplane single-engine rating. Except as provided in paragraph (k) of this... have a total of 35 hours of aeronautical experience to meet the requirements of this section. ...

  11. 14 CFR 135.244 - Operating experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating experience. 135.244 Section 135... Crewmember Requirements § 135.244 Operating experience. (a) No certificate holder may use any person, nor may... that make and basic model aircraft and in that crewmember position, the following operating experience...

  12. 20 CFR 627.245 - Work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work experience. 627.245 Section 627.245... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Program Requirements § 627.245 Work experience. (a) Definition. Work experience means a short-term or part-time training assignment with a public or private...

  13. 14 CFR 91.1053 - Crewmember experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crewmember experience. 91.1053 Section 91... Operations Program Management § 91.1053 Crewmember experience. (a) No program manager or owner may use any... person has met the applicable requirements of part 61 of this chapter and has the following experience...

  14. Shooting Star Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space Propulsion Research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of the Shooting Star Experiment (SSE). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflections of the engineering model under extreme conditions, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the sun as well as vacuum. This thermal vacuum test was performed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility because of the size of the test article and the capabilities of the facility to simulate in-orbit conditions

  15. Aerospace engineering training: universities experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mertins Kseniya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary professional working in aerospace engineering must have a set of soft and hard skills. The experience gained in universities shows that training of a competent professional is impossible without an employer involved in this process. The paper provides an analysis of missions, tasks and experience of aerospace professionals and identifies the present and future roles, missions and required skills of a highly qualified specialist in aerospace engineering. This analysis can be used to design a master’s program aiming at providing students with the required knowledge, know-how and attitudes needed to succeed as professionals in industrial companies.

  16. Requirements for ITER diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    The development and design of plasma diagnostics for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) present a formidable challenge for experimental plasma physicists. The large plasma size, the high central density and temperature and the very high thermal wall loadings provide new challenges for present measurement techniques and lead to a search for new methods. But the physics and control requirements for the long burn phase of the discharge, combined with very limited access to the plasma, constrained by the requirement for radiation shielding of the coils and sharing of access ports with heating and current drive power, remote manipulation, fueling and turn blanket modules, make for very difficult design choices. An initial attempt at these choices has been made by an international team of diagnostic physicists, gathering together in a series of three workshops during the ITER Conceptual Design Activity. This paper is based on that report and provides a summary of its most important points. To provide a background against which to place the diagnostic requirements and design concepts, the ITER device, its most important plasma properties and the proposed experimental program will be described. The specifications for the measurement of the plasma parameters and the proposed diagnostics for these measurements will then be addressed, followed by some examples of the design concepts that have been proposed. As a result of these design studies, it was clear that there were many uncertainties associated with these concepts, particularly because of the nuclear radiation environment, so that a Research and Development Program for diagnostic hardware was established. It will also be briefly summarized.

  17. CSI: Dognapping workshop : an outreach experiment designed to produce students that are hooked on science.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Gorman, Anna K.; Pratt, Harry D., III; Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ottley, Leigh Anna M.; Baros, Christina Marie

    2008-04-01

    The CSI: Dognapping Workshop is a culmination of the more than 65 Sandian staff and intern volunteers dedication to exciting and encouraging the next generation of scientific leaders. This 2 hour workshop used a 'theatrical play' and 'hands on' activities that was fun, exciting and challenging for 3rd-5th graders while meeting science curriculum standards. In addition, new pedagogical methods were developed in order to introduce nanotechnology to the public. Survey analysis indicated that the workshop had an overall improvement and positive impact on helping the students to understand concepts from materials science and chemistry as well as increased our interaction with the K-5 community. Anecdotal analyses showed that this simple exercise will have far reaching impact with the results necessary to maintain the United States as the scientific leader in the world. This experience led to the initiation of over 100 Official Junior Scientists.

  18. NIRVANA network requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, B.J.

    1990-08-01

    NIRVANA is an effort to standardize electrical computer-aided design workstations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The early effect of this project will be the introduction of at least 60 new engineering workstations at Sandia National Laboratories. Albuquerque, and at Allied Signal, Kansas City Division. These workstations are expected to begin arriving in September 1990. This paper proposes a design and outlines the requirements for a network to support the NIRVANA project. The author proposes a near-term network design, describes the security profile and caveats of this design, and proposes a long-term networking strategy for NIRVANA. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  19. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  20. The QUIJOTE CMB Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rebolo, R.; Tucci, M.; Génova-Santos, R.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hoyland, R.; Herreros, J. M.; Gómez-Reñasco, F.; Caraballo, C. López; Martínez-González, E.; Vielva, P.; Herranz, D.; Casas, F. J.; Artal, E.; Aja, B.; Fuente, L. dela; Cano, J. L.; Villa, E.; Mediavilla, A.; Pascual, J. P.; Piccirillo, L.; Maffei, B.; Pisano, G.; Watson, R. A.; Davis, R.; Davies, R.; Battye, R.; Saunders, R.; Grainge, K.; Scott, P.; Hobson, M.; Lasenby, A.; Murga, G.; Gómez, C.; Gómez, A.; Ariño, J.; Sanquirce, R.; Pan, J.; Vizcargüenaga, A.; Etxeita, B.

    We present the current status of the QUIJOTE (Q-U-I JOint TEnerife) CMB Experiment, a new instrument which will start operations early in 2009 at Teide Observatory with the aim of characterizing the polarization of the CMB and other processes of galactic and extragalactic emission in the frequency range 10-30GHz and at large angular scales. QUIJOTE will be a valuable complement at low frequencies for the PLANCK mission, and will have the required sensitivity to detect a primordial gravitational-wave component if the tensor-to-scalar ratio is larger than r = 0.05.

  1. The Quijote CMB Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Rubiño-Martín, J A; Tucci, M; Genova-Santos, R; Hildebrandt, S R; Hoyland, R; Herreros, J M; Gomez-Renasco, F; Caraballo, C Lopez; Martínez-González, E; Vielva, P; Herranz, D; Casas, F J; Artal, E; Aja, B; de la Fuente, L; Cano, J L; Villa, E; Mediavilla, A; Pascual, J P; Piccirillo, L; Maffei, B; Pisano, G; Watson, R A; Davis, R; Davies, R; Battye, R; Saunders, R; Grainge, K; Scott, P; Hobson, M; Lasenby, A; Murga, G; Gómez, C; Gómez, A; Arino, J; Sanquirce, R; Pan, J; Vizcarguenaga, A; Etxeita, B

    2008-01-01

    We present the current status of the QUIJOTE (Q-U-I JOint TEnerife) CMB Experiment, a new instrument which will start operations early 2009 at Teide Observatory, with the aim of characterizing the polarization of the CMB and other processes of galactic and extragalactic emission in the frequency range 10-30 GHz and at large angular scales. QUIJOTE will be a valuable complement at low frequencies for the PLANCK mission, and will have the required sensitivity to detect a primordial gravitational-wave component if the tensor-to-scalar ratio is larger than r=0.05.

  2. Maryland Centrifugal Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassam, Adil; Ellis, Richard F

    2016-12-22

    The Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) Project has investigated the concepts of centrifugal plasma confinement and stabilization of instabilities by velocity shear. The basic requirement is supersonic plasma rotation about a shaped, open magnetic field. Overall, the MCX Project attained three primary goals that were set out at the start of the project. First, supersonic rotation at Mach number upto 2.5 was obtained. Second, turbulence from flute interchange modes was found considerably reduced from conventional. Third, plasma pressure was contained along the field, as evidenced by density drops of x10 from the center to the mirror throats.

  3. Geophysical fluid flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, B. G.; Fichtl, G.; Fowlis, W.

    1979-01-01

    The essential fluid flow processes associated with the solar and Jovian atmospheres will be examined in a laboratory experiment scheduled for performance on Spacelab Missions One and Three. The experimental instrumentation required to generate and to record convective fluid flow is described. Details of the optical system configuration, the lens design, and the optical coatings are described. Measurement of thermal gradient fields by schlieren techniques and measurement of fluid flow velocity fields by photochromic dye tracers is achieved with a common optical system which utilizes photographic film for data recording. Generation of the photochromic dye tracers is described, and data annotation of experimental parameters on the film record is discussed.

  4. CMS Tracker operational experience

    CERN Document Server

    Fiori, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Tracker was repaired, recalibrated and commissioned successfully for the second run of Large Hadron Collider. In 2015 the Tracker performed well with improved hit efficiency and spatial resolution compared to Run I. Operations successfully transitioned to lower temperatures after commissioning environmental control and monitoring. This year the detector is expected to withstand luminosities that are beyond its design limits and will need a combined effort of both online and offline team to yield the high quality data that is required to reach our physics goals. We present the experience gained during the second run of the LHC and show the latest performance results of the CMS Tracker.

  5. Repository seals requirements study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-03

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, managed by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) is conducting investigations to support the Viability Assessment and the License Application for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The sealing subsystem is part of the Yucca Mountain Waste Isolation System. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is currently evaluating the role of the sealing subsystem (shaft, ramp and exploratory borehole seals) in achieving the overall performance objectives for the Waste Isolation System. This report documents the results of those evaluations. This report presents the results of a repository sealing requirements study. Sealing is defined as the permanent closure of the shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes. Sealing includes those components that would reduce potential inflows above the repository, or that would divert flow near the repository horizon to allow vertical infiltration to below the repository. Sealing of such features as emplacement drifts was not done in this study because the current capability to calculate fracture flow into the drifts is not sufficiently mature. The objective of the study is to provide water or air flow performance based requirements for shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes located near the repository. Recommendations, as appropriate, are provided for developing plans, seals component testing, and other studies relating to sealing.

  6. Section 4: Requirements Intertwining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucopoulos, Pericles

    Business analysts are being asked to develop increasingly complex and varied business systems that need to cater to the changing and dynamic market conditions of the new economy. This is particularly acute in today’s turbulent business environment where powerful forces such as deregulation, globalisation, mergers, advances in information and telecommunications technologies, and increasing education of people provide opportunities for organising work in ways that have never before been possible. Enterprises attempt to create wealth either by getting better at improving their products and services or by harnessing creativity and human-centred management to create innovative solutions. In these business settings, requirements become critical in bridging system solutions to organisational and societal problems. They intertwine organisational, social, cognitive, and implementation considerations and they can provide unique insights to change in systems and their business context. Such design situations often involve multiple stakeholders from different participating organisations, subcontractors, divisions, etc., who may have a diversity of expertise, come from different organisational cultures and often have competing goals. The success or failure of many projects depends, to a large extent, on understanding the contextual setting of requirements and their interaction amongst a diverse population of stakeholders.

  7. Expression of Foxm1 transcription factor in cardiomyocytes is required for myocardial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Bolte

    Full Text Available Forkhead Box M1 (Foxm1 is a transcription factor essential for organ morphogenesis and development of various cancers. Although complete deletion of Foxm1 in Foxm1(-/- mice caused embryonic lethality due to severe abnormalities in multiple organ systems, requirements for Foxm1 in cardiomyocytes remain to be determined. This study was designed to elucidate the cardiomyocyte-autonomous role of Foxm1 signaling in heart development. We generated a new mouse model in which Foxm1 was specifically deleted from cardiomyocytes (Nkx2.5-Cre/Foxm1(fl/f mice. Deletion of Foxm1 from cardiomyocytes was sufficient to disrupt heart morphogenesis and induce embryonic lethality in late gestation. Nkx2.5-Cre/Foxm1(fl/fl hearts were dilated with thinning of the ventricular walls and interventricular septum, as well as disorganization of the myocardium which culminated in cardiac fibrosis and decreased capillary density. Cardiomyocyte proliferation was diminished in Nkx2.5-Cre/Foxm1(fl/fl hearts owing to altered expression of multiple cell cycle regulatory genes, such as Cdc25B, Cyclin B(1, Plk-1, nMyc and p21(cip1. In addition, Foxm1 deficient hearts displayed reduced expression of CaMKIIδ, Hey2 and myocardin, which are critical mediators of cardiac function and myocardial growth. Our results indicate that Foxm1 expression in cardiomyocytes is critical for proper heart development and required for cardiomyocyte proliferation and myocardial growth.

  8. Knowing requires data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Ramon C.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater-flow models are often calibrated using a limited number of observations relative to the unknown inputs required for the model. This is especially true for models that simulate groundwater surface-water interactions. In this case, subsurface temperature sensors can be an efficient means for collecting long-term data that capture the transient nature of physical processes such as seepage losses. Continuous and spatially dense network of diverse observation data can be used to improve knowledge of important physical drivers, conceptualize and calibrate variably saturated groundwater flow models. An example is presented for which the results of such analysis were used to help guide irrigation districts and water management decisions on costly upgrades to conveyance systems to improve water usage, farm productivity and restoration efforts to improve downstream water quality and ecosystems.

  9. Sound insulation requirements in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    All Nordic countries have sound insulation requirements for housing and sound classification schemes originating from a common INSTA‐proposal in the mid 90’s, but unfortunately being increasingly diversified since then. The present situation impedes development and create barriers for trade...... and exchange of experience at a time, where cooperation is needed more than before due to the challenges related to defining appropriate acoustic requirements for comfortable light‐weight housing. There seems be a high interest for all parties involved in the building process to change the situation. Examples...

  10. More about software requirements thorny issues and practical advice

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2006-01-01

    No matter how much instruction you've had on managing software requirements, there's no substitute for experience. Too often, lessons about requirements engineering processes lack the no-nonsense guidance that supports real-world solutions. Complementing the best practices presented in his book, Software Requirements, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers tackles even more of the real issues head-on in this book. With straightforward, professional advice and practical solutions based on actual project experiences, this book answers many of the tough questions rais

  11. Analysis of Multi-Stakeholder Requirements Using Requirement Interaction Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohayanti Hassan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Software requirements engineering is an imperative phase in the software development life cycle in every project regardless of the project size. In a project, different people are involved in the requirements engineering process, including requirement engineers, stakeholders, end users, and system designers. Amongst them, stakeholders play an essential role. Differences in goals and priorities of multiple stakeholders would make requirements management complex and difficult, which is a huge challenge for requirement engineers. From time to time, new requirements emerge and existing requirements need changes to fulfil stakeholders’ goals. Thus, such situation leads to high requirements volatility and low stability which causes overlapping and conflicting of requirements. The correctness and validity of requirements are of paramount importance as they are the key factors toward a successful system. A deep understanding of requirement management technique that conforms to users’ needs is crucial. Such technique of the concept is applied to the Labour Management System. In this study, we have discussed the implementation of analysis of multi-stakeholder requirements using requirement interaction matrix in the f. The study used real requirements to yield a solid and dependable result. We have documented the requirements using a template and assessed their respective volatility level. An algorithm is constructed to   show   that   the   technique has managed to minimize   the time   used   when   checking requirements.

  12. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2009 ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by ASCR. The ASCR facilities anticipate significant increases in wide area bandwidth utilization, driven largely by the increased capabilities of computational resources and the wide scope of collaboration that is a hallmark of modern science. Many scientists move data sets between facilities for analysis, and in some cases (for example the Earth System Grid and the Open Science Grid), data distribution is an essential component of the use of ASCR facilities by scientists. Due to the projected growth in wide area data transfer needs, the ASCR supercomputer centers all expect to deploy and use 100 Gigabit per second networking technology for wide area connectivity as soon as that deployment is financially feasible. In addition to the network connectivity that ESnet provides, the ESnet Collaboration Services (ECS) are critical to several science communities. ESnet identity and trust services, such as the DOEGrids certificate authority, are widely used both by the supercomputer centers and by collaborations such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Earth System Grid (ESG). Ease of use is a key determinant of the scientific utility of network-based services. Therefore, a key enabling aspect for scientists beneficial use of high

  13. Design analysis for grounding experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, P.P.M.; Vredeveldt, A.W.; Pinkster, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 a series of six grounding experiments has been carried out with a 600 Tonne inland water way tanker. At the how of the vessel test sections could be fitted, which were run into an artificial rock. The design of the support structures for the test sections and for the rock required the predic

  14. Vegetarian athletes: Special requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Ongan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets have been mentioned on having long and short term beneficial effects while they are important parts of the Western countries. Vegetarians are not homogeneous groups and subjects are motivated to be on a vegetarian diet because of culturel and regional reasons, ethical concerns including animal rights, health parameters and environmental situations. And these reasons differ from vegetarian and omnivour athletes. Athletes, especially endurance ones (sprinters, cyclists, triathlon athletes, …, eat vegetarian diets in order to meet increasing requirements of carbohydrate and manage their weight status. A healthily well planned vegetarian diet positively affect some parameters related with performance of the athlete. However in a diet based on vegetable, herbs and high fiber, inadequate energy intake should be avoided. Although many vegetarian athletes are warned about consuming high amounts of protein, athletes take less protein than omnivour ones. Therefore, vegetarians should increase dietary protein quality by mixing different foods such as legumes and cereals. Vegetarian athletes who avoid eating animal based foods are at risk of having inadequate energy, fat (essential fatty acids, vitamins B12, B2, D and calcium, iron and zinc. In this review, contribution of vegetarian diets on purpose of healthy eating and optimal athletic performance and nutritional strategies for vegetarian athletes were discussed.

  15. Translation of User Needs to System Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    written under the premise that the current state of the art of system development does not warrant or support a formal standards document.” Experience...1992). C4I for the warrior. Washington, D.C. Carson, R., Aslaksen, E., Caple, G., Davies, P., Griego , R., Kohl, R., et al. (2004). Requirements...Hilliard, R. (2004). ANSI/IEEE 1471 and systems engineering. Systems Engineering Journal, 7(3), 257-270. Maier, M., & Rechtin, E. (2002). The art of

  16. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  17. Training requirements for school sport managers: The South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Training requirements for school sport managers: The South African context. ... a grass root incubator for sporting talent and for providing positive experiences that ... It has inevitably also led to the development of specialized human resources

  18. Multiphase Transport in Porous Media: Gas-Liquid Separation Using Capillary Pressure Gradients International Space Station (ISS) Flight Experiment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Holtsnider, John T.; Dahl, Roger W.; Deeks, Dalton; Javanovic, Goran N.; Parker, James M.; Ehlert, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of multiphase flow characteristics under variable gravity conditions will ultimately lead to improved and as of yet unknown process designs for advanced space missions. Such novel processes will be of paramount importance to the success of future manned space exploration as we venture into our solar system and beyond. In addition, because of the ubiquitous nature and vital importance of biological and environmental processes involving airwater mixtures, knowledge gained about fundamental interactions and the governing properties of these mixtures will clearly benefit the quality of life here on our home planet. The techniques addressed in the current research involving multiphase transport in porous media and gas-liquid phase separation using capillary pressure gradients are also a logical candidate for a future International Space Station (ISS) flight experiment. Importantly, the novel and potentially very accurate Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) modeling of multiphase transport in porous media developed in this work offers significantly improved predictions of real world fluid physics phenomena, thereby promoting advanced process designs for both space and terrestrial applications.This 3-year research effort has culminated in the design and testing of a zero-g demonstration prototype. Both the hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (Teflon) media Capillary Pressure Gradient (CPG) cartridges prepared during the second years work were evaluated. Results obtained from ground testing at 1-g were compared to those obtained at reduced gravities spanning Martian (13-g), Lunar (16-g) and zero-g. These comparisons clearly demonstrate the relative strength of the CPG phenomena and the efficacy of its application to meet NASAs unique gas-liquid separation (GLS) requirements in non-terrestrial environments.LB modeling software, developed concurrently with the zero-g test effort, was shown to accurately reproduce observed CPG driven gas-liquid separation

  19. Lysine and arginine requirements of Salminus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Koji Dairiki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the dietary lysine (DL and dietary arginine (DA requirements of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis, through dose-response trials using the amino acid profiles of whole carcasses as a reference. Two experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design (n=4. In the first experiment, groups of 12 feed-conditioned dourado juveniles (11.4±0.2 g were stocked in 60 L cages placed in 300 L plastic indoor tanks in a closed circulation system. Fish were fed for 60 days on diets containing 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, or 3.5 % dietary lysine. In the second experiment, dourado juveniles (27.0±0.8 g were fed for 60 days on semipurified diets containing arginine at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3.0%, in similar conditions to those of the first experiment. Optimal DL requirements, as determined by broken-line analysis method for final weight, weight gain and specific growth rate, were 2.15% DL or 5% lysine in dietary protein, and 1.48% DA or 3.43% arginine in dietary protein. The best feed conversion ratio is attained with 2.5% DL or 5.8% lysine in dietary protein and 1.4% DA or 3.25% arginine in dietary protein.

  20. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  1. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Facilitating Active Learning of Concepts in Transport Phenomena: Experiment with a Subliming Solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utgikar, Vivek P.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment based on the sublimation of a solid was introduced in the undergraduate Transport Phenomena course. The experiment required the students to devise their own apparatus and measurement techniques. The theoretical basis, assignment of the experiment, experimental results, and student/instructor observations are described in this paper.…

  2. Requirements Reasoning for Distributed Requirements Analysis using Semantic Wiki

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peng; Avgeriou, Paris; Clerc, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    In large-scale collaborative software projects, thousands of requirements with complex interdependencies and different granularity spreading in different levels are elicited, documented, and evolved during the project lifecycle. Non-technical stakeholders involved in requirements engineering activit

  3. Requirement Assurance: A Verification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Requirement Assurance is an act of requirement verification which assures the stakeholder or customer that a product requirement has produced its "as realized product" and has been verified with conclusive evidence. Product requirement verification answers the question, "did the product meet the stated specification, performance, or design documentation?". In order to ensure the system was built correctly, the practicing system engineer must verify each product requirement using verification methods of inspection, analysis, demonstration, or test. The products of these methods are the "verification artifacts" or "closure artifacts" which are the objective evidence needed to prove the product requirements meet the verification success criteria. Institutional direction is given to the System Engineer in NPR 7123.1A NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements with regards to the requirement verification process. In response, the verification methodology offered in this report meets both the institutional process and requirement verification best practices.

  4. 42 CFR 422.514 - Minimum enrollment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... organization's management and providers have previous experience in managing and providing health care services... organization is capable of bearing risk, CMS considers factors such as the organization's management experience... Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.514 Minimum enrollment requirements. (a) Basic rule. Except as...

  5. 14 CFR 61.153 - Eligibility requirements: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.153 Eligibility requirements: General. To be eligible for an airline transport pilot certificate... rating issued under this part; (2) Meet the military experience requirements under § 61.73 of this...

  6. Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

    1996-01-01

    Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)

  7. Diagnostics for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.C. Stratton; D. Johnson; R. Feder; E. Fredrickson; H. Neilson; H. Takahashi; M. Zarnstorf; M. Cole; P. Goranson; E. Lazarus; B. Nelson

    2003-09-16

    The status of planning of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) diagnostics is presented, with the emphasis on resolution of diagnostics access issues and on diagnostics required for the early phases of operation.

  8. Software for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Corti, Gloria; Belyaev, Ivan; Cattaneo, Marco; Charpentier, Philippe; Frank, Markus; Koppenburg, Patrick; Mato-Vila, P; Ranjard, Florence; Roiser, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    LHCb is an experiment for precision measurements of CP-violation and rare decays in B mesons at the LHC collider at CERN. The LHCb software development strategy follows an architecture-centric approach as a way of creating a resilient software framework that can withstand changes in requirements and technology over the expected long lifetime of the experiment. The software architecture, called GAUDI, supports event data processing applications that run in different processing environments ranging from the real-time high- level triggers in the online system to the final physics analysis performed by more than one hundred physicists. The major architectural design choices and the arguments that lead to these choices will be outlined. Object oriented technologies have been used throughout. Initially developed for the LHCb experiment, GAUDI has been adopted and extended by other experiments. Several iterations of the GAUDI software framework have been released and are now being used routinely by the physicists of...

  9. Gas Detection for Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hay, D

    2001-01-01

    Flammable gases are often used in detectors for physics experiments. The storage, distribution and manipulation of such flammable gases present several safety hazards. As most flammable gases cannot be detected by human senses, specific well-placed gas detection systems must be installed. Following a request from the user group and in collaboration with CERN safety officers, risk analyses are performed. An external contractor, who needs to receive detailed user requirements from CERN, performs the installations. The contract is passed on a guaranteed results basis. Co-ordination between all the CERN groups and verification of the technical installation is done by ST/AA/AS. This paper describes and focuses on the structured methodology applied to implement such installations based on goal directed project management techniques (GDPM). This useful supervision tool suited to small to medium sized projects facilitates the task of co-ordinating numerous activities to achieve a completely functional system.

  10. Tribology theory versus experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, John

    1987-01-01

    Tribology, the study of friction and wear of materials, has achieved a new interest because of the need for energy conservation. Fundamental understanding of this field is very complex and requires a knowledge of solid-state physics, material science, chemistry, and mechanical engineering. This paper is meant to be didactic in nature and outlines some of the considerations needed for a tribology research program. The approach is first to present a simple model, a field emission tip in contact with a flat surface, in order to elucidate important considerations, such as contact area, mechanical deformations, and interfacial bonding. Then examples from illustrative experiments are presented. Finally, the current status of physical theories concerning interfacial bonding are presented.

  11. Software Security Requirements Gathering Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti Jain

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Security breaches are largely caused by the vulnerable software. Since individuals and organizations mostly depend on softwares, it is important to produce in secured manner. The first step towards producing secured software is through gathering security requirements. This paper describes Software Security Requirements Gathering Instrument (SSRGI that helps gather security requirements from the various stakeholders. This will guide the developers to gather security requirements along with the functional requirements and further incorporate security during other phases of software development. We subsequently present case studies that describe the integration of the SSRGI instrument with Software Requirements Specification (SRS document as specified in standard IEEE 830-1998. Proposed SSRGI will support the software developers in gathering security requirements in detail during requirements gathering phase.

  12. Software Security Requirements Gathering Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Security breaches are largely caused by the vulnerable software. Since individuals and organizations mostly depend on softwares, it is important to produce in secured manner. The first step towards producing secured software is through gathering security requirements. This paper describes Software Security Requirements Gathering Instrument (SSRGI) that helps gather security requirements from the various stakeholders. This will guide the developers to gather security requirements along with th...

  13. Architecture-driven requirements prioritization

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Quality requirements are main drivers for architectural decisions of software systems. However, in practice they are often dismissed during development, because of initially unknown dependencies and consequences that complicate implementation. To decide for meaningful, feasible quality requirements and trade them off with functional requirements, tighter integration of software architecture evaluation and requirements prioritization is necessary. In this position paper, we propose a tool-supp...

  14. Requirement Development Process and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayt, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Requirements capture the system-level capabilities in a set of complete, necessary, clear, attainable, traceable, and verifiable statements of need. Requirements should not be unduly restrictive, but should set limits that eliminate items outside the boundaries drawn, encourage competition (or alternatives), and capture source and reason of requirement. If it is not needed by the customer, it is not a requirement. They establish the verification methods that will lead to product acceptance. These must be reproducible assessment methods.

  15. Guide to requirements SL-07

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Søren

    IT developers and consultants often ask for an exemplary requirements specification as a starting point for their specific project. This document is the guide to such a specification, Requirements Template SL-07. The specification itself is a template filled out with a complex example: requirements...

  16. Physician Requirements-1990. For Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Octavious; Birchette-Pierce, Cheryl

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in cardiology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. The determination of physician requirements was based on an adjusted needs rather than a demand or utilization model. For each illness, manpower requirements were modified by the…

  17. Guide to requirements SL-07

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Søren

    IT developers and consultants often ask for an exemplary requirements specification as a starting point for their specific project. This document is the guide to such a specification, Requirements Template SL-07. The specification itself is a template filled out with a complex example: requirements...... for an Electronic Health Record system (EHR)....

  18. Music and the mind: a new interdisciplinary course on the science of musical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, J Roxanne; Cornett-Murtada, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the instructors describe a new team-taught transdisciplinary seminar, "Music and Mind: The Science of Musical Experience." The instructors, with backgrounds in music and neuroscience, valued the interdisciplinary approach as a way to capture student interest and to reflect the inherent interconnectivity of neuroscience. The course covered foundational background information about the science of hearing and musical perception and about the phenomenology of musical creation and experience. This two-credit honors course, which attracted students from eleven majors, integrated experiential learning (active listening, journaling, conducting mini-experiments) with rigorous reflection and discussion of academic research. The course culminated in student-led discussions and presentations of final projects around hot topics in the science of music, such as the 'Mozart Effect,' music and religious experience, etc. Although this course was a two-credit seminar, it could easily be expanded to a four-credit lecture or laboratory course. Student evaluations reveal that the course was successful in meeting the learning objectives, that students were intrinsically motivated to learn more about the discipline, and that the team-taught, experiential learning approach was a success.

  19. A communist teaching experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Morten

    At the beginning of the course, students were told all the examination questions for the oral examination, and that they, in groups, should produce a report with a) A pedagogical presentation of (the selected part of) the theory/syllabus b) This theory put into perspective by self-produced empiri......At the beginning of the course, students were told all the examination questions for the oral examination, and that they, in groups, should produce a report with a) A pedagogical presentation of (the selected part of) the theory/syllabus b) This theory put into perspective by self......-student teaching. A form of mutual teaching where (student)teachers have good knowledge of the students’ learning problems. The role of the (conventional) teacher: To initiate and supervise the process and act as “final” teacher when this is required. The experiment produced various problems and the students...... disliked the course design. The lack of students’ ability to get credit for own qualifications was seen as a major problem. My presentation will go through the experiment. The ultimate goal of teaching is to produce people who can raise welfare in our societies. How can we measure whether or not a new form...

  20. The EDELWEISS-II experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Scorza, S

    2008-01-01

    EDELWEISS is a direct dark matter search situated in the low radioactivity environment of the Modane Underground Laboratory. The experiment uses Ge detectors at very low temperature in order to identify eventual rare nuclear recoils induced by elastic scattering of WIMPs from our Galactic halo. The commissioning of the second phase of the experiment, involving more than 7 kg of Ge, has been completed in 2007. Two new type of detectors with active rejection of events due to surface contamination have demonstrated the performances required to achieve the physics goal of the present phase.

  1. Electronics for the STEREO experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hélaine, V

    2016-01-01

    The STEREO experiment, aiming to probe short baseline neutrino oscillations by precisely measuring reactor anti-neutrino spectrum, is currently under installation. It is located at short distance from the compact research reactor core of the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. Dedicated electronics, hosted in a single $\\mu$TCA crate, were designed for this experiment. In this article, the electronics requirements, architecture and the performances achieved are described. It is shown how intrinsic Pulse Shape Discrimination properties of the liquid scintillator are preserved and how custom adaptable logic is used to improve the muon veto efficiency.

  2. The Information Science Experiment System - The computer for science experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudriat, Edwin C.; Husson, Charles

    1989-01-01

    The concept of the Information Science Experiment System (ISES), potential experiments, and system requirements are reviewed. The ISES is conceived as a computer resource in space whose aim is to assist computer, earth, and space science experiments, to develop and demonstrate new information processing concepts, and to provide an experiment base for developing new information technology for use in space systems. The discussion covers system hardware and architecture, operating system software, the user interface, and the ground communication link.

  3. The Information Science Experiment System - The computer for science experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudriat, Edwin C.; Husson, Charles

    1989-01-01

    The concept of the Information Science Experiment System (ISES), potential experiments, and system requirements are reviewed. The ISES is conceived as a computer resource in space whose aim is to assist computer, earth, and space science experiments, to develop and demonstrate new information processing concepts, and to provide an experiment base for developing new information technology for use in space systems. The discussion covers system hardware and architecture, operating system software, the user interface, and the ground communication link.

  4. Assessing Requirements Volatility and Risk Using Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    There are many factors that affect the level of requirements volatility a system experiences over its lifecycle and the risk that volatility imparts. Improper requirements generation, undocumented user expectations, conflicting design decisions, and anticipated / unanticipated world states are representative of these volatility factors. Combined, these volatility factors can increase programmatic risk and adversely affect successful system development. This paper proposes that a Bayesian Network can be used to support reasonable judgments concerning the most likely sources and types of requirements volatility a developing system will experience prior to starting development and by doing so it is possible to predict the level of requirements volatility the system will experience over its lifecycle. This assessment offers valuable insight to the system's developers, particularly by providing a starting point for risk mitigation planning and execution.

  5. An Evaluation of Requirement Prioritization Techniques with ANP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed ali Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates an evaluation of seven software requirements prioritization methods (ANP, binary search tree, AHP, hierarchy AHP, spanning tree matrix, priority group and bubble sort. Based on the case study of local project (automation of Mobilink franchise system, the experiment is conducted by students in the Requirement Engineering course in the department of Software Engineering at the University of Science and Technology Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan. Parameters/ measures used for the experiment are consistency indication, scale of measurement, interdependence, required number of decisions, total time consumption, time consumption per decision, ease of use, reliability of results and fault tolerance; on which requirements prioritization techniques are evaluated. The results of experiment show that ANP is the most successful prioritization methodology among all the available prioritization methodologies.

  6. High heat flux components in fusion devices: from nowadays experience in Tore Supra towards the ITER challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosman, A.; Bayetti, P.; Chappuis, P.; Cordier, J.J.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Guilhem, D.; Lipa, M.; Marbach, G.; Mitteau, R.; Schlosser, J

    2003-07-01

    A pioneering activity has been developed by CEA and the European industry in the field of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components in Tore Supra operation, which is today culminating with the routine operation of an actively cooled toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) capable to sustain up to 10 MW.m{sup -2} of nominal convected heat flux. This success is the result of a long lead development and industrialization program (about 10 years) marked out with a number of technical and managerial challenges that were taken up and has allowed us to build up an unique experience feedback database. This is illustrated in this paper with the specific example of the development of high heat flux CFC-on-CuCrZr (carbon-carbon fibre composite on hardened copper alloy CuCrZr) component from design phase to tokamak operation. (authors)

  7. Movimento dos marinheiros : experiências e demandas dos marinheiros da marinha de guerra brasileira (1962-1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wagner Porto da Silva Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to reconstruct the trajectory of a specific military in the Navy of Brazil, through the revived memory, especially between the years 1962-1964 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. And from the analysis of his memories seek a better understanding of the experiences of sailors in the state metropolis and its demands related to social issues and those relating to career and naval military activity. Since the demands of these military found several orders barriers, especially the denial of high naval administration in open trading areas related to basic rights of junior squares that force. Still analyzing the escalating crisis between the Admiralty Board and the Sailors and Marines Association of Brazil, as part of the process that culminated in the military coup civil in 1964.

  8. Troubleshooting 101: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitt, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment is described where students troubleshoot a published procedure for the analysis of ethanol. UV-vis spectroscopy is used to measure the change in absorbance upon reaction of dichromate with ethanol. The experiment requires the students to critically evaluate their experimental results to correct a fundamental flaw in the original…

  9. 46 CFR 13.303 - Eligibility: Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility: Experience. 13.303 Section 13.303 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CERTIFICATION OF TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.303 Eligibility: Experience. Each...

  10. 46 CFR 13.503 - Eligibility: Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility: Experience. 13.503 Section 13.503 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CERTIFICATION OF TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-Engineerâ Endorsement § 13.503 Eligibility: Experience. (a) Each...

  11. 46 CFR 13.403 - Eligibility: Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility: Experience. 13.403 Section 13.403 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CERTIFICATION OF TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-Assistantâ Endorsement § 13.403 Eligibility: Experience. (a) Each...

  12. 46 CFR 13.203 - Eligibility: Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility: Experience. 13.203 Section 13.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CERTIFICATION OF TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PICâ Endorsement § 13.203 Eligibility: Experience. Each applicant for...

  13. 34 CFR 602.12 - Accrediting experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accrediting experience. 602.12 Section 602.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION... Basic Eligibility Requirements § 602.12 Accrediting experience. (a) An agency seeking initial...

  14. Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemon, Katherine N.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding customer experience and the customer journey over time is critical for firms. Customers now interact with firms through myriad touch points in multiple channels and media, and customer experiences are more social in nature. These changes require firms to integrate multiple business fun

  15. Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemon, Katherine N.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding customer experience and the customer journey over time is critical for firms. Customers now interact with firms through myriad touch points in multiple channels and media, and customer experiences are more social in nature. These changes require firms to integrate multiple business

  16. Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemon, Katherine N.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding customer experience and the customer journey over time is critical for firms. Customers now interact with firms through myriad touch points in multiple channels and media, and customer experiences are more social in nature. These changes require firms to integrate multiple business fun

  17. Capturing experience: a matter of contextualising events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nack, F.-M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of experience in the context of dynamic and interactive environments, such as web-based musea, where neither the individual user requirements nor the requested material can be predicted in advance. A definition of experiences for the particular context is introduced on

  18. Capturing experience - a matter of contextualising events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nack, F.-M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of experience in the context of dynamic and interactive environments, such as web-based musea, where neither the individual user requirements nor the requested material can be predicted in advance. A definition of experiences for the particular context is introduced on

  19. Troubleshooting 101: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitt, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment is described where students troubleshoot a published procedure for the analysis of ethanol. UV-vis spectroscopy is used to measure the change in absorbance upon reaction of dichromate with ethanol. The experiment requires the students to critically evaluate their experimental results to correct a fundamental flaw in the original…

  20. Macro mineral requirements by grazing zebu bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine requirements of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, potassium (K and sodium (Na for grazing zebu bovines. The experiment area was composed of Brachiaria decumbens paddocks. Twenty-seven non-castrated animals, with initial live weight of 311.0 kg and at an average age of 14 months were used. Three animals were slaughtered, after adaptation period, so they were used as control for estimates of empty body weight and initial body composition of animals in the experiment. Out of the 24 remaining animals, four were sent to the maintenance group with restrict grazing time to limit energy intake close to the maintenance level. The other 20 animals were distributed in four treatments: mineral mixture, self-control intake and three-times-a-week-offer frequency (offered on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and daily. Concentrations of all studied macro elements in empty body and empty body gain decreased as live weight increased. The ratios obtained for g Ca/100 g of retained protein and g P/100 g of retained protein were 9.18 and 4.72, respectively. Total dietary requirement of calcium was lower than the one recommended by NRC (2000, but P requirement was very close to that.

  1. Some Experiments on the Light Reaction of Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawcroft, D. M.; Short, K. C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes experiments using crude isolated chloroplast fractions which demonstrate some aspects of the photosynthetic light requiring process and a number of factors affecting them. These experiments are suitable for senior high school and college courses in biology. (JR)

  2. 20 CFR 638.507 - Work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the wage rate required by applicable law. (ii) In addition to the cash wages required to be paid by... wage rate set forth in section (6)(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) for up to 25 hours a week. The work experience employer shall pay the student, in cash, any wages above the FLSA...

  3. Solid Waste Disposal: A Choice Experiment Experience in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Pek, Chuen Khee; Othman, Jamal

    2009-01-01

    Increasing generation of solid waste requires better quality disposal options in Malaysia. Control tipping is the most commonly used complemented by sanitary landfill and incineration. This study estimates the non-market values of improved waste disposal services and also ranking them using choice experiment. River water quality is the most concerned followed by psychological fear, air pollution and land use. Socio-economic background and distance factor influence the types of compensating su...

  4. Tool-based requirement traceability between requirement and design artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Turban, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Processes for developing safety-critical systems impose special demands on ensuring requirements traceability. Achieving valuable traceability information, however, is especially difficult concerning the transition from requirements to design. Bernhard Turban analyzes systems and software engineering theories cross-cutting the issue (embedded systems development, systems engineering, software engineering, requirements engineering and management, design theory and processes for safety-critical systems). As a solution, the author proposes a new tool approach to support designers in their thinkin

  5. Requirements Reasoning for Distributed Requirements Analysis using Semantic Wiki

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Peng; Avgeriou, Paris; Clerc, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    In large-scale collaborative software projects, thousands of requirements with complex interdependencies and different granularity spreading in different levels are elicited, documented, and evolved during the project lifecycle. Non-technical stakeholders involved in requirements engineering activities rarely apply formal techniques; therefore it is infeasible to automatically detect problems in requirements. This situation becomes even worse in a distributed context when all sites are respon...

  6. Phase jitter in a differential phase experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, B. S.; Connolly, D. J.; Austin, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    Austin (1971) had concluded that, because of the 'phase jitter,' the differential phase experiment is useful over a more limited height range than the differential absorption experiment. Several observations are presented to show that this conclusion is premature. It is pointed out that the logical basis of the differential absorption experiment also requires that the O- and X-mode echoes, at a given time, come from the same irregularities. Austin's calculations are believed to contain a systematic error above 80 km.

  7. Identification of Requirements using Goal Oriented Requirements Elicitation Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohd Arif; Saoud Sarwar

    2015-01-01

    .... The objective of this paper is twofold; firstly, we classify different requirements elicitation techniques on the basis of different criterion like traditional, cognitive, collaborative, and contextual techniques...

  8. Flight program language requirements. Volume 2: Requirements and evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The efforts and results are summarized for a study to establish requirements for a flight programming language for future onboard computer applications. Several different languages were available as potential candidates for future NASA flight programming efforts. The study centered around an evaluation of the four most pertinent existing aerospace languages. Evaluation criteria were established, and selected kernels from the current Saturn 5 and Skylab flight programs were used as benchmark problems for sample coding. An independent review of the language specifications incorporated anticipated future programming requirements into the evaluation. A set of detailed language requirements was synthesized from these activities. The details of program language requirements and of the language evaluations are described.

  9. ExperienceSampler: An Open-Source Scaffold for Building Smartphone Apps for Experience Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Sabrina; Page-Gould, Elizabeth

    2017-06-15

    Experience sampling methods allow researchers to examine phenomena in daily life and provide various advantages that complement traditional laboratory methods. However, existing experience sampling methods may be costly, require constant Internet connectivity, may not be designed specifically for experience sampling studies, or require a custom solution from a computer programming consultant. In this article, we present ExperienceSampler, an open-source scaffold for creating experience-sampling smartphone apps designed for Android and iOS devices. We designed ExperienceSampler to address the common barriers to using experience sampling methods. First, there is no cost to the user. Second, ExperienceSampler apps make use of local notifications to let participants know when to complete surveys and store the data locally until Internet connection is available. Third, our app scaffold was designed with experience sampling methodological issues in mind. We also demonstrate how researchers can easily customize ExperienceSampler even if they have no programming skills. Furthermore, we evaluate the utility of ExperienceSampler apps with results from one social psychological study conducted using ExperienceSampler (N = 168). Mean response rates averaged 84%, and the median response latency was 9 minutes. Taken together, ExperienceSampler creates cost-effective smartphone apps that can be easily customized by researchers to examine experiences in daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    ) to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Cygnus after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. A computer modelling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements...... validation. This unprecedented opportunity will expand the understanding of the fundamentals of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The experiment is being developed by an international topical team that is collaboratively defining the experiment requirements and performing supporting analysis, experimentation...

  11. National Ignition Facility site requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Site Requirements (SR) provide bases for identification of candidate host sites for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and for the generation of data regarding potential actual locations for the facilities. The SR supplements the NIF Functional Requirements (FR) with information needed for preparation of responses to queries for input to HQ DOE site evaluation. The queries are to include both documents and explicit requirements for the potential host site responses. The Sr includes information extracted from the NIF FR (for convenience), data based on design approaches, and needs for physical and organization infrastructure for a fully operational NIF. The FR and SR describe requirements that may require new construction or may be met by use or modification of existing facilities. The SR do not establish requirements for NIF design or construction project planning. The SR document does not constitute an element of the NIF technical baseline.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  13. Terrestrial plants require nutrients in similar proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Magnus F; Göransson, Anders

    2004-04-01

    Theoretical considerations based on nutrition experiments suggest that nutrient ratios of terrestrial plants are similar to the Redfield ratio found in marine phytoplankton. Laboratory experiments have shown that seedlings of many different plant species have similar nutrient concentration ratios when supplied with nutrients at free access. However, at free access, nutrients are likely to be taken up in amounts in excess of a plant's requirements for growth. In further experiments, therefore, the supply rate of each nutrient was reduced so that excessive uptake did not occur. Again, similar nutrient ratios were found among the plant species tested, although the ratios differed from those found in plants given free access to nutrients. Based on the law of the minimum, we suggest that optimum nutrient ratios be defined as the ratios found in plants when all nutrients are limiting growth simultaneously. The literature on nutrient concentrations was surveyed to investigate nutrient ratios in terrestrial ecosystems. Nutrients taken into consideration were nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Based on the assumption that nitrogen is either the limiting nutrient or, when not limiting, is taken up only in small excess amounts, we calculated nutrient ratios from published data. The calculated ratios corresponded closely to the ratios determined in laboratory and field experiments.

  14. Reserve requirements: A modern perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Scott E. Hein; Jonathan D. Stewart

    2002-01-01

    The discussion in many money and banking textbooks would suggest that the Federal Reserve requires depository institutions to hold a minimum level of non-interest-earning reserves because (1) reserve requirements are a monetary policy tool that allows the Fed to expand the money supply and lower interest rates, and (2) reserve requirements improve the safety and soundness of depository institutions. This article argues that this "conventional wisdom" view is too narrow. ; The Fed often uses r...

  15. UTM TCL2 Software Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Irene S.; Rios, Joseph L.; McGuirk, Patrick O.; Mulfinger, Daniel G.; Venkatesan, Priya; Smith, David R.; Baskaran, Vijayakumar; Wang, Leo

    2017-01-01

    The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Technical Capability Level (TCL) 2 software implements the UTM TCL 2 software requirements described herein. These software requirements are linked to the higher level UTM TCL 2 System Requirements. Each successive TCL implements additional UTM functionality, enabling additional use cases. TCL 2 demonstrated how to enable expanded multiple operations by implementing automation for beyond visual line-of-sight, tracking operations, and operations flying over sparsely populated areas.

  16. Software package requirements and procurement

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines the problems of specifying requirements and deploying these requirements in the procurement of software packages. Despite the fact that software construction de novo is the exception rather than the rule, little or no support for the task of formulating requirements to support assessment and selection among existing software packages has been developed. We analyse the problems arising in this process and review related work. We outline the key components of a programme of ...

  17. Feedback Requirements for SASE-FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, Henrik; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    The operation of a Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) Free Electron Lasers (FEL) at soft and hard X-ray wavelengths driven by a high brightness electron beam imposes strong requirements on the stability of the accelerator and feedback systems are necessary to both guarantee saturation of the SASE process as well as a stable photon beam for user experiments. Diagnostics for the relevant transverse and longitudinal beam parameters are presented and various examples of feedback systems for bunches with low repetition rate as well as systems for intra bunch train feedbacks are discussed.

  18. Get Your Requirements Straight: Storyboarding Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haesen, Mieke; Luyten, Kris; Coninx, Karin

    Current user-centred software engineering (UCSE) approaches provide many techniques to combine know-how available in multidisciplinary teams. Although the involvement of various disciplines is beneficial for the user experience of the future application, the transition from a user needs analysis to a structured interaction analysis and UI design is not always straightforward. We propose storyboards, enriched by metadata, to specify functional and non-functional requirements. Accompanying tool support should facilitate the creation and use of storyboards. We used a meta-storyboard for the verification of storyboarding approaches.

  19. Future requirements for fossil power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spliethoff H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fast increasing installation of technologies to convert renewable energy into power influences the operation of conventional power plants. New requirements on the technology, on the operation and on the economic have to be considered for already running and future power plants. Currently, first experiences with such a production and market situation are available. Technologies are discussed to store power and to reduce CO2 emissions. New compensation models are necessary to enable economic operation of fossil power plants in base load. This article gives a short review about available technologies and future challenges.

  20. Requirements for a multifunctional code architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiihonen, O. [VTT Energy (Finland); Juslin, K. [VTT Automation (Finland)

    1997-07-01

    The present paper studies a set of requirements for a multifunctional simulation software architecture in the light of experiences gained in developing and using the APROS simulation environment. The huge steps taken in the development of computer hardware and software during the last ten years are changing the status of the traditional nuclear safety analysis software. The affordable computing power on the safety analysts table by far exceeds the possibilities offered to him/her ten years ago. At the same time the features of everyday office software tend to set standards to the way the input data and calculational results are managed.

  1. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  2. Schwann cell myelination requires Dynein function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langworthy Melissa M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction of Schwann cells with axons triggers signal transduction that drives expression of Pou3f1 and Egr2 transcription factors, which in turn promote myelination. Signal transduction appears to be mediated, at least in part, by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP because elevation of cAMP levels can stimulate myelination in the absence of axon contact. The mechanisms by which the myelinating signal is conveyed remain unclear. Results By analyzing mutations that disrupt myelination in zebrafish, we learned that Dynein cytoplasmic 1 heavy chain 1 (Dync1h1, which functions as a motor for intracellular molecular trafficking, is required for peripheral myelination. In dync1h1 mutants, Schwann cell progenitors migrated to peripheral nerves but then failed to express Pou3f1 and Egr2 or make myelin membrane. Genetic mosaic experiments revealed that robust Myelin Basic Protein expression required Dync1h1 function within both Schwann cells and axons. Finally, treatment of dync1h1 mutants with a drug to elevate cAMP levels stimulated myelin gene expression. Conclusion Dync1h1 is required for retrograde transport in axons and mutations of Dync1h1 have been implicated in axon disease. Our data now provide evidence that Dync1h1 is also required for efficient myelination of peripheral axons by Schwann cells, perhaps by facilitating signal transduction necessary for myelination.

  3. Standardized ileal digestible lysine requirements of male pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, K L; Mullan, B P; Kim, J C; Dunshea, F R

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys requirement of entire male and male pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (GnRF; immunocastrates...

  4. Georgians Experience Astronomy Research in Schools: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Zodiac T.; Aguilar, J. C.; Higdon, S. J. U.

    2010-01-01

    Georgia Department of Education and its partners at Columbus State and Georgia Southern Universities are engaged in creating a comprehensive program to institutionalize high quality astronomy in its high schools. The goal of the Georgians Experience Astronomy Research in Schools (GEARS) project is to transform the way high-school Astronomy is taught in 100% of GA's public schools by 2012. GEARS will be an innovative and rigorous, NASA research-infused Astronomy curriculum, which will reach thousands of students in rural, urban, and suburban areas and will be taught by highly trained teachers. GEARS project leaders have two objectives: 1) Develop and implement an online high-school Astronomy course for inclusion in the GA Virtual School portal. The GEARS course will be a progression through inquiry-based research experiences culminating in authentic data analysis and data mining activities selected from the NASA archives. The GEARS framework and units will meet the new Georgia Performance Standards in Astronomy and will be incorporated into teacher workshops. 2) Ensure the sustainability and utilization of GEARS both online and in a blended classroom approach by providing teacher professional development, integrating it into Space Science for Teachers graduate courses, and by developing a network of Georgia Astronomy Resource Teachers who will teach GEARS astronomy and mentor other teachers in their local areas. This poster will provide an overview of the workshop and course curricular framework, design philosophy and sample units. Partnerships with interested parties, especially those with NASA data, are sought. The project website is http://cheller.phy.georgiasouthern.edu/ shigdon/GEARS/GEARS.html. This project is funded by NASA Grant NNX09AH83A through the GADOE, supported by CSU and GSU.

  5. Experiment! planning, implementing and interpreting

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Oivind

    2012-01-01

    Experiments are the most effective way to learn about the world. By cleverly interfering with something to see how it reacts we are able to find out how it works. In contrast to passive observation, experimenting provides us with data relevant to our research and thus less time and effort is spent separating relevant from irrelevant information. The art of experimentation is often learnt by doing, so an intuitive understanding of the experimental method usually evolves gradually through years of trial and error. This book speeds up the journey for the reader to becoming a proficient experimenter. Organized in two parts, this unique text begins by providing a general introduction to the scientific approach to experimentation. It then describes the processes and tools required, including the relevant statistical and experimental methods. Towards the end of the book a methodology is presented, which leads the reader through the three phases of an experiment: 'Planning', 'Data Collection', and 'Analysis and S...

  6. USDA registration and rectification requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the requirements of the United States Department of Agriculture for accuracy of aerospace acquired data, and specifically, requirements for registration and rectification of remotely sensed data are discussed. Particular attention is given to foreign and domestic crop estimation and forecasting, forestry information applications, and rangeland condition evaluations.

  7. Crowd-Centric Requirements Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Remco; Dalpiaz, Fabiano; Hosseini, Mahmood; Shahri, Alimohammad; Ali, Raian

    2014-01-01

    Requirements engineering is a preliminary and crucial phase for the correctness and quality of software systems. Despite the agreement on the positive correlation between user involvement in requirements engineering and software success, current development methods employ a too narrow concept of tha

  8. Energy requirements of adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Morris, Penelope J; Hawthorne, Amanda J

    2010-04-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out in order to establish the energy requirements of adult cats. Publications that identified cat body weight (BW) were used to generate allometric relationships between energy requirements and BW of healthy adult cats, using log-log linear regression. Energy requirements were expressed in kcal/kg BW to be consistent with those reported by the National Research Council. Mean maintenance energy requirements were 55.1 (se 1.2) kcal/kg BW (115 treatment groups). Three allometric equations were identified to predict the energy requirements for maintenance of BW in the cat based on BW: light (53.7 kcal/kg BW- 1.061), normal (46.8 kcal/kg BW- 1.115) and heavy (131.8 kcal/kg BW- 0 .366). When reported on lean mass, the allometric equation revealed maintenance requirements were 58.4 kcal/kg lean mass- 1.140 (adjusted R2 0.694; thirty-six treatment groups). The present review suggests that values for maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be an accurate prediction and more detailed information on the age, sex and neuter status, BW and composition would enhance the ability to interpret the maintenance energy requirements of cats.

  9. Physician Requirements-1990. For Nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbach, Joan K.

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in nephrology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. In estimating service requirements for nephrology, a nephrology Delphi panel reviewed reference and incidence-prevalence and utilization data for 34 conditions that are treated in the…

  10. 76 FR 39259 - Manual Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... final rule established new requirements for the certification, operation, and maintenance of light-sport... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Manual Requirements AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... entitled ``Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft,'' in the Federal...

  11. Subsurface Contamination Focus Area technical requirements. Volume 1: Requirements summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document summarizes functions and requirements for remediation of source term and plume sites identified by the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area. Included are detailed requirements and supporting information for source term and plume containment, stabilization, retrieval, and selective retrieval remedial activities. This information will be useful both to the decision-makers within the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area (SCFA) and to the technology providers who are developing and demonstrating technologies and systems. Requirements are often expressed as graphs or charts, which reflect the site-specific nature of the functions that must be performed. Many of the tradeoff studies associated with cost savings are identified in the text.

  12. CAREER GUIDANCE EXPERIENCE ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Tolstoguzov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the experience of careeroriented activities carried out with students of schools in developed and developing countries. Career Guidance in Russia, despite the vast experience of its implementation, is experiencing serious difficulties. In this regard, it is important to take into account the international experience career-oriented activities, such as in the developed countries of North America and the European Union as well as in several Asian countries with rapidly growing economies and a large demographic potential, taking into account the best variants for the Russian education system. Methods. The experience of career-oriented work undertaken with pupils of the USA, Canada, Israel, France, UK, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Japan, Singapore, China and India is shown on the basis of the comparative analysis of different publications and information sources. The author has made an attempt to generalize the principles of psycho-pedagogical and administrative assistance in professional self-determination of senior pupils abroad. Scientific novelty. The approaches to career-oriented activities in countries with different levels of economic development are compared for the first time. Some principles are revealed. Firstly, the higher the income level per capita in the country, the greater attention is given to vocational guidance. The politics in the developed countries is based on interests of the individual: children’s acquaintance with the world of professions begins already at younger school and the moment of definitive selfdetermination is postponed till the end of their senior stage of education; the possibility of direction change of professional preparation in case of detection of discrepancy of qualities of the pupil to originally selected profile is provided. Career-oriented activity in developing countries, on the contrary, is rigidly coordinated to requirements of economy and a labour market

  13. Exploring employer job requirements: An analysis of pharmacy job announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James S; Ngo, Tien; Cecil, Jasmine; Borja-Hart, Nancy

    2017-09-23

    Postgraduate training, dual degrees, and board certifications are credentials viewed by academic pharmacy communities and professional organizations as positive assets for those seeking pharmacist jobs; however, a key question merits further investigation: do these views match employer expectations? The primary objective of this study was to identify the most common qualifications employers require as stated in job advertisements. Pharmacist job postings from the aggregate jobs website Indeed.com were evaluated for the 20 largest metropolitan areas in the United States. Search criteria included: pharmacist, full-time, and within a 50-mile radius of the metropolitan area. Positions were excluded if they were not pharmacist specific, did not require a pharmacy degree, were part-time, or were temporary. Required and preferred qualifications were collected in the following categories: practice type, experience needed, training, certification, and desired skills. Six hundred and eleven of 1356 postings met inclusion criteria. Positions were classified as community (113), health-system (264), industry (149), academia (9), or other (76). Four hundred and six (66.4%) required a minimum of a Bachelor's of Pharmacy degree, while 174 (28.4%) required a Doctor of Pharmacy degree. Experience was required for 467 positions (range of 6 months to 14 years). Postgraduate training was required for 73 positions (66 residency/7 fellowship). One job required a Master's degree, type unspecified. BPS certifications were required for 7 positions (1.1%) and preferred for 22 positions (3.6%). Certifications and skills most required by employers were verbal and written skills (248), Microsoft Office proficiency (93), immunization certifications (51), and Basic Life Support/Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation certifications (37). Postgraduate training, dual degrees, and board certification were not significant factors in the qualification criteria for the positions identified. The qualifications

  14. The NLC Software Requirements Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaee, Hamid

    2002-08-20

    We describe the software requirements and development methodology developed for the NLC control system. Given the longevity of that project, and the likely geographical distribution of the collaborating engineers, the planned requirements management process is somewhat more formal than the norm in high energy physics projects. The short term goals of the requirements process are to accurately estimate costs, to decompose the problem, and to determine likely technologies. The long term goal is to enable a smooth transition from high level functional requirements to specific subsystem and component requirements for individual programmers, and to support distributed development. The methodology covers both ends of that life cycle. It covers both the analytical and documentary tools for software engineering, and project management support. This paper introduces the methodology, which is fully described in [1].

  15. Evaluation Methodologies for Information Management Systems; Building Digital Tobacco Industry Document Libraries at the University of California, San Francisco Library/Center for Knowledge Management; Experiments with the IFLA Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR); Coming to Term: Designing the Texas Email Repository Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Emile L.; Schmidt, Heidi; Butter, Karen; Rider, Cynthia; Hickey, Thomas B.; O'Neill, Edward T.; Toves, Jenny; Green, Marlan; Soy, Sue; Gunn, Stan; Galloway, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss evaluation methods for information management systems under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; building digital libraries at the University of California San Francisco's Tobacco Control Archives; IFLA's Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records; and designing the Texas email repository model…

  16. Metabolic profiling of hypoxic cells revealed a catabolic signature required for cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Frezza

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is one of the features of poorly vascularised areas of solid tumours but cancer cells can survive in these areas despite the low oxygen tension. The adaptation to hypoxia requires both biochemical and genetic responses that culminate in a metabolic rearrangement to counter-balance the decrease in energy supply from mitochondrial respiration. The understanding of metabolic adaptations under hypoxia could reveal novel pathways that, if targeted, would lead to specific death of hypoxic regions. In this study, we developed biochemical and metabolomic analyses to assess the effects of hypoxia on cellular metabolism of HCT116 cancer cell line. We utilized an oxygen fluorescent probe in anaerobic cuvettes to study oxygen consumption rates under hypoxic conditions without the need to re-oxygenate the cells and demonstrated that hypoxic cells can maintain active, though diminished, oxidative phosphorylation even at 1% oxygen. These results were further supported by in situ microscopy analysis of mitochondrial NADH oxidation under hypoxia. We then used metabolomic methodologies, utilizing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, to determine the metabolic profile of hypoxic cells. This approach revealed the importance of synchronized and regulated catabolism as a mechanism of adaptation to bioenergetic stress. We then confirmed the presence of autophagy under hypoxic conditions and demonstrated that the inhibition of this catabolic process dramatically reduced the ATP levels in hypoxic cells and stimulated hypoxia-induced cell death. These results suggest that under hypoxia, autophagy is required to support ATP production, in addition to glycolysis, and that the inhibition of autophagy might be used to selectively target hypoxic regions of tumours, the most notoriously resistant areas of solid tumours.

  17. Managing System of Systems Requirements with a Requirements Screening Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald R. Barden

    2012-07-01

    Figuring out an effective and efficient way to manage not only your Requirement’s Baseline, but also the development of all your individual requirements during a Program’s/Project’s Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages can be both daunting and difficult. This is especially so when you are dealing with a complex and large System of Systems (SoS) Program with potentially thousands and thousands of Top Level Requirements as well as an equal number of lower level System, Subsystem and Configuration Item requirements that need to be managed. This task is made even more overwhelming when you have to add in integration with multiple requirements’ development teams (e.g., Integrated Product Development Teams (IPTs)) and/or numerous System/Subsystem Design Teams. One solution for tackling this difficult activity on a recent large System of Systems Program was to develop and make use of a Requirements Screening Group (RSG). This group is essentially a Team made up of co-chairs from the various Stakeholders with an interest in the Program of record that are enabled and accountable for Requirements Development on the Program/Project. The RSG co-chairs, often with the help of individual support team, work together as a Program Board to monitor, make decisions on, and provide guidance on all Requirements Development activities during the Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages of a Program/Project. In addition, the RSG can establish and maintain the Requirements Baseline, monitor and enforce requirements traceability across the entire Program, and work with other elements of the Program/Project to ensure integration and coordination.

  18. Quality requirements for reclaimed/recycled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Daniel S.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    1987-01-01

    Water used during current and previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will require some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little experience in the U.S. space program with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitute engineering challenges of the broadest nature that will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed U.S. Space Station. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specifications will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Present NASA Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled water. Adequate specifications for ensuring the quality of the reclaimed or recycled potable water system is reviewed, limitations of present water specifications are examined, world experience with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and systems analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent biomedical water specifications for spacecraft is presented. Space Station water specifications should be designed to ensure the health of all likely spacecraft inhabitants including man, animals, and plants.

  19. Personal attitudes toward time: The relationship between temporal focus, space-time mappings and real life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Cao, Yu

    2017-06-01

    What influences how people implicitly associate "past" and "future" with "front" and "back?" Whereas previous research has shown that cultural attitudes toward time play a role in modulating space-time mappings in people's mental models (de la Fuente, Santiago, Román, Dumitrache & Casasanto, 2014), we investigated real life experiences as potential additional influences on these implicit associations. Participants within the same single culture, who are engaged in different intermediate-term educational experiences (Study 1), long-term living experiences (Study 2), and short-term visiting experiences (Study 3), showed their distinct differences in temporal focus, thereby influencing their implicit spatializations of time. Results across samples suggest that personal attitudes toward time related to real life experiences may influence people's space-time mappings. The findings we report on shed further light on the high flexibility of human conceptualization system. While culture may exert an important influence on temporal focus, a person's conceptualization of time may be attributed to a culmination of factors. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  1. Agent Based Multiviews Requirements Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the current researches of viewpoints oriented requirements engineering and intelligent agent, we present the concept of viewpoint agent and its abstract model based on a meta-language for multiviews requirements engineering. It provided a basis for consistency checking and integration of different viewpoint requirements, at the same time, these checking and integration works can automatically realized in virtue of intelligent agent's autonomy, proactiveness and social ability. Finally, we introduce the practical application of the model by the case study of data flow diagram.

  2. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  3. Power requirements for PHERB powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbakyah, J. S.; Atiq, W. H.; Salisa, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Boats are considered as favourite maritime transportation designed for recreation activities, fishing and surveillance purposes. However, in tropical developed countries, boats are employed for different applications such as passenger and goods transportation. In this paper, the power requirements for a proposed plug-in hybrid electric recreational boat (PHERB) powertrain is determined using a steady state velocity and the Kuala Terengganu river driving cycle according to the boat parameters, specifications and performance requirements. The boat power requirements can be used to size the main components for PHERB powertrain. The results obtained from this analysis are within reasonable range and satisfactory.

  4. The User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  5. The User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  6. Nurses' experiences of ethnographic fieldwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Lucas Pereira; Stofel, Natália Sevilha; Gualda, Dulce Maria Rosa; de Campos, Edemilson Antunes

    2014-09-01

    To reflect on the experiences of nurses performing ethnographic fieldwork in three studies. The application of ethnography to nursing research requires discussion about nurses' experiences of ethnographic fieldwork. This article examines some of the dilemmas that arise during the research process. Three ethnographic studies conducted by the authors in the south and southeast of Brazil. Excerpts from field diaries created during each research are presented at the end of each topic discussed. This is a reflexive paper that explores the nurses' experience in ethnographic fieldwork. This article discusses the main tasks involved in ethnographic research, including defining the study aim, reading and understanding anthropological theoretical bases, and setting a timeframe for the study. The article also discusses the idiosyncrasies of the cultural contexts studied, the bureaucracy that may be confronted when gaining access to the field, the difficulty of transforming the familiar into the strange, why ethnocentric perspectives should be avoided, and the anthropological doubt that places the ethnographer in the position of apprentice. It also discusses the importance of listening to others, reflexivity and strategies to stay in the field. For researchers, ethnographic fieldwork can be a rite of passage, but one that provides invaluable experiences that emphasise the value of relationships based on dialogue, reflexivity and negotiation. The main tasks undertaken in ethnographic research discussed in this article could contribute to the nurse' experience of conducting ethnographic fieldwork.

  7. Real Life Experiences with Experience Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Experience Design is an emergent field of study, and various approaches to the field abound. In this paper, we take a pragmatic approach to identifying key aspects of an experience design process, by reporting on a project involving the design of experience-oriented applications of interactive...... technologies for knowledge dissemination and marketing, in cooperation with public institutions and businesses. We argue that collaborative formulation of core design intentions and values is a valuable instrument in guiding experience design processes, and present three cases from this project, two of which...... the installations, the core values established to guide the design process and the intended use contexts. We argue that the installations present a broad spectrum of experience design installations that can assist designers in understanding the relations between core values, intentions, use context and interface...

  8. Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) experiment design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, D. L.; Bowden, M. L.

    1982-03-01

    The Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment concept is to erect a hybrid deployed/assembled structure as an early space experiment in large space structures technology. The basic objectives can be broken down into three generic areas: (1) by performing assembly tasks both in space and in neutral buoyancy simulation, a mathematical basis will be found for the validity conditions of neutral buoyancy, thus enhancing the utility of water as a medium for simulation of weightlessness; (2) a data base will be established describing the capabilities and limitations of EVA crewmembers, including effects of such things as hardware size and crew restraints; and (3) experience of the M.I.T. Space Systems Lab in neutral buoyancy simulation of large space structures assembly indicates that the assembly procedure may create the largest loads that a structure will experience during its lifetime. Data obtained from the experiment will help establish an accurate loading model to aid designers of future space structures.

  9. The SUPER Program: A Research-based Undergraduate Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernakovich, J. G.; Boone, R. B.; Boot, C. M.; Denef, K.; Lavallee, J. M.; Moore, J. C.; Wallenstein, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Producing undergraduates capable of broad, independent thinking is one of the grand challenges in science education. Experience-based learning, specifically hands-on research, is one mechanism for increasing students' ability to think critically. With this in mind, we created a two-semester long research program called SUPER (Skills for Undergraduate Participation in Ecological Research) aimed at teaching students to think like scientists and enhancing the student research experience through instruction and active-learning about the scientific method. Our aim was for students to gain knowledge, skills, and experience, and to conduct their own research. In the first semester, we hosted active-learning workshops on "Forming Hypotheses", "Experimental Design", "Collecting and Managing Data", "Analysis of Data", "Communicating to a Scientific Audience", "Reading Literature Effectively", and "Ethical Approaches". Each lesson was taught by different scientists from one of many ecological disciplines so that students were exposed to the variation in approach that scientists have. In the second semester, students paired with a scientific mentor and began doing research. To ensure the continued growth of the undergraduate researcher, we continued the active-learning workshops and the students attended meetings with their mentors. Thus, the students gained technical and cognitive skills in parallel, enabling them to understand both "the how" and "the why" of what they were doing in their research. The program culminated with a research poster session presented by the students. The interest in the program has grown beyond our expectations, and we have now run the program successfully for two years. Many of the students have gone on to campus research jobs, internships and graduate school, and have attributed part of their success in obtaining their positions to their experience with the SUPER program. Although common in other sciences, undergraduate research experiences are

  10. Young students experience theory

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Three sixteen-year-old students from the International School of Geneva, La Chataigneraie have spent a week finding out about the life of a theoretical physicist at CERN. Student Peter Bishop at the blackboard with Robert Fleischer of Theory Division. Peter Bishop, Sam Schoenholz and Alexander Hultin spent the time with the Theory Unit of the Physics department. The visit was at the suggestion of the students themselves, who are required to undertake work experience at an organization, gaining insights into professional life, as part of their studies. After an introduction to CERN at Microcosm, each student had the opportunity to learn about physics at a level well beyond their current academic training. They were mentored by theoretical physicists who introduced them to the basics of particle physics, discussing physics in general as well as topics such as predicting the mass of the Higgs boson and cosmology. A visit to CMS, guided by Ariane Frey, proved very impressive, but the working conditions of physi...

  11. Beam and experiments: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondel, A.; Bueno, A.; Campanelli, M.; Cervera, A.; Cline, D.B.; Collot, J.; Jong, M. de; Donini, A.; Dydak, F. E-mail: friedrich.dydak@cern.ch; Edgecock, R.; Gavela, M.B.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.C.; Gruber, P.; Harris, D.A.; Hernandez, P.; Kuno, Y.; Litchfield, P.J.; McFarland, K.; Mena, O.; Migliozzi, P.; Palladino, V.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.M.; Para, A.; Pena-Garay, C.; Perez, P.; Rigolin, S.; Romanino, A.; Rubbia, A.; Strolin, P.; Wojcicki, S

    2000-08-21

    The discovery of neutrino oscillations marks a major milestone in the history of neutrino physics, and opens a new window to the still mysterious origin of masses and flavour mixing. Many current and forthcoming experiments will answer open questions; however, a major step forward, up to and possibly including CP violation in the neutrino-mixing matrix, requires the neutrino beams from a neutrino factory. The neutrino factory is a new concept for producing neutrino beams of unprecedented quality in terms of intensity, flavour composition, and precision of the beam parameters. Most importantly, the neutrino factory is the only known way to generate a high-intensity beam of electron neutrinos of high energy. The neutrino beam from a neutrino factory, in particular the electron-neutrino beam, enables the exploration of otherwise inaccessible domains in neutrino oscillation physics by exploiting baselines of planetary dimensions. Suitable detectors pose formidable challenges but seem within reach with only moderate extrapolations from existing technologies. Although the main physics attraction of the neutrino factory is in the area of neutrino oscillations, an interesting spectrum of further opportunities ranging from high-precision, high-rate neutrino scattering to physics with high-intensity stopped muons comes with it.

  12. Design Requirements for Communication-Intensive Interactive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolchini, Davide; Garzotto, Franca; Paolini, Paolo

    Online interactive applications call for new requirements paradigms to capture the growing complexity of computer-mediated communication. Crafting successful interactive applications (such as websites and multimedia) involves modeling the requirements for the user experience, including those leading to content design, usable information architecture and interaction, in profound coordination with the communication goals of all stakeholders involved, ranging from persuasion to social engagement, to call for action. To face this grand challenge, we propose a methodology for modeling communication requirements and provide a set of operational conceptual tools to be used in complex projects with multiple stakeholders. Through examples from real-life projects and lessons-learned from direct experience, we draw on the concepts of brand, value, communication goals, information and persuasion requirements to systematically guide analysts to master the multifaceted connections of these elements as drivers to inform successful communication designs.

  13. The Social Experiment Market

    OpenAIRE

    David Greenberg; Mark Shroder; Matthew Onstott

    1999-01-01

    In social experiments, individuals, households, or organizations are randomly assigned to two or more policy interventions. Elsewhere, we have summarized 143 experiments completed by autumn 1996. Here, we use the information we have gathered on these experiments and findings from informal telephone interviews to investigate the social experiment market--the buyers and sellers in the market that governs the production of experiments. We discuss target populations, types of interventions tested...

  14. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  15. Capital Requirements and Banks' Leniency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... in the presence of temporarypayment difficulties of borrowers. Banks offering lenient (less strict) loan termsmust have higher initial levels of capital and charge higher loan rates. Whencapital requirements are increased, both strict and lenient banks hold higher levelsof initial capital and they raise loan...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...

  16. Quality-Planning-Requirements Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, P. A.; Flores, A.

    1983-01-01

    Report outlines planning procedures used in establishing inspection and quality assurance activities required of contractors constructing and testing Space Shuttle and ground-support equipment. Report useful to contractors establishing inspection points in commercial manufacturing operations.

  17. Requirements: The Key to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Software's critical role in society demands a paradigm shift in the software engineering mind-set. This shift's focus begins in requirements engineering. This article is part of a special issue on the Future of Software Engineering.

  18. Deaf mobile application accessibility requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-08-01

    Requirement for deaf mobile applications need to be analysed to ensure the disabilities need are instilled into the mobile applications developed for them. Universal design is understandable to comply every user needs, however specific disability is argued by the authors to have different need and requirements. These differences are among the reasons for these applications being developed to target for a specific group of people, however they are less usable and later abandoned. This study focuses on deriving requirements that are needed by the deaf in their mobile applications that are meant specifically for them. Studies on previous literature was conducted it can be concluded that graphic, text, multimedia and sign language interpreter are among mostly required features to be included in their mobile application to ensure the applications are usable for this community.

  19. Physical requirements in Olympic sailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, J; Larsson, B; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    ) in a complete national Olympic delegation. The yachts have different requirements with respect to handling, and moreover, each sailor plays a specific role when sailing. Therefore physical demands remain heterogeneous for Olympic sailors. Previous studies have mainly examined sailors where 'hiking' (the task...... of leaning over the side of the yacht to increase righting moment) is the primary requirement. Other than the ability to sustain prolonged quasi-isometric contractions, hiking seems to require significant maximal muscle strength especially in knee extensors, hip flexors and abdominal and lower back muscles....... Another group of studies has investigated boardsailing and provided evidence to show that windsurfing requires very high aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Although data exist on other types of sailors, the information is limited, and moreover the profile of the Olympic events has changed markedly over...

  20. Guidelines for resident teaching experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrda, Dawn E; Engle, Janet P; Anderson, Keri C; Ray, Shaunta' M; Haines, Seena L; Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Ballard, Stephanie L; Crannage, Andrew J; Rochester, Charmaine D; Parman, Malinda G

    2013-07-01

    Postgraduate year one (PGY1) and postgraduate year two (PGY2) residencies serve to develop pharmacists into skillful clinicians who provide advanced patient-centered care in various general and specialized areas of pharmacy practice. Pharmacy residencies are a minimum requirement for many clinical pharmacy positions, as well as for positions in academia. The role of clinical pharmacists typically includes teaching, regardless of whether they pursue an academic appointment. Common teaching duties of pharmacist-clinicians include giving continuing education or other invited presentations, providing education to colleagues regarding clinical initiatives, precepting pharmacy students (early and advanced experiences) and residents, and educating other health care professionals. Although ASHP provides accreditation standards for PGY1 and PGY2 residencies, the standards pertaining to teaching or education training are vague. Through the years, teaching certificate programs that develop residents' teaching skills and better prepare residents for a diverse pharmacy job market have increased in popularity; moreover, teaching certificate programs serve as an attractive recruitment tool. However, the consistency of requirements for teaching certificate programs is lacking, and standardization is needed. The Task Force on Residencies developed two sets of guidelines to define teaching experiences within residencies. The first guideline defines the minimum standards for teaching experiences in any residency-training program. The second guideline is for programs offering a teaching certificate program to provide standardization, ensuring similar outcomes and quality on program completion. One of the main differences between the guidelines is the recommendation that residency programs offering a teaching certificate program be affiliated with an academic institution to provide the pedagogy and variety of teaching experiences for the resident. Residency program directors should

  1. Detection of ATP and NADH: A Bioluminescent Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Ted C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Described is a bioluminescent assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced nicotineamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) that meets the requirements of an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. The 3-hour experiment provides students with experience in bioluminescence and analytical biochemistry yet requires limited instrumentation,…

  2. Sterol requirements in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida de Carvalho, Maria Joao

    2009-01-01

    Sterol is an abundant component of eukaryotic cell membranes and is thought to influence membrane properties such as permeability, fluidity and microdomain formation. Drosophila is an excellent model system in which to study functional requirements for membrane sterol because, although it does not synthesize sterol, it nevertheless requires sterols to complete development. Moreover, Drosophila normally incorporates sterols into cell membranes. Thus, dietary sterol depletion can be used to ...

  3. Quality System Requirements QS-9000

    CERN Document Server

    The Automotive Industry Action Group. Detroit

    QS-9000 is the shorthand name for "Quality System Requirements QS-9000." It is the common supplier quality standard for DaimlerChrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. QS-9000 is based on the 1994 edition of ISO 9001, requirements that are particular to the automotive industry. These additions are considered automotive "interpretations" by the ISO community of accreditation bodies and registrars.

  4. User requirements for satellite snow data service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolberg, S.; Standley, A.; Hiltbrunner, D.; Hallikainen, M.

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses the answers given by ten users or potential users of remotely sensed snow data when asked about their data needs and present measurements, their requirements for remote sensing data and potential of using such, and the models or other analysis tools in which the information is used. The answers show both consensus and differences among the respondents` use of snow data and requirements for remote sensing snow products. For water resources planning and management, the most important variable is snow water equivalent, with acceptable errors around 10%. Acceptable spatial error is typically in the range of 200 m to 1 km. For flood forecasting and short-term runoff simulation, snow covered area is more important, with a classification of 5 to 8 steps being generally sufficient. Meteorologists tend to focus on albedo and snow coverage data, with 5% steps desired for albedo. Geometric resolution and accuracy is less important, temporal resolution and delivery time is more important than in water resource management. For avalanche use, most snow variables except water equivalent are important, several in depth profiles. Spatial and temporal requirements are high. In all user groups there is a desire for models which can use measured values quantitatively. Today, measured snow information is largely interpreted manually and subjectively and lead to actions based on experience and judgement. The organizing of measurements, simulations and calibrated sub-models with varying uncertainty levels is partly a conceptual problem, partly a software problem. 1 ref.

  5. Capturing Requirements for Autonomous Spacecraft with Autonomy Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike

    2014-08-01

    The Autonomy Requirements Engineering (ARE) approach has been developed by Lero - the Irish Software Engineering Research Center within the mandate of a joint project with ESA, the European Space Agency. The approach is intended to help engineers develop missions for unmanned exploration, often with limited or no human control. Such robotics space missions rely on the most recent advances in automation and robotic technologies where autonomy and autonomic computing principles drive the design and implementation of unmanned spacecraft [1]. To tackle the integration and promotion of autonomy in software-intensive systems, ARE combines generic autonomy requirements (GAR) with goal-oriented requirements engineering (GORE). Using this approach, software engineers can determine what autonomic features to develop for a particular system (e.g., a space mission) as well as what artifacts that process might generate (e.g., goals models, requirements specification, etc.). The inputs required by this approach are the mission goals and the domain-specific GAR reflecting specifics of the mission class (e.g., interplanetary missions).

  6. Revisiting the Meaning of Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Jin

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the meaning of requirements can help elicit the real world requirements and refine their specifications. But what do the requirements of a desired software mean is not a well-explained question yet though there are many software development methods available. This paper suggests that the meaning of requirements could be depicted by the will-to-be environments of the desired software, and the optative interactions of the software with its environments as well as the causal relationships among these interactions. This paper also emphasizes the necessity of distinguishing the external manifestation from the internal structure of each system component during the process of requirements decomposition and refinement. Several decomposition strategies have been given to support the continuous decomposition. The external manifestation and the internal structure of the system component have been defined. The roles of the knowledge about the environments have been explicitly described. A simple but meaningful example embedded in the paper illustrates the main ideas as well as how to conduct the requirements decomposition and refinement by using these proposed strategies.

  7. Physical requirements in Olympic sailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojsen-Møller, J; Larsson, B; Aagaard, P

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance parameters in Olympic sailing although their relative importance changes between classes. The Olympic format consists of eight yacht types combined into 10 so-called events with total 15 sailors (male and female) in a complete national Olympic delegation. The yachts have different requirements with respect to handling, and moreover, each sailor plays a specific role when sailing. Therefore physical demands remain heterogeneous for Olympic sailors. Previous studies have mainly examined sailors where 'hiking' (the task of leaning over the side of the yacht to increase righting moment) is the primary requirement. Other than the ability to sustain prolonged quasi-isometric contractions, hiking seems to require significant maximal muscle strength especially in knee extensors, hip flexors and abdominal and lower back muscles. Another group of studies has investigated boardsailing and provided evidence to show that windsurfing requires very high aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Although data exist on other types of sailors, the information is limited, and moreover the profile of the Olympic events has changed markedly over the last few years to involve more agile, fast and spectacular yachts. The change of events in Olympic sailing has likely added to physical requirements; however, data on sailors in the modern-type yachts are scarce. The present paper describes the recent developments in Olympic sailing with respect to yacht types, and reviews the existing knowledge on physical requirements in modern Olympic sailing. Finally, recommendations for future research in sailing are given.

  8. Engineering education for youth: Diverse elementary school students' experiences with engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Theresa

    Lingering concerns over the persistent achievement gap amidst the trend of an increasingly diverse society have been compounded by calls from the Oval Office, the National Science Board, and nationwide media to also address our current creativity crisis. Now, more than ever, we have a responsibility to produce a STEM-capable (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) workforce to meet the demands of our rapidly changing local and global economic landscape. Barriers exist in our traditional educational system, which has historically limited underrepresented groups' affiliation and membership in the disciplines of science and engineering. The recent incorporation of engineering into the latest science education reform efforts presents an opportunity to expose students as early as elementary school to engineering practices and habits of mind, which have the potential to stimulate creative thinking skills through engineering design. This qualitative study was designed to examine the ways in which engineering education has the potential to promote creativity and academic competence in elementary science classrooms. As a part of my study, a diverse group of students from two fifth-grade classrooms took part in a 10-12 hour, engineering-based curriculum unit (Engineering is Elementary) during their regular science instructional time. Using a sociocultural lens, to include cultural production and identities in practice as part of my framework, I analyzed group and individual performances through classroom observations, student interviews, and teacher reflections to better understand the meaning students made of their experiences with engineering. Findings from the study included the ways in which creativity was culturally produced in the classroom to include: 1) idea generation; 2) design and innovation; 3) gumption/resourcefulness; and 4) social value. Opportunities for collaboration increased through each stage of the unit culminating with the design challenge

  9. Effects of Pre-Trial Response Requirements on Self-Control Choices by Rats and Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Parallel experiments with rats and pigeons examined whether the size of a pre-trial ratio requirement would affect choices in a self-control situation. In different conditions, either 1 response or 40 responses were required before each trial. In the first half of each experiment, an adjusting-ratio schedule was used, in which subjects could…

  10. Outdoor Field Experience with Autonomous Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, L; Blanco, A; Carolino, N; Cerda, M A; Conceicao, R; Cunha, O; Ferreira, M; Fonte, P; Luz, R; Mendes, L; Pereira, A; Pimenta, M; Sarmento, R; Tome, B

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades Resistive Plate Chambers were employed in the Cosmic Ray Experiments COVER-PLASTEX and ARGO/YBJ. In both experiments the detectors were housed indoors, likely owing to gas distribution requirements and the need to control environment variables that directly affect RPCs operational stability. But in experiments where Extended Air Shower (EAS) sampling is necessary, large area arrays composed by dispersed stations are deployed, rendering this kind of approach impossible. In this situation, it would be mandatory to have detectors that could be deployed in small standalone stations, with very rare opportunities for maintenance, and with good resilience to environmental conditions. Aiming to meet these requirements, we started some years ago the development of RPCs for Autonomous Stations. The results from indoor tests and measurements were very promising, both concerning performance and stability under very low gas flow rate, which is the main requirement for Autonomous Stations. In this w...

  11. Popper's Thought Experiment Reinvestigated

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Chris D

    2011-01-01

    Popper's original thought experiment probed some fundamental and subtle rules of quantum mechanics. Two recent experiments have tested Popper's hypothesis, but they seem to give contrasting results and one suggests a violation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The equations governing these two experiments and Popper's thought experiment will be derived from basic principles. The experimental constants will be inputted and it will show that the two experiments agree with each other. It will be shown that no uncertainty relations are violated and that Popper's thought experiment was fundamentally flawed.

  12. Partial Automation of Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jane; Dekhtyar, Alex; Sundaram, Senthil; Vadlamudi, Sravanthi

    2006-01-01

    Requirements Tracing on Target (RETRO) is software for after-the-fact tracing of textual requirements to support independent verification and validation of software. RETRO applies one of three user-selectable information-retrieval techniques: (1) term frequency/inverse document frequency (TF/IDF) vector retrieval, (2) TF/IDF vector retrieval with simple thesaurus, or (3) keyword extraction. One component of RETRO is the graphical user interface (GUI) for use in initiating a requirements-tracing project (a pair of artifacts to be traced to each other, such as a requirements spec and a design spec). Once the artifacts have been specified and the IR technique chosen, another component constructs a representation of the artifact elements and stores it on disk. Next, the IR technique is used to produce a first list of candidate links (potential matches between the two artifact levels). This list, encoded in Extensible Markup Language (XML), is optionally processed by a filtering component designed to make the list somewhat smaller without sacrificing accuracy. Through the GUI, the user examines a number of links and returns decisions (yes, these are links; no, these are not links). Coded in XML, these decisions are provided to a "feedback processor" component that prepares the data for the next application of the IR technique. The feedback reduces the incidence of erroneous candidate links. Unlike related prior software, RETRO does not require the user to assign keywords, and automatically builds a document index.

  13. GRID INFORMATION SECURITY FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Poh Ai Ling

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the background of smart information infrastructure and the needs for smart grid information security. It introduces the conceptual analysis to the methodology with the application ofhermeneutic circle and information security functional requirement identification. Information security for the grid market cover matters includes automation and communications industry that affects the operation of electric power systems and the functioning of the utilities that manage them and its awareness of this information infrastructure has become critical to the reliability of the power system. Community benefits from of cost savings, flexibility and deployment along with the establishment of wireless communications. However, concern revolves around the security protections for easily accessible devices such as the smart meter and the related communications hardware. On the other hand, the changing points between traditional versus smart grid networking trend and the information security importance on the communication field reflects the criticality of grid information security functional requirement identification. The goal of this paper is to identify the functional requirement and relate its significance addresses to the consumer requirement of an information security of a smart grid. Vulnerabilities may bring forth possibility for an attacker to penetrate a network, make headway admission to control software, alter it to load conditions that destabilize the grid in unpredictable ways. Focusing on the grid information security functional requirement is stepping ahead in developing consumer trust and satisfaction towardsmart grid completeness.

  14. Experiment WA1 (CDHS Neutrino Experiment)

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Experiment WA1, also known under CDHS (CERN, Dortmund, Heidelberg, Saclay; spokesman Jack Steinberger), was the first neutrino experiment on the SPS, in its West Area. Magnetized iron (with a toroidal field) forms the core of the detector. On its outside we see drift chambers and photomultipliers (detecting the light from the plastic scintillators further in). Peter Schilly is wearing a white coat. See also CERN Annual Report 1976, p.57.

  15. Pilgrimage Experience and Consumption of Travel to the City of Makkah for Hajj Ritual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razaq Raj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern society which, by definition is increasingly secular and culturally motivated, the Hajj is considered the culmination of each Muslim's religious duty and aspiration. It is stated in the Holy Qur'an, that every physically and financially able Muslim should make the Hajj to the Holy City of Makkah once in his or her lifetime. This paper explores what people do during their pilgrimage, providing a brief description of the principle rites and experiences and their meaning to an individual participants travelling from the USA. The paper will draw upon previously published literature as well as an analysis of findings from a quantitative study in which steps within the pilgrimage process were explored. These findings include participants’ descriptions of the significance and value of the experience which individual pilgrims face during travel to the holy city of Makkah. The results from the quantitative study indicated that the main motivations to attend the annual pilgrimage of Hajj were to fulfil religious obligation, spiritual enhancement and to follow teachings of the Quran and the Prophet Muhammad.

  16. The user experience of critical care discharge: a meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench, Suzanne; Day, Tina

    2010-04-01

    This review identifies the most significant factors, which impact upon the user experience of progress and recovery from critical illness during the first month after discharge from critical care, and discusses these in relation to the development of effective critical care discharge support strategies. Meta-synthesis of qualitative primary research. Qualitative research published in English between 1990 and 2009 was identified using online databases: CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, British Nursing Index, CDSR, ACP Journal Club, Cochrane library, Social Policy and Practice and PsycInfo. Studies of adult patients, relatives/carers/significant others, which focused on experiences after discharge from an intensive care or high dependency unit to a general ward were retrieved. Following screening against inclusion/exclusion criteria, methodological appraisal of studies was conducted using a published framework. Ten studies met the criteria for inclusion. Five key themes emerged from the meta-synthesis: physical and psychological symptoms; making progress; the need to know; and safety and security. Findings from this meta-synthesis and other related literature supports the existence of physical and psychological problems in the immediate period following discharge from critical care to the ward, and suggests that patients and their families have a desire for more control over their recovery. However, this desire is countered by a need to feel safe and protected, culminating in an expression of dependence on healthcare staff. Any effective support strategy needs to take account of these findings. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Knowledge retention in capstone experiences: An analysis of online and face-to-face courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Girard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research chronicles the development of a capstone experience by a regional comprehensive university. The process began with a multi-year project during which the faculty annually reviewed the results with a view to determining if the class provided the deep learning culminating experiences anticipated. A major measure of success was the desire to replicate the deep learning common in face-to-face classes in the online environment. The results of 166 students were analyzed, 82 online and 84 face-to-face, to determine if a difference existed. A one-way ANOVA tested the score differences among 10 sections and determined the students’ scores did not differ significantly. Finally, a two-sample t-test between proportions determined that there was not a significant difference between the online and face-to-face students with respect to the level of assessment scores earned. Given that online and face-to-face students demonstrate the same level of knowledge, does this beg the question, what value does face-to-face class time offer?

  18. The LHC machine-experiment interface

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Tsesmelis, Emmanuel; Brüning, Oliver Sim

    2002-01-01

    This series of three lectures will provide an overview of issues arising at the interface between the LHC machine and the experiments, which are required for guiding the interaction between the collider and the experiments when operation of the LHC commences. A basic description of the LHC Collider and its operating parameters, such as its energy, currents, bunch structure and luminosity, as well as variations on these parameters, will be given. Furthermore, the optics foreseen for the experimental insertions, the sources and intensities of beam losses and the running-in scenarios for the various phases of operation will be discussed. A second module will cover the specific requirements and expectations of each experiment in terms of the layout of experimental areas, the matters related to radiation monitoring and shielding, the design of the beam pipe and the vacuum system, alignment issues and the measurement of the total cross-section and absolute luminosity by the experiments. Finally an analysis of infor...

  19. Methoxetamine (MXE) – A Phenomenological Study of Experiences Induced by a “Legal High” from the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, Anette; Jonsson, Kristoffer

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Methoxetamine (MXE), a ketamine analogue, is one of the new “legal highs” sold on the Internet. The aim of this qualitative study was to provide an initial understanding of what characterizes the experiences induced by MXE. Anonymously written reports (33 persons) on the effects of MXE were collected from public Internet forums and analyzed using the Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Method. The analysis generated 10 themes: (1) preparation, motivation and anticipation; (2) initial effects; (3) malfunction of cognitive processes stabilizing normal state; (4) inner personal processes and learning; (5) emotional processes; (6) altered sensory perception; (7) dissolution and transition; (8) spiritual and transcendental experiences; (9) effects and processes after the experience; (10) re-dosing and addiction. MXE induced a heavily altered state of consciousness. The effects were similar to those induced by classic hallucinogens (such as LSD, psilocybin) and the dissociative ketamine. MXE seemed to have quite a high abuse potential. Beside the positive effects described, negative effects like fear and anxiety were also reported. Acceptance was considered the best coping strategy. Dissolution of identity and body often culminated in spiritual and transcendental experiences. More research is needed on safety issues, how to minimize harm, and the motivation for using legal highs. PMID:24175493

  20. Velocity requirements for causality violation

    CERN Document Server

    Modanese, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the hypothetical existence of superluminal signals would imply the logical possibility of active causal violation: an observer in relative motion with respect to a primary source could in principle emit secondary superluminal signals (triggered by the primary ones) which go back in time and deactivate the primary source before the initial emission. This is a direct consequence of the structure of the Lorentz transformations, sometimes called "Regge-Tolman paradox". It is straightforward to find a formula for the velocity of the moving observer required to produce the causality violation. When applied to some recent claims of slight superluminal propagation, this formula yields a required velocity very close to the speed of light; this raises some doubts about the real physical observability of such violations. We re-compute this velocity requirement introducing a realistic delay between the reception of the primary signal and the emission of the secondary. It turns out that for -any- delay it...

  1. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In December 2011, ESnet and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), of the DOE Office of Science (SC), organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by FES. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  2. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  3. HEMATIN-REQUIRING PLASMODIAL MYXOMYCETE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, John W.; Kelley, Jacqueline; Rusch, Harold P.

    1962-01-01

    Daniel, John W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison), Jacqueline Kelley, and Harold P. Rusch. Hematin-requiring plasmodial myxomycete. J. Bacteriol. 84:1104–1110. 1962.—The myxomycete Physarum polycephalum, previously shown to require chick embryo extract for growth on a partially defined, soluble medium, grows as well if hematin or certain hemoproteins are substituted for the embryo extract. Hematin is also required as a growth factor if the organism is grown on a synthetic medium. Of the variety of porphyrins tested only iron protoporphyrin IX is utilized for growth by P. polycephalum. Protoporphyrin IX is inactive. Protein-bound iron porphyrin is active at one-tenth the concentration of free hematin. Although hematin completely replaces embryo extract, the extract activity has properties not characteristic of hematin or the hemoproteins tested: ladility to light and rapid plasmodial uptake. PMID:14024912

  4. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilchriese, M.G.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  5. Proposing an Evidence-Based Strategy for Software Requirements Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindoerfer, Doris; Mansmann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses an evidence-based approach to software requirements engineering. The approach is called evidence-based, since it uses publications on the specific problem as a surrogate for stakeholder interests, to formulate risks and testing experiences. This complements the idea that agile software development models are more relevant, in which requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing cross-functional teams. The strategy is exemplified and applied to the development of a Software Requirements list used to develop software systems for patient registries.

  6. 14 CFR 125.285 - Pilot qualifications: Recent experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot qualifications: Recent experience... Requirements § 125.285 Pilot qualifications: Recent experience. (a) No certificate holder may use any person... last qualification under this paragraph must reestablish recency of experience as provided in paragraph...

  7. 14 CFR 121.439 - Pilot qualification: Recent experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot qualification: Recent experience. 121... Pilot qualification: Recent experience. (a) No certificate holder may use any person nor may any person... required takeoffs and landings within any consecutive 90-day period must reestablish recency of experience...

  8. 14 CFR 135.247 - Pilot qualifications: Recent experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot qualifications: Recent experience... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 135.247 Pilot qualifications: Recent experience. (a) No certificate... least 1,500 hours of aeronautical experience as a pilot; (B) In each airplane that is type certificated...

  9. Measuring the Economic Value of Pre-MBA Work Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaple, Ronald N.; Johnston, Mark W.; Whittingham, Keith L.

    2010-01-01

    Pre-MBA work experience is required for admission to many graduate schools of business. In the present study, MBA graduates with a wide range of pre-MBA work experience were surveyed to assess the economic value of such work experience. No evidence was found of a systematic financial advantage to students from working for several years before…

  10. Support for the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Butin, François; Gastal, M; Lacarrère, D; Macina, D; Perrot, A L; Tsesmelis, E; Wilhelmsson, M; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2008-01-01

    Experimental Area Teams have been put in place and charged with the general co-ordination and management of the LHC experimental areas and of the zones in the LHC tunnel hosting near-beam detectors of the experiments. This organization is responsible for the in situ co-ordination of work with the aim of providing a structure that enables the experiment collaborations and accelerator groups to carry out their work effectively and safely. This presentation will review some key elements in the support given to the LHC experimental areas and, given the track record and successful implementation during the LHC installation and commissioning phase, will argue that such an organization structure will be required also for the period of LHC exploitation for physics.

  11. Technological requirements of profile machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK Sangchul; CHUNG Yunchan

    2006-01-01

    The term ‘profile machining’is used to refer to the milling of vertical surfaces described by profile curves. Profile machining requires higher precision (1/1000 mm) than regular 3D machining (1/100 mm) with the erosion of sharp vertices should being especially avoided. Although, profile machining is very essential for making trimming and flangedies, it seldom brought into focus. This paper addresses the technological requirements of profile machining including machining width and depth control,minimizing toolware, and protecting sharp vertices. Issues of controller alarms are also addressed.

  12. Protein requirement in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2016-05-01

    How much protein do critically ill patients require? For the many decades that nutritional support has been used there was a broad consensus that critically ill patients need much more protein than required for normal health. Now, however, some clinical investigators recommend limiting all macronutrient provision during the early phase of critical illness. How did these conflicting recommendations emerge? Which of them is correct? This review explains the longstanding recommendation for generous protein provision in critical illness, analyzes the clinical trials now being claimed to refute it, and concludes with suggestions for clinical investigation and practice.

  13. Buddy Tag CONOPS and Requirements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotz, Jay Kristoffer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deland, Sharon M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document defines the concept of operations (CONOPS) and the requirements for the Buddy Tag, which is conceived and designed in collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Princeton University under the Department of State Key VerificationAssets Fund. The CONOPS describe how the tags are used to support verification of treaty limitations and is only defined to the extent necessary to support a tag design. The requirements define the necessary functions and desired non-functional features of the Buddy Tag at a high level

  14. Project X functional requirements specification

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, S D; Kephart, R; Kerby, J; Kourbanis, I; Lebedev, V; Mishra, S; Nagaitsev, S; Solyak, N; Tschirhart, R

    2012-01-01

    Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support a world-leading program in Intensity Frontier physics at Fermilab. The facility is designed to support programs in elementary particle and nuclear physics, with possible applications to nuclear energy research. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions, and to assure that the facility is designed with sufficient upgrade capability to provide U.S. leadership for many decades to come. This paper will briefly review the previously described Functional Requirements, and then discuss their recent evolution.

  15. OBJECTIVITY REQUIREMENT FOR FLUID DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文楠

    2003-01-01

    A new flow theory is established through the objectivity requirement on the fluid dynamics. It was known that inhomogeneous fluid motion gave rise to viscous force while the selection of observers on different space-time points would change such an inhomogeneous character. Therefore, when the viscous force was considered as an objective existence foreign to the selection of observers, the form invariances of viscous force and momentum equation under local rotation transformation required a new dynamic field,namely the vortex field to be introduced. Then the dynamical equations of all flow fields were obtained through constructing the Lagrangian density of fluid system and using the variational approach of energy.

  16. The AMS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) detector will be installed as a particle physics experiment on the International Space Station. It will look for antimatter pockets in space. AMS is a CERN recognised experiment.

  17. Future Solar Neutrino Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahata, M. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray research, University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida-shi, Gifu, Japan, 506-1205 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakahata@suketto.icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2005-08-15

    The value of future solar neutrino experiments is discussed from particle physics and astrophysics points of view based on current understanding of solar neutrino oscillations. R and D statuses of future experiments are also discussed.

  18. Experiments in Magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, J. P.

    1970-01-01

    Describes three student experiments in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In these experiments, it was found that the electrical conductivity of the local water supply was sufficient to demonstrate effectively some of the features of MHD flowmeters, generators, and pumps. (LC)

  19. Neutrino Interactions and Long-Baseline Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mosel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of neutrino mixing parameters and the CP-violating phase requires knowledge of the neutrino energy. This energy must be reconstructed from the final state of a neutrino-nucleus reaction since all long-baseline experiments use nuclear targets. This reconstruction requires detailed knowledge of the neutrino reactions with bound nucleons and of the final state interactions of hadrons with the nuclear environment. Quantum-kinetic transport theory can be used to build an event generator for this reconstruction that takes basic nuclear properties, such as binding, into account. Some examples are discussed that show the effects of nuclear interactions on observables in long-baseline experiments

  20. Fermilab SRF cryomodule operational experience

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, A; Theilacker, J C; DeGraff, B D; White, M; Johnson, G S; 10.1063/1.4707033

    2012-01-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is constructing an Advanced Accelerator Research and Development facility at New Muon Lab. The cryogenic infrastructure in support of the initial phase of the facility consists of two Tevatron style standalone refrigerators, cryogenic distribution system as well as an ambient temperature pumping system to achieve 2 K operations with supporting purification systems. During this phase of the project a single Type III plus 1.3 GHz cryomodule was installed, cooled and tested. Design constraints of the cryomodule required that the cryomodule individual circuits be cooled at predetermined rates. These constraints required special design solutions to achieve. This paper describes the initial cooldown and operational experience of a 1.3 GHz cryomodule using the New Muon Lab cryogenic system.

  1. Fermilab SRF cryomodule operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A.; Klebaner, A.L.; Theilacker, J.C.; DeGraff, B.D.; White, M.; Johnson, G.S.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is constructing an Advanced Accelerator Research and Development facility at New Muon Lab. The cryogenic infrastructure in support of the initial phase of the facility consists of two Tevatron style standalone refrigerators, cryogenic distribution system as well as an ambient temperature pumping system to achieve 2K operations with supporting purification systems. During this phase of the project a single Type III plus 1.3 GHz cryomodule was installed, cooled and tested. Design constraints of the cryomodule required that the cryomodule individual circuits be cooled at predetermined rates. These constraints required special design solutions to achieve. This paper describes the initial cooldown and operational experience of a 1.3 GHz cryomodule using the New Muon Lab cryogenic system.

  2. Prioritized Experience Replay

    OpenAIRE

    Schaul, Tom; Quan, John; Antonoglou, Ioannis; Silver, David

    2015-01-01

    Experience replay lets online reinforcement learning agents remember and reuse experiences from the past. In prior work, experience transitions were uniformly sampled from a replay memory. However, this approach simply replays transitions at the same frequency that they were originally experienced, regardless of their significance. In this paper we develop a framework for prioritizing experience, so as to replay important transitions more frequently, and therefore learn more efficiently. We u...

  3. Customer Experience Management Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Havíř, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper is to examine the phenomenon of customer experience and customer experience management through years and summarize recent knowledge in this area. Methodology/methods: The paper is built upon secondary research of research papers of renowned authors in the area of customer experience management. Scientific aim: The aim of the article is to find out potential avenues of further research. Findings: Findings confirmed that customer experience is s...

  4. Organic chemistry experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-15

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  5. Visual experience and blindsight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Blindsight is classically defined as residual visual capacity, e.g., to detect and identify visual stimuli, in the total absence of perceptual awareness following lesions to V1. However, whereas most experiments have investigated what blindsight patients can and cannot do, the literature contains...... several, often contradictory, remarks about remaining visual experience. This review examines closer these remarks as well as experiments that directly approach the nature of possibly spared visual experiences in blindsight....

  6. Recoiling DNA Molecule Simulation & Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, J C; Mesquita, O N; Neto, Jose Coelho; Dickman, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    Many recent experiments with single DNA molecules are based on force versus extension measurements and involve tethering a microsphere to one of its extremities and the other to a microscope coverglass. In this work we show that similar results can also be obtained by studying the recoil dynamics of the tethered microspheres. Computer simulations of the corresponding Langevin equation indicate which assumptions are required for a reliable analysis of the experimental recoil curves. We have measured the persistence length A of single naked DNA molecules and DNA-Ethidium Bromide complexes using this approach.

  7. The Experiment Factory: standardizing behavioral experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa V Sochat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (de Leeuw (2015; McDonnell et al. (2012; Mason and Suri (2011; Lange et al. (2015 have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker (2015; Open Science Collaboration (2015 highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms.

  8. The Experiment Factory: Standardizing Behavioral Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochat, Vanessa V.; Eisenberg, Ian W.; Enkavi, A. Zeynep; Li, Jamie; Bissett, Patrick G.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (Mason and Suri, 2011; McDonnell et al., 2012; de Leeuw, 2015; Lange et al., 2015) have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker, 2015; Open Science Collaboration, 2015) highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org) that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms. PMID:27199843

  9. Quantification of Mandatory Sustainment Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Dr. Alan W. Johnson (Chairman) date ____________________________________ Lieutenant Colonel...faculty advisor, Dr. Alan W. Johnson, for his guidance and support throughout the course of this thesis effort. His insight and experience was...Prentice Hall, 2005. Berkowitz, D., Gupta, J.N.D., Simpson, J.T., and McWilliams , J. “Defining and Implementing Performance Based Logistics in

  10. Double beta decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S

    2011-01-01

    The present status of double beta decay experiments is reviewed. The results of the most sensitive experiments are discussed. Proposals for future double beta decay experiments with a sensitivity to the $$ at the level of (0.01--0.1) eV are considered.

  11. The Concerned Observer Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiger, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom experiment--the "concerned observer" experiment--for production students that dramatizes basic film language by relating it to several levels of human observation. Details the experiment's three levels, and concludes that film language mimics wide-ranging states of human emotion and ideological persuasion. (PRA)

  12. The Concerned Observer Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiger, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom experiment--the "concerned observer" experiment--for production students that dramatizes basic film language by relating it to several levels of human observation. Details the experiment's three levels, and concludes that film language mimics wide-ranging states of human emotion and ideological persuasion. (PRA)

  13. Designing Urban Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    traditional urban planning aspects such as infrastructure, environmental factors and aesthetics, but has also dealt with the design of urban experiences. Through an introduction of the framework of the structure of experiences, this article examines how urban experiences can be understood and analysed...

  14. Leisure experience and imagination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengkeek, J.

    2001-01-01

    Holiday-makers experience the places where they are on holiday in different ways. Back in 1979, Erik Cohen introduced his 'modes of tourist experience'. Cohen's approach was promising for better understanding 'experiences' in a phenomenological way but very little happened afterwards with his 'modes

  15. FIREX mission requirements document for renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Dixon, T.

    1982-01-01

    The initial experimental program and mission requirements for a satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system FIREX (Free-Flying Imaging Radar Experiment) for renewable resources is described. The spacecraft SAR is a C-band and L-band VV polarized system operating at two angles of incidence which is designated as a research instrument for crop identification, crop canopy condition assessments, soil moisture condition estimation, forestry type and condition assessments, snow water equivalent and snow wetness assessments, wetland and coastal land type identification and mapping, flood extent mapping, and assessment of drainage characteristics of watersheds for water resources applications. Specific mission design issues such as the preferred incidence angles for vegetation canopy measurements and the utility of a dual frequency (L and C-band) or dual polarization system as compared to the baseline system are addressed.

  16. Examining Requirements Change Rework Effort: A Study

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Bee Bee; 10.5121/ijsea.2010.1304

    2010-01-01

    Although software managers are generally good at new project estimation, their experience of scheduling rework tends to be poor. Inconsistent or incorrect effort estimation can increase the risk that the completion time for a project will be problematic. To continually alter software maintenance schedules during software maintenance is a daunting task. Our proposed framework, validated in a case study confirms that the variables resulting from requirements changes suffer from a number of problems, e.g., the coding used, end user involvement and user documentation. Our results clearly show a significant impact on rework effort as a result of unexpected errors that correlate with 1) weak characteristics and attributes as described in the program's source lines of code, especially in data declarations and data statements, 2) lack of communication between developers and users on a change effects, and 3) unavailability of user documentation. To keep rework effort under control, new criteria in change request forms...

  17. Requirements for disordered actomyosin bundle contractility

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Actomyosin contractility is essential for biological force generation, and is well understood in highly ordered structures such as striated muscle. In vitro experiments have shown that non-sarcomeric bundles comprised only of F-actin and myosin thick filaments can also display contractile behavior, which cannot be described by standard muscle models. Here we investigate the microscopic symmetries underlying this process in large non-sarcomeric bundles with long actin filaments. We prove that contractile behavior requires non-identical motors that generate large enough forces to probe the nonlinear elastic behavior of F-actin. A simple disordered bundle model demonstrates a contraction mechanism based on these assumptions and predicts realistic bundle deformations. Recent experimental observations of F-actin buckling in in vitro contractile bundles support our model.

  18. Quality Requirements for Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, B.; Brekelmans, M.; Korthagen, F.; Wubbels, T.

    2005-01-01

    This study deals with the quality requirements that are needed for teacher educators. The tasks teacher educators have to do and the competencies they should possess (a professional profile), according to their fellow teacher educators, were identified. On the basis of a literature search on tasks and competencies of teacher educators, we made a…

  19. No Previous Public Services Required

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Supreme Court heard a case that involved the question of whether a school district could be required to reimburse parents who unilaterally placed their child in private school when the child had not previously received special education and related services in a public institution ("Board of Education v. Tom F."). The…

  20. WATER REQUIREMENT OF IRRIGATED GARLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  1. Water Requirements Of Irrigated Garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  2. Tilapia: environmental and nutritional requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia are an important species to global aquaculture production. Their adaptability to a wide range of environmental and nutritional conditions and their ability to grow and reproduce make them a prime species for aquaculture. Nonetheless, to achieve maximum performance in culture, tilapia requir...

  3. 49 CFR 236.1043 - Task analysis and basic requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specific goals of the training program with regard to the target population (craft, experience level, scope...; (4) Identify the additional knowledge, skills, and abilities above those required for basic job... classroom, simulator, computer-based, hands-on, or other formally structured training designed to impart...

  4. Cost-optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike

    2011-01-01

    The CA conducted a study on experiences and challenges for setting cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements. The results were used as input by the EU Commission in their work of establishing the Regulation on a comparative methodology framework for calculating cost optimal levels o...

  5. Requirement of the laying hen for apparent fecal digestible lysine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, J.B.; Smink, W.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the requirement for lysine of a White Leghorn strain of hens with a body weight of approximately 1,600 g. Before starting the experiment, apparent fecal digestibility of amino acids of the basal diet was determined in an in vivo digestibility trial with six individ

  6. 75 FR 55851 - Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... proposal recognizes the growing similarities between the types of operations and the universality of.... Pre-Flight Duty Period Rest 2. Cumulative Rest Requirements L. Fatigue Risk Management Systems M... extensive certificate holder management, direct operational experience, or both. \\6\\ See...

  7. Communication Challenges in Requirements Definition: A Classroom Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiller, Neil C.; Wagner, Erica L.

    2011-01-01

    Systems analysis and design is a standard course offering within information systems programs and often an important lecture topic in Information Systems core courses. Given the persistent difficulty that organizations experience in implementing systems that meet their requirements, it is important to help students in these courses get a tangible…

  8. Video-Games: Do They Require General Intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, M. A.; Herranz, M.; Gomez-Abad, M.; Kebir, M.; Ruiz, J.; Colom, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Here we test if playing video-games require intelligence. Twenty-seven university undergraduate students were trained on three games from Big Brain Academy (Wii): Calculus, Backward Memory and Train. Participants did not have any previous experience with these games. General intelligence was measured by five ability tests before the training…

  9. Frictional Forces Required for unrestrained locomotion in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van der P.P.J.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Back, W.; Braam, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    Most free-stall housing systems in the Netherlands are equipped with slatted or solid concrete floors with manure scrapers. A slipping incident occurs when the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) exceeds the coefficient of friction (COF) at the claw–floor interface. An experiment was conducted t

  10. Postpartum consultation: Occurrence, requirements and expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlgren Ingrid

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a matter of routine, midwives in Sweden have spoken with women about their experiences of labour in a so-called 'postpartum consultation'. However, the possibility of offering women this kind of consultation today is reduced due to shortage of both time and resources. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence, women's requirements of, and experiences of a postpartum consultation, and to identify expectations from women who wanted but did not have a consultation with the midwife assisting during labour. Methods All Swedish speaking women who gave birth to a live born child at a University Hospital in western Sweden were consecutively included for a phone interview over a three-week period. An additional phone interview was conducted with the women who did not have a postpartum consultation, but who wanted to talk with the midwife assisting during labour. Data from the interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Of the 150 interviewed women, 56% (n = 84 had a postpartum consultation of which 61.9% (n = 52 had this with the midwife assisting during labour. Twenty of the 28 women who did not have a consultation with anyone still desired to talk with the midwife assisting during labour. Of these, 19 were interviewed. The content the women wanted to talk about was summarized in four categories: to understand the course of events during labour; to put into words, feelings about undignified management; to describe own behaviour and feelings, and to describe own fear. Conclusion The survey shows that the frequency of postpartum consultation is decreasing, that the majority of women who give birth today still require it, but only about half of them receive it. It is crucial to develop a plan for these consultations that meets both the women's needs and the organization within current maternity care.

  11. Clinical history and physical examination skills - A requirement for radiographers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snaith, Beverly A. [Radiology Department, Mid Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Pinderfields General Hospital, Aberford Road, Wakefield WF1 4DG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: bev.snaith@midyorks.nhs.uk; Lancaster, Anne [Radiology Department, Mid Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Dewsbury District Hospital, Halifax Road, Dewsbury WF13 4HS (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Radiographer's roles have evolved with their scope broadening over the last 20 years culminating in the development of advanced and consultant posts. Yet one development has not been embraced, despite being inherent in medicine and a common extension of nurse and other allied health professionals' roles, is that of clinical assessment. This article explores the evolving role of the radiographer and discusses whether this should include skills in clinical history taking and physical examination. Issues for education and development will be addressed together with examples of current and potential roles.

  12. The QUIJOTE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caniego, Marcos

    The QUIJOTE (Q-U-I JOint Tenerife) Experiment† (Rubiño-Martín et al. 2010)) is observing the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background and other Galactic and extragalactic signals at medium and large angular scales in the frequency range of 10-40 GHz. This experiment is going to provide valuable information about the polarization properties of synchrotron and anomalous microwave emission at these frequencies. It consists of two telescopes and three instruments located at the the Teide Observatory (2400 m) in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. This project has two phases: Phase I, the first telescope (QT1) and a multi-frequency instrument (MFI) are in operations since November 2012 observing between 10 and 20 GHz. A second instrument (TGI) with 31 polarimeters working at 30 GHz is expected to start operations in Autumn 2015 and will be devoted to primordial B-mode science. This instrument will include a fixed polariser and 90 and 180 phase switches to generate four polarization states to minimize the different systematics in the receiver; Phase II, a second QUIJOTE telescope (QT2), already in operation, and a third instrument (FGI) with 40 polarimeters working at 41 GHz, safely below the 60-GHz oxygen absorption band, will significantly increment the sensitivity of the QUIJOTE project to detect the r parameter (tensor-to-scalar ratio). The reason for this is not only the significant reduction of noise due to the number of polarimeters that will incorporate but also the lower synchrotron signal from our galaxy expected at these higher frequencies. The maps obtained with the multi-frequency instrument (10-20 GHz), in combination with data from other experiments like Planck and the VLA, will be used to clean the diffuse and compact foreground emission at 30 and 40 GHz, the cosmological channels. After three years of effective observations we expect to reach the required sensitivity to detect a primordial gravitational-wave component if the tensor

  13. An Experiment With RTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    instructions on how to build and use RTEMS in two different operating environments. 15. SUBJECT TERMS RTEMS, SPARC simulator, Raspberry Pi . 16. SECURITY...system .............................................. 15 3. Hardware requirements for the Raspberry Pi console ................................ 16 4...requirements for the Raspberry Pi console ................................... 16 8. Software requirements for the Windows system

  14. Future Outlook: Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoichiro [Kamioka, Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, and Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo. 456 Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida-city, Gifu, 506-1205 Japan (Japan)], E-mail: suzuki@suketto.icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2008-11-01

    The personal view for the next to the next neutrino detector, the ultimate experiment, is discussed. Considering the size, cost and head winds against the basic science, the ultimate experiment will be the only experiment in the world. Here two such experiments one for the neutrino oscillation and the other for the double beta decay were discussed. The ultimate experiment needs to include a bread and butter science and to have a discovery potential for an unexpected phenomenon. There are many technical challenges and international co-operations are absolutely necessary.

  15. Thoracoscopic surgery: the Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coosemans, W; Lerut, T E; Van Raemdonck, D E

    1993-09-01

    Despite the already wide experience with video-assisted techniques in laparoscopic surgery, video-assisted thoracic surgery only recently came to be developed. This is clearly seen in a survey reflecting the experience among Belgian surgeons. A majority of the surgeons (63%) had limited experience (1 to 5 interventions), and only 28.5% had fairly considerable (between 11 and 20 interventions) or considerable (more than 20 interventions) experience. The majority of interventions performed were the treatment of pneumothorax, lung biopsies, wedge resections, and intrathoracic staging procedures, accounting for 209 (70%) of the 296 interventions collected in this survey. The remaining interventions display a wide variety of different thoracic procedures including lobectomy (4) and esophagectomy (20) for carcinoma. The overall technical success rate was 91% in this survey. Our own experience with 71 interventions or attempts reflects the same evolution with an overall technical success rate in 85% (60 patients). Pneumothorax was the most frequently performed intervention (35 patients), with a technical success rate of 94.5% (32 patients). Recurrences requiring further treatment occurred in 5 of the 32 patients (14.3%). All recurrences occurred before endostaplers were available, after which there were no failures in 12 consecutive cases. Other procedures successfully performed were lung biopsy/wedge resection (6), lung cancer staging procedures (3), lobectomy (1), hemothorax (3), chest wall neurinoma (2), sympathectomy (5), dorsal mediastinal neurinoma (1), thymectomy (1), esophagectomy (3), benign esophageal tumor enucleation (2), and Belsey Mark IV antireflux procedure (1). Furthermore, special emphasis was given to the development of video-assisted mediastinoscopy, which greatly facilitates teaching and interpreting this operation. Endoscopic myotomy using endostaplers was performed in 2 patients with Zenker's diverticulum. From our experience, however, it becomes

  16. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  17. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  18. Experiments with Individual Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mark

    2004-05-01

    I describe several different experiments we have performed with individual photons. For example, while well known experiments involving phenomena such as the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering strongly suggest the existence of photons, they do not prove the existence of light quanta. To prove the existence of light quanta one must perform an experiment whose results cannot be explained using classical waves. We have performed such an experiment--it demonstrates the localization of light quanta by showing that a single photon only goes one way when it leaves a beamsplitter [1]. In a second experiment we demonstrate that this single photon will interfere with itself when it transits an interferometer. The experiments have been performed by undergraduates, and the goal of this project is to develop a series of experiments exploring fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics for an undergraduate teaching lab. [1] P. Grangier, G. Roger and A. Aspect, Europhys. Lett. 1, 173 (1986).

  19. Social experience infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvistgaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Using the case of Kühlungsborn in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern as an example of a resort in which social experience infrastructure plays a pivotal role in the ongoing success of attracting German tourists from especially Berlin, Hamburg and Hanover it is the aim of this article in a descriptive...... and explorative fashion to share with others thoughts and ideas concerning the development of new ways to construct/reconstruct recreational spaces with a better coherence with regard to designing experiences. This article claims that it is possible to design recreational spaces with good social experience...... infrastructure in order to create experience spaces for personal experiences (in line with Schultze’s social constructivist view of experiences) without completely adhering to the economic rationalist thoughts and guidelines of Pine & Gilmore that claim that experiences can be designed and controlled...

  20. REXUS 16 Low Gravity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoliu, L.; Ciuca, I.; Lupu, E. S.; Ciobanu, I.; Cherciu, C.; Soare, C.; Murensan, C.; Dragomir, D.; Chitu, C.; Nachila, C.

    2015-09-01

    The REXUS/BEXUS is a programme realized under a bilateral agency agreement between the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB) (Source: www.rexusbexus.net) . Within this programme, the experiment proposed by LOW Gravity was given the opportunity to fly on board of REXUS 16 from Kiruna, Sweden, in May 2014. Since space settlements are within our reach and material processing in reduced gravity is a key requirement, we aim to improve this field by investigating the melting and welding processes taking place in milligravity on board of a sounding rocket. Our main objective is to analyze the surface deformation and physical properties of titanium and acid core solder alloys welded/melted under miligravity conditions with a 25W LASER diode. The main components of our experiment are the metal samples, the LASER diode and the control electronics. The metal samples are placed in front of an optical system and are shifted during approximately 120 seconds of milligravity. The optical system is connected via an optic fiber to the LASER diode. The electronics consists of two custom-made boards: the mainboard which is connected to the REXUS interface and controls the LASER diode and the sample shifting and the logboard which has an SD card to log all experiment data (sample position, experiment acceleration and rotation rate, pressure and temperature, battery voltage and LASER diode status). During the flight, due to unexpected vibration levels, the fiber optics was damaged at T+70 and the experiment could not fulfill its main objective. A GoPro camera mounted inside the experiment box recorded the experiment operation. Valuable information regarding temperature and battery voltage was also sent remotely to our Ground Station. This data enabled us to perform a thorough failure analysis. Parallel readings of these parameters taken by other experiments and by the REXUS Service Module corroborate our data and increase the accuracy of our analysis