WorldWideScience

Sample records for cue facilitates detection

  1. FACILITATED DETECTION OF SOCIAL CUES CONVEYED BY FAMILIAR FACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eVisconti di Oleggio Castello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the identity of familiar faces in conditions with poor visibility or over large changes in head angle, lighting and partial occlusion is far more accurate than recognition of unfamiliar faces in similar conditions. Here we used a visual search paradigm to test if one class of social cues transmitted by faces – direction of another’s attention as conveyed by gaze direction and head orientation – is perceived more rapidly in personally familiar faces than in unfamiliar faces. We found a strong effect of familiarity on the detection of these social cues, suggesting that the times to process these signals in familiar faces are markedly faster than the corresponding processing times for unfamiliar faces. In the light of these new data, hypotheses on the organization of the visual system for processing faces are formulated and discussed.

  2. Part-set cueing impairment & facilitation in semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Matthew R; Parihar, Sushmeena A

    2018-01-19

    The present study explored the influence of part-set cues in semantic memory using tests of "free" recall, reconstruction of order, and serial recall. Nine distinct categories of information were used (e.g., Zodiac signs, Harry Potter books, Star Wars films, planets). The results showed part-set cueing impairment for all three "free" recall sets, whereas part-set cueing facilitation was evident for five of the six ordered sets. Generally, the present results parallel those often observed across episodic tasks, which could indicate that similar mechanisms contribute to part-set cueing effects in both episodic and semantic memory. A novel anchoring explanation of part-set cueing facilitation in order and spatial tasks is provided.

  3. Facilitation of voluntary goal-directed action by reward cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovibond, Peter F; Colagiuri, Ben

    2013-10-01

    Reward-associated cues are known to influence motivation to approach both natural and man-made rewards, such as food and drugs. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. To model these processes in the laboratory with humans, we developed an appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedure with a chocolate reward. We used a single unconstrained response that led to an actual rather than symbolic reward to assess the strength of reward motivation. Presentation of a chocolate-paired cue, but not an unpaired cue, markedly enhanced instrumental responding over a 30-s period. The same pattern was observed with 10-s and 30-s cues, showing that close cue-reward contiguity is not necessary for facilitation of reward-directed action. The results confirm that reward-related cues can instigate voluntary action to obtain that reward. The effectiveness of long-duration cues suggests that in clinical settings, attention should be directed to both proximal and distal cues for reward.

  4. Enterococcal Metabolite Cues Facilitate Interspecies Niche Modulation and Polymicrobial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Damien; Tay, Wei Hong; Ho, Yao Yong; Dale, Jennifer L; Chen, Siyi; Umashankar, Shivshankar; Williams, Rohan B H; Chen, Swaine L; Dunny, Gary M; Kline, Kimberly A

    2016-10-12

    Enterococcus faecalis is frequently associated with polymicrobial infections of the urinary tract, indwelling catheters, and surgical wound sites. E. faecalis co-exists with Escherichia coli and other pathogens in wound infections, but mechanisms that govern polymicrobial colonization and pathogenesis are poorly defined. During infection, bacteria must overcome multiple host defenses, including nutrient iron limitation, to persist and cause disease. In this study, we investigated the contribution of E. faecalis to mixed-species infection when iron availability is restricted. We show that E. faecalis significantly augments E. coli biofilm growth and survival in vitro and in vivo by exporting L-ornithine. This metabolic cue facilitates E. coli biosynthesis of the enterobactin siderophore, allowing E. coli growth and biofilm formation in iron-limiting conditions that would otherwise restrict its growth. Thus, E. faecalis modulates its local environment by contributing growth-promoting cues that allow co-infecting organisms to overcome iron limitation and promotes polymicrobial infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of DCS-facilitated cue exposure therapy on brain activation to cocaine cues in cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisciandaro, James J; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Santa Ana, Elizabeth J; Saladin, Michael E; Brady, Kathleen T

    2013-09-01

    The development of addiction is marked by a pathological associative learning process that imbues incentive salience to stimuli associated with drug use. Recent efforts to treat addiction have targeted this learning process using cue exposure therapy augmented with d-cycloserine (DCS), a glutamatergic agent hypothesized to enhance extinction learning. To better understand the impact of DCS-facilitated extinction on neural reactivity to drug cues, the present study reports fMRI findings from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of DCS-facilitated cue exposure for cocaine dependence. Twenty-five participants completed two MRI sessions (before and after intervention), with a cocaine-cue reactivity fMRI task. The intervention consisted of 50mg of DCS or placebo, combined with two sessions of cocaine cue exposure and skills training. Participants demonstrated cocaine cue activation in a variety of brain regions at baseline. From the pre- to post-study scan, participants experienced decreased activation to cues in a number of regions (e.g., accumbens, caudate, frontal poles). Unexpectedly, placebo participants experienced decreases in activation to cues in the left angular and middle temporal gyri and the lateral occipital cortex, while DCS participants did not. Three trials of DCS-facilitated cue exposure therapy for cocaine dependence have found that DCS either increases or does not significantly impact response to cocaine cues. The present study adds to this literature by demonstrating that DCS may prevent extinction to cocaine cues in temporal and occipital brain regions. Although consistent with past research, results from the present study should be considered preliminary until replicated in larger samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. External Retrieval Cues Facilitate Prospective Remembering in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, John A.; Colombo, John A.

    1980-01-01

    Young children exhibit improved prospective memory when an external cue is used as a reminder. Children's attempts at prospective remembering may be an important precursor to the development of strategies for retrospective remembering. (JD)

  7. Tactile cueing in detecting and controlling pitch and roll motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouak, Fethi; Kline, Julianne; Cheung, Bob

    2011-10-01

    Tactile cueing has been explored primarily for the detection of linear motion such as vertical, longitudinal, and lateral translation in the laboratory and in flight. The usefulness of tactile cues in detecting roll and pitch motion has not been fully investigated. There were 12 subjects (21-56 yr) who were exposed to controlled pitch and roll motion generated by a motion platform with and without tactile cueing. The tactile system consists of a torso vest with 24 electromechanical tactors and a tactor on each shoulder and under each thigh harness, respectively. While devoid of visual and auditory cues, each subject performed three tasks: 1) indicate motion perception without tactile cues (C1); 2) return to vertical from an offset angle (C2); and 3) maintain straight and level while the platform was continuously in motion (C3). Our results indicated that in the absence of visual and auditory cues, subjects reported that the tactile system was useful in the execution of C2 and C3 maneuvers. Specifically, the presence of tactile cues had a significant impact on the accuracy, duration, and perceived workload. In addition, tactile cueing also increased the accuracy in returning to neutral from an offset position and in maintaining the neutral position while the platform was in continuous motion. Tactile cueing appears to be effective in detecting roll and pitch motion and has the potential to reduce the workload and risks of high stress and time sensitive air operations.

  8. Antecedent Stimulus Control: Using Orienting Cues to Facilitate First-Word Acquisition for Nonresponders with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Koegel, Robert L.; Shirotova, Larisa; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2009-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in improving the acquisition of expressive verbal communication in children with autism, research has documented that a subpopulation of children still fail to acquire speech even with intensive intervention. One variable that might be important in facilitating responding for this nonverbal subgroup of children is the use of antecedent orienting cues. Using a multiple baseline design, this study examined whether individualized orienting cues could ...

  9. Attentional cueing at the saccade goal, not at the target location, facilitates saccades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aarlenne Z.; Heinen, Stephen J.; McPeek, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Presenting a behaviorally irrelevant cue shortly before a target at the same location decreases the latencies of saccades to the target, a phenomenon known as exogenous attention facilitation. It remains unclear whether exogenous attention interacts with early, sensory stages or later, motor planning stages of saccade production. To distinguish between these alternatives, we used a saccadic adaptation paradigm to dissociate the location of the visual target from the saccade goal. 3 male and 4 female human subjects performed both control trials, in which saccades were made to one of two target eccentricities, and adaptation trials, in which the target was shifted from one location to the other during the saccade. This manipulation adapted saccades so that they eventually were directed to the shifted location. In both conditions, a behaviorally irrelevant cue was flashed 66.7 ms before target appearance at a randomly selected one of seven positions that included the two target locations. In control trials, saccade latencies were shortest when the cue was presented at the target location and increased with cue-target distance. In contrast, adapted saccade latencies were shortest when the cue was presented at the adapted saccade goal, and not at the visual target location. The dynamics of adapted saccades were also altered, consistent with prior adaptation studies, except when the cue was flashed at the saccade goal. Overall, the results suggest that attentional cueing facilitates saccade planning rather than visual processing of the target. PMID:20410101

  10. Attributes of subtle cues for facilitating visual search in augmented reality.

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    Lu, Weiquan; Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Feiner, Steven; Zhao, Qi

    2014-03-01

    Goal-oriented visual search is performed when a person intentionally seeks a target in the visual environment. In augmented reality (AR) environments, visual search can be facilitated by augmenting virtual cues in the person's field of view. Traditional use of explicit AR cues can potentially degrade visual search performance due to the creation of distortions in the scene. An alternative to explicit cueing, known as subtle cueing, has been proposed as a clutter-neutral method to enhance visual search in video-see-through AR. However, the effects of subtle cueing are still not well understood, and more research is required to determine the optimal methods of applying subtle cueing in AR. We performed two experiments to investigate the variables of scene clutter, subtle cue opacity, size, and shape on visual search performance. We introduce a novel method of experimentally manipulating the scene clutter variable in a natural scene while controlling for other variables. The findings provide supporting evidence for the subtlety of the cue, and show that the clutter conditions of the scene can be used both as a global classifier, as well as a local performance measure.

  11. Facilitation of memory by contextual cues in patients with diencephalic or medial temporal lobe dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, N.S.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Talamini, L.M.; Wester, A.J.; Meeter, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Item-context binding is crucial for successful episodic memory formation, and binding deficits have been suggested to underlie episodic-memory deficits. Here, our research investigated the facilitation of cued recall and recognition memory by contextual cues in 20 patients with Korsakoff's amnesia,

  12. Facilitation of memory by contextual cues in patients with diencephalic or medial temporal lobe dysfunction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, N.S.; Hendriks, M.P.; Talamini, L.; Wester, A.J.; Meeter, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Item-context binding is crucial for successful episodic memory formation, and binding deficits have been suggested to underlie episodic-memory deficits. Here, our research investigated the facilitation of cued recall and recognition memory by contextual cues in 20 patients with Korsakoff's amnesia,

  13. The role of temporal speech cues in facilitating the fluency of adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin; Logan, Kenneth J

    2015-12-01

    Adults who stutter speak more fluently during choral speech contexts than they do during solo speech contexts. The underlying mechanisms for this effect remain unclear, however. In this study, we examined the extent to which the choral speech effect depended on presentation of intact temporal speech cues. We also examined whether speakers who stutter followed choral signals more closely than typical speakers did. 8 adults who stuttered and 8 adults who did not stutter read 60 sentences aloud during a solo speaking condition and three choral speaking conditions (240 total sentences), two of which featured either temporally altered or indeterminate word duration patterns. Effects of these manipulations on speech fluency, rate, and temporal entrainment with the choral speech signal were assessed. Adults who stutter spoke more fluently in all choral speaking conditions than they did when speaking solo. They also spoke slower and exhibited closer temporal entrainment with the choral signal during the mid- to late-stages of sentence production than the adults who did not stutter. Both groups entrained more closely with unaltered choral signals than they did with altered choral signals. Findings suggest that adults who stutter make greater use of speech-related information in choral signals when talking than adults with typical fluency do. The presence of fluency facilitation during temporally altered choral speech and conversation babble, however, suggests that temporal/gestural cueing alone cannot account for fluency facilitation in speakers who stutter. Other potential fluency enhancing mechanisms are discussed. The reader will be able to (a) summarize competing views on stuttering as a speech timing disorder, (b) describe the extent to which adults who stutter depend on an accurate rendering of temporal information in order to benefit from choral speech, and (c) discuss possible explanations for fluency facilitation in the presence of inaccurate or indeterminate

  14. Cognitive Enhancers for Facilitating Drug Cue Extinction: Insights from Animal Models

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    Nic Dhonnchadha, Bríd Áine; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Given the success of cue exposure (extinction) therapy combined with a cognitive enhancer for reducing anxiety, it is anticipated that this approach will prove more efficacious than exposure therapy alone in preventing relapse in individuals with substance use disorders. Several factors may undermine the efficacy of exposure therapy for substance use disorders, but we suspect that neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic drug use are an important contributing factor. Numerous insights on these issues are gained from research using animal models of addiction. In this review, the relationship between brain sites whose learning, memory and executive functions are impaired by chronic drug use and brain sites that are important for effective drug cue extinction learning is explored first. This is followed by an overview of animal research showing improved treatment outcome for drug addiction (e.g. alcohol, amphetamine, cocaine, heroin) when explicit extinction training is conducted in combination with acute dosing of a cognitive-enhancing drug. The mechanism by which cognitive enhancers are thought to exert their benefits is by facilitating consolidation of drug cue extinction memory after activation of glutamatergic receptors. Based on the encouraging work in animals, factors that may be important for the treatment of drug addiction are considered. PMID:21295059

  15. Great cormorants ( Phalacrocorax carbo) can detect auditory cues while diving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirstin Anderson; Maxwell, Alyssa; Siebert, Ursula; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-06-01

    In-air hearing in birds has been thoroughly investigated. Sound provides birds with auditory information for species and individual recognition from their complex vocalizations, as well as cues while foraging and for avoiding predators. Some 10% of existing species of birds obtain their food under the water surface. Whether some of these birds make use of acoustic cues while underwater is unknown. An interesting species in this respect is the great cormorant ( Phalacrocorax carbo), being one of the most effective marine predators and relying on the aquatic environment for food year round. Here, its underwater hearing abilities were investigated using psychophysics, where the bird learned to detect the presence or absence of a tone while submerged. The greatest sensitivity was found at 2 kHz, with an underwater hearing threshold of 71 dB re 1 μPa rms. The great cormorant is better at hearing underwater than expected, and the hearing thresholds are comparable to seals and toothed whales in the frequency band 1-4 kHz. This opens up the possibility of cormorants and other aquatic birds having special adaptations for underwater hearing and making use of underwater acoustic cues from, e.g., conspecifics, their surroundings, as well as prey and predators.

  16. Brief Report: Using Individualized Orienting Cues to Facilitate First-Word Acquisition in Non-Responders with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Koegel, Robert L.; Shirotova, Larisa; Koegel, Lynn K.

    2009-01-01

    Though considerable progress has been made in developing techniques for improving the acquisition of expressive verbal communication in children with autism, research has documented that 10–25% still fail to develop speech. One possible technique that could be significant in facilitating responding for this nonverbal subgroup of children is the use of orienting cues. Using a multiple baseline design, this study examined whether individualized orienting cues could be identified, and whether th...

  17. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: Visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy eRouinfar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated links between lower-level visual attention processes and higher-level problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants’ attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80 individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants’ verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. The study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues can improve problem solving performance on a variety of insight physics problems, including transfer problems not sharing the surface features of the training problems, but instead sharing the underlying solution path. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers’ attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem. Instead, the cueing effects were caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, these short duration visual cues when administered repeatedly over multiple training problems resulted in participants becoming more efficient at extracting the relevant information on the transfer problem, showing that such cues can improve the automaticity with which solvers extract relevant information from a problem. Both of these results converge on the conclusion that lower-order visual processes driven by attentional cues can influence higher-order cognitive processes

  18. Improving target detection in visual search through the augmenting multi-sensory cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, P.A.; Mercado, J.E.; Merlo, J.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2013-01-01

    The present experiment tested 60 individuals on a multiple screen, visual target detection task. Using a within-participant design, individuals received no-cue augmentation, an augmenting tactile cue alone, an augmenting auditory cue alone or both of the latter augmentations in combination. Results

  19. Virtual lesions of the IFG abolish response facilitation for biological and non-biological cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Newman-Norlund

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans are faster to perform a given action following observation of that same action. Converging evidence suggests that the human mirror neuron system (MNS plays an important role in this phenomenon. However, the specificity of the neural mechanisms governing this effect remain controversial. Specialist theories of imitation suggest that biological cues are maximally capable of eliciting imitative facilitation. Generalist models, on the other hand, posit a broader role for the MNS in linking visual stimuli with appropriate responses. In the present study, we investigated the validity of these two theoretical approaches by disrupting the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG during the preparation of congruent (imitative and incongruent (complementary actions cued by either biological (hand or non-biological (static dot stimuli. Delivery of TMS over IFG abolished imitative response facilitation. Critically, this effect was identical whether actions were cued by biological or non-biological stimuli. This finding argues against theories of imitation in which biological stimuli are treated preferentially and stresses the notion of the IFG as a vital center of general perception-action coupling in the human brain.

  20. Virtual Lesions of the IFG Abolish Response Facilitation for Biological and Non-Biological Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Norlund, Roger D; Ondobaka, Sasha; van Schie, Hein T; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Humans are faster to perform a given action following observation of that same action. Converging evidence suggests that the human mirror neuron system (MNS) plays an important role in this phenomenon. However, the specificity of the neural mechanisms governing this effect remain controversial. Specialist theories of imitation suggest that biological cues are maximally capable of eliciting imitative facilitation. Generalist models, on the other hand, posit a broader role for the MNS in linking visual stimuli with appropriate responses. In the present study, we investigated the validity of these two theoretical approaches by disrupting the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during the preparation of congruent (imitative) and incongruent (complementary) actions cued by either biological (hand) or non-biological (static dot) stimuli. Delivery of TMS over IFG abolished imitative response facilitation. Critically, this effect was identical whether actions were cued by biological or non-biological stimuli. This finding argues against theories of imitation in which biological stimuli are treated preferentially and stresses the notion of the IFG as a vital center of general perception-action coupling in the human brain.

  1. Facilitated auditory detection for speech sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine eSignoret

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available If it is well known that knowledge facilitates higher cognitive functions, such as visual and auditory word recognition, little is known about the influence of knowledge on detection, particularly in the auditory modality. Our study tested the influence of phonological and lexical knowledge on auditory detection. Words, pseudo words and complex non phonological sounds, energetically matched as closely as possible, were presented at a range of presentation levels from sub threshold to clearly audible. The participants performed a detection task (Experiments 1 and 2 that was followed by a two alternative forced choice recognition task in Experiment 2. The results of this second task in Experiment 2 suggest a correct recognition of words in the absence of detection with a subjective threshold approach. In the detection task of both experiments, phonological stimuli (words and pseudo words were better detected than non phonological stimuli (complex sounds, presented close to the auditory threshold. This finding suggests an advantage of speech for signal detection. An additional advantage of words over pseudo words was observed in Experiment 2, suggesting that lexical knowledge could also improve auditory detection when listeners had to recognize the stimulus in a subsequent task. Two simulations of detection performance performed on the sound signals confirmed that the advantage of speech over non speech processing could not be attributed to energetic differences in the stimuli.

  2. Improving Performance of Computer-aided Detection of Subtle Breast Masses Using an Adaptive Cueing Method

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    Wang, Xingwei; Li, Lihua; Xu, Weidong; Liu, Wei; Lederman, Dror; Zheng, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Current computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes for detecting mammographic masses have several limitations including high correlation with radiologists’ detection and cueing most subtle masses only on one view. To increase CAD sensitivity in cueing more subtle masses that are likely missed and/or overlooked by radiologists without increasing false-positive rates, we investigated a new case-dependent cueing method by combining the original CAD-generated detection scores with a computed bilateral mammographic density asymmetry index. Using the new method, we adaptively raise CAD-generated scores of regions detected on “high-risk” cases to cue more subtle mass regions and reduce CAD scores of regions detected on “low-risk” cases to discard more false-positive regions. A testing dataset involving 78 positive and 338 negative cases was used to test this adaptive cueing method. Each positive case involves two sequential examinations in which the mass was detected in “current” examination and missed in “prior” examination but detected in a retrospective review by radiologists. Applying to this dataset, a pre-optimized CAD scheme yielded 75% case-based and 55% region-based sensitivity on “current” examinations at a false-positive rate of 0.25 per image. CAD sensitivity was reduced to 42% (case-based) and 27% (region-based) on “prior” examinations. Using the new cueing method, case-based and region-based sensitivity could maximally increase 9% and 33% on the “prior” examinations, respectively. The percentages of the masses cued on two views also increased from 27% to 65%. The study demonstrated that using this adaptive cueing method enabled to help CAD cue more subtle cancers without increasing false-positive cueing rate. PMID:22218075

  3. Facilitating the whole teaching-learning process in physical education throught the use of cues

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    Javier Fernández-Rio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Teachers search for instructional strategies that would allow them to optimize the existing time to maximize students’ learning. They are capable of perceive and retain only a limited amount of information. Therefore, the selection and transmission of critical information is one of the most important teacher roles to make students receive accurate data on the skill to learn. A learning cue could be defined as a short, precise sentence (even words that portrays effectively the important elements of a task/ability. Students can remember them effectively in and out of the class. Learning cues can be introduced in different formats (verbal, non-verbal, motor, visual... and they can be developed by the teacher or the student. Its use in peer-teaching and peer-assessment procedures allow students to verbal, motor and mentally rehearse all the critical information provided by the cues, while they practice or give feedback to their classmates

  4. Facilitation and inhibition arising from the exogenous orienting of covert attention depends on the temporal properties of spatial cues and targets.

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    Maruff, P; Yucel, M; Danckert, J; Stuart, G; Currie, J

    1999-06-01

    On the covert orienting of visual attention task (COVAT), responses to targets appearing at the location indicated by a non-predictive spatial cue are faster than responses to targets appearing at uncued locations when stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) is less than approximately 200 ms. For longer SOAs, this pattern reverses and RTs to targets appearing at uncued locations become faster than RTs to targets appearing at the cued location. This facilitation followed by inhibition has been termed the biphasic effect of non-predictive peripheral spatial cues. Currently, there is debate about whether these two processes are independent. This issue was addressed in a series of experiments where the temporal overlap between the peripheral cue and target was manipulated at both short and long SOAs. Results showed that facilitation was present only when the SOA was short and there was temporal overlap between cue and target. Conversely, inhibition occurred only when the SOA was long and there was no temporal overlap between cue and target. The biphasic effect, with an early facilitation followed by a later inhibition, occurred only when the cue duration was fixed such that there was temporal overlap between the cue and target at short but not long SOAs. In a final experiment, the duration of targets the temporal overlap between cue and target and the SOA were manipulated factorially. The results showed that facilitation occurred only when the SOA was short, there was temporal overlap between cue and target and the target remained visible until the subject responded. These results suggest that the facilitation and inhibition found on COVATs which use non-informative peripheral cues are independent processes and their presence and magnitude is related to the temporal properties of cues and targets.

  5. Facilitating food-related planning : Applying metacognition, cue-monitoring, and implementation intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Implementation intentions are specific if-then plans that can successfully change unwanted habits by linking the critical cue triggering the unwanted behavior to a healthier alternative. For example, in order to consume fewer unhealthy snacks while watching television, a plan could be formulated

  6. An object cue is more effective than a word in ERP-based detection of deception.

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    Cutmore, Tim R H; Djakovic, Tatjana; Kebbell, Mark R; Shum, David H K

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies of deception have used a form of the guilty knowledge test along with the oddball P300 event-related potential (ERP) to uncover hidden memories. These studies typically have used words as the cuing stimuli. In the present study, a mock crime was enacted by participants to prime their episodic memory and different memory cue types (Words, Pictures of Objects and Faces) were created to investigate their relative efficacy in identifying guilt. A peak-to peak (p-p) P300 response was computed for rare known non-guilty item (target), rare guilty knowledge item (probe) and frequently presented unknown items (irrelevant). Difference in this P300 measure between the probe and irrelevant was the key dependent variable. Object cues were found to be the most effective, particularly at the parietal site. A bootstrap procedure commonly used to detect deception in individual participants by comparing their probe and irrelevant P300 p-p showed the object cues to provide the best discrimination. Furthermore, using all three of the cue types together provided high detection accuracy (94%). These results confirm prior findings on the utility of ERPs for detecting deception. More importantly, they provide support for the hypothesis that direct cueing with a picture of the crime object may be more effective than using a word (consistent with the picture superiority effect reported in the literature). Finally, a face cue (e.g., crime victim) may also provide a useful probe for detection of guilty knowledge but this stimulus form needs to be chosen with due caution.

  7. Teachers' Beliefs about Cues to Deception and the Ability to Detect Deceit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulatowska, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to test beliefs about cues to deception and the ability to detect lies in a group of teachers with different teaching experience. Their results were compared with the results of non-teachers matched in age and with the results of educational studies and psychology students. Both the beliefs of deception indicators and overall…

  8. Traffic sign detection and classification using colour and shape cues

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Senekal, FP

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new technique for the recognition of road traffic signs. The technique is based on colour and shape analysis of a single image. It is aimed at the detection and classification of triangular traffic signs, such as warning...

  9. Threat Detection in Tweets with Trigger Patterns and Contextual Cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitters, M.M.; Eendebak, P.T.; Worm, D.T.H.; Bouma, H.

    2014-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activities in open sources on the internet. Early detection of threats based on internet information could assist in the prevention of incidents. However, the amount of data in social media, blogs and forums rapidly increases and it is time consuming

  10. Low level cues and ultra-fast face detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien M Crouzet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental work has demonstrated the existence of extremely rapid saccades towards faces in natural scenes that can be initiated only 100 ms after image onset (Crouzet, Kirchner, & Thorpe, 2010. These ultra-rapid saccades constitute a major challenge to current models of processing in the visual system because they do not seem to leave enough time for even a single feed-forward pass through the ventral stream. Here we explore the possibility that the information required to trigger these very fast saccades could be extracted very early on in visual processing using relatively low-level amplitude spectrum (AS information in the Fourier domain. Experiment 1 showed that AS normalization can significantly alter face detection performance. However, a decrease of performance following AS normalization does not alone prove that AS-based information is used (Gaspar & Rousselet, 2009. In Experiment 2, following the Gaspar and Rousselet paper, we used a swapping procedure to clarify the role of AS information in fast object detection. Our experiment is composed of 3 conditions: (i original images, (ii inverted, in which the face image has the AS of a vehicle, and the vehicle has the AS of a face, and (iii swapped, where the face has the AS of another face image, and the vehicle has the AS of another vehicle image. The results showed very similar levels of performance in the original and swapped conditions, and a clear drop in the inverted condition. This result demonstrates that, in the early temporal window offered by the saccadic choice task, the visual saccadic system does indeed rely on low-level AS information in order to rapidly detect faces. This sort of crude diagnostic information could potentially be derived very early on in the visual system, possibly as early as V1 and V2.

  11. Real-Time Lane Detection on Suburban Streets Using Visual Cue Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehan Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection of lane boundaries on suburban streets using images obtained from video constitutes a challenging task. This is mainly due to the difficulties associated with estimating the complex geometric structure of lane boundaries, the quality of lane markings as a result of wear, occlusions by traffic, and shadows caused by road-side trees and structures. Most of the existing techniques for lane boundary detection employ a single visual cue and will only work under certain conditions and where there are clear lane markings. Also, better results are achieved when there are no other on-road objects present. This paper extends our previous work and discusses a novel lane boundary detection algorithm specifically addressing the abovementioned issues through the integration of two visual cues. The first visual cue is based on stripe-like features found on lane lines extracted using a two-dimensional symmetric Gabor filter. The second visual cue is based on a texture characteristic determined using the entropy measure of the predefined neighbourhood around a lane boundary line. The visual cues are then integrated using a rule-based classifier which incorporates a modified sequential covering algorithm to improve robustness. To separate lane boundary lines from other similar features, a road mask is generated using road chromaticity values estimated from CIE L*a*b* colour transformation. Extraneous points around lane boundary lines are then removed by an outlier removal procedure based on studentized residuals. The lane boundary lines are then modelled with Bezier spline curves. To validate the algorithm, extensive experimental evaluation was carried out on suburban streets and the results are presented.

  12. Rhythm facilitates the detection of repeating sound patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani G. Rajendran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of temporal regularity on human listeners’ ability to detect a repeating noise pattern embedded in statistically identical non-repeating noise. Human listeners were presented with white noise stimuli that either contained a frozen segment of noise that repeated in a temporally regular or irregular manner, or did not contain any repetition at all. Subjects were instructed to respond as soon as they detected any repetition in the stimulus. Pattern detection performance was best when repeated targets occurred in a temporally regular manner, suggesting that temporal regularity plays a facilitative role in pattern detection. A modulation filterbank model could account for these results.

  13. Facilitating Children’s Ability to Distinguish Symbols for Emotions: The Effects of Background Color Cues and Spatial Arrangement of Symbols on Accuracy and Speed of Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Snell, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Communication about feelings is a core element of human interaction. Aided augmentative and alternative communication systems must therefore include symbols representing these concepts. The symbols must be readily distinguishable in order for users to communicate effectively. However, emotions are represented within most systems by schematic faces in which subtle distinctions are difficult to represent. We examined whether background color cuing and spatial arrangement might help children identify symbols for different emotions. Methods Thirty nondisabled children searched for symbols representing emotions within an 8-choice array. On some trials, a color cue signaled the valence of the emotion (positive vs. negative). Additionally, symbols were either organized with the negatively-valenced symbols at the top and the positive symbols on the bottom of the display, or the symbols were distributed randomly throughout. Dependent variables were accuracy and speed of responses. Results The speed with which children could locate a target was significantly faster for displays in which symbols were clustered by valence, but only when the symbols had white backgrounds. Addition of a background color cue did not facilitate responses. Conclusions Rapid search was facilitated by a spatial organization cue, but not by the addition of background color. Further examination of the situations in which color cues may be useful is warranted. PMID:21813821

  14. Great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) can detect auditory cues while diving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirstin Anderson; Maxwell, Alyssa; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    the water surface. Whether some of these birds make use of acoustic cues while underwater is unknown. An interesting species in this respect is the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), being one of the most effective marine predators and relying on the aquatic environment for food year round. Here, its......In-air hearing in birds has been thoroughly investigated. Sound provides birds with auditory information for species and individual recognition from their complex vocalizations, as well as cues while foraging and for avoiding predators. Some 10% of existing species of birds obtain their food under...... underwater hearing abilities were investigated using psychophysics, where the bird learned to detect the presence or absence of a tone while submerged. The greatest sensitivity was found at 2 kHz, with an underwater hearing threshold of 71 dB re 1 μPa rms. The great cormorant is better at hearing underwater...

  15. Association learning for emotional harbinger cues: when do previous emotional associations impair and when do they facilitate subsequent learning of new associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, Michiko; Ycaza-Herrera, Alexandra E; Mather, Mara

    2014-02-01

    Neutral cues that predict emotional events (emotional harbingers) acquire emotional properties and attract attention. Given the importance of emotional harbingers for future survival, it is desirable to flexibly learn new facts about emotional harbingers when needed. However, recent research revealed that it is harder to learn new associations for emotional harbingers than cues that predict non-emotional events (neutral harbingers). In the current study, we addressed whether this impaired association learning for emotional harbingers is altered by one's awareness of the contingencies between cues and emotional outcomes. Across 3 studies, we found that one's awareness of the contingencies determines subsequent association learning of emotional harbingers. Emotional harbingers produced worse association learning than neutral harbingers when people were not aware of the contingencies between cues and emotional outcomes, but produced better association learning when people were aware of the contingencies. These results suggest that emotional harbingers do not always suffer from impaired association learning and can show facilitated learning depending on one's contingency awareness. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Measuring cues for stand-off deception detection based on full-body nonverbal features in body-worn cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Burghouts, Gertjan; den Hollander, Richard; van der Zee, Sophie; Baan, Jan; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; van Diepen, Sjaak; van den Haak, Paul; van Rest, Jeroen

    2016-10-01

    Deception detection is valuable in the security domain to distinguish truth from lies. It is desirable in many security applications, such as suspect and witness interviews and airport passenger screening. Interviewers are constantly trying to assess the credibility of a statement, usually based on intuition without objective technical support. However, psychological research has shown that humans can hardly perform better than random guessing. Deception detection is a multi-disciplinary research area with an interest from different fields, such as psychology and computer science. In the last decade, several developments have helped to improve the accuracy of lie detection (e.g., with a concealed information test, increasing the cognitive load, or measurements with motion capture suits) and relevant cues have been discovered (e.g., eye blinking or fiddling with the fingers). With an increasing presence of mobile phones and bodycams in society, a mobile, stand-off, automatic deception detection methodology based on various cues from the whole body would create new application opportunities. In this paper, we study the feasibility of measuring these visual cues automatically on different parts of the body, laying the groundwork for stand-off deception detection in more flexible and mobile deployable sensors, such as body-worn cameras. We give an extensive overview of recent developments in two communities: in the behavioral-science community the developments that improve deception detection with a special attention to the observed relevant non-verbal cues, and in the computer-vision community the recent methods that are able to measure these cues. The cues are extracted from several body parts: the eyes, the mouth, the head and the fullbody pose. We performed an experiment using several state-of-the-art video-content-analysis (VCA) techniques to assess the quality of robustly measuring these visual cues.

  17. Passive imaging based multi-cue hazard detection spacecraft safe landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Cheng, Yang; Madison, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Accurate assessment of potentially damaging ground hazards during the spacecraft EDL (Entry, Descent and Landing) phase is crucial to insure a high probability of safe landing. A lander that encounters a large rock, falls off a cliff, or tips over on a steep slope can sustain mission ending damage. Guided entry is expected to shrink landing ellipses from 100-300 km to -10 km radius for the second generation landers as early as 2009. Regardless of size and location, however, landing ellipses will almost always contain hazards such as craters, discontinuities, steep slopes, and large rocks. It is estimated that an MSL (Mars Science Laboratory)-sized lander should detect and avoid 16- 150m diameter craters, vertical drops similar to the edges of 16m or 3.75m diameter crater, for high and low altitude HAD (Hazard Detection and Avoidance) respectively. It should also be able to detect slopes 20' or steeper, and rocks 0.75m or taller. In this paper we will present a passive imaging based, multi-cue hazard detection and avoidance (HDA) system suitable for Martian and other lander missions. This is the first passively imaged HDA system that seamlessly integrates multiple algorithm-crater detection, slope estimation, rock detection and texture analysis, and multicues- crater morphology, rock distribution, to detect these hazards in real time.

  18. Trait rejection sensitivity is associated with vigilance and defensive response rather than detection of social rejection cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taishi eKawamoto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies suggest that psychological difficulties arise from higher trait rejection sensitivity (RS—heightened vigilance and differential detection of social rejection cues and defensive response to. On the other hand, from an evolutionary perspective, rapid and efficient detection of social rejection cues can be considered beneficial. We conducted a survey and an electrophysiological experiment to reconcile this seeming contradiction. We compared the effects of RS and rejection detection capability (RDC on perceived interpersonal experiences (Study 1 and on neurocognitive processes in response to cues of social rejection (disgusted faces; Study 2. We found that RS and RDC were not significantly related, although RS was positively related to perceived social rejection experiences and RDC was positively related to perceived social inclusion experiences. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs revealed that higher RS was related to cognitive avoidance (i.e., P1 and heightened motivated attention (i.e., late positive potential: LPP, but not to facial expression encoding (i.e., N170 toward disgusted faces. On the other hand, higher RDC was related to heightened N170 amplitude, but not to P1 and LPP amplitudes. These findings imply that sensitivity to rejection is apparently distinct from the ability to detect social rejection cues and instead reflects intense vigilance and defensive response to those cues. We discussed an alternative explanation of the relationship between RS and RDC from a signal detection perspective.

  19. The detection of 'virtual' objects using echoes by humans: Spectral cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Daniel; Papadopoulos, Timos; Archer, Lauren; Goodhew, Amanda; Cozens, Hayley; Lopez, Ricardo Guzman; Edwards, David; Holmes, Hannah; Allen, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Some blind people use echoes to detect discrete, silent objects to support their spatial orientation/navigation, independence, safety and wellbeing. The acoustical features that people use for this are not well understood. Listening to changes in spectral shape due to the presence of an object could be important for object detection and avoidance, especially at short range, although it is currently not known whether it is possible with echolocation-related sounds. Bands of noise were convolved with recordings of binaural impulse responses of objects in an anechoic chamber to create 'virtual objects', which were analysed and played to sighted and blind listeners inexperienced in echolocation. The sounds were also manipulated to remove cues unrelated to spectral shape. Most listeners could accurately detect hard flat objects using changes in spectral shape. The useful spectral changes for object detection occurred above approximately 3 kHz, as with object localisation. However, energy in the sounds below 3 kHz was required to exploit changes in spectral shape for object detection, whereas energy below 3 kHz impaired object localisation. Further recordings showed that the spectral changes were diminished by room reverberation. While good high-frequency hearing is generally important for echolocation, the optimal echo-generating stimulus will probably depend on the task. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Salient Region Detection by Fusing Foreground and Background Cues Extracted from Single Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangqiang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliency detection is an important preprocessing step in many application fields such as computer vision, robotics, and graphics to reduce computational cost by focusing on significant positions and neglecting the nonsignificant in the scene. Different from most previous methods which mainly utilize the contrast of low-level features, various feature maps are fused in a simple linear weighting form. In this paper, we propose a novel salient object detection algorithm which takes both background and foreground cues into consideration and integrate a bottom-up coarse salient regions extraction and a top-down background measure via boundary labels propagation into a unified optimization framework to acquire a refined saliency detection result. Wherein the coarse saliency map is also fused by three components, the first is local contrast map which is in more accordance with the psychological law, the second is global frequency prior map, and the third is global color distribution map. During the formation of background map, first we construct an affinity matrix and select some nodes which lie on border as labels to represent the background and then carry out a propagation to generate the regional background map. The evaluation of the proposed model has been implemented on four datasets. As demonstrated in the experiments, our proposed method outperforms most existing saliency detection models with a robust performance.

  1. Tone-in-noise detection using envelope cues: comparison of signal-processing-based and physiological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Junwen; Carney, Laurel H

    2015-02-01

    Tone-in-noise detection tasks with reproducible noise maskers have been used to identify cues that listeners use to detect signals in noisy environments. Previous studies have shown that energy, envelope, and fine-structure cues are significantly correlated to listeners' performance for detection of a 500-Hz tone in noise. In this study, envelope cues were examined for both diotic and dichotic tone-in-noise detection using both stimulus-based signal processing and physiological models. For stimulus-based envelope cues, a modified envelope slope model was used for the diotic condition and the binaural slope of the interaural envelope difference model for the dichotic condition. Stimulus-based models do not include key nonlinear transformations in the auditory periphery such as compression, rate and dynamic range adaptation, and rate saturation, all of which affect the encoding of the stimulus envelope. For physiological envelope cues, stimuli were passed through models for the auditory nerve (AN), cochlear nucleus, and inferior colliculus (IC). The AN and cochlear nucleus models included appropriate modulation gain, another transformation of the stimulus envelope that is not typically included in stimulus-based models. A model IC cell was simulated with a linear band-pass modulation filter. The average discharge rate and response fluctuations of the model IC cell were compared to human performance. Previous studies have predicted a significant amount of the variance across reproducible noise maskers in listeners' detection using stimulus-based envelope cues. In this study, a physiological model that includes neural mechanisms that affect encoding of the stimulus envelope predicts a similar amount of the variance in listeners' performance across noise maskers.

  2. Comparison of cap lamp and laser illumination for detecting visual escape cues in smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T.J.; Sammarco, J.J.; Srednicki, J.R.; Gallagher, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America reports that an underground mine is the most difficult environment to illuminate (Rea, 2000). Researchers at the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (OMSHR) are conducting ongoing studies designed to explore different lighting technologies for improving mine safety. Underground miners use different visual cues to escape from a smoke-filled environment. Primary and secondary escapeways are marked with reflective ceiling tags of various colors. Miners also look for mine rail tracks. The main objective of this paper is to compare different lighting types and ceiling tag colors to differentiate what works best in a smoke-filled environment. Various cap lamps (LED and incandescent) and lasers (red, blue, green) were compared to see which options resulted in the longest detection distances for red, green and blue reflective markers and a section of mine rail track. All targets advanced toward the human subject inside of a smoke-filled room to simulate the subject walking in a mine environment. Detection distances were recorded and analyzed to find the best cap lamp, laser color and target color in a smoke environment. Results show that cap lamp, laser color and target color do make a difference in detection distances and are perceived differently based on subject age. Cap lamps were superior to lasers in all circumstances of ceiling tag detection, with the exception of the green laser. The incandescent cap lamp worked best in the simulated smoke compared to the LED cap lamps. The green laser was the best color for detecting the tags and track compared to the red and blue lasers. The green tags were the easiest color to detect on the ceiling. On average, the track was easier for the subjects to detect than the ceiling tags. PMID:26236146

  3. Detection of text-based social cues in adults with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkstra, Lyn Siobhan; Duff, Melissa Collins; Politis, Adam Michael; Mutlu, Bilge

    2017-06-08

    Written text contains verbal immediacy cues-word form or grammatical cues that indicate positive attitude or liking towards an object, action, or person. We asked if adults with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) would respond to these cues, given evidence of TBI-related social communication impairments. Sixty-nine adults with TBI and 74 healthy comparison (HC) peers read pairs of sentences containing different types of immediacy cues (e.g., speaker A said "these Canadians" vs. B said "those Canadians.") and identified which speaker (A or B) had a more positive attitude towards the underlined entity (Task 1); and pairs of sentences comprised of a context sentence (e.g., Fred is asked, "Did you visit Joan and Sue?") and a statement sentence (Fred says, "I visited Sue and Joan.") and were asked to indicate how much Fred liked or disliked the underlined words (Task 2). HC group scores were significantly higher on Task 1, indicating more sensitivity to cues. On Task 2, TBI and HC group ratings differed across cue types and immediacy types, and the TBI group appeared to have less sensitivity to these cues. Findings suggest that TBI-related impairments may reduce sensitivity to subtle social cues in text.

  4. Cross-modal cueing in audiovisual spatial attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blurton, Steven Paul; Greenlee, Mark W.; Gondan, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Visual processing is most effective at the location of our attentional focus. It has long been known that various spatial cues can direct visuospatial attention and influence the detection of auditory targets. Cross-modal cueing, however, seems to depend on the type of the visual cue: facilitation...... that the perception of multisensory signals is modulated by a single, supramodal system operating in a top-down manner (Experiment 1). In contrast, bottom-up control of attention, as observed in the exogenous cueing task of Experiment 2, mainly exerts its influence through modality-specific subsystems. Experiment 3...

  5. Assessing the role of spectral and intensity cues in spectral ripple detection and discrimination in cochlear-implant users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth S.; Oxenham, Andrew J.; Nelson, Peggy B.; Nelson, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Measures of spectral ripple resolution have become widely used psychophysical tools for assessing spectral resolution in cochlear-implant (CI) listeners. The objective of this study was to compare spectral ripple discrimination and detection in the same group of CI listeners. Ripple detection thresholds were measured over a range of ripple frequencies and were compared to spectral ripple discrimination thresholds previously obtained from the same CI listeners. The data showed that performance on the two measures was correlated, but that individual subjects’ thresholds (at a constant spectral modulation depth) for the two tasks were not equivalent. In addition, spectral ripple detection was often found to be possible at higher rates than expected based on the available spectral cues, making it likely that temporal-envelope cues played a role at higher ripple rates. Finally, spectral ripple detection thresholds were compared to previously obtained speech-perception measures. Results confirmed earlier reports of a robust relationship between detection of widely spaced ripples and measures of speech recognition. In contrast, intensity difference limens for broadband noise did not correlate with spectral ripple detection measures, suggesting a dissociation between the ability to detect small changes in intensity across frequency and across time. PMID:23231122

  6. The unity assumption facilitates cross-modal binding of musical, non-speech stimuli: The role of spectral and amplitude envelope cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Lorraine; Schutz, Michael

    2016-07-01

    An observer's inference that multimodal signals originate from a common underlying source facilitates cross-modal binding. This 'unity assumption' causes asynchronous auditory and visual speech streams to seem simultaneous (Vatakis & Spence, Perception & Psychophysics, 69(5), 744-756, 2007). Subsequent tests of non-speech stimuli such as musical and impact events found no evidence for the unity assumption, suggesting the effect is speech-specific (Vatakis & Spence, Acta Psychologica, 127(1), 12-23, 2008). However, the role of amplitude envelope (the changes in energy of a sound over time) was not previously appreciated within this paradigm. Here, we explore whether previous findings suggesting speech-specificity of the unity assumption were confounded by similarities in the amplitude envelopes of the contrasted auditory stimuli. Experiment 1 used natural events with clearly differentiated envelopes: single notes played on either a cello (bowing motion) or marimba (striking motion). Participants performed an un-speeded temporal order judgments task; viewing audio-visually matched (e.g., marimba auditory with marimba video) and mismatched (e.g., cello auditory with marimba video) versions of stimuli at various stimulus onset asynchronies, and were required to indicate which modality was presented first. As predicted, participants were less sensitive to temporal order in matched conditions, demonstrating that the unity assumption can facilitate the perception of synchrony outside of speech stimuli. Results from Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that when spectral information was removed from the original auditory stimuli, amplitude envelope alone could not facilitate the influence of audiovisual unity. We propose that both amplitude envelope and spectral acoustic cues affect the percept of audiovisual unity, working in concert to help an observer determine when to integrate across modalities.

  7. Auditory training alters the physiological detection of stimulus-specific cues in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Kelly L.; Shahin, Antoine J.; Picton, Terence; Ross, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Objective Auditory training alters neural activity in humans but it is unknown if these alterations are specific to the trained cue. The objective of this study was to determine if enhanced cortical activity was specific to the trained voice-onset-time (VOT) stimuli ‘mba’ and ’ba’, or whether it generalized to the control stimulus ‘a’ that did not contain the trained cue. Methods Thirteen adults were trained to identify a 10 ms VOT cue that differentiated the two experimental stimuli. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by three different speech sounds ‘ba’ ‘mba’ and ‘a’ before and after six days of VOT training. Results The P2 wave increased in amplitude after training for both control and experimental stimuli, but the effects differed between stimulus conditions. Whereas the effects of training on P2 amplitude were greatest in the left hemisphere for the trained stimuli, enhanced P2 activity was seen in both hemispheres for the control stimulus. In addition, subjects with enhanced pre-training N1 amplitudes were more responsive to training and showed the most perceptual improvement. Conclusion Both stimulus-specific and general effects of training can be measured in humans. An individual’s pre-training N1 response might predict their capacity for improvement. Significance N1 and P2 responses can be used to examine physiological correlates of human auditory perceptual learning. PMID:19028139

  8. Detecting sarcasm from paralinguistic cues: anatomic and cognitive correlates in neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Katherine P; Salazar, Andrea; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Sollberger, Marc; Wilson, Stephen M; Pavlic, Danijela; Stanley, Christine M; Glenn, Shenly; Weiner, Michael W; Miller, Bruce L

    2009-10-01

    While sarcasm can be conveyed solely through contextual cues such as counterfactual or echoic statements, face-to-face sarcastic speech may be characterized by specific paralinguistic features that alert the listener to interpret the utterance as ironic or critical, even in the absence of contextual information. We investigated the neuroanatomy underlying failure to understand sarcasm from dynamic vocal and facial paralinguistic cues. Ninety subjects (20 frontotemporal dementia, 11 semantic dementia [SemD], 4 progressive non-fluent aphasia, 27 Alzheimer's disease, 6 corticobasal degeneration, 9 progressive supranuclear palsy, 13 healthy older controls) were tested using the Social Inference - Minimal subtest of The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). Subjects watched brief videos depicting sincere or sarcastic communication and answered yes-no questions about the speaker's intended meaning. All groups interpreted Sincere (SIN) items normally, and only the SemD group was impaired on the Simple Sarcasm (SSR) condition. Patients failing the SSR performed more poorly on dynamic emotion recognition tasks and had more neuropsychiatric disturbances, but had better verbal and visuospatial working memory than patients who comprehended sarcasm. Voxel-based morphometry analysis of SSR scores in SPM5 demonstrated that poorer sarcasm comprehension was predicted by smaller volume in bilateral posterior parahippocampi (PHc), temporal poles, and R medial frontal pole (pFWEparalinguistic speech profile as abnormal, leading to interpretive processing by the temporal poles and right medial frontal pole that identifies the social context as sarcastic, and recognizes the speaker's paradoxical intentions.

  9. A configural dominant account of contextual cueing: Configural cues are stronger than colour cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A; John, Rebecca; Sweetman, Hollie

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that reaction times to find a target in displays that have been repeated are faster than those for displays that have never been seen before. This learning effect, termed "contextual cueing" (CC), has been shown using contexts such as the configuration of the distractors in the display and the background colour. However, it is not clear how these two contexts interact to facilitate search. We investigated this here by comparing the strengths of these two cues when they appeared together. In Experiment 1, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configural cues, compared with when the target was only predicted by configural information. The results showed that the addition of a colour cue did not increase contextual cueing. In Experiment 2, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configuration compared with when the target was only cued by colour. The results showed that adding a predictive configural cue led to a stronger CC benefit. Experiments 3 and 4 tested the disruptive effects of removing either a learned colour cue or a learned configural cue and whether there was cue competition when colour and configural cues were presented together. Removing the configural cue was more disruptive to CC than removing colour, and configural learning was shown to overshadow the learning of colour cues. The data support a configural dominant account of CC, where configural cues act as the stronger cue in comparison to colour when they are presented together.

  10. Developing a new case based computer-aided detection scheme and an adaptive cueing method to improve performance in detecting mammographic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Maxine; Aghaei, Faranak; Wang, Yunzhi; Zheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new method to improve performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes of screening mammograms with two approaches. In the first approach, we developed a new case based CAD scheme using a set of optimally selected global mammographic density, texture, spiculation, and structural similarity features computed from all four full-field digital mammography images of the craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views by using a modified fast and accurate sequential floating forward selection feature selection algorithm. Selected features were then applied to a ‘scoring fusion’ artificial neural network classification scheme to produce a final case based risk score. In the second approach, we combined the case based risk score with the conventional lesion based scores of a conventional lesion based CAD scheme using a new adaptive cueing method that is integrated with the case based risk scores. We evaluated our methods using a ten-fold cross-validation scheme on 924 cases (476 cancer and 448 recalled or negative), whereby each case had all four images from the CC and MLO views. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was AUC  =  0.793  ±  0.015 and the odds ratio monotonically increased from 1 to 37.21 as CAD-generated case based detection scores increased. Using the new adaptive cueing method, the region based and case based sensitivities of the conventional CAD scheme at a false positive rate of 0.71 per image increased by 2.4% and 0.8%, respectively. The study demonstrated that supplementary information can be derived by computing global mammographic density image features to improve CAD-cueing performance on the suspicious mammographic lesions.

  11. Telling friend from foe : Environmental cues improve detection accuracy of individuals with hostile intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijn, Remco; van der Kleij, Rick; Kallen, Victor; Stekkinger, Michael; de Vries, Peter

    Purpose: Detecting deviant behaviours that precede and are related to crimes can help prevent these crimes. Research suggests that the psychological mindset of wrongdoers may differ from others, such that they are more anxious, self-focussed, and vigilant. As a result, their responses to

  12. Recognizing Visual and Auditory Cues in the Detection of Foreign-Language Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether nonverbal visual and/or auditory channels are more effective in detecting foreign-language anxiety. Recent research suggests that language teachers are often able to successfully decode the nonverbal behaviors indicative of foreign-language anxiety; however, relatively little is known about whether visual and/or…

  13. Ultrasound Based Method and Apparatus for Stone Detection and to Facilitate Clearance Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michael (Inventor); Kucewicz, John (Inventor); Lu, Wei (Inventor); Sapozhnikov, Oleg (Inventor); Illian, Paul (Inventor); Shah, Anup (Inventor); Dunmire, Barbrina (Inventor); Owen, Neil (Inventor); Cunitz, Bryan (Inventor); Kaczkowski, Peter (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Described herein are methods and apparatus for detecting stones by ultrasound, in which the ultrasound reflections from a stone are preferentially selected and accentuated relative to the ultrasound reflections from blood or tissue. Also described herein are methods and apparatus for applying pushing ultrasound to in vivo stones or other objects, to facilitate the removal of such in vivo objects.

  14. Cues for acoustic detection of prey: insect rustling sounds and the influence of walking substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlitz, Holger R; Greif, Stefan; Siemers, Björn M

    2008-09-01

    When insects walk, they generally produce sounds. These can reveal the walkers' presence and location to potential predators such as owls, bats and nocturnal primates. Additionally, predators might extract information on taxon, palatability, size or profitability from the rustling sounds. In contrast to ear morphology, hearing physiology and psychoacoustics of acoustically oriented predators, little attention has hitherto been paid to the acoustic structure and information content of prey sounds. An important element in the ecology of acoustic prey detection remained virtually unexplored: the influence of the substrate type on rustling sounds. In this study, we analysed amplitude and frequency parameters from insects walking on various natural substrates, in both Germany (Carabus beetles) and Madagascar (various beetles and cockroaches). The data show that rustling sound amplitude and frequency content depend on substrate type. On moist substrates arthropods produced less intense and less broadband rustling sounds than on dry substrates. Sound pressure level was reduced by about 6 dB, halving the detection range for the predator. For a given insect, rustling sound amplitude increased with walking speed. Finally, we found that the previously established correlation of arthropod size and rustling amplitude holds across multiple substrates. Based on these data, we provide for the first time estimates of realistic detection distances in the field. These distances range from below 1 m to over 13 m, depending on the substrate, insect mass, walking speed and background noise level. These estimates are crucial for an understanding of the foraging ecology, foraging efficiency and sensory ecology of acoustic predators.

  15. Specialized odorant receptors in social insects that detect cuticular hydrocarbon cues and candidate pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pask, Gregory M; Slone, Jesse D; Millar, Jocelyn G; Das, Prithwiraj; Moreira, Jardel A; Zhou, Xiaofan; Bello, Jan; Berger, Shelley L; Bonasio, Roberto; Desplan, Claude; Reinberg, Danny; Liebig, Jürgen; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Ray, Anandasankar

    2017-08-17

    Eusocial insects use cuticular hydrocarbons as components of pheromones that mediate social behaviours, such as caste and nestmate recognition, and regulation of reproduction. In ants such as Harpegnathos saltator, the queen produces a pheromone which suppresses the development of workers' ovaries and if she is removed, workers can transition to a reproductive state known as gamergate. Here we functionally characterize a subfamily of odorant receptors (Ors) with a nine-exon gene structure that have undergone a massive expansion in ants and other eusocial insects. We deorphanize 22 representative members and find they can detect cuticular hydrocarbons from different ant castes, with one (HsOr263) that responds strongly to gamergate extract and a candidate queen pheromone component. After systematic testing with a diverse panel of hydrocarbons, we find that most Harpegnathos saltator Ors are narrowly tuned, suggesting that several receptors must contribute to detection and discrimination of different cuticular hydrocarbons important in mediating eusocial behaviour.Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) mediate the interactions between individuals in eusocial insects, but the sensory receptors for CHCs are unclear. Here the authors show that in ants such as H. saltator, the 9-exon subfamily of odorant receptors (HsOrs) responds to CHCs, and ectopic expression of HsOrs in Drosophila neurons imparts responsiveness to CHCs.

  16. Recent advances in methyl eugenol and cue-lure technologies for fruit fly detection, monitoring, and control in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Shelly, Todd E; Leblanc, Luc; Piñero, Jaime C

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, an important aspect of invasive insect pest management is more effective, safer detection and control systems. Phenyl propanoids are attractive to numerous species of Dacinae fruit flies. Methyl eugenol (ME) (4-allyl-1, 2-dimethoxybenzene-carboxylate), cue-lure (C-L) (4-(p-acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone), and raspberry ketone (RK) (4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) are powerful male-specific lures. Most evidence suggests a role of ME and C-L/RK in pheromone synthesis and mate attraction. ME and C-L/RK are used in current fruit fly programs for detection, monitoring, and control. During the Hawaii Area-Wide Pest Management Program in the interest of worker safety and convenience, liquid C-L/ME and insecticide (i.e., naled and malathion) mixtures were replaced with solid lures and insecticides. Similarly, Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) with a sprayable Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT), in combination with ME (against Bactrocera dorsalis, oriental fruit fly) or C-L/RK (against B. cucurbitae, melon fly), and the reduced-risk insecticide, spinosad, was developed for area-wide suppression of fruit flies. The nontarget effects of ME and C-L/RK to native invertebrates were examined. Although weak attractiveness was recorded to flower-visiting insects, including bees and syrphid flies, by ME, effects to native Drosophila and other Hawaiian endemics were found to be minimal. These results suggested that the majority of previously published records, including those of endemic Drosophilidae, were actually for attraction to dead flies inside fruit fly traps. Endemic insect attraction was not an issue with C-L/RK, because B. cucurbitae were rarely found in endemic environments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Accuracy to detection timing for assisting repetitive facilitation exercise system using MRCP and SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Satoshi; Takazawa, Junichi; Kobayashi, Yo; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of a brain-machine interface system to assist repetitive facilitation exercise. Repetitive facilitation exercise is an effective rehabilitation method for patients with hemiplegia. In repetitive facilitation exercise, a therapist stimulates the paralyzed part of the patient while motor commands run along the nerve pathway. However, successful repetitive facilitation exercise is difficult to achieve and even a skilled practitioner cannot detect when a motor command occurs in patient's brain. We proposed a brain-machine interface system for automatically detecting motor commands and stimulating the paralyzed part of a patient. To determine motor commands from patient electroencephalogram (EEG) data, we measured the movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) and constructed a support vector machine system. In this paper, we validated the prediction timing of the system at the highest accuracy by the system using EEG and MRCP. In the experiments, we measured the EEG when the participant bent their elbow when prompted to do so. We analyzed the EEG data using a cross-validation method. We found that the average accuracy was 72.9% and the highest at the prediction timing 280 ms. We conclude that 280 ms is the most suitable to predict the judgment that a patient intends to exercise or not.

  18. Two years' intensive training in endoscopic diagnosis facilitates detection of early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazato, Tetsuro; Oyama, Tsuneo; Yoshida, Toshifumi; Baba, Yasumasa; Yamanouchi, Kohei; Ishii, Yoshitomo; Inoue, Fumio; Toda, Shuji; Mannen, Kotaro; Shimoda, Ryo; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Kazuma

    2012-01-01

    Early detection of gastric cancer by screening endoscopy facilitates endoscopic treatment in place of open surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 2 years intensive training improved the detection of gastric cancer by screening endoscopy. An endoscopist who had trained for 6 years as a general physician, performed screening endoscopy at Imari Arita Kyoritsu Hospital before (group I) and after (group II) intensive training in the diagnosis of early gastric cancer in consecutive patients. Background characteristics, including age (61.6 vs. 62.2 years) and sex, did not differ between the groups. Before training, 10 gastric neoplasms were detected in 937 patients in group I: four early gastric cancers, one gastric adenoma, and five advanced gastric cancer. After training, 36 gastric neoplasms were detected in 937 patients in group II: 18 early gastric cancers, 11 gastric adenoma, five advanced gastric cancer, and one each of gastric carcinoid and malignant lymphoma. The detection rate for early gastric cancer was significantly improved by training [group I: 4/937 (0.4%) vs. group II: 18/937 (1.9%)], although the detection rate for advanced gastric cancer did not differ before and after training. The proportion of early gastric cancer + adenoma to advanced cancer was higher in group II (5/5 vs. 29/5 in group I). Intensive training in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy screening dramatically improved the detection rate for early gastric cancer, although the detection rate for advanced gastric cancer was not affected.

  19. Intrasensory Redundancy Facilitates Infant Detection of Tempo: Extending Predictions of the Intersensory Redundancy Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrick, Lorraine E; Lickliter, Robert; Castellanos, Irina; Todd, James Torrence

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that intersensory redundancy (stimulation synchronized across multiple senses) is highly salient and facilitates processing of amodal properties in multimodal events, bootstrapping early perceptual development. The present study is the first to extend this central principle of the intersensory redundancy hypothesis (IRH) to certain types of intrasensory redundancy (stimulation synchronized within a single sense). Infants were habituated to videos of a toy hammer tapping silently (unimodal control), depicting intersensory redundancy (synchronized with a soundtrack) or intrasensory redundancy (synchronized with another visual event; light flashing or bat tapping). In Experiment 1, 2-month-olds showed both intersensory and intrasensory facilitation (with respect to the unimodal control) for detecting a change in tempo. However, intrasensory facilitation was found when the hammer was synchronized with the light flashing (different motion) but not with the bat tapping (same motion). Experiment 2 tested 3-month-olds using a somewhat easier tempo contrast. Results supported a similarity hypothesis: intrasensory redundancy between two dissimilar events was more effective than that between two similar events for promoting processing of amodal properties. These findings extend the IRH and indicate that in addition to intersensory redundancy, intrasensory redundancy between two synchronized dissimilar visual events is also effective in promoting perceptual processing of amodal event properties.

  20. Combined Application of RGB Marking and Mass Spectrometric Imaging Facilitates Detection of Tumor Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowski, Pierre; Kraus, Olga; Rohn, Sascha; Riecken, Kristoffer; Fehse, Boris; Schlüter, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-cell heterogeneity dramatically influences treatment success, but escapes detection by classical histology. Mass-spectrometric imaging (MSI) represents a powerful method for visualizing the spatial distribution of proteins in tissue sections. Herein we asked whether MSI also facilitates detection of tumor heterogeneity. We first transduced the human neuroendocrine-carcinoma BON cell line following the red-green-blue (RGB) marking principle. RGB marking allows for specific color-coding of individual clones. Mice transplanted with RGB-marked BON cells developed liver tumors. We identified 16 primary tumors clearly distinguishable by histology and fluorescence imaging, but also based on a common tumor-specific signal pattern detected by MSI. Importantly, this pattern was clearly confined to tumor tissue while was absent from surrounding liver tissue. At the same time, we observed protein signals differentially present in a few or even single tumors. Since these signals were independent of RGB marking, they apparently reflected unique intrinsic protein-signal patterns of individual tumors. Thus, our data propose MSI as a tool for identifying divergent tissue by 'fingerprints' of protein signals, allowing not only for differentiation of tumor from healthy tissue but also detection of tumor heterogeneity. In conclusion, by visualizing tumor heterogeneity, MSI ideally complements microscopy-based methods. This might help to better understand tumor biology and develop future treatment strategies. Copyright© 2015, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Top down modulation of attention to food cues via working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Rutters, Femke; Thomas, Jason M; Naish, Katherine; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2012-08-01

    Attentional biases towards food cues may be linked to the development of obesity. The present study investigated the mechanisms underlying attentional biases to food cues by assessing the role of top down influences, such as working memory (WM). We assessed whether attention in normal-weight, sated participants was drawn to food items specifically when that food item was held in WM. Twenty-three participants (15 f/8 m, age 23.4±5 year, BMI 23.5±4 kg/m(2)) took part in a laboratory based study assessing reaction times to food and non-food stimuli. Participants were presented with an initial cue stimulus to either hold in WM or to merely attend to, and then searched for the target (a circle) in a two-item display. On valid trials the target was flanked by a picture matching the cue, on neutral trials the display did not contain a picture matching the cue, and on invalid trials the distractor (a square) was flanked by a picture matching the cue. Cues were food, cars or stationery items. We observed that, relative to the effects with non-food stimuli, food items in WM strongly affected attention when the memorised cue re-appeared in the search display. In particular there was an enhanced response on valid trials, when the re-appearance of the memorised cue coincided with the search target. There were no effects of cue category on attentional guidance when the cues were merely attended to but not held in WM. These data point towards food having a strong effect on top-down guidance of search from working memory, and suggest a mechanism whereby individuals who are preoccupied with thoughts of food, for example obese individuals, show facilitated detection of food cues in the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Barriers and Facilitators to Detecting Child Abuse and Neglect in General Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiyyagura, Gunjan; Gawel, Marcie; Koziel, Jeannette R; Asnes, Andrea; Bechtel, Kirsten

    2015-11-01

    Child abuse and neglect is common in the United States, and victims often present to emergency departments (EDs) for care. Most US children who seek care in EDs are treated in general EDs without specialized pediatric services. We aim to explore general ED providers' experiences with screening and reporting of child abuse and neglect to identify barriers and facilitators to detection of child abuse and neglect in the ED setting. We conducted 29 semistructured interviews with medical providers at 3 general EDs, exploring experiences with child abuse and neglect. Consistent with grounded theory, researchers coded transcripts and then collectively refined codes and identified themes. Data collection and analysis continued until theoretical saturation was achieved. Barriers to recognizing child abuse and neglect included providers' desire to believe the caregiver, failure to recognize that a child's presentation could be due to child abuse and neglect, challenges innate to working in an ED such as lack of ongoing contact with a family and provider biases. Barriers to reporting child abuse and neglect included factors associated with the reporting process, lack of follow-up of reported cases, and negative consequences of reporting such as testifying in court. Reported facilitators included real-time case discussion with peers or supervisors and the belief that it was better for the patient to report in the setting of suspicion. Finally, providers requested case-based education and child abuse and neglect consultation for unclear cases. Our interviews identified several approaches to improving detection of child abuse and neglect by general ED providers. These included providing education through case review, improving follow-up by Child Protective Services agencies, and increasing real-time assistance with patient care decisions. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early auditory change detection implicitly facilitated by ignored concurrent visual change during a Braille reading task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Tomohiro; Kuriki, Shinya

    2013-09-01

    Unconscious monitoring of multimodal stimulus changes enables humans to effectively sense the external environment. Such automatic change detection is thought to be reflected in auditory and visual mismatch negativity (MMN) and mismatch negativity fields (MMFs). These are event-related potentials and magnetic fields, respectively, evoked by deviant stimuli within a sequence of standard stimuli, and both are typically studied during irrelevant visual tasks that cause the stimuli to be ignored. Due to the sensitivity of MMN/MMF to potential effects of explicit attention to vision, however, it is unclear whether multisensory co-occurring changes can purely facilitate early sensory change detection reciprocally across modalities. We adopted a tactile task involving the reading of Braille patterns as a neutral ignore condition, while measuring magnetoencephalographic responses to concurrent audiovisual stimuli that were infrequently deviated either in auditory, visual, or audiovisual dimensions; 1000-Hz standard tones were switched to 1050-Hz deviant tones and/or two-by-two standard check patterns displayed on both sides of visual fields were switched to deviant reversed patterns. The check patterns were set to be faint enough so that the reversals could be easily ignored even during Braille reading. While visual MMFs were virtually undetectable even for visual and audiovisual deviants, significant auditory MMFs were observed for auditory and audiovisual deviants, originating from bilateral supratemporal auditory areas. Notably, auditory MMFs were significantly enhanced for audiovisual deviants from about 100 ms post-stimulus, as compared with the summation responses for auditory and visual deviants or for each of the unisensory deviants recorded in separate sessions. Evidenced by high tactile task performance with unawareness of visual changes, we conclude that Braille reading can successfully suppress explicit attention and that simultaneous multisensory changes can

  4. Enhancing Interactive Tutorial Effectiveness through Visual Cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamet, Eric; Fernandez, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether learning how to use a web service with an interactive tutorial can be enhanced by cueing. We expected the attentional guidance provided by visual cues to facilitate the selection of information in static screen displays that corresponded to spoken explanations. Unlike most previous studies in this area, we…

  5. A dual tag system for facilitated detection of surface expressed proteins in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmander Johan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of the autotransporter family has provided a mechanism for surface expression of proteins in laboratory strains of Escherichia coli. We have previously reported the use of the AIDA-I autotransport system to express the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis proteins SefA and H:gm. The SefA protein was successfully exposed to the medium, but the orientation of H:gm in the outer membrane could not be determined due to proteolytic cleavage of the N-terminal detection-tag. The goal of the present work was therefore to construct a vector containing elements that facilitates analysis of surface expression, especially for proteins that are sensitive to proteolysis or otherwise difficult to express. Results The surface expression system pAIDA1 was created with two detection tags flanking the passenger protein. Successful expression of SefA and H:gm on the surface of E. coli was confirmed with fluorescently labeled antibodies specific for the N-terminal His6-tag and the C-terminal Myc-tag. While both tags were detected during SefA expression, only the Myc-tag could be detected for H:gm. The negative signal indicates a proteolytic cleavage of this protein that removes the His6-tag facing the medium. Conclusions Expression levels from pAIDA1 were comparable to or higher than those achieved with the formerly used vector. The presence of the Myc- but not of the His6-tag on the cell surface during H:gm expression allowed us to confirm the hypothesis that this fusion protein was present on the surface and oriented towards the cell exterior. Western blot analysis revealed degradation products of the same molecular weight for SefA and H:gm. The size of these fragments suggests that both fusion proteins have been cleaved at a specific site close to the C-terminal end of the passenger. This proteolysis was concluded to take place either in the outer membrane or in the periplasm. Since H:gm was cleaved to a much greater extent

  6. Collinear facilitation is largely uncertainty reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Yury; Verghese, Preeti; McKee, Suzanne P

    2006-02-23

    When flanked by collinear Gabor patches, detection thresholds for a target Gabor patch improve by up to a factor of 2. This result has been interpreted as evidence for collinear facilitation. However, facilitation has been observed only for targets near detection threshold, where observers seem uncertain about the location and other properties of the stimulus. So the effect of the flankers may be to reduce this uncertainty. If this is true, then other cues to target location should produce a similar improvement in thresholds. To test this hypothesis, we measured contrast detection thresholds for a Gabor target alone, and in the presence of either a faint circle surrounding the target location, or two high-energy flanking Gabor patches. We also used an adaptive procedure to measure the slope of the psychometric function to determine whether the slopes were considerably lower in the presence of location cues or flanking Gabors, as predicted by signal detection theory when uncertainty is reduced. As observed previously, the presence of collinear flankers improved detection thresholds by a factor of two. Yet, on average, the circle alone accounted for the most of the facilitation; for three of our five observers, it improved thresholds as much as the collinear flankers. Other cues that specified target location produced similar improvements in detection thresholds. The slopes of the psychometric functions were much shallower in the presence of these location cues or the collinear flankers compared to the target-alone condition. This change in the slopes indicates that the threshold improvement is largely due to a significant reduction in uncertainty.

  7. Protective effect of high alkalinity against the deleterious effects of chronic waterborne cadmium exposure on the detection of alarm cues by juvenile silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Daiani; Benaduce, Ana Paula S; Copatti, Carlos E; Lorenzatto, Karina R; Mesko, Márcia F; Flores, Erico M M; Dressler, Valderi L; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2009-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure at two alkalinity levels (63 and 92 mg l(-1) CaCO(3)) on the antipredatory behavior of juvenile silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to conspecific skin extract and predator odor. At an alkalinity of 63 mg l(-1) CaCO(3), 30 days of exposure to either 4.5 or 8.0 microg l(-1) Cd impaired the catfish's antipredatory response to alarm cues. However, silver catfish exposed to 4.5 microg l(-1) Cd at an alkalinity of 92 mg l(-1) CaCO(3) responded to skin extract and predator odor. In catfish exposed to 8.0 microg l(-1) Cd at the same alkalinity, only the number of feeding bites decreased, and this occurred only for specimens exposed to predator odor. Our results show that higher alkalinity protected against the deleterious effects of Cd on alarm cue detection but only in the larvae exposed to the lowest waterborne Cd level.

  8. Captures in methyl eugenol and cue-lure detection traps with and without insecticides and with a Farma Tech solid lure and insecticide dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Burns, R E; Mau, Ronald F L; Stark, John D; Cook, Peter; Piñero, Jaime C

    2009-04-01

    Methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) traps to detect tephritid flies on the U.S. mainland were tested with and without insecticides under Hawaiian weather conditions against small populations of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. In comparative tests, standard Jackson traps with naled and the Hawaii fruit fly areawide pest management (AWPM) trap with 2,2-dichorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP) insecticidal strips outperformed traps without an insecticide. Addition of the reduced risk insecticide spinosad did not increase trap capture significantly compared with Jackson traps without an insecticide. Captures in AWPM traps with DDVP compared favorably with those for the Jackson trap with liquid naled (the Florida standard). In subsequent tests, captures with solid Farma Tech wafer dispensers with ME or C-L and DDVP placed inside Jackson and AWPM traps were equal to those for a Jackson trap with naled, currently used for detection of ME and C-L responding fruit flies in Florida. Farma Tech ME and C-L wafers with DDVP would be more convenient and safer to handle than current liquid insecticide formulations (e.g., naled) used for detection programs in Florida.

  9. A method to dynamically control unwanted loudness cues when measuring amplitude modulation detection in cochlear implant users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvin, John J.; Fu, Qian-Jie; Oba, Sandy; Başkent, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Amplitude modulation (AM) detection is a measure of temporal processing that has been correlated with cochlear implant (CI) users' speech understanding. For Cl users, AM stimuli have been shown to be louder than steady-state (non-AM) stimuli presented at the same reference current level,

  10. Natural Populations of Shipworm Larvae Are Attracted to Wood by Waterborne Chemical Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Gunilla B.; Larsson, Ann I.; Jonsson, Per R.; Appelqvist, Christin

    2015-01-01

    The life cycle of many sessile marine invertebrates includes a dispersive planktonic larval stage whose ability to find a suitable habitat in which to settle and transform into benthic adults is crucial to maximize fitness. To facilitate this process, invertebrate larvae commonly respond to habitat-related chemical cues to guide the search for an appropriate environment. Furthermore, small-scale hydrodynamic conditions affect dispersal of chemical cues, as well as swimming behavior of invertebrate larvae and encounter with potential habitats. Shipworms within the family Teredinidae are dependent on terrestrially derived wood in order to complete their life cycle, but very little is known about the cues and processes that promote settlement. We investigated the potential for remote detection of settling substrate via waterborne chemical cues in teredinid larvae through a combination of empirical field and laboratory flume experiments. Natural populations of teredinid larvae were significantly more abundant close to wooden structures enclosed in plankton net compared to empty control nets, clearly showing that shipworm larvae can sense and respond to chemical cues associated with suitable settling substrate in the field. However, the flume experiments, using ecologically relevant flow velocities, showed that the boundary layer around experimental wooden panels was thin and that the mean flow velocity exceeded larval swimming velocity approximately 5 mm (≈ 25 larval body lengths) from the panel surface. Therefore, we conclude that the scope for remote detection of waterborne cues is limited and that the likely explanation for the higher abundance of shipworm larvae associated with the wooden panels in the field is a response to a cue during or after attachment on, or very near, the substrate. Waterborne cues probably guide the larva in its decision to remain attached and settle, or to detach and continue swimming and drifting until the next encounter with a solid

  11. Natural populations of shipworm larvae are attracted to wood by waterborne chemical cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla B Toth

    Full Text Available The life cycle of many sessile marine invertebrates includes a dispersive planktonic larval stage whose ability to find a suitable habitat in which to settle and transform into benthic adults is crucial to maximize fitness. To facilitate this process, invertebrate larvae commonly respond to habitat-related chemical cues to guide the search for an appropriate environment. Furthermore, small-scale hydrodynamic conditions affect dispersal of chemical cues, as well as swimming behavior of invertebrate larvae and encounter with potential habitats. Shipworms within the family Teredinidae are dependent on terrestrially derived wood in order to complete their life cycle, but very little is known about the cues and processes that promote settlement. We investigated the potential for remote detection of settling substrate via waterborne chemical cues in teredinid larvae through a combination of empirical field and laboratory flume experiments. Natural populations of teredinid larvae were significantly more abundant close to wooden structures enclosed in plankton net compared to empty control nets, clearly showing that shipworm larvae can sense and respond to chemical cues associated with suitable settling substrate in the field. However, the flume experiments, using ecologically relevant flow velocities, showed that the boundary layer around experimental wooden panels was thin and that the mean flow velocity exceeded larval swimming velocity approximately 5 mm (≈ 25 larval body lengths from the panel surface. Therefore, we conclude that the scope for remote detection of waterborne cues is limited and that the likely explanation for the higher abundance of shipworm larvae associated with the wooden panels in the field is a response to a cue during or after attachment on, or very near, the substrate. Waterborne cues probably guide the larva in its decision to remain attached and settle, or to detach and continue swimming and drifting until the next

  12. Pressure and particle motion detection thresholds in fish: a re-examination of salient auditory cues in teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Craig A; Montgomery, John C; Caiger, Paul; Higgs, Dennis M

    2012-10-01

    The auditory evoked potential technique has been used for the past 30 years to evaluate the hearing ability of fish. The resulting audiograms are typically presented in terms of sound pressure (dB re. 1 μPa) with the particle motion (dB re. 1 m s(-2)) component largely ignored until recently. When audiograms have been presented in terms of particle acceleration, one of two approaches has been used for stimulus characterisation: measuring the pressure gradient between two hydrophones or using accelerometers. With rare exceptions these values are presented from experiments using a speaker as the stimulus, thus making it impossible to truly separate the contribution of direct particle motion and pressure detection in the response. Here, we compared the particle acceleration and pressure auditory thresholds of three species of fish with differing hearing specialisations, goldfish (Carassius auratus, weberian ossicles), bigeye (Pempheris adspersus, ligamentous hearing specialisation) and a third species with no swim bladder, the common triplefin (Forstergyian lappillum), using three different methods of determining particle acceleration. In terms of particle acceleration, all three fish species have similar hearing thresholds, but when expressed as pressure thresholds goldfish are the most sensitive, followed by bigeye, with triplefin the least sensitive. It is suggested here that all fish have a similar ability to detect the particle motion component of the sound field and it is their ability to transduce the pressure component of the sound field to the inner ear via ancillary hearing structures that provides the differences in hearing ability. Therefore, care is needed in stimuli presentation and measurement when determining hearing ability of fish and when interpreting comparative hearing abilities between species.

  13. Object-based implicit learning in visual search: perceptual segmentation constrains contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J; von Mühlenen, Adrian

    2013-07-09

    In visual search, detection of a target is faster when it is presented within a spatial layout of repeatedly encountered nontarget items, indicating that contextual invariances can guide selective attention (contextual cueing; Chun & Jiang, 1998). However, perceptual regularities may interfere with contextual learning; for instance, no contextual facilitation occurs when four nontargets form a square-shaped grouping, even though the square location predicts the target location (Conci & von Mühlenen, 2009). Here, we further investigated potential causes for this interference-effect: We show that contextual cueing can reliably occur for targets located within the region of a segmented object, but not for targets presented outside of the object's boundaries. Four experiments demonstrate an object-based facilitation in contextual cueing, with a modulation of context-based learning by relatively subtle grouping cues including closure, symmetry, and spatial regularity. Moreover, the lack of contextual cueing for targets located outside the segmented region was due to an absence of (latent) learning of contextual layouts, rather than due to an attentional bias towards the grouped region. Taken together, these results indicate that perceptual segmentation provides a basic structure within which contextual scene regularities are acquired. This in turn argues that contextual learning is constrained by object-based selection.

  14. Novel PCR Assays Complement Laser Biosensor-Based Method and Facilitate Listeria Species Detection from Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Singh, Atul K; Bai, Xingjian; Leprun, Lena; Bhunia, Arun K

    2015-09-08

    The goal of this study was to develop the Listeria species-specific PCR assays based on a house-keeping gene (lmo1634) encoding alcohol acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Aad), previously designated as Listeria adhesion protein (LAP), and compare results with a label-free light scattering sensor, BARDOT (bacterial rapid detection using optical scattering technology). PCR primer sets targeting the lap genes from the species of Listeria sensu stricto were designed and tested with 47 Listeria and 8 non-Listeria strains. The resulting PCR primer sets detected either all species of Listeria sensu stricto or individual L. innocua, L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. marthii without producing any amplified products from other bacteria tested. The PCR assays with Listeria sensu stricto-specific primers also successfully detected all species of Listeria sensu stricto and/or Listeria innocua from mixed culture-inoculated food samples, and each bacterium in food was verified by using the light scattering sensor that generated unique scatter signature for each species of Listeria tested. The PCR assays based on the house-keeping gene aad (lap) can be used for detection of either all species of Listeria sensu stricto or certain individual Listeria species in a mixture from food with a detection limit of about 10⁴ CFU/mL.

  15. Pre-treatment with heat facilitates detection of antigen of Dirofilaria immitis in canine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan E; Munzing, Candace; Heise, Steph R; Allen, Kelly E; Starkey, Lindsay A; Johnson, Eileen M; Meinkoth, James; Reichard, Mason V

    2014-06-16

    Diagnosis of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs is largely dependent on detection of antigen in canine serum, plasma, or whole blood, but antigen may be bound in immune complexes and thus not detected. To develop a model for antigen blocking, we mixed serum from a microfilaremic, antigen-positive dog with that of a hypergammaglobulinemic dog not currently infected with D. immitis and converted the positive sample to antigen-negative; detection of antigen was restored when the mixed sample was heat-treated, presumably due to disruption of antigen/antibody complexes. A blood sample was also evaluated from a dog that was microfilaremic and for which microfilariae were identified as D. immitis by morphologic examination. Antigen of D. immitis was not detected in this sample prior to heating but the sample was strongly positive after heat treatment of whole blood. Taken together, our results indicate that blood samples from some dogs may contain factors that inhibit detection of antigen of D. immitis, and that heat treatment of these samples prior to testing could improve the sensitivity of these assays in some patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving visual spatial working memory in younger and older adults: effects of cross-modal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ashley F; Turner, Gary R; Park, Norman W; Murtha, Susan J E

    2017-11-06

    Spatially informative auditory and vibrotactile (cross-modal) cues can facilitate attention but little is known about how similar cues influence visual spatial working memory (WM) across the adult lifespan. We investigated the effects of cues (spatially informative or alerting pre-cues vs. no cues), cue modality (auditory vs. vibrotactile vs. visual), memory array size (four vs. six items), and maintenance delay (900 vs. 1800 ms) on visual spatial location WM recognition accuracy in younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA). We observed a significant interaction between spatially informative pre-cue type, array size, and delay. OA and YA benefitted equally from spatially informative pre-cues, suggesting that attentional orienting prior to WM encoding, regardless of cue modality, is preserved with age.  Contrary to predictions, alerting pre-cues generally impaired performance in both age groups, suggesting that maintaining a vigilant state of arousal by facilitating the alerting attention system does not help visual spatial location WM.

  17. Involvement of the visual change detection process in facilitating perceptual alternation in the bistable image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Tomokazu; Bunya, Mao; Araki, Osamu

    2017-08-01

    A bistable image induces one of two perceptual alternatives. When the bistable visual image is continuously viewed, the percept of the image alternates from one possible percept to the other. Perceptual alternation was previously reported to be induced by an exogenous perturbation in the bistable image, and this perturbation was theoretically interpreted to cause neural noise, prompting a transition between two stable perceptual states. However, little is known experimentally about the visual processing of exogenously driven perceptual alternation. Based on the findings of a previous behavioral study (Urakawa et al. in Perception 45:474-482, 2016), the present study hypothesized that the automatic visual change detection process, which is relevant to the detection of a visual change in a sequence of visual events, has an enhancing effect on the induction of perceptual alternation, similar to neural noise. In order to clarify this issue, we developed a novel experimental paradigm in which visual mismatch negativity (vMMN), an electroencephalographic brain response that reflects visual change detection, was evoked while participants continuously viewed the bistable image. In terms of inter-individual differences in neural and behavioral data, we found that enhancements in the peak amplitude of vMMN1, early vMMN at a latency of approximately 150 ms, correlated with increases in the proportion of perceptual alternation across participants. Our results indicate the involvement of automatic visual change detection in the induction of perceptual alternation, similar to neural noise, thereby providing a deeper insight into the neural mechanisms underlying exogenously driven perceptual alternation in the bistable image.

  18. E4 antibodies facilitate detection and type-assignment of active HPV infection in cervical disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Griffin

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV infections are the cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Although the detection of HPV DNA has proved useful in cervical diagnosis, it does not necessarily predict disease presence or severity, and cannot conclusively identify the causative type when multiple HPVs are present. Such limitations may be addressed using complementary approaches such as cytology, laser capture microscopy, and/or the use of infection biomarkers. One such infection biomarker is the HPV E4 protein, which is expressed at high level in cells that are supporting (or have supported viral genome amplification. Its distribution in lesions has suggested a role in disease staging. Here we have examined whether type-specific E4 antibodies may also allow the identification and/or confirmation of causal HPV-type. To do this, type-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against three E4 proteins (HPV-16, -18, and -58 were generated and validated by ELISA and western blotting, and by immunohistochemistry (IHC staining of epithelial rafts containing these individual HPV types. Type-specific detection of HPV and its associated disease was subsequently examined using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical intra-epithelial neoplasias (CIN, (n = 247 and normal controls (n = 28. All koilocytotic CIN1 lesions showed type-specific E4 expression of their respective HPV types. Differences were noted amongst E4 expression patterns in CIN3. HPV-18 E4 was not detected in any of the 6 HPV-18 DNA-positive CIN3 lesions examined, whereas in HPV-16 and -58 CIN3, 28/37 (76% and 5/9 (55.6% expressed E4 respectively, usually in regions of epithelial differentiation. Our results demonstrate that type-specific E4 antibodies can be used to help establish causality, as may be required when multiple HPV types are detected. The unique characteristics of the E4 biomarker suggest a role in diagnosis and patient management particularly when used in combination.

  19. Facilitators and barriers to the successful implementation of a protocol to detect child abuse based on parental characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diderich, Hester M; Dechesne, Mark; Fekkes, Minne; Verkerk, Paul H; Pannebakker, Fieke D; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Sorensen, Peggy J G; Buitendijk, Simone E; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie

    2014-11-01

    To determine the critical facilitating and impeding factors underlying successful implementation of a method to detect child abuse based on parental rather than child characteristics known as the Hague Protocol. The original implementation region of the protocol (The Hague) was compared to a new implementation region (Friesland), using analysis of referrals, focus group interviews (n=6) at the Emergency departments (ED) and at the Reporting Centers for Child abuse and Neglect (RCCAN) as well as questionnaires (n=76) at the EDs. Implementation of the Hague Protocol substantially increased the number of referrals to the RCCAN in both regions. In Friesland, the new implementation region, the number of referrals increased from 2 out of 92,464 patients (three per 100,000) to 108 out of 167,037 patients (62 per 100,000). However in Friesland, child abuse was confirmed in a substantially lower percentage of cases relative to the initial implementation region (62% vs. 91%, respectively). Follow-up analyses suggest that this lower positive predictive value may be due to the lack of training for RCCAN professionals concerning the Hague Protocol. The focus group interviews and questionnaires point to time limitations as the main impediment for implementation, whereas an implementation coach has been mentioned as the most important facilitating factor for success. The Hague Protocol can be used to detect child abuse beyond the initial implementation region. However, training is essential in order to assure a consistent evaluation by the RCCAN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Distributed dendritic processing facilitates object detection: a computational analysis on the visual system of the fly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hennig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detecting objects is an important task when moving through a natural environment. Flies, for example, may land on salient objects or may avoid collisions with them. The neuronal ensemble of Figure Detection cells (FD-cells in the visual system of the fly is likely to be involved in controlling these behaviours, as these cells are more sensitive to objects than to extended background structures. Until now the computations in the presynaptic neuronal network of FD-cells and, in particular, the functional significance of the experimentally established distributed dendritic processing of excitatory and inhibitory inputs is not understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use model simulations to analyse the neuronal computations responsible for the preference of FD-cells for small objects. We employed a new modelling approach which allowed us to account for the spatial spread of electrical signals in the dendrites while avoiding detailed compartmental modelling. The models are based on available physiological and anatomical data. Three models were tested each implementing an inhibitory neural circuit, but differing by the spatial arrangement of the inhibitory interaction. Parameter optimisation with an evolutionary algorithm revealed that only distributed dendritic processing satisfies the constraints arising from electrophysiological experiments. In contrast to a direct dendro-dendritic inhibition of the FD-cell (Direct Distributed Inhibition model, an inhibition of its presynaptic retinotopic elements (Indirect Distributed Inhibition model requires smaller changes in input resistance in the inhibited neurons during visual stimulation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Distributed dendritic inhibition of retinotopic elements as implemented in our Indirect Distributed Inhibition model is the most plausible wiring scheme for the neuronal circuit of FD-cells. This microcircuit is computationally similar to lateral inhibition between the

  1. Distributed dendritic processing facilitates object detection: a computational analysis on the visual system of the fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Patrick; Möller, Ralf; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2008-08-28

    Detecting objects is an important task when moving through a natural environment. Flies, for example, may land on salient objects or may avoid collisions with them. The neuronal ensemble of Figure Detection cells (FD-cells) in the visual system of the fly is likely to be involved in controlling these behaviours, as these cells are more sensitive to objects than to extended background structures. Until now the computations in the presynaptic neuronal network of FD-cells and, in particular, the functional significance of the experimentally established distributed dendritic processing of excitatory and inhibitory inputs is not understood. We use model simulations to analyse the neuronal computations responsible for the preference of FD-cells for small objects. We employed a new modelling approach which allowed us to account for the spatial spread of electrical signals in the dendrites while avoiding detailed compartmental modelling. The models are based on available physiological and anatomical data. Three models were tested each implementing an inhibitory neural circuit, but differing by the spatial arrangement of the inhibitory interaction. Parameter optimisation with an evolutionary algorithm revealed that only distributed dendritic processing satisfies the constraints arising from electrophysiological experiments. In contrast to a direct dendro-dendritic inhibition of the FD-cell (Direct Distributed Inhibition model), an inhibition of its presynaptic retinotopic elements (Indirect Distributed Inhibition model) requires smaller changes in input resistance in the inhibited neurons during visual stimulation. Distributed dendritic inhibition of retinotopic elements as implemented in our Indirect Distributed Inhibition model is the most plausible wiring scheme for the neuronal circuit of FD-cells. This microcircuit is computationally similar to lateral inhibition between the retinotopic elements. Hence, distributed inhibition might be an alternative explanation of

  2. The (unclear effects of invalid retro-cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eGressmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies with the retro-cue paradigm have shown that validly cueing objects in visual working memory long after encoding can still benefit performance on subsequent change detection tasks. With regard to the effects of invalid cues, the literature is less clear. Some studies reported costs, others did not. We here revisit two recent studies that made interesting suggestions concerning invalid retro-cues: One study suggested that costs only occur for larger set sizes, and another study suggested that inclusion of invalid retro-cues diminishes the retro-cue benefit. New data from one experiment and a reanalysis of published data are provided to address these conclusions. The new data clearly show costs (and benefits that were independent of set size, and the reanalysis suggests no influence of the inclusion of invalid retro-cues on the retro-cue benefit. Thus, previous interpretations may be taken with some caution at present.

  3. D-cycloserine and cocaine cue reactivity: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kimber L; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael E; Maria, Megan M Moran-Santa; DeSantis, Stacia M; Back, Sudie E; Brady, Kathleen T

    2009-01-01

    D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor agonist, enhances extinction of conditioned fear responding in rodents and facilitates exposure-based learning in humans with anxiety disorders. This preliminary study investigates DCS pretreatment on response to cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent subjects. Ten cocaine-dependent subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 50 mg DCS or matching placebo two hours before each of two 1-hour cocaine cue exposure sessions one day apart. HR and craving ratings were obtained before and during cue exposure sessions. There was a trend towards increased craving to cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent individuals after administration of DCS. The administration of DCS prior to cue exposure sessions may facilitate response activation. While facilitation of extinction-based learning by DCS may have therapeutic potential for cocaine dependence, this drug may exhibit a different profile in cocaine-dependent individuals as compared to those with anxiety disorders.

  4. Emotional target cues eliminate age differences in prospective memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altgassen, A.M.; Phillips, L.H.; Henry, J.D.; Rendell, P.G.; Kliegel, M.

    2010-01-01

    Cue saliency is known to influence prospective memory performance, whereby perceptually or conceptually distinct cues facilitate remembering and attenuate adult age-related deficits. The present study investigated whether similar benefits for older adults are also seen for emotional valence. A total

  5. Drug facilitated sexual assault: detection and stability of benzodiazepines in spiked drinks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata Gautam

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines are detected in a significant number of drug facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA. Whilst blood and urine from the victim are routinely analysed, due to the delay in reporting DFSA cases and the short half lives of most of these drugs in blood and urine, drug detection in such samples is problematic. Consideration of the drinks involved and analysis for drugs may start to address this. Here we have reconstructed the 'spiking' of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, flunitrazepam and temazepam into five drinks, an alcopop (flavoured alcoholic drink, a beer, a white wine, a spirit, and a fruit based non-alcoholic drink (J2O chosen as representative of those drinks commonly used by women in 16-24 year old age group. Using a validated GC-MS method for the simultaneous detection of these drugs in the drinks we have studied the storage stability of the benzodiazepines under two different storage conditions, uncontrolled room temperature and refrigerator (4°C over a 25 day period. All drugs could be detected in all beverages over this time period. Diazepam was found to be stable in all of the beverages, except the J2O, under both storage conditions. Flunitrazepam and temazepam were found not to be stable but were detectable (97% loss of temazepam and 39% loss of flunitrazepam from J2O. The recommendations from this study are that there should be a policy change and that drinks thought to be involved in DFSA cases should be collected and analysed wherever possible to support other evidence types.

  6. Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault: Detection and Stability of Benzodiazepines in Spiked Drinks Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Lata; Sharratt, Sarah D.; Cole, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are detected in a significant number of drug facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA). Whilst blood and urine from the victim are routinely analysed, due to the delay in reporting DFSA cases and the short half lives of most of these drugs in blood and urine, drug detection in such samples is problematic. Consideration of the drinks involved and analysis for drugs may start to address this. Here we have reconstructed the ‘spiking’ of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, flunitrazepam and temazepam) into five drinks, an alcopop (flavoured alcoholic drink), a beer, a white wine, a spirit, and a fruit based non-alcoholic drink (J2O) chosen as representative of those drinks commonly used by women in 16–24 year old age group. Using a validated GC-MS method for the simultaneous detection of these drugs in the drinks we have studied the storage stability of the benzodiazepines under two different storage conditions, uncontrolled room temperature and refrigerator (4°C) over a 25 day period. All drugs could be detected in all beverages over this time period. Diazepam was found to be stable in all of the beverages, except the J2O, under both storage conditions. Flunitrazepam and temazepam were found not to be stable but were detectable (97% loss of temazepam and 39% loss of flunitrazepam from J2O). The recommendations from this study are that there should be a policy change and that drinks thought to be involved in DFSA cases should be collected and analysed wherever possible to support other evidence types. PMID:24586489

  7. [Can FT3 levels facilitate the detection of inflammation or catabolism and malnutrition in dialysis patients?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Reyes, M J; Sánchez, R; Heras, M; Tajada, P; Iglesias, P; García, L; García Arévalo, M C; Molina, A; Rodríguez, A; Alvarez-Ude, F

    2009-01-01

    with any data of fat mass. AMC was the only variable that independently correlated with FT3 levels in the multivariate regression analysis (r = 0,69; r2: 0,48; p = 0,000) Half of our dialysis patients have decreased levels of serum FT3 without alteration on FT4 or TSH. Low FT3 levels are correlated bioquimical and anthropometric parameters indicators of malnutrition and inflammation. Periodical measurement of FT3 levels could be used by clinicians as an accesible and reproducible method to detect such states.

  8. Quantitative detection and biological propagation of scrapie seeding activity in vitro facilitate use of prions as model pathogens for disinfection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pritzkow

    Full Text Available Prions are pathogens with an unusually high tolerance to inactivation and constitute a complex challenge to the re-processing of surgical instruments. On the other hand, however, they provide an informative paradigm which has been exploited successfully for the development of novel broad-range disinfectants simultaneously active also against bacteria, viruses and fungi. Here we report on the development of a methodological platform that further facilitates the use of scrapie prions as model pathogens for disinfection. We used specifically adapted serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA for the quantitative detection, on steel wires providing model carriers for decontamination, of 263K scrapie seeding activity converting normal protease-sensitive into abnormal protease-resistant prion protein. Reference steel wires carrying defined amounts of scrapie infectivity were used for assay calibration, while scrapie-contaminated test steel wires were subjected to fifteen different procedures for disinfection that yielded scrapie titre reductions of ≤10(1- to ≥10(5.5-fold. As confirmed by titration in hamsters the residual scrapie infectivity on test wires could be reliably deduced for all examined disinfection procedures, from our quantitative seeding activity assay. Furthermore, we found that scrapie seeding activity present in 263K hamster brain homogenate or multiplied by PMCA of scrapie-contaminated steel wires both triggered accumulation of protease-resistant prion protein and was further propagated in a novel cell assay for 263K scrapie prions, i.e., cerebral glial cell cultures from hamsters. The findings from our PMCA- and glial cell culture assays revealed scrapie seeding activity as a biochemically and biologically replicative principle in vitro, with the former being quantitatively linked to prion infectivity detected on steel wires in vivo. When combined, our in vitro assays provide an alternative to titrations of biological

  9. A configural dominant account of contextual cueing : configural cues are stronger than colour cues

    OpenAIRE

    Kunar, Melina A.; Johnston, Rebecca; Sweetman, Hollie

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has shown that reaction times to find a target in displays that have been repeated are faster than those for displays that have never been seen before. This learning effect, termed “contextual cueing” (CC), has been shown using contexts such as the configuration of the distractors in the display and the background colour. However, it is not clear how these two contexts interact to facilitate search. We investigated this here by comparing the strengths of these two cues when they...

  10. Drinkers’ memory bias for alcohol picture cues in explicit and implicit memory tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Louie, Tam T.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Ray, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol cues can bias attention and elicit emotional reactions, especially in drinkers. Yet, little is known about how alcohol cues affect explicit and implicit memory processes, and how memory for alcohol cues is affected by acute alcohol intoxication. Methods Young adult participants (N=161) were randomly assigned to alcohol, placebo, or control beverage conditions. Following beverage consumption, they were shown neutral, emotional and alcohol-related pictures cues. Participants then completed free recall and repetition priming tasks to test explicit and implicit memory, respectively, for picture cues. Average blood alcohol concentration for the alcohol group was 74 ± 13 mg/dl when memory testing began. Two mixed linear model analyses were conducted to examine the effects of beverage condition, picture cue type, and their interaction on explicit and implicit memory. Results Picture cue type and beverage condition each significantly affected explicit recall of picture cues, whereas only picture cue type significantly influenced repetition priming. Individuals in the alcohol condition recalled significantly fewer pictures than those in other conditions, regardless of cue type. Both free recall and repetition priming were greater for emotional and alcohol-related cues compared to neutral picture cues. No interaction effects were detected. Conclusions Young adult drinkers showed enhanced explicit and implicit memory processing of alcohol cues compared to emotionally neutral cues. This enhanced processing for alcohol cues was on par with that seen for positive emotional cues. Acute alcohol intoxication did not alter this preferential memory processing for alcohol cues over neutral cues. PMID:26811126

  11. Drinkers' memory bias for alcohol picture cues in explicit and implicit memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Louie, Tam T; Buckman, Jennifer F; Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol cues can bias attention and elicit emotional reactions, especially in drinkers. Yet, little is known about how alcohol cues affect explicit and implicit memory processes, and how memory for alcohol cues is affected by acute alcohol intoxication. Young adult participants (N=161) were randomly assigned to alcohol, placebo, or control beverage conditions. Following beverage consumption, they were shown neutral, emotional and alcohol-related pictures cues. Participants then completed free recall and repetition priming tasks to test explicit and implicit memory, respectively, for picture cues. Average blood alcohol concentration for the alcohol group was 74±13mg/dl when memory testing began. Two mixed linear model analyses were conducted to examine the effects of beverage condition, picture cue type, and their interaction on explicit and implicit memory. Picture cue type and beverage condition each significantly affected explicit recall of picture cues, whereas only picture cue type significantly influenced repetition priming. Individuals in the alcohol condition recalled significantly fewer pictures than those in other conditions, regardless of cue type. Both free recall and repetition priming were greater for emotional and alcohol-related cues compared to neutral picture cues. No interaction effects were detected. Young adult drinkers showed enhanced explicit and implicit memory processing of alcohol cues compared to emotionally neutral cues. This enhanced processing for alcohol cues was on par with that seen for positive emotional cues. Acute alcohol intoxication did not alter this preferential memory processing for alcohol cues over neutral cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mueller matrix microscope: a quantitative tool to facilitate detections and fibrosis scorings of liver cirrhosis and cancer tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; He, Honghui; Chang, Jintao; He, Chao; Liu, Shaoxiong; Li, Migao; Zeng, Nan; Wu, Jian; Ma, Hui

    2016-07-01

    Today the increasing cancer incidence rate is becoming one of the biggest threats to human health. Among all types of cancers, liver cancer ranks in the top five in both frequency and mortality rate all over the world. During the development of liver cancer, fibrosis often evolves as part of a healing process in response to liver damage, resulting in cirrhosis of liver tissues. In a previous study, we applied the Mueller matrix microscope to pathological liver tissue samples and found that both the Mueller matrix polar decomposition (MMPD) and Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) parameters are closely related to the fibrous microstructures. In this paper, we take this one step further to quantitatively facilitate the fibrosis detections and scorings of pathological liver tissue samples in different stages from cirrhosis to cancer using the Mueller matrix microscope. The experimental results of MMPD and MMT parameters for the fibrotic liver tissue samples in different stages are measured and analyzed. We also conduct Monte Carlo simulations based on the sphere birefringence model to examine in detail the influence of structural changes in different fibrosis stages on the imaging parameters. Both the experimental and simulated results indicate that the polarized light microscope and transformed Mueller matrix parameters can provide additional quantitative information helpful for fibrosis detections and scorings of liver cirrhosis and cancers. Therefore, the polarized light microscope and transformed Mueller matrix parameters have a good application prospect in liver cancer diagnosis.

  13. Clustering social cues to determine social signals: developing learning algorithms using the "n-most likely states" approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Andrew; Kapalo, Katelynn A.; Warta, Samantha F.; Fiore, Stephen M.

    2016-05-01

    Human-robot teaming largely relies on the ability of machines to respond and relate to human social signals. Prior work in Social Signal Processing has drawn a distinction between social cues (discrete, observable features) and social signals (underlying meaning). For machines to attribute meaning to behavior, they must first understand some probabilistic relationship between the cues presented and the signal conveyed. Using data derived from a study in which participants identified a set of salient social signals in a simulated scenario and indicated the cues related to the perceived signals, we detail a learning algorithm, which clusters social cue observations and defines an "N-Most Likely States" set for each cluster. Since multiple signals may be co-present in a given simulation and a set of social cues often maps to multiple social signals, the "N-Most Likely States" approach provides a dramatic improvement over typical linear classifiers. We find that the target social signal appears in a "3 most-likely signals" set with up to 85% probability. This results in increased speed and accuracy on large amounts of data, which is critical for modeling social cognition mechanisms in robots to facilitate more natural human-robot interaction. These results also demonstrate the utility of such an approach in deployed scenarios where robots need to communicate with human teammates quickly and efficiently. In this paper, we detail our algorithm, comparative results, and offer potential applications for robot social signal detection and machine-aided human social signal detection.

  14. Reactivity to nicotine cues over repeated cue reactivity sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRowe, Steven D.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether reactivity to nicotine-related cues would attenuate across four experimental sessions held one week apart. Participants were nineteen non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent males. Cue reactivity sessions were performed in an outpatient research center using in vivo cues consisting of standardized smoking-related paraphernalia (e.g., cigarettes) and neutral comparison paraphernalia (e.g., pencils). Craving ratings were collected before and after both cue presentations while physiological measures (heart rate, skin conductance) were collected before and during the cue presentations. Although craving levels decreased across sessions, smoking-related cues consistently evoked significantly greater increases in craving relative to neutral cues over all four experimental sessions. Skin conductance was higher in response to smoking cues, though this effect was not as robust as that observed for craving. Results suggest that, under the described experimental parameters, craving can be reliably elicited over repeated cue reactivity sessions. PMID:17537583

  15. Grabbing attention without knowing: Automatic capture of attention by subliminal spatial cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulckhuyse, Manon; Talsma, D.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The present study shows that an abrupt onset cue that is not consciously perceived can cause attentional facilitation followed by inhibition at the cued location. The observation of this classic biphasic effect of facilitation followed by inhibition of return (IOR) suggests that the subliminal cue

  16. Cues and expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorbjörg Hróarsdóttir

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of European languages have undergone a change from object-verb to verb-object order. We focus on the change in English and Icelandic, showing that while the structural change was the same, it took place at different times and different ways in the two languages, triggered by different E-language changes. As seen from the English viewpoint, low-level facts of inflection morphology may express the relevant cue for parameters, and so the loss of inflection may lead to a grammar change. This analysis does not carry over to Icelandic, as the loss of OV there took place despite rich case morphology. We aim to show how this can be explained within a cue-style approach, arguing for a universal set of cues. However, the relevant cue may be expressed differently among languages: While it may have been expressed through morphology in English, it as expressed through information structure in Icelandic. In both cases, external effects led to fewer expressions of the relevant (universal cue and a grammar change took place.

  17. Anticipatory coarticulation facilitates word recognition in toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahr, Tristan; McMillan, Brianna T. M.; Saffran, Jenny R.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Edwards, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Children learn from their environments and their caregivers. To capitalize on learning opportunities, young children have to recognize familiar words efficiently by integrating contextual cues across word boundaries. Previous research has shown that adults can use phonetic cues from anticipatory coarticulation during word recognition. We asked whether 18–24 month-olds (n = 29) used coarticulatory cues on the word “the” when recognizing the following noun. We performed a looking-while-listening eyetracking experiment to examine word recognition in neutral versus facilitating coarticulatory conditions. Participants looked to the target image significantly sooner when the determiner contained facilitating coarticulatory cues. These results provide the first evidence that novice word-learners can take advantage of anticipatory sub-phonemic cues during word recognition. PMID:26072992

  18. Combination of multiple measurement cues for visual face tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarakis, Nikolaos; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Visual face tracking is an important building block for all intelligent living and working spaces, as it is able to locate persons without any human intervention or the need for the users to carry sensors on themselves. In this paper we present a novel face tracking system built on a particle...... filtering framework that facilitates the use of non-linear visual measurements on the facial area. We concentrate on three different such non-linear visual measurement cues, namely object detection, foreground segmentation and colour matching. We derive robust measurement likelihoods under a unified...... representation scheme and fuse them into our face tracking algorithm. This algorithm is complemented with optimum selection of the particle filter’s object model and a target handling scheme. The resulting face tracking system is extensively evaluated and compared to baseline ones....

  19. Processing of invisible social cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbini, M Ida; Gors, Jason D; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Hughes, Howard C; Cipolli, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    Successful interactions between people are dependent on rapid recognition of social cues. We investigated whether head direction--a powerful social signal--is processed in the absence of conscious awareness. We used continuous flash interocular suppression to render stimuli invisible and compared the reaction time for face detection when faces were turned towards the viewer and turned slightly away. We found that faces turned towards the viewer break through suppression faster than faces that are turned away, regardless of eye direction. Our results suggest that detection of a face with attention directed at the viewer occurs even in the absence of awareness of that face. While previous work has demonstrated that stimuli that signal threat are processed without awareness, our data suggest that the social relevance of a face, defined more broadly, is evaluated in the absence of awareness. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Composition: Cue Wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performanc...

  1. Boosting Vocabulary Learning by Verbal Cueing During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Thomas; Rasch, Björn

    2015-11-01

    Reactivating memories during sleep by re-exposure to associated memory cues (e.g., odors or sounds) improves memory consolidation. Here, we tested for the first time whether verbal cueing during sleep can improve vocabulary learning. We cued prior learned Dutch words either during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NonREM) or during active or passive waking. Re-exposure to Dutch words during sleep improved later memory for the German translation of the cued words when compared with uncued words. Recall of uncued words was similar to an additional group receiving no verbal cues during sleep. Furthermore, verbal cueing failed to improve memory during active and passive waking. High-density electroencephalographic recordings revealed that successful verbal cueing during NonREM sleep is associated with a pronounced frontal negativity in event-related potentials, a higher frequency of frontal slow waves as well as a cueing-related increase in right frontal and left parietal oscillatory theta power. Our results indicate that verbal cues presented during NonREM sleep reactivate associated memories, and facilitate later recall of foreign vocabulary without impairing ongoing consolidation processes. Likewise, our oscillatory analysis suggests that both sleep-specific slow waves as well as theta oscillations (typically associated with successful memory encoding during wakefulness) might be involved in strengthening memories by cueing during sleep. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Looking for cues - infant communication of hunger and satiation during milk feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shloim, N; Vereijken, C M J L; Blundell, P; Hetherington, M M

    2017-01-01

    It is known that duration of breastfeeding and responsive feeding are associated with decreased risk of obesity. It is however, not clear whether breastfed infants signal more to mothers to facilitate responsive feeding, compared to formula fed, nor what communication cues are important during the feeding interaction. The present study aimed to explore feeding cues in milk-fed infants and to examine if such cues vary by mode of feeding. Twenty-seven mothers and infants were filmed while breastfeeding or formula feeding. Infants' age ranged from 3 to 22 weeks. Feeding cues were identified using a validated list of communication cues (NCAST). The frequency of each cue during the beginning, middle, and end of the meal was recorded. There were 22 feeding cues identified during the feeds, with significantly more frequent disengagement cues expressed than engagement cues. Significantly more frequent feeding cues were observed at the beginning than at the end of the meal showing that cue frequency changes with satiation. Breastfeeding infants exhibited more engagement and disengagement cues than formula fed infants. Supporting mothers to identify engagement and disengagement cues during a milk feed may promote more responsive feeding-strategies that can be acquired by mothers using different modes of feeding. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of similarity on environmental context cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven M; Handy, Justin D; Angello, Genna; Manzano, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the prediction that context cues which are similar to study contexts can facilitate episodic recall, even if those cues are never seen before the recall test. Environmental context cueing effects have typically produced such small effect sizes that influences of moderating factors, such as the similarity between encoding and retrieval contexts, would be difficult to observe experimentally. Videos of environmental contexts, however, can be used to produce powerful context-dependent memory effects, particularly when only one memory target is associated with each video context, intentional item-context encoding is encouraged, and free recall tests are used. Experiment 1 showed that a not previously viewed video of the study context provided an effective recall cue, although it was not as effective as the originally viewed video context. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that videos of environments that were conceptually similar to encoding contexts (e.g., both were videos of ball field games) also cued recall, but not as well if the encoding contexts were given specific labels (e.g., "home run") incompatible with test contexts (e.g., a soccer scene). A fourth experiment that used incidental item-context encoding showed that video context reinstatement has a robust effect on paired associate memory, indicating that the video context reinstatement effect does not depend on interactive item-context encoding or free recall testing.

  4. Assessment of rival males through the use of multiple sensory cues in the fruitfly Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris P Maguire

    Full Text Available Environments vary stochastically, and animals need to behave in ways that best fit the conditions in which they find themselves. The social environment is particularly variable, and responding appropriately to it can be vital for an animal's success. However, cues of social environment are not always reliable, and animals may need to balance accuracy against the risk of failing to respond if local conditions or interfering signals prevent them detecting a cue. Recent work has shown that many male Drosophila fruit flies respond to the presence of rival males, and that these responses increase their success in acquiring mates and fathering offspring. In Drosophila melanogaster males detect rivals using auditory, tactile and olfactory cues. However, males fail to respond to rivals if any two of these senses are not functioning: a single cue is not enough to produce a response. Here we examined cue use in the detection of rival males in a distantly related Drosophila species, D. pseudoobscura, where auditory, olfactory, tactile and visual cues were manipulated to assess the importance of each sensory cue singly and in combination. In contrast to D. melanogaster, male D. pseudoobscura require intact olfactory and tactile cues to respond to rivals. Visual cues were not important for detecting rival D. pseudoobscura, while results on auditory cues appeared puzzling. This difference in cue use in two species in the same genus suggests that cue use is evolutionarily labile, and may evolve in response to ecological or life history differences between species.

  5. Processing of Horizontal Sound Localization Cues in Newborn Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Renáta; Háden, Gábor P; Török, Miklós; Winkler, István

    2015-01-01

    By measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs), the authors tested the sensitivity of the newborn auditory cortex to sound lateralization and to the most common cues of horizontal sound localization. Sixty-eight healthy full-term newborn infants were presented with auditory oddball sequences composed of frequent and rare noise segments in four experimental conditions. The authors tested in them the detection of deviations in the primary cues of sound lateralization (interaural time and level difference) and in actual sound source location (free-field and monaural sound presentation). ERP correlates of deviance detection were measured in two time windows. Deviations in both primary sound localization cues and the ear of stimulation elicited a significant ERP difference in the early (90 to 140 msec) time window. Deviance in actual sound source location (the free-field condition) elicited a significant response in the late (290 to 340 msec) time window. The early differential response may indicate the detection of a change in the respective auditory features. The authors suggest that the late differential response, which was only elicited by actual sound source location deviation, reflects the detection of location deviance integrating the various cues of sound source location. Although the results suggest that all of the tested binaural cues are processed by the neonatal auditory cortex, utilizing the cues for locating sound sources of these cues may require maturation and learning.

  6. Cue conflicts in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Poulsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    When learning their first language, children develop strategies for assigning semantic roles to sentence structures, depending on morphosyntactic cues such as case and word order. Traditionally, comprehension experiments have presented transitive clauses in isolation, and crosslinguistically...... preschoolers. However, object-first clauses may be context-sensitive structures, which are infelicitous in isolation. In a second act-out study we presented OVS clauses in supportive and unsupportive discourse contexts and in isolation and found that five-to-six-year-olds’ OVS comprehension was enhanced...... in discourse-pragmatically felicitous contexts. Our results extend previous findings of preschoolers’ sensitivity to discourse-contextual cues in sentence comprehension (Hurewitz, 2001; Song & Fisher, 2005) to the basic task of assigning agent and patient roles....

  7. Expect the unexpected: a paradoxical effect of cue validity on the orienting of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollie, Ashley; Ivanoff, Jason; Webb, Nicole E; Jamieson, Andrew S

    2016-10-01

    Predictive central cues generate location-based expectancies, voluntary shifts of attention, and facilitate target processing. Often, location-based expectancies and voluntary attention are confounded in cueing tasks. Here we vary the predictability of central cues to determine whether they can evoke the inhibition of target processing in three go/no-go experiments. In the first experiment, the central cue was uninformative and did not predict the target's location. Importantly, these cues did not seem to affect target processing. In the second experiment, the central cue indicated the most or the least likely location of the target. Surprisingly, both types of cues facilitated target processing at the cued location. In the third experiment, the central cue predicted the most likely location of a no-go target, but it did not provide relevant information pertaining to the location of the go target. Again, the central cue facilitated processing of the go target. These results suggest that efforts to strategically allocate inhibition may be thwarted by the paradoxical monitoring of the cued location. The current findings highlight the need to further explore the relationship between location-based expectancies and spatial attention in cueing tasks.

  8. Mind your pricing cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric; Simester, Duncan

    2003-09-01

    For most of the items they buy, consumers don't have an accurate sense of what the price should be. Ask them to guess how much a four-pack of 35-mm film costs, and you'll get a variety of wrong answers: Most people will underestimate; many will only shrug. Research shows that consumers' knowledge of the market is so far from perfect that it hardly deserves to be called knowledge at all. Yet people happily buy film and other products every day. Is this because they don't care what kind of deal they're getting? No. Remarkably, it's because they rely on retailers to tell them whether they're getting a good price. In subtle and not-so-subtle ways, retailers send signals to customers, telling them whether a given price is relatively high or low. In this article, the authors review several common pricing cues retailers use--"sale" signs, prices that end in 9, signpost items, and price-matching guarantees. They also offer some surprising facts about how--and how well--those cues work. For instance, the authors' tests with several mail-order catalogs reveal that including the word "sale" beside a price can increase demand by more than 50%. The practice of using a 9 at the end of a price to denote a bargain is so common, you'd think customers would be numb to it. Yet in a study the authors did involving a women's clothing catalog, they increased demand by a third just by changing the price of a dress from $34 to $39. Pricing cues are powerful tools for guiding customers' purchasing decisions, but they must be applied judiciously. Used inappropriately, the cues may breach customers' trust, reduce brand equity, and give rise to lawsuits.

  9. Using a prostate exam simulator to decipher palpation techniques that facilitate the detection of abnormalities near clinical limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ninghuan; Gerling, Gregory J; Krupski, Tracey L; Childress, Reba Moyer; Martin, Marcus L

    2010-06-01

    Prostate carcinoma (and other prostate irregularities and abnormalities) is detected in part via the digital rectal examination. Training clinicians to use particular palpation techniques may be one way to improve the rates of detection. In an experiment of 34 participants with clinical backgrounds, we used a custom-built simulator to determine whether certain finger palpation techniques improved one's ability to detect abnormalities smaller in size and dispersed as multiples over a volume. The intent was to test abnormality cases of clinical relevance near the limits of size perceptibility (ie, 5-mm diameter). The simulator can present abnormalities in various configurations and record finger movement. To characterize finger movement, four palpation techniques were quantitatively defined (global finger movement, local finger movement, average intentional finger pressure, and dominant intentional finger frequency) to represent the qualitative definitions of other researchers. Participants who used more thorough patterns of global finger movement (V and L) ensured that the entire prostate was searched and detected more abnormalities. A higher magnitude of finger pressure was associated with the detection of smaller abnormalities. The local finger movement of firm pressure with varying intensities was most indicative of success and was required to identify the smallest (5-mm diameter) abnormality. When participants used firm pressure with varying intensities, their dominant intentional finger frequency was about 6 Hz. The use of certain palpation techniques does enable the detection of smaller and more numerous abnormalities, and we seek to abstract these techniques into a systematic protocol for use in the clinic.

  10. Measuring cues for stand-off deception detection based on full-body non-verbal features in body-worn cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Burghouts, G.J.; Hollander, R.J.M. den; Zee, S. van der; Baan, J.; Hove, R.J.M. ten; Diepen, C.J. van; Haak, W.P. van den; Rest, J. van

    2016-01-01

    Deception detection is valuable in the security domain to distinguish truth from lies. It is desirable in many security applications, such as suspect and witness interviews and airport passenger screening. Interviewers are constantly trying to assess the credibility of a statement, usually based on

  11. Looking for cues – infant communication of hunger and satiation during milk feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Shloim, N; Vereijkan, CMJL; Blundell, P.; Hetherington, MM

    2017-01-01

    It is known that duration of breastfeeding and responsive feeding are associated with decreased risk of obesity. It is however, not clear whether breastfed infants signal more to mothers to facilitate responsive feeding, compared to formula fed, nor what communication cues are important during the feeding interaction. The present study aimed to explore feeding cues in milk-fed infants and to examine if such cues vary by mode of feeding. Twenty-seven mothers and infants were filmed while breas...

  12. Acquisition of chemical recognition cues facilitates integration into ant societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Beeren Christoph

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social insects maintain the integrity of their societies by discriminating between colony members and foreigners through cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC signatures. Nevertheless, parasites frequently get access to social resources, for example through mimicry of host CHCs among other mechanisms. The origin of mimetic compounds, however, remains unknown in the majority of studies (biosynthesis vs. acquisition. Additionally, direct evidence is scarce that chemical mimicry is indeed beneficial to the parasites (e.g., by improving social acceptance. Results In the present study we demonstrated that the kleptoparasitic silverfish Malayatelura ponerophila most likely acquires CHCs directly from its host ant Leptogenys distinguenda by evaluating the transfer of a stable-isotope label from the cuticle of workers to the silverfish. In a second experiment, we prevented CHC pilfering by separating silverfish from their host for six or nine days. Chemical host resemblance as well as aggressive rejection behaviour by host ants was then quantified for unmanipulated and previously separated individuals. Separated individuals showed reduced chemical host resemblance and they received significantly more aggressive rejection behaviour than unmanipulated individuals. Conclusion Our study clarifies the mechanism of chemical mimicry in a social insect parasite in great detail. It shows empirically for the first time that social insect parasites are able to acquire CHCs from their host. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the accuracy of chemical mimicry can be crucial for social insect parasites by enhancing social acceptance and, thus, allowing successful exploitation. We discuss the results in the light of coevolutionary arms races between parasites and hosts.

  13. Combined bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry and Masson trichrome staining: facilitated detection of cell proliferation in viable vs. infarcted myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarous, D F; Shou, M; Unger, E F

    1992-09-01

    Cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle can be identified in tissue sections by immunohistochemical localization of the thymidine analogue bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Generally, a single counterstain is used to visualize the underlying tissue; however, interpretation of morphologic detail is often difficult. We have utilized BrdU to localize proliferating cells in myocardium exposed to angiogenic mitogens. To facilitate identification of labelled nuclei in the context of infarcted vs. viable myocardium, BrdU immunohistochemistry was followed by a modified Masson trichrome stain. The time of exposure to the counterstains and the wash protocol were re-revised, permitting clear identification of the labelled brown nuclei against a background of red viable myocardium vs. blue infarct. The combined technique also provides color contrast suitable for computer-based image analysis.

  14. Helmets: conventional to cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedillo, Michael R.; Dixon, Sharon A.

    2003-09-01

    Aviation helmets have always served as an interface between technology and flyers. The functional evolution of helmets continued with the advent of radio when helmets were modified to accept communication components and later, oxygen masks. As development matured, interest in safety increased as evident in more robust designs. Designing helmets became a balance between adding new capabilities and reducing the helmet's weight. As the research community better defined acceptable limits of weight-tolerances with tools such as the "Knox Box" criteria, system developers added and subtracted technologies while remaining within these limits. With most helmet-mounted technologies being independent of each other, the level of precision in mounting these technologies was not as significant a concern as it is today. The attachment of new components was acceptable as long as the components served their purpose. However this independent concept has become obsolete with the dawn of modern helmet mounted displays. These complex systems are interrelated and demand precision in their attachment to the helmet. The helmets' role now extends beyond serving as a means to mount the technologies to the head, but is now instrumental in critical visual alignment of complex night vision and missile cueing technologies. These new technologies demand a level of helmet fit and component alignment previously not seen in past helmet designs. This paper presents some of the design, integration and logistical issues gleaned during the development of the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) to include the application of head-track technologies in forensic investigations.

  15. Interaction of Object Binding Cues in Binaural Masking Pattern Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Jesko L; Lübken, Björn; van de Par, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Object binding cues such as binaural and across-frequency modulation cues are likely to be used by the auditory system to separate sounds from different sources in complex auditory scenes. The present study investigates the interaction of these cues in a binaural masking pattern paradigm where a sinusoidal target is masked by a narrowband noise. It was hypothesised that beating between signal and masker may contribute to signal detection when signal and masker do not spectrally overlap but that this cue could not be used in combination with interaural cues. To test this hypothesis an additional sinusoidal interferer was added to the noise masker with a lower frequency than the noise whereas the target had a higher frequency than the noise. Thresholds increase when the interferer is added. This effect is largest when the spectral interferer-masker and masker-target distances are equal. The result supports the hypothesis that modulation cues contribute to signal detection in the classical masking paradigm and that these are analysed with modulation bandpass filters. A monaural model including an across-frequency modulation process is presented that account for this effect. Interestingly, the interferer also affects dichotic thresholds indicating that modulation cues also play a role in binaural processing.

  16. Augmented Reality Cues and Elderly Driver Hazard Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Mark C.; Rusch, Michelle L.; Lee, John D.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Thomas, Geb; Aksan, Nazan; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effectiveness of augmented reality (AR) cues in improving driving safety in elderly drivers who are at increased crash risk due to cognitive impairments. Background Cognitively challenging driving environments pose a particular crash risk for elderly drivers. AR cueing is a promising technology to mitigate risk by directing driver attention to roadway hazards. This study investigates whether AR cues improve or interfere with hazard perception in elderly drivers with age-related cognitive decline. Methods Twenty elderly (Mean= 73 years, SD= 5 years), licensed drivers with a range of cognitive abilities measured by a speed of processing (SOP) composite participated in a one-hour drive in an interactive, fixed-base driving simulator. Each participant drove through six, straight, six-mile-long rural roadway scenarios following a lead vehicle. AR cues directed attention to potential roadside hazards in three of the scenarios, and the other three were uncued (baseline) drives. Effects of AR cueing were evaluated with respect to: 1) detection of hazardous target objects, 2) interference with detecting nonhazardous secondary objects, and 3) impairment in maintaining safe distance behind a lead vehicle. Results AR cueing improved the detection of hazardous target objects of low visibility. AR cues did not interfere with detection of nonhazardous secondary objects and did not impair ability to maintain safe distance behind a lead vehicle. SOP capacity did not moderate those effects. Conclusion AR cues show promise for improving elderly driver safety by increasing hazard detection likelihood without interfering with other driving tasks such as maintaining safe headway. PMID:23829037

  17. Memory for emotional picture cues during acute alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suchismita; Mun, Eun-Young; Buckman, Jennifer F; Udo, Tomoko; Bates, Marsha E

    2012-09-01

    Memory affects behavior by allowing events to be anticipated and goals to be planned based on previous experiences. Emotional memory, in particular, is thought to play a central role in behavior in general and in drinking behavior in particular. Alcohol intoxication has been shown to disrupt intentional, conscious memory, but not unintentional, implicit memory for neutral stimuli; however, its effects on emotional memory are not well understood. This study examined whether alcohol intoxication affected memory for emotionally valenced stimuli by testing explicit recall and implicit repetition priming of emotional picture cues. Participants were 36 young adults (21-24 years old, 16 women) who received an alcohol, placebo, or no-alcohol beverage. Both cue exposure and memory testing occurred after beverage consumption (i.e., during intoxication for the alcohol group). Alcohol intoxication impaired explicit recall of all cue types but did not impair implicit repetition priming. Emotionally negative and positive cues were more often recalled compared with neutral cues across all beverage groups, and emotionally negative cues demonstrated more priming than emotionally positive or neutral cues in all beverage groups. Alcohol intoxication disrupted effortful recall of all cues, although the relative memory advantage of emotionally valenced over-neutral stimuli remained even after drinking. The effects of alcohol on unintentional memory priming were not statistically significant, but the effects of emotionally negative cues were. Further research is needed to better understand alcohol intoxication and emotional valence effects on memory processes during implicit memory tasks and the possibility that negative mood facilitates memory priming of negative emotional stimuli.

  18. Memory for Emotional Picture Cues During Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suchismita; Mun, Eun-Young; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Udo, Tomoko; Bates, Marsha E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Memory affects behavior by allowing events to be anticipated and goals to be planned based on previous experiences. Emotional memory, in particular, is thought to play a central role in behavior in general and in drinking behavior in particular. Alcohol intoxication has been shown to disrupt intentional, conscious memory, but not unintentional, implicit memory for neutral stimuli; however, its effects on emotional memory are not well understood. This study examined whether alcohol intoxication affected memory for emotionally valenced stimuli by testing explicit recall and implicit repetition priming of emotional picture cues. Method: Participants were 36 young adults (21–24 years old, 16 women) who received an alcohol, placebo, or no-alcohol beverage. Both cue exposure and memory testing occurred after beverage consumption (i.e., during intoxication for the alcohol group). Results: Alcohol intoxication impaired explicit recall of all cue types but did not impair implicit repetition priming. Emotionally negative and positive cues were more often recalled compared with neutral cues across all beverage groups, and emotionally negative cues demonstrated more priming than emotionally positive or neutral cues in all beverage groups. Conclusions: Alcohol intoxication disrupted effortful recall of all cues, although the relative memory advantage of emotionally valenced over-neutral stimuli remained even after drinking. The effects of alcohol on unintentional memory priming were not statistically significant, but the effects of emotionally negative cues were. Further research is needed to better understand alcohol intoxication and emotional valence effects on memory processes during implicit memory tasks and the possibility that negative mood facilitates memory priming of negative emotional stimuli. PMID:22846235

  19. Going beyond information given: how approach versus avoidance cues influence access to higher order information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuschel, S.; Förster, J.; Denzler, M.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examine the hypothesis that subtle cues of approach orientation facilitate access to higher order information, whereas subtle cues of avoidance orientation impede it. To test these predictions, in two studies, a backward-masking paradigm thought to measure access to higher order

  20. Cue reactivity towards shopping cues in female participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcke, Katrin; Schlereth, Berenike; Domass, Debora; Schöler, Tobias; Brand, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims It is currently under debate whether pathological buying can be considered as a behavioural addiction. Addictions have often been investigated with cue-reactivity paradigms to assess subjective, physiological and neural craving reactions. The current study aims at testing whether cue reactivity towards shopping cues is related to pathological buying tendencies. Methods A sample of 66 non-clinical female participants rated shopping related pictures concerning valence, arousal, and subjective craving. In a subgroup of 26 participants, electrodermal reactions towards those pictures were additionally assessed. Furthermore, all participants were screened concerning pathological buying tendencies and baseline craving for shopping. Results Results indicate a relationship between the subjective ratings of the shopping cues and pathological buying tendencies, even if baseline craving for shopping was controlled for. Electrodermal reactions were partly related to the subjective ratings of the cues. Conclusions Cue reactivity may be a potential correlate of pathological buying tendencies. Thus, pathological buying may be accompanied by craving reactions towards shopping cues. Results support the assumption that pathological buying can be considered as a behavioural addiction. From a methodological point of view, results support the view that the cue-reactivity paradigm is suited for the investigation of craving reactions in pathological buying and future studies should implement this paradigm in clinical samples.

  1. Randomized trial of automated, electronic monitoring to facilitate early detection of sepsis in the intensive care unit*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael H; Weavind, Lisa; Wheeler, Arthur P; Martin, Jason B; Gowda, Supriya Srinivasa; Semler, Matthew W; Hayes, Rachel M; Albert, Daniel W; Deane, Norment B; Nian, Hui; Mathe, Janos L; Nadas, Andras; Sztipanovits, Janos; Miller, Anne; Bernard, Gordon R; Rice, Todd W

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether automated identification with physician notification of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in medical intensive care unit patients expedites early administration of new antibiotics or improvement of other patient outcomes in patients with sepsis. : A prospective randomized, controlled, single center study. Medical intensive care unit of an academic, tertiary care medical center. Four hundred forty-two consecutive patients admitted over a 4-month period who met modified systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria in a medical intensive care unit. Patients were randomized to monitoring by an electronic "Listening Application" to detect modified (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) criteria vs. usual care. The listening application notified physicians in real time when modified systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria were detected, but did not provide management recommendations. The median time to new antibiotics was similar between the intervention and usual care groups when comparing among all patients (6.0 hr vs. 6.1 hr, p = .95), patients with sepsis (5.3 hr vs. 5.1 hr; p = .90), patients on antibiotics at enrollment (5.2 hr vs. 7.0 hr, p = .27), or patients not on antibiotics at enrollment (5.2 hr vs. 5.1 hr, p = .85). The amount of fluid administered following detection of modified systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria was similar between groups whether comparing all patients or only patients who were hypotensive at enrollment. Other clinical outcomes including intensive care unit length of stay, hospital length of stay, and mortality were not shown to be different between patients in the intervention and control groups. Realtime alerts of modified systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria to physicians in one tertiary care medical intensive care unit were feasible and safe but did not influence measured therapeutic interventions for sepsis or significantly alter clinical outcomes.

  2. Detection of impaired IgG antibody formation facilitates the decision on early immunoglobulin replacement in hypogammaglobulinemic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Maximilian Wolf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypogammaglobulinemia (serum IgG lower than 2SD below the age-matched mean and clinical symptoms such as increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmune manifestations, granulomatous disease, unexplained polyclonal lymphoproliferation are considered to be diagnostic hallmarks in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID, the most frequent clinically severe primary immunodeficiency syndrome. In the present study we investigated patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and no clinical or immunological signs of defective cell-mediated immunity and differentiated two groups on the basis of their IgG antibody formation capacity against a variety of different antigens (bacterial toxins, polysaccharide antigens, viral antigens. Patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and intact antibody production (HIAP displayed no or only mild susceptibility to infections, while CVID patients showed marked susceptibility to bacterial infections that normalized following initiation of IVIG or SCIG replacement therapy. There was a substantial overlap in IgG serum levels between the asymptomatic HIAP group and the CVID patients examined before immunoglobulin treatment. HIAP patients showed normal levels of switched B memory cells (CD19+CD27+IgD-, while both decreased and normal levels of switched B memory cells could be found in CVID patients. IgG antibody response to a primary antigen, tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV, was defective in CVID patients, thus confirming their substantial defect in IgG antibody production. Defective IgG antibody production against multiple antigens could also be demonstrated in an adult patient with recurrent infections but normal IgG levels. To facilitate early treatment before recurrent infections may lead to organ damage the antibody formation capacity should be examined in hypogammaglobulinemic patients and the decision to treat should be based on the finding of impaired IgG antibody production.

  3. Detection of impaired IgG antibody formation facilitates the decision on early immunoglobulin replacement in hypogammaglobulinemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Hermann M; Thon, Vojtech; Litzman, Jiri; Eibl, Martha M

    2015-01-01

    Hypogammaglobulinemia (serum IgG lower than 2 SD below the age-matched mean) and clinical symptoms such as increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmune manifestations, granulomatous disease, and unexplained polyclonal lymphoproliferation are considered to be diagnostic hallmarks in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most frequent clinically severe primary immunodeficiency syndrome. In the present study, we investigated patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and no clinical or immunological signs of defective cell-mediated immunity and differentiated two groups on the basis of their IgG antibody formation capacity against a variety of different antigens (bacterial toxins, polysaccharide antigens, viral antigens). Patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and intact antibody production (HIAP) displayed no or only mild susceptibility to infections, while CVID patients showed marked susceptibility to bacterial infections that normalized following initiation of IVIG or subcutaneous immunoglobulin replacement therapy. There was a substantial overlap in IgG serum levels between the asymptomatic HIAP group and the CVID patients examined before immunoglobulin treatment. HIAP patients showed normal levels of switched B-memory cells (CD19(+)CD27(+)IgD(-)), while both decreased and normal levels of switched B-memory cells could be found in CVID patients. IgG antibody response to a primary antigen, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), was defective in CVID patients, thus confirming their substantial defect in IgG antibody production. Defective IgG antibody production against multiple antigens could also be demonstrated in an adult patient with recurrent infections but normal IgG levels. To facilitate early treatment before recurrent infections may lead to organ damage, the antibody formation capacity should be examined in hypogammaglobulinemic patients and the decision to treat should be based on the finding of impaired IgG antibody production.

  4. The Effects of Spatial Endogenous Pre-cueing across Eccentricities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequently, we use expectations about likely locations of a target to guide the allocation of our attention. Despite the importance of this attentional process in everyday tasks, examination of pre-cueing effects on attention, particularly endogenous pre-cueing effects, has been relatively little explored outside an eccentricity of 20°. Given the visual field has functional subdivisions that attentional processes can differ significantly among the foveal, perifoveal, and more peripheral areas, how endogenous pre-cues that carry spatial information of targets influence our allocation of attention across a large visual field (especially in the more peripheral areas remains unclear. We present two experiments examining how the expectation of the location of the target shapes the distribution of attention across eccentricities in the visual field. We measured participants’ ability to pick out a target among distractors in the visual field after the presentation of a highly valid cue indicating the size of the area in which the target was likely to occur, or the likely direction of the target (left or right side of the display. Our first experiment showed that participants had a higher target detection rate with faster responses, particularly at eccentricities of 20° and 30°. There was also a marginal advantage of pre-cueing effects when trials of the same size cue were blocked compared to when trials were mixed. Experiment 2 demonstrated a higher target detection rate when the target occurred at the cued direction. This pre-cueing effect was greater at larger eccentricities and with a longer cue-target interval. Our findings on the endogenous pre-cueing effects across a large visual area were summarized using a simple model to assist in conceptualizing the modifications of the distribution of attention over the visual field. We discuss our finding in light of cognitive penetration of perception, and highlight the importance of examining

  5. Reporter Gene-Facilitated Detection of Compounds in Arabidopsis Leaf Extracts that Activate the Karrikin Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueming K; Flematti, Gavin R; Smith, Steven M; Waters, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Karrikins are potent germination stimulants generated by the combustion of plant matter. Treatment of Arabidopsis with karrikins triggers a signaling process that is dependent upon a putative receptor protein KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2). KAI2 is a homolog of DWARF 14 (D14), the receptor for endogenous strigolactone hormones. Genetic analyses suggest that KAI2 also perceives endogenous signal(s) that are not strigolactones. Activation of KAI2 by addition of karrikins to Arabidopsis plants induces expression of transcripts including D14-LIKE 2 (DLK2). We constructed the synthetic reporter gene DLK2:LUC in Arabidopsis, which comprises the firefly luciferase gene (LUC) driven by the DLK2 promoter. Here we describe a luminescence-based reporter assay with Arabidopsis seeds to detect chemical signals that can activate the KAI2 signaling pathway. We demonstrate that the DLK2:LUC assay can selectively and sensitively detect karrikins and a functionally similar synthetic strigolactone analog. Crucially we show that crude extracts from Arabidopsis leaves can also activate DLK2:LUC in a KAI2-dependent manner. Our work provides the first direct evidence for the existence of endogenous chemical signals that can activate the KAI2-mediated signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. This sensitive reporter system can now be used for the bioassay-guided purification and identification of putative endogenous KAI2 ligands or their precursors, and endogenous compounds that might modulate the KAI2 signaling pathway.

  6. Temporal aspects of cue combination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mierlo, C.M.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    The human brain processes different kinds of information (or cues) independently with different neural latencies. How does the brain deal with these differences in neural latency when it combines cues into one estimate? To find out, we introduced artificial asynchronies between the moments that

  7. Windows of detection of tetrazepam in urine, oral fluid, beard, and hair, with a special focus on drug-facilitated crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concheiro, Marta; Villain, Marion; Bouchet, Stéphane; Ludes, Bertrand; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Kintz, Pascal

    2005-10-01

    Reducing the capacity of a victim to react against sexual assault, coupled with a possible abrupt unconsciousness-inducing effect and ease of administration in spiked drinks, have resulted in the use of sedative agents in cases of drug-facilitated offence. Among these compounds, tetrazepam may impair an individual rapidly. The chances of detecting this substance increase if the most sensitive methods are used and if the biologic matrix that allows the longest possible detection time is available. To document the window of detection of tetrazepam, 50 mg of the drug was administered orally to 2 volunteers, and the following samples were collected: oral fluid (n = 1) over 515 minutes, urine (n = 2) over 236-240 hours, hair (n = 2) 4 weeks after exposure, and beard (n = 1) over 34 days. Tetrazepam was analyzed by LC-MS/MS (Micromass Quattro Micro) after alkalinization and extraction by dichloromethane/diethyl ether in the presence of diazepam-d5, used as internal standard. Reversed-phase separation on an XTerra MS C18 column was achieved in 12 minutes, under gradient conditions. Pseudo-molecular ions selected were m/z 289.2 and 290.2 for tetrazepam and the internal standard (IS), respectively, and the corresponding daughter ions selected were m/z 225.2 and 253.2 for tetrazepam and m/z 154.1 and 198.3 for the IS. Urine tested positive for tetrazepam over 236-240 hours (14-13 ng/mL). Oral fluid tested positive for tetrazepam over 515 minutes (2.5 ng/mL). Tetrazepam was detected in beard over 27 days (6.5 pg/mg). A single tetrazepam dose was detected in hair 4 weeks after intake (123-175 pg/mg). Tetrazepam tested positive over the studied time intervals but would be expected to be detectable for a considerably longer time. Therefore, in cases of drug-facilitated crimes in which tetrazepam is involved, hair and beard analyses can be an important complement to urine analyses to document exposure, particularly if LC-MS/MS is used.

  8. Facilitation of Simple Concept Identification Through Mnemonic Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, James C.; Meyer, Philip A.

    1976-01-01

    Many studies have confirmed that mnemonic techniques facilitate the acquisition and retention of information. It was hypothesized that, through the reduction of errors in component memory for dimensions (hypotheses, cues, etc.), such techniques should improve performance on conceptual tasks. (Editor)

  9. Lateralized ERP components related to spatial orienting: discriminating the direction of attention from processing sensory aspects of the cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Ellen M M; Smulders, Fren T Y; Van der Heiden, Joep S H

    2007-11-01

    Two spatial cueing experiments were conducted to examine the functional significance of lateralized ERP components after cue-onset and to discriminate components related to sensory cue aspects and components related to the direction of attention. In Experiment 1, a simple detection task was presented. In Experiment 2, attentional selection was augmented. Two unimodal visual cueing tasks were presented using nonlateralized line cues and lateralized arrow cues. Lateralized cue effects and modulation after stimulus onset were stronger in Experiment 2. An early posterior component was related to the physical shape of arrows. A posterior negativity (EDAN) may be related to the encoding of direction from arrow cues. An anterior negativity (ADAN) and a posterior positivity (LDAP) were related to the direction of attention. The ADAN was delayed when it was more difficult to derive cue meaning. Finally, the data suggested an overlap of the LDAP and the EDAN.

  10. Plasmonics-based detection of H2 and CO: discrimination between reducing gases facilitated by material control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanaprakash Dharmalingam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring emissions in high-temperature-combustion applications is very important for regulating the discharge of gases such as NO2 and CO as well as unburnt fuel into the environment. This work reports the detection of H2 and CO gases by employing a metal–metal oxide nanocomposite (gold–yttria stabilized zirconia (Au–YSZ film fabricated through layer-by-layer physical vapor deposition (PVD. The change in the peak position of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR was monitored as a function of time and gas concentration. The responses of the films were preferential towards H2, as observed from the results of exposing the films to the gases at temperatures of 500 °C in a background of dry air. Characterization of the samples by XRD and SEM enabled the correlation of material properties with the differences in the CO- and H2-induced LSPR peak shifts, including the relative desensitization towards NO2. Sensing characteristics of films with varying support thicknesses and metal-particle diameters have been studied, and the results are presented. A comparison has been made to films fabricated through co-sputtered PVD, and the calibration curves of the sensing response show a preferential response towards H2. The distinction between H2 and CO responses is also seen through the use of principal-component analysis (PCA. Such material arrangements, which can be tuned for their selectivity by changing certain parameters such as particle size, support thickness, etc., have direct applications within optical chemical sensors for turbine engines, solid-oxide fuel cells, and other high-temperature applications.

  11. Trait anxiety reduces implicit expectancy during target spatial probability cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Nick; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2013-04-01

    Trait anxiety is associated with selective attentional biases to threat but also with more general impairments in attentional control, primarily supported in tasks involving distractor inhibition. Here, we investigated the novel prediction that anxiety should modulate expectation formation in response to task contingencies. Participants completed a visual search task, where briefly presented color cues predicted subsequent target spatial location on the majority of trials. Responses made in the absence of conscious awareness of cue-target contingency resulted in significantly faster RTs for cue-valid versus invalid trials, but only for low anxious participants; high anxiety eliminated evidence of cueing. This finding suggests that impairments to attentional control in anxiety also affect subtle rule-based learning and predictive coding of expectation. We discuss whether a lack of prediction in anxious behavior may reflect known deficits in attentional control, or may form part of a strategy to promote effective threat detection. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Detection costs and contingent attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhammer, Josef G; Kerzel, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Peripheral cues reduce reaction times (RTs) to targets at the cued location with short cue-target SOAs (cueing benefits) but increase RTs at long SOAs (cueing costs or inhibition of return). In detection tasks, cueing costs occur at shorter SOAs and are larger compared with identification tasks. To account for effects of task, detection cost theory claims that the integration of cue and target into an object file makes it more difficult to detect the target as a new event, which is the principal task-requirement in detection tasks. The integration of cue and target is expected to increase when cue and target are similar. We provided evidence for detection cost theory in the modified spatial cueing paradigm. Two types of cues (onset, color) were paired with two types of targets (onset, color) in separate blocks of trials. In the identification task, we found cueing benefits with matching (i.e., similar) cue-target pairs (onset-onset, color-color) and no cueing effects with nonmatching cue-target pairs (onset-color, color-onset), which replicates previous work. In the detection task, cueing effects with matching cues were reduced and even turned into cueing costs for onset cues with onset targets, suggesting that cue-target integration made it more difficult to detect targets at the cued location as new events. In contrast, the results for nonmatching cue-target pairs were not affected by task. Furthermore, the pattern of false alarms in the detection task provides a measure of similarity that may explain the size of cueing benefits and costs.

  13. Detection and Identification of Rare Audiovisual Cues

    CERN Document Server

    Anemüller, Jörn; Gool, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Machine learning builds models of the world using training data from the application domain and prior knowledge about the problem. The models are later applied to future data in order to estimate the current state of the world. An implied assumption is that the future is stochastically similar to the past. The approach fails when the system encounters situations that are not anticipated from the past experience. In contrast, successful natural organisms identify new unanticipated stimuli and situations and frequently generate appropriate responses. The observation described above lead to the initiation of the DIRAC EC project in 2006. In 2010 a workshop was held, aimed to bring together researchers and students from different disciplines in order to present and discuss new approaches for identifying and reacting to unexpected events in information-rich environments. This book includes a summary of the achievements of the DIRAC project in chapter 1, and a collection of the papers presented in this workshop in ...

  14. Gaze Cueing by Pareidolia Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon. While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process.

  15. Visual form Cues, Biological Motions, Auditory Cues, and Even Olfactory Cues Interact to Affect Visual Sex Discriminations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Van Der Zwan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Johnson and Tassinary (2005 proposed that visually perceived sex is signalled by structural or form cues. They suggested also that biological motion cues signal sex, but do so indirectly. We previously have shown that auditory cues can mediate visual sex perceptions (van der Zwan et al., 2009. Here we demonstrate that structural cues to body shape are alone sufficient for visual sex discriminations but that biological motion cues alone are not. Interestingly, biological motions can resolve ambiguous structural cues to sex, but so can olfactory cues even when those cues are not salient. To accommodate these findings we propose an alternative model of the processes mediating visual sex discriminations: Form cues can be used directly if they are available and unambiguous. If there is any ambiguity other sensory cues are used to resolve it, suggesting there may exist sex-detectors that are stimulus independent.

  16. Application of Innovation Test in Cueing and Handoff with Intermittent Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cueing and handoff between sensors with intermittent observation is deeply analyzed. This paper first analyzes the cueing and handoff demand and applies IMM-UKF algorithm to design the multi-sensor fusion tracking model. Then the innovation test and fuzzy functions are adopted to form the triggering criterions between the passive sensors and radar. Finally the simulation verifies the criterions and discusses the influence of detection probability in cueing and handoff.

  17. An internal standard approach for homogeneous TR-FRET immunoassays facilitates the detection of bacteria, biomarkers, and toxins in complex matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Noam; Zahavy, Eran; Zichel, Ran; Fisher, Morly

    2016-07-01

    The recent development of a homogeneous time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) immunoassay enables one-step, rapid (minutes), and direct detection compared to the multistep, time-consuming (hours), heterogeneous ELISA-type immunoassays. The use of the time-resolved effect of a donor lanthanide complex with a delay time of microseconds and large Stokes shift enables the separation of positive signals from the background autofluorescence of the sample. However, this study shows that the sample matrices directly interfere with donor fluorescence and that interference cannot be eliminated by time-resolved settings alone. Moreover, the reduction in donor emission did not appear to be equivalent to the reduction in acceptor emission, resulting in incorrect FRET signal measurements. To overcome this limitation, an internal standard approach was developed using an isotype control antibody. This new approach was used to develop TR-FRET assays for rapid detection (15-30 min) of Bacillus anthracis spores and botulinum toxin (type E) in beverages, which are major concerns in bioterrorism involving deliberate food contamination. Additionally, we demonstrate the detection of B. anthracis-secreted protective antigen (PA) and the Yersinia pestis-secreted markers F1 and LcrV in blood cultures, which are early markers of bacteremia in infected hosts following a possible bioterror attack. The use of an internal standard enables the calculation of correct ΔF values without the need for an external standard. Thus, the use of the internal standard approach in homogeneous immunoassays facilitates the examination of any sample regardless of its origin, and therefore expands the applicability of TR-FRET assays for complex matrices.

  18. Playing facilitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Ellen; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    t: This paper presents reflections on the role of teachers as facilitators, in a context of role-play targeting learning of design thinking skills. Our study was conducted according to the method of visual ethnography. We acted as facilitators for 50 students through the yearly six-day competitive...... event called InnoEvent, addressed to students in the fields of multimedia and healthcare. Being interested in studying games and role-play as tools to support independent learning in the field of design thinking and team-building, following Dewey’s (1938) theory of learning experience, we ran two...... workshops based on two classic role-play games: The Silent Game (Brandt, 2006) and The Six Thinking Hats (de Bono, 1985). These games were created to support students in learning design thinking in groups and are assigned positive values in literature, hence we expected a smooth process. However, our...

  19. The impact of emotion upon eating behavior: the role of subliminal visual processing of threat cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C; Waller, G

    1999-04-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that subliminal threat cues can influence eating behavior. The present study examined whether this effect is due to general emotional activation (by comparing positive and negative emotional cues), whether it is a product of specific negative emotional activation, and whether it can be achieved by activating appetite-related schemata. One hundred women avoided food for at least 4 hr and then completed a task where they were exposed to one of five subliminal visual cues. The dependent variable was the amount eaten subsequently. Women who were exposed to the abandonment cue (lonely) ate significantly more than those who were exposed to the neutral cue (gallery), the positive emotional cue (happy), or the appetitive cue (hungry). Those with unhealthy eating attitudes also ate more after the hostile emotion cue (angry) than after the neutral cue. The results support cognitive models that stress an important role for threat processing in the facilitation of eating, rather than models advocating the centrality of food-related information. Abandonment schemata appear to be activated at an earlier stage than appetite-related schemata.

  20. Acoustic cues to Nehiyawewin constituency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Clare; Muehlbauer, Jeff

    2005-04-01

    This study examines how speakers use acoustic cues, e.g., pitch and pausing, to establish syntactic and semantic constituents in Nehiyawewin, an Algonquian language. Two Nehiyawewin speakers autobiographies, which have been recorded, transcribed, and translated by H. C. Wolfart in collaboration with a native speaker of Nehiyawewin, provide natural-speech data for the study. Since it is difficult for a non-native-speaker to reliably distinguish Nehiyawewin constituents, an intermediary is needed. The transcription provides this intermediary through punctuation marks (commas, semi-colons, em-dashes, periods), which have been shown to consistently mark constituency structure [Nunberg, CSLI 1990]. The acoustic cues are thus mapped onto the punctuated constituents, and then similar constituents are compared to see what acoustic cues they share. Preliminarily, the clearest acoustic signal to a constituent boundary is a pitch drop preceding the boundary and/or a pitch reset on the syllable following the boundary. Further, constituent boundaries marked by a period consistently end on a low pitch, are followed by a pitch reset of 30-90 Hz and have an average pause of 1.9 seconds. I also discuss cross-speaker cues, and prosodic cues that do not correlate to punctuation, with implications for the transcriptional view of orthography [Marckwardt, Oxford 1942].

  1. Discrimination and streaming of speech sounds based on differences in interaural and spectral cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Marion; Lavandier, Mathieu; Grimault, Nicolas; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2017-09-01

    Differences in spatial cues, including interaural time differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs) and spectral cues, can lead to stream segregation of alternating noise bursts. It is unknown how effective such cues are for streaming sounds with realistic spectro-temporal variations. In particular, it is not known whether the high-frequency spectral cues associated with elevation remain sufficiently robust under such conditions. To answer these questions, sequences of consonant-vowel tokens were generated and filtered by non-individualized head-related transfer functions to simulate the cues associated with different positions in the horizontal and median planes. A discrimination task showed that listeners could discriminate changes in interaural cues both when the stimulus remained constant and when it varied between presentations. However, discrimination of changes in spectral cues was much poorer in the presence of stimulus variability. A streaming task, based on the detection of repeated syllables in the presence of interfering syllables, revealed that listeners can use both interaural and spectral cues to segregate alternating syllable sequences, despite the large spectro-temporal differences between stimuli. However, only the full complement of spatial cues (ILDs, ITDs, and spectral cues) resulted in obligatory streaming in a task that encouraged listeners to integrate the tokens into a single stream.

  2. Nature of Predation Risk Cues in Container Systems: Mosquito Responses to Solid Residues From Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    KESAVARAJU, BANUGOPAN; JULIANO, STEVEN A.

    2012-01-01

    In aquatic systems, prey animals associate predation risk with cues that originate either from the predator or from injured conspecifics. Sources and benefits of these cues have received considerable attention in river, lake, and pond ecosystems but are less well understood in small container ecosystems that can hold less than a liter of water. Mosquitoes Aedes triseriatus (Say) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) encounter predatory Corethrella appendiculata (Grabham) and Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett) in small containers and show antipredatory behavioral responses. We investigated the sources of the predation cues to which these prey larvae respond. We tested whether Ae. albopictus larvae show behavioral responses to cues emanating from the predator or from damage to prey caused by the act of predation. We also tested whether Ae. triseriatus respond to cues present in fluid or solid residues from predator activity. Ae. albopictus showed behavioral modifications only in response to waterborne cues from a feeding predator and not to cues from a starving predator, indicating that Ae. albopictus respond to cues created by the act of predation, which could include substances derived from damaged prey or substances in predator feces. Ae. triseriatus showed behavioral responses to solid residues from predation but not to fluid without those solids, indicating that the cues to which they respond originate in predator feces or uneaten prey body parts. Our results suggest that cues in this system may be primarily chemicals that are detected upon contact with solid residues that are products of the feeding processes of these predators. PMID:22740721

  3. Attraction of the amphipod Gammarus pulex to water-borne cues of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the ability of the amphipod Gammarus pulex to detect chemical cues released from potential food sources. Therefore, response of G. pulex to chemical cues from food was tested in paired-choice laboratory experiments. Comparisons were made between artificial and natural leaves, with and

  4. Emotional speech processing: disentangling the effects of prosody and semantic cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Marc D; Jaywant, Abhishek; Monetta, Laura; Kotz, Sonja A

    2011-08-01

    To inform how emotions in speech are implicitly processed and registered in memory, we compared how emotional prosody, emotional semantics, and both cues in tandem prime decisions about conjoined emotional faces. Fifty-two participants rendered facial affect decisions (Pell, 2005a), indicating whether a target face represented an emotion (happiness or sadness) or not (a facial grimace), after passively listening to happy, sad, or neutral prime utterances. Emotional information from primes was conveyed by: (1) prosody only; (2) semantic cues only; or (3) combined prosody and semantic cues. Results indicated that prosody, semantics, and combined prosody-semantic cues facilitate emotional decisions about target faces in an emotion-congruent manner. However, the magnitude of priming did not vary across tasks. Our findings highlight that emotional meanings of prosody and semantic cues are systematically registered during speech processing, but with similar effects on associative knowledge about emotions, which is presumably shared by prosody, semantics, and faces.

  5. Signs of timing in motor cortex during movement preparation and cue anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilavik, Bjørg Elisabeth; Confais, Joachim; Riehle, Alexa

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to accurately anticipate the timing of predictable events is essential for sensorimotor behavior. Motor cortex holds an established role in movement preparation and execution. In this chapter we review the different ways in which motor cortical activity is modulated by event timing in sensorimotor delay tasks. During movement preparation, both single neuron and population responses reflect the temporal constraints of the task. Anticipatory modulations prior to sensory cues are also observed in motor cortex when the cue timing is predictable. We propose that the motor cortical activity during cue anticipation and movement preparation is embedded in a timing network that facilitates sensorimotor processing. In this context, the pre-cue and post-cue activity may reflect a presetting mechanism, complementing processing during movement execution, while prohibiting premature responses in situations requiring delayed motor output.

  6. External cues challenging the internal appetite control system-Overview and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilman, Els; van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans

    2017-09-02

    Inadequate regulation of food intake plays an important role in the development of overweight and obesity, and is under the influence of both the internal appetite control system and external environmental cues. Especially in environments where food is overly available, external cues seem to override and/or undermine internal signals, which put severe challenges on the accurate regulation of food intake. By structuring these external cues around five different phases in the food consumption process this paper aims to provide an overview of the wide range of external cues that potentially facilitate or hamper internal signals and with that influence food intake. For each of the five phases of the food consumption process, meal initiation, meal planning, consumption phase, end of eating episode and time till next meal, the most relevant internal signals are discussed and it is explained how specific external cues exert their influence.

  7. Temporal regulation of kin recognition maintains recognition-cue diversity and suppresses cheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsing-I; Shaulsky, Gad

    2015-05-28

    Kin recognition, the ability to distinguish kin from non-kin, can facilitate cooperation between relatives. Evolutionary theory predicts that polymorphism in recognition cues, which is essential for effective recognition, would be unstable. Individuals carrying rare recognition cues would benefit less from social interactions than individuals with common cues, leading to loss of the genetic-cue diversity. We test this evolutionary hypothesis in Dictyostelium discoideum, which forms multicellular fruiting bodies by aggregation and utilizes two polymorphic membrane proteins to facilitate preferential cooperation. Surprisingly, we find that rare recognition variants are tolerated and maintain their frequencies among incompatible majority during development. Although the rare variants are initially excluded from the aggregates, they subsequently rejoin the aggregate and produce spores. Social cheating is also refrained in late development, thus limiting the cost of chimerism. Our results suggest a potential mechanism to sustain the evolutionary stability of kin-recognition genes and to suppress cheating.

  8. Spatiotemporal distribution of facilitation and inhibition of return arising from the reflexive orienting of covert attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, A; Maruff, P; Yucel, M; Danckert, J; Currie, J

    2000-12-01

    Currently, there is debate regarding both the spatial and temporal relationship between facilitation and inhibition of return (IOR) components of attention, as observed on the covert orienting of visual attention task (COVAT). These issues were addressed in a series of experiments where the spatial and temporal relationships between cue and target were manipulated. Facilitation occurred only when the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was short and there was temporal overlap between cue and target. IOR occurred only when SOA was long and there was no temporal overlap between cue and target. Facilitation encompassed the cued location and all locations between the cue and fixation, whereas IOR arose for the entire cued hemifield. These findings suggest that the facilitation and IOR found on COVATs that use noninformative peripheral cues are separable and stimulus-driven processes.

  9. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders......The concept of governance has mutated into an all‐embracing buzz‐word characterised by a low degree of conceptual precision and empirical focus. This paper therefore suggests a narrower and more precise understanding of governance and the regulatory function it fulfils by advancing the argument...... that the essential functional and normative purpose of regulatory governance is to facilitate, stabilise and justify the transfer of condensed social components (such as economic capital and products, political decisions, legal judgements, religious beliefs and scientific knowledge) from one social contexts...

  10. Evaluation of multimodal ground cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole; Serafin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining...

  11. Optimal assessment of multiple cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, Tim W; Johnstone, Rufus A

    2003-01-01

    In a wide range of contexts from mate choice to foraging, animals are required to discriminate between alternative options on the basis of multiple cues. How should they best assess such complex multicomponent stimuli? Here, we construct a model to investigate this problem, focusing on a simple case

  12. Augmented reality cues and elderly driver hazard perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Mark C; Rusch, Michelle L; Lee, John D; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Thomas, Geb; Aksan, Nazan; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of augmented reality (AR) cues in improving driving safety among elderly drivers who are at increased crash risk because of cognitive impairments. Cognitively challenging driving environments pose a particular crash risk for elderly drivers. AR cuing is a promising technology to mitigate risk by directing driver attention to roadway hazards. We investigate whether AR cues improve or interfere with hazard perception in elderly drivers with age-related cognitive decline. A total of 20 elderly (M = 73 years, SD = 5) licensed drivers with a range of cognitive abilities measured by a speed-of-processing (SOP) composite participated in a 1-hr drive in an interactive, fixed-base driving simulator. Each participant drove through six straight, 6-mile-long, rural roadway scenarios following a lead vehicle. AR cues directed attention to potential roadside hazards in three of the scenarios, and the other three were uncued (baseline) drives. Effects of AR cuing were evaluated with respect to (a) detection of hazardous target objects, (b) interference with detecting nonhazardous secondary objects, and (c) impairment in maintaining safe distance behind a lead vehicle. AR cuing improved the detection of hazardous target objects of low visibility. AR cues did not interfere with detection of nonhazardous secondary objects and did not impair ability to maintain safe distance behind a lead vehicle. SOP capacity did not moderate those effects. AR cues show promise for improving elderly driver safety by increasing hazard detection likelihood without interfering with other driving tasks, such as maintaining safe headway.

  13. A novel method to generate monocyte-derived dendritic cells during coculture with HaCaT facilitates detection of weak contact allergens in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frombach, Janna; Sonnenburg, Anna; Krapohl, Björn-Dirk; Zuberbier, Torsten; Stahlmann, Ralf; Schreiner, Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    The in vitro sensitization assay LCSA (Loose-fit Coculture-based Sensitization Assay) has proved reliable for the detection of contact sensitizers in the past. However, the coculture of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) with primary human keratinocytes (KCs) in serum-free medium is relatively complex compared to other sensitization assays which use continuous cell lines. To facilitate high-throughput screening of chemicals, we replaced KCs with the HaCaT cell line under various culture conditions. Coculture of HaCaT with peripheral blood mononuclear cells in serum-supplemented medium leads to generation of CD1a(+)/CD1c(+) DCs after addition of GM-CSF, IL-4, and TGF-β1 (as opposed to CD1a(-)/CD1c(-) DCs which arise in the "classic" LCSA coculture). These cells resemble monocyte-derived DCs generated in monoculture, but, unlike those, they show a marked upregulation CD86 after treatment with contact allergens. All of the nine sensitizers in this study were correctly identified by CD1a(+)/CD1c(+) DCs in coculture with HaCaT. Among the substances were weak contact allergens such as propylparaben (which is false negative in the local lymph node assay in mice) and resorcinol (which was not detected by CD1a(-)/CD1c(-) DCs in the "classic" LCSA). The level of CD86 upregulation on CD1a(+)/CD1c(+) DCs was higher for most allergens compared to CD1a(-)/CD1c(-) DCs, thus improving the assay's discriminatory power. Three out of four non-sensitizers were also correctly assessed by the coculture assay. A false-positive reaction to caprylic (octanoic) acid confirms earlier results that some fatty acids are able to induce CD86 on DC in vitro. In conclusion, change of the LCSA protocol led to reduction of time and cost while even increasing the assay's sensitivity and discriminatory power.

  14. Facilitating rotationplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Ajay; Agarwal, Manish

    2007-03-15

    Rotationplasty, a unique surgical procedure where the ankle is converted into the knee joint after shortening and 180 degree external rotation of the limb is a well accepted alternative to amputation in musculoskeletal oncology. The required vascular dissection can be quite difficult as the concerned vessels lie in the posterior compartment from the distal third of the thigh downwards. The problem is compounded when rotationplasty is used as a salvage procedure after failed limb-sparing tumor surgery because of the additional fibrosis and stiffness at the level of the prosthetic knee joint. We advocate making the femoral osteotomy at an early stage in the procedure so as to allow free rotation of the distal limb thus making the popliteal fossa and the limb distal to it face anteriorly to facilitate the neuro vascular dissection. We also describe use of a novel cutting jig to ensure a perfect horizontal cut perpendicular to the long axis of the bone while making the femoral and tibial osteotomies. This ensures maximal surface contact between the apposing femoral and tibial cut ends, promoting early bony union. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Congruence of Inherent and Acquired Values Facilitates Reward-Based Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Samson; Wiehler, Antonius; Spezio, Michael; Gläscher, Jan

    2016-05-04

    Most real-life cues exhibit certain inherent values that may interfere with or facilitate the acquisition of new expected values during associative learning. In particular, when inherent and acquired values are congruent, learning may progress more rapidly. Here we investigated such an influence through a 2 × 2 factorial design, using attractiveness (high/low) of the facial picture as a proxy for the inherent value of the cue and its reward probability (high/low) as a surrogate for the acquired value. Each picture was paired with a monetary win or loss either congruently or incongruently. Behavioral results from 32 human participants indicated both faster response time and faster learning rate for value-congruent cue-outcome pairings. Model-based fMRI analysis revealed a fractionation of reinforcement learning (RL) signals in the ventral striatum, including a strong and novel correlation between the cue-specific decaying learning rate and BOLD activity in the ventral caudate. Additionally, we detected a functional link between neural signals of both learning rate and reward prediction error in the ventral striatum, and the signal of expected value in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, showing a novel confirmation of the mathematical RL model via functional connectivity. Most real-world decisions require the integration of inherent value and sensitivity to outcomes to facilitate adaptive learning. Inherent value is drawing increasing interest from decision scientists because it influences decisions in contexts ranging from advertising to investing. This study provides novel insight into how inherent value influences the acquisition of new expected value during associative learning. Specifically, we find that the congruence between the inherent value and the acquired reward influences the neural coding of learning rate. We also show for the first time that neuroimaging signals coding the learning rate, prediction error, and acquired value follow the multiplicative

  16. Modeling the utility of binaural cues for underwater sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jennifer N; Lloyd, David R; Banks, Patchouly N; Mercado, Eduardo

    2014-06-01

    The binaural cues used by terrestrial animals for sound localization in azimuth may not always suffice for accurate sound localization underwater. The purpose of this research was to examine the theoretical limits of interaural timing and level differences available underwater using computational and physical models. A paired-hydrophone system was used to record sounds transmitted underwater and recordings were analyzed using neural networks calibrated to reflect the auditory capabilities of terrestrial mammals. Estimates of source direction based on temporal differences were most accurate for frequencies between 0.5 and 1.75 kHz, with greater resolution toward the midline (2°), and lower resolution toward the periphery (9°). Level cues also changed systematically with source azimuth, even at lower frequencies than expected from theoretical calculations, suggesting that binaural mechanical coupling (e.g., through bone conduction) might, in principle, facilitate underwater sound localization. Overall, the relatively limited ability of the model to estimate source position using temporal and level difference cues underwater suggests that animals such as whales may use additional cues to accurately localize conspecifics and predators at long distances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cue-elicited increases in incentive salience for marijuana: Craving, demand, and attentional bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R; Kahler, Christopher W; Rohsenow, Damaris J; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; MacKillop, James

    2016-10-01

    Incentive salience is a multidimensional construct that includes craving, drug value relative to other reinforcers, and implicit motivation such as attentional bias to drug cues. Laboratory cue reactivity (CR) paradigms have been used to evaluate marijuana incentive salience with measures of craving, but not with behavioral economic measures of marijuana demand or implicit attentional processing tasks. This within-subjects study used a new CR paradigm to examine multiple dimensions of marijuana's incentive salience and to compare CR-induced increases in craving and demand. Frequent marijuana users (N=93, 34% female) underwent exposure to neutral cues then to lit marijuana cigarettes. Craving, marijuana demand via a marijuana purchase task, and heart rate were assessed after each cue set. A modified Stroop task with cannabis and control words was completed after the marijuana cues as a measure of attentional bias. Relative to neutral cues, marijuana cues significantly increased subjective craving and demand indices of intensity (i.e., drug consumed at $0) and Omax (i.e., peak drug expenditure). Elasticity significantly decreased following marijuana cues, reflecting sustained purchase despite price increases. Craving was correlated with demand indices (r's: 0.23-0.30). Marijuana users displayed significant attentional bias for cannabis-related words after marijuana cues. Cue-elicited increases in intensity were associated with greater attentional bias for marijuana words. Greater incentive salience indexed by subjective, behavioral economic, and implicit measures was observed after marijuana versus neutral cues, supporting multidimensional assessment. The study highlights the utility of a behavioral economic approach in detecting cue-elicited changes in marijuana incentive salience. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Stop identity cue as a cue to language identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Paula Lisa

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether language membership could potentially be cued by the acoustic-phonetic detail of word-initial stops and retained all the way through the process of lexical access to aid in language identification. Of particular interest were language-specific differences in CE and CF word-initial stops. Experiment 1 consisted of an interlingual homophone production task. The purpose of this study was to examine how word-initial stop consonants differ in terms of acoustic properties in Canadian English (CE) and Canadian French (CF) interlingual homophones. The analyses from the bilingual speakers in Experiment 1 indicate that bilinguals do produce language-specific differences in CE and CF word-initial stops, and that closure duration, voice onset time, and burst spectral SD may provide cues to language identity in CE and CF stops. Experiment 2 consisted of a Phoneme and Language Categorization task. The purpose of this study was to examine how stop identity cues, such as VOT and closure duration, influence a listener to identify word-initial stop consonants as belonging to Canadian English (CE) or Canadian French (CF). The RTs from the bilingual listeners in this study indicate that bilinguals do perceive language-specific differences in CE and CF word-initial stops, and that voice onset time may provide cues to phoneme and language membership in CE and CF stops. Experiment 3 consisted of a Phonological-Semantic priming task. The purpose of this study was to examine how subphonetic variations, such as changes in the VOT, affect lexical access. The results of Experiment 3 suggest that language-specific cues, such as VOT, affects the composition of the bilingual cohort and that the extent to which English and/or French words are activated is dependent on the language-specific cues present in a word. The findings of this study enhanced our theoretical understanding of lexical structure and lexical access in bilingual speakers

  19. Subjective cues to deception/honesty in a high stakes situation: an exploratory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright Whelan, Clea; Wagstaff, Graham F; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    The low ecological validity of much of the research on deception detection is a limitation recognized by researchers in the field. Consequently, the present studies investigated subjective cues to deception using the real life, high stakes situation of people making public appeals for help with missing or murdered relatives. It was expected that cues related to affect would be particularly salient in this context. Study 1 was a qualitative investigation identifying cues to deception reportedly used by people accurate at detecting deception. Studies 2 and 3 were then empirical investigations that mainly employed the cues reported in Study 1. A number of subjective cues were found to discriminate between honest and deceptive appeals, including some previously unidentified cues, and cues likely to be context-specific. Most could be categorized under the themes of authenticity of emotion, and negative and positive affective reactions to the appealer. It is concluded that some cues to deception may emerge only in real life, high stakes situations; however, it is argued that some of these may be influenced by observers' perceptions of the characteristics of offenders, rather than acts of deception per se.

  20. Reprint of: Object-based attentional facilitation and inhibition are neuropsychologically dissociated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel T; Ball, Keira; Swalwell, Robert; Schenk, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Salient peripheral cues produce a transient shift of attention which is superseded by a sustained inhibitory effect. Cueing part of an object produces an inhibitory cueing effect (ICE) that spreads throughout the object. In dynamic scenes the ICE stays with objects as they move. We examined object-centred attentional facilitation and inhibition in a patient with visual form agnosia. There was no evidence of object-centred attentional facilitation. In contrast, object-centred ICE was observed in 3 out of 4 tasks. These inhibitory effects were strongest where cues to objecthood were highly salient. These data are evidence of a neuropsychological dissociation between the facilitatory and inhibitory effects of attentional cueing. From a theoretical perspective the findings suggest that 'grouped arrays' are sufficient for object-based inhibition, but insufficient to generate object-centred attentional facilitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Binaural cues provide for a release from informational masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Sandra; Dolležal, Lena-Vanessa; Klump, Georg M

    2015-10-01

    Informational masking (IM) describes the insensitivity of detecting a change in sound features in a complex acoustical environment when such a change could easily be detected in the absence of distracting sounds. IM occurs because of the similarity between deviant sound and distracting sounds (so-called similarity-based IM) and/or stimulus uncertainty stemming from trial-to-trial variability (so-called uncertainty-based IM). IM can be abolished if similarity-based or uncertainty-based IM are minimized. Here, we modulated similarity-based IM using binaural cues. Standard/deviant tones and distracting tones were presented sequentially, and level-increment thresholds were measured. Deviant tones differed from standard tones by a higher sound level. Distracting tones covered a wide range of levels. Standard/deviant tones and distracting tones were characterized by their interaural time difference (ITD), interaural level difference (ILD), or both ITD and ILD. The larger the ITD or ILD was, the better similarity-based IM was overcome. If both interaural differences were applied to standard/deviant tones, the release from IM was larger than when either interaural difference was used. The results show that binaural cues are potent cues to abolish similarity-based IM and that the auditory system makes use of multiple available cues. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. When Cues Collide: Use of Stress and Statistical Cues to Word Boundaries by 7- to 9-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Erik D.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments explored infants' attention to conflicting cues at different ages. Found when stress and statistical cues indicated different word boundaries, 9-month-olds used syllable stress as a cue to segmentation while ignoring statistical cues. Seven-month-olds attended more to statistical cues than to stress cues. Results suggested…

  3. Detection of the antipsychotic drug quetiapine in the blood, urine and hair samples of the victim of a drug-facilitated sexual assault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2017-01-01

    A drug rape facilitated with the sedative antipsychotic drug quetiapine is presented here. A teenage girl and her girlfriend went to the home of an adult couple they had met at a bar. Here, the teenage girl (victim) felt tired after consuming some alcoholic drinks and fell asleep. While she...... negative. The low level of quetiapine in the hair segment and its absence in the other segments indicate that the victim had only consumed one or a few doses of quetiapine within that period and was not a regular user. This study describes the first drug-facilitated assault involving a single dose...

  4. Pigeons and the Ambiguous-Cue Problem: A Riddle that Remains Unsolved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar García-Leal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous-cue task is composed of two-choice simultaneous discriminations involving three stimuli: positive (P, ambiguous (A, and negative (N. Two different trial types are presented: PA and NA. The ambiguous cue (A served as an S- in PA trials, but as an S+ in NA trials. When using this procedure, it is typical to observe a less accurate performance in PA trials than in NA trials. This is called the ambiguous-cue effect. Recently, it was reported in starlings that the ambiguous-cue effect decreases when the stimuli are presented on an angled (120° panel. The hypothesis is that the angled panel facilitates that the two cues from each discrimination are perceived as a compound, precluding value transfer via a second-order conditioning mechanism. In this experiment, we used pigeons and a flat panel. Nevertheless, our data were quite similar to the previous data in starlings. We conclude that the form of the panel cannot explain the ambiguous-cue effect. Several alternatives to be explored in future experiments are suggested. The riddle of the ambiguous-cue problem still remains unsolved.

  5. The distinction between perceiving and memorizing in the presence of category cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yussen, S R; Kunen, S; Buss, R

    1975-09-01

    The study proposed and tested 2 hypotheses to account for the claim by Appel, Cooper, Knight, McCarrell, Yussen, and Flavell (1972) that "memorizing and perceiving are functionally undifferentiated for the young child" by presenting preschool, second-, and fifth-grade children a "memory" and a "look" problem under several treatments in which semantic category cues were present. Surprisingly, preschoolers showed functional differentiation even in the absence of semantic cues--a finding interpreted as evidence for a functional differentiation in the young child's deployment of attention. Second and fifth graders also exhibited functional differentiation in the absence of semantic cues, and there were age changes in the facilitating effects of input and retrieval cues on children's memory.

  6. Cocaine-conditioned odor cues without chronic exposure: Implications for the development of addiction vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Lowen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents are highly vulnerable to addiction and are four times more likely to become addicted at first exposure than at any other age. The dopamine D1 receptor, which is typically overexpressed in the normal adolescent prefrontal cortex, is involved in drug cue responses and is associated with relapse in animal models. In human drug addicts, imaging methods have detected increased activation in response to drug cues in reward- and habit-associated brain regions. These same methods can be applied more quantitatively to rodent models. Here, changes in neuronal activation in response to cocaine-conditioned cues were observed using functional magnetic resonance imaging in juvenile rats that were made to over-express either D1 receptors or green fluorescent protein by viral-mediated transduction. Reduced activation was observed in the amygdala and dopamine cell body regions in the low cue-preferring/control juvenile rats in response to cocaine cues. In contrast, increased activation was observed in the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and dopamine cell bodies in high cue-preferring/D1 juveniles. The increase in cue salience that is mediated by increased D1 receptor density, rather than excessive cocaine experience, appears to underlie the transition from aversion to reward in cue-induced neural response and may form the basis for habit-forming vulnerability.

  7. The effects of working memory capacity and semantic cues on the intelligibility of speech in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekveld, Adriana A; Rudner, Mary; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2013-09-01

    This study examined how semantically related information facilitates the intelligibility of spoken sentences in the presence of masking sound, and how this facilitation is influenced by masker type and by individual differences in cognitive functioning. Dutch sentences were masked by stationary noise, fluctuating noise, or an interfering talker. Each sentence was preceded by a text cue; cues were either three words that were semantically related to the sentence or three unpronounceable nonwords. Speech reception thresholds were adaptively measured. Additional measures included working memory capacity (reading span and size comparison span), linguistic closure ability (text reception threshold), and delayed sentence recognition. Word cues facilitated speech perception in noise similarly for all masker types. Cue benefit was related to reading span performance when the masker was interfering speech, but not when other maskers were used, and it did not correlate with text reception threshold or size comparison span. Better reading span performance was furthermore associated with enhanced delayed recognition of sentences preceded by word relative to nonword cues, across masker types. The results suggest that working memory capacity is associated with release from informational masking by semantically related information, and additionally with the encoding, storage, or retrieval of speech content in memory.

  8. A cue-free method to probe human lighting biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzilli, Giacomo; Schofield, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    People readily perceive patterns of shading as 3-D shapes. Owing to the generalised bas-relief ambiguity when extracting shape from shading, people must simultaneously estimate the shape of the surface and the nature of the light source. In many cases cues in the image will be insufficient to resolve all of the ambiguities present, and in such cases the human visual system may employ one of a number of prior assumptions based on ecology and experience. One such assumption is the lighting-from-above prior. Here, in the absence of extrinsic cues to lighting direction, ambiguous shading patterns are interpreted as if lit by a light source that is above the observer's head. Studies of this prior typically use ambiguous stimuli and observe perceptual biases. A degree of cueing is inherent to such methods. Participants see the shaded stimuli repeatedly and are asked to make shape judgments about them regardless of whether or not they actually perceive any 3-D shape. We wanted to access people's lighting prior more directly by establishing the template they would employ to detect a shaded object in the absence of any visual cue to object shape. To this end, we adopted a classification image approach.

  9. Nurses’ responses to older cancer patients’ cues.

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, J.; van Weert, J.; Van Dulmen, S.; Heeren, T.; Bensing, J M

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Fulfilling cancer patients informational and emotional needs is a key factor in reducing stress and assisting recovery, and might be even more important in an aging population. The current study investigates how older cancer patients attempt to gain informational and emotional support by using verbal cues and how oncology nurses respond to these cues. In addition, it investigates the relationship between patients’ cues and providers’ responses on the one hand and sociodemographic fac...

  10. Orienting and emotional perception: Facilitation, attenuation, and interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M Bradley

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Human emotions are considered here to be founded on motivational circuits in the brain that evolved to protect (defensive and sustain (appetitive the life of individuals and species. These circuits are phylogenetically old, shared among mammals, and involve the activation of both subcortical and cortical structures that mediate attention, perception, and action. Circuit activation begins with a feature-match between a cue and an existing representation in memory that has motivational significance. Subsequent processes include rapid cue-directed orienting, information gathering, and action selection – What is it? Where is it? What to do? In our studies of emotional perception, we have found that measures that index orienting to emotional cues generally show enhanced circuit activation and response facilitation, relative to orienting indicators occasioned by affectively neutral cues, whether presented concurrently or independently. Here, we discuss these findings, considering both physiological reflex and brain measures as they are modulated during orienting and emotional perception.

  11. Performance of visually guided tasks using simulated prosthetic vision and saliency-based cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, N.; Itti, L.; Humayun, M.; Weiland, J.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the benefits provided by a saliency-based cueing algorithm to normally sighted volunteers performing mobility and search tasks using simulated prosthetic vision. Approach. Human subjects performed mobility and search tasks using simulated prosthetic vision. A saliency algorithm based on primate vision was used to detect regions of interest (ROI) in an image. Subjects were cued to look toward the directions of these ROI using visual cues superimposed on the simulated prosthetic vision. Mobility tasks required the subjects to navigate through a corridor, avoid obstacles and locate a target at the end of the course. Two search task experiments involved finding objects on a tabletop under different conditions. Subjects were required to perform tasks with and without any help from cues. Results. Head movements, time to task completion and number of errors were all significantly reduced in search tasks when subjects used the cueing algorithm. For the mobility task, head movements and number of contacts with objects were significantly reduced when subjects used cues, whereas time was significantly reduced when no cues were used. The most significant benefit from cues appears to be in search tasks and when navigating unfamiliar environments. Significance. The results from the study show that visually impaired people and retinal prosthesis implantees may benefit from computer vision algorithms that detect important objects in their environment, particularly when they are in a new environment.

  12. Seeing is believing: information content and behavioural response to visual and chemical cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, Francisco G; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A

    2013-07-22

    Predator avoidance and foraging often pose conflicting demands. Animals can decrease mortality risk searching for predators, but searching decreases foraging time and hence intake. We used this principle to investigate how prey should use information to detect, assess and respond to predation risk from an optimal foraging perspective. A mathematical model showed that solitary bees should increase flower examination time in response to predator cues and that the rate of false alarms should be negatively correlated with the relative value of the flower explored. The predatory ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, and the harmless ant, Polyrhachis dives, differ in the profile of volatiles they emit and in their visual appearance. As predicted, the solitary bee Nomia strigata spent more time examining virgin flowers in presence of predator cues than in their absence. Furthermore, the proportion of flowers rejected decreased from morning to noon, as the relative value of virgin flowers increased. In addition, bees responded differently to visual and chemical cues. While chemical cues induced bees to search around flowers, bees detecting visual cues hovered in front of them. These strategies may allow prey to identify the nature of visual cues and to locate the source of chemical cues.

  13. Post-cueing deficits with maintained cueing benefits in patients with Parkinson's disease dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eGräber

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Parkinson’s disease (PD internal cueing mechanisms are impaired leading to symptoms such as like hypokinesia. However external cues can improve movement execution by using cortical resources. These cortical processes can be affected by cognitive decline in dementia.It is still unclear how dementia in PD influences external cueing. We investigated a group of 25 PD patients with dementia (PDD and 25 non-demented PD patients (PDnD matched by age, sex and disease duration in a simple reaction time (SRT task using an additional acoustic cue. PDD patients benefited from the additional cue in similar magnitude as did PDnD patients. However, withdrawal of the cue led to a significantly increased reaction time in the PDD group compared to the PDnD patients. Our results indicate that even PDD patients can benefit from strategies using external cue presentation but the process of cognitive worsening can reduce the effect when cues are withdrawn.

  14. Spatial orienting of attention to social cues is modulated by cue type and gender of viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Sarah Maeve; Brady, Nuala; Ryan, Katie

    2017-05-01

    Across three experiments, we examined the efficacy of three cues from the human body-body orientation, head turning, and eye-gaze direction-to shift an observer's attention in space. Using a modified Posner cueing paradigm, we replicate the previous findings of gender differences in the gaze-cueing effect whereby female but not male participants responded significantly faster to validly cued than to invalidly cued targets. In contrast to the previous studies, we report a robust cueing effect for both male and female participants when head turning direction was used as the central cue, whereas oriented bodies proved ineffectual as cues to attention for both males and females. These results are discussed with reference to the time course of central cueing effects, gender differences in spatial attention, and current models of how cues from the human body are combined to judge another person's direction of attention.

  15. Predator faunas past and present: quantifying the influence of waterborne cues in divergent ecotypes of the isopod Asellus aquaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sanna; Karlsson Green, Kristina; Pettersson, Lars B

    2013-11-01

    Waterborne chemical cues are an important source of information for many aquatic organisms, in particular when assessing the current risk of predation. The ability to use chemical cues to detect and respond to potential predators before an actual encounter can improve prey chances of survival. We investigated predator recognition and the impact of chemical cues on predator avoidance in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. This isopod has recently colonised a novel habitat and diverged into two distinct ecotypes, which encounter different predator communities. Using laboratory-based choice experiments, we have quantified behavioural responses to chemical cues from predators typical of the two predator communities (larval dragonflies in the ancestral habitat, perch in the newly colonised habitat) in wild-caught and lab-reared Asellus of the two ecotypes. Individuals with prior experience of predators showed strong predator avoidance to cues from both predator types. Both ecotypes showed similar antipredator responses, but sexes differed in terms of threat-sensitive responses with males avoiding areas containing predator cues to a larger extent than females. Overall, chemical cues from fish elicited stronger predator avoidance than cues from larval dragonflies. Our results indicate that in these isopods, prior exposure to predators is needed to develop antipredator behaviour based on waterborne cues. Furthermore, the results emphasise the need to analyse predator avoidance in relation to waterborne cues in a sex-specific context, because of potential differences between males and females in terms of vulnerability and life history strategies.

  16. The Effect of Tactile Cues on Auditory Stream Segregation Ability of Musicians and Nonmusicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slater, Kyle D.; Marozeau, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    , we test whether tactile cues can be used to segregate 2 interleaved melodies. Twelve musicians and 12 nonmusicians were asked to detect changes in a 4-note repeated melody interleaved with a random melody. In order to perform this task, the listener must be able to segregate the target melody from...... the random melody. Tactile cues were applied to the listener’s fingers on half of the blocks. Results showed that tactile cues can significantly improve the melodic segregation ability in both musician and nonmusician groups in challenging listening conditions. Overall, the musician group performance...

  17. Beyond magic traits: Multimodal mating cues in Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérot, Claire; Frérot, Brigitte; Leppik, Ene; Joron, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Species coexistence involves the evolution of reproductive barriers opposing gene flow. Heliconius butterflies display colorful patterns affecting mate choice and survival through warning signaling and mimicry. These patterns are called "magic traits" for speciation because divergent natural selection may promote mimicry shifts in pattern whose role as mating cue facilitates reproductive isolation. By contrast, between comimetic species, natural selection promotes pattern convergence. We addressed whether visual convergence interferes with reproductive isolation by testing for sexual isolation between two closely related species with similar patterns, H. timareta thelxinoe and H. melpomene amaryllis. Experiments with models confirmed visual attraction based on wing phenotype, leading to indiscriminate approach. Nevertheless, mate choice experiments showed assortative mating. Monitoring male behavior toward live females revealed asymmetry in male preference, H. melpomene males courting both species equally while H. timareta males strongly preferred conspecifics. Experiments with hybrid males suggested an important genetic component for such asymmetry. Behavioral observations support a key role for short-distance cues in determining male choice in H. timareta. Scents extracts from wings and genitalia revealed interspecific divergence in chemical signatures, and hybrid female scent composition was significantly associated with courtship intensity by H. timareta males, providing candidate chemical mating cues involved in sexual isolation. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Eating responses to external food cues and internal satiety signals in weight discordant siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Compared to normal-weight children, over-weight children are more responsive to external food cues and less sensitive to internal satiety signals, either of which may facilitate greater energy intake. The ability to compensate for prior kcal intake may decrease with age, with children sh...

  19. Syntactic Cues for Inferences about Causality in Language Acquisition: Evidence from an Argument-Drop Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Tessei

    2017-01-01

    Syntactic bootstrapping facilitates children's initial learning of verb meanings based on syntactic information. A challenging case is the argument-drop languages, where the number of argument NPs is not a reliable cue for distinguishing between transitive and intransitive verbs. Despite this fact, the availability of syntactic bootstrapping in…

  20. Recognition during recall failure: Semantic feature matching as a mechanism for recognition of semantic cues when recall fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Anne M; Ryals, Anthony J; Wagner, Samantha R

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that a feature-matching process underlies cue familiarity-detection when cued recall with graphemic cues fails. When a test cue (e.g., potchbork) overlaps in graphemic features with multiple unrecalled studied items (e.g., patchwork, pitchfork, pocketbook, pullcork), higher cue familiarity ratings are given during recall failure of all of the targets than when the cue overlaps in graphemic features with only one studied target and that target fails to be recalled (e.g., patchwork). The present study used semantic feature production norms (McRae et al., Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37, 547-559, 2005) to examine whether the same holds true when the cues are semantic in nature (e.g., jaguar is used to cue cheetah). Indeed, test cues (e.g., cedar) that overlapped in semantic features (e.g., a_tree, has_bark, etc.) with four unretrieved studied items (e.g., birch, oak, pine, willow) received higher cue familiarity ratings during recall failure than test cues that overlapped in semantic features with only two (also unretrieved) studied items (e.g., birch, oak), which in turn received higher familiarity ratings during recall failure than cues that did not overlap in semantic features with any studied items. These findings suggest that the feature-matching theory of recognition during recall failure can accommodate recognition of semantic cues during recall failure, providing a potential mechanism for conceptually-based forms of cue recognition during target retrieval failure. They also provide converging evidence for the existence of the semantic features envisaged in feature-based models of semantic knowledge representation and for those more concretely specified by the production norms of McRae et al. (Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37, 547-559, 2005).

  1. The impact of age, ongoing task difficulty, and cue salience on preschoolers' prospective memory performance: the role of executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, Caitlin E V; Moses, Louis J; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    The current study examined the impact of age, ongoing task (OT) difficulty, and cue salience on 4- and 5-year-old children's prospective memory (PM) and also explored the relation between individual differences in executive function (working memory, inhibition, and shifting) and PM. OT difficulty and cue salience are predicted to affect the detection of PM cues based on the multiprocess framework, yet neither has been thoroughly investigated in young children. OT difficulty was manipulated by requiring children to sort cards according to the size of pictured items (easy) or by opposite size (difficult), and cue salience was manipulated by placing a red border around half of the target cues (salient) and no border around the other cues (non-salient). The 5-year-olds outperformed the 4-year-olds on the PM task, and salient PM cues resulted in better PM cues compared with non-salient cues. There was no main effect of OT difficulty, and the interaction between cue salience and OT difficulty was not significant. However, a planned comparison revealed that the combination of non-salient cues and a difficult OT resulted in significantly worse PM performance than that in all of the other conditions. Inhibition accounted for significant variance in PM performance for non-salient cues and for marginally significant variance for salient cues. Furthermore, individual differences in inhibition fully mediated the effect of age on PM performance. Results are discussed in the context of the multiprocess framework and with reference to preschoolers' difficulty with the executive demands of dividing attention between the OT and PM task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. D-cycloserine combined with cue exposure therapy fails to attenuate subjective and physiological craving in cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Ana, Elizabeth J; Prisciandaro, James J; Saladin, Michael E; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Shaftman, Stephanie R; Nietert, Paul J; Brady, Kathleen T

    2015-04-01

    Based on preclinical studies showing that the partial N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) facilitates extinction of cocaine self-administration and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, we evaluated whether 50 mg of DCS would reduce craving to cocaine cues when combined with cue exposure (CE) in cocaine dependent humans. In this double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study, 47 cocaine dependent participants were randomized to DCS or placebo (PBO), plus CE. Participants received DCS or PBO 30 minutes prior to two CE sessions, conducted one day apart. Craving and heart rate was assessed prior to CE sessions, during CE trials, and after CE trials. These measures were assessed again at a 1-week follow-up (session 3) after the second CE session. DCS failed to significantly attenuate cocaine cue reactivity based on subjective craving and physiological reactivity (heart rate) compared to PBO. The CE protocol, consisting of repeated exposure to drug cues combined with skills training, resulted in extinction to cocaine cues as suggested by decreased craving within and between sessions in both treatment conditions. All participants exhibited elevated heart rate with repeated exposures, demonstrating a potentiation in heart rate between sessions. 50 mg of DCS may not be effective for extinguishing reactivity to drug cues for individuals with cocaine dependence. Future studies examining the effect of DCS on facilitating extinction to drug cues should examine variations in cue exposure length, number of CE presentations, and timing of DCS dose administration prior to cue exposures, which may differentially impact drug cue reactivity. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  3. How rats combine temporal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhardi, Paulo; Keen, Richard; MacInnis, Mika L M; Church, Russell M

    2005-05-31

    The procedures for classical and operant conditioning, and for many timing procedures, involve the delivery of reinforcers that may be related to the time of previous reinforcers and responses, and to the time of onsets and terminations of stimuli. The behavior resulting from such procedures can be described as bouts of responding that occur in some pattern at some rate. A packet theory of timing and conditioning is described that accounts for such behavior under a wide range of procedures. Applications include the food searching by rats in Skinner boxes under conditions of fixed and random reinforcement, brief and sustained stimuli, and several response-food contingencies. The approach is used to describe how multiple cues from reinforcers and stimuli combine to determine the rate and pattern of response bouts.

  4. Switch Detection in Preschoolers’ Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicolas; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Huber, Kristina L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2011-01-01

    The present study addressed the role of switch detection in cognitive flexibility by testing the effect of transition cues (i.e., cues that directly signal the need to switch or maintain a given task goal) in a cued set-shifting paradigm at age 5. Children performed better, especially on switch trials, when transition cues were combined with traditional task cues (i.e., cues that directly signal the relevant task on a given trial), relative to conditions without transition cues. This effect was not influenced by explicit knowledge of transition cues or transition cue transparency, suggesting transition cues did not need to be semantically processed to be beneficial. These findings reveal that young children’s difficulties in set-shifting situations partially stem from failures to monitor for the need to switch. PMID:21353678

  5. Children's Recognition of Emotions from Vocal Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Disa A.; Panattoni, Charlotte; Happe, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Emotional cues contain important information about the intentions and feelings of others. Despite a wealth of research into children's understanding of facial signals of emotions, little research has investigated the developmental trajectory of interpreting affective cues in the voice. In this study, 48 children ranging between 5 and 10 years were…

  6. Cue Reliance in L2 Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners reach expert levels in relative cue weighting only gradually. On the basis of ensemble machine learning models fit to naturalistic written productions of German advanced learners of English and expert writers, we set out to reverse engineer differences in the weighting of multiple cues in a clause linearization problem. We…

  7. Consumption Simulations Induce Salivation to Food Cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, Mike; Aarts, Henk; Vermeent, Stefan; Häfner, Michael; Papies, Esther K

    2016-01-01

    Salivation to food cues is typically explained in terms of mere stimulus-response links. However, food cues seem to especially increase salivation when food is attractive, suggesting a more complex psychological process. Adopting a grounded cognition perspective, we suggest that perceiving a food

  8. Children's recognition of emotions from vocal cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, D.A.; Panattoni, C.; Happé, F.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional cues contain important information about the intentions and feelings of others. Despite a wealth of research into children's understanding of facial signals of emotions, little research has investigated the developmental trajectory of interpreting affective cues in the voice. In this

  9. Kin-informative recognition cues in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehring, Volker; Evison, Sophie E F; Santorelli, Lorenzo A

    2011-01-01

    behaviour is thought to be rare in one of the classic examples of cooperation--social insect colonies--because the colony-level costs of individual selfishness select against cues that would allow workers to recognize their closest relatives. In accord with this, previous studies of wasps and ants have...... found little or no kin information in recognition cues. Here, we test the hypothesis that social insects do not have kin-informative recognition cues by investigating the recognition cues and relatedness of workers from four colonies of the ant Acromyrmex octospinosus. Contrary to the theoretical...... prediction, we show that the cuticular hydrocarbons of ant workers in all four colonies are informative enough to allow full-sisters to be distinguished from half-sisters with a high accuracy. These results contradict the hypothesis of non-heritable recognition cues and suggest that there is more potential...

  10. Differential effects of goal cues on everyday action errors in Alzheimer's disease versus Parkinson's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Tania; Seligman, Sarah C; Britnell, Priscilla; Brennan, Laura; Libon, David J

    2015-07-01

    Prior research has shown that individuals with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) show a different pattern of error types on everyday tasks compared with individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study evaluated whether these groups would respond differently to cues designed to remind participants of task goals and improve performance of everyday tasks (i.e., goal cues). Participants with PDD (n = 20) and AD (n = 20), and a comparison group of individuals with Parkinson's disease and no dementia (n = 20), were administered performance-based tasks of everyday functioning that allowed for the quantification of errors before and after the presentation of goal cues. AD participants showed a significantly greater response to the goal cues as compared with individuals with PDD. The goal cues facilitated the completion of task goals but did not promote error correction (i.e., the undoing of errors that had been made earlier during the task). Not all dementia patients respond similarly to cues designed to improve everyday functioning. Understanding patients' specific form of everyday action impairment is crucial for developing individualized interventions that target specific functional deficits. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Watch out! Magnetoencephalographic evidence for early modulation of attention orienting by fearful gaze cueing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Lachat

    Full Text Available Others' gaze and emotional facial expression are important cues for the process of attention orienting. Here, we investigated with magnetoencephalography (MEG whether the combination of averted gaze and fearful expression may elicit a selectively early effect of attention orienting on the brain responses to targets. We used the direction of gaze of centrally presented fearful and happy faces as the spatial attention orienting cue in a Posner-like paradigm where the subjects had to detect a target checkerboard presented at gazed-at (valid trials or non gazed-at (invalid trials locations of the screen. We showed that the combination of averted gaze and fearful expression resulted in a very early attention orienting effect in the form of additional parietal activity between 55 and 70 ms for the valid versus invalid targets following fearful gaze cues. No such effect was obtained for the targets following happy gaze cues. This early cue-target validity effect selective of fearful gaze cues involved the left superior parietal region and the left lateral middle occipital region. These findings provide the first evidence for an effect of attention orienting induced by fearful gaze in the time range of C1. In doing so, they demonstrate the selective impact of combined gaze and fearful expression cues in the process of attention orienting.

  12. Anemonefishes rely on visual and chemical cues to correctly identify conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Nicole K.; Dixson, Danielle L.

    2017-09-01

    Organisms rely on sensory cues to interpret their environment and make important life-history decisions. Accurate recognition is of particular importance in diverse reef environments. Most evidence on the use of sensory cues focuses on those used in predator avoidance or habitat recognition, with little information on their role in conspecific recognition. Yet conspecific recognition is essential for life-history decisions including settlement, mate choice, and dominance interactions. Using a sensory manipulated tank and a two-chamber choice flume, anemonefish conspecific response was measured in the presence and absence of chemical and/or visual cues. Experiments were then repeated in the presence or absence of two heterospecific species to evaluate whether a heterospecific fish altered the conspecific response. Anemonefishes responded to both the visual and chemical cues of conspecifics, but relied on the combination of the two cues to recognize conspecifics inside the sensory manipulated tank. These results contrast previous studies focusing on predator detection where anemonefishes were found to compensate for the loss of one sensory cue (chemical) by utilizing a second cue (visual). This lack of sensory compensation may impact the ability of anemonefishes to acclimate to changing reef environments in the future.

  13. Objective fidelity evaluation in multisensory virtual environments: auditory cue fidelity in flight simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F Meyer

    Full Text Available We argue that objective fidelity evaluation of virtual environments, such as flight simulation, should be human-performance-centred and task-specific rather than measure the match between simulation and physical reality. We show how principled experimental paradigms and behavioural models to quantify human performance in simulated environments that have emerged from research in multisensory perception provide a framework for the objective evaluation of the contribution of individual cues to human performance measures of fidelity. We present three examples in a flight simulation environment as a case study: Experiment 1: Detection and categorisation of auditory and kinematic motion cues; Experiment 2: Performance evaluation in a target-tracking task; Experiment 3: Transferrable learning of auditory motion cues. We show how the contribution of individual cues to human performance can be robustly evaluated for each task and that the contribution is highly task dependent. The same auditory cues that can be discriminated and are optimally integrated in experiment 1, do not contribute to target-tracking performance in an in-flight refuelling simulation without training, experiment 2. In experiment 3, however, we demonstrate that the auditory cue leads to significant, transferrable, performance improvements with training. We conclude that objective fidelity evaluation requires a task-specific analysis of the contribution of individual cues.

  14. Switch Detection in Preschoolers' Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicolas; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Huber, Kristina L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2011-01-01

    The current study addressed the role of switch detection in cognitive flexibility by testing the effect of transition cues (i.e., cues that directly signal the need to switch or maintain a given task goal) in a cued set-shifting paradigm at 5 years of age. Children performed better, especially on switch trials, when transition cues were combined…

  15. Is phonological-lexical representation preserved in moderate stage Alzheimer disease? Evidence from the efficacy of Korean syllabic cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji Hye; Na, Duk L; Chin, Juhee; Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Byung Hwa; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, Geon Ha; Kim, Hyanghee

    2010-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) usually experience naming difficulty due to storage and access problems in phonological-lexical representation. Investigating naming response patterns followed by cueing may help us to understand the underlying mechanism of naming deficits in AD. A total of 221 patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD [Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) 0.5, 1, 2] were included as subjects. Sixty items of the Korean version of the Boston Naming Test were given, and upon failure, semantic/syllabic cues were verbally presented. From the results, even in the CDR 2 group, which is considered to be a moderate stage of AD, syllabic cues significantly facilitated correct responses. Our findings are in contrast with previous studies conducted with English-speaking patients, which reported that phonological-lexical representation may have been disrupted in the moderate stage of AD, and that none of the cues facilitated correct word retrieval. The difference may be ascribed to the fact that direct access to the phonological-lexical representation via syllabic cues was possible in the confrontation naming task performed by the Korean patients. It can be concluded that phonological-lexical representation in moderate stage Korean AD might be partially preserved because syllabic cues in AD patients were effective in facilitating target words.

  16. Cue-induced craving among inhalant users: Development and preliminary validation of a visual cue paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shobhit; Dhawan, Anju; Kumaran, S Senthil; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Jain, Raka

    2017-12-01

    Cue-induced craving is known to be associated with a higher risk of relapse, wherein drug-specific cues become conditioned stimuli, eliciting conditioned responses. Cue-reactivity paradigm are important tools to study psychological responses and functional neuroimaging changes. However, till date, there has been no specific study or a validated paradigm for inhalant cue-induced craving research. The study aimed to develop and validate visual cue stimulus for inhalant cue-associated craving. The first step (picture selection) involved screening and careful selection of 30 cue- and 30 neutral-pictures based on their relevance for naturalistic settings. In the second step (time optimization), a random selection of ten cue-pictures each was presented for 4s, 6s, and 8s to seven adolescent male inhalant users, and pre-post craving response was compared using a Visual Analogue Scale(VAS) for each of the picture and time. In the third step (validation), craving response for each of 30 cue- and 30 neutral-pictures were analysed among 20 adolescent inhalant users. Findings revealed a significant difference in before and after craving response for the cue-pictures, but not neutral-pictures. Using ROC-curve, pictures were arranged in order of craving intensity. Finally, 20 best cue- and 20 neutral-pictures were used for the development of a 480s visual cue paradigm. This is the first study to systematically develop an inhalant cue picture paradigm which can be used as a tool to examine cue induced craving in neurobiological studies. Further research, including its further validation in larger study and diverse samples, is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Contribution of Bodily and Gravitational Orientation Cues to Face and Letter Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Snow, Jacqueline C; Culham, Jody C

    2015-01-01

    Sensory information provided by the vestibular system is crucial in cognitive processes such as the ability to recognize objects. The orientation at which objects are most easily recognized--the perceptual upright (PU)--is influenced by body orientation with respect to gravity as detected from the somatosensory and vestibular systems. To date, the influence of these sensory cues on the PU has been measured using a letter recognition task. Here we assessed whether gravitational influences on letter recognition also extend to human face recognition. 13 right-handed observers were positioned in four body orientations (upright, left-side-down, right-side-down, supine) and visually discriminated ambiguous characters ('p'-from-'d'; 'i'-from-'!') and ambiguous faces used in popular visual illusions ('young woman'-from-'old woman'; 'grinning man'-from-'frowning man') in a forced-choice paradigm. The two transition points (e.g., 'p-to-d' and 'd-to-p'; 'young woman-to-old woman' and 'old woman-to-young woman') were fit with a sigmoidal psychometric function and the average of these transitions was taken as the PU for each stimulus category. The results show that both faces and letters are more influenced by body orientation than gravity. However, faces are more optimally recognized when closer in alignment with body orientation than letters--which are more influenced by gravity. Our results indicate that the brain does not utilize a common representation of upright that governs recognition of all object categories. Distinct areas of ventro-temporal cortex that represent faces and letters may weight bodily and gravitational cues differently--possibly to facilitate the specific demands of face and letter recognition.

  18. Extinction of drug- and withdrawal-paired cues in animal models: Relevance to the treatment of addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Karyn M.; Carlezon, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Conditioned drug craving and withdrawal elicited by cues paired with drug use or acute withdrawal are among the many factors contributing to compulsive drug taking. Understanding how to stop these cues from having these effects is a major goal of addiction research. Extinction is a form of learning in which associations between cues and the events they predict are weakened by exposure to the cues in the absence of those events. Evidence from animal models suggests that conditioned responses to drug cues can be extinguished, although the degree to which this occurs in humans is controversial. Investigations into the neurobiological substrates of extinction of conditioned drug craving and withdrawal may facilitate the successful use of drug cue extinction within clinical contexts. While this work is still in the early stages, there are indications that extinction of drug- and withdrawal-paired cues shares neural mechanisms with extinction of conditioned fear. Using the fear extinction literature as a template, it is possible to organize the observations on drug cue extinction into a cohesive framework. PMID:20109490

  19. Contour identification with pitch and loudness cues using cochlear implants

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xin; Masterson, Megan E.; Wu, Ching-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Different from speech, pitch and loudness cues may or may not co-vary in music. Cochlear implant (CI) users with poor pitch perception may use loudness contour cues more than normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Contour identification was tested in CI users and NH listeners; the five-note contours contained either pitch cues alone, loudness cues alone, or both. Results showed that NH listeners' contour identification was better with pitch cues than with loudness cues; CI users performed similarly w...

  20. Are We Modular Lying Cues Detectors? The Answer Is "Yes, Sometimes".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Arminjon

    Full Text Available We quickly form first impressions about newly encountered people guiding our subsequent behaviour (approach, avoidance. Such instant judgments might be innate and automatic, being performed unconsciously and independently to other cognitive processes. Lying detection might be subject to such a modular process. Unfortunately, numerous studies highlighted problems with lying detection paradigms such as high error rates and learning effects. Additionally, humans should be motivated doing both detecting others' lies and disguising own lies. Disguising own lies might even be more challenging than detecting other people's lies. Thus, when trying to disguise cheating behaviour, liars might display a mixture of disguising (fake trust cues and uncontrolled lying cues making the interpretation of the expression difficult (perceivers are guessing. In two consecutive online studies, we tested whether seeing an increasing amount (range 0-4 of lying cues (LC and non-lying cues (NLC on a standard face results in enhanced guessing behaviour (studies 1 and 2 and that enhanced guessing is accompanied by slower responding (study 2. Results showed that pronounced guessing and slowest responding occurred for faces with an intermediate number and not with the highest number of LC and NLC. In particular, LC were more important than NLC to uncertain lying decisions. Thus, only a few LC may interfere with automatic processing of lying detection (irrespective of NLC, probably because too little lying cue information is yet available.

  1. Are We Modular Lying Cues Detectors? The Answer Is “Yes, Sometimes”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arminjon, Mathieu; Chamseddine, Amer; Kopta, Vladimir; Paunović, Aleksandar; Mohr, Christine

    2015-01-01

    We quickly form first impressions about newly encountered people guiding our subsequent behaviour (approach, avoidance). Such instant judgments might be innate and automatic, being performed unconsciously and independently to other cognitive processes. Lying detection might be subject to such a modular process. Unfortunately, numerous studies highlighted problems with lying detection paradigms such as high error rates and learning effects. Additionally, humans should be motivated doing both detecting others’ lies and disguising own lies. Disguising own lies might even be more challenging than detecting other people’s lies. Thus, when trying to disguise cheating behaviour, liars might display a mixture of disguising (fake) trust cues and uncontrolled lying cues making the interpretation of the expression difficult (perceivers are guessing). In two consecutive online studies, we tested whether seeing an increasing amount (range 0–4) of lying cues (LC) and non-lying cues (NLC) on a standard face results in enhanced guessing behaviour (studies 1 and 2) and that enhanced guessing is accompanied by slower responding (study 2). Results showed that pronounced guessing and slowest responding occurred for faces with an intermediate number and not with the highest number of LC and NLC. In particular, LC were more important than NLC to uncertain lying decisions. Thus, only a few LC may interfere with automatic processing of lying detection (irrespective of NLC), probably because too little lying cue information is yet available. PMID:26349057

  2. Are We Modular Lying Cues Detectors? The Answer Is "Yes, Sometimes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arminjon, Mathieu; Chamseddine, Amer; Kopta, Vladimir; Paunović, Aleksandar; Mohr, Christine

    2015-01-01

    We quickly form first impressions about newly encountered people guiding our subsequent behaviour (approach, avoidance). Such instant judgments might be innate and automatic, being performed unconsciously and independently to other cognitive processes. Lying detection might be subject to such a modular process. Unfortunately, numerous studies highlighted problems with lying detection paradigms such as high error rates and learning effects. Additionally, humans should be motivated doing both detecting others' lies and disguising own lies. Disguising own lies might even be more challenging than detecting other people's lies. Thus, when trying to disguise cheating behaviour, liars might display a mixture of disguising (fake) trust cues and uncontrolled lying cues making the interpretation of the expression difficult (perceivers are guessing). In two consecutive online studies, we tested whether seeing an increasing amount (range 0-4) of lying cues (LC) and non-lying cues (NLC) on a standard face results in enhanced guessing behaviour (studies 1 and 2) and that enhanced guessing is accompanied by slower responding (study 2). Results showed that pronounced guessing and slowest responding occurred for faces with an intermediate number and not with the highest number of LC and NLC. In particular, LC were more important than NLC to uncertain lying decisions. Thus, only a few LC may interfere with automatic processing of lying detection (irrespective of NLC), probably because too little lying cue information is yet available.

  3. PPARγ agonism attenuates cocaine cue reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R; Fox, Robert G; Stutz, Sonja J; Lane, Scott D; Denner, Larry; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Dineley, Kelly T

    2016-11-11

    Cocaine use disorder is a chronic relapsing condition characterized by compulsive drug seeking and taking even after prolonged abstinence periods. Subsequent exposure to drug-associated cues can promote intense craving and lead to relapse in abstinent humans and rodent models. The responsiveness to these cocaine-related cues, or 'cue reactivity', can trigger relapse and cocaine-seeking behaviors; cue reactivity is measurable in cocaine-dependent humans as well as rodent models. Cue reactivity is thought to be predictive of cocaine craving and relapse. Here we report that PPARγ agonism during abstinence from cocaine self-administration reduced previously active lever pressing in Sprague Dawley rats during cue-reactivity tests, while administration of the PPARγ antagonist, GW9662, reversed this effect. PPARγ agonism also normalized nuclear ERK activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus which was reversed with GW9662. Our results support the utility of PPARγ agonism as a relapse prevention strategy to maintain abstinence in the presence of cocaine-associated cues. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Action experience changes attention to kinematic cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney eFilippi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study used remote corneal reflection eye-tracking to examine the relationship between motor experience and action anticipation in 13-month-old infants. To measure online anticipation of actions infants watched videos where the actor’s hand provided kinematic information (in its orientation about the type of object that the actor was going to reach for. The actor’s hand orientation either matched the orientation of a rod (congruent cue or did not match the orientation of the rod (incongruent cue. To examine relations between motor experience and action anticipation, we used a 2 (reach first vs. observe first x 2 (congruent kinematic cue vs. incongruent kinematic cue between-subjects design. We show that 13-month-old infants in the observe first condition spontaneously generate rapid online visual predictions to congruent hand orientation cues and do not visually anticipate when presented incongruent cues. We further demonstrate that the speed that these infants generate predictions to congruent motor cues is correlated with their own ability to pre-shape their hands. Finally, we demonstrate that following reaching experience, infants generate rapid predictions to both congruent and incongruent hand shape cues—suggesting that short-term experience changes attention to kinematics.

  5. Optic flow cues guide flight in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Partha S; Claudianos, Charles; Ibbotson, Michael R; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2011-11-08

    Although considerable effort has been devoted to investigating how birds migrate over large distances, surprisingly little is known about how they tackle so successfully the moment-to-moment challenges of rapid flight through cluttered environments [1]. It has been suggested that birds detect and avoid obstacles [2] and control landing maneuvers [3-5] by using cues derived from the image motion that is generated in the eyes during flight. Here we investigate the ability of budgerigars to fly through narrow passages in a collision-free manner, by filming their trajectories during flight in a corridor where the walls are decorated with various visual patterns. The results demonstrate, unequivocally and for the first time, that birds negotiate narrow gaps safely by balancing the speeds of image motion that are experienced by the two eyes and that the speed of flight is regulated by monitoring the speed of image motion that is experienced by the two eyes. These findings have close parallels with those previously reported for flying insects [6-13], suggesting that some principles of visual guidance may be shared by all diurnal, flying animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine W Y Wong

    Full Text Available The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC. Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  7. New high-affinity monoclonal antibodies against Shiga toxin 1 facilitate the detection of hybrid Stx1/Stx2 in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Skinner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC are a group of common and potentially deadly intestinal pathogens expressing Shiga toxin (Stx as a primary virulence factor. Of the two types of Stx, Stx2 is responsible for more severe symptoms during infection, while Stx1 is almost identical to the Shiga toxin from Shigella dysenteriae, a ubiquitous pathogen in developing countries. Although antibodies against Stx1 have been reported, few have reached the affinity needed for assembling highly sensitive immunoassays. Sensitive and affordable immunoassays for Stx1 and Stx2 could help improve detection of STEC in livestock, food, the environment, and in clinical samples resulting in improved food safety and human health. METHOD AND FINDINGS: Three new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against the B subunit of Stx1 were generated using recombinant toxoid Stx1E167Q and hybridoma technology. These new mAbs recognize all subtypes of Stx1, but do not cross-react with any subtype of Stx2. In addition, they exhibited the ability to neutralize Stx1 toxicity in Vero cell assays. An optimized sandwich ELISA using of a pair of these mAbs had a limit of detection of 8.7 pg/mL, which is superior to any existing assay of this kind. Using one of these Stx1 mAbs in concert with Stx2 mAbs, the presence of hybrid Stx1/Stx2 toxin in the culture media of STEC strains that express both Stx1 and Stx2 was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: These new mAbs provide a mix of availability, utility, versatility, and most importantly, increased sensitivity for detection of Stx1. There are numerous potential applications for these mAbs, including low-cost detection assays and therapeutic use. Analysis of hybrid Stx1/2 could provide new insights on the structure, activity, and cellular targets of Shiga toxins.

  8. Novel predators emit novel cues: a mechanism for prey naivety towards alien predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthey, Alexandra J R; Bucknall, Martin P; Wierucka, Kaja; Banks, Peter B

    2017-11-27

    Detecting enemies is crucial for survival and a trait that develops over an evolutionary timeframe. Introduced species disrupt coevolved systems of communication and detection in their new ranges, often leading to devastating impacts. The classic example is prey naivety towards alien predators, whereby prey fail to recognise a new predator. Yet exactly why native prey fail to recognise alien predators remains puzzling. Naivety theory predicts that it is because novel predators emit novel cues. Distantly related animals have distinct evolutionary histories, physiologies and ecologies, predicting they will emit different cues. Yet it also possible that all predators emit similar cues because they are carnivorous. We investigate whether odour cues differ between placental and marsupial carnivores in Australia, where native prey experienced only marsupial mammal predation until ~4000 years ago. We compared volatile chemical profiles of urine, scats and bedding from four placental and three marsupial predators. Chemical profiles showed little overlap between placental and marsupial carnivores across all odour types, suggesting that cue novelty is a plausible mechanism for prey naivety towards alien predators. Our results also suggest a role for olfactory cues to complement visual appearance and vocalisations as biologically meaningful ways to differentiate species.

  9. Effects of sensitive electrical stimulation based cueing in Parkinson's disease: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Sijobert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of a sensitive cueing on Freezing of Gait (FOG and gait disorders in subjects suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD. 13 participants with Parkinson’s disease were equipped with an electrical stimulator and a foot mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU. An IMU based algorithm triggered in real time an electrical stimulus applied on the arch of foot at heel off detection. Starting from standing, subjects were asked to walk at their preferred speed on a path comprising 5m straight, u-turn and walk around tasks. Cueing globally decreased the time to achieve the different tasks in all the subjects. In “freezer” subjects, the time to complete the entire path was reduced by 19%. FOG events occurrence was lowered by 12% compared to baseline before and after cueing. This preliminary work showed a positive global effect of an electrical stimulation based cueing on gait and FOG in PD.

  10. Directional hearing: from biophysical binaural cues to directional hearing outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    When insects communicate by sound, or use acoustic cues to escape predators or detect prey or hosts they have to localize the sound in most cases, to perform adaptive behavioral responses. In the case of particle velocity receivers such as the antennae of mosquitoes, directionality is no problem because such receivers are inherently directional. Insects equipped with bilateral pairs of tympanate ears could principally make use of binaural cues for sound localization, like all other animals with two ears. However, their small size is a major problem to create sufficiently large binaural cues, with respect to both interaural time differences (ITDs, because interaural distances are so small), but also with respect to interaural intensity differences (IIDs), since the ratio of body size to the wavelength of sound is rather unfavorable for diffractive effects. In my review, I will only shortly cover these biophysical aspects of directional hearing. Instead, I will focus on aspects of directional hearing which received relatively little attention previously, the evolution of a pressure difference receiver, 3D-hearing, directional hearing outdoors, and directional hearing for auditory scene analysis.

  11. Color to gray: visual cue preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Chen, Chun; Li, Xuelong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2010-09-01

    Both commercial and scientific applications often need to transform color images into gray-scale images, e.g., to reduce the publication cost in printing color images or to help color blind people see visual cues of color images. However, conventional color to gray algorithms are not ready for practical applications because they encounter the following problems: 1) Visual cues are not well defined so it is unclear how to preserve important cues in the transformed gray-scale images; 2) some algorithms have extremely high time cost for computation; and 3) some require human-computer interactions to have a reasonable transformation. To solve or at least reduce these problems, we propose a new algorithm based on a probabilistic graphical model with the assumption that the image is defined over a Markov random field. Thus, color to gray procedure can be regarded as a labeling process to preserve the newly well--defined visual cues of a color image in the transformed gray-scale image. Visual cues are measurements that can be extracted from a color image by a perceiver. They indicate the state of some properties of the image that the perceiver is interested in perceiving. Different people may perceive different cues from the same color image and three cues are defined in this paper, namely, color spatial consistency, image structure information, and color channel perception priority. We cast color to gray as a visual cue preservation procedure based on a probabilistic graphical model and optimize the model based on an integral minimization problem. We apply the new algorithm to both natural color images and artificial pictures, and demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms representative conventional algorithms in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. In addition, it requires no human-computer interactions.

  12. Role of Speaker Cues in Attention Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Joo Lee; Cynthia Breazeal; David DeSteno

    2017-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art approaches to emotion recognition primarily focus on modeling the nonverbal expressions of the sole individual without reference to contextual elements such as the co-presence of the partner. In this paper, we demonstrate that the accurate inference of listeners’ social-emotional state of attention depends on accounting for the nonverbal behaviors of their storytelling partner, namely their speaker cues. To gain a deeper understanding of the role of speaker cues in at...

  13. Different spatio-temporal electroencephalography features drive the successful decoding of binaural and monaural cues for sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, Adam; Boland, Francis M; Lalor, Edmund C

    2017-03-01

    The human ability to localize sound is essential for monitoring our environment and helps us to analyse complex auditory scenes. Although the acoustic cues mediating sound localization have been established, it remains unknown how these cues are represented in human cortex. In particular, it is still a point of contention whether binaural and monaural cues are processed by the same or distinct cortical networks. In this study, participants listened to a sequence of auditory stimuli from different spatial locations while we recorded their neural activity using electroencephalography (EEG). The stimuli were presented over a loudspeaker array, which allowed us to deliver realistic, free-field stimuli in both the horizontal and vertical planes. Using a multivariate classification approach, we showed that it is possible to decode sound source location from scalp-recorded EEG. Robust and consistent decoding was shown for stimuli that provide binaural cues (i.e. Left vs. Right stimuli). Decoding location when only monaural cues were available (i.e. Front vs. Rear and elevational stimuli) was successful for a subset of subjects and showed less consistency. Notably, the spatio-temporal pattern of EEG features that facilitated decoding differed based on the availability of binaural and monaural cues. In particular, we identified neural processing of binaural cues at around 120 ms post-stimulus and found that monaural cues are processed later between 150 and 200 ms. Furthermore, different spatial activation patterns emerged for binaural and monaural cue processing. These spatio-temporal dissimilarities suggest the involvement of separate cortical mechanisms in monaural and binaural acoustic cue processing. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Gender differences in craving and cue reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Carpenter, Matthew J; LaRowe, Steven D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women may be less successful when attempting to quit smoking than men. One potential contributory cause of this gender difference is differential craving and stress reactivity to smoking- and negative affect/stress-related cues. The present human laboratory study investigated the effects of gender on reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues by exposing nicotine dependent women (n = 37) and men (n = 53) smokers to two active cue types, each with an associated control cue: (1) in vivo smoking cues and in vivo neutral control cues, and (2) imagery-based negative affect/stress script and a neutral/relaxing control script. Both before and after each cue/script, participants provided subjective reports of smoking-related craving and affective reactions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) responses were also measured. Results indicated that participants reported greater craving and SC in response to smoking versus neutral cues and greater subjective stress in response to the negative affect/stress versus neutral/relaxing script. With respect to gender differences, women evidenced greater craving, stress and arousal ratings and lower valence ratings (greater negative emotion) in response to the negative affect/stressful script. While there were no gender differences in responses to smoking cues, women trended towards higher arousal ratings. Implications of the findings for treatment and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are discussed. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  15. Spontaneous Hedonic Reactions to Social Media Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Hartmann, Tilo; Eden, Allison; Veling, Harm

    2017-05-01

    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we investigated less-frequent and frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues using the Affect Misattribution Procedure-an implicit measure of affective reactions. Results demonstrated that frequent social media users showed more favorable affective reactions in response to social media (vs. control) cues, whereas less-frequent social media users' affective reactions did not differ between social media and control cues (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, the spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media (vs. control) cues were related to self-reported cravings to use social media and partially accounted for the link between social media use and social media cravings (Study 2). These findings suggest that frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions in response to social media cues might contribute to their difficulties in resisting desires to use social media.

  16. Role of Speaker Cues in Attention Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Joo Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Current state-of-the-art approaches to emotion recognition primarily focus on modeling the nonverbal expressions of the sole individual without reference to contextual elements such as the co-presence of the partner. In this paper, we demonstrate that the accurate inference of listeners’ social-emotional state of attention depends on accounting for the nonverbal behaviors of their storytelling partner, namely their speaker cues. To gain a deeper understanding of the role of speaker cues in attention inference, we conduct investigations into real-world interactions of children (5–6 years old storytelling with their peers. Through in-depth analysis of human–human interaction data, we first identify nonverbal speaker cues (i.e., backchannel-inviting cues and listener responses (i.e., backchannel feedback. We then demonstrate how speaker cues can modify the interpretation of attention-related backchannels as well as serve as a means to regulate the responsiveness of listeners. We discuss the design implications of our findings toward our primary goal of developing attention recognition models for storytelling robots, and we argue that social robots can proactively use speaker cues to form more accurate inferences about the attentive state of their human partners.

  17. Latent error detection: A golden two hours for detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saward, Justin R E; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-03-01

    Undetected error in safety critical contexts generates a latent condition that can contribute to a future safety failure. The detection of latent errors post-task completion is observed in naval air engineers using a diary to record work-related latent error detection (LED) events. A systems view is combined with multi-process theories to explore sociotechnical factors associated with LED. Perception of cues in different environments facilitates successful LED, for which the deliberate review of past tasks within two hours of the error occurring and whilst remaining in the same or similar sociotechnical environment to that which the error occurred appears most effective. Identified ergonomic interventions offer potential mitigation for latent errors; particularly in simple everyday habitual tasks. It is thought safety critical organisations should look to engineer further resilience through the application of LED techniques that engage with system cues across the entire sociotechnical environment, rather than relying on consistent human performance. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct and Indirect Cues to Knowledge States during Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Megan M.; Carroll, C. Brooke

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated three-year-olds' sensitivity to direct and indirect cues to others' knowledge states for word learning purposes. Children were given either direct, physical cues to knowledge or indirect, verbal cues to knowledge. Preschoolers revealed a better ability to learn words from a speaker following direct, physical cues to…

  19. Do anuran larvae respond behaviourally to chemical cues from an invasive crayfish predator? A community-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ana L; Richter-Boix, Alex; Laurila, Anssi; Rebelo, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Antipredator behaviour is an important fitness component in most animals. A co-evolutionary history between predator and prey is important for prey to respond adaptively to predation threats. When non-native predator species invade new areas, native prey may not recognise them or may lack effective antipredator defences. However, responses to novel predators can be facilitated by chemical cues from the predators' diet. The red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii is a widespread invasive predator in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, where it preys upon native anuran tadpoles. In a laboratory experiment we studied behavioural antipredator defences (alterations in activity level and spatial avoidance of predator) of nine anurans in response to P. clarkii chemical cues, and compared them with the defences towards a native predator, the larval dragonfly Aeshna sp. To investigate how chemical cues from consumed conspecifics shape the responses, we raised tadpoles with either a tadpole-fed or starved crayfish, or dragonfly larva, or in the absence of a predator. Five species significantly altered their behaviour in the presence of crayfish, and this was largely mediated by chemical cues from consumed conspecifics. In the presence of dragonflies, most species exhibited behavioural defences and often these did not require the presence of cues from predation events. Responding to cues from consumed conspecifics seems to be a critical factor in facilitating certain behavioural responses to novel exotic predators. This finding can be useful for predicting antipredator responses to invasive predators and help directing conservation efforts to the species at highest risk.

  20. Fluorescent reporter signals, EGFP and DsRed, encoded in HIV-1 facilitate the detection of productively infected cells and cell-associated viral replication levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka eTerahara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometric analysis is a reliable and convenient method for investigating molecules at the single cell level. Previously, recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 strains were constructed that express a fluorescent reporter, either enhanced green fluorescent protein or DsRed, which allow the monitoring of HIV-1-infected cells by flow cytometry. The present study further investigated the potential of these recombinant viruses in terms of whether the HIV-1 fluorescent reporters would be helpful in evaluating viral replication based on fluorescence intensity. When primary CD4+ T cells were infected with recombinant viruses, the fluorescent reporter intensity measured by flow cytometry was associated with the level of CD4 downmodulation and Gag p24 expression in infected cells. Interestingly, some HIV-1-infected cells, in which CD4 was only moderately downmodulated, were reporter-positive but Gag p24-negative. Furthermore, when the activation status of primary CD4+ T cells was modulated by T cell receptor-mediated stimulation, we confirmed the preferential viral production upon strong stimulation and showed that the intensity of the fluorescent reporter within a proportion of HIV-1-infected cells was correlated with the viral replication level. These findings indicate that a fluorescent reporter encoded within HIV-1 is useful for the sensitive detection of productively-infected cells at different stages of infection and for evaluating cell-associated viral replication at the single cell level.

  1. Increasing explicit sequence knowledge by odor cueing during sleep in men but not women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eDiekelmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep consolidates newly acquired memories. Beyond stabilizing memories, sleep is thought to reorganize memory representations such that invariant structures, statistical regularities and even new explicit knowledge are extracted. Whereas increasing evidence suggests that the stabilization of memories during sleep can be facilitated by cueing with learning-associated stimuli, the effect of cueing on memory reorganization is less well understood. Here we asked whether olfactory cueing during sleep enhances the generation of explicit knowledge about an implicitly learned procedural memory task. Subjects were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT containing a hidden 12-element sequence in the presence of an odor. During subsequent sleep, half of the subjects were re-exposed to the odor during periods of slow wave sleep (SWS, while the other half received odorless vehicle. In the next morning, subjects were tested on their explicit knowledge about the underlying sequence in a free recall test and a generation task. Although odor cueing did not significantly affect overall explicit knowledge, differential effects were evident when analyzing male and female subjects separately. Explicit sequence knowledge, both in free recall and the generation task, was enhanced by odor cueing in men, whereas women showed no cueing effect. Procedural skill in the SRTT was not affected by cueing, neither in men nor in women. These findings suggest that olfactory memory reactivation can increase explicit knowledge about implicitly learned information, but only in men. Hormonal differences due to menstrual cycle phase and/or hormonal contraceptives might explain the lacking effect in women.

  2. Imaging when acting: picture but not word cues induce action-related biases of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Hommel, Bernhard; Schubö, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In line with the Theory of Event Coding (Hommel et al., 2001a), action planning has been shown to affect perceptual processing - an effect that has been attributed to a so-called intentional weighting mechanism (Wykowska et al., 2009; Memelink and Hommel, 2012), whose functional role is to provide information for open parameters of online action adjustment (Hommel, 2010). The aim of this study was to test whether different types of action representations induce intentional weighting to various degrees. To meet this aim, we introduced a paradigm in which participants performed a visual search task while preparing to grasp or to point. The to-be performed movement was signaled either by a picture of a required action or a word cue. We reasoned that picture cues might trigger a more concrete action representation that would be more likely to activate the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions that provide information for online action control. In contrast, word cues were expected to trigger a more abstract action representation that would be less likely to induce intentional weighting. In two experiments, preparing for an action facilitated the processing of targets in an unrelated search task if they differed from distractors on a dimension that provided information for online action control. As predicted, however, this effect was observed only if action preparation was signaled by picture cues but not if it was signaled by word cues. We conclude that picture cues are more efficient than word cues in activating the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions, presumably by specifying not only invariant characteristics of the planned action but also the dimensions of action-specific parameters.

  3. Imaging when acting: picture but not word cues induce action-related biases of visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka eWykowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In line with the Theory of Event Coding (Hommel et al., 2001, action planning has been shown to affect perceptual processing—an effect that has been attributed to a so-called intentional weighting mechanism (Memelink & Hommel, in press; Wykowska, Schubö, & Hommel, 2009, whose functional role is to provide information for open parameters of online action adjustment (Hommel, 2010. The aim of this study was to test whether different types of action representations induce intentional weighting to various degrees. To meet this aim, we introduced a paradigm in which participants performed a visual search task while preparing to grasp or to point. The to-be performed movement was signaled either by a picture of a required action or a word cue. We reasoned that picture cues might trigger a more concrete action representation that would be more likely to activate the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions that provide information for online action control. In contrast, word cues were expected to trigger a more abstract action representation that would be less likely to induce intentional weighting. In two experiments, preparing for an action facilitated the processing of targets in an unrelated search task if they differed from distractors on a dimension that provided information for online action control. As predicted, however, this effect was observed only if action preparation was signaled by picture cues but not if it was signaled by word cues. We conclude that picture cues are more efficient than word cues in activating the intentional weighting of perceptual dimensions, presumably by specifying not only invariant characteristics of the planned action but also the dimensions of action-specific parameters.

  4. Evaluating motion parallax and stereopsis as depth cues for autostereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Marius; Leiner, Ulrich; Ruschin, Detlef

    2011-03-01

    The perception of space in the real world is based on multifaceted depth cues, most of them monocular, some binocular. Developing 3D-displays raises the question, which of these depth cues are predominant and should be simulated by computational means in such a panel. Beyond the cues based on image content, such as shadows or patterns, Stereopsis and depth from motion parallax are the most significant mechanisms supporting observers with depth information. We set up a carefully designed test situation, widely excluding undesired other distance hints. Thereafter we conducted a user test to find out, which of these two depth cues is more relevant and whether a combination of both would increase accuracy in a depth estimation task. The trials were conducting utilizing our autostereoscopic "Free2C"-displays, which are capable to detect the user eye position and steer the image lobes dynamically into that direction. At the same time, eye position was used to update the virtual camera's location and thereby offering motion parallax to the observer. As far as we know, this was the first time that such a test has been conducted using an autosteresocopic display without any assistive technologies. Our results showed, in accordance with prior experiments, that both cues are effective, however Stereopsis is by order of magnitude more relevant. Combining both cues improved the precision of distance estimation by another 30-40%.

  5. Impaired cue identification and intention retrieval underlie prospective memory deficits in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dengtang; Ji, Chengfeng; Zhuo, Kaiming; Song, Zhenhua; Wang, Yingchan; Mei, Li; Zhu, Dianming; Xiang, Qiong; Chen, Tianyi; Yang, Zhilei; Zhu, Guang; Wang, Ya; Cheung, Eric Fc; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Fan, Xiaoduo; Chan, Raymond Ck; Xu, Yifeng; Jiang, Kaida

    2017-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with impairment in prospective memory, the ability to remember to carry out an intended action in the future. It has been established that cue identification (detection of the cue event signaling that an intended action should be performed) and intention retrieval (retrieval of an intention from long-term memory following the recognition of a prospective cue) are two important processes underlying prospective memory. The purpose of this study was to examine prospective memory deficit and underlying cognitive processes in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. This study examined cue identification and intention retrieval components of event-based prospective memory using a dual-task paradigm in 30 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. All participants were also administered a set of tests assessing working memory and retrospective memory. Both cue identification and intention retrieval were impaired in patients with first-episode schizophrenia compared with healthy controls ( ps intention retrieval (Cohen's d = 0.62). After controlling for working memory and retrospective memory, the difference in cue identification between patients and healthy controls remained significant. However, the difference in intention retrieval between the two groups was no longer significant. In addition, there was a significant inverse relationship between cue identification and negative symptoms ( r = -0.446, p = 0.013) in the patient group. These findings suggest that both cue identification and intention retrieval in event-based prospective memory are impaired in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Cue identification and intention retrieval could be potentially used as biomarkers for early detection and treatment prognosis of schizophrenia. In addition, addressing cue identification deficit through cognitive enhancement training may potentially improve negative symptoms as well.

  6. An Eye Tracking Comparison of External Pointing Cues and Internal Continuous Cues in Learning with Complex Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Lowe, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments used eye tracking to investigate a novel cueing approach for directing learner attention to low salience, high relevance aspects of a complex animation. In the first experiment, comprehension of a piano mechanism animation containing spreading-colour cues was compared with comprehension obtained with arrow cues or no cues. Eye…

  7. Preschoolers' Learning of Brand Names from Visual Cues.

    OpenAIRE

    Macklin, M Carole

    1996-01-01

    This research addresses the question of how perceptual cues affect preschoolers' learning of brand names. It is found that when visual cues are provided in addition to brand names that are prior-associated in children's memory structures, children better remember the brand names. Although two cues (a picture and a color) improve memory over the imposition of a single cue, extensive visual cues may overtax young children's processing abilities. The study contributes to our understanding of how...

  8. Familiarity facilitates feature-based face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Wheeler, Kelsey G; Cipolli, Carlo; Gobbini, M Ida

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of personally familiar faces is remarkably efficient, effortless and robust. We asked if feature-based face processing facilitates detection of familiar faces by testing the effect of face inversion on a visual search task for familiar and unfamiliar faces. Because face inversion disrupts configural and holistic face processing, we hypothesized that inversion would diminish the familiarity advantage to the extent that it is mediated by such processing. Subjects detected personally familiar and stranger target faces in arrays of two, four, or six face images. Subjects showed significant facilitation of personally familiar face detection for both upright and inverted faces. The effect of familiarity on target absent trials, which involved only rejection of unfamiliar face distractors, suggests that familiarity facilitates rejection of unfamiliar distractors as well as detection of familiar targets. The preserved familiarity effect for inverted faces suggests that facilitation of face detection afforded by familiarity reflects mostly feature-based processes.

  9. A cross-ocean comparison of responses to settlement cues in reef-building corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah W. Davies

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean coral reefs have deteriorated substantially over the past 30 years, which is broadly attributable to the effects of global climate change. In the same time, Indo-Pacific reefs maintain higher coral cover and typically recover rapidly after disturbances. This difference in reef resilience is largely due to much higher coral recruitment rates in the Pacific. We hypothesized that the lack of Caribbean recruitment might be explained by diminishing quality of settlement cues and/or impaired sensitivity of Caribbean coral larvae to those cues, relative to the Pacific. To evaluate this hypothesis, we assembled a collection of bulk samples of reef encrusting communities, mostly consisting of crustose coralline algae (CCA, from various reefs around the world and tested them as settlement cues for several coral species originating from different ocean provinces. Cue samples were meta-barcoded to evaluate their taxonomic diversity. We observed no systematic differences either in cue potency or in strength of larval responses depending on the ocean province, and no preference of coral larvae towards cues from the same ocean. Instead, we detected significant differences in cue preferences among coral species, even for corals originating from the same reef. We conclude that the region-wide disruption of the settlement process is unlikely to be the major cause of Caribbean reef loss. However, due to their high sensitivity to the effects of climate change, shifts in the composition of CCA-associated communities, combined with pronounced differences in cue preferences among coral species, could substantially influence future coral community structure.

  10. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    Italy. LL.M (Business Law) Addis Ababa .... section identifies the main trade facilitation challenges in Ethiopia that are mostly within customs law. ... Various international and regional organizations define trade facilitation according to their mandate ...

  11. Colliding Cues in Word Segmentation: The Role of Cue Strength and General Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Daniel J.; Gerfen, Chip; Mitchel, Aaron D.

    2010-01-01

    The process of word segmentation is flexible, with many strategies potentially available to learners. This experiment explores how segmentation cues interact, and whether successful resolution of cue competition is related to general executive functioning. Participants listened to artificial speech streams that contained both statistical and…

  12. Biophysical Cueing and Vascular Endothelial Cell Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Wood

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Human vascular endothelial cells (VEC line the vessels of the body and are critical for the maintenance of vessel integrity and trafficking of biochemical cues. They are fundamental structural elements and are central to the signaling environment. Alterations in the normal functioning of the VEC population are associated with a number of vascular disorders among which are some of the leading causes of death in both the United States and abroad. VECs attach to their underlying stromal elements through a specialization of the extracellular matrix, the basement membrane. The basement membrane provides signaling cues to the VEC through its chemical constituents, by serving as a reservoir for cytoactive factors and through its intrinsic biophysical properties. This specialized matrix is composed of a topographically rich 3D felt-like network of fibers and pores on the nano (1–100 nm and submicron (100–1,000 nm size scale. The basement membrane provides biophysical cues to the overlying VECs through its intrinsic topography as well as through its local compliance (relative stiffness. These biophysical cues modulate VEC adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and the cytoskeletal signaling network of the individual cells. This review focuses on the impact of biophysical cues on VEC behaviors and demonstrates the need for their consideration in future vascular studies and the design of improved prosthetics.

  13. Defocus cue and saliency preserving video compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Meera Thapar; Chaudhury, Santanu; Lall, Brejesh

    2016-11-01

    There are monocular depth cues present in images or videos that aid in depth perception in two-dimensional images or videos. Our objective is to preserve the defocus depth cue present in the videos along with the salient regions during compression application. A method is provided for opportunistic bit allocation during the video compression using visual saliency information comprising both the image features, such as color and contrast, and the defocus-based depth cue. The method is divided into two steps: saliency computation followed by compression. A nonlinear method is used to combine pure and defocus saliency maps to form the final saliency map. Then quantization values are assigned on the basis of these saliency values over a frame. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme yields good results over standard H.264 compression as well as pure and defocus saliency methods.

  14. Distracted by cues for suppressed memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Paula T; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-01

    We examined the potential cost of practicing suppression of negative thoughts on subsequent performance in an unrelated task. Cues for previously suppressed and unsuppressed (baseline) responses in a think/no-think procedure were displayed as irrelevant flankers for neutral words to be judged for emotional valence. These critical flankers were homographs with one negative meaning denoted by their paired response during learning. Responses to the targets were delayed when suppression cues (compared with baseline cues and new negative homographs) were used as flankers, but only following direct-suppression instructions and not when benign substitutes had been provided to aid suppression. On a final recall test, suppression-induced forgetting following direct suppression and the flanker task was positively correlated with the flanker effect. Experiment 2 replicated these findings. Finally, valence ratings of neutral targets were influenced by the valence of the flankers but not by the prior role of the negative flankers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Perceptions of Sexual Orientation From Minimal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Nicholas O

    2017-01-01

    People derive considerable amounts of information about each other from minimal nonverbal cues. Apart from characteristics typically regarded as obvious when encountering another person (e.g., age, race, and sex), perceivers can identify many other qualities about a person that are typically rather subtle. One such feature is sexual orientation. Here, I review the literature documenting the accurate perception of sexual orientation from nonverbal cues related to one's adornment, acoustics, actions, and appearance. In addition to chronicling studies that have demonstrated how people express and extract sexual orientation in each of these domains, I discuss some of the basic cognitive and perceptual processes that support these judgments, including how cues to sexual orientation manifest in behavioral (e.g., clothing choices) and structural (e.g., facial morphology) signals. Finally, I attend to boundary conditions in the accurate perception of sexual orientation, such as the states, traits, and group memberships that moderate individuals' ability to reliably decipher others' sexual orientation.

  16. Host generated cues alter the foraging behavior of Cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae and its larval parasitoids, Cotesia glomerata and Hyposoter ebeninus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Debarma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of host-generated cues on foraging speed of herbivore as well as its natural enemies was studied under net house conditions in Meghalaya, India. Foraging speed of P. brassicae was significantly higher towards the healthy plants, whereas it was lowest towards the damaged plants along with herbivore cues. In contrast foraging speed of parasitoids H. ebeninus and C. glomerata was highest towards damaged plants along with herbivore cues and lowest towards healthy plants. It indicates that herbivore and its parasitoids respond to the volatiles generated by their host. In addition to host plants natural enemies also utilize herbivore-generated cues for their detection.

  17. Interference from retrieval cues in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Marin, Dario; Del Missier, Fabio; Biasutti, Emanuele; Shallice, Tim

    2011-11-01

    Existing studies on memory interference in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have provided mixed results and it is unknown whether PD patients have problems in overcoming interference from retrieval cues. We investigated this issue by using a part-list cuing paradigm. In this paradigm, after the study of a list of items, the presentation of some of these items as retrieval cues hinders the recall of the remaining ones. We tested PD patients' (n = 19) and control participants' (n = 16) episodic memory in the presence and absence of part-list cues, using initial-letter probes, and following either weak or strong serial associative encoding of list items. Both PD patients and control participants showed a comparable and significant part-list cuing effect after weak associative encoding (13% vs. 12% decrease in retrieval in part-list cuing vs. no part-list cuing -control- conditions in PD patients and control participants, respectively), denoting a similar effect of cue-driven interference in the two populations when a serial retrieval strategy is hard to develop. However, only PD patients showed a significant part-list cuing effect after strong associative encoding (20% vs. 5% decrease in retrieval in patients and controls, respectively). When encoding promotes the development of an effective serial retrieval strategy, the presentation of part-list cues has a specifically disruptive effect in PD patients. This indicates problems in strategic retrieval, probably related to PD patients' increased tendency to rely on external cues. Findings in control conditions suggest that less effective encoding may have contributed to PD patients' memory performance.

  18. Procedural Learning and Associative Memory Mechanisms Contribute to Contextual Cueing: Evidence from fMRI and Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manelis, Anna; Reder, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of eye tracking and fMRI in a contextual cueing task, we explored the mechanisms underlying the facilitation of visual search for repeated spatial configurations. When configurations of distractors were repeated, greater activation in the right hippocampus corresponded to greater reductions in the number of saccades to locate…

  19. Cognitive Cues are More Compelling than Facial Cues in Determining Adults' Reactions towards Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hernández Blasi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated the significant influence that both children's facial features (Lorenz, 1943 and children's cognitive expressions (Bjorklund, Hernández Blasi, and Periss, 2010 have on adults' perception of young children. However, until now, these two types of cues have been studied independently. The present study contrasted these two types of cues simultaneously in a group of college students. To this purpose, we designed five experimental conditions (Consistent, Inconsistent, Mature-Face, Immature-Face, and Faces-Only in which we varied the presentation of a series of mature and immature vignettes (including two previously studied types of thinking: natural thinking and supernatural thinking associated with a series of more mature and less mature children's faces. Performance in these conditions was contrasted with data from a Vignettes-Only condition taken from Bjorklund et al. (2010. Results indicated that cognitive cues were more powerful than facial cues in determining adults' perceptions of young children. From an evolutionary developmental perspective, we suggest that facial cues are more relevant to adults during infancy than during the preschool period, when, with the development of spoken language, the verbalized expressions of children's thoughts become the principal cues influencing adults' perceptions, with facial cues playing a more secondary role.

  20. Multimodal stimulation of the Colorado potato beetle: Prevalence of visual over olfactory cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orientation of insects to host plants and conspecifics is the result of detection and integration of chemical and physical cues present in the environment. Sensory organs have evolved to be sensitive to important signals, providing neural input for higher order processing and behavioral output. He...

  1. Vibrotactile and visual threat cueing with high g threat intercept in dynamic flight simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, L.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Carlander, O.; Levin, B.; Veen, H.A.H.C. van; Veltman, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    In a TNO and FOI joint study, nine fighter pilots participated in a threat detection and intercept experiment in the Swedish Dynamic Flight Simulator. Visual threat cueing with a simulated Gripen aircraft head-up display (HUD) symbology was compared with combined visual and vibrotactile threat

  2. Telling friend from foe : Environmental cues improve recognition of individuals with hostile intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijn, R.; Kleij, R. van der; Kallen, V.L.; Stekkinger, M.; Vries, P. de

    2017-01-01

    Detecting deviant behaviours that precede and are related to crimes can help prevent these crimes. Research suggests that the psychological mindset of wrongdoers may differ from others, such that they are more anxious, self-focussed, and vigilant. As a result, their responses to environmental cues,

  3. Psychology of human kin recognition : Heuristic cues, erroneous inferences, and their implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Justin H.; Schaller, Mark; Van Vugt, Mark

    Humans possess explicit, rule-based, and culturally determined systems for identifying kin, but kinship inferences are also influenced implicitly by cue-based mechanisms found commonly across the animal kingdom. These mechanisms are fallible. An evolutionarily informed signal-detection analysis

  4. Accessing long-term memory representations during visual change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Melissa R; van Lamsweerde, Amanda E

    2011-04-01

    In visual change detection tasks, providing a cue to the change location concurrent with the test image (post-cue) can improve performance, suggesting that, without a cue, not all encoded representations are automatically accessed. Our studies examined the possibility that post-cues can encourage the retrieval of representations stored in long-term memory (LTM). Participants detected changes in images composed of familiar objects. Performance was better when the cue directed attention to the post-change object. Supporting the role of LTM in the cue effect, the effect was similar regardless of whether the cue was presented during the inter-stimulus interval, concurrent with the onset of the test image, or after the onset of the test image. Furthermore, the post-cue effect and LTM performance were similarly influenced by encoding time. These findings demonstrate that monitoring the visual world for changes does not automatically engage LTM retrieval.

  5. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  6. Elaboration over a discourse facilitates retrieval in sentence processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eTroyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions (‘Texas cattle rancher’ vs. ‘rancher’ leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions, processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators, one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., ‘The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president’. The final sentence (e.g., ‘The senator who the {Republican / Democrat} had voted for…’ contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with ‘Republican’ or the One-Cue referent (with ‘Democrat’. We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region (‘had voted for’, where readers could understand that ‘The senator’ is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich & West, 1989, providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b richer/more highly-structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe

  7. Training facilitators and supervisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Binow; O Connor, Maja; Krogh, Kristian

    At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired by the apprentic......At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired...... by the apprenticeship approach, and 2) A course for module 2 and 5 supervisors, based on principles of professional peer supervision....

  8. Moving to music: Effects of heard and imagined musical cues on movement-related brain activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S Schaefer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Music is commonly used to facilitate or support movement, and increasingly used in movement rehabilitation. Additionally, there is some evidence to suggest that music imagery, which is reported to lead to brain signatures similar to music perception, may also assist movement. However, it is not yet known whether either imagined or musical cueing changes the way in which the motor system of the human brain is activated during simple movements. Here, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI was used to compare neural activity during wrist flexions performed to either heard or imagined music with self-pacing of the same movement without any cueing. Focusing specifically on the motor network of the brain, analyses were performed within a mask of BA4, BA6, the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate and pallidum, the motor nuclei of the thalamus and the whole cerebellum. Results revealed that moving to music compared with self-paced movement resulted in significantly increased activation in left cerebellum VI. Moving to imagined music led to significantly more activation in pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA and right globus pallidus, relative to self-paced movement. When the music and imagery cueing conditions were contrasted directly, movements in the music condition showed significantly more activity in left hemisphere cerebellum VII and right hemisphere and vermis of cerebellum IX, while the imagery condition revealed more significant activity in pre-SMA. These results suggest that cueing movement with actual or imagined music impacts upon engagement of motor network regions during the movement, and suggest that heard and imagined cues can modulate movement in subtly different ways. These results may have implications for the applicability of auditory cueing in movement rehabilitation for different patient populations.

  9. Moving to Music: Effects of Heard and Imagined Musical Cues on Movement-Related Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rebecca S.; Morcom, Alexa M.; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Music is commonly used to facilitate or support movement, and increasingly used in movement rehabilitation. Additionally, there is some evidence to suggest that music imagery, which is reported to lead to brain signatures similar to music perception, may also assist movement. However, it is not yet known whether either imagined or musical cueing changes the way in which the motor system of the human brain is activated during simple movements. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural activity during wrist flexions performed to either heard or imagined music with self-pacing of the same movement without any cueing. Focusing specifically on the motor network of the brain, analyses were performed within a mask of BA4, BA6, the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate, and pallidum), the motor nuclei of the thalamus, and the whole cerebellum. Results revealed that moving to music compared with self-paced movement resulted in significantly increased activation in left cerebellum VI. Moving to imagined music led to significantly more activation in pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and right globus pallidus, relative to self-paced movement. When the music and imagery cueing conditions were contrasted directly, movements in the music condition showed significantly more activity in left hemisphere cerebellum VII and right hemisphere and vermis of cerebellum IX, while the imagery condition revealed more significant activity in pre-SMA. These results suggest that cueing movement with actual or imagined music impacts upon engagement of motor network regions during the movement, and suggest that heard and imagined cues can modulate movement in subtly different ways. These results may have implications for the applicability of auditory cueing in movement rehabilitation for different patient populations. PMID:25309407

  10. Chemical cues released by an alien invasive aquatic gastropod drive its invasion success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Raw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera.

  11. Moving to music: effects of heard and imagined musical cues on movement-related brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rebecca S; Morcom, Alexa M; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Music is commonly used to facilitate or support movement, and increasingly used in movement rehabilitation. Additionally, there is some evidence to suggest that music imagery, which is reported to lead to brain signatures similar to music perception, may also assist movement. However, it is not yet known whether either imagined or musical cueing changes the way in which the motor system of the human brain is activated during simple movements. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural activity during wrist flexions performed to either heard or imagined music with self-pacing of the same movement without any cueing. Focusing specifically on the motor network of the brain, analyses were performed within a mask of BA4, BA6, the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate, and pallidum), the motor nuclei of the thalamus, and the whole cerebellum. Results revealed that moving to music compared with self-paced movement resulted in significantly increased activation in left cerebellum VI. Moving to imagined music led to significantly more activation in pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and right globus pallidus, relative to self-paced movement. When the music and imagery cueing conditions were contrasted directly, movements in the music condition showed significantly more activity in left hemisphere cerebellum VII and right hemisphere and vermis of cerebellum IX, while the imagery condition revealed more significant activity in pre-SMA. These results suggest that cueing movement with actual or imagined music impacts upon engagement of motor network regions during the movement, and suggest that heard and imagined cues can modulate movement in subtly different ways. These results may have implications for the applicability of auditory cueing in movement rehabilitation for different patient populations.

  12. Disentangling attention from action in the emotional spatial cueing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulckhuyse, Manon; Crombez, Geert

    2014-01-01

    In the emotional spatial cueing task, a peripheral cue--either emotional or non-emotional--is presented before target onset. A stronger cue validity effect with an emotional relative to a non-emotional cue (i.e., more efficient responding to validly cued targets relative to invalidly cued targets) is taken as an indication of emotional modulation of attentional processes. However, results from previous emotional spatial cueing studies are not consistent. Some studies find an effect at the validly cued location (shorter reaction times compared to a non-emotional cue), whereas other studies find an effect at the invalidly cued location (longer reaction times compared to a non-emotional cue). In the current paper, we explore which parameters affect emotional modulation of the cue validity effect in the spatial cueing task. Results from five experiments in healthy volunteers led to the conclusion that a threatening spatial cue did not affect attention processes but rather indicate that motor processes are affected. A possible mechanism might be that a strong aversive cue stimulus decreases reaction times by means of stronger action preparation. Consequently, in case of a spatially congruent response with the peripheral cue, a stronger cue validity effect could be obtained due to stronger response priming. The implications for future research are discussed.

  13. Cue reactivity in virtual reality: the role of context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Megan M; Carter, Brian L; Traylor, Amy C; Bordnick, Patrick S; Day, Susan X; Armsworth, Mary W; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2011-07-01

    Cigarette smokers in laboratory experiments readily respond to smoking stimuli with increased craving. An alternative to traditional cue-reactivity methods (e.g., exposure to cigarette photos), virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be a viable cue presentation method to elicit and assess cigarette craving within complex virtual environments. However, it remains poorly understood whether contextual cues from the environment contribute to craving increases in addition to specific cues, like cigarettes. This study examined the role of contextual cues in a VR environment to evoke craving. Smokers were exposed to a virtual convenience store devoid of any specific cigarette cues followed by exposure to the same convenience store with specific cigarette cues added. Smokers reported increased craving following exposure to the virtual convenience store without specific cues, and significantly greater craving following the convenience store with cigarette cues added. However, increased craving recorded after the second convenience store may have been due to the pre-exposure to the first convenience store. This study offers evidence that an environmental context where cigarette cues are normally present (but are not), elicits significant craving in the absence of specific cigarette cues. This finding suggests that VR may have stronger ecological validity over traditional cue reactivity exposure methods by exposing smokers to the full range of cigarette-related environmental stimuli, in addition to specific cigarette cues, that smokers typically experience in their daily lives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Additivity of Clothing Cues in First Impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Sharron J.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of information integration was used to predict that in first impression situations, clothing/physical appearance cues have differential importance depending upon the type of judgment elicited. Female college students (N=104) viewed and responded to slides of colored line drawings of female stimulus persons. Multiple regression of data…

  15. Consumer attention to product health cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund

    Purpose As part of a larger project aiming at improving healthy food choice among consumers, four studies were carried out to identify packaging cues that communicate product healthfulness. Methods Study 1 was an eye tracking experiment using a 5x3 group mixed design where the stimuli (five diffe...

  16. Attention to health cues on product packages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Scholderer, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the study were (a) to examine which information and design elements on dairy product packages operate as cues in consumer evaluations of product healthfulness, and (b) to measure the degree to which consumers voluntarily attend to these elements during product choice. Visual...

  17. Nonverbal Cues to Deception in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmin, Harold; Noel, Richard C.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nonverbal facial, body, and paralanguage cues to deception in children. A sample of 31 Hispanic and Black second and third grade students were videotaped while playing a color identification that required six honest and six deceptive verbal responses to a randomized stimulus presentation. Frame-by-frame…

  18. Exam Question Sequencing Effects and Context Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Doris Bitler

    2017-01-01

    Providing two or more versions of multiple-choice exams has long been a popular strategy for reducing the opportunity for students to engage in academic dishonesty. While the results of studies comparing exam scores under different question-order conditions have been inconclusive, the potential importance of contextual cues to aid student recall…

  19. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  20. Spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsbruggen, G.M. van; Hartmann, T.; Eden, A.; Veling, H.P.

    2017-01-01

    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we

  1. Improving Translatability and Readability with Syntactic Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that, given the expanding audience of non-native readers of English and the need to translate technical writing, technical writing should be unambiguous and predictable. Explains what syntactic cues are and why technical communicators should use them. Discusses integrating this approach into established documentation processes, and provides…

  2. Augmented reality cues to assist older drivers with gap estimation for left-turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Michelle L; Schall, Mark C; Lee, John D; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Rizzo, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of augmented reality (AR) cues designed to assist middle-aged and older drivers with a range of UFOV impairments, judging when to make left-turns across oncoming traffic. Previous studies have shown that AR cues can help middle-aged and older drivers respond to potential roadside hazards by increasing hazard detection without interfering with other driving tasks. Intersections pose a critical challenge for cognitively impaired drivers, prone to misjudge time-to-contact with oncoming traffic. We investigated whether AR cues improve or interfere with hazard perception in left-turns across oncoming traffic for drivers with age-related cognitive decline. Sixty-four middle-aged and older drivers with a range of UFOV impairment judged when it would be safe to turn left across oncoming traffic approaching the driver from the opposite direction in a rural stop-sign controlled intersection scenario implemented in a static base driving simulator. Outcome measures used to evaluate the effectiveness of AR cueing included: Time-to-Contact (TTC), Gap Time Variation (GTV), Response Rate, and Gap Response Variation (GRV). All drivers estimated TTCs were shorter in cued than in uncued conditions. In addition, drivers responded more often in cued conditions than in uncued conditions and GRV decreased for all drivers in scenarios that contained AR cues. For both TTC and response rate, drivers also appeared to adjust their behavior to be consistent with the cues, especially drivers with the poorest UFOV scores (matching their behavior to be close to middle-aged drivers). Driver ratings indicated that cueing was not considered to be distracting. Further, various conditions of reliability (e.g., 15% miss rate) did not appear to affect performance or driver ratings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Attentional Cueing and Spatial Uncertainty in Visual Field Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Phu

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of reducing spatial uncertainty by attentional cueing on contrast sensitivity at a range of spatial locations and with different stimulus sizes.Six observers underwent perimetric testing with the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer (HFA full threshold paradigm, and the output thresholds were compared to conditions where stimulus location was verbally cued to the observer. We varied the number of points cued, the eccentric and spatial location, and stimulus size (Goldmann size I, III and V. Subsequently, four observers underwent laboratory-based psychophysical testing on a custom computer program using Method of Constant Stimuli to determine the frequency-of-seeing (FOS curves with similar variables.We found that attentional cueing increased contrast sensitivity when measured using the HFA. We report a difference of approximately 2 dB with size I at peripheral and mid-peripheral testing locations. For size III, cueing had a greater effect for points presented in the periphery than in the mid-periphery. There was an exponential decay of the effect of cueing with increasing number of elements cued. Cueing a size V stimulus led to no change. FOS curves generated from laboratory-based psychophysical testing confirmed an increase in contrast detection sensitivity under the same conditions. We found that the FOS curve steepened when spatial uncertainty was reduced.We show that attentional cueing increases contrast sensitivity when using a size I or size III test stimulus on the HFA when up to 8 points are cued but not when a size V stimulus is cued. We show that this cueing also alters the slope of the FOS curve. This suggests that at least 8 points should be used to minimise potential attentional factors that may affect measurement of contrast sensitivity in the visual field.

  4. Threat-Sensitive Behavioral Responses to Concentrations of Water-Borne Cues from Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Damal, Kavitha; Juliano, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic organisms often detect predators via water-borne chemical cues, and respond by showing reduced activity. Prey responses may be correlated with the concentration of predation cues, which would result in graded antipredator behavioral responses that adjust potentially costly behavioral changes to levels that are commensurate with the risk of predation. Larvae of the predatory mosquito Toxorhynchites rutilus prey upon other container-dwelling insects, including larvae of the mosquito Ochlerotatus triseriatus. Previous work has established that O. triseriatus reduce movement, foraging, and time below the surface, and increase the frequency of resting at the surface, in the presence of water-borne cues from predation by T. rutilus. We tested whether these responses by O. triseriatus are threat sensitive by recording behavior of fourth instar larvae in two runs of an experiment in which we created a series of concentrations (100, 10, 1, 0.1, and 0.01% and 100, 70, 40, 20, and 10%) of water that had held either O. triseriatus larvae alone (control) or a T. rutilus larva feeding on O. triseriatus (predation). We also tested whether associated effects on time spent feeding are threat sensitive by determining whether frequencies of filtering or browsing are also related to concentration of cues. The frequencies of resting and surface declined, whereas frequency of filtering (but not browsing) increased more rapidly with a decrease in concentration of predation cues compared with control cues. Thus, O. triseriatus shows a threat sensitive behavioral response to water-borne cues from this predator, adjusting its degree of behavioral response to the apparent risk of predation. PMID:17440601

  5. The Voice of Confidence: Paralinguistic Cues and Audience Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Klaus R.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The present paper reports an investigation of the paralinguistic cues manifested by a speaker when encoding confidence'' and doubt'' and of attributions made to the speaker by observers exposed to these cues. (Author)

  6. The Effects of Attention Cueing on Visualizers' Multimedia Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hui-Yu Yang

    2016-01-01

    .... Both high- and low-visualizers benefited equally well from attention cueing. However, an interaction effect in one subtest was observed indicating that attention cueing can result in learning interference among high-visualizers...

  7. A Facilitation Performance Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Presents a guide, derived from the Situational Leadership model, which describes the process that should be used in facilitating a group discussion. The process includes preparation, assessment, diagnosis, prescription, development, reinforcement, and follow-up. Three figures depict the Situational Leadership model, the facilitation process, and…

  8. Gynephilic Men's Self-Reported and Genital Sexual Responses to Relationship Context Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Amanda D; Chivers, Meredith L

    2017-10-20

    The current study examined men's sexual responses to relationship context. Chivers and Timmers (2012) previously reported that heterosexual men's genital and self-reported sexual arousal varied by gender but not relationship context, suggesting that gender cues are more salient determinants of sexual response than relationship context cues for men. Those analyses were, however, significantly underpowered to detect relationship context effects (n = 9). The current study utilized the same paradigm as Chivers and Timmers' study, exposing a larger sample of heterosexual men (n = 26) to audio narratives describing sexual interactions that varied by partner gender (man, woman) and relationship context (stranger, friend, long-term relationship), and observing effects on genital and self-reported sexual response. Results indicated that men's genital response to relationship context cues mirrored those previously reported for heterosexual women (Chivers & Timmers, 2012); heterosexual men demonstrated less genital response to the friend than to the stranger or long-term relationship conditions. No significant effect of relationship context was found for men's self-reported sexual arousal. These data suggest that, in addition to gender cues, relationship cues may also be an important determinant of men's genital sexual responses.

  9. Responses in posterior parietal cortex to movement intention task with visual and tactile cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikawa, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is considered to be related to forming of motor intention. The detection of the direction intended movements and the type of intended movement is a challenging goal in neuroscience and engineering applications such as brain-computer interfacing (BCI). In previous studies, it has been reported that EEG signals extracted from PPC can be used to decode intended movement direction. However, it is not clear whether extracted EEG signals are related to motor intention, because visually evoked potential (VEP) which evoked by visual cue in their experiment may be included in their extracted EEG signals. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of VEP mixed into extracted EEG signals. Therefore experiments with not only visual but also tactile cues were conducted. EEG components that could be related to PPC were extracted by using independent component analysis (ICA). We compared event related potential (ERP) waveforms between two experiments. In the result, ERP waveforms of the experiment with tactile cue were significantly different from that of the experiment with visual cue. This result suggests that VEP was included in the EEG signals extracted from PPC in the experiment with visual cue.

  10. Learning facilitating leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explains how engineering students at a Danish university acquired the necessary skills to become emergent facilitators of organisational development. The implications of this approach are discussed and related to relevant viewpoints and findings in the literature. The methodology deplo....... By connecting the literature, the authors’ and engineering students’ reflections on facilitator skills, this paper adds value to existing academic and practical discussions on learning facilitating leadership.......This paper explains how engineering students at a Danish university acquired the necessary skills to become emergent facilitators of organisational development. The implications of this approach are discussed and related to relevant viewpoints and findings in the literature. The methodology...... deployed for this paper is empirical and conceptual. A specific facilitation project carried out by six international engineering students is presented. The importance of combining cognitive, emotional and synergistic skills is highlighted on the basis of this example, the authors’ extensive experience...

  11. Perceptual and Conceptual Priming of Cue Encoding in Task Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Darryl W.

    2016-01-01

    Transition effects in task-cuing experiments can be partitioned into task switching and cue repetition effects by using multiple cues per task. In the present study, the author shows that cue repetition effects can be partitioned into perceptual and conceptual priming effects. In 2 experiments, letters or numbers in their uppercase/lowercase or…

  12. Infants Can Use Distributional Cues to Form Syntactic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Louann; Wilson, Rachel; Lewis, William

    2005-01-01

    Nearly all theories of language development emphasize the importance of distributional cues for segregating words and phrases into syntactic categories like noun, feminine or verb phrase. However, questions concerning whether such cues can be used to the exclusion of referential cues have been debated. Using the headturn preference procedure,…

  13. Volatile cues can drive the oviposition behavior in Odonata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Francesca; Piersanti, Silvana; Rebora, Manuela; Salerno, Gianandrea

    2016-01-01

    Selection for the oviposition site represents the criterion for the behavioral process of habitat selection for the next generation. It is well known that in Odonata the most general cues are detected visually, but laboratory investigations on the coenagrionid Ischnura elegans showed through behavioral and electrophysiological assays that adults were attracted by olfactory cues emitted by prey and that males of the same species are attracted by female odor. The results of the present behavioral and electrophysiological investigations on I. elegans suggest the involvement of antennal olfactory sensilla in oviposition behavior. In particular, I. elegans females laid in the laboratory significantly more eggs in water from larval rearing aquaria than in distilled or tap water. Moreover, the lack of preference between rearing water and tap water with plankton suggests a role of volatiles related to conspecific and plankton presence in the oviposition site choice. I. elegans may rely on food odor for oviposition site selection, thus supporting the predictions of the "mother knows best" theory. These behavioral data are partially supported by electroantennographic responses. These findings confirm a possible role of olfaction in crucial aspects of Odonata biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Audiovisual cues benefit recognition of accented speech in noise but not perceptual adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briony eBanks

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual adaptation allows humans to understand a variety of accented speech. We investigated whether perceptual adaptation to accented speech is facilitated if listeners can see a speaker’s facial and mouth movements. In Study 1, participants listened to sentences in a novel accent and underwent a period of training with audiovisual or audio-only speech cues, presented in quiet or in background noise. A control group also underwent training with visual-only (speech-reading cues. We observed no significant difference in perceptual adaptation between any of the groups. To address a number of remaining questions, we carried out a second study using a different accent, speaker and experimental design, in which participants listened to sentences in a non-native (Japanese accent with audiovisual or audio-only cues, without separate training. Participants’ eye gaze was recorded to verify that they looked at the speaker’s face during audiovisual trials. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for audiovisual than audio-only stimuli; however, no statistical difference in perceptual adaptation was observed between the two modalities. Furthermore, Bayesian analysis suggested that the data supported the null hypothesis. Our results suggest that although the availability of visual speech cues may be immediately beneficial for recognition of unfamiliar accented speech in noise, they do not improve perceptual adaptation.

  15. Effects of contextual cues on speech recognition in simulated electric-acoustic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Donaldson, Gail; Somarowthu, Ala

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency acoustic cues have shown to improve speech perception in cochlear-implant listeners. However, the mechanisms underlying this benefit are still not well understood. This study investigated the extent to which low-frequency cues can facilitate listeners' use of linguistic knowledge in simulated electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS). Experiment 1 examined differences in the magnitude of EAS benefit at the phoneme, word, and sentence levels. Speech materials were processed via noise-channel vocoding and lowpass (LP) filtering. The amount of spectral degradation in the vocoder speech was varied by applying different numbers of vocoder channels. Normal-hearing listeners were tested on vocoder-alone, LP-alone, and vocoder + LP conditions. Experiment 2 further examined factors that underlie the context effect on EAS benefit at the sentence level by limiting the low-frequency cues to temporal envelope and periodicity (AM + FM). Results showed that EAS benefit was greater for higher-context than for lower-context speech materials even when the LP ear received only low-frequency AM + FM cues. Possible explanations for the greater EAS benefit observed with higher-context materials may lie in the interplay between perceptual and expectation-driven processes for EAS speech recognition, and/or the band-importance functions for different types of speech materials. PMID:25994712

  16. Baby on board: olfactory cues indicate pregnancy and fetal sex in a non-human primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jeremy Chase; Drea, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory cues play an integral, albeit underappreciated, role in mediating vertebrate social and reproductive behaviour. These cues fluctuate with the signaller's hormonal condition, coincident with and informative about relevant aspects of its reproductive state, such as pubertal onset, change in season and, in females, timing of ovulation. Although pregnancy dramatically alters a female's endocrine profiles, which can be further influenced by fetal sex, the relationship between gestation and olfactory cues is poorly understood. We therefore examined the effects of pregnancy and fetal sex on volatile genital secretions in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), a strepsirrhine primate possessing complex olfactory mechanisms of reproductive signalling. While pregnant, dams altered and dampened their expression of volatile chemicals, with compound richness being particularly reduced in dams bearing sons. These changes were comparable in magnitude with other, published chemical differences among lemurs that are salient to conspecifics. Such olfactory ‘signatures’ of pregnancy may help guide social interactions, potentially promoting mother–infant recognition, reducing intragroup conflict or counteracting behavioural mechanisms of paternity confusion; cues that also advertise fetal sex may additionally facilitate differential sex allocation. PMID:25716086

  17. Mindful attention reduces neural and self-reported cue-induced craving in smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John David; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Julson, Erica; Kober, Hedy; Tindle, Hilary A.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may be beneficial for smoking cessation and the treatment of other addictive disorders. One way that mindfulness may facilitate smoking cessation is through the reduction of craving to smoking cues. The present work considers whether mindful attention can reduce self-reported and neural markers of cue-induced craving in treatment seeking smokers. Forty-seven (n = 47) meditation-naïve treatment-seeking smokers (12-h abstinent from smoking) viewed and made ratings of smoking and neutral images while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were trained and instructed to view these images passively or with mindful attention. Results indicated that mindful attention reduced self-reported craving to smoking images, and reduced neural activity in a craving-related region of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Moreover, a psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that mindful attention reduced functional connectivity between sgACC and other craving-related regions compared to passively viewing smoking images, suggesting that mindfulness may decouple craving neurocircuitry when viewing smoking cues. These results provide an initial indication that mindful attention may describe a ‘bottom-up’ attention to one’s present moment experience in ways that can help reduce subjective and neural reactivity to smoking cues in smokers. PMID:22114078

  18. Mindful attention reduces neural and self-reported cue-induced craving in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Cecilia; Creswell, John David; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Julson, Erica; Kober, Hedy; Tindle, Hilary A

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may be beneficial for smoking cessation and the treatment of other addictive disorders. One way that mindfulness may facilitate smoking cessation is through the reduction of craving to smoking cues. The present work considers whether mindful attention can reduce self-reported and neural markers of cue-induced craving in treatment seeking smokers. Forty-seven (n = 47) meditation-naïve treatment-seeking smokers (12-h abstinent from smoking) viewed and made ratings of smoking and neutral images while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were trained and instructed to view these images passively or with mindful attention. Results indicated that mindful attention reduced self-reported craving to smoking images, and reduced neural activity in a craving-related region of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Moreover, a psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that mindful attention reduced functional connectivity between sgACC and other craving-related regions compared to passively viewing smoking images, suggesting that mindfulness may decouple craving neurocircuitry when viewing smoking cues. These results provide an initial indication that mindful attention may describe a 'bottom-up' attention to one's present moment experience in ways that can help reduce subjective and neural reactivity to smoking cues in smokers.

  19. Directionality derived from differential sensitivity to monaural and binaural cues in the cat's medial geniculate body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, F K; Barone, P; Irons, W A; Clarey, J C; Poirier, P; Imig, T J

    2000-09-01

    Azimuth tuning of high-frequency neurons in the primary auditory cortex (AI) is known to depend on binaural disparity and monaural spectral (pinna) cues present in broadband noise bursts. Single-unit response patterns differ according to binaural interactions, strength of monaural excitatory input from each ear, and azimuth sensitivity to monaural stimulation. The latter characteristic has been used as a gauge of neural sensitivity to monaural spectral directional cues. Azimuth sensitivity may depend predominantly on binaural disparity cues, exclusively on monaural spectral cues, or on both. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether each cortical response pattern corresponds to a similar pattern in the medial geniculate body (MGB) or whether some patterns are unique to the cortex. Single-unit responses were recorded from the ventral nucleus (Vn) and lateral part of the posterior group of thalamic nuclei (Po), tonotopic subdivisions of the MGB. Responses to free-field presentation of noise bursts that varied in azimuth and sound pressure level were obtained using methods identical to those used previously in field AI. Many units were azimuth sensitive, i.e., they responded well at some azimuths, and poorly, if at all, at others. These were studied further by obtaining responses to monaural noise stimulation, approximated by reversible plugging of one ear. Monaural directional (MD) cells were sensitive to the azimuth of monaural noise stimulation, whereas binaural directional (BD) cells were either insensitive to its azimuth or monaurally unresponsive. Thus BD and MD cells show differential sensitivity to monaural spectral cues. Monaural azimuth sensitivity could not be used to interpret the spectral sensitivity of predominantly binaural cells that exhibited strong binaural facilitation because they were either unresponsive or poorly responsive to monaural stimulation. The available evidence suggests that some such cells are sensitive to spectral cues

  20. Residuals-Based Subgraph Detection with Cue Vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Programming), and two local random walk algorithms (Approximate Person- alized PageRank and Threat propagation). We compare their empirical performance to the...Approximate Personalized PageRank (APP) Within the class of random walk partitioning algorithms, the personalized PageRank algorithm [8] has been used...to rank the importance of vertices relative to an input seed vertex s. The solution to the personalized PageRank problem is expressed as follows: r

  1. Nonverbal Cues: Clues to the Detection of Foreign Language Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Tammy S.

    2005-01-01

    This observation study examined the nonverbal behavior of anxious and nonanxious foreign language learners during a videotaped oral foreign language exam. Focusing primarily on the kinesic signals found in facial expressions, gazing behavior, body movement and gesture, and posture, it was discovered that anxious learners manifested limited facial…

  2. Effects of Cue Reliability on Target Detection and Visual Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    system is high, it is believed that the potential for a missed target and loss of life might dissuade Soldiers from totally ignoring the system, but...had normal hearing , as determined by an audiogram. The voluntary, fully informed consent of the persons used in this research was obtained as...pressure level (SPL) through the participant’s headphones was 73-dB SPL as measured through an artificial ear. A sample view of the three simulator

  3. Can women detect cues to ovulation in other women's faces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Bobst, Cora; Probst, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that men find portraits of ovulatory women more attractive than photographs of the same women taken during the luteal phase. Only few studies have investigated whether the same is true for women. The ovulatory phase matters to men because women around ovulation are most likely to conceive, and might matter to women because fertile women might pose a reproductive threat. In an online study 160 women were shown face pairs, one of which was assimilated to the shape of a late follicular prototype and the other to a luteal prototype, and were asked to indicate which face they found more attractive. A further 60 women were tested in the laboratory using a similar procedure. In addition to choosing the more attractive face, these participants were asked which woman would be more likely to steal their own date. Because gonadal hormones influence competitive behaviour, we also examined whether oestradiol, testosterone and progesterone levels predict women's choices. The women found neither the late follicular nor the luteal version more attractive. However, naturally cycling women with higher oestradiol levels were more likely to choose the ovulatory woman as the one who would entice their date than women with lower oestradiol levels. These results imply a role of oestradiol when evaluating other women who are competing for reproduction. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Does Size Matter? Subsegmental Cues to Vowel Mispronunciation Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Children look longer at a familiar object when presented with either correct pronunciations or small mispronunciations of consonants in the object's label, but not following larger mispronunciations. The current article examines whether children display a similar graded sensitivity to different degrees of mispronunciations of the vowels in…

  5. Nanotopographical Cues for Modulating Fibrosis and Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Laura Aiko Michelle

    Nanotopography in the cellular microenvironment provides biological cues and therefore has potential to be a useful tool for directing cellular behavior. Fibrotic encapsulation of implanted devices and materials can wall off and eventually cause functional failure of the implant. Drug delivery requires penetrating the epithelium, which encapsulates the body and provides a barrier to separate the body from its external environment. Both of these challenges could be elegantly surmounted using nanotopography, which would harness innate cellular responses to topographic cues to elicit desired cellular behavior. To this end, we fabricated high and low aspect ratio nanotopographically patterned thin films. Using scanning electron microscopy, real time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence microscopy, in vitro drug delivery assays, transmission electron microscopy, inhibitor studies, and rabbit and rat in vivo drug delivery studies, we investigated cellular response to our nanotopographic thin films. We determined that high aspect ratio topography altered fibroblast morphology and decreased proliferation, possibly due to decreased protein adsorption. The fibroblasts also down regulated expression of mRNA of key factors associated with fibrosis, such as collagens 1 and 3. Low aspect ratio nanotopography increased drug delivery in vitro across an intestinal epithelial model monolayer by increasing paracellular permeability and remodeling the tight junction. This increase in drug delivery required integrin engagement and MLCK activity, and is consistent with the increased focal adhesion formation. Tight junction remodeling was also observed in a multilayered keratinocyte model, showing this mechanism can be generalized to multiple epithelium types. By facilitating direct contact of nanotopography with the viable epidermis using microneedles to pierce the stratum corneum, we are able to transdermally deliver a 150 kiloDalton, IgG-based therapeutic in vivo..

  6. Memory, metamemory, and social cues: Between conformity and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Krogulska, Aleksandra; Button, Roberta; Higham, Philip A; Hanczakowski, Maciej

    2016-02-01

    When presented with responses of another person, people incorporate these responses into memory reports: a finding termed memory conformity. Research on memory conformity in recognition reveals that people rely on external social cues to guide their memory responses when their own ability to respond is at chance. In this way, conforming to a reliable source boosts recognition performance but conforming to a random source does not impair it. In the present study we assessed whether people would conform indiscriminately to reliable and unreliable (random) sources when they are given the opportunity to exercise metamemory control over their responding by withholding answers in a recognition test. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found the pattern of memory conformity to reliable and unreliable sources in 2 variants of a free-report recognition test, yet at the same time the provision of external cues did not affect the rate of response withholding. In Experiment 3, we provided participants with initial feedback on their recognition decisions, facilitating the discrimination between the reliable and unreliable source. This led to the reduction of memory conformity to the unreliable source, and at the same time modulated metamemory decisions concerning response withholding: participants displayed metamemory conformity to the reliable source, volunteering more responses in their memory report, and metamemory resistance to the random source, withholding more responses from the memory report. Together, the results show how metamemory decisions dissociate various types of memory conformity and that memory and metamemory decisions can be independent of each other. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Sexual dimorphism in oxytocin responses to health perception and disgust, with implications for theories on pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, Carolyn H; Lambert, B; Boone, C

    2014-05-01

    In response to a recent hypothesis that the neuropeptide oxytocin might be involved in human pathogen avoidance mechanisms, we report the results of a study in which we investigate the effect of intranasal oxytocin on two behaviors serving as proxies for pathogen detection. Participants received either oxytocin or a placebo and were asked to evaluate (1) the health of Caucasian male computer-generated pictures that varied in facial redness (an indicator of hemoglobin perfusion) and (2) a series of pictures depicting disgusting scenarios. Men, but not women, evaluated all faces, regardless of color, as less healthy when given oxytocin compared to a placebo. Women, on the other hand, expressed decreased disgust when given oxytocin compared to a placebo. These results suggest that intranasal oxytocin administration does not facilitate pathogen detection based on visual cues, but instead reveal clear sex differences in the perception of health and sickness cues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cue-Based Feeding in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten, Cynthia H

    In NICU settings, caring for neonates born as early as 23 weeks gestation presents unique challenges for caregivers. Traditionally, preterm infants who are learning to orally feed take a predetermined volume of breast milk or formula at scheduled intervals, regardless of their individual ability to coordinate each feeding. Evidence suggests that this volume-driven feeding model should be replaced with a more individualized, developmentally appropriate practice. Evidence from the literature suggests that preterm infants fed via cue-based feeding reach full oral feeding status faster than their volume-feeding counterparts and have shorter lengths of stay in the hospital. Changing practice to infant-driven or cue-based feedings in the hospital setting requires staff education, documentation, and team-based communication. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  9. Spatial part-set cuing facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Matthew R; Parasiuk, Yuri; Salgado-Benz, Jennifer; Crocco, Megan

    2016-07-01

    Cole, Reysen, and Kelley [2013. Part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 39, 1615-1620] reported robust part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information using snap circuits (a colour-coded electronics kit designed for children to create rudimentary circuit boards). In contrast, Drinkwater, Dagnall, and Parker [2006. Effects of part-set cuing on experienced and novice chess players' reconstruction of a typical chess midgame position. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102(3), 645-653] and Watkins, Schwartz, and Lane [1984. Does part-set cuing test for memory organization? Evidence from reconstructions of chess positions. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 38(3), 498-503] showed no influence of part-set cuing for spatial information when using chess boards. One key difference between the two procedures was that the snap circuit stimuli were explicitly connected to one another, whereas chess pieces were not. Two experiments examined the effects of connection type (connected vs. unconnected) and cue type (cued vs. uncued) on memory for spatial information. Using chess boards (Experiment 1) and snap circuits (Experiment 2), part-set cuing facilitation only occurred when the stimuli were explicitly connected; there was no influence of cuing with unconnected stimuli. These results are potentially consistent with the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis, as well as the two- and three-mechanism accounts of part-set cuing.

  10. Effect of Exogenous Cues on Covert Spatial Orienting in Deaf and Normal Hearing Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Gorur Prasad

    Full Text Available Deaf individuals have been known to process visual stimuli better at the periphery compared to the normal hearing population. However, very few studies have examined attention orienting in the oculomotor domain in the deaf, particularly when targets appear at variable eccentricity. In this study, we examined if the visual perceptual processing advantage reported in the deaf people also modulates spatial attentional orienting with eye movement responses. We used a spatial cueing task with cued and uncued targets that appeared at two different eccentricities and explored attentional facilitation and inhibition. We elicited both a saccadic and a manual response. The deaf showed a higher cueing effect for the ocular responses than the normal hearing participants. However, there was no group difference for the manual responses. There was also higher facilitation at the periphery for both saccadic and manual responses, irrespective of groups. These results suggest that, owing to their superior visual processing ability, the deaf may orient attention faster to targets. We discuss the results in terms of previous studies on cueing and attentional orienting in deaf.

  11. Becoming a Facilitative Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Leaders often contribute to the consequences they complain about by using an approach termed unilateral control. The Facilitative Leadership Approach, with its core values of valid information, free and informed choice, internal commitment, and compassion, can counteract this phenomenon. (JOW)

  12. Consumption Simulations Induce Salivation to Food Cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Keesman

    Full Text Available Salivation to food cues is typically explained in terms of mere stimulus-response links. However, food cues seem to especially increase salivation when food is attractive, suggesting a more complex psychological process. Adopting a grounded cognition perspective, we suggest that perceiving a food triggers simulations of consuming it, especially when attractive. These simulations then induce salivation, which effectively prepares the body for eating the food. In two experiments, we systematically examined the role of simulations on salivation to food cues. As stimuli, both experiments used an attractive, a neutral, and a sour food, as well as a non-food control object. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to simulate eating every object they would be exposed to. We then exposed them to each object separately. Salivation was assessed by having participants spit their saliva into a cup after one minute of exposure. In Experiment 2, we instructed half of participants to simulate eating each object, and half to merely look at them, while measuring salivation as in Experiment 1. Afterwards, participants rated their simulations and desire to eat for each object separately. As predicted, foods increased salivation compared to the non-food control object, especially when they were attractive or sour (Exp. 1 and 2. Importantly, attractive and sour foods especially increased salivation when instructed to simulate (Exp. 2. These findings suggest that consumption simulations play an important role in inducing salivary responses to food cues. We discuss directions for future research as well as the role of simulations for other appetitive processes.

  13. Timing the events of directional cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Giovanna; Antonucci, Gabriella; Nico, Daniele

    2015-11-01

    To explore the role of temporal context on voluntary orienting of attention, we submitted healthy participants to a spatial cueing task in which cue-target stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) were organized according to two-dimensional parameters: range and central value. Three ranges of SOAs organized around two central SOA values were presented to six groups of participants. Results showed a complex pattern of responses in terms of spatial validity (faster responses to correctly cued target) and preparatory effect (faster responses to longer SOAs). Responses to validly and neutrally cued targets were affected by the increase in SOA duration if the difference between longer and shorter SOA was large. On the contrary, responses to invalidly cued targets did not vary according to SOA manipulations. The observed pattern of cueing effects does not fit in the typical description of spatial attention working as a mandatory disengaging-shifting-engaging routine. In contrast, results rather suggest a mechanism based on the interaction between context sensitive top-down processes and bottom-up attentional processes.

  14. Viewpoint-independent contextual cueing effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    taiga etsuchiai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We usually perceive things in our surroundings as unchanged despite viewpoint changes caused by self-motion. The visual system therefore must have a function to process objects independently of viewpoint. In this study, we examined whether viewpoint-independent spatial layout can be obtained implicitly. For this purpose, we used a contextual cueing effect, a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays known to be an implicit effect. We compared the transfer of the contextual cueing effect between cases with and without self-motion by using visual search displays for 3D objects, which changed according to the participant’s assumed location for viewing the stimuli. The contextual cueing effect was obtained with self-motion but disappeared when the display changed without self-motion. This indicates that there is an implicit learning effect in spatial coordinates and suggests that the spatial representation of object layouts or scenes can be obtained and updated implicitly. We also showed that binocular disparity play an important role in the layout representations.

  15. Children Use Wealth Cues to Evaluate Others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Shutts

    Full Text Available Wealth differences between individuals are ubiquitous in modern society, and often serve as the basis for biased social evaluations among adults. The present research probed whether children use cues that are commonly associated with wealth differences in society to guide their consideration of others. In Study 1, 4-5-year-old participants from diverse racial backgrounds expressed preferences for children who were paired with high-wealth cues; White children in Study 1 also matched high-wealth stimuli with White faces. Study 2 conceptually replicated the preference effect from Study 1, and showed that young children (4-6 years also use material wealth indicators to guide their inferences about people's relative standing in other domains (i.e., competence and popularity. Study 3 revealed that children (5-9 years use a broad range of wealth cues to guide their evaluations of, and actions toward, unfamiliar people. Further, biased responses were not attenuated among children whose families were lower in socioeconomic status. Often overlooked by those who study children's attitudes and stereotypes, social class markers appear to influence evaluations, inferences, and behavior early in development.

  16. Cue color and familiarity in place learning for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rebecca L; Therrien, Barbara A

    2012-04-01

    Older adults often have problems finding their way (place learning) in unfamiliar environments. We examined how colorful familiar cues-versus black-and-white abstract cues-affected place learning in 133 community-dwelling older adults using a computerized virtual environment. Participants were required to learn the location of the hidden platform using only environmental cues repeatedly over 3 days in four cue conditions that varied with respect to the color and familiarity of cues. Place learning was measured by the distance traveled to the platform. Participants found the hidden target with the shortest distance traveled when cues were colorful and familiar. Older participants showed poorer performance than the younger groups. Study results showed that place learning was assisted by using colorful familiar cues and that the older participants and those with lower cognition scores were most impaired in place learning. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Rejection sensitivity and disruption of attention by social threat cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Kathy R; Gyurak, Anett; Ayduk, Ozlem; Downey, Geraldine; Garner, Matthew J; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Pine, Daniel S

    2009-12-01

    Two studies tested the hypothesis that Rejection Sensitivity (RS) increases vulnerability to disruption of attention by social threat cues, as would be consistent with prior evidence that it motivates individuals to prioritize detecting and managing potential rejection at a cost to other personal and interpersonal goals. In Study 1, RS predicted disruption of ongoing goal-directed attention by social threat but not negative words in an Emotional Stroop task. In Study 2, RS predicted attentional avoidance of threatening but not pleasant faces in a Visual Probe task. Threat-avoidant attention was also associated with features of borderline personality disorder. This research extends understanding of processes by which RS contributes to a self-perpetuating cycle of interpersonal problems and distress.

  18. Behavioural responses to olfactory cues in carrion crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Claudia A F; Heiss, Rebecca S; Baglione, Vittorio; Canestrari, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Until recently, the use of olfactory signals in birds has been largely ignored, despite the fact that birds do possess a fully functioning olfactory system and have been shown to use odours in social and foraging tasks, predator detection and orientation. The present study investigates whether carrion crows (Corvus corone corone), a bird species living in complex social societies, respond behaviourally to olfactory cues of conspecifics. During our experiment, carrion crows were observed less often close to the conspecific scent compared to a control side. Because conspecific scent was extracted during handling, a stressful procedure for birds, we interpreted the general avoidance of the 'scent' side as disfavour against a stressed conspecific. However, males, unlike females, showed less avoidance towards the scent of a familiar individual compared to an unfamiliar one, which might reflect a stronger interest in the information conveyed and/or willingness to provide social support. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural substrates of cue reactivity and craving in gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbrick-Oldfield, E H; Mick, I; Cocks, R E; McGonigle, J; Sharman, S P; Goldstone, A P; Stokes, P R A; Waldman, A; Erritzoe, D; Bowden-Jones, H; Nutt, D; Lingford-Hughes, A; Clark, L

    2017-01-03

    Cue reactivity is an established procedure in addictions research for examining the subjective experience and neural basis of craving. This experiment sought to quantify cue-related brain responses in gambling disorder using personally tailored cues in conjunction with subjective craving, as well as a comparison with appetitive non-gambling stimuli. Participants with gambling disorder (n=19) attending treatment and 19 controls viewed personally tailored blocks of gambling-related cues, as well as neutral cues and highly appetitive (food) images during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan performed ~2-3 h after a usual meal. fMRI analysis examined cue-related brain activity, cue-related changes in connectivity and associations with block-by-block craving ratings. Craving ratings in the participants with gambling disorder increased following gambling cues compared with non-gambling cues. fMRI analysis revealed group differences in left insula and anterior cingulate cortex, with the gambling disorder group showing greater reactivity to the gambling cues, but no differences to the food cues. In participants with gambling disorder, craving to gamble correlated positively with gambling cue-related activity in the bilateral insula and ventral striatum, and negatively with functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial prefrontal cortex. Gambling cues, but not food cues, elicit increased brain responses in reward-related circuitry in individuals with gambling disorder (compared with controls), providing support for the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. Activity in the insula co-varied with craving intensity, and may be a target for interventions.

  20. Atypical integration of social cues for orienting to gaze direction in adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Chris; Hietanen, Jari K; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Gaze direction provides important information about social attention, and people tend to reflexively orient in the direction others are gazing. Perceiving the gaze of others relies on the integration of multiple social cues, which include perceptual information related to the eyes, gaze direction, head position, and body orientation of others. Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by social and emotional deficits, including atypical gaze behaviour. The social-emotional deficits may emerge from a reliance on perceptual information involving details and features, at the expense of more holistic processing, which includes the integration of features. While people with ASC are often able to physically compute gaze direction and show intact reflexive orienting to others' gaze, they show deficits in reading mental states from the eyes. The present study recruited 23 adult males with a diagnosis of ASC and 23 adult males without ASC as a control group. They were tested using a spatial cuing paradigm involving head and body cues in a photograph of a person followed by a laterally presented target. The task manipulated the orientation of head with respect to body orientation to test subsequent shifts of attention in observers. The results replicated previous findings showing facilitated shifts of attention by the healthy control participants toward laterally presented targets cued by a congruently rotated head combined with a front view of a body. In contrast, the ASC group showed facilitated orienting to targets when both the head and body were rotated towards the target. The findings reveal atypical integration of social cues in ASC for orienting of attention. This is suggested to reflect abnormalities in cognitive and neural mechanisms specialized for processing of social cues for attention orienting in ASC.

  1. Integration of contour and surface information in shape detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machilsen, Bart; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    In studies of shape perception, the detection of contours and the segregation of regions enclosed by these contours have mostly been treated in isolation. However, contours and surfaces somehow need to be combined to create a stable perception of shape. In this study, we used a 2AFC task with arrays of oriented Gabor elements to determine whether and to what extent human observers integrate information from the contour and from the interior surface of a shape embedded in this array. The saliency of the shapes depended on the alignment of Gabors along the shape outline and on the isolinearity of Gabors inside the shape. In two experiments we measured detectability of shapes defined by the contour cue, by the surface cue, and by the combination of both cues. As a first step, we matched performance in the two single-cue conditions. We then compared shape detectability in the double-cue condition with the two equally detectable single-cue conditions. Our results show a clear double-cue benefit: Participants used both cues to detect the shapes. Next, we compared performance in the double-cue condition with the performance predicted by two models of sensory cue combination: a minimum rule (probability summation) and an integration rule (information summation). Results from Experiment 2 indicate that participants applied a combination rule that was better than mere probability summation. We found no evidence against the integration rule. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Influence of Cast Shadows on the Detection of Three-Dimensional Curved Contour Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuu, Sieu K; Honson, Vanessa J; Challinor, Kirsten L

    2016-04-01

    Cast shadows have been shown to provide an effective ordinal cue to the depth position of objects. In the present study, two experiments investigated the effectiveness of cast shadows in facilitating the detection of spatial contours embedded in a field of randomly placed elements. In Experiment 1, the separation between the cast shadow and the contour was systematically increased to effectively signal different contour depth positions (relative to background elements), and this was repeated for patterns in which the lighting direction was above and from below. Increasing the shadow separation improved contour detection performance, but the degree to which sensitivity changed was dependent on the lighting direction. Patterns in which the light was from above were better detected than patterns in which the lighting direction was from below. This finding is consistent with the visual system assuming a "light-from-above rule" when processing cast shadows. In Experiment 2, we examined the degree to which changing the shape of the cast shadow (by randomly jittering the position of local cast shadow elements) affected the ability of the visual system to rely on the cast shadow to cue the depth position of the contour. Consistent with a coarse scale analysis, we find that cast shadows remained an effective depth cue even at large degrees of element jitter. Our findings demonstrate that cast shadows provide an effective means of signaling depth, which aids the process of contour integration, and this process is largely tolerant of local variations in lighting direction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Higher iridescent-to-pigment optical effect in flowers facilitates learning, memory and generalization in foraging bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Premorel, Géraud; Giurfa, Martin; Andraud, Christine; Gomez, Doris

    2017-10-25

    Iridescence-change of colour with changes in the angle of view or of illumination-is widespread in the living world, but its functions remain poorly understood. The presence of iridescence has been suggested in flowers where diffraction gratings generate iridescent colours. Such colours have been suggested to serve plant-pollinator communication. Here we tested whether a higher iridescence relative to corolla pigmentation would facilitate discrimination, learning and retention of iridescent visual targets. We conditioned bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) to discriminate iridescent from non-iridescent artificial flowers and we varied iridescence detectability by varying target iridescent relative to pigment optical effect. We show that bees rewarded on targets with higher iridescent relative to pigment effect required fewer choices to complete learning, showed faster generalization to novel targets exhibiting the same iridescence-to-pigment level and had better long-term memory retention. Along with optical measurements, behavioural results thus demonstrate that bees can learn iridescence-related cues as bona fide signals for flower reward. They also suggest that floral advertising may be shaped by competition between iridescence and corolla pigmentation, a fact that has important evolutionary implications for pollinators. Optical measurements narrow down the type of cues that bees may have used for learning. Beyond pollinator-plant communication, our experiments help understanding how receivers influence the evolution of iridescence signals generated by gratings. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Visual Distance Cues Amplify Neuromagnetic Auditory N1m Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F Altmann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ranging of auditory objects relies on several acoustic cues and is possibly modulated by additional visual information. Sound pressure level can serve as a cue for distance perception because it decreases with increasing distance. In this agnetoencephalography (MEG experiment, we tested whether psychophysical loudness judgment and N1m MEG responses are modulated by visual distance cues. To this end, we paired noise bursts at different sound pressure levels with synchronous visual cues at different distances. We hypothesized that noise bursts paired with far visual cues will be perceived louder and result in increased N1m amplitudes compared to a pairing with close visual cues. The rationale behind this was that listeners might compensate the visually induced object distance when processing loudness. Psychophysically, we observed no significant modulation of loudness judgments by visual cues. However, N1m MEG responses at about 100 ms after stimulus onset were significantly stronger for far versus close visual cues in the left auditory cortex. N1m responses in the right auditory cortex increased with increasing sound pressure level, but were not modulated by visual distance cues. Thus, our results suggest an audio-visual interaction in the left auditory cortex that is possibly related to cue integration for auditory distance processing.

  5. Reactivity to Cannabis Cues in Virtual Reality Environments†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Copp, Hilary L.; Traylor, Amy; Graap, Ken M.; Carter, Brian L.; Walton, Alicia; Ferrer, Mirtha

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) cue environments have been developed and successfully tested in nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol abusers. Aims in the current article include the development and testing of a novel VR cannabis cue reactivity assessment system. It was hypothesized that subjective craving levels and attention to cannabis cues would be higher in VR environments merits with cannabis cues compared to VR neutral environments. Twenty nontreatment-seeking current cannabis smokers participated in the VR cue trial. During the VR cue trial, participants were exposed to four virtual environments that contained audio, visual, olfactory, and vibrotactile sensory stimuli. Two VR environments contained cannabis cues that consisted of a party room in which people were smoking cannabis and a room containing cannabis paraphernalia without people. Two VR neutral rooms without cannabis cues consisted of a digital art gallery with nature videos. Subjective craving and attention to cues were significantly higher in the VR cannabis environments compared to the VR neutral environments. These findings indicate that VR cannabis cue reactivity may offer a new technology-based method to advance addiction research and treatment. PMID:19705672

  6. Reactivity to cannabis cues in virtual reality environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordnick, Patrick S; Copp, Hilary L; Traylor, Amy; Graap, Ken M; Carter, Brian L; Walton, Alicia; Ferrer, Mirtha

    2009-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR) cue environments have been developed and successfully tested in nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol abusers. Aims in the current article include the development and testing of a novel VR cannabis cue reactivity assessment system. It was hypothesized that subjective craving levels and attention to cannabis cues would be higher in VR environments with cannabis cues compared to VR neutral environments. Twenty nontreatment-seeking current cannabis smokers participated in the VR cue trial. During the VR cue trial, participants were exposed to four virtual environments that contained audio, visual, olfactory, and vibrotactile sensory stimuli. Two VR environments contained cannabis cues that consisted of a party room in which people were smoking cannabis and a room containing cannabis paraphernalia without people. Two VR neutral rooms without cannabis cues consisted of a digital art gallery with nature videos. Subjective craving and attention to cues were significantly higher in the VR cannabis environments compared to the VR neutral environments. These findings indicate that VR cannabis cue reactivity may offer a new technology-based method to advance addiction research and treatment.

  7. Facilitating Learning at Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    2011-01-01

    and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes......The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...

  8. Effects of visual and chemical cues on orientation behavior of the Red Sea hermit crab Clibanarius signatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Gad El-Kareem Ismail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Directional orientation of Clibanarius signatus toward different targets of gastropod shells was studied in a circular arena upon exposure to background seawater, calcium concentrations and predatory odor. Directional orientation was absent when crabs were presented with the white background alone. Each shell was tested in different positions (e.g., anterior, posterior, upside-down, lateral. Adult crabs were tested without their gastropod shells, and orientation varied with concentration and chemical cue. With calcium, orientation increased as concentration increased up to a maximum attraction percentage and then attraction became stable. In the case of predator cues, some individuals swim away from the target toward the opposite direction representing a predator avoidance response. Whenever, the blind hermit crab C. signatus was exposed to a shell target combined with calcium or predator cues, the majority of them stop moving or move in circles around the arena center. The others exhibited uniform orientation distribution. The responsiveness was higher with calcium cues than predator cues. Thus in the absence of vision, individual hermit crabs were able to detect both calcium and predator cues and have different response regarding them.

  9. Experimental evidence for a hierarchy of mate- and host-induced cues in a fish ectoparasite, Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandilla, M; Hakalahti-Sirén, T; Valtonen, E T

    2007-10-01

    Argulus coregoni is an ectoparasite primarily infesting freshwater salmonids. Sexually reproducing parasites such as A. coregoni are confronted with a dilemma between finding a mate and the costs involved in doing so; if mating partners are unavailable on a host, by leaving to search for a mate on a new host, the parasite is exposed to risks such as predation and energy loss. The utilization of chemical cues could enhance the probability of finding a host and/or a suitable mating partner and thus decrease the level of costs associated with detachment from the host. In this study we constructed a Y-maze arena to determine if adult A. coregoni respond to mate- and host-related chemical cues. We also tested the directional response towards light, since it has been suggested that photic cues are the most important cues for juvenile A. coregoni locating a host. Our results showed that both sexes were attracted to light and fish odour. Free-swimming A. coregoni males responded to chemical cues produced by adult females but not vice versa. The hierarchy of these stimuli was analyzed by pitting the cues against one another in the Y-maze, showing that light was the most salient stimulus for both male and female parasites. Moreover, male parasites were more strongly attracted towards light and fish odour than female odour. In another experiment in a semi-natural environment, we examined whether the ability of A. coregoni males to detect female odour influences their host choice. Free-swimming males did not preferentially infest fish infected with female parasites over parasite-free fish. We suggest that a hierarchy of stimulus responses exists, whereby free-swimming parasites first respond to host-related signals and most dominantly to visual cues. However, cues connected to mate finding may become a priority for late adult stages and/or once the parasite has attached to the host.

  10. Materialistic Cues Boosts Personal Relative Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated whether exposure to materialistic cues would increase perceptions of personal relative deprivation and related emotional reactions. In Study 1, individuals who were surveyed in front of a luxury store reported higher levels of personal relative deprivation than those surveyed in front of an ordinary building. In Study 2, participants who viewed pictures of luxurious goods experienced greater personal relative deprivation than those viewed pictures of neutral scenes. Study 3 replicated the results from Study 2, with a larger sample size and a more refined assessment of relative deprivation. Implications of these findings for future studies on relative deprivation and materialism are discussed.

  11. CuePilot-ohjelma musiikkiohjelmien monikameratuotannoissa

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux Murillo, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytteessä esitellään monikameratuotantojen eri työvaiheet, työnkuvat sekä työskentelytavat. Tietojen keräämiseen on haastateltu useita tv-alan ammattilaisia. Työssä selvitetään miten monikameratuotannot ovat muuttuneet vuosien varrella, mihin suuntaan ne ovat kehittymässä ja mahdolliset tulevaisuuden haasteet. Musiikkipitoiset monikameratuotannot ovat työn keskiössä. Lisäksi opinnäyte toimii tietopakettina CuePilot-ohjelmasta alan ammattilaisille tai monikameratuotannoista kiinnost...

  12. An auditory cue-depreciation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J M; Watkins, M J

    1991-01-01

    An experiment is reported in which subjects first heard a list of words and then tried to identify these same words from degraded utterances. Paralleling previous findings in the visual modality, the probability of identifying a given utterance was reduced when the utterance was immediately preceded by other, more degraded, utterances of the same word. A second experiment replicated this "cue-depreciation effect" and in addition found the effect to be weakened, if not eliminated, when the target word was not included in the initial list or when the test was delayed by two days.

  13. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that

  14. From Teaching to Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    A shift from teaching to learning is characteristic of the introduction of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in an existing school. As a consequence the teaching staff has to be trained in skills like facilitating group work and writing cases. Most importantly a change in thinking about teaching...

  15. Facilitating leadership team communication

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Eerika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and describe how to facilitate competent communication in leadership teamwork. Grounded in the premises of social constructionism and informed by such theoretical frameworks as coordinated management of meaning theory (CMM), dialogic organization development (OD), systemic-constructionist leadership, communication competence, and reflexivity, this study seeks to produce further insights into understanding leadership team communicati...

  16. Facilitation of Adult Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  17. Lip movements entrain the observers? low-frequency brain oscillations to facilitate speech intelligibility

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyojin; Kayser, Christoph; Thut, Gregor; Gross, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    eLife digest People are able communicate effectively with each other even in very noisy places where it is difficult to actually hear what others are saying. In a face-to-face conversation, people detect and respond to many physical cues ? including body posture, facial expressions, head and eye movements and gestures ? alongside the sound cues. Lip movements are particularly important and contain enough information to allow trained observers to understand speech even if they cannot hear the ...

  18. Laboratory-based, cue-elicited craving and cue reactivity as predictors of naturally occurring smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; DeSantis, Stacia; Gray, Kevin M; LaRowe, Steven D; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette craving, one hallmark sign of nicotine dependence, is often measured in laboratory settings using cue reactivity methods. How lab measures of cue reactivity relate to real world smoking behavior is unclear, particularly among non-treatment seeking smokers. Within a larger study of hormonal effects on cue reactivity (N=78), we examined the predictive relationship of cue reactivity to smoking, each measured in several ways. Results indicated that cue-evoked craving in response to stressful imagery, and to a lesser extent, in vivo smoking cues, significantly predicted smoking behavior during the week following testing. However, this predictive relationship was absent upon controlling for reactivity to neutral cues. Nicotine dependence may moderate the relationship between cue reactivity and actual smoking, such that this predictive relationship is less robust among highly dependent smokers than among smokers low in nicotine dependence. The question of whether cue-elicited craving predicts smoking among smokers not in treatment is best answered with a qualified yes, depending on how craving is manipulated and measured. Our findings highlight important methodological and theoretical considerations for cue reactivity research.

  19. Blood cues induce antipredator behavior in Nile tilapia conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Egydio Barreto

    Full Text Available In this study, we show that the fish Nile tilapia displays an antipredator response to chemical cues present in the blood of conspecifics. This is the first report of alarm response induced by blood-borne chemical cues in fish. There is a body of evidence showing that chemical cues from epidermal 'club' cells elicit an alarm reaction in fish. However, the chemical cues of these 'club' cells are restricted to certain species of fish. Thus, as a parsimonious explanation, we assume that an alarm response to blood cues is a generalized response among animals because it occurs in mammals, birds and protostomian animals. Moreover, our results suggest that researchers must use caution when studying chemically induced alarm reactions because it is difficult to separate club cell cues from traces of blood.

  20. Specific cue reactivity on computer game-related cues in excessive gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalemann, R; Wölfling, K; Grüsser, S M

    2007-06-01

    It has been posited that excessive computer game playing behavior, referred to as computer game addiction, meets criteria that have been internationally established to define drug addiction. Nevertheless, there have been no psychophysiological investigations of the underlying mechanisms available to support the characterization of excessive computer gaming as behavioral addiction. To investigate whether excessive computer gaming parallels learning processes in development and maintenance (which are assumed to underlie drug addiction), the authors obtained a psychophysiological assessment of the (learned) emotional processing of computer game-relevant and -irrelevant cues. For this purpose, electroencephalographic recordings in excessive and casual computer game players were conducted. Significant between-group differences in event-related potentials evoked by computer game related-cues were found at parietal regions and point to an increased emotional processing of these cues in excessive pathological players compared with casual players. These results are in concordance with the suggestion that addiction is characterized and maintained through sensitization of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system along with incentive salience of specific addiction-associated cues. Copyright (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. The Performance Effects of Word Locator Cues on the NAEP Reading Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard T. Everson

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP reading assessment, a new subset of items will be introduced with the intent of measuring vocabulary in context. The assessment's item format requires an examinee to locate a targeted word in the reading passage. It was reasoned that presenting these items along with - word locator cues' might help reduce construct irrelevant variance due to students' differential ability in searching the targeted word. Using a sample of 1323 fourth and eight grade students, this study investigated the effects of two such - word locator cues' on student performance: numbering the lines of the passage, and printing targeted words in boldface type. The results indicated that various format conditions (with and without cues do not influence student performance on the vocabulary items after controlling for reading comprehension. On the other hand, at both fourth and eighth grade, we detected interactions between format conditions and race/ethnicity, which suggested that word locator cues appear to hurt the performance of certain subgroups. Implications of these findings for NAEP's future reading assessments are discussed.

  2. fMRI of alcohol craving after individual cues: a follow-up case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Stephanie; Beblo, Thomas; Driessen, Martin; Woermann, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is typically associated with intense alcohol craving triggered by internal or environmental cues linked with past alcohol use. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to record cerebral correlates of craving in an alcoholic patient. Craving was evoked by highly individual cues associated with past alcohol use and was assessed before (T1) and after an 8-month period of psychotherapy (T2). To control for effects of life event memories related to non alcoholic cravings, the patient provided two events from periods of his life when he experienced caffeine craving. We detected activation of the superior temporal lobe during recall of a highly alcohol craving situation (T1 minus T2), whereas we did not observe any activation during coffee craving recall when pre und post activations were compared. These results indicate that the superior temporal lobe may be involved when alcohol craving is initiated by individual verbal cues. Further studies using individual cues are needed to explore the neural correlates of alcohol craving.

  3. Does attentional cueing affect dichotic listening performance in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrzut, John E; Boliek, Carol A; Asbjornsen, Arve

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses the effects of verbal versus nonverbal (tone) shifts of attention on dichotic listening (DL) performance with children. Theoretically, a tonal cue may be more effective in increasing attention than a verbal cue following instruction. The inconsistency of studies reporting substantial effects of attention on ear asymmetries in children with or without learning disabilities (LDs) may be due to a developmental difference in their ability to use verbal or tone cues to select stimuli for recall. Participants included 30 right-handed children (15 control, 15 with LDs) with a mean age of 10.8 years. Each participant received 60 trials of a monaural tone cue task, 60 trials of a binaural verbal cue task, and 60 trials of a monaural verbal cue task, to direct attention to either the left or right ear before the presentation of consonant-vowel syllable pairs in a DL task. A factorial design analysis of variance yielded a significant right-ear advantage for both groups. More important, the Group x Task interaction was found to be significant, indicating that group performance on ear scores was dependent on type of cueing condition. Whereas all 3 cue conditions were effective in orienting attention for control participants, larger shifts were apparent under both binaural and monaural verbal instructional cue conditions. In contrast, participants with LD showed larger shifts of attention under the tonal cue condition. These results show that control participants have greater ability to focus attention with the use of a verbal cue, whereas participants with LD show greater ability to orient attention with the use of a tone cue in reducing error rates in DL performance.

  4. The Effects of Visual and Verbal Cues in Multimedia Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Steffey, Carrie Swanay

    2001-01-01

    The Effects of Visual and Verbal Cues in Multimedia Instruction Carrie Swanay Steffey (ABSTRACT) Various forms of presenting content via computer differ in the number and quality of visual and verbal cues. Many of these cues such as eye contact, tone of voice, appearance, facial expressions, proximity, and gestures have been found to be beneficial to the learning process. This study seeks to uncover what effects multimedia instruction, which contain a high degree of visual and ...

  5. Plastic response to a proxy cue of predation risk when direct cues are unreliable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehls, Andrea L J; McAdam, Andrew G; Bourdeau, Paul E; Peacor, Scott D

    2013-10-01

    Responses to proximate cues that directly affect fitness or cues directly released by selective agents are well-documented forms of phenotypic plasticity. For example, to reduce predation risk, prey change phenotype in response to light level (e.g., moon phase) when light affects predation risk from visual predators, and to chemical cues (kairomones) released by predators. Less well understood is the potential for organisms to perceive predation risk through "proxy cues": proximate cues that correlate with, but do not directly affect predation risk. Previous field studies indicate that body and spine length of an invasive cladoceran in Lake Michigan, Bythotrephes longimanus (the spiny water flea), increase during the growing season, coincident with a decrease in clutch size. Although the cause of seasonal trait changes is not known, changes are associated with warmer water temperature and increased predation risk from gape-limited fish (i.e., fish whose ability to consume Bythotrephes is limited by mouth size). Using a laboratory experiment, we found no effect of fish (Perca flavescens) kairomones on Bythotrephes morphology or life history. In contrast, higher water temperature led to longer absolute spine and body length, increased investment in morphological defense of offspring (measured as the ratio of spine-to-body length), and decreased clutch size and age at reproduction. These plastic responses are unlikely to be adaptive to temperature per se, but rather our findings indicate that temperature serves as a proxy cue of fish predation risk. Temperature correlates with risk of gape-limited fish predation due to growth of fish from larval stages incapable of consuming Bythotrephes early in the season, to larger sizes by midseason increasingly capable of consuming Bythotrephes, but limited by gape size to consuming smaller individuals. We argue that for Bythotrephes, temperature is a more reliable cue of predation risk than fish kairomones, because fish

  6. Haven't a Cue? Mapping the CUE Space as an Aid to HRA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I Gertman; Ronald L Boring; Jacques Hugo; William Phoenix

    2012-06-01

    Advances in automation present a new modeling environment for the human reliability analysis (HRA) practitioner. Many, if not most, current day HRA methods have their origin in characterizing and quantifying human performance in analog environments where mode awareness and system status indications are potentially less comprehensive, but simpler to comprehend at a glance when compared to advanced presentation systems. The introduction of highly complex automation has the potential to lead to: decreased levels of situation awareness caused by the need for increased monitoring; confusion regarding the often non-obvious causes of automation failures, and emergent system dependencies that formerly may have been uncharacterized. Understanding the relation of incoming cues available to operators during plant upset conditions, in conjunction with operating procedures, yields insight into understanding the nature of the expected operator response in this control room environment. Static systems methods such as fault trees do not contain the appropriate temporal information or necessarily specify the relationship among cues leading to operator response. In this paper, we do not attempt to replace standard performance shaping factors commonly used in HRA nor offer a new HRA method, existing methods may suffice. In this paper we strive to enhance current understanding of the basis for operator response through a technique that can be used during the qualitative portion of the HRA analysis process. The CUE map is a means to visualize the relationship among salient cues in the control room that help influence operator response, show how the cognitive map of the operator changes as information is gained or lost, and is applicable to existing as well as advanced hybrid plants and small modular reactor designs. A brief application involving loss of condensate is presented and advantages and limitations of the modeling approach and use of the CUE map are discussed.

  7. Learned Interval Time Facilitates Associate Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Vincent; Kochs, Sarah; Smulders, Fren; De Weerd, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue-time-target associations between cue-target pairs and specific cue-target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying…

  8. Visual cue-specific craving is diminished in stressed smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Justinn R; Consedine, Nathan S; Lee, John M J; Pandit, Chinmay; Sollers, John J; Kydd, Robert R

    2017-09-01

    Craving among smokers is increased by stress and exposure to smoking-related visual cues. However, few experimental studies have tested both elicitors concurrently and considered how exposures may interact to influence craving. The current study examined craving in response to stress and visual cue exposure, separately and in succession, in order to better understand the relationship between craving elicitation and the elicitor. Thirty-nine smokers (21 males) who forwent smoking for 30 minutes were randomized to complete a stress task and a visual cue task in counterbalanced orders (creating the experimental groups); for the cue task, counterbalanced blocks of neutral, motivational control, and smoking images were presented. Self-reported craving was assessed after each block of visual stimuli and stress task, and after a recovery period following each task. As expected, the stress and smoking images generated greater craving than neutral or motivational control images (p visual cues task first (p visual cue task was completed first. Conversely, craving was stable across image types when the stress task was completed first. Findings indicate when smokers are stressed, visual cues have little additive effect on craving, and different types of visual cues elicit comparable craving. These findings may imply that once stressed, smokers will crave cigarettes comparably notwithstanding whether they are exposed to smoking image cues.

  9. Retro-dimension-cue benefit in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chaoxiong; Hu, Zhonghua; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Gendron, Maria; Liu, Qiang

    2016-10-24

    In visual working memory (VWM) tasks, participants' performance can be improved by a retro-object-cue. However, previous studies have not investigated whether participants' performance can also be improved by a retro-dimension-cue. Three experiments investigated this issue. We used a recall task with a retro-dimension-cue in all experiments. In Experiment 1, we found benefits from retro-dimension-cues compared to neutral cues. This retro-dimension-cue benefit is reflected in an increased probability of reporting the target, but not in the probability of reporting the non-target, as well as increased precision with which this item is remembered. Experiment 2 replicated the retro-dimension-cue benefit and showed that the length of the blank interval after the cue disappeared did not influence recall performance. Experiment 3 replicated the results of Experiment 2 with a lower memory load. Our studies provide evidence that there is a robust retro-dimension-cue benefit in VWM. Participants can use internal attention to flexibly allocate cognitive resources to a particular dimension of memory representations. The results also support the feature-based storing hypothesis.

  10. The more total cognitive load is reduced by cues, the better retention and transfer of multimedia learning: A meta-analysis and two meta-regression analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Heping; Wang, Fuxing; Hao, Yanbin; Chen, Jiaxue; An, Jing; Wang, Yuxin; Liu, Huashan

    2017-01-01

    Cueing facilitates retention and transfer of multimedia learning. From the perspective of cognitive load theory (CLT), cueing has a positive effect on learning outcomes because of the reduction in total cognitive load and avoidance of cognitive overload. However, this has not been systematically evaluated. Moreover, what remains ambiguous is the direct relationship between the cue-related cognitive load and learning outcomes. A meta-analysis and two subsequent meta-regression analyses were conducted to explore these issues. Subjective total cognitive load (SCL) and scores on a retention test and transfer test were selected as dependent variables. Through a systematic literature search, 32 eligible articles encompassing 3,597 participants were included in the SCL-related meta-analysis. Among them, 25 articles containing 2,910 participants were included in the retention-related meta-analysis and the following retention-related meta-regression, while there were 29 articles containing 3,204 participants included in the transfer-related meta-analysis and the transfer-related meta-regression. The meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant cueing effect on subjective ratings of cognitive load (d = -0.11, 95% CI = [-0.19, -0.02], p meta-regression analyses showed that dSCL for cueing significantly predicted dretention for cueing (β = -0.70, 95% CI = [-1.02, -0.38], p < 0.001), as well as dtransfer for cueing (β = -0.60, 95% CI = [-0.92, -0.28], p < 0.001). Thus in line with CLT, adding cues in multimedia materials can indeed reduce SCL and promote learning outcomes, and the more SCL is reduced by cues, the better retention and transfer of multimedia learning.

  11. A within-subject analysis of the effects of remote cueing on pelvic alignment in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Kimberly M; Welsh, Thomas M; Speights, Jaclyn

    2011-03-01

    Many professionals who treat and train dancers believe that good alignment at the pelvis can facilitate movement efficiency and reduce injury risk in a variety of dance genres. This study evaluated the effects of a remote cueing technique on pelvic alignment for dancers in a university-based professional training program. Two female dancers participated in 20-minute individualized observation and training sessions twice a week for eight weeks. Pelvic alignment improved to criterion levels for both dancers, suggesting that individualized approaches may have special utility in training dancers.

  12. Mindfulness for group facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...

  13. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating...... knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organizational settings, the paper explores how knowledge exchange can be conceptualized as going on in four...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  14. Facilitating complex shape drawing in Williams syndrome and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kerry D; Farran, Emily K

    2013-07-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) produce drawings that are disorganised, likely due to an inability to replicate numerous spatial relations between parts. This study attempted to circumvent these drawing deficits in WS when copying complex combinations of one, two and three shapes. Drawing decisions were reduced by introducing a number of facilitators, for example, by using distinct colours and including facilitatory cues on the response sheet. Overall, facilitation improved drawing in the WS group to a comparable level of accuracy as typically developing participants (matched for non-verbal ability). Drawing accuracy was greatest in both groups when planning demands (e.g. starting location, line lengths and changes in direction) were reduced by use of coloured figures and providing easily distinguished and clearly grouped facilitatory cues to form each shape. This study provides the first encouraging evidence to suggest that drawing of complex shapes in WS can be facilitated; individuals with WS might be receptive to remediation programmes for drawing and handwriting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biologically-variable rhythmic auditory cues are superior to isochronous cues in fostering natural gait variability in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotov, D G; Bayard, S; Cochen de Cock, V; Geny, C; Driss, V; Garrigue, G; Bardy, B; Dalla Bella, S

    2017-01-01

    Rhythmic auditory cueing improves certain gait symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cues are typically stimuli or beats with a fixed inter-beat interval. We show that isochronous cueing has an unwanted side-effect in that it exacerbates one of the motor symptoms characteristic of advanced PD. Whereas the parameters of the stride cycle of healthy walkers and early patients possess a persistent correlation in time, or long-range correlation (LRC), isochronous cueing renders stride-to-stride variability random. Random stride cycle variability is also associated with reduced gait stability and lack of flexibility. To investigate how to prevent patients from acquiring a random stride cycle pattern, we tested rhythmic cueing which mimics the properties of variability found in healthy gait (biological variability). PD patients (n=19) and age-matched healthy participants (n=19) walked with three rhythmic cueing stimuli: isochronous, with random variability, and with biological variability (LRC). Synchronization was not instructed. The persistent correlation in gait was preserved only with stimuli with biological variability, equally for patients and controls (p'scycle. Notably, the individual's tendency to synchronize steps with beats determined the amount of negative effects of isochronous and random cues (p'sgait dynamics during cueing. The beneficial effects of biological variability provide useful guidelines for improving existing cueing treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inspection design using 2D phased array, TFM and cueMAP software

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilp, Ailidh; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Lardner, Tim; Mackersie, John; Gachagan, Anthony

    2014-02-01

    A simulation suite, cueMAP, has been developed to facilitate the design of inspection processes and sparse 2D array configurations. At the core of cueMAP is a Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging algorithm that enables computer assisted design of ultrasonic inspection scenarios, including the design of bespoke array configurations to match the inspection criteria. This in-house developed TFM code allows for interactive evaluation of image quality indicators of ultrasonic imaging performance when utilizing a 2D phased array working in FMC/TFM mode. The cueMAP software uses a series of TFM images to build a map of resolution, contrast and sensitivity of imaging performance of a simulated reflector, swept across the inspection volume. The software takes into account probe properties, wedge or water standoff, and effects of specimen curvature. In the validation process of this new software package, two 2D arrays have been evaluated on 304n stainless steel samples, typical of the primary circuit in nuclear plants. Thick section samples have been inspected using a 1MHz 2D matrix array. Due to the processing efficiency of the software, the data collected from these array configurations has been used to investigate the influence sub-aperture operation on inspection performance.

  17. Development of Feeding Cues During Infancy and Toddlerhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Eric A; Wasser, Heather M; Colgan, Brook K; Bentley, Margaret E

    To enhance responsive feeding, this study aimed to characterize the development of feeding cues during infancy and toddlerhood. A secondary analysis was performed on a dataset of first-time, low-income African American mother-infant pairs assessed at infant age 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months. A subsample with the 15 highest, middle, and lowest infant body mass index (BMI) Z-scores at 18 months was selected (n = 45). Using video-recorded home feedings, early, active, and late receptiveness and fullness cues were assessed using the Responsiveness to Child Feeding Cues Scale at each time point. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize development. Early receptiveness cues were relatively rare over time, whereas active receptiveness cues were much more common. However, there were changes over time. For example, settling into the feeding decreased from ~50% at 3 and 6 months to 4.8% by 18 months, whereas postural attention and reaching for food increased after 6 months. In the first 6 months, falling asleep and decreasing muscle tone and activity level were the most common early fullness cues. Thereafter, taking interest in surroundings was most prevalent. Active fullness cues became increasingly diverse after 6 months, led by more assertive cues such as pushing or pulling away and communicating "no" verbally or nonverbally. These findings provide an empirical description of waxing and waning in feeding cues and indicate increasing intentionality of cues over the first 18 months of life. Knowing common cues across development may aid clinicians in enhancing parental feeding responsiveness, avoiding overfeeding, thereby decreasing risk of early childhood obesity.

  18. Expressive timing facilitates the neural processing of phrase boundaries in music: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Istók

    Full Text Available The organization of sound into meaningful units is fundamental to the processing of auditory information such as speech and music. In expressive music performance, structural units or phrases may become particularly distinguishable through subtle timing variations highlighting musical phrase boundaries. As such, expressive timing may support the successful parsing of otherwise continuous musical material. By means of the event-related potential technique (ERP, we investigated whether expressive timing modulates the neural processing of musical phrases. Musicians and laymen listened to short atonal scale-like melodies that were presented either isochronously (deadpan or with expressive timing cues emphasizing the melodies' two-phrase structure. Melodies were presented in an active and a passive condition. Expressive timing facilitated the processing of phrase boundaries as indicated by decreased N2b amplitude and enhanced P3a amplitude for target phrase boundaries and larger P2 amplitude for non-target boundaries. When timing cues were lacking, task demands increased especially for laymen as reflected by reduced P3a amplitude. In line, the N2b occurred earlier for musicians in both conditions indicating general faster target detection compared to laymen. Importantly, the elicitation of a P3a-like response to phrase boundaries marked by a pitch leap during passive exposure suggests that expressive timing information is automatically encoded and may lead to an involuntary allocation of attention towards significant events within a melody. We conclude that subtle timing variations in music performance prepare the listener for musical key events by directing and guiding attention towards their occurrences. That is, expressive timing facilitates the structuring and parsing of continuous musical material even when the auditory input is unattended.

  19. Parturition Signaling by Visual Cues in Female Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Alves Antonio Moreira

    Full Text Available New World monkeys have polymorphic color vision, in which all males and some females are dichromats, while most females are trichromats. There is little consensus about which selective pressures fashioned primate color vision, although detection of food, mates and predators has been hypothesized. Behavioral evidence shows that males from different species of Neotropical primates seem to perceive the timing of female conception and gestation, although, no signals fulfilling this function have been identified. Therefore, we used visual models to test the hypothesis that female marmosets show chromatic and/or achromatic cues that may indicate the time of parturition for male and female conspecifics. By recording the reflectance spectra of female marmosets' (Callithrix jacchus sexual skin, and running chromatic and achromatic discrimination models, we found that both variables fluctuate during the weeks that precede and succeed parturition, forming "U" and inverted "U" patterns for chromatic and achromatic contrast, respectively. We suggest that variation in skin chroma and luminance might be used by female helpers and dominant females to identify the timing of birth, while achromatic variations may be used as clues by potential fathers to identify pregnancy stage in females and prepare for paternal burdens as well as to detect oestrus in the early post-partum period.

  20. Cue-Provoked Craving and Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Andrew J.; Shiffman, Saul; Sayette, Michael A.; Paty, Jean A.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Balabanis, Mark H.

    2004-01-01

    Cue exposure paradigms have been used to examine reactivity to smoking cues. However, it is not known whether cue-provoked craving is associated with smoking cessation outcomes or whether cue reactivity can be attenuated by nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in clinical samples. Cue-provoked craving ratings and reaction time responses were…

  1. Feasibility of Using Virtual Reality to Assess Nicotine Cue Reactivity during Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganoff, Eili; Bordnick, Patrick S.; Carter, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Cue reactivity assessments have been widely used to assess craving and attention to cues among cigarette smokers. Cue reactivity has the potential to offer insights into treatment decisions; however, the use of cue reactivity in treatment studies has been limited. This study assessed the feasibility of using a virtual reality-based cue reactivity…

  2. Evolution of environmental cues for phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Lande, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Phenotypically plastic characters may respond to multiple variables in their environment, but the evolutionary consequences of this phenomenon have rarely been addressed theoretically. We model the evolution of linear reaction norms in response to several correlated environmental variables, in a population undergoing stationary environmental fluctuations. At evolutionary equilibrium, the linear combination of environmental variables that acts as a developmental cue for the plastic trait is the multivariate best linear predictor of changes in the optimum. However, the reaction norm with respect to any single environmental variable may exhibit nonintuitive patterns. Apparently maladaptive, or hyperadaptive plasticity can evolve with respect to single environmental variables, and costs of plasticity may increase, rather than reduce, plasticity in response to some variables. We also find conditions for the evolution of an indirect environmental indicator that affects expression of a plastic phenotype, despite not influencing natural selection on it. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Facilitation as a teaching strategy : experiences of facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lekalakala-Mokgele

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The studentcentred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4 universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators.

  4. Influence of smoking cues in movies on craving among smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims - Research has shown that smoking-related cues are important triggers for craving. The objective of the present study was to test whether smoking cues in movies also function as triggers to evoke craving. To accomplish this, we conducted a pilot study in which we examined smokers' reactivity to

  5. Menstrual cycle and cue reactivity in women smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin M; DeSantis, Stacia M; Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; LaRowe, Steven D; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2010-02-01

    Emerging research suggests potential effects of the menstrual cycle on various aspects of smoking behavior in women, but results to date have been mixed. The present study sought to explore the influence of menstrual cycle phase on reactivity to smoking in vivo and stressful imagery cues in a sample of non-treatment-seeking women smokers. Via a within-subjects design, nicotine-dependent women (N = 37) participated in a series of four cue reactivity sessions, each during a distinct biologically verified phase of the menstrual cycle (early follicular [EF], mid-follicular [MF], mid-luteal [ML], and late luteal [LL]). Subjective (Questionnaire of Smoking Urges-Brief; QSU-B) and physiological (skin conductance and heart rate) measures of craving and reactivity were collected and compared across phases. Subjective reactive craving (QSU-B) to smoking in vivo cues varied significantly across the menstrual cycle (p = .02) and was higher in both EF and MF phases versus ML and LL phases, but this finding was not sustained when controlling for reactivity to neutral cues. Heart rate reactivity to stressful imagery cues (p = .01) and skin conductance reactivity to smoking in vivo cues (p = .05) varied significantly across the menstrual cycle upon controlling for reactivity to neutral cues, with highest reactivity during the MF phase. Menstrual cycle phase may have an effect on reactivity to smoking-related and stressful cues among women smokers. These findings contribute to an expanding literature, suggesting menstrual cycle effects on smoking behaviors in women.

  6. Improved multi-microphone noise reduction preserving binaural cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutrouvelis, A.; Hendriks, R.C.; Jensen, J; Heusdens, R.; Dong, Min; Zheng, Thomas Fang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new multi-microphone noise reduction technique for binaural cue preservation of the desired source and the interferers. This method is based on the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) framework, where the constraints are used for the binaural cue preservation of the desired

  7. Altered Brain Reactivity to Game Cues After Gaming Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeon Min; Chung, Hwan Jun; Kim, Sang Hee

    2015-08-01

    Individuals who play Internet games excessively show elevated brain reactivity to game-related cues. This study attempted to test whether this elevated cue reactivity observed in game players is a result of repeated exposure to Internet games. Healthy young adults without a history of excessively playing Internet games were recruited, and they were instructed to play an online Internet game for 2 hours/day for five consecutive weekdays. Two control groups were used: the drama group, which viewed a fantasy TV drama, and the no-exposure group, which received no systematic exposure. All participants performed a cue reactivity task with game, drama, and neutral cues in the brain scanner, both before and after the exposure sessions. The game group showed an increased reactivity to game cues in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). The degree of VLPFC activation increase was positively correlated with the self-reported increase in desire for the game. The drama group showed an increased cue reactivity in response to the presentation of drama cues in the caudate, posterior cingulate, and precuneus. The results indicate that exposure to either Internet games or TV dramas elevates the reactivity to visual cues associated with the particular exposure. The exact elevation patterns, however, appear to differ depending on the type of media experienced. How changes in each of the regions contribute to the progression to pathological craving warrants a future longitudinal study.

  8. Cue Representation and Situational Awareness in Task Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Diana R.

    2009-01-01

    Task analysis in human performance technology is used to determine how human performance can be well supported with training, job aids, environmental changes, and other interventions. Early work by Miller (1953) and Gilbert (1969, 1974) addressed cue processing in task execution and recommended cue descriptions in task analysis. Modern task…

  9. Information cues of agricultural advertisements in Nigerian daily ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, the study set to investigate the information cues of agricultural advertisements in Nigerian daily newspapers. Information cue was investigated since it is the actual message or idea of any agricultural advertisements. The study was a content analysis of 1800 editions of daily newspapers selected through random ...

  10. Task and vehicle dynamics based assessment of motion cueing requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-16

    One significant difference between real and simulated flight on the ground are the stimuli or cues provided to the pilot. Due to physical and/or cost constraints, it is nearly impossible to match all the cues experienced in the air in ground-based si...

  11. Development in Children's Interpretation of Pitch Cues to Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Swingley, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Young infants respond to positive and negative speech prosody (A. Fernald, 1993), yet 4-year-olds rely on lexical information when it conflicts with paralinguistic cues to approval or disapproval (M. Friend, 2003). This article explores this surprising phenomenon, testing one hundred eighteen 2- to 5-year-olds' use of isolated pitch cues to…

  12. The Personalized Cueing Method: From the Laboratory to the Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Robert C.; Freed, Donald B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The personalized cueing method is a novel procedure for treating naming deficits of persons with aphasia that is relatively unfamiliar to most speech-language pathologists. The goal of this article is to introduce the personalized cueing method to clinicians so that it might be expanded and improved upon. It is also hoped that this…

  13. Context-dependency of cue-elicited urge to smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewissen, Roy; van den Hout, Marcel; Havermans, Remco C; Jansen, Anita

    2005-03-01

    Earlier studies have suggested that the cue-induced urge to smoke depends on the expectation of the availability of smoking. The present study investigated whether a 'room context' change could undo the learned discrimination between two stimuli, respectively, predicting smoking availability or smoking unavailability. A 2 (smoking cue) x 2 (availability context cue) x 6 (trial) x 2 (room context change) within-subjects design was used. Participants were repeatedly presented with a context cue predicting smoking availability (blue serving tray) and a context cue predicting unavailability (yellow serving tray) in one room and tested for an effect of context change in a different room. Two distinct rooms located in different department buildings of Maastricht University. Seventeen daily smokers who had smoked at least five cigarettes a day for at least 2 years. Self-reported urge to smoke using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results replicated the finding that a context cue that predicted smoking elicited greater urges to smoke than a context cue that predicted no smoking, irrespective of the presence of smoking cues. In addition, this study showed that this differential effect on the urge to smoke was generalized to a context other than the context in which learning took place. These findings are discussed in relation to the significance of a context change regarding the predictive value of smoking availability.

  14. Essence: Facilitating Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2008-01-01

      This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....

  15. Floral humidity as a reliable sensory cue for profitability assessment by nectar-foraging hawkmoths

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Martin; Goyret, Joaquín; Davidowitz, Goggy; Raguso, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on plant–pollinator communication has focused on sensory and behavioral responses to relatively static cues. Floral rewards such as nectar, however, are dynamic, and foraging animals will increase their energetic profit if they can make use of floral cues that more accurately indicate nectar availability. Here we document such a cue—transient humidity gradients—using the night blooming flowers of Oenothera cespitosa (Onagraceae). The headspace of newly opened flowers reaches levels of about 4% above ambient relative humidity due to additive evapotranspirational water loss through petals and water-saturated air from the nectar tube. Floral humidity plumes differ from ambient levels only during the first 30 min after anthesis (before nectar is depleted in wild populations), whereas other floral traits (scent, shape, and color) persist for 12–24 h. Manipulative experiments indicated that floral humidity gradients are mechanistically linked to nectar volume and therefore contain information about energy rewards to floral visitors. Behavioral assays with Hyles lineata (Sphingidae) and artificial flowers with appropriate humidity gradients suggest that these hawkmoth pollinators distinguish between subtle differences in relative humidity when other floral cues are held constant. Moths consistently approached and probed flowers with elevated humidity over those with ambient humidity levels. Because floral humidity gradients are largely produced by the evaporation of nectar itself, they represent condition-informative cues that facilitate remote sensing of floral profitability by discriminating foragers. In a xeric environment, this level of honest communication should be adaptive when plant reproductive success is pollinator limited, due to intense competition for the attention of a specialized pollinator. PMID:22645365

  16. The prelimbic cortex uses higher-order cues to modulate both the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Judith Sharpe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prelimbic (PL cortex allows rodents to adapt their responding under changing experimental circumstances. In line with this, the PL cortex has been implicated in strategy set shifting, attentional set shifting, the resolution of response conflict, and the modulation of attention towards predictive stimuli. One interpretation of this research is that the PL cortex is involved in using information garnered from higher-order cues in the environment to modulate how an animal responds to environmental stimuli. However, data supporting this view of PL function in the aversive domain are lacking. In the following experiments, we attempted to answer two questions. Firstly, we wanted to investigate whether the role of the PL cortex in using higher-order cues to influence responding generalizes across appetitive and aversive domains. Secondly, as much of the research has focused on a role for the PL cortex in performance, we wanted to assess whether this region is also involved in the acquisition of hierarchal associations which facilitate an ability to use higher-order cues to modulate responding. In order to answer these questions, we assessed the impact of PL inactivation during both the acquisition and expression of a contextual bi-conditional discrimination. A contextual bi-conditional discrimination involves presenting two stimuli. In one context, one stimulus is paired with shock while the other is presented without shock. In another context, these contingencies are reversed. Thus, animals have to use the present contextual cues to disambiguate the significance of the stimulus and respond appropriately. We found that PL inactivation disrupted both the encoding and expression of these context-dependent associations. This supports a role for the PL cortex in allowing higher-order cues to modulate both learning about, and responding towards, different cues. We discuss these findings in the broader context of functioning in the medial prefrontal

  17. Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony William Blanchfield

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effect of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks is however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effect of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces revealed that individuals cycled for significantly longer (178 s, p = .04 when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 x 5 (condition x iso-time ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE during the time to exhaustion (TTE test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = .04. In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer (399 s, p = .04 TTE in comparison to inaction words (p = .04. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = .03. These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise.

  18. Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchfield, Anthony; Hardy, James; Marcora, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise. PMID:25566014

  19. Smell facilitates auditory contagious yawning in stranger rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyaho, Alejandro; Rivas-Zamudio, Xaman; Ugarte, Araceli; Eguibar, José R; Valencia, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Most vertebrates yawn in situations ranging from relaxation to tension, but only humans and other primate species that show mental state attribution skills have been convincingly shown to display yawn contagion. Whether complex forms of empathy are necessary for yawn contagion to occur is still unclear. As empathy is a phylogenetically continuous trait, simple forms of empathy, such as emotional contagion, might be sufficient for non-primate species to show contagious yawning. In this study, we exposed pairs of male rats, which were selected for high yawning, with each other through a perforated wall and found that olfactory cues stimulated yawning, whereas visual cues inhibited it. Unexpectedly, cage-mate rats failed to show yawn contagion, although they did show correlated emotional reactivity. In contrast, stranger rats showed auditory contagious yawning and greater rates of smell-facilitated auditory contagious yawning, although they did not show correlated emotional reactivity. Strikingly, they did not show contagious yawning to rats from a low-yawning strain. These findings indicate that contagious yawning may be a widespread trait amongst vertebrates and that mechanisms other than empathy may be involved. We suggest that a communicatory function of yawning may be the mechanism responsible for yawn contagion in rats, as contagiousness was strain-specific and increased with olfactory cues, which are involved in mutual recognition.

  20. Olfactory Cues, Visual Cues, and Semiochemical Diversity Interact During Host Location by Invasive Forest Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jessica L; Kelly, Dave; Bader, Martin K-F; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G

    2017-01-01

    Plant-feeding insects use visual and olfactory cues (shape, color, plant volatiles) for host location, but the relative importance of different cues and interactions with non-host-plant volatiles in ecosystems of varying plant biodiversity is unclear for most species. We studied invasive bark beetles and wood borers associated with pine trees to characterize interactions among color, host and non-host volatiles, by employing traps that mimic tree trunks. Cross-vane flight intercept traps (black, green, red, white, yellow, clear) and black funnel traps were used with and without attractants (α-pinene + ethanol), repellents (non-host green leaf volatiles, 'GLV'), and attractant/repellent combinations in four pine forests in New Zealand. We trapped 274,594 Hylurgus ligniperda, 7842 Hylastes ater, and 16,301 Arhopalus ferus. Trap color, attractant, and color × attractant effects were highly significant. Overall, black and red traps had the highest catches, irrespective of the presence of attractants. Alpha-pinene plus ethanol increased trap catch of H. ligniperda 200-fold but only 6-fold for H. ater and 2-fold for A. ferus. Green leaf volatiles had a substantial repellent effect on trap catch of H. ligniperda but less on H. ater and A. ferus. Attack by H. ligniperda was halved when logs were treated with GLV, and a similar effect was observed when logs were placed among broadleaved understory shrubs emitting GLV. Overall, H. ligniperda was most strongly affected by the olfactory cues used, whereas H. ater and A. ferus were more strongly affected by visual cues. Collectively, the results support the semiochemical diversity hypothesis, indicating that non-host plant volatiles from diverse plant communities or artificial dispensers can contribute to resistance against herbivores by partly disrupting host location.

  1. Auditory feedback blocks memory benefits of cueing during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Thomas; Lehmann, Mick; Rasch, Björn

    2015-10-28

    It is now widely accepted that re-exposure to memory cues during sleep reactivates memories and can improve later recall. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. As reactivation during wakefulness renders memories sensitive to updating, it remains an intriguing question whether reactivated memories during sleep also become susceptible to incorporating further information after the cue. Here we show that the memory benefits of cueing Dutch vocabulary during sleep are in fact completely blocked when memory cues are directly followed by either correct or conflicting auditory feedback, or a pure tone. In addition, immediate (but not delayed) auditory stimulation abolishes the characteristic increases in oscillatory theta and spindle activity typically associated with successful reactivation during sleep as revealed by high-density electroencephalography. We conclude that plastic processes associated with theta and spindle oscillations occurring during a sensitive period immediately after the cue are necessary for stabilizing reactivated memory traces during sleep.

  2. Mental state attribution and the gaze cueing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Geoff G; Smith, Daniel T; Atkinson, Mark A

    2015-05-01

    Theory of mind is said to be possessed by an individual if he or she is able to impute mental states to others. Recently, some authors have demonstrated that such mental state attributions can mediate the "gaze cueing" effect, in which observation of another individual shifts an observer's attention. One question that follows from this work is whether such mental state attributions produce mandatory modulations of gaze cueing. Employing the basic gaze cueing paradigm, together with a technique commonly used to assess mental-state attribution in nonhuman animals, we manipulated whether the gazing agent could see the same thing as the participant (i.e., the target) or had this view obstructed by a physical barrier. We found robust gaze cueing effects, even when the observed agent in the display could not see the same thing as the participant. These results suggest that the attribution of "seeing" does not necessarily modulate the gaze cueing effect.

  3. Hemispheric asymmetry in the auditory facilitation effect in dual-stream rapid serial visual presentation tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Takeshima

    Full Text Available Even though auditory stimuli do not directly convey information related to visual stimuli, they often improve visual detection and identification performance. Auditory stimuli often alter visual perception depending on the reliability of the sensory input, with visual and auditory information reciprocally compensating for ambiguity in the other sensory domain. Perceptual processing is characterized by hemispheric asymmetry. While the left hemisphere is more involved in linguistic processing, the right hemisphere dominates spatial processing. In this context, we hypothesized that an auditory facilitation effect in the right visual field for the target identification task, and a similar effect would be observed in the left visual field for the target localization task. In the present study, we conducted target identification and localization tasks using a dual-stream rapid serial visual presentation. When two targets are embedded in a rapid serial visual presentation stream, the target detection or discrimination performance for the second target is generally lower than for the first target; this deficit is well known as attentional blink. Our results indicate that auditory stimuli improved target identification performance for the second target within the stream when visual stimuli were presented in the right, but not the left visual field. In contrast, auditory stimuli improved second target localization performance when visual stimuli were presented in the left visual field. An auditory facilitation effect was observed in perceptual processing, depending on the hemispheric specialization. Our results demonstrate a dissociation between the lateral visual hemifield in which a stimulus is projected and the kind of visual judgment that may benefit from the presentation of an auditory cue.

  4. Visual Phenotype Matching: Cues to Paternity Are Present in Rhesus Macaque Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazem, Anahita J. N.; Widdig, Anja

    2013-01-01

    The ability to recognize kin and thus behaviourally discriminate between conspecifics based on genetic relatedness is of importance both in acquiring inclusive fitness benefits and to enable optimal inbreeding. In primates, mechanisms allowing recognition of paternal relatives are of particular interest, given that in these mating systems patrilineal information is unlikely to be available via social familiarity. Humans use visual phenotype matching based on facial features to identify their own and other's close relatives, and recent studies suggest similar abilities may be present in other species. However it is unclear to what extent familial resemblances remain detectable against the background levels of relatedness typically found within demes in the wild – a necessary condition if facial cues are to function in kin recognition under natural conditions. Here, we experimentally investigate whether parent-offspring relationships are discernible in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) faces drawn from a large free-ranging population more representative of the latter scenario, and in which genetic relatedness has been well quantified from pedigrees determined via molecular markers. We used the human visual system as a means of integrating multiple types of facial cue simultaneously, and demonstrate that paternal, as well as maternal, resemblance to both sons and daughters can be detected even by human observers. Experts performed better than participants who lacked previous experience working with nonhuman primates. However the finding that even naïve individuals succeeded at the task underlines the strength of the phenotypic cues present in faces. PMID:23451032

  5. Alcohol use, drinking consequences, and sensitivity to social cues among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Peter W; Williams, Catherine; Dasher, Nickolas; Van Wyk, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    College students who drink vary in the extent to which they experience drinking consequences, prompting a need to identify factors that differentiate higher-risk drinkers from others. The present study investigated whether difficulty in processing subtle social information is related to negative drinking consequences experienced within the past year. Specifically, poor ability to detect subtle non-verbal sarcasm cues was predicted to contribute to drinking consequences. Participants were 39 women, aged 18 to 27 (M=22), who were enrolled in a public, four-year university. Participants completed a video measure of ability to detect sarcastic comments. After controlling for (high school drinking consequences, maximum drinks in the past 3 months, age), poorer performance in the Simple Sarcasm condition (which provided no cues to others' intentions) explained an additional 10.8% of the variance in recent drinking consequences (ΔF (1, 34)=6.15, p=.018). When predicting risky/hazardous alcohol use consequences (e.g., driving intoxicated, fights, unplanned/unprotected sex), Simple Sarcasm again improved prediction by explaining an additional 8.6% of the variance (ΔF (1, 34)=4.75, p=.036). Sarcasm conditions that provided additional cues to others' meanings were unrelated to alcohol consequences. Findings are discussed within the context of neurological (orbito-frontal-subcortical) pathways that are common to social information and alcohol reinforcement processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Children's decoding of emotion in expressive body movement: the development of cue attunement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, R T; Cunningham, J G

    1998-09-01

    Little research has focused on children's decoding of emotional meaning in expressive body movement: none has considered which movement cues children use to detect emotional meaning. The current study investigated the general ability to decode happiness, sadness, anger, and fear in dance forms of expressive body movement and the specific ability to detect differences in the intensity of anger and happiness when the relative amount of movement cue specifying each emotion was systematically varied. Four-year-olds (n = 25), 5-year-olds (n = 25), 8-year-olds (n = 29), and adults (n = 24) completed an emotion contrast task and 2 emotion intensity tasks. Decoding ability exceeding chance levels was demonstrated for sadness by 4-year-olds; for sadness, fear, and happiness by 5-year-olds: and for all emotions by 8-year-olds and adults. Children as young as 5 years were shown to rely on emotion-specific movement cues in their decoding of anger and happiness intensity. The theoretical significance of these effects across development is discussed.

  7. Two faces of anonymity : Paradoxical effects of cues to identity in CMC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, M; Postmes, T.

    This paper presents two experimental studies investigating the effects of presenting cues that provide information about the interactors - called cues to identity - in computer mediated communications (CMCs). Study I shows that even though cues to identity affected interpersonal evaluations, in

  8. Two faces of anonymity: Paradoxical effects of cues to identity in CMC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, M.A.; Postmes, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents two experimental studies investigating the effects of presenting cues that provide information about the interactors - called cues to identity - in computer mediated communications (CMCs). Study 1 shows that even though cues to identity affected interpersonal evaluations, in

  9. Interactive effects of alcohol outcome expectancies and alcohol cues on nonconsumptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ronald S; McCarthy, Denis M; Bartholow, Bruce D; Hicks, Joshua A

    2007-02-01

    Experimental research and popular belief suggest that, among its many effects, alcohol consumption reduces tension and facilitates aggression. Such observations could result from direct, pharmacological effects of alcohol on neural control of behavior but also may be accounted for by positing that drinking behavior activates mental representations of relaxation-related or aggression-related alcohol expectancies in long-term memory. Building on this latter view, in 2 experiments, the authors investigated whether rudimentary drinking-related cues, which presumably activate encoded alcohol expectancies, facilitate tension reduction and hostility in the complete absence of actual or placebo alcohol consumption. In Experiment 1, following contextual exposure to alcohol-related words, individuals with stronger expectancies that drinking reduces tension showed an increased willingness to meet with an opposite-gender stranger under relatively anxiety-provoking circumstances, suggesting that they experienced less apprehension regarding the meeting. Analogously, in Experiment 2, following near-subliminal exposure to alcohol-related words, individuals with stronger expectancies that drinking fosters aggression showed greater hostility toward a target person following an experimentally engineered provocation. Neither of the latter effects was obtained following exposure to nonalcoholic beverage words, which presumably did not activate alcohol outcome expectancy representations in long-term memory. Moreover, the strength of relevant, content-specific expectancies (i.e., for tension reduction or aggression, respectively) moderated alcohol cue exposure effects, but the strength of other expectancies (e.g., for sociability or sexual arousal) did not. Together, these findings demonstrate that exposure to rudimentary alcohol cues independently engenders expectancy-consistent behavior, thereby attesting to the remarkable breadth and subtlety of the behavioral impact of alcohol

  10. Drawing ability in typical and atypical development; colour cues and the effect of oblique lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, E K; Dodd, G F

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have poor drawing ability. Here, we investigated whether colour could be used as a facilitation cue during a drawing task. Participants with WS and non-verbal ability matched typically developing (TD) children were shown line figures presented on a 3 by 3 dot matrix, and asked to replicate the figures by drawing on an empty dot matrix. The dots of the matrix were either all black (control condition), or nine different coloured dots (colour condition). In a third condition, which also used coloured dots, participants were additionally asked to verbalise the colours of the dots prior to replicating the line drawings (colour-verbal condition). Performance was stronger in both WS and TD groups on the two coloured conditions, compared with the control condition. However, the facilitation effect of colour was significantly weaker in the WS group than in the TD group. Replication of oblique line segments was less successful than replication of non-oblique line segments for both groups; this effect was reduced by colour facilitation in the TD group only. Verbalising the colours had no additional impact on performance in either group. We suggest that colour acted as a cue to individuate the dots, thus enabling participants to better ascertain the spatial relationships between the parts of each figure, to determine the start and end points of component lines, and to determine the correspondence between the model and their replication. The reduced facilitation in the WS group is discussed in relation to the effect of oblique versus non-oblique lines, the use of atypical drawing strategies, and reduced attention to the model when drawing the replication. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study based on action research in which expert and novice facilitators in facilitated modelling workshops are compared. There is limited empirical research analysing the differences between expert and novice facilitators. Aiming to address this gap we study......, and empirically supports the claim that facilitation skills can be taught to participants to enable them to self-facilitate workshops. Differences were also found, which led to the introduction of a new dimension—‘internal versus external’ facilitation. The implications of our findings for effective training...

  12. Orientation of larval and juvenile horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus to visual cues: Effects of chemical odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. MEDINA, Richard A. TANKERSLEY

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus have long served as models for the study of vision in marine arthropods. Yet, little is known about the ability of early life history stages to detect and respond to visual cues. We examined the visually directed movements of larvae and first stage juveniles to horizons containing dark visual targets of different sizes. The study tested the hypotheses that (1 larval and juvenile crabs can detect and respond to visual targets and (2 the direction of orientation varies with the presence of chemical cues associated with settlement habitats. Orientation of larval and juvenile crabs to rectangles subtending angles from 30-330o was tested in a circular arena containing water that either lacked estuarine chemical cues (offshore water or contained odors from aquatic vegetation or known predators. In the absence of chemical odors, larvae oriented toward and juveniles moved away from dark horizons subtending angles > 60°. When placed in water containing chemical odors from potential nursery habitats, including the seagrasses Halodule wrightii and Syringodium filiforme, crabs reversed their direction of orientation relative to their responses in offshore water. Odors from two known predators, the mummichug Fundulus grandis and blue crab Callinectes sapidus, had no affect on the orientation of larvae. Yet, juveniles responded to both odors by moving toward the visual target. Results support the hypothesis that the visual orientation of larval and juvenile horseshoe crabs changes upon exposure to habitat and predator cues and that the direction of the response undergoes an ontogenetic shift following metamorphosis [Current Zoology 56 (5: 618–633, 2010].

  13. Blending of heritable recognition cues among ant nestmates creates distinct colony gestalt odours but prevents within-colony nepotism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zweden, J S; Brask, J B; Christensen, J H; Boomsma, J J; Linksvayer, T A; d'Ettorre, P

    2010-07-01

    The evolution of sociality is facilitated by the recognition of close kin, but if kin recognition is too accurate, nepotistic behaviour within societies can dissolve social cohesion. In social insects, cuticular hydrocarbons act as nestmate recognition cues and are usually mixed among colony members to create a Gestalt odour. Although earlier studies have established that hydrocarbon profiles are influenced by heritable factors, transfer among nestmates and additional environmental factors, no studies have quantified these relative contributions for separate compounds. Here, we use the ant Formica rufibarbis in a cross-fostering design to test the degree to which hydrocarbons are heritably synthesized by young workers and transferred by their foster workers. Bioassays show that nestmate recognition has a significant heritable component. Multivariate quantitative analyses based on 38 hydrocarbons reveal that a subset of branched alkanes are heritably synthesized, but that these are also extensively transferred among nestmates. In contrast, especially linear alkanes are less heritable and little transferred; these are therefore unlikely to act as cues that allow within-colony nepotistic discrimination or as nestmate recognition cues. These results indicate that heritable compounds are suitable for establishing a genetic Gestalt for efficient nestmate recognition, but that recognition cues within colonies are insufficiently distinct to allow nepotistic kin discrimination.

  14. A short cut to the past: Cueing via concrete objects improves autobiographical memory retrieval in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Marie; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-07-01

    Older adults diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have difficulties accessing autobiographical memories. However, this deficit tends to spare memories dated to earlier parts of their lives, and may partially reflect retrieval deficits rather than complete memory loss. Introducing a novel paradigm, the present study examines whether autobiographical memory recall can be improved in AD by manipulating the sensory richness, concreteness and cultural dating of the memory cues. Specifically, we examine whether concrete everyday objects historically dated to the participants' youth (e.g., a skipping rope), relative to verbal cues (i.e., the verbal signifiers for the objects) facilitate access to autobiographical memories. The study includes 49 AD patients, and 50 healthy, older matched control participants, all tested on word versus object-cued recall. Both groups recalled significantly more memories, when cued by objects relative to words, but the advantage was significantly larger in the AD group. In both groups, memory descriptions were longer and significantly more episodic in nature in response to object-cued recall. Together these findings suggest that the multimodal nature of the object cues (i.e. vision, olfaction, audition, somatic sensation) along with specific cue characteristics, such as time reference, texture, shape, may constrain the retrieval search, potentially minimizing executive function demands, and hence strategic processing requirements, thus easing access to autobiographical memories in AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extinction of drug cue reactivity in methamphetamine-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kimber L; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Tolliver, Bryan K; DeSantis, Stacia M; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-09-01

    Conditioned responses to drug-related environmental cues (such as craving) play a critical role in relapse to drug use. Animal models demonstrate that repeated exposure to drug-associated cues in the absence of drug administration leads to the extinction of conditioned responses, but the few existing clinical trials focused on extinction of conditioned responses to drug-related cues in drug-dependent individuals show equivocal results. The current study examined drug-related cue reactivity and response extinction in a laboratory setting in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Methamphetamine cue-elicited craving was extinguished during two sessions of repeated (3) within-session exposures to multi-modal (picture, video, and in-vivo) cues, with no evidence of spontaneous recovery between sessions. A trend was noted for a greater attenuation of response in participants with longer (4-7 day) inter-session intervals. These results indicate that extinction of drug cue conditioned responding occurs in methamphetamine-dependent individuals, offering promise for the development of extinction- based treatment strategies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Postretrieval Extinction Attenuates Alcohol Cue Reactivity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofresí, Roberto U; Lewis, Suzanne M; Chaudhri, Nadia; Lee, Hongjoo J; Monfils, Marie-H; Gonzales, Rueben A

    2017-03-01

    Conditioned responses to alcohol-associated cues can hinder recovery from alcohol use disorder (AUD). Cue exposure (extinction) therapy (CET) can reduce reactivity to alcohol cues, but its efficacy is limited by phenomena such as spontaneous recovery and reinstatement that can cause a return of conditioned responding after extinction. Using a preclinical model of alcohol cue reactivity in rats, we evaluated whether the efficacy of alcohol CET could be improved by conducting CET during the memory reconsolidation window after retrieval of cue-alcohol associations. Rats were provided with intermittent access to unsweetened alcohol. Rats were then trained to predict alcohol access based on a visual cue. Next, rats were treated with either standard extinction (n = 14) or postretrieval extinction (n = 13). Rats were then tested for long-term memory of extinction and susceptibility to spontaneous recovery and reinstatement. Despite equivalent extinction, rats treated with postretrieval extinction exhibited reduced spontaneous recovery and reinstatement relative to rats treated with standard extinction. Postretrieval CET shows promise for persistently attenuating the risk to relapse posed by alcohol cues in individuals with AUD. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Smokers' reactions to interpersonal interaction and presentation of smoking cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaura, R; Abrams, D B; Pedraza, M; Monti, P M; Rohsenow, D J

    1992-01-01

    This study examined smokers' reactions to smoking cues and interpersonal interaction. Fifty-six smokers were assigned at random to the six cells of a factorial design which varied the level of interpersonal interaction (role play with a confederate vs. confederate absent) and the level of exposure to smoking cues (no cues vs. visual cues vs. visual plus olfactory cues). Measures of reactivity included changes from resting baseline on blood pressure, heart rate, self-reported smoking urge, and a measure of ad lib smoking behavior obtained after exposure to the experimental procedures. Results showed that blood pressure responses increased significantly from baseline only during the role play situation where the confederate manipulated an unlit cigarette or smoked a cigarette in view of the subjects. Although not significant, heart rate changes paralleled blood pressure changes, but urge ratings showed a different pattern of response to the manipulations. The latency to smoking a cigarette after the experimental manipulations was unaffected by the cues. The results suggest that modelling of smoking by others and exposure to some kinds of smoking cues may increase cardiovascular activation.

  18. Temporal modulation transfer functions in cochlear implantees using a method that limits overall loudness cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Matthew; McKay, Colette M.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) were measured for six users of cochlear implants, using different carrier rates and levels. Unlike most previous studies investigating modulation detection, the experimental design limited potential effects of overall loudness cues. Psychometric functions (percent correct discrimination of modulated from unmodulated stimuli versus modulation depth) were obtained. For each modulation depth, each modulated stimulus was loudness balanced to the unmodulated reference stimulus, and level jitter was applied in the discrimination task. The loudness-balance data showed that the modulated stimuli were louder than the unmodulated reference stimuli with the same average current, thus confirming the need to limit loudness cues when measuring modulation detection. TMTFs measured in this way had a low-pass characteristic, with a cut-off frequency (at comfortably loud levels) similar to that for normal-hearing listeners. A reduction in level caused degradation in modulation detection efficiency and a lower-cut-off frequency (i.e. poorer temporal resolution). An increase in carrier rate also led to a degradation in modulation detection efficiency, but only at lower levels or higher modulation frequencies. When detection thresholds were expressed as a proportion of dynamic range, there was no effect of carrier rate for the lowest modulation frequency (50 Hz) at either level. PMID:22146425

  19. Chemical cues mediate species recognition in field crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances eTyler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs are important in mate choice in many insects, and may be used for species recognition if CHC profiles differ between potentially hybridizing species. In the sibling field cricket species Gryllus campestris and G. bimaculatus, females of G. bimaculatus are tolerant towards G. campestris males and can mate with them. However, G. campestris females are highly aggressive towards heterospecific G. bimaculatus males, and matings between them never happen. We examined whether cricket females might use CHCs to determine the species identity of their potential mates. We firstly analyzed the cuticular chemical profile by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to assess the potential of CHCs to be used for species recognition in these crickets. We then manipulated females’ ability to detect chemical cues by carrying out chemical ablation of the antennae, and measured changes in aggressive responses to heterospecific males. We show that there are significant interspecies differences in CHC expression for both sexes, and that females with chemically ablated antennae reduce aggressive behavior towards heterospecific males. Our findings support the prediction that cuticular semiochemicals can play a key role in reproductive isolation between closely related insect species.

  20. Effect of pictorial depth cues, binocular disparity cues and motion parallax depth cues on lightness perception in three-dimensional virtual scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiteru Kitazaki

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface lightness perception is affected by scene interpretation. There is some experimental evidence that perceived lightness under bi-ocular viewing conditions is different from perceived lightness in actual scenes but there are also reports that viewing conditions have little or no effect on perceived color. We investigated how mixes of depth cues affect perception of lightness in three-dimensional rendered scenes containing strong gradients of illumination in depth.Observers viewed a virtual room (4 m width x 5 m height x 17.5 m depth with checkerboard walls and floor. In four conditions, the room was presented with or without binocular disparity (BD depth cues and with or without motion parallax (MP depth cues. In all conditions, observers were asked to adjust the luminance of a comparison surface to match the lightness of test surfaces placed at seven different depths (8.5-17.5 m in the scene. We estimated lightness versus depth profiles in all four depth cue conditions. Even when observers had only pictorial depth cues (no MP, no BD, they partially but significantly discounted the illumination gradient in judging lightness. Adding either MP or BD led to significantly greater discounting and both cues together produced the greatest discounting. The effects of MP and BD were approximately additive. BD had greater influence at near distances than far.These results suggest the surface lightness perception is modulated by three-dimensional perception/interpretation using pictorial, binocular-disparity, and motion-parallax cues additively. We propose a two-stage (2D and 3D processing model for lightness perception.

  1. Designing auditory cues for Parkinson's disease gait rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancela, Jorge; Moreno, Eugenio M; Arredondo, Maria T; Bonato, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Recent works have proved that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients can be largely benefit by performing rehabilitation exercises based on audio cueing and music therapy. Specially, gait can benefit from repetitive sessions of exercises using auditory cues. Nevertheless, all the experiments are based on the use of a metronome as auditory stimuli. Within this work, Human-Computer Interaction methodologies have been used to design new cues that could benefit the long-term engagement of PD patients in these repetitive routines. The study has been also extended to commercial music and musical pieces by analyzing features and characteristics that could benefit the engagement of PD patients to rehabilitation tasks.

  2. Cue integration and the perception of action in intentional binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolpe, Noham; Haggard, Patrick; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2013-01-01

    that binding results from cue integration, in which a voluntary action provides information about the timing of its consequences or vice versa. The perception of the timing of either event is then a weighted average, determined according to the reliability of each of these two cues. Here we tested...... the contribution of cue integration to the perception of action and its sensory effect in binding, that is, action and tone binding, by manipulating the sensory reliability of the outcome tone. As predicted, when tone reliability was reduced, action binding was diminished and tone binding was increased. However...

  3. Signaling Elaboration: Combining French Gerund Clauses with Lexical Cohesion Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Vergez-Couret

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the Elaboration relation and on its automatic identification in French, using the theoretical framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT. One of the information sources identified by the SDRT framework to infer the Elaboration relation is based on the existence of a potential subsumption link between the eventualities at stake, depending on lexical semantics and world knowledge. We investigate this claim by combining a weak syntactic marker of the Elaboration relation, namely the gerund clause, with lexical cohesion cues. We aim at automatically identifying gerund clauses which are Elaborations by finding cohesive links between the host main clause and the gerund clause. This approach makes it possible to accurately detect few cases of intra-sentential Elaborations in our corpus, confirming the fact that lexical cohesion cues are relevant for this task.Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la relation d’Élaboration en français, telle qu’elle est décrite dans le modèle théorique de la SDRT (Segmented Discourse Representation Theory, et sur son identification automatique. Selon la SDRT, une des sources d’information permettant d’inférer la relation d’Élaboration est basée sur l’existence d’un lien de subsomption entre les types des éventualités des segments à relier, indiquant que le type de la seconde éventualité est un sous-type de celui de la première dans la sémantique lexicale des éventualités ou grâce à des connaissances du monde. Nous proposons de contribuer à cette question en combinant un indice de la relation d’Élaboration, i. e. la construction syntaxique du gérondif, et des indices de cohésion lexicale. Notre objectif est d’identifier automatiquement des propositions gérondives qui sont des Élaborations en repérant des indices de cohésion lexicale entre la proposition principale et la proposition gérondive. Cette approche permet de d

  4. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Helen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.

  6. Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Wesley

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

  7. SSRI Facilitated Crack Dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doobay, Ravi; Sun, Lili; Shah, Amish; Masuta, Pardeep; Shepherd, Zachary

    2017-01-01

    Choreoathetoid movement secondary to cocaine use is a well-documented phenomenon better known as "crack dancing." It consists of uncontrolled writhing movements secondary to excess dopamine from cocaine use. We present a 32-year-old male who had been using cocaine for many years and was recently started on paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) for worsening depression four weeks before presentation. He had been doing cocaine every 2 weeks for the last three years and had never "crack danced" before this episode. The authors have conducted a thorough literature review and cited studies that suggest "crack dancing" is associated with excess dopamine. There has never been a documented case report of an SSRI being linked with "crack dancing." The authors propose that the excess dopaminergic effect of the SSRI lowered the dopamine threshold for "crack dancing." There is a communication with the Raphe Nucleus and the Substantia Nigra, which explains how the SSRI increases dopamine levels. This is the first documented case of an SSRI facilitating the "crack dance."

  8. SSRI Facilitated Crack Dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Doobay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Choreoathetoid movement secondary to cocaine use is a well-documented phenomenon better known as “crack dancing.” It consists of uncontrolled writhing movements secondary to excess dopamine from cocaine use. We present a 32-year-old male who had been using cocaine for many years and was recently started on paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI for worsening depression four weeks before presentation. He had been doing cocaine every 2 weeks for the last three years and had never “crack danced” before this episode. The authors have conducted a thorough literature review and cited studies that suggest “crack dancing” is associated with excess dopamine. There has never been a documented case report of an SSRI being linked with “crack dancing.” The authors propose that the excess dopaminergic effect of the SSRI lowered the dopamine threshold for “crack dancing.” There is a communication with the Raphe Nucleus and the Substantia Nigra, which explains how the SSRI increases dopamine levels. This is the first documented case of an SSRI facilitating the “crack dance.”

  9. Assessment of Spectral and Temporal Resolution in Cochlear Implant Users Using Psychoacoustic Discrimination and Speech Cue Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Matthew B; Won, Jong Ho; Moon, Il Joon

    This study was conducted to measure auditory perception by cochlear implant users in the spectral and temporal domains, using tests of either categorization (using speech-based cues) or discrimination (using conventional psychoacoustic tests). The authors hypothesized that traditional nonlinguistic tests assessing spectral and temporal auditory resolution would correspond to speech-based measures assessing specific aspects of phonetic categorization assumed to depend on spectral and temporal auditory resolution. The authors further hypothesized that speech-based categorization performance would ultimately be a superior predictor of speech recognition performance, because of the fundamental nature of speech recognition as categorization. Nineteen cochlear implant listeners and 10 listeners with normal hearing participated in a suite of tasks that included spectral ripple discrimination, temporal modulation detection, and syllable categorization, which was split into a spectral cue-based task (targeting the /ba/-/da/ contrast) and a timing cue-based task (targeting the /b/-/p/ and /d/-/t/ contrasts). Speech sounds were manipulated to contain specific spectral or temporal modulations (formant transitions or voice onset time, respectively) that could be categorized. Categorization responses were quantified using logistic regression to assess perceptual sensitivity to acoustic phonetic cues. Word recognition testing was also conducted for cochlear implant listeners. Cochlear implant users were generally less successful at utilizing both spectral and temporal cues for categorization compared with listeners with normal hearing. For the cochlear implant listener group, spectral ripple discrimination was significantly correlated with the categorization of formant transitions; both were correlated with better word recognition. Temporal modulation detection using 100- and 10-Hz-modulated noise was not correlated either with the cochlear implant subjects' categorization of

  10. Acoustic cues identifying phonetic transitions for speech segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, DR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of corpus-based text-to-speech (TTS) systems depends strongly on the consistency of boundary placements during phonetic alignments. Expert human transcribers use visually represented acoustic cues in order to consistently place...

  11. Norwegian Retroflexion − Licensing by Cue or Prosody?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Hamann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the class of retroflex segments in Norwegian. The question is handled whether the phonotactic restrictions on retroflexes to occur mainly only in coda position cannot be better described in terms of the availability of the retroflex cues in post-vocalic position instead of refering to their syllable-position. The latter approach, the so-called prosodic licensing (Lombardi 1995, is shown to be insufficient in cases of retroflexion across word-boundaries, where retroflexes appear in onset-position. The so-called lincensing by cue-approach (Steriade 1995, on the other hand, is shown to be able to cover all the instances of retroflex occurrences: retroflexes in Norwegian occur only when a vowel precedes, which enhances their strong transitional cues from vowel to retroflex. In addition to this, licensing by cue can account for the progressive assimilation of retroflexion also found in Norwegian.

  12. Facial, olfactory, and vocal cues to female reproductive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Susanne; Fink, Bernhard; Jones, Benedict C

    2013-06-01

    Facial, olfactory, and vocal cues may advertise women's fertility. However, most of the evidence for this proposal has come from studies of changes in young adult women's attractiveness over the menstrual cycle. By contrast with this emphasis on changes in attractiveness over the menstrual cycle, possible changes in women's attractiveness over their lifespan have received little attention. The present study investigated men's ratings of young girls' (11-15 years old), adult women's (19-30 years old) and circum-menopausal women's (50-65 years old) facial, body odor, and vocal attractiveness and femininity. Faces and voices, but not body odors, of young girls and adult women were perceived to be significantly more attractive and feminine than those of circum-menopausal women. These data suggest that facial and vocal cues may be cues to women's reproductive value, but that body odor cues do not necessarily advertise this information.

  13. Facial, Olfactory, and Vocal Cues to Female Reproductive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Röder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial, olfactory, and vocal cues may advertise women's fertility. However, most of the evidence for this proposal has come from studies of changes in young adult women's attractiveness over the menstrual cycle. By contrast with this emphasis on changes in attractiveness over the menstrual cycle, possible changes in women's attractiveness over their lifespan have received little attention. The present study investigated men's ratings of young girls' (11–15 years old, adult women's (19–30 years old and circum-menopausal women's (50–65 years old facial, body odor, and vocal attractiveness and femininity. Faces and voices, but not body odors, of young girls and adult women were perceived to be significantly more attractive and feminine than those of circum-menopausal women. These data suggest that facial and vocal cues may be cues to women's reproductive value, but that body odor cues do not necessarily advertise this information.

  14. Consumer Involvement and Knowledge Influence on Wine Choice Cue Utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruwer, Johan; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Lesschaeve, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    of consumer involvement. Design/methodology/approach The case of wine as an exemplary product category is considered, given the importance and variability of choice cues that have been found to affect product choice. Analysis is conducted on survey data from a sample of wine consumers in Ontario, Canada....... Product choice cues are grouped into extrinsic, intrinsic and marketing mix. The importance of how these cues are influenced from different dimensions of consumer involvement is illustrated. Findings The results show that product knowledge has a positive impact on intrinsic product cue utilisation...... an image of desirability, etc., but not nearly as much on the functionality aspects thereof; for example alternative smaller packaging sizes to the standard 750 ml wine bottle. Originality/value The study uses a multi-dimensional approach to measure the impact of enduring involvement on utilisation...

  15. A statistical approach to identify candidate cues for nestmate recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle; Pontieri, Luigi; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2014-01-01

    cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), identifying theexact cues for specific species has remained a daunting task, partly due to the sheernumber of odor compounds. Perhaps unsurprisingly, one of the few species wherethe recognition cues have been identified, Formica exsecta, has only around ten majorhydrocarbons...... a biologically meaningful way to quantify the chemical distancesbetween NMs, allowing for within-colony variation in recognition cues. Next,we ask whichsubset of hydrocarbons most likely represents the cues that the ants use for nestmaterecognition, which shows less clear results for C. aethiops and M. pharaonis...... than forF. exsecta, possibly due to less than ideal datasets. Nonetheless, some compound setsperformed better than others, showing that this approach can be used to identify candidatecompounds to be tested in bio-assays, and eventually crack the sophisticated code thatgoverns nestmate recognition....

  16. Reconstructing spectral cues for sound localization from responses to rippled noise stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegen, Joyce; Van Esch, Thamar

    2017-01-01

    Human sound localization in the mid-saggital plane (elevation) relies on an analysis of the idiosyncratic spectral shape cues provided by the head and pinnae. However, because the actual free-field stimulus spectrum is a-priori unknown to the auditory system, the problem of extracting the elevation angle from the sensory spectrum is ill-posed. Here we test different spectral localization models by eliciting head movements toward broad-band noise stimuli with randomly shaped, rippled amplitude spectra emanating from a speaker at a fixed location, while varying the ripple bandwidth between 1.5 and 5.0 cycles/octave. Six listeners participated in the experiments. From the distributions of localization responses toward the individual stimuli, we estimated the listeners’ spectral-shape cues underlying their elevation percepts, by applying maximum-likelihood estimation. The reconstructed spectral cues resulted to be invariant to the considerable variation in ripple bandwidth, and for each listener they had a remarkable resemblance to the idiosyncratic head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). These results are not in line with models that rely on the detection of a single peak or notch in the amplitude spectrum, nor with a local analysis of first- and second-order spectral derivatives. Instead, our data support a model in which the auditory system performs a cross-correlation between the sensory input at the eardrum-auditory nerve, and stored representations of HRTF spectral shapes, to extract the perceived elevation angle. PMID:28333967

  17. Reconstructing spectral cues for sound localization from responses to rippled noise stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A John Van Opstal

    Full Text Available Human sound localization in the mid-saggital plane (elevation relies on an analysis of the idiosyncratic spectral shape cues provided by the head and pinnae. However, because the actual free-field stimulus spectrum is a-priori unknown to the auditory system, the problem of extracting the elevation angle from the sensory spectrum is ill-posed. Here we test different spectral localization models by eliciting head movements toward broad-band noise stimuli with randomly shaped, rippled amplitude spectra emanating from a speaker at a fixed location, while varying the ripple bandwidth between 1.5 and 5.0 cycles/octave. Six listeners participated in the experiments. From the distributions of localization responses toward the individual stimuli, we estimated the listeners' spectral-shape cues underlying their elevation percepts, by applying maximum-likelihood estimation. The reconstructed spectral cues resulted to be invariant to the considerable variation in ripple bandwidth, and for each listener they had a remarkable resemblance to the idiosyncratic head-related transfer functions (HRTFs. These results are not in line with models that rely on the detection of a single peak or notch in the amplitude spectrum, nor with a local analysis of first- and second-order spectral derivatives. Instead, our data support a model in which the auditory system performs a cross-correlation between the sensory input at the eardrum-auditory nerve, and stored representations of HRTF spectral shapes, to extract the perceived elevation angle.

  18. Well-informed foraging: damage-released chemical cues of injured prey signal quality and size to predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnstedt, Oona M; McCormick, Mark I; Chivers, Douglas P

    2012-03-01

    Predators use a variety of information sources to locate potential prey, and likewise prey animals use numerous sources of information to detect and avoid becoming the meal of a potential predator. In freshwater environments, chemosensory cues often play a crucial role in such predator/prey interactions. The importance of chemosensory information to teleost fish in marine environments is not well understood. Here, we tested whether coral reef fish predators are attracted to damage-released chemical cues from already wounded prey in order to find patches of prey and minimize their own costs of obtaining food. Furthermore, we tested if these chemical cues would convey information about status of the prey. Using y-maze experiments, we found that predatory dottybacks, Pseudochromis fuscus, were more attracted to skin extracts of damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, prey that were in good condition compared to prey in poor body condition. Moreover, in both the laboratory and field, we found that predators could differentiate between skin extracts from prey based on prey size, showing a greater attraction to extracts made from prey that were the appropriate size to consume. This suggests that predators are not attracted to any general substance released from an injured prey fish instead being capable of detecting and distinguishing relatively small differences in the chemical composition of the skin of their prey. These results have implications for understanding predator foraging strategies and highlights that chemical cues play a complex role in predator-prey interactions in marine fish.

  19. Parasite and predator risk assessment: nuanced use of olfactory cues

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, John G.; Garnick, Sarah; Mark A Elgar; Coulson, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Foraging herbivores face twin threats of predation and parasite infection, but the risk of predation has received much more attention. We evaluated, experimentally, the role of olfactory cues in predator and parasite risk assessment on the foraging behaviour of a population of marked, free-ranging, red-necked wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus). The wallabies adjusted their behaviour according to these olfactory cues. They foraged less, were more vigilant and spent less time at feeders placed in...

  20. Recency-to-Primacy Shift in Cue Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Lipatova, Olga; Wheeler, Daniel S.; Vadillo, Miguel A.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2006-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted using a lick-suppression preparation with rats to determine whether temporal and physical context shifts modulate the effectiveness of 2 sequentially trained blocking stimuli. Experiment 1 ascertained that it is possible to obtain blocking by conditioning rats to react to a target cue using 2 different blocking cues, each trained with a single-phase blocking paradigm. Experiment 2 showed that the more recently trained blocking stimulus was more effective (i.e....

  1. Acoustic cues for emotions in vocal expression and music

    OpenAIRE

    Erixon, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Previous research shows that emotional expressions in speech and music use similar patterns of acoustic cues to communicate discrete emotions. The aim of the present study was to experimentally test if manipulation of the acoustic cues; F0, F0 variability, loudness, loudness variability and speech rate/tempo, affects the identification of discrete emotions in speech and music. Forty recordings of actors and musicians expressing anger, fear, happiness, sadness and tenderness were manipulated t...

  2. Segmentation cues in conversational speech: Robust semantics and fragile phonotactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence eWhite

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cues influence listeners’ segmentation of connected speech into words, but most previous studies have used stimuli elicited in careful readings rather than natural conversation. Discerning word boundaries in conversational speech may differ from the laboratory setting. In particular, a speaker’s articulatory effort – hyperarticulation vs hypoarticulation (H&H – may vary according to communicative demands, suggesting a compensatory relationship whereby acoustic-phonetic cues are attenuated when other information sources strongly guide segmentation. We examined how listeners’ interpretation of segmentation cues is affected by speech style (spontaneous conversation vs read, using cross-modal identity priming. To elicit spontaneous stimuli, we used a map task in which speakers discussed routes around stylised landmarks. These landmarks were two-word phrases in which the strength of potential segmentation cues – semantic likelihood and cross-boundary diphone phonotactics – was systematically varied. Landmark-carrying utterances were transcribed and later re-recorded as read speech.Independent of speech style, we found an interaction between cue valence (favourable/unfavourable and cue type (phonotactics/semantics. Thus, there was an effect of semantic plausibility, but no effect of cross-boundary phonotactics, indicating that the importance of phonotactic segmentation may have been overstated in studies where lexical information was artificially suppressed. These patterns were unaffected by whether the stimuli were elicited in a spontaneous or read context, even though the difference in speech styles was evident in a main effect. Durational analyses suggested speaker-driven cue trade-offs congruent with an H&H account, but these modulations did not impact on listener behaviour. We conclude that previous research exploiting read speech is reliable in indicating the primacy of lexically-based cues in the segmentation of natural

  3. Development of the Responsiveness to Child Feeding Cues Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Eric A.; Johnson, Susan L; Hughes, Sheryl O; Hopkinson, Judy M.; Butte, Nancy F; Jennifer O. Fisher

    2013-01-01

    Parent-child feeding interactions during the first two years of life are thought to shape child appetite and obesity risk, but remain poorly studied. This research was designed to develop and assess the Responsiveness to Child Feeding Cues Scale (RCFCS), an observational measure of caregiver responsiveness to child feeding cues relevant to obesity. General responsiveness during feeding as well as maternal responsiveness to child hunger and fullness were rated during mid-morning feeding occasi...

  4. Repeatable Differences in Integration of Depth Cues across Young Observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Nardini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Unlike adults, children aged below 12 years did not use multiple depth cues to reduce their uncertainty when judging surface slant (Nardini et al 2010, PNAS 107:39, 17041–17046. This suggests that Bayesian cue integration in the human visual system is not present until late in its development. Here we asked whether individuals at the ‘transitional’ ages of 8 to 12 years show consistent cue integration behaviour across two testing sessions. Identifying observers matched in age who reliably do/do not integrate depth cues would allow us to investigate neuronal mechanisms underlying these individual differences. Thirty observers judged which surface, a 45° standard or a variable comparison, was the most slanted, based on texture alone, disparity alone, or both. The test was repeated, giving a total of 6 (3 conditions x 2 sessions thresholds per observer. In a principal component analysis (PCA of distributions of thresholds, the first component (60% of variance described variation in global ability, while the second (19% of variance described variation in the balance between single-cue and combined cue thresholds. Thus, children at this age vary in their use of combined depth cues, and do so consistently in measures taken across two sessions. Analyses of correlation and error quantify the stability of observers’ thresholds. Methods for identifying individuals who ‘do’ versus ‘do not’ integrate cues are suggested, based on PCA with elimination of unstable or outlying individuals. These findings provide a basis for investigating neuronal changes underlying development of the ability to integrate visual information to reduce uncertainty.

  5. Identifying specific cues and contexts related to smoking craving for the development of effective virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Ferrer-García, Marta; Pericot-Valverde, Irene; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Carballo, José L

    2011-03-01

    Craving is considered the main variable associated with relapse after smoking cessation. Cue Exposure Therapy (CET) consists of controlled and repeated exposure to drug-related cues with the aim of extinguishing craving responses. Some virtual reality (VR) environments, such as virtual bars or parties, have previously shown their efficacy as tools for eliciting smoking craving. However, in order to adapt this technology to smoking cessation interventions, there is a need for more diverse environments that enhance the probability of generalization of extinction in real life. The main objective of this study was to identify frequent situations that produce smoking craving, as well as detecting specific craving cues in those contexts. Participants were 154 smokers who responded to an ad hoc self-administered inventory for assessing craving level in 12 different situations. Results showed that having a drink in a bar/pub at night, after having lunch/dinner in a restaurant and having a coffee in a cafe or after lunch/dinner at home were reported as the most craving-inducing scenarios. Some differences were found with regard to participants' gender, age, and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Females, younger people, and heavier smokers reported higher levels of craving in most situations. In general, the most widely cited specific cues across the contexts were people smoking, having a coffee, being with friends, and having finished eating. These results are discussed with a view to their consideration in the design of valid and reliable VR environments that could be used in the treatment of nicotine addicts who wish to give up smoking.

  6. The impact of early reflections on binaural cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourévitch, Boris; Brette, Romain

    2012-07-01

    Animals live in cluttered auditory environments, where sounds arrive at the two ears through several paths. Reflections make sound localization difficult, and it is thought that the auditory system deals with this issue by isolating the first wavefront and suppressing later signals. However, in many situations, reflections arrive too early to be suppressed, for example, reflections from the ground in small animals. This paper examines the implications of these early reflections on binaural cues to sound localization, using realistic models of reflecting surfaces and a spherical model of diffraction by the head. The fusion of direct and reflected signals at each ear results in interference patterns in binaural cues as a function of frequency. These cues are maximally modified at frequencies related to the delay between direct and reflected signals, and therefore to the spatial location of the sound source. Thus, natural binaural cues differ from anechoic cues. In particular, the range of interaural time differences is substantially larger than in anechoic environments. Reflections may potentially contribute binaural cues to distance and polar angle when the properties of the reflecting surface are known and stable, for example, for reflections on the ground.

  7. Meals and snacks: Children's characterizations of food and eating cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Jenna M; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-02-01

    This study examined preschoolers' and their parents' categorizations of eating episodes based on cues used for defining these occasions (i.e., time, portion size, preparation, content, and emotion) as a meal or snack. Thirty-four children aged 4 to 6 saw pictorial representations of each cue, along with a short verbal description, and were asked to place the picture in one of three boxes: "meal", "snack", or "either meal or snack". One parent per child (85% mothers, Mean age = 35.1 years) separately categorized the same items in an online survey. Results illustrated which cues play a role in how parents and children categorize eating occasions as meals or snacks. Parents used 24 of the 32 cue-related items to distinguish between eating occasions as a meal or a snack, while children used only four. Parents and preschoolers were consistent in using cartoon character packaging to indicate a snack, and also used several of the same content cues. The current study highlights the various cues used to categorize an eating occasion, and the unhealthy character of snacks, as participants associated some unhealthy foods and very few healthy foods with snacks. Future research should focus on the role of parents, the home environment, and advertising media in shaping children's characterizations of eating occasions towards development of healthy eating habits and away from problematic eating behaviors that may persist later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transferrable Learning of Multisensory Cues in Flight Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F Meyer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Flight simulators which provide visual, auditory, and kinematic (physical motion cues are increasingly used for pilot training. We have previously shown that kinematic cues, but not auditory cues, representing aircraft motion improve target tracking performance for novice ‘pilots’ in a simulated flying task (Meyer et al IMRF 2010. Here we explore the effect of learning on task performance. Our subjects were first tested on a target tracking task in a helicopter flight simulation. They were then trained in a simulator-simulator, which provided full audio, simplified visuals, but not kinematic signals to test whether learning of auditory cues is possible. After training we evaluated flight performance in the full simulator again. We show that after 2 hours training auditory cues are used by our participants as efficiently as kinematic cues to improve target tracking performance. The performance improvement relative to a condition where no audio signals are presented is robust if the sound environment used during training is replaced by a very different audio signal that is modulated in amplitude and pitch in the same way as the training signal. This shows that training is not signal specific but that our participants learn to extract transferrable information on sound pitch and amplitude to improve their flying performance.

  9. Multi-modal homing in sea turtles: modeling dual use of geomagnetic and chemical cues in island-finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney S Endres

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are capable of navigating across large expanses of ocean to arrive at remote islands for nesting, but how they do so has remained enigmatic. An interesting example involves green turtles (Chelonia mydas that nest on Ascension Island, a tiny land mass located approximately 2000 km from the turtles' foraging grounds along the coast of Brazil. Sensory cues that turtles are known to detect, and which might hypothetically be used to help locate Ascension Island, include the geomagnetic field, airborne odorants, and waterborne odorants. One possibility is that turtles use magnetic cues to arrive in the vicinity of the island, then use chemical cues to pinpoint its location. As a first step toward investigating this hypothesis, we used oceanic, atmospheric, and geomagnetic models to assess whether magnetic and chemical cues might plausibly be used by turtles to locate Ascension Island. Results suggest that waterborne and airborne odorants alone are insufficient to guide turtles from Brazil to Ascension, but might permit localization of the island once turtles arrive in its vicinity. By contrast, magnetic cues might lead turtles into the vicinity of the island, but would not typically permit its localization because the field shifts gradually over time. Simulations reveal, however, that the sequential use of magnetic and chemical cues can potentially provide a robust navigational strategy for locating Ascension Island. Specifically, one strategy that appears viable is following a magnetic isoline into the vicinity of Ascension Island until an odor plume emanating from the island is encountered, after which turtles might either: (1 initiate a search strategy; or (2 follow the plume to its island source. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that sea turtles, and perhaps other marine animals, use a multi-modal navigational strategy for locating remote islands.

  10. Independent effects of bottom-up temporal expectancy and top-down spatial attention. An audiovisual study using rhythmic cueing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eJones

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective attention to a spatial location has shown enhance perception and facilitate behaviour for events at attended locations. However, selection relies not only on where but also when an event occurs. Recently, interest has turned to how intrinsic neural oscillations in the brain entrain to rhythms in our environment, and, stimuli appearing in or out of synch with a rhythm have shown to modulate perception and performance. Temporal expectations created by rhythms and spatial attention are two processes which have independently shown to affect stimulus processing but it remains largely unknown how, and if, they interact. In four separate tasks, this study investigated the effects of voluntary spatial attention and bottom-up temporal expectations created by rhythms in both unimodal and crossmodal conditions. In each task the participant used an informative cue, either colour or pitch, to direct their covert spatial attention to the left or right, and respond as quickly as possible to a target. The lateralized target (visual or auditory was then presented at the attended or unattended side. Importantly, although not task relevant, the cue was a rhythm of either flashes or beeps. The target was presented in or out of sync (early or late with the rhythmic cue. The results showed participants were faster responding to spatially attended compared to unattended targets in all tasks. Moreover, there was an effect of rhythmic cueing upon response times in both unimodal and crossmodal conditions. Responses were faster to targets presented in sync with the rhythm compared to when they appeared too early in both crossmodal tasks. That is, rhythmic stimuli in one modality influenced the temporal expectancy in the other modality, suggesting temporal expectancies created by rhythms are crossmodal. Interestingly, there was no interaction between top-down spatial attention and rhythmic cueing in any task suggesting these two processes largely influenced

  11. Real color captures attention and overrides spatial cues in grapheme-color synesthetes but not in controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M; Hagoort, Peter; Händel, Barbara F

    2013-08-01

    Grapheme-color synesthetes perceive color when reading letters or digits. We investigated oscillatory brain signals of synesthetes vs. controls using magnetoencephalography. Brain oscillations specifically in the alpha band (∼10Hz) have two interesting features: alpha has been linked to inhibitory processes and can act as a marker for attention. The possible role of reduced inhibition as an underlying cause of synesthesia, as well as the precise role of attention in synesthesia is widely discussed. To assess alpha power effects due to synesthesia, synesthetes as well as matched controls viewed synesthesia-inducing graphemes, colored control graphemes, and non-colored control graphemes while brain activity was recorded. Subjects had to report a color change at the end of each trial which allowed us to assess the strength of synesthesia in each synesthete. Since color (synesthetic or real) might allocate attention we also included an attentional cue in our paradigm which could direct covert attention. In controls the attentional cue always caused a lateralization of alpha power with a contralateral decrease and ipsilateral alpha increase over occipital sensors. In synesthetes, however, the influence of the cue was overruled by color: independent of the attentional cue, alpha power decreased contralateral to the color (synesthetic or real). This indicates that in synesthetes color guides attention. This was confirmed by reaction time effects due to color, i.e. faster RTs for the color side independent of the cue. Finally, the stronger the observed color dependent alpha lateralization, the stronger was the manifestation of synesthesia as measured by congruency effects of synesthetic colors on RTs. Behavioral and imaging results indicate that color induces a location-specific, automatic shift of attention towards color in synesthetes but not in controls. We hypothesize that this mechanism can facilitate coupling of grapheme and color during the development of

  12. Effects of D-cycloserine on extinction of mesolimbic cue reactivity in alcoholism: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Falk; Kirsch, Martina; Bach, Patrick; Hoffmann, Sabine; Reinhard, Iris; Jorde, Anne; von der Goltz, Christoph; Spanagel, Rainer; Mann, Karl; Loeber, Sabine; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine

    2015-07-01

    Mesocorticolimbic reactivity to alcohol-associated cues has been shown to be associated with relapse to renewed drinking and to be decreased by cue-exposure-based extinction training (CET). Evidence from preclinical studies suggests that the extinction of conditioned alcohol-seeking behavior might be facilitated by drugs increasing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-associated memory consolidation. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of CET treatment supplemented with the partial NMDA-receptor agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) at reducing mesolimbic cue reactivity (CR), craving, and relapse risk in alcoholism. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, we recruited 76 recently detoxified abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-two (16 DCS, 16 placebo) patients showed cue-induced ventral-striatal activation measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to treatment and were thus included in the efficacy analyses. After inpatient detoxification, patients underwent nine sessions of CET spaced over 3 weeks, receiving either 50 mg DCS or placebo 1 h prior to each CET session. FMRI was conducted before treatment and 3 weeks after treatment onset. Following treatment with CET plus DCS, cue-induced brain activation in the ventral and dorsal striatum was decreased compared to treatment with CET plus placebo. Elevated posttreatment ventral striatal CR and increased craving (assessed using the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale) were associated with increased relapse risk. DCS was shown to augment the effect of CET for alcohol-dependent subjects. The interaction between craving and ventral-striatal CR on treatment outcome suggests that CET might be especially effective in patients exhibiting both high craving and elevated CR.

  13. The use of virtual reality in craving assessment and cue-exposure therapy in substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Wensing, Tobias; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs) and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist; however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse. Current behavioral therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioral training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality (VR) is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practices new skills in treatment. VR enhances ecological validity of traditional craving-induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from (1) studies using VR and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and (2) studies combining cue-exposure therapy with VR in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug-seeking behaviors and peer pressure. Findings indicate that VR can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue-exposure therapy with virtual environment, however, reported mitigated success so far.

  14. Brain dynamics of visual attention during anticipation and encoding of threat- and safe-cues in spider-phobic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, Jaroslaw M; Pané-Farré, Christiane A; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O

    2015-09-01

    This study systematically investigated the sensitivity of the phobic attention system by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in spider-phobic and non-phobic volunteers in a context where spider and neutral pictures were presented (phobic threat condition) and in contexts where no phobic but unpleasant and neutral or only neutral pictures were displayed (phobia-irrelevant conditions). In a between-group study, participants were assigned to phobia-irrelevant conditions either before or after the exposure to spider pictures (pre-exposure vs post-exposure participants). Additionally, each picture was preceded by a fixation cross presented in one of three different colors that were informative about the category of an upcoming picture. In the phobic threat condition, spider-phobic participants showed a larger P1 than controls for all pictures and signal cues. Moreover, individuals with spider phobia who were sensitized by the exposure to phobic stimuli (i.e. post-exposure participants) responded with an increased P1 also in phobia-irrelevant conditions. In contrast, no group differences between spider-phobic and non-phobic individuals were observed in the P1-amplitudes during viewing of phobia-irrelevant stimuli in the pre-exposure group. In addition, cues signaling neutral pictures elicited decreased stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) compared with cues signaling emotional pictures. Moreover, emotional pictures and cues signaling emotional pictures evoked larger early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) than neutral stimuli. Spider phobics showed greater selective attention effects than controls for phobia-relevant pictures (increased EPN and LPP) and cues (increased LPP and SPN). Increased sensitization of the attention system observed in spider-phobic individuals might facilitate fear conditioning and promote generalization of fear playing an important role in the maintenance of anxiety disorders. © The Author (2015). Published by

  15. The use of virtual reality in craving assessment and cue-exposure therapy in substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eHone-Blanchet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist, however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse.Current behavioural therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioural training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer-pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practice new skills in treatment. Virtual reality enhances ecological validity of traditional craving induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from 1 studies using virtual reality and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and 2 studies combining cue-exposure therapy with virtual reality in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug seeking behaviours and peer pressure.Findings indicate that virtual reality can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue exposure-therapy with virtual environment however reported mitigated success so far.

  16. The role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokkom, van V.L.; Blok, A.E.; Kooten, van O.; Graaf, de C.; Stieger, M.

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that the identification of many foods including vegetables based on flavour cues is often difficult. The effect of providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues on the identification of foods and the effect of providing taste cues only on the identification of foods have not

  17. Dissociating the Components of Switch Cost Using Two-to-Two Cue-Task Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydock, Chris; Sohn, Myeong-Ho

    2011-01-01

    In the task switch paradigm, a switch of task is typically accompanied by a change in task cue. It has been proposed that the performance deficit usually observed when switching tasks is actually the result of changing cues. To test this possibility, we used a 2:2 cue-task mapping in which each cue indicated 2 different tasks. With advance…

  18. Olfactory-visual integration facilitates perception of subthreshold negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Lucas R; Gitelman, Darren R; Schuyler, Brianna; Li, Wen

    2015-10-01

    A fast growing literature of multisensory emotion integration notwithstanding, the chemical senses, intimately associated with emotion, have been largely overlooked. Moreover, an ecologically highly relevant principle of "inverse effectiveness", rendering maximal integration efficacy with impoverished sensory input, remains to be assessed in emotion integration. Presenting minute, subthreshold negative (vs. neutral) cues in faces and odors, we demonstrated olfactory-visual emotion integration in improved emotion detection (especially among individuals with weaker perception of unimodal negative cues) and response enhancement in the amygdala. Moreover, while perceptual gain for visual negative emotion involved the posterior superior temporal sulcus/pSTS, perceptual gain for olfactory negative emotion engaged both the associative olfactory (orbitofrontal) cortex and amygdala. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) analysis of fMRI timeseries further revealed connectivity strengthening among these areas during crossmodal emotion integration. That multisensory (but not low-level unisensory) areas exhibited both enhanced response and region-to-region coupling favors a top-down (vs. bottom-up) account for olfactory-visual emotion integration. Current findings thus confirm the involvement of multisensory convergence areas, while highlighting unique characteristics of olfaction-related integration. Furthermore, successful crossmodal binding of subthreshold aversive cues not only supports the principle of "inverse effectiveness" in emotion integration but also accentuates the automatic, unconscious quality of crossmodal emotion synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The development of prospective memory in young schoolchildren: the impact of ongoing task absorption, cue salience, and cue centrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegel, Matthias; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Voigt, Babett; Henry, Julie D; Rendell, Peter G; Aberle, Ingo

    2013-12-01

    This study presents evidence that 9- and 10-year-old children outperform 6- and 7-year-old children on a measure of event-based prospective memory and that retrieval-based factors systematically influence performance and age differences. All experiments revealed significant age effects in prospective memory even after controlling for ongoing task performance. In addition, the provision of a less absorbing ongoing task (Experiment 1), higher cue salience (Experiment 2), and cues appearing in the center of attention (Experiment 3) were each associated with better performance. Of particular developmental importance was an age by cue centrality (in or outside of the center of attention) interaction that emerged in Experiment 3. Thus, age effects were restricted to prospective memory cues appearing outside of the center of attention, suggesting that the development of prospective memory across early school years may be modulated by whether a cue requires overt monitoring beyond the immediate attentional context. Because whether a cue is in or outside of the center of attention might determine the amount of executive control needed in a prospective memory task, findings suggest that developing executive control resources may drive prospective memory development across primary school age. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cell contractility facilitates alignment of cells and tissues to static uniaxial stretch

    OpenAIRE

    Rens, Lisanne; Merks, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    During animal development and homeostasis, the structure of tissues, including muscles, blood vessels and connective tissues adapts to mechanical strains in the extracellular matrix (ECM). These strains originate from the differential growth of tissues or forces due to muscle contraction or gravity. Here we show using a computational model that by amplifying local strain cues, active cell contractility can facilitate and accelerate the reorientation of single cells to static strains. At the c...

  1. Understanding the role of contextual cues in supporting the formation of medication-taking habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Stawarz

    2015-10-01

    adherence and help users remember their medications in the long term, technology needs to provide prospective memory reminders and also facilitate habit formation. One way to achieve that is by using reminders to reinforce the associations between the task and its cue to aid habit development while still supporting prospective memory. Future adherence technologies should remind users about their cues (“Please remember to take your medications with breakfast” instead of simply reminding users to act now (“Time to take your medications”.

  2. Synchrony of maternal auditory and visual cues about unknown words to children with and without cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Schuele, C Melanie

    2015-01-01

    outcomes of children with cochlear implants. Given that children with cochlear implants demonstrate slower rates of lexical growth than children with normal hearing, the findings from this study provide an important direction for further investigation of how environmental factors affect lexical outcomes for this population. If mothers can provide auditory and visual cues to increase the salience of a relevant object in word-learning contexts, they may be able to facilitate the language growth of their children.

  3. Domain general learning: infants use social and non-social cues when learning object statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Barry

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that infants can learn from social cues. But is a social cue more effective at directing learning than a non-social cue? This study investigated whether 9-month-old infants (N=55 could learn a visual statistical regularity in the presence of a distracting visual sequence when attention was directed by either a social cue (a person or a non-social cue (a rectangle. The results show that both social and non-social cues can guide infants’ attention to a visual shape sequence (and away from a distracting sequence. The social cue more effectively directed attention than the non-social cue during the learning phase, but the social cue did not result in significantly stronger learning than the non-social cue. The findings suggest that domain general attention mechanisms allow for the comparable learning seen in both conditions.

  4. Domain general learning: Infants use social and non-social cues when learning object statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Ryan A; Graf Estes, Katharine; Rivera, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that infants can learn from social cues. But is a social cue more effective at directing learning than a non-social cue? This study investigated whether 9-month-old infants (N = 55) could learn a visual statistical regularity in the presence of a distracting visual sequence when attention was directed by either a social cue (a person) or a non-social cue (a rectangle). The results show that both social and non-social cues can guide infants' attention to a visual shape sequence (and away from a distracting sequence). The social cue more effectively directed attention than the non-social cue during the familiarization phase, but the social cue did not result in significantly stronger learning than the non-social cue. The findings suggest that domain general attention mechanisms allow for the comparable learning seen in both conditions.

  5. Finding paradise: cues directing the migration of the waterfall climbing Hawaiian gobioid Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, G; Maie, T; Moody, K N; Schrank, G D; Blob, R W; Schoenfuss, H L

    2012-07-01

    A series of waterfall-climbing trials were conducted to identify cues that direct the climbing of juvenile Sicyopterus stimpsoni. In the first experiment, whether climbing juveniles preferentially ascend water sources with conspecifics or whether the presence of just stream water is sufficient to attract fish to ascend a climbing path were assessed. In the second experiment, whether climbing juveniles create a trail of mucus that facilitates the ability of conspecifics to follow their lead was determined. The results indicate that juvenile S. stimpsoni are less likely to climb in waters devoid of organic cues but are strongly attracted to stream water with or without the odour of conspecifics. Once climbing, performance did not differ for juveniles climbing in differing water choices, suggesting an all-or-nothing commitment once climbing commences. Climbing S. stimpsoni did produce a mucous trail while climbing that was associated with a mucous gland that dramatically increases in size just prior to juveniles gaining the ability to climb. The trail was not followed closely by subsequent juveniles traversing the same channel, however, suggesting only weak trail-following in waterfall climbing S. stimpsoni. Previous genetic studies suggest that juvenile S. stimpsoni do not home to natal streams in the face of strong near-shore oceanic currents. Instead, these fish appear primarily to rely on cues that suggest the presence of organic growth in streams, a factor that may indicate suitable habitat in an ever-changing stream environment but which may also be vulnerable to interference through human activity. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Olfactory cues from plants infected by powdery mildew guide foraging by a mycophagous ladybird beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tabata

    Full Text Available Powdery mildews (Erysiphales are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp. and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical "moldy" odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms.

  7. Visual and cross-modal cues increase the identification of overlapping visual stimuli in Balint's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Imperio, Daniela; Scandola, Michele; Gobbetto, Valeria; Bulgarelli, Cristina; Salgarello, Matteo; Avesani, Renato; Moro, Valentina

    2017-10-01

    Cross-modal interactions improve the processing of external stimuli, particularly when an isolated sensory modality is impaired. When information from different modalities is integrated, object recognition is facilitated probably as a result of bottom-up and top-down processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of cross-modal stimulation in a case of simultanagnosia. We report a detailed analysis of clinical symptoms and an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) brain positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) study of a patient affected by Balint's syndrome, a rare and invasive visual-spatial disorder following bilateral parieto-occipital lesions. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of visual and nonvisual cues on performance in tasks involving the recognition of overlapping pictures. Four modalities of sensory cues were used: visual, tactile, olfactory, and auditory. Data from neuropsychological tests showed the presence of ocular apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia. The results of the experiment indicate a positive effect of the cues on the recognition of overlapping pictures, not only in the identification of the congruent valid-cued stimulus (target) but also in the identification of the other, noncued stimuli. All the sensory modalities analyzed (except the auditory stimulus) were efficacious in terms of increasing visual recognition. Cross-modal integration improved the patient's ability to recognize overlapping figures. However, while in the visual unimodal modality both bottom-up (priming, familiarity effect, disengagement of attention) and top-down processes (mental representation and short-term memory, the endogenous orientation of attention) are involved, in the cross-modal integration it is semantic representations that mainly activate visual recognition processes. These results are potentially useful for the design of rehabilitation training for attentional and visual-perceptual deficits.

  8. Anterior prefrontal involvement in implicit contextual change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pollmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10 and superior frontal (BA9 cortices showed selective signal increase for this target location change in repeated displays in an event-related fMRI experiment, which was most pronounced in participants with high contextual facilitation before the change. The data support the view that left lateral frontopolar cortex is involved in signaling contextual change to posterior brain areas as a precondition for adaptive changes of attentional resource allocation. This signaling occurs in the absence of awareness of learned contingencies or contextual change.

  9. Smell, learn and live: the role of chemical alarm cues in predator learning during early life history in a marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Thomas H; McCormick, Mark I

    2010-03-01

    The speed with which individuals can learn to identify and react appropriately to predation threats when transitioning to new life history stages and habitats will influence their survival. This study investigated the role of chemical alarm cues in both anti-predator responses and predator identification during a transitional period in a newly settled coral reef damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis. Individuals were tested for changes in seven behavioural traits in response to conspecific and heterospecific skin extracts. Additionally, we tested whether fish could learn to associate a previously novel chemical cue (i.e. simulated predator scent) with danger, after previously being exposed to a paired cue combining the conspecific skin extract with the novel scent. Fish exposed to conspecific skin extracts were found to significantly decreased their feeding rate whilst those exposed to heterospecific and control cues showed no change. Individuals were also able to associate a previously novel scent with danger after only a single previous exposure to the paired conspecific skin extract/novel scent cue. Our results indicate that chemical alarm cues play a large role in both threat detection and learned predator recognition during the early post-settlement period in coral reef fishes. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The more total cognitive load is reduced by cues, the better retention and transfer of multimedia learning: A meta-analysis and two meta-regression analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanbin; Chen, Jiaxue; An, Jing; Wang, Yuxin; Liu, Huashan

    2017-01-01

    Cueing facilitates retention and transfer of multimedia learning. From the perspective of cognitive load theory (CLT), cueing has a positive effect on learning outcomes because of the reduction in total cognitive load and avoidance of cognitive overload. However, this has not been systematically evaluated. Moreover, what remains ambiguous is the direct relationship between the cue-related cognitive load and learning outcomes. A meta-analysis and two subsequent meta-regression analyses were conducted to explore these issues. Subjective total cognitive load (SCL) and scores on a retention test and transfer test were selected as dependent variables. Through a systematic literature search, 32 eligible articles encompassing 3,597 participants were included in the SCL-related meta-analysis. Among them, 25 articles containing 2,910 participants were included in the retention-related meta-analysis and the following retention-related meta-regression, while there were 29 articles containing 3,204 participants included in the transfer-related meta-analysis and the transfer-related meta-regression. The meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant cueing effect on subjective ratings of cognitive load (d = −0.11, 95% CI = [−0.19, −0.02], p learning outcomes, and the more SCL is reduced by cues, the better retention and transfer of multimedia learning. PMID:28854205

  11. I want products my own way, but which way? The effects of different product categories and cues on customer responses to Web-based customizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Hui-Yun

    2009-02-01

    Mass customization is a strategy that has been adopted by companies to tailor their products in order to match customer needs more precisely. Therefore, to fully capture the value of mass customization, it is crucial to explore how customers react to mass customization. In previous studies, an implied premise has been that consumers are keen to embrace customized products, and this assumption has also been treated by firms as a prerequisite for successful mass customization strategies. However, an undesirable complexity may result from difficult configuration processes that may intimidate and confuse some customers. Hence, this study explores strategies that marketers can employ to facilitate the customization process. Specifically, this study investigates how to enhance customer satisfaction and purchase decision toward customized products by providing cues compatible with the product category. It is hypothesized that for search products, customers rely more on intrinsic cues when making configuration decisions. On the other hand, for experience products, customers perceive extrinsic cues to be more valuable in assisting them to make configuration decisions. The results suggest that consumers tend to respond more favorably toward customized search products when intrinsic cues are provided than when extrinsic or irrelevant ones are provided. In contrast, when customizing experience products, customers tend to depend more on extrinsic cues than on intrinsic or irrelevant ones.

  12. The Effect of Hand Gesture Cues Within the Treatment of /r/ for a College-Aged Adult With Persisting Childhood Apraxia of Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiewicz, Heather Leavy; Rivera, Jessica Lynch

    2017-11-08

    Despite the widespread use of hand movements as visual and kinesthetic cues to facilitate accurate speech produced by individuals with speech sound disorders (SSDs), no experimental investigation of gestural cues that mimic that spatiotemporal parameters of speech sounds (e.g., holding fingers and thumb together and "popping" them to cue /p/) currently exists. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of manual mimicry cues within a multisensory intervention of persisting childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). A single-subject ABAB withdrawal design was implemented to assess the accuracy of vowel + /r/ combinations produced by a 21-year-old woman with persisting CAS. The effect of manual mimicry gestures paired with multisensory therapy consisting of verbal instructions and visual modeling was assessed via clinician and naïve listener ratings of target sound accuracy. According to the perceptual ratings of the treating clinician and 28 naïve listeners, the participant demonstrated improved speech sound accuracy as a function of the manual mimicry/multisensory therapy. These data offer preliminary support for the incorporation of gestural cues in therapy for CAS and other SSDs. The need for continued research on the interaction of speech and manual movements for individuals with SSDs is discussed.

  13. How each prosodic boundary cue matters: Evidence from German infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eWellmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that infants aged six to ten months are able to use the acoustic correlates of major prosodic boundaries, that is, pitch change, preboundary lengthening, and pause, for the segmentation of the continuous speech signal. Moreover, investigations with American-English- and Dutch-learning infants suggest that processing prosodic boundary markings involves a weighting of these cues. This weighting seems to develop with increasing exposure to the native language and to underlie crosslinguistic variation. In the following, we report the results of four experiments using the headturn preference procedure to explore the perception of prosodic boundary cues in German infants. We presented eight-month-old infants with a sequence of names in two different prosodic groupings, with or without boundary markers. Infants discriminated both sequences when the boundary was marked by all three cues (Experiment 1 and when it was marked by a pitch change and preboundary lengthening in combination (Experiment 2. The presence of a pitch change (Experiment 3 or preboundary lengthening (Experiment 4 as single cues did not lead to a successful discrimination. Our results indicate that pause is not a necessary cue for German infants. Pitch and preboundary lengthening in combination, but not as single cues, are sufficient. Hence, by eight months infants only rely on a convergence of boundary markers. Comparisons with adults’ performance on the same stimulus materials suggest that the pattern observed with the eight-month-olds is already consistent with that of adults. We discuss our findings with respect to crosslinguistic variation and the development of a language-specific prosodic cue weighting.

  14. Hydrodynamic sensing does not facilitate active drag reduction in the golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McHenry, M. J.; Michel, K. B.; Stewart, W.; Mueller, U. K.

    2010-01-01

    The lateral line system detects water flow, which allows fish to orient their swimming with respect to hydrodynamic cues. However, it is unclear whether this sense plays a role in the control of propulsion. Hydrodynamic theory suggests that fish could reduce drag by coordinating the motion of the

  15. When speaker identity is unavoidable: Neural processing of speaker identity cues in natural speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, Alba; Chládková, Kateřina; Peter, Varghese; Schiller, Niels O; Escudero, Paola

    2017-11-01

    Speech sound acoustic properties vary largely across speakers and accents. When perceiving speech, adult listeners normally disregard non-linguistic variation caused by speaker or accent differences, in order to comprehend the linguistic message, e.g. to correctly identify a speech sound or a word. Here we tested whether the process of normalizing speaker and accent differences, facilitating the recognition of linguistic information, is found at the level of neural processing, and whether it is modulated by the listeners' native language. In a multi-deviant oddball paradigm, native and nonnative speakers of Dutch were exposed to naturally-produced Dutch vowels varying in speaker, sex, accent, and phoneme identity. Unexpectedly, the analysis of mismatch negativity (MMN) amplitudes elicited by each type of change shows a large degree of early perceptual sensitivity to non-linguistic cues. This finding on perception of naturally-produced stimuli contrasts with previous studies examining the perception of synthetic stimuli wherein adult listeners automatically disregard acoustic cues to speaker identity. The present finding bears relevance to speech normalization theories, suggesting that at an unattended level of processing, listeners are indeed sensitive to changes in fundamental frequency in natural speech tokens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Music and methamphetamine: conditioned cue-induced increases in locomotor activity and dopamine release in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polston, J E; Rubbinaccio, H Y; Morra, J T; Sell, E M; Glick, S D

    2011-03-01

    Associations between drugs of abuse and cues facilitate the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behaviors. Although significant research has been done to elucidate the role that simple discriminative or discrete conditioned stimuli (e.g., a tone or a light) play in addiction, less is known about complex environmental cues. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of a musical conditioned stimulus by assessing locomotor activity and in vivo microdialysis. Two groups of rats were given non-contingent injections of methamphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) or vehicle and placed in standard conditioning chambers. During these conditioning sessions both groups were exposed to a continuous conditioned stimulus, in the form of a musical selection ("Four" by Miles Davis) played repeatedly for 90 min. After seven consecutive conditioning days subjects were given one day of rest, and subsequently tested for locomotor activity or dopamine release in the absence of drugs while the musical conditioned stimulus was continually present. The brain regions examined included the basolateral amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex. The results show that music is an effective contextual conditioned stimulus, significantly increasing locomotor activity after repeated association with methamphetamine. Furthermore, this musical conditioned stimulus significantly increased extracellular dopamine levels in the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens. These findings support other evidence showing the importance of these brain regions in conditioned learning paradigms, and demonstrate that music is an effective conditioned stimulus warranting further investigation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Den gode facilitator af refleksionsarbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pia

    2009-01-01

    præsenteres i det følgende afsnit, og forfatteren argumenterer for begrebet facilitator af refleksionsarbejde. Herefter udfoldes rollen som facilitator ifølge Ghay og Lillyman. De har fokus på positive praksisoplevelser og tillidsfulde relationer. Gillie Boltons teoretiske og praktiske referenceramme...

  18. Facilitating Dialogues about Racial Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Facilitating dialogues about racial issues in higher education classroom settings continues to be a vexing problem facing postsecondary educators. In order for students to discuss race with their peers, they need skilled facilitators who are knowledgeable about racial issues and able to support students in these difficult…

  19. Distinct Mechanisms for Distractor Suppression and Target Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, MaryAnn P; Adamian, Nika; Pike, Alexandra; Printzlau, Frida; Crittenden, Ben M; Stokes, Mark G

    2016-02-10

    It is well established that preparatory attention improves processing of task-relevant stimuli. Although it is often more important to ignore task-irrelevant stimuli, comparatively little is known about preparatory attentional mechanisms for inhibiting expected distractions. Here, we establish that distractor inhibition is not under the same top-down control as target facilitation. Using a variant of the Posner paradigm, participants were cued to either the location of a target stimulus, the location of a distractor, or were provided no predictive information. In Experiment 1, we found that participants were able to use target-relevant cues to facilitate target processing in both blocked and flexible conditions, but distractor cueing was only effective in the blocked version of the task. In Experiment 2, we replicate these findings in a larger sample and leveraged the additional statistical power to perform individual differences analyses to tease apart potential underlying mechanisms. We found no evidence for a correlation between these two types of benefit, suggesting that flexible target cueing and distractor suppression depend on distinct cognitive mechanisms. In Experiment 3, we use EEG to show that preparatory distractor suppression is associated with a diminished P1, but we found no evidence to suggest that this effect was mediated by top-down control of oscillatory activity in the alpha band (8-12 Hz). We conclude that flexible top-down mechanisms of cognitive control are specialized for target-related attention, whereas distractor suppression only emerges when the predictive information can be derived directly from experience. This is consistent with a predictive coding model of expectation suppression. If you were told to ignore a white bear, you might find it quite difficult. Holding something in working memory is thought to automatically facilitate feature processing, even if doing so is detrimental to the current task. Despite this paradox, it is often

  20. Morning REM Sleep Naps Facilitate Broad Access to Emotional Semantic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michelle; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The goals of the study were to assess semantic priming to emotion and nonemotion cue words using a novel measure of associational breadth for participants who either took rapid eye movement (REM) or nonrapid eye movement (NREM) naps or who remained awake, and to assess the relation of priming to REM sleep consolidation and REM sleep inertia effects. Design: The associational breadth task was applied in both a priming condition, where cue words were signaled to be memorized prior to sleep (primed), and a nonpriming condition, where cue words were not memorized (nonprimed). Cue words were either emotional (positive, negative) or nonemotional. Participants were randomly assigned to either an awake (WAKE) or a sleep condition, which was subsequently split into NREM or REM groups depending on stage at awakening. Setting: Hospital-based sleep laboratory. Participants: Fifty-eight healthy participants (22 male) ages 18 to 35 y (mean age = 23.3 ± 4.08 y). Measurements and Results: The REM group scored higher than the NREM or WAKE groups on primed, but not nonprimed emotional cue words; the effect was stronger for positive than for negative cue words. However, REM time and percent correlated negatively with degree of emotional priming. Priming occurred for REM awakenings but not for NREM awakenings, even when the latter sleep episodes contained some REM sleep. Conclusions: Associational breadth may be selectively consolidated during REM sleep for stimuli that have been tagged as important for future memory retrieval. That priming decreased with REM time and was higher only for REM sleep awakenings is consistent with two explanatory REM sleep processes: REM sleep consolidation serving emotional downregulation and REM sleep inertia. Citation: Carr M, Nielsen T. Morning REM sleep naps facilitate broad access to emotional semantic networks. SLEEP 2015;38(3):433–443. PMID:25409100

  1. A psychophysical imaging method evidencing auditory cue extraction during speech perception: a group analysis of auditory classification images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnet, Léo; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Serniclaes, Willy; Meunier, Fanny; Hoen, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a large consensus regarding the involvement of specific acoustic cues in speech perception, the precise mechanisms underlying the transformation from continuous acoustical properties into discrete perceptual units remains undetermined. This gap in knowledge is partially due to the lack of a turnkey solution for isolating critical speech cues from natural stimuli. In this paper, we describe a psychoacoustic imaging method known as the Auditory Classification Image technique that allows experimenters to estimate the relative importance of time-frequency regions in categorizing natural speech utterances in noise. Importantly, this technique enables the testing of hypotheses on the listening strategies of participants at the group level. We exemplify this approach by identifying the acoustic cues involved in da/ga categorization with two phonetic contexts, Al- or Ar-. The application of Auditory Classification Images to our group of 16 participants revealed significant critical regions on the second and third formant onsets, as predicted by the literature, as well as an unexpected temporal cue on the first formant. Finally, through a cluster-based nonparametric test, we demonstrate that this method is sufficiently sensitive to detect fine modifications of the classification strategies between different utterances of the same phoneme.

  2. Modeling the Development of Audiovisual Cue Integration in Speech Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Laura M; Nordeen, Elke R; Vrabic, Sarah C; Toscano, Joseph C

    2017-03-21

    Adult speech perception is generally enhanced when information is provided from multiple modalities. In contrast, infants do not appear to benefit from combining auditory and visual speech information early in development. This is true despite the fact that both modalities are important to speech comprehension even at early stages of language acquisition. How then do listeners learn how to process auditory and visual information as part of a unified signal? In the auditory domain, statistical learning processes provide an excellent mechanism for acquiring phonological categories. Is this also true for the more complex problem of acquiring audiovisual correspondences, which require the learner to integrate information from multiple modalities? In this paper, we present simulations using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) that learn cue weights and combine cues on the basis of their distributional statistics. First, we simulate the developmental process of acquiring phonological categories from auditory and visual cues, asking whether simple statistical learning approaches are sufficient for learning multi-modal representations. Second, we use this time course information to explain audiovisual speech perception in adult perceivers, including cases where auditory and visual input are mismatched. Overall, we find that domain-general statistical learning techniques allow us to model the developmental trajectory of audiovisual cue integration in speech, and in turn, allow us to better understand the mechanisms that give rise to unified percepts based on multiple cues.

  3. Social cues modulate the representations underlying cross-situational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kyle; Yurovsky, Daniel; Frank, Michael C

    2017-05-01

    Because children hear language in environments that contain many things to talk about, learning the meaning of even the simplest word requires making inferences under uncertainty. A cross-situational statistical learner can aggregate across naming events to form stable word-referent mappings, but this approach neglects an important source of information that can reduce referential uncertainty: social cues from speakers (e.g., eye gaze). In four large-scale experiments with adults, we tested the effects of varying referential uncertainty in cross-situational word learning using social cues. Social cues shifted learners away from tracking multiple hypotheses and towards storing only a single hypothesis (Experiments 1 and 2). In addition, learners were sensitive to graded changes in the strength of a social cue, and when it became less reliable, they were more likely to store multiple hypotheses (Experiment 3). Finally, learners stored fewer word-referent mappings in the presence of a social cue even when given the opportunity to visually inspect the objects for the same amount of time (Experiment 4). Taken together, our data suggest that the representations underlying cross-situational word learning of concrete object labels are quite flexible: In conditions of greater uncertainty, learners store a broader range of information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cue integration and the perception of action in intentional binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpe, Noham; Haggard, Patrick; Siebner, Hartwig R; Rowe, James B

    2013-09-01

    'Intentional binding' describes the perceived temporal attraction between a voluntary action and its sensory consequence. Binding has been used in health and disease as an indirect measure of awareness of action or agency, that is, the sense that one controls one's own actions. It has been proposed that binding results from cue integration, in which a voluntary action provides information about the timing of its consequences or vice versa. The perception of the timing of either event is then a weighted average, determined according to the reliability of each of these two cues. Here we tested the contribution of cue integration to the perception of action and its sensory effect in binding, that is, action and tone binding, by manipulating the sensory reliability of the outcome tone. As predicted, when tone reliability was reduced, action binding was diminished and tone binding was increased. However, further analyses showed that cue integration accounted for changes in action binding, but not tone binding. These findings establish a role for cue integration in action binding and support the growing evidence suggesting that action and tone binding are, at least in part, driven by distinct mechanisms.

  5. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran; Van Someren, Eus J W; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Experimental laboratory study. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P sleep deprivation (P sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life.

  6. G-cueing microcontroller (a microprocessor application in simulators)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horattas, C. G.

    1980-01-01

    A g cueing microcontroller is described which consists of a tandem pair of microprocessors, dedicated to the task of simulating pilot sensed cues caused by gravity effects. This task includes execution of a g cueing model which drives actuators that alter the configuration of the pilot's seat. The g cueing microcontroller receives acceleration commands from the aerodynamics model in the main computer and creates the stimuli that produce physical acceleration effects of the aircraft seat on the pilots anatomy. One of the two microprocessors is a fixed instruction processor that performs all control and interface functions. The other, a specially designed bipolar bit slice microprocessor, is a microprogrammable processor dedicated to all arithmetic operations. The two processors communicate with each other by a shared memory. The g cueing microcontroller contains its own dedicated I/O conversion modules for interface with the seat actuators and controls, and a DMA controller for interfacing with the simulation computer. Any application which can be microcoded within the available memory, the available real time and the available I/O channels, could be implemented in the same controller.

  7. Identifying Biologically Relevant Cues in the Hydrologic Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovellford, R. M.; Flitcroft, R.; Santelmann, M. V.; Grant, G. E.; Safeeq, M.; Lewis, S.

    2012-12-01

    Seasonal variation in hydrologic discharge and temperature defines the availability, connectivity, and quality of lentic habitats. Native aquatic species are adapted to local hydrologic regimes , eg. magnitudes and rates of change . In recent decades, biologically relevant hydrologic conditions have been identified that are necessary to maintain habitat conditions for aquatic obligate species. Another element of hydrologic regimes important to aquatic species are the cues that inform individuals of seasonal changes that precipitate important physiological or behavioral alterations. There is a need for hydrologists, biologists, and ecologists, to define biologically significant cues within the hydrologic regime. Coho salmon (Onchorhynchus kisutch), an anadromous species of Pacific salmon, offers an example of sensitivity to environmental cues. Examinations of the run-timing of mature adult coho salmon on the North Umpqua River, OR, indicate that migration timing coincides with decreasing fall water temperatures prior to increasing winter discharge. For this species, adults leave the ocean ready to spawn. Adults need to spawn in small headwater streams prior to the onset of intense storm conditions that prohibit effective deposition or fertilization of eggs in redds (salmon nests).Therefore, the timing of spawning must be carefully executed. Understanding the cues that trigger specific behaviors gives insight to the processes that provide ecosystem stability and flexibility over time. Improved understanding of these cues may help us protect freshwater ecosystems and improve management for endangered species.

  8. Implicit learning of spatiotemporal contingencies in spatial cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieth, Cory A; Huber, David E

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the role of implicit spatiotemporal learning in the Posner spatial cueing of attention task. During initial training, the proportion of different trial types was altered to produce a complex pattern of spatiotemporal contingencies between cues and targets. For example, in the short invalid and long valid condition, targets reliably appeared either at an uncued location after a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA; 100 ms) or at a cued location after a long SOA (350 ms). As revealed by postexperiment questioning, most participants were unaware of these manipulations. Whereas prior studies have examined reaction times during training, the current study examined the long-term effect of training on subsequent testing that removed these contingencies. An initial experiment found training effects only for the long SOAs that typically produce inhibition of return (IOR) effects. For instance, after short invalid and long valid training, there was a benefit at long SOAs rather than an IOR effect. A 2nd experiment ruled out target-cue overlap as an explanation of the difference between learning for long versus short SOAs. Rather than a mix of perfectly predictable spatiotemporal contingencies, Experiment 3 used only short SOA trials during training with a probabilistic spatial contingency. There was a smaller but reliable training effect in subsequent testing. These results demonstrate that implicit learning for specific combinations of location and SOA can affect behavior in spatial cueing paradigms, which is a necessary result if more generally spatial cueing reflects learned spatiotemporal regularities. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Exposure to negative affect cues and urge to smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Christine; Copeland, Amy L; Carrigan, Maureen H

    2012-02-01

    While much of the cue exposure literature for cigarette smoking has focused on external cues, little has been done in the area of exposing participants to internal cues, such as negative affect (NA), despite the important role of such cues in maintaining smoking behavior. Smokers were exposed to an NA mood induction to induce an urge to smoke and then exposed to NA cues over several trials in an attempt to decrease this urge. Participants (N = 32) were undergraduate smokers assigned to either the exposure or control group for the mood induction procedure, which occurred over 8 trials. All participants viewed NA images and listened to NA music at Trial 1. The exposure group continued to view NA images and listened to NA music, and the control group viewed neutral images and listened to neutral music for 6 subsequent trials lasting about 5 min each. Both groups were exposed to NA images and NA music at Trial 8. NA and urge to smoke ratings were assessed at the end of each trial; heart rate was measured continuously. Results indicated that the mood induction procedure induced NA and urge to smoke, but the extinction procedure did not decrease urge over trials. Heart rate data were not associated with self-report data. In conclusion, the mood induction procedure in the present study appears to be an efficient way to induce urge to smoke. However, further research is necessary to determine why urge to smoke seems to be resistant to extinction.

  10. Chimpanzee problem-solving: contrasting the use of causal and arbitrary cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Daniel; Call, Josep

    2011-11-01

    Humans are able to benefit from a causally structured problem-solving context rather than arbitrarily structured situations. In order to better understand nonhuman causal cognition, it is therefore important to isolate crucial factors that might differentiate between events that follow a purely spatial and temporal contingency and those that hold a "true" causal relationship. In the first of two experiments, chimpanzee subjects were required to detect a bottle containing juice from five opaque bottles of equal shape and size. In the causal condition, the juice bottle looked identical to the other four bottles, only it was much heavier than the others. In the arbitrary condition, the weight of all five bottles was identical, but the juice bottle was color-marked differently. Since bottle opening was made difficult (and therefore costly), the question was whether subject's manipulative behavior would be random or somehow influenced by the nature of the provided information. Our results show that subjects detected and opened the juice bottle significantly faster when weight was the discriminating feature (causal condition) compared to situations in which the discrimination was necessarily based on a color-cue (arbitrary condition). Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility of a general learning bias toward tactile rather than visual information in chimpanzees. When tested in a simple exchange paradigm that prevented any use of causal information, no predominance of a tactile cue (weight) over a visual cue (color) could be found. Furthermore--and in contrast to the causal condition in Experiment 1--no learning occurred during the course of Experiment 2, neither in the weight nor in the color condition. We therefore conclude that chimpanzees can more easily determine the content of an object based on its causal properties compared to situations in which the only available information is a pure arbitrary regularity. This supports the view that chimpanzees' causal cognition

  11. The Effect of Syntactic and Semantic Cues on Lexical Access in Broca’s Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ferrill

    2014-04-01

    Preliminary statistical analyses revealed that, for the YNC group, significant priming at the offset of the adjective in the BIAS condition (p=.03, but not at noun offset. For the NON-BIAS condition, no priming was found at the offset of the adjective (p>.05, but was observed at noun offset (p=.05. Results for LWBA demonstrated no priming at adjective offset for either condition; however, priming was observed at noun offset for the BIAS condition only (p=.01. DISCUSSION These results suggest that the delay in lexical processing for LWBA is due to delayed access to the meaning of individual words rather than due to delayed structure building. Although lexical access was facilitated for LWBA when a semantic cue was provided, this pattern was still protracted when compared to neurologically unimpaired listeners who were able to anticipate an upcoming noun in that condition.

  12. The Influence of Visual Cues on Sound Externalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvajal, Juan Camilo Gil; Santurette, Sébastien; Cubick, Jens

    this is due to incongruent auditory cues between the recording and playback room during sound reproduction or to an expectation effect from the visual impression of the room. This study investigated the influence of a priori acoustic and visual knowledge of the playback room on sound externalization...... between recording and playback room was found to be detrimental to virtual sound externalization. The auditory modality governed externalization in terms of perceived distance when cues from the recording and playback room were incongruent, whereby the auditory impression of the room was more critical...... the more reverberant the listening environment was. While the visual impression of the playback room did not affect perceived distance, visual cues helped resolve localization ambiguities and improved compactness perception....

  13. Implicit Age Cues in Resumes: Subtle Effects on Hiring Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derous, Eva; Decoster, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Anonymous resume screening, as assumed, does not dissuade age discriminatory effects. Building on job market signaling theory, this study investigated whether older applicants may benefit from concealing explicitly mentioned age signals on their resumes (date of birth) or whether more implicit/subtle age cues on resumes (older-sounding names/old-fashioned extracurricular activities) may lower older applicants’ hirability ratings. An experimental study among 610 HR professionals using a mixed factorial design showed hiring discrimination of older applicants based on implicit age cues in resumes. This effect was more pronounced for older raters. Concealing one’s date of birth led to overall lower ratings. Study findings add to the limited knowledge on the effects of implicit age cues on hiring discrimination in resume screening and the usefulness of anonymous resume screening in the context of age. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:28848463

  14. Sequential Modulation of Cue Use in the Task Switching Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Reisenauer, Renate; Jacobsen, Thomas; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2012-01-01

    In task switching studies, pre-cuing of the upcoming task improves performance, indicating preparatory activation of the upcoming task-set, and/or inhibition of the previous task-set. To further investigate cue-based task preparation, the authors presented both valid and invalid task cues in a task switching experiment involving three tasks. Consistent with previous findings, a validity effect in terms of higher reaction times on invalidly compared to validly cued tasks was obtained. However, this validity effect was reduced following invalidly cued trials, suggesting dynamic adjustment in terms of decreased cue-based preparation after being misled. Performance was particularly impaired when the current task was the one that was invalidly cued on the preceding trial. This finding may reflect either particular reluctance to prepare or persisting inhibition of the erroneously prepared task-set from the pre-trial. PMID:22908004

  15. Sequential modulation of cue use in the task switching paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike eWendt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In task switching studies, pre-cuing of the upcoming task improves performance, indicating preparatory activation of the upcoming task set and/or inhibition of the previous task set. To further investigate cue-based task preparation, the authors presented both valid and invalid task cues in a task switching experiment involving three tasks. Consistent with previous findings, a validity effect in terms of higher reaction times on invalidly compared to validly cued tasks was obtained. However, this validity effect was reduced following invalidly cued trials, suggesting dynamic adjustment in terms of decreased cue-based preparation after being misled. Performance was particularly impaired when the current task was the one that was invalidly cued on the preceding trial. This finding may reflect either particular reluctance to prepare or persisting inhibition of the erroneously prepared task set from the pre-trial.

  16. Probabilistic orthographic cues to grammatical category in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; McMahon, Katie; Zubicaray, Greig de

    2012-12-01

    What helps us determine whether a word is a noun or a verb, without conscious awareness? We report on cues in the way individual English words are spelled, and, for the first time, identify their neural correlates via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used a lexical decision task with trisyllabic nouns and verbs containing orthographic cues that are either consistent or inconsistent with the spelling patterns of words from that grammatical category. Significant linear increases in response times and error rates were observed as orthography became less consistent, paralleled by significant linear decreases in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the left supramarginal gyrus of the left inferior parietal lobule, a brain region implicated in visual word recognition. A similar pattern was observed in the left superior parietal lobule. These findings align with an emergentist view of grammatical category processing which results from sensitivity to multiple probabilistic cues. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A strategic account of the cue-depreciation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, A; Greene, R L

    1995-12-01

    A word fragment is less likely to be completed if it is presented incrementally (R______P, R____R _ P, R_I__R_P, R_I__R O P) than if it is presented all at once (e.g., R_I__R O P). This phenomenon is known as the cue-depreciation effect. The present study examined the role of strategies in this phenomenon. The magnitude of the cue-depreciation effect was increased when subjects were asked to adopt a passive generation approach to word fragment completion. The current study investigated an extension of Bruner and Potter's (1964) early hypothesis-generation account of the cue-depreciation effect. Findings demonstrated the influence of completion strategies for a general theory of fragment completion.

  18. Virtual reality cues for binge drinking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph J; Kreiner, David S; Chapman, Marla D; Stark-Wroblewski, Kim

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the ability of virtual reality (VR) cue exposure to trigger a desire for alcohol among binge-drinking students. Fifteen binge-drinking college students and eight students who were nonbingers were immersed into a neutral-cue environment or room (underwater scenes), followed by four alcohol-cue rooms (bar, party, kitchen, argument), followed by a repeat of the neutral room. The virtual rooms were computer generated via head-mounted visual displays with associated auditory and olfactory stimuli. In each room, participants reported their subjective cravings for alcohol, the amount of attention given to the sight and smell of alcohol, and how much they were thinking of drinking. A 2 x 6 (type of drinker by VR room) repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on the responses to each question. After alcohol exposure, binge drinkers reported significantly higher cravings for and thoughts of alcohol than nonbinge drinkers, whereas differences between the groups following the neutral rooms were not significant.

  19. Retrospective cues based on object features improve visual working memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Amanda L; Duarte, Audrey; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Research with younger adults has shown that retrospective cues can be used to orient top-down attention toward relevant items in working memory. We examined whether older adults could take advantage of these cues to improve memory performance. Younger and older adults were presented with visual arrays of five colored shapes; during maintenance, participants were presented either with an informative cue based on an object feature (here, object shape or color) that would be probed, or with an uninformative, neutral cue. Although older adults were less accurate overall, both age groups benefited from the presentation of an informative, feature-based cue relative to a neutral cue. Surprisingly, we also observed differences in the effectiveness of shape versus color cues and their effects upon post-cue memory load. These results suggest that older adults can use top-down attention to remove irrelevant items from visual working memory, provided that task-relevant features function as cues.

  20. White sucker Catostomus commersonii respond to conspecific and sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus alarm cues but not potential predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordbro, Ethan J.; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Imre, Istvan; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies proposed the use of chemosensory alarm cues to control the distribution of invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes and necessitate the evaluation of sea lamprey chemosensory alarm cues on valuable sympatric species such as white sucker. In two laboratory experiments, 10 replicate groups (10 animals each) of migratory white suckers were exposed to deionized water (control), conspecific whole-body extract, heterospecific whole-body extract (sea lamprey) and two potential predator cues (2-phenylethylamine HCl (PEA HCl) and human saliva) during the day, and exposed to the first four of the above cues at night. White suckers avoided the conspecific and the sea lamprey whole-body extract both during the day and at night to the same extent. Human saliva did not induce avoidance during the day. PEA HCl did not induce avoidance at a higher concentration during the day, or at night at the minimum concentration that was previously shown to induce maximum avoidance by sea lamprey under laboratory conditions. Our findings suggest that human saliva and PEA HCl may be potential species-specific predator cues for sea lamprey.

  1. Multimodal cues improve prey localization under complex environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, F; Taylor, R C; Ryan, M J; Page, R A; Halfwerk, W

    2015-09-07

    Predators often eavesdrop on sexual displays of their prey. These displays can provide multimodal cues that aid predators, but the benefits in attending to them should depend on the environmental sensory conditions under which they forage. We assessed whether bats hunting for frogs use multimodal cues to locate their prey and whether their use varies with ambient conditions. We used a robotic set-up mimicking the sexual display of a male túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) to test prey assessment by fringe-lipped bats (Trachops cirrhosus). These predatory bats primarily use sound of the frog's call to find their prey, but the bats also use echolocation cues returning from the frog's dynamically moving vocal sac. In the first experiment, we show that multimodal cues affect attack behaviour: bats made narrower flank attack angles on multimodal trials compared with unimodal trials during which they could only rely on the sound of the frog. In the second experiment, we explored the bat's use of prey cues in an acoustically more complex environment. Túngara frogs often form mixed-species choruses with other frogs, including the hourglass frog (Dendropsophus ebraccatus). Using a multi-speaker set-up, we tested bat approaches and attacks on the robofrog under three different levels of acoustic complexity: no calling D. ebraccatus males, two calling D. ebraccatus males and five D. ebraccatus males. We found that bats are more directional in their approach to the robofrog when more D. ebraccatus males were calling. Thus, bats seemed to benefit more from multimodal cues when confronted with increased levels of acoustic complexity in their foraging environments. Our data have important consequences for our understanding of the evolution of multimodal sexual displays as they reveal how environmental conditions can alter the natural selection pressures acting on them. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Cue reactivity and its inhibition in pathological computer game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Robert C; Krüger, Jenny-Kathinka; Neumann, Britta; Schott, Björn H; Kaufmann, Christian; Heinz, Andreas; Wüstenberg, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Despite a rising social relevance of pathological computer game playing, it remains unclear whether the neurobiological basis of this addiction-like behavioral disorder and substance-related addiction are comparable. In substance-related addiction, attentional bias and cue reactivity are often observed. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance study using a dot probe paradigm with short-presentation (attentional bias) and long-presentation (cue reactivity) trials in eight male pathological computer game players (PCGPs) and nine healthy controls (HCs). Computer game-related and neutral computer-generated pictures, as well as pictures from the International Affective Picture System with positive and neutral valence, served as stimuli. PCGPs showed an attentional bias toward both game-related and affective stimuli with positive valence. In contrast, HCs showed no attentional bias effect at all. PCGPs showed stronger brain responses in short-presentation trials compared with HCs in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and anterior cingulate gyrus and in long-presentation trials in lingual gyrus. In an exploratory post hoc functional connectivity analyses, for long-presentation trials, connectivity strength was higher between right inferior frontal gyrus, which was associated with inhibition processing in previous studies, and cue reactivity-related regions (left orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum) in PCGPs. We observed behavioral and neural effects in PCGPs, which are comparable with those found in substance-related addiction. However, cue-related brain responses were depending on duration of cue presentation. Together with the connectivity result, these findings suggest that top-down inhibitory processes might suppress the cue reactivity-related neural activity in long-presentation trials. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Motor Training: Comparison of Visual and Auditory Coded Proprioceptive Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Jepson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-perception of body posture and movement is achieved through multi-sensory integration, particularly the utilisation of vision, and proprioceptive information derived from muscles and joints. Disruption to these processes can occur following a neurological accident, such as stroke, leading to sensory and physical impairment. Rehabilitation can be helped through use of augmented visual and auditory biofeedback to stimulate neuro-plasticity, but the effective design and application of feedback, particularly in the auditory domain, is non-trivial. Simple auditory feedback was tested by comparing the stepping accuracy of normal subjects when given a visual spatial target (step length and an auditory temporal target (step duration. A baseline measurement of step length and duration was taken using optical motion capture. Subjects (n=20 took 20 ‘training’ steps (baseline ±25% using either an auditory target (950 Hz tone, bell-shaped gain envelope or visual target (spot marked on the floor and were then asked to replicate the target step (length or duration corresponding to training with all feedback removed. Visual cues (mean percentage error=11.5%; SD ± 7.0%; auditory cues (mean percentage error = 12.9%; SD ± 11.8%. Visual cues elicit a high degree of accuracy both in training and follow-up un-cued tasks; despite the novelty of the auditory cues present for subjects, the mean accuracy of subjects approached that for visual cues, and initial results suggest a limited amount of practice using auditory cues can improve performance.

  4. Reconciling sensory cues and varied consequences of avian repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Scott J; Provenza, Frederick D

    2011-02-01

    We learned previously that red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) use affective processes to shift flavor preference, and cognitive associations (colors) to avoid food, subsequent to avoidance conditioning. We conducted three experiments with captive red-winged blackbirds to reconcile varied consequences of treated food with conditioned sensory cues. In Experiment 1, we compared food avoidance conditioned with lithium chloride (LiCl) or naloxone hydrochloride (NHCl) to evaluate cue-consequence specificity. All blackbirds conditioned with LiCl (gastrointestinal toxin) avoided the color (red) and flavor (NaCl) of food experienced during conditioning; birds conditioned with NHCl (opioid antagonist) avoided only the color (not the flavor) of food subsequent to conditioning. In Experiment 2, we conditioned experimentally naïve blackbirds using free choice of colored (red) and flavored (NaCl) food paired with an anthraquinone- (postingestive, cathartic purgative), methiocarb- (postingestive, cholinesterase inhibitor), or methyl anthranilate-based repellent (preingestive, trigeminal irritant). Birds conditioned with the postingestive repellents avoided the color and flavor of foods experienced during conditioning; methyl anthranilate conditioned only color (not flavor) avoidance. In Experiment 3, we used a third group of blackbirds to evaluate effects of novel comparison cues (blue, citric acid) subsequent to conditioning with red and NaCl paired with anthraquinone or methiocarb. Birds conditioned with the postingestive repellents did not avoid conditioned color or flavor cues when novel comparison cues were presented during the test. Thus, blackbirds cognitively associate pre- and postingestive consequences with visual cues, and reliably integrate visual and gustatory experience with postingestive consequences to procure nutrients and avoid toxins. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Selective integration of auditory-visual looming cues by humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappe, Céline; Thut, Gregor; Romei, Vincenzo; Murray, Micah M

    2009-03-01

    An object's motion relative to an observer can confer ethologically meaningful information. Approaching or looming stimuli can signal threats/collisions to be avoided or prey to be confronted, whereas receding stimuli can signal successful escape or failed pursuit. Using movement detection and subjective ratings, we investigated the multisensory integration of looming and receding auditory and visual information by humans. While prior research has demonstrated a perceptual bias for unisensory and more recently multisensory looming stimuli, none has investigated whether there is integration of looming signals between modalities. Our findings reveal selective integration of multisensory looming stimuli. Performance was significantly enhanced for looming stimuli over all other multisensory conditions. Contrasts with static multisensory conditions indicate that only multisensory looming stimuli resulted in facilitation beyond that induced by the sheer presence of auditory-visual stimuli. Controlling for variation in physical energy replicated the advantage for multisensory looming stimuli. Finally, only looming stimuli exhibited a negative linear relationship between enhancement indices for detection speed and for subjective ratings. Maximal detection speed was attained when motion perception was already robust under unisensory conditions. The preferential integration of multisensory looming stimuli highlights that complex ethologically salient stimuli likely require synergistic cooperation between existing principles of multisensory integration. A new conceptualization of the neurophysiologic mechanisms mediating real-world multisensory perceptions and action is therefore supported.

  6. Perception of binaural cues develops in children who are deaf through bilateral cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Karen A; Deighton, Michael R; Abbasalipour, Parvaneh; Papsin, Blake C

    2014-01-01

    There are significant challenges to restoring binaural hearing to children who have been deaf from an early age. The uncoordinated and poor temporal information available from cochlear implants distorts perception of interaural timing differences normally important for sound localization and listening in noise. Moreover, binaural development can be compromised by bilateral and unilateral auditory deprivation. Here, we studied perception of both interaural level and timing differences in 79 children/adolescents using bilateral cochlear implants and 16 peers with normal hearing. They were asked on which side of their head they heard unilaterally or bilaterally presented click- or electrical pulse- trains. Interaural level cues were identified by most participants including adolescents with long periods of unilateral cochlear implant use and little bilateral implant experience. Interaural timing cues were not detected by new bilateral adolescent users, consistent with previous evidence. Evidence of binaural timing detection was, for the first time, found in children who had much longer implant experience but it was marked by poorer than normal sensitivity and abnormally strong dependence on current level differences between implants. In addition, children with prior unilateral implant use showed a higher proportion of responses to their first implanted sides than children implanted simultaneously. These data indicate that there are functional repercussions of developing binaural hearing through bilateral cochlear implants, particularly when provided sequentially; nonetheless, children have an opportunity to use these devices to hear better in noise and gain spatial hearing.

  7. Arthropods Associate with their Red Wood ant Host without Matching Nestmate Recognition Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Thomas; Dekoninck, Wouter; Wenseleers, Tom

    2017-07-01

    Social insect colonies provide a valuable resource that attracts and offers shelter to a large community of arthropods. Previous research has suggested that many specialist parasites of social insects chemically mimic their host in order to evade aggression. In the present study, we carry out a systematic study to test how common such chemical deception is across a group of 22 arthropods that are associated with red wood ants (Formica rufa group). In contrast to the examples of chemical mimicry documented in some highly specialized parasites in previous studies, we find that most of the rather unspecialized red wood ant associates surveyed did not use mimicry of the cuticular hydrocarbon recognition cues to evade host detection. Instead, we found that myrmecophiles with lower cuticular hydrocarbon concentrations provoked less host aggression. Therefore, some myrmecophiles with low hydrocarbon concentrations appear to evade host detection via a strategy known as chemical insignificance. Others showed no chemical disguise at all and, instead, relied on behavioral adaptations such as particular defense or evasion tactics, in order to evade host aggression. Overall, this study indicates that unspecialized myrmecophiles do not require the matching of host recognition cues and advanced strategies of chemical mimicry, but can integrate in a hostile ant nest via either chemical insignificance or specific behavioral adaptations.

  8. CONSUMER EVALUATIONS OF BEAUTIFICATION PRODUCTS: EFFECTS OF EXTRINSIC CUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Humayun Kabir Chowdhury

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of extrinsic cues, i.e. brand image, perceived price, perceived quality, and perceived country of origin on consumers' evaluative judgments for beautification products. Multi-item measures were used for data collection. Resultsrevealed that three extrinsic cues: brand image, perceived quality, and perceived country of origin have positive and significant influence on consumers' brand evaluation of beautification brands. Only perceived price has shown no such influence on consumers' brand evaluation. Finally, unanswered questions and future researchdirections are presented.

  9. Cognitive control modulates attention to food cues: Support for the control readiness model of self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Tali; Trope, Yaacov; Amodio, David M

    2016-12-01

    Self-control in one's food choices often depends on the regulation of attention toward healthy choices and away from temptations. We tested whether selective attention to food cues can be modulated by a newly developed proactive self-control mechanism-control readiness-whereby control activated in one domain can facilitate control in another domain. In two studies, we elicited the activation of control using a color-naming Stroop task and tested its effect on attention to food cues in a subsequent, unrelated task. We found that control readiness modulates both overt attention, which involves shifts in eye gaze (Study 1), and covert attention, which involves shift in mental attention without shifting in eye gaze (Study 2). We further demonstrated that individuals for whom tempting food cues signal a self-control problem (operationalized by relatively higher BMI) were especially likely to benefit from control readiness. We discuss the theoretical contributions of the control readiness model and the implications of our findings for enhancing proactive self-control to overcome temptation in food choices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vividness of visual imagery and incidental recall of verbal cues, when phenomenological availability reflects long-term memory accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Runge, Matthew; Faulkner, Andrew; Zakizadeh, Jila; Chan, Aldrich; Morcos, Selvana

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between vivid visual mental images and unexpected recall (incidental recall) was replicated, refined, and extended. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate mental images from imagery-evoking verbal cues (controlled on several verbal properties) and then, on a trial-by-trial basis, rate the vividness of their images; 30 min later, participants were surprised with a task requiring free recall of the cues. Higher vividness ratings predicted better incidental recall of the cues than individual differences (whose effect was modest). Distributional analysis of image latencies through ex-Gaussian modeling showed an inverse relation between vividness and latency. However, recall was unrelated to image latency. The follow-up Experiment 2 showed that the processes underlying trial-by-trial vividness ratings are unrelated to the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ), as further supported by a meta-analysis of a randomly selected sample of relevant literature. The present findings suggest that vividness may act as an index of availability of long-term sensory traces, playing a non-epiphenomenal role in facilitating the access of those memories.

  11. Vividness of visual imagery and incidental recall of verbal cues, when phenomenological availability reflects long-term memory accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo eD'Angiulli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vivid visual mental images and unexpected recall (incidental recall was replicated, refined and extended. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate mental images from imagery-evoking verbal-cues (controlled on several verbal properties and then, on a trial-by-trial basis, rate the vividness of their images; thirty minutes later, participants were surprised with a task requiring free recall of the cues. Higher vividness ratings predicted better incidental recall of the cues than individual differences (whose effect was modest. Distributional analysis of image latencies through ex-Gaussian modeling showed an inverse relation between vividness and latency. However, recall was unrelated to image latency. The follow-up Experiment 2 showed that the processes underlying trial-by-trial vividness ratings are unrelated to the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ, as further supported by a meta-analysis of a randomly selected sample of relevant literature. The present findings suggest that vividness may act as an index of availability of long-term sensory traces, playing a non-epiphenomenal role in facilitating the access of those memories.

  12. Cue-Reactive Altered State of Consciousness Mediates the Relationship Between Problem-Gambling Severity and Cue-Reactive Urge in Poker-Machine Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Christopher; Rock, Adam J; Clark, Gavin I

    2016-06-01

    In order to enhance our understanding of the nature of poker-machine problem-gambling, a community sample of 37 poker-machine gamblers (M age = 32 years, M PGSI = 5; PGSI = Problem Gambling Severity Index) were assessed for urge to gamble (responses on a visual analogue scale) and altered state of consciousness (assessed by the Altered State of Awareness dimension of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory) at baseline, after a neutral cue, and after a gambling cue. It was found that (a) problem-gambling severity (PGSI score) predicted increase in urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue, controlling for baseline; sr (2) = .19, p = .006) and increase in altered state of consciousness (from neutral cue to gambling cue, controlling for baseline; sr (2) = .57, p gambling cue) mediated the relationship between problem-gambling severity and increase in urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue; κ(2) = .40, 99 % CI [.08, .71]). These findings suggest that cue-reactive altered state of consciousness is an important component of cue-reactive urge in poker-machine problem-gamblers.

  13. Dopamine D3 Receptors Modulate the Ability of Win-Paired Cues to Increase Risky Choice in a Rat Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrus, Michael M; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2016-01-20

    with elevated addiction susceptibility. Choice on the cued task was uniquely sensitive to modulation by D3 receptor ligands, yet these drugs did not alter decision making on the uncued task. The relatively unprecedented sensitivity of choice on the cued task to D3-receptor-mediated neurotransmission data suggest that similar neurobiological processes underlie the ability of cues to both bias animals toward risky options and facilitate drug addiction. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/360785-10$15.00/0.

  14. Learning to Facilitate (Online) Meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    We describe an approach to teaching collaboration skills directly by building on competences for meeting facilitation. (Online) meetings provide a rich arena to practice collaboration since they can serve multiple purposes: learning, problem solving, decision making, idea generation and advancement...

  15. Trade facilitation: a conceptual review

    OpenAIRE

    Grainger, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    With falling tariff levels, it is probably not surprising that the non-tariff area and trade facilitation, in particular, are receiving growing attention. Apart from the World Trade Organization (WTO), trade facilitation is a subject of substance within a wide range of international organizations including several United Nations (UN)-type bodies, the World Customs Organization (WCO) as well as those concerned with economic development, supply chain security, and sector-specific issues such as...

  16. Non-24-Hour Disorder in Blind Individuals Revisited: Variability and the Influence of Environmental Time Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emens, Jonathan S; Laurie, Amber L; Songer, Jeannie B; Lewy, Alfred J

    2013-07-01

    To assess the interindividual and intraindividual variability in the circadian rhythms of blind individuals with non-24-h disorder and to quantify the influence of environmental time cues in blind subjects lacking entrainment (non-24-h individuals or N-24s). An observational study of 21 N-24s (11 females and 10 males, age 9-78 years) who kept a sleep/wake schedule of their choosing. Circadian phase was determined using the melatonin onset (MO) from plasma or saliva samples that were collected every 2 weeks. Melatonin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. A total of 469 MO assessments were conducted over 5,536 days of study. The rate of drift of circadian phase was calculated using a series of MOs (total number of hours the MO drifted divided by the total number of days studied). Stability of the rest/activity rhythm was calculated using chi-squared periodogram analysis of wrist actigraphy data in 19 subjects. Academic medical center. Paid volunteers. N/A. Subjects lacked entrainment such that circadian phase drifted an average (± standard deviation) of 0.39 ± 0.29 h later per day; however, there was notable intersubject and intrasubject variability in the rate of drift including relative coordination and periods of transient entrainment during which there was little to no drift in the circadian phase. A regular, reproducible, and significant oscillation in the rate of drift was detected in 14 of the 21 subjects. A significant non-24-h rest/activity rhythm was detected in 18 of 19 subjects. There was a strong correlation (r = 0.793, P = 0.0001) between the non-24-h rest/activity rhythm and the rate of drift of the circadian phase. Most N-24s are influenced by unidentified environmental time cues and the non-entrained biological clock in such N-24s is reflected in their rest/activity rhythms. These findings may have diagnostic and treatment implications: this disorder might be diagnosed with actigraphy alone, relative coordination and transient

  17. Further explorations of the facing bias in biological motion perception: perspective cues, observer sex, and response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Ben; Davila, Alex; Verfaillie, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The human visual system has evolved to be highly sensitive to visual information about other persons and their movements as is illustrated by the effortless perception of point-light figures or 'biological motion'. When presented orthographically, a point-light walker is interpreted in two anatomically plausible ways: As 'facing the viewer' or as 'facing away' from the viewer. However, human observers show a 'facing bias': They perceive such a point-light walker as facing towards them in about 70-80% of the cases. In studies exploring the role of social and biological relevance as a possible account for the facing bias, we found a 'figure gender effect': Male point-light figures elicit a stronger facing bias than female point-light figures. Moreover, we also found an 'observer gender effect': The 'figure gender effect' was stronger for male than for female observers. In the present study we presented to 11 males and 11 females point-light walkers of which, very subtly, the perspective information was manipulated by modifying the earlier reported 'perspective technique'. Proportions of 'facing the viewer' responses and reaction times were recorded. Results show that human observers, even in the absence of local shape or size cues, easily pick up on perspective cues, confirming recent demonstrations of high visual sensitivity to cues on whether another person is potentially approaching. We also found a consistent difference in how male and female observers respond to stimulus variations (figure gender or perspective cues) that cause variations in the perceived in-depth orientation of a point-light walker. Thus, the 'figure gender effect' is possibly caused by changes in the relative locations and motions of the dots that the perceptual system tends to interpret as perspective cues. Third, reaction time measures confirmed the existence of the facing bias and recent research showing faster detection of approaching than receding biological motion.

  18. Further explorations of the facing bias in biological motion perception: perspective cues, observer sex, and response times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Schouten

    Full Text Available The human visual system has evolved to be highly sensitive to visual information about other persons and their movements as is illustrated by the effortless perception of point-light figures or 'biological motion'. When presented orthographically, a point-light walker is interpreted in two anatomically plausible ways: As 'facing the viewer' or as 'facing away' from the viewer. However, human observers show a 'facing bias': They perceive such a point-light walker as facing towards them in about 70-80% of the cases. In studies exploring the role of social and biological relevance as a possible account for the facing bias, we found a 'figure gender effect': Male point-light figures elicit a stronger facing bias than female point-light figures. Moreover, we also found an 'observer gender effect': The 'figure gender effect' was stronger for male than for female observers. In the present study we presented to 11 males and 11 females point-light walkers of which, very subtly, the perspective information was manipulated by modifying the earlier reported 'perspective technique'. Proportions of 'facing the viewer' responses and reaction times were recorded. Results show that human observers, even in the absence of local shape or size cues, easily pick up on perspective cues, confirming recent demonstrations of high visual sensitivity to cues on whether another person is potentially approaching. We also found a consistent difference in how male and female observers respond to stimulus variations (figure gender or perspective cues that cause variations in the perceived in-depth orientation of a point-light walker. Thus, the 'figure gender effect' is possibly caused by changes in the relative locations and motions of the dots that the perceptual system tends to interpret as perspective cues. Third, reaction time measures confirmed the existence of the facing bias and recent research showing faster detection of approaching than receding biological motion.

  19. A semelparous fish continues upstream migration when exposed to alarm cue, but adjusts movement speed and timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhring, Thomas M; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Hume, John B.; Wagner, C. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Animals make trade-offs between predation risk and pursuit of opportunities such as foraging and reproduction. Trade-offs between antipredator behaviours and foraging are well suited to manipulation in laboratory and field settings and have generated a vast compendium of knowledge. However, much less is known about how animals manage trade-offs between predation risk and pursuit of reproductive opportunities in the absence of the confounding effects of foraging. In the present study, we investigated how the nonfeeding migratory life stage of sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, responds to odour from dead conspecifics (a cue that induces avoidance behaviours in laboratory and field studies). We released groups of PIT-tagged sea lamprey 65 m from the shore of Lake Michigan or 287 m upstream in Carp Lake River and used antennas to detect their movements in the river. As the breeding season progressed, sea lamprey initiated upstream movement earlier and were more likely to enter the river. Sea lamprey that began the night in Lake Michigan entered Carp Lake River at higher rates and accelerated upstream when exposed to high concentrations of alarm cue, consistent with animals attempting to minimize time spent in risky areas. Sea lampreys that began the night in the river delayed upstream movement when exposed to alarm cue, consistent with animals sheltering and gathering information about a source of risk. We attribute this context-specific reaction to alarm cue to differences in perceived vulnerability to predation in sheltered positions in the river versus exposed positions in the lake. Once in the river, the vast majority of sea lamprey moved upstream independent of alarm cue or Julian date. Although life-history-induced time and energy budgets place rigid constraints on the direction of migration, sea lamprey attend to predation risk by modifying movement timing and speed.

  20. Implicit prosody and cue-based retrieval: L1 and L2 agreement and comprehension during reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pratt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This project focuses on structural and prosodic effects during reading, examining their influence on agreement processing and comprehension in native English (L1 and Spanish-English bilingual (L2 speakers. We consolidate research from several distinct areas of inquiry—cognitive processing, reading fluency, and L1/L2 processing—in order to support the integration of prosody with a cue-based retrieval mechanism for subject-verb agreement.To explore this proposal, the experimental design manipulated text presentation to influence implicit prosody, using sentences designed to induce subject-verb agreement attraction errors. Materials included simple and complex relative clauses with head nouns and verbs that were either matched or mismatched for number. Participants read items in one of three presentation formats (whole sentence, word-by-word, or phrase-by-phrase, rated each item for grammaticality, and responded to a comprehension probe. Results indicated that while overall, message comprehension was prioritized over subject-verb agreement computation, presentation format differentially affected both measures in the L1 and L2 groups. For the L1 participants, facilitating the projection of phrasal prosody onto text (phrase-by-phrase presentation enhanced performance in agreement processing, while disrupting prosodic projection via word-by-word presentation decreased comprehension accuracy. For the L2 participants however, phrase-by-phrase presentation was not significantly beneficial for agreement processing, and also resulted in lower comprehension accuracy. These differences point to a significant role of prosodic phrasing during agreement processing in both L1 and L2 speakers, additionally suggesting that it may contribute to a cue-based retrieval agreement model, either acting as a cue directly, or otherwise scaffolding the retrieval process. The discussion and results presented provide support both for a cue-based retrieval mechanism in

  1. Gaze-cueing effect depends on facial expression of emotion in 9- to 12-month-old infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja eNiedźwiecka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient processing of gaze direction and facial expression of emotion is crucial for early social and emotional development. Towards the end of the first year of life infants begin to pay more attention to negative expressions, but it remains unclear to what extent emotion expression is processed jointly with gaze direction at this age. This study sought to establish the interactions of gaze direction and emotion expression in visual orienting in 9- to 12-month-olds. In particular, we tested whether these interactions can be explained by the negativity bias hypothesis and the shared signal hypothesis. We measured saccadic latencies in response to peripheral targets in a gaze-cueing paradigm with happy, angry, and fearful female faces. In the Pilot Experiment three gaze directions were used (direct, congruent with target location, incongruent with target location. In the Main Experiment we sought to replicate the results of the Pilot experiment using a simpler design without the direct gaze condition. In both experiments we found a robust gaze-cueing effect for happy faces, i.e. facilitation of orienting towards the target in the gaze-cued location, compared with the gaze-incongruent location. We found more rapid orienting to targets cued by happy relative to angry and fearful faces. We did not find any gaze-cueing effect for angry or fearful faces. These results are not consistent with the shared signal hypothesis. While our results show differential processing of positive and negative emotions, they do not support a general negativity bias. On the contrary, they indicate that towards the age of 12 months infants show a positivity bias in gaze-cueing tasks.

  2. The Use of Virtual Reality in Craving Assessment and Cue-Exposure Therapy in Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Wensing, Tobias; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs) and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist; however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse. Current behavioral therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioral training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality (VR) is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practices new skills in treatment. VR enhances ecological validity of traditional craving-induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from (1) studies using VR and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and (2) studies combining cue-exposure therapy with VR in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug-seeking behaviors and peer pressure. Findings indicate that VR can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue–exposure therapy with virtual environment, however, reported mitigated success so far. PMID:25368571

  3. Evidence for greater cue reactivity among low-dependent vs. high-dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Noreen L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2010-07-01

    Cue reactivity paradigms are well-established laboratory procedures used to examine subjective craving in response to substance-related cues. For smokers, the relationship between nicotine dependence and cue reactivity has not been clearly established. The main aim of the present study was to further examine this relationship. Participants (N=90) were between the ages 18-40 and smoked > or =10 cigarettes per day. Average nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; FTND) at baseline was 4.9 (SD=2.1). Participants completed four cue reactivity sessions consisting of two in vivo cues (smoking and neutral) and two affective imagery cues (stressful and relaxed), all counterbalanced. Craving in response to cues was assessed following each cue exposure using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-B). Differential cue reactivity was operationally defined as the difference in QSU scores between the smoking and neutral cues, and between the stressful and relaxed cues. Nicotine dependence was significantly and negatively associated with differential cue reactivity scores in regard to hedonic craving (QSU factor 1) for both in vivo and imagery cues, such that those who had low FTND scores demonstrated greater differential cue reactivity than those with higher FTND scores (beta=-.082; p=.037; beta=-.101; p=.023, respectively). Similar trends were found for the Total QSU and for negative reinforcement craving (QSU factor 2), but did not reach statistical significance. Under partially sated conditions, less dependent smokers may be more differentially cue reactive to smoking cues as compared to heavily dependent smokers. These findings offer methodological and interpretative implications for cue reactivity studies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence for greater cue reactivity among low dependent vs. high dependent smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Noreen L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Saladin, Michael E.; Gray, Kevin M.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Cue reactivity paradigms are well-established laboratory procedures used to examine subjective craving in response to substance-related cues. For smokers, the relationship between nicotine dependence and cue reactivity has not been clearly established. The main aim of the present study was to further examine this relationship. Methods Participants (N=90) were between the ages 18–40 and smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day. Average nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; FTND) at baseline was 4.9 (SD=2.1). Participants completed four cue reactivity sessions consisting of two in vivo cues (smoking, neutral) and two affective imagery cues (stressful, relaxed), all counterbalanced. Craving in response to cues was assessed following each cue exposure using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges—Brief (QSU-B). Differential cue reactivity was operationally defined as the difference in QSU scores between the smoking and neutral cues, and between the stressful and relaxed cues. Results Nicotine dependence was significantly and negatively associated with differential cue reactivity scores in regards to hedonic craving (QSU factor 1) for both in vivo and imagery cues, such that those who had low FTND scores demonstrated greater differential cue reactivity than those with higher FTND scores (β = −.082; p = .037; β = −.101; p = .023, respectively). Similar trends were found for the total QSU and for negative reinforcement craving (QSU factor 2), but did not reach statistical significance. Discussion Under partially sated conditions, less dependent smokers may be more differentially cue reactive to smoking cues as compared to heavily dependent smokers. These findings offer methodological and interpretative implications for cue reactivity studies. PMID:20206451

  5. Do environmental cues prompt attempts to stop smoking? A prospective natural history study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John R; Naud, Shelly; Fingar, James R; Callas, Peter W; Solomon, Laura J

    2015-09-01

    We prospectively tested whether environmental cues prompts attempts to stop smoking. We recruited 134 smokers who intended to quit in the next 3 months to complete nightly calls to report cues as well as smoking status, intentions to smoke or not on the next day, and quit attempts over 12 weeks. We provided no treatment. Participants averaged 6.5 cues/week. The most common cues were embarrassment, cost of cigarettes and messages in the media. The number of cues over a 7-day period predicted the incidence of a quit attempt on the eighth day (e.g. from 1.5% when no cues occurred to 3% when 7 cues occurred during the 7 days). This effect was dose-dependent and was due to both between and within-subject predictors. Five cues predicted quit attempts. A cue that made smokers concerned about the cost of cigarettes appeared to be the strongest cue. Cues on the day prior were not more powerful predictors than more distal cues. Intention to not smoke the next day on the evening prior to the eighth day was a partial mediator of the effect of cues on quit attempts. Retrospective recall of cues was poor. Our results suggest the occurrence of cues may be a cause of quit attempts and that programs to increase the frequency of cues may increase quit attempts. Further research should examine whether environmental cues and introspective states (e.g. self-efficacy) interact to prompt quit attempts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards

  7. Does predictability matter? Effects of cue predictability on neurocognitive mechanisms underlying Prospective Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia eCona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Prospective memory (PM represents the ability to successfully realize intentions when the appropriate moment or cue occurs. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs to explore the impact of cue predictability on the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting PM. Participants performed an ongoing task and, simultaneously, had to remember to execute a pre-specified action when they encountered the PM cues. The occurrence of the PM cues was predictable (being signalled by a warning cue for some participants and was completely unpredictable for others. In the predictable cue condition, the behavioural and ERP correlates of strategic monitoring were observed mainly in the ongoing trials wherein the PM cue was expected. In the unpredictable cue condition they were instead shown throughout the whole PM block. This pattern of results suggests that, in the predictable cue condition, participants engaged monitoring only when subjected to a context wherein the PM cue was expected, and disengaged monitoring when the PM cue was not expected. Conversely, participants in the unpredictable cue condition distributed their resources for strategic monitoring in more continuous manner. The findings of this study support the most recent views – the ‘Dynamic Multiprocess Framework’ and the ‘Attention to Delayed Intention’ (AtoDI model – confirming that strategic monitoring is a flexible mechanism that is recruited mainly when a PM cue is expected and that may interact with bottom-up spontaneous processes.

  8. Reinforcing Visual Grouping Cues to Communicate Complex Informational Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Juhee; Watson, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    In his book Multimedia Learning [7], Richard Mayer asserts that viewers learn best from imagery that provides them with cues to help them organize new information into the correct knowledge structures. Designers have long been exploiting the Gestalt laws of visual grouping to deliver viewers those cues using visual hierarchy, often communicating structures much more complex than the simple organizations studied in psychological research. Unfortunately, designers are largely practical in their work, and have not paused to build a complex theory of structural communication. If we are to build a tool to help novices create effective and well structured visuals, we need a better understanding of how to create them. Our work takes a first step toward addressing this lack, studying how five of the many grouping cues (proximity, color similarity, common region, connectivity, and alignment) can be effectively combined to communicate structured text and imagery from real world examples. To measure the effectiveness of this structural communication, we applied a digital version of card sorting, a method widely used in anthropology and cognitive science to extract cognitive structures. We then used tree edit distance to measure the difference between perceived and communicated structures. Our most significant findings are: 1) with careful design, complex structure can be communicated clearly; 2) communicating complex structure is best done with multiple reinforcing grouping cues; 3) common region (use of containers such as boxes) is particularly effective at communicating structure; and 4) alignment is a weak structural communicator.

  9. Eating by example. Effects of environmental cues on dietary decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, S.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Vet, de E.W.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present studies examined the role of environmental cues in steering people’s dietary decisions in response to food temptations. Based on the notion that people show a tendency to conform to eating standards derived from the eating behavior of others, it was hypothesized that

  10. Eating by Example: Effects of Environmental Cues on Dietary Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369408217; de Ridder, D.T.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070706174; De Vet, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290924197

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present studies examined the role of environmental cues in steering people’s dietary decisions in response to food temptations. Based on the notion that people show a tendency to conform to eating standards derived from the eating behavior of others, it was hypothesized that

  11. Multimodal integration: Visual cues helps odor-seeking fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown that integration of sensory modalities is critical to the process of odor-source location. Attractive food odors initiate flies’ response to visual cues to maintain narrow angle turns with respect to the wind line; loss of odor contact due to idiothetic motion or experimen...

  12. Developmental differences in the brain response to unhealthy food cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van Floor; Laan, van der Laura N.; Charbonnier, Lisette; Viergever, Max A.; Adan, Roger A.H.; Smeets, Paul A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food cues are omnipresent and may trigger overconsumption. In the past 2 decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically. Because children's brains are still developing, especially in areas important for inhibition, children may be more susceptible than adults

  13. Social influence on metacognitive evaluations: The power of nonverbal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Terry; Montalan, Benoît; Jacquot, Amélie; Proust, Joëlle; Grèzes, Julie; Conty, Laurence

    2016-11-01

    Metacognitive evaluations refer to the processes by which people assess their own cognitive operations with respect to their current goal. Little is known about whether this process is susceptible to social influence. Here we investigate whether nonverbal social signals spontaneously influence metacognitive evaluations. Participants performed a two-alternative forced-choice task, which was followed by a face randomly gazing towards or away from the response chosen by the participant. Participants then provided a metacognitive evaluation of their response by rating their confidence in their answer. In Experiment 1, the participants were told that the gaze direction was irrelevant to the task purpose and were advised to ignore it. The results revealed an effect of implicit social information on confidence ratings even though the gaze direction was random and therefore unreliable for task purposes. In addition, nonsocial cues (car) did not elicit this effect. In Experiment 2, the participants were led to believe that cue direction (face or car) reflected a previous participant's response to the same question-that is, the social information provided by the cue was made explicit, yet still objectively unreliable for the task. The results showed a similar social influence on confidence ratings, observed with both cues (car and face) but with an increased magnitude relative to Experiment 1. We additionally showed in Experiment 2 that social information impaired metacognitive accuracy. Together our results strongly suggest an involuntary susceptibility of metacognitive evaluations to nonverbal social information, even when it is implicit (Experiment 1) and unreliable (Experiments 1 and 2).

  14. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundelin, T.; Lekander, M.; Kecklund, G.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Olsson, A.; Axelsson, J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Design: Experimental laboratory study. Setting: Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants: Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial

  15. Cues to Intention: The Role of Movement Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Luisa; Becchio, Cristina; Castiello, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    Body movement provides a rich source of cues about other people's goals and intentions. In the present research, we investigate how well people can distinguish between different social intentions on the basis of movement information. Participants observed a model reaching toward and grasping a wooden block with the intent to cooperate with a…

  16. Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gucht, D.; Vansteenwegen, D.; Van den Bergh, O.; Beckers, T.

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task.

  17. Treatment of Dental Anxiety by Cue-Controlled Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Frank M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Women, self-referred for dental anxiety, were given four weeks of cue-controlled relaxation treatment. Nonorthogonal planned comparisons indicated significant decreases on dental anxiety, anxiety differential, and state anxiety scales, and systolic blood pressure. Participants reported that treatment was helpful in controlling anxiety when…

  18. Acquisition of Conditioning between Methamphetamine and Cues in Healthy Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel S Cavallo

    Full Text Available Environmental stimuli repeatedly paired with drugs of abuse can elicit conditioned responses that are thought to promote future drug seeking. We recently showed that healthy volunteers acquired conditioned responses to auditory and visual stimuli after just two pairings with methamphetamine (MA, 20 mg, oral. This study extended these findings by systematically varying the number of drug-stimuli pairings. We expected that more pairings would result in stronger conditioning. Three groups of healthy adults were randomly assigned to receive 1, 2 or 4 pairings (Groups P1, P2 and P4, Ns = 13, 16, 16, respectively of an auditory-visual stimulus with MA, and another stimulus with placebo (PBO. Drug-cue pairings were administered in an alternating, counterbalanced order, under double-blind conditions, during 4 hr sessions. MA produced prototypic subjective effects (mood, ratings of drug effects and alterations in physiology (heart rate, blood pressure. Although subjects did not exhibit increased behavioral preference for, or emotional reactivity to, the MA-paired cue after conditioning, they did exhibit an increase in attentional bias (initial gaze toward the drug-paired stimulus. Further, subjects who had four pairings reported "liking" the MA-paired cue more than the PBO cue after conditioning. Thus, the number of drug-stimulus pairings, varying from one to four, had only modest effects on the strength of conditioned responses. Further studies investigating the parameters under which drug conditioning occurs will help to identify risk factors for developing drug abuse, and provide new treatment strategies.

  19. Task-specific visual cues for improving process model understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusel, Razvan; Mendling, Jan; Reijers,