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Sample records for ct clot formation

  1. Synthetic Hormones and Clot Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Albe C; Visagie, Amcois; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2016-08-01

    Combined oral contraceptives (COCs), colloquially referred to as "the pill," have been regarded as a medical breakthrough, as they have improved the lives of countless women, from simplifying family planning to the treatment of acne, endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and dysmenorrhea. Unfortunately, COC usage has been associated with an increased occurrence of venous thrombosis and therefore a systemic hypercoagulable state in susceptible females. Here we discuss the health risks of COC usage and use viscoelastic and morphological techniques to investigate the effect of different COC constituents on clot formation, particularly fibrin network packaging and whole blood viscoelasticity. Viscoelastic properties of whole blood showed gender-specific changes while morphological alterations were person-specific, regardless of gender. Using scanning electron microscopy and thromboelastography provides great insight regarding fibrin packaging and the development of a hypercoagulable state in high-risk individuals. We proposed a three-step approach where (1) an individual's coagulation profile baseline is determined, after which (2) the "ideal" combination of constituents is prescribed, and (3) the coagulation profile of the individual is monitored to assess possible risk of thrombosis. Only in following such an individualized patient-oriented approach will we be able to avoid the many health issues due to COC usage in susceptible females.

  2. In Vivo Quantification of Clot Formation in Extracorporeal Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    David, Omid

    2012-01-01

    Clot formation is a common complication in extracorporeal circuits. In this paper we describe a novel method for clot formation analysis using image processing. We assembled a closed extracorporeal circuit and circulated blood at varying speeds. Blood filters were placed in downstream of the flow, and clotting agents were added to the circuit. Digital images of the filter were subsequently taken, and image analysis was applied to calculate the density of the clot. Our results show a significant correlation between the cumulative size of the clots, the density measure of the clot based on image analysis, and flow duration in the system.

  3. Zinc promotes clot stability by accelerating clot formation and modifying fibrin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sara J; Xia, Jing; Wu, Huayin; Stafford, Alan R; Leslie, Beverly A; Fredenburgh, James C; Weitz, David A; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2016-03-01

    Zinc released from activated platelets binds fibrin(ogen) and attenuates fibrinolysis. Although zinc also affects clot formation, the mechanism and consequences are poorly understood. To address these gaps, the effect of zinc on clot formation and structure was examined in the absence or presence of factor (F) XIII. Zinc accelerated a) plasma clotting by 1.4-fold, b) fibrinogen clotting by 3.5- and 2.3-fold in the absence or presence of FXIII, respectively, c) fragment X clotting by 1.3-fold, and d) polymerisation of fibrin monomers generated with thrombin or batroxobin by 2.5- and 1.8-fold, respectively. Whereas absorbance increased up to 3.3-fold when fibrinogen was clotted in the presence of zinc, absorbance of fragment X clots was unaffected by zinc, consistent with reports that zinc binds to the αC-domain of fibrin(ogen). Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed a two-fold increase in fibre diameter in the presence of zinc and in permeability studies, zinc increased clot porosity by 30-fold with or without FXIII. Whereas FXIII increased clot stiffness from 128 ± 19 Pa to 415 ± 27 Pa in rheological analyses, zinc reduced clot stiffness by 10- and 8.5-fold in the absence and presence of FXIII, respectively. Clots formed in the presence of zinc were more stable and resisted rupture with or without FXIII. Therefore, zinc accelerates clotting and reduces fibrin clot stiffness in a FXIII-independent manner, suggesting that zinc may work in concert with FXIII to modulate clot strength and stability.

  4. Massive clot formation after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Hunasgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral surgical procedures mainly tooth extraction can be related with an extended hemorrhage owed to the nature of the process resulting in an "open wound." The attempt of this paper is to present a case of massive postoperative clot formation after tooth extraction and highlight on the oral complications of surgical procedures. A 32-year-old male patient reported to the Dental Clinic for evaluation and extraction of grossly decayed 46. Clinical evaluation of 46 revealed root stumps. Extraction of the root stumps was performed, and it was uneventful. Hemostasis was achieved and postsurgical instructions were specified to the patient. The patient reported to the clinic, the very subsequent morning with a criticism of bleeding at the extraction site. On clinical examination, bleeding was noted from the socket in relation to 46. To control bleeding, oral hemostatic drugs Revici - E (Ethamsylate 500 mg was prescribed and bleeding was stopped in 2 h. However, a massive clot was formed at the extraction site. Further, this clot resolved on its own in 1-week time. Despite the fact that dental extraction is considered to be a minor surgical procedure, some cases may present with life-threatening complications including hemorrhage. Vigilant and significant history taking, physical and dental examinations prior to dental procedures are a must to avoid intraoperative and postoperative complications.

  5. Fluid Mechanics of Blood Clot Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, Aaron L; Neeves, Keith B

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular blood clots form in an environment in which hydrodynamic forces dominate and in which fluid-mediated transport is the primary means of moving material. The clotting system has evolved to exploit fluid dynamic mechanisms and to overcome fluid dynamic challenges to ensure that clots that preserve vascular integrity can form over the wide range of flow conditions found in the circulation. Fluid-mediated interactions between the many large deformable red blood cells and the few small rigid platelets lead to high platelet concentrations near vessel walls where platelets contribute to clotting. Receptor-ligand pairs with diverse kinetic and mechanical characteristics work synergistically to arrest rapidly flowing cells on an injured vessel. Variations in hydrodynamic stresses switch on and off the function of key clotting polymers. Protein transport to, from, and within a developing clot determines whether and how fast it grows. We review ongoing experimental and modeling research to understand these and related phenomena.

  6. Photoacoustic monitoring of clot formation during surgery and tumor surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juratli, Mazen A.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Suen, James Y.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2013-03-01

    When a blood vessel is injured, the normal physiological response of the body is to form a clot (thrombus) to prevent blood loss. Alternatively, even without injury to the blood vessel, the pathological condition called thromboembolism may lead to the formation of circulating blood clots (CBCs), also called emboli, which can clog blood vessels throughout the body. Veins of the extremities (venous thromboembolism), lungs (pulmonary embolism ), brain (embolic stroke), heart (myocardial infarction), kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract are often affected. Emboli are also common complications of infection, inflammation, cancer, surgery, radiation and coronary artery bypass grafts. Despite the clear medical significance of CBCs, however, little progress has been made in the development of methods for real-time detection and identification of CBCs. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new modification of in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) for real-time detection of white, red, and mixed clots through a transient decrease, increase or fluctuation of PA signal amplitude, respectively. In this work, using PAFC and mouse models, we present for the first time direct evidence that some medical procedures, such as conventional or cancer surgery may initiate the formation of CBCs. In conclusion, the PA diagnostic platform can be used in real-time to define risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, assist in the prognosis and potential prevention of stroke by using a well-timed therapy or as a clot count as a marker of therapy efficacy.

  7. Aggregation of Red Blood Cells: From Rouleaux to Clot Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, C; Svetina, S

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux. This aggregation process is believed to be reversible, but there is still no full understanding on the binding mechanism. There are at least two competing models, based either on bridging or on depletion. We review recent experimental results on the single cell level and theoretical analyses of the depletion model and of the influence of the cell shape on the binding strength. Another important aggregation mechanism is caused by activation of platelets. This leads to clot formation which is life saving in the case of wound healing but also a major cause of death in the case of a thrombus induced stroke. We review historical and recent results on the participation of red blood cells in clot formation.

  8. The Effects of Morphine Sulfate on Agglutination, Clot Formation and Hemolysis in Packed Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    THE EFFECTS OF MORPHINE SULFATE ON AGGLUTINATION , CLOT FORMATION AND HEMOLYSIS IN PACKED RED BLOOD CELLS 6. AUTHOR(S) CAPT ESTAVILLO BRIAN K 7...ANSI Std8 239.18 Designed using Perform Pro, WHS/DIOR, Oct 94 THE EFFECTS OF MORPHINE SULFATE ON AGGLUTINATION , CLOT FORMATION AND HEMOLYSIS IN PACKED...that the use of any copyrighted material in the thesis entitled: "THE EFFECTS OF MORPHINE SULFATE ON AGGLUTINATION , CLOT FORMATION AND HEMOLYSIS IN

  9. Cationic PAMAM dendrimers aggressively initiate blood clot formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clinton F; Campbell, Robert A; Brooks, Amanda E; Assemi, Shoeleh; Tadjiki, Soheyl; Thiagarajan, Giridhar; Mulcock, Cheyanne; Weyrich, Andrew S; Brooks, Benjamin D; Ghandehari, Hamidreza; Grainger, David W

    2012-11-27

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are increasingly studied as model nanoparticles for a variety of biomedical applications, notably in systemic administrations. However, with respect to blood-contacting applications, amine-terminated dendrimers have recently been shown to activate platelets and cause a fatal, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-like condition in mice and rats. We here demonstrate that, upon addition to blood, cationic G7 PAMAM dendrimers induce fibrinogen aggregation, which may contribute to the in vivo DIC-like phenomenon. We demonstrate that amine-terminated dendrimers act directly on fibrinogen in a thrombin-independent manner to generate dense, high-molecular-weight fibrinogen aggregates with minimal fibrin fibril formation. In addition, we hypothesize this clot-like behavior is likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between the densely charged cationic dendrimer surface and negatively charged fibrinogen domains. Interestingly, cationic dendrimers also induced aggregation of albumin, suggesting that many negatively charged blood proteins may be affected by cationic dendrimers. To investigate this further, zebrafish embryos were employed to more specifically determine the speed of this phenomenon and the pathway- and dose-dependency of the resulting vascular occlusion phenotype. These novel findings show that G7 PAMAM dendrimers significantly and adversely impact many blood components to produce rapid coagulation and strongly suggest that these effects are independent of classic coagulation mechanisms. These results also strongly suggest the need to fully characterize amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers in regard to their adverse effects on both coagulation and platelets, which may contribute to blood toxicity.

  10. Erythrocyte migration and gap formation in rabbit blood clots in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, T; Yazama, F; Horiuchi, T; Yamada, M

    2008-04-01

    Thrombolytic agents must be carried by the blood circulation to thrombi to exert their functions. Structural gaps exist between blood vessels and thrombi or in the area surrounding thrombi. Therefore, information about fundamental gap formation at thrombotic areas is critically important for thrombolytic therapy. We previously reported that t-PA accelerates the activities of bovine erythrocytes and hemoglobin (Hb) towards bovine plasminogen activation. Here, we examined gap generation by observing morphological changes during thrombolytic processes in rabbit blood clots deformation of erythrocytes from blood clots and Hb transfer from erythrocytes to serum in vitro. Rabbit venous blood samples (1 ml) were stored under sterile conditions in glass tubes at 37 degrees C for 2, 24, 48 h, 1, and 2 weeks. We examined clot diameter, erythrocyte diameter and number as well as Hb volume in the serum, as well as histological changes in the clots. The diameter of blood clots did not change until 2 weeks after sampling. Erythrocyte diameter decreased within 48 h and at 2 weeks after sampling at the clot surface (p erythrocytes in the serum started to increase starting from 24 h after sampling (p erythrocyte envelope became disrupted and cytoplasm started to flow through pores into the serum at 24 h. The results indicated that blood clots are reduced due to clot retraction, erythrocyte dissociation and cytoplasm leakage without a distinct fibrinolytic reaction. These results indicated that gaps start to form between 2 and 24 h after blood clotting.

  11. Modelling of platelet-fibrin clot formation in flow with a DPD-PDE method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosenberger, A; Ataullakhanov, F; Bessonov, N; Panteleev, M; Tokarev, A; Volpert, V

    2016-02-01

    The paper is devoted to mathematical modelling of clot growth in blood flow. Great complexity of the hemostatic system dictates the need of usage of the mathematical models to understand its functioning in the normal and especially in pathological situations. In this work we investigate the interaction of blood flow, platelet aggregation and plasma coagulation. We develop a hybrid DPD-PDE model where dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is used to model plasma flow and platelets, while the regulatory network of plasma coagulation is described by a system of partial differential equations. Modelling results confirm the potency of the scenario of clot growth where at the first stage of clot formation platelets form an aggregate due to weak inter-platelet connections and then due to their activation. This enables the formation of the fibrin net in the centre of the platelet aggregate where the flow velocity is significantly reduced. The fibrin net reinforces the clot and allows its further growth. When the clot becomes sufficiently large, it stops growing due to the narrowed vessel and the increase of flow shear rate at the surface of the clot. Its outer part is detached by the flow revealing the inner part covered by fibrin. This fibrin cap does not allow new platelets to attach at the high shear rate, and the clot stops growing. Dependence of the final clot size on wall shear rate and on other parameters is studied.

  12. Blood clot formation does not affect metastasis formation or tumor growth in a murine model of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Rossnagl

    Full Text Available Cancer is associated with increased fracture risk, due either to metastasis or associated osteoporosis. After a fracture, blood clots form. Because proteins of the coagulation cascade and activated platelets promote cancer development, a fracture in patients with cancer often raises the question whether it is a pathologic fracture or whether the fracture itself might promote the formation of metastatic lesions. We therefore examined whether blood clot formation results in increased metastasis in a murine model of experimental breast cancer metastasis. For this purpose, a clot was surgically induced in the bone marrow of the left tibia of immundeficient mice. Either one minute prior to or five minutes after clot induction, human cancer cells were introduced in the circulation by intracardiac injection. The number of cancer cells that homed to the intervention site was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and flow cytometry. Metastasis formation and longitudinal growth were evaluated by bioluminescence imaging. The number of cancer cells that homed to the intervention site after 24 hours was similar to the number of cells in the opposite tibia that did not undergo clot induction. This effect was confirmed using two more cancer cell lines. Furthermore, no difference in the number of macroscopic lesions or their growth could be detected. In the control group 72% developed a lesion in the left tibia. In the experimental groups with clot formation 79% and 65% developed lesions in the left tibia (p = ns when comparing each experimental group with the controls. Survival was similar too. In summary, the growth factors accumulating in a clot/hematoma are neither enough to promote cancer cell homing nor support growth in an experimental model of breast cancer bone metastasis. This suggests that blood clot formation, as occurs in traumatic fractures, surgical interventions, and bruises, does not increase the risk of metastasis formation.

  13. The Sentinel Clot Sign: a Useful CT Finding for the Evaluation of Intraperitoneal Bladder Rupture Following Blunt Trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Soo; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Chung, Tae Woong; Yoon, Woong; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kang, Taek Won; Shin, Hee Young [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    To evaluate the frequency and relevance of the 'sentinel clot' sign on CT for patients with traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture in a retrospective study. During a recent 42-month period, 74 consecutive trauma patients (45 men, 29 women; age range, 12 84 years; mean age, 50.8 years) with gross hematuria were examined by the use of intravenous contrast enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis, followed by retrograde cystography. Contrast-enhanced CT scanning was performed by using a helical CT scanner. CT images were retrospectively reviewed in consensus by two radiologists. The CT findings including the sentinel clot sign, pelvic fracture, traumatic injury to other abdominal viscera, and the degree of intraperitoneal free fluid were assessed and statistically analyzed using the two-tailed x{sup 2} test. Twenty of the 74 patients had intraperitoneal bladder rupture. The sentinel clot sign was seen for 16 patients (80%) with intraperitoneal bladder rupture and for four patients (7%) without intraperitoneal bladder rupture (p < 0.001). Pelvic fracture was noted in five patients (25%) with intraperitoneal bladder rupture and in 39 patients (72%) without intraperitoneal bladder rupture (p < 0.001). Intraperitoneal free fluid was found in all patients (100%) with intraperitoneal bladder rupture, irrespective of an associated intraabdominal visceral injury, whereas 19 (35%) of the 54 patients without intraperitoneal bladder rupture had intraperitoneal free fluid (p < 0.001). Detection and localization of the sentinel clot sign abutting on the bladder dome may improve the accuracy of CT in the diagnosis of traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture, especially when the patients present with gross hematuria.

  14. A Serpin Released by an Entomopathogen Impairs Clot Formation in Insect Defense System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, YouJin; Balasubramanian, Natesan; Jing, Yingjun; Montiel, Rafael; Faria, Tiago Q.; Brito, Rui M.; Simões, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae is an entomopathogenic nematode widely used for the control of insect pests due to its virulence, which is mainly attributed to the ability the parasitic stage has to overcome insect defences. To identify the mechanisms underlying such a characteristic, we studied a novel serpin-like inhibitor (sc-srp-6) that was detected in a transcriptome analysis. Recombinant Sc-SRP-6 produced in Escherichia coli had a native fold of serpins belonging to the α-1-peptidase family and exhibited inhibitory activity against trypsin and α-chymotrypsin with Ki of 0.42×10−7 M and 1.22×10−7 M, respectively. Functional analysis revealed that Sc-SRP-6 inhibits insect digestive enzymes, thus preventing the hydrolysis of ingested particles. Moreover, Sc-SRP-6 impaired the formation of hard clots at the injury site, a major insect defence mechanism against invasive pathogens. Sc-SRP-6 does not prevent the formation of clot fibres and the activation of prophenoloxidases but impairs the incorporation of the melanin into the clot. Binding assays showed a complex formation between Sc-SRP-6 and three proteins in the hemolymph of lepidopteran required for clotting, apolipophorin, hexamerin and trypsin-like, although the catalytic inhibition occurred exclusively in trypsin-like. This data allowed the conclusion that Sc-SRP-6 promotes nematode virulence by inhibiting insect gut juices and by impairing immune clot reaction. PMID:23874900

  15. Probing the coagulation pathway with aptamers identifies combinations that synergistically inhibit blood clot formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompiani, Kristin M; Lohrmann, Jens L; Pitoc, George A; Frederiksen, James W; Mackensen, George B; Sullenger, Bruce A

    2014-08-14

    Coordinated enzymatic reactions regulate blood clot generation. To explore the contributions of various coagulation enzymes in this process, we utilized a panel of aptamers against factors VIIa, IXa, Xa, and prothrombin. Each aptamer dose-dependently inhibited clot formation, yet none was able to completely impede this process in highly procoagulant settings. However, several combinations of two aptamers synergistically impaired clot formation. One extremely potent aptamer combination was able to maintain human blood fluidity even during extracorporeal circulation, a highly procoagulant setting encountered during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Moreover, this aptamer cocktail could be rapidly reversed with antidotes to restore normal hemostasis, indicating that even highly potent aptamer combinations can be rapidly controlled. These studies highlight the potential utility of using sets of aptamers to probe the functions of proteins in molecular pathways for research and therapeutic ends. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impaired thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation in patients with dilutional coagulopathy during major surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, S.E.; Lance, M.D.; Feijge, M.A.; Damoiseaux, J.; Marcus, M.A.; Hamulyak, K.; Cate, H. ten; Heemskerk, J.W.M.; Pampus, E.C.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Patients subjected to haemodilution during surgery are at increased risk of bleeding. We hypothesised that, in the acquired dilutional coagulopathy, insufficient haemostasis is due to either insufficient thrombin generation or insufficient fibrin clot formation. In tissue factor-activated plasmas fr

  17. Adhesins of Leptospira interrogans Mediate the Interaction to Fibrinogen and Inhibit Fibrin Clot Formation In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rosane; Domingos, Renan F.; Siqueira, Gabriela H.; Fernandes, Luis G.; Souza, Natalie M.; Vieira, Monica L.; de Morais, Zenaide M.; Vasconcellos, Silvio A.; Nascimento, Ana L. T. O.

    2013-01-01

    We report in this work that Leptospira strains, virulent L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni, attenuated L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni and saprophytic L. biflexa serovar Patoc are capable of binding fibrinogen (Fg). The interaction of leptospires with Fg inhibits thrombin- induced fibrin clot formation that may affect the haemostatic equilibrium. Additionally, we show that plasminogen (PLG)/plasmin (PLA) generation on the surface of Leptospira causes degradation of human Fg. The data suggest that PLA-coated leptospires were capable to employ their proteolytic activity to decrease one substrate of the coagulation cascade. We also present six leptospiral adhesins and PLG- interacting proteins, rLIC12238, Lsa33, Lsa30, OmpL1, rLIC11360 and rLIC11975, as novel Fg-binding proteins. The recombinant proteins interact with Fg in a dose-dependent and saturable fashion when increasing protein concentration was set to react to a fix human Fg concentration. The calculated dissociation equilibrium constants (KD) of these reactions ranged from 733.3±276.8 to 128±89.9 nM for rLIC12238 and Lsa33, respectively. The interaction of recombinant proteins with human Fg resulted in inhibition of fibrin clot by thrombin-catalyzed reaction, suggesting that these versatile proteins could mediate Fg interaction in Leptospira. Our data reveal for the first time the inhibition of fibrin clot by Leptospira spp. and presents adhesins that could mediate these interactions. Decreasing fibrin clot would cause an imbalance of the coagulation cascade that may facilitate bleeding and help bacteria dissemination PMID:24009788

  18. Influence of Interleukin-1 Beta on Platelet-Poor Plasma Clot Formation: A Potential Impact on Early Bone Healing.

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    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Hematoma quality (especially the fibrin matrix plays an important role in the bone healing process. Here, we investigated the effect of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β on fibrin clot formation from platelet-poor plasma (PPP.Five-milliliter of rat whole-blood samples were collected from the hepatic portal vein. All blood samples were firstly standardized via a thrombelastograph (TEG, blood cell count, and the measurement of fibrinogen concentration. PPP was prepared by collecting the top two-fifths of the plasma after centrifugation under 400 × g for 10 min at 20°C. The effects of IL-1β cytokines on artificial fibrin clot formation from PPP solutions were determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, confocal microscopy (CM, turbidity, and clot lysis assays.The lag time for protofibril formation was markedly shortened in the IL-1β treatment groups (243.8 ± 76.85 in the 50 pg/mL of IL-1β and 97.5 ± 19.36 in the 500 pg/mL of IL-1β compared to the control group without IL-1β (543.8 ± 205.8. Maximal turbidity was observed in the control group. IL-1β (500 pg/mL treatment significantly decreased fiber diameters resulting in smaller pore sizes and increased density of the fibrin clot structure formed from PPP (P < 0.05. The clot lysis assay revealed that 500 pg/mL IL-1β induced a lower susceptibility to dissolution due to the formation of thinner and denser fibers.IL-1β can significantly influence PPP fibrin clot structure, which may affect the early bone healing process.

  19. Alkali treatment of microrough titanium surfaces affects macrophage/monocyte adhesion, platelet activation and architecture of blood clot formation

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    V Milleret

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium implants are most commonly used for bone augmentation and replacement due to their favorable osseointegration properties. Here, hyperhydrophilic sand-blasted and acid-etched (SBA titanium surfaces were produced by alkali treatment and their responses to partially heparinized whole human blood were analyzed. Blood clot formation, platelet activation and activation of the complement system was analyzed revealing that exposure time between blood and the material surface is crucial as increasing exposure time results in higher amount of activated platelets, more blood clots formed and stronger complement activation. In contrast, the number of macrophages/monocytes found on alkali-treated surfaces was significantly reduced as compared to untreated SBA Ti surfaces. Interestingly, when comparing untreated to modified SBA Ti surfaces very different blood clots formed on their surfaces. On untreated Ti surfaces blood clots remain thin (below 15 mm, patchy and non-structured lacking large fibrin fiber networks whereas blood clots on differentiated surfaces assemble in an organized and layered architecture of more than 30 mm thickness. Close to the material surface most nucleated cells adhere, above large amounts of non-nucleated platelets remain entrapped within a dense fibrin fiber network providing a continuous cover of the entire surface. These findings might indicate that, combined with findings of previous in vivo studies demonstrating that alkali-treated SBA Ti surfaces perform better in terms of osseointegration, a continuous and structured layer of blood components on the blood-facing surface supports later tissue integration of an endosseous implant.

  20. Volumetric evaluation of dual-energy perfusion CT by the presence of intrapulmonary clots using a 64-slice dual-source CT

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    Okada, Munemasa; Nakashima, Yoshiteru; Kunihiro, Yoshie; Nakao, Sei; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Dept. of Radiology, Yamaguchi Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi (Japan)], e-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp; Morikage, Noriyasu [Medical Bioregulation Dept. of Organ Regulatory Surgery, Yamaguchi Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi (Japan); Sano, Yuichi [Dept. of Radiology, Yamaguchi Univ. Hospital, Yamaguchi (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Dept. of Radiology, St Hills Hospital, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Background: Dual-energy perfusion CT (DE{sub p}CT) directly represents the iodine distribution in lung parenchyma and low perfusion areas caused by intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) are visualized as low attenuation areas. Purpose: To evaluate if volumetric evaluation of DE{sub p}CT can be used as a predictor of right heart strain by the presence of IPCs. Material and Methods: One hundred and ninety-six patients suspected of having acute pulmonary embolism (PE) underwent DE{sub p}CT using a 64-slice dual-source CT. DE{sub p}CT images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with four threshold ranges: 1-120 HU (V{sub 120}), 1-15 HU (V{sub 15}), 1-10 HU (V{sub 10}), and 1-5 HU (V{sub 5}). Each relative ratio per V{sub 120} was expressed as the %V{sub 15}, %V{sub 10}, and %V{sub 5}. Volumetric data-sets were compared with D-dimer, pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure, right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio, PA diameter, and PA/aorta (PA/Ao) diameter ratio. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) were examined for their relationship to the presence of IPCs. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Results: PA pressure and D-dimer were significantly higher in the patients who had IPCs. In the patients with IPCs, V{sub 15}, V{sub 10}, V{sub 5}, %V{sub 15}, %V{sub 10}, and %V{sub 5} were also significantly higher than those without IPC (P = 0.001). %V{sub 5} had a better correlation with D-dimer (r = 0.30, P < 0.001) and RV/LV diameter ratio (r = 0.27, P < 0.001), and showed a higher AUC (0.73) than the other CT measurements. Conclusion: The volumetric evaluation by DE{sub p}CT had a correlation with D-dimer and RV/LV diameter ratio, and the relative ratio of volumetric CT measurements with a lower attenuation threshold might be recommended for the analysis of acute PE.

  1. Thermal Blood Clot Formation and use in Microfluidic Device Valving Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Shi, Wendian (Inventor); Guo, Luke (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of forming a blood-clot microvalve by heating blood in a capillary tube of a microfluidic device. Also described are methods of modulating liquid flow in a capillary tube by forming and removing a blood-clot microvalve.

  2. Effects of unidirectional flow shear stresses on the formation, fractal microstructure and rigidity of incipient whole blood clots and fibrin gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiei, N.; Sowedan, A.M.; Curtis, D.J.; Brown, M.R.; Lawrence, M.J.; Campbell, A.I.; Sabra, A.; Evans, P.A.; Weisel, J.W.; Chernysh, I.N.; Nagaswami, C.; Williams, P.R.; Hawkins, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Incipient clot formation in whole blood and fibrin gels was studied by the rheometric techniques of controlled stress parallel superposition (CSPS) and small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS). The effects of unidirectional shear stress on incipient clot microstructure, formation kinetics and elasticity are reported in terms of the fractal dimension (df) of the fibrin network, the gel network formation time (TGP) and the shear elastic modulus, respectively. The results of this first haemorheological application of CSPS reveal the marked sensitivity of incipient clot microstructure to physiologically relevant levels of shear stress, these being an order of magnitude lower than have previously been studied by SAOS. CSPS tests revealed that exposure of forming clots to increasing levels of shear stress produces a corresponding elevation in df, consistent with the formation of tighter, more compact clot microstructures under unidirectional flow. A corresponding increase in shear elasticity was recorded. The scaling relationship established between shear elasticity and df for fibrin clots and whole blood confirms the fibrin network as the dominant microstructural component of the incipient clot in terms of its response to imposed stress. Supplementary studies of fibrin clot formation by rheometry and microscopy revealed the substantial additional network mass required to increase df and provide evidence to support the hypothesis that microstructural changes in blood clotted under unidirectional shear may be attributed to flow enhanced thrombin generation and activation. CSPS also identified a threshold value of unidirectional shear stress above which no incipient clot formation could be detected. CSPS was shown to be a valuable haemorheological tool for the study of the effects of physiological and pathological levels of shear on clot properties. PMID:25624413

  3. Effects of unidirectional flow shear stresses on the formation, fractal microstructure and rigidity of incipient whole blood clots and fibrin gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiei, N; Sowedan, A M; Curtis, D J; Brown, M R; Lawrence, M J; Campbell, A I; Sabra, A; Evans, P A; Weisel, J W; Chernysh, I N; Nagaswami, C; Williams, P R; Hawkins, K

    2015-01-01

    Incipient clot formation in whole blood and fibrin gels was studied by the rheometric techniques of controlled stress parallel superposition (CSPS) and small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS). The effects of unidirectional shear stress on incipient clot microstructure, formation kinetics and elasticity are reported in terms of the fractal dimension (df) of the fibrin network, the gel network formation time (TGP) and the shear elastic modulus, respectively. The results of this first haemorheological application of CSPS reveal the marked sensitivity of incipient clot microstructure to physiologically relevant levels of shear stress, these being an order of magnitude lower than have previously been studied by SAOS. CSPS tests revealed that exposure of forming clots to increasing levels of shear stress produces a corresponding elevation in df, consistent with the formation of tighter, more compact clot microstructures under unidirectional flow. A corresponding increase in shear elasticity was recorded. The scaling relationship established between shear elasticity and df for fibrin clots and whole blood confirms the fibrin network as the dominant microstructural component of the incipient clot in terms of its response to imposed stress. Supplementary studies of fibrin clot formation by rheometry and microscopy revealed the substantial additional network mass required to increase df and provide evidence to support the hypothesis that microstructural changes in blood clotted under unidirectional shear may be attributed to flow enhanced thrombin generation and activation. CSPS also identified a threshold value of unidirectional shear stress above which no incipient clot formation could be detected. CSPS was shown to be a valuable haemorheological tool for the study of the effects of physiological and pathological levels of shear on clot properties.

  4. Effects of calcium-modified titanium implant surfaces on platelet activation, clot formation, and osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Prado, Roberto; Orive, Gorka; Tejero, Ricardo

    2015-03-01

    The clinical success of load bearing dental and orthopedic implants relies on adequate osseointegration. Because of its favorable properties, titanium is generally considered as the material of choice. Following implant placement, titanium surfaces establish an ionic equilibrium with the surrounding tissues in which calcium plays major roles. Calcium is a cofactor of the coagulation cascade that mediates plasma protein adsorption and intervenes in a number of other intra and extracellular processes relevant for bone regeneration. In this study, titanium surfaces were modified with calcium ions (Ca(2+) surfaces) and their responses to in vitro and in vivo models were analyzed. Unlike unmodified surfaces, Ca(2+) surfaces were superhydrophilic and induced surface clot formation, platelet adsorption and activation when exposed to blood plasma. Interestingly, in vivo osseointegration using a peri-implant gap model in rabbit demonstrated that Ca(2+) surfaces significantly improved peri-implant bone volume and density at 2 weeks and bone implant contact at 8 weeks as compared to the unmodified controls. The combination of Ca(2+) surfaces with plasma rich in growth factors produced significantly more bone contact already at 2 weeks of implantation. These findings suggest the importance of the provisional matrix formation on tissue integration and highlight the clinical potential of Ca(2+) titanium surfaces as efficient stimulators of implant osseointegration.

  5. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  6. Hepatic veins as a site of clot formation following liver resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Buc; Safi Dokmak; Magaly Zappa; Marie Helene Denninger; Dominique Charles Valla; Jacques Belghiti; Olivier Farges

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism occurs more frequently after hepatectomy than previously thought but is infrequently associated with peripheral deep vein thrombosis. In thispaper, we report 2 cases of postoperative hepatic vein thrombosis after liver resection. Both patients had undergone major hepatectomy of a non-cirrhotic liver largely exposing the middle hepatic vein. Clots were incidentally found in the middle hepatic vein 4 and 17 d after surgery despite routine systemic thrombo-prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin. Coagulation of the transitionplan in a context of mutation of the prothrombin gene and inflammation induced biloma were the likely predisposing conditions. Clots disappeared following curative anticoagulation. We conclude that thrombosis of hepatic veins may occur after liver resection and is a potential source of pulmonary embolism.

  7. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and may include pain or cramping, swelling, tenderness, warmth to the touch and bluish- or red-colored ... caused the clot, and will also perform a physical examination. In an emergency situation where patients may ...

  8. Transfusion packages for massively bleeding patients: the effect on clot formation and stability as evaluated by Thrombelastograph (TEG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Bochsen, L.; Stensballe, J.

    2008-01-01

    was obtained before and after administering the transfusion packages. Six patients were hypocoagulable before administration of the transfusion package, whereas none of the patients were hypocoagulable after transfusion of up to 7 transfusion packages (p=0.01). In 8 patients damage control surgery......We investigated the effect of administering a transfusion package encompassing 5 red blood cells (RBC), 5 fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and 2 platelet concentrates (PC) on clot formation and stability as evaluated by Thrombelastograph (TEG) in 10 patients presenting with massive bleeding. Blood...... was successful and 6 of these patients survived. The result indicates that an early balanced transfusion strategy maintains haemostatic competence in massively bleeding patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  9. Intrapericardial delivery of gelfoam enables the targeted delivery of Periostin peptide after myocardial infarction by inducing fibrin clot formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Polizzotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Administration of a recombinant peptide of Periostin (rPN has recently been shown to stimulate cardiomyocyte proliferation and angiogenesis after myocardial infarction (MI [1]. However, strategies for targeting the delivery of rPN to the heart are lacking. Intrapericardial administration of drug-eluting hydrogels may provide a clinically viable strategy for increasing myocardial retention, therapeutic efficacy, and bioactivity of rPN and to decrease systemic re-circulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the ability of intrapericardial injections of drug-eluting hydrogels to deliver and prolong the release of rPN to the myocardium in a large animal model of myocardial infarction. Gelfoam is an FDA-approved hemostatic material commonly used in surgery, and is known to stimulate fibrin clot formation. We show that Gelfoam disks loaded with rPN, when implanted within the pericardium or peritoneum of mammals becomes encapsulated within a non-fibrotic fibrin-rich hydrogel, prolonging the in vitro and in vivo release of rPN. Administration into the pericardial cavity of pigs, following a complete occlusion of the left anterior descending artery, leads to greater induction of cardiomyocyte mitosis, increased cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity, and enhanced angiogenesis compared to direct injection of rPN alone. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that intrapericardial drug delivery of Gelfoam, enhanced by triggered clot formation, can be used to effectively deliver rPN to the myocardium in a clinically relevant model of myocardial infarction. The work presented here should enhance the translational potential of pharmaceutical-based strategies that must be targeted to the myocardium.

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated ... history of blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Clots and Travel Blood Clotting and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  15. Proteases from Latex of Euphorbia spp. and Its Application on Milk Clot Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidia Fibriana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude proteases were extracted from Euphorbiaceae family, i.e. E. milii var imperata, E. trigona, and E. maculata. Among those three crude proteases, the activity of protease from E. trigona was the highest (812.50 U/ml, whereas E. milii and E. maculata crude proteases activity were 298.60 U/ml and 95.80 U/ml, respectively. E. maculata protein concentration was the highest among those three crude enzymes (1.206 mg/ml. The optimum pH and temperature of the enzymes were pH 7.0, pH 6.0, pH 6.5 and 60 °C, 50 °C, and 50 °C, respectively. Crude protease from E. milii var imperata, E. trigona, and E. maculata retained proteolytic activity over a wide range of pH (5.0–9.0 and temperature (up to 65 °C with casein as substrate. All crude proteases showed milk clotting activity ranged from 0.58 U/ml to 1.01 U/ml. Thus, these crude proteases are potential to be applied in dairy industries. However, further study on enzyme purification and characterization are necessary to obtain high purity of proteases before its application.Protease kasar berhasil diekstrak dari tanaman family Euphorbiaceae, yaitu E. milii var imperata, E. trigona, dan E. maculata. Diantara ketiga protease tersebut, aktivitas protease tertinggi diperoleh dari E. trigona (812,50 U/ml, sedangkan aktivitas protease dari E. milii dan E. maculata adalah 298,60 U/ml dan 95,80 U/ml, berturut-turut. Konsentrasi total protein tertinggi terdapat pada protease kasar E. maculata (1,206 mg/ml. pH dan suhu optimum ketiga enzim tersebut adalah pH 7.0, pH 6.0, pH 6.5 dan suhu 60 °C, 50 °C, and 50 °C, berturut-turut. Protease kasar dari E. milii var imperata, E. trigona, dan E. maculata menunjukkan aktivitas proteolitik pada rentang pH 5.0–9.0 dan rentang suhu sampai 65 °C menggunakan kasein sebagai substrat. Semua protease kasar menunjukkan aktivitas penggumpalan susu dengan rentang dari 0,58 U/ml sampai 1,01 U/ml. Berdasarkan hasil yang diperoleh, protease kasar dari ketiga jenis tanaman ini

  16. Kinetics of Formations of Ag Clots on AgBr Microcrystals at The Normal Laser Hershel Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Piven

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that clots of silver have the amorphous structure at the normal laser Hershel effect after exposure of the photographic layer SP–1 (photosensitivity 6 standart units with low time texpos = 10 – 5 sec, and at high exposure times (texpos = 0.5 sec they have the crystal structure. The energy of the crystallization of Ag clots equals Wmin = 10 – 8 J.

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... improve the diagnosis and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). 2018 Highlights of ASH Attend a meeting ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... increased by the following: Previous blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e. ... you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are a few other resources ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. Be aware ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. Be aware ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with ... doctor about your risks and prevention. Depending on your condition, your OB- ...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... a stroke, especially with a new technique called Perfusion CT. brain tumors. enlarged brain cavities (ventricles) in ... X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography (CTA) Stroke Brain ...

  8. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... major risks facing patients who undergo surgery is a complication called deep vein thrombosis. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot within a deep vein. It commonly ...

  9. Investigation of the thrombin-generating capacity, evaluated by thrombogram, and clot formation evaluated by thrombelastography of platelets stored in the blood bank for up to 7 days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Svendsen, M.S.; Salado, J.

    2008-01-01

    thrombin) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP; nm thrombin*min) were registered. Clot formation was evaluated by TEG and the R time (min), maxial amplitude (MA; mm), time to maximum thrombus generation (TMG; min) and maximum thrombus generation (MTG; dynes cm(-2) s(-1)) and total thrombus generation...... (TTG; dyne cm(-2)) were registered. RESULTS: Platelets become more procoagulant, evaluated both by TEG and CAT during storage. The reduction in CAT lag time and the ttPeak correlated with a decrease in the TEG R time and TMG (P ....0035). No correlation between ETP and TTG was found (P = 0.65). CONCLUSION: The kinetics of thrombin generation, as evaluated by CAT, correlates with the thrombus generation, as evaluated by thrombelastography and this may in part explain the clinical utility of the TEG in identifying clinically relevant coagulopathies...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... just had a baby, you are at greater risk of developing a blood clot. Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of the legs or in the pelvic area. This condition is known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening ...

  11. Hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieker, O.; Kreitner, K.F. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Karbowski, A. [Orthopaedische Abtl., Krankenhaus der Augustinerinnen, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Hyperplastic callus formation is a noteworthy condition in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta because it often mimicks osteosarcoma on radiography. The findings of CT and MRI in hyperplastic callus formation have not been reported. In the presented case, MRI demonstrated contrast enhancement and edema of the surrounding soft tisssue, consistent with benign as well as malignant disease. Computed tomography showed a calcified rim of the lesion which may be a useful feature to rule out osteosarcoma in this condition. (orig.) With 2 figs., 18 refs.

  12. GlycoCT-a unifying sequence format for carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, S; Ranzinger, R; Maass, K; Lieth, C-W V D

    2008-08-11

    As part of the EUROCarbDB project (www.eurocarbdb.org) we have carefully analyzed the encoding capabilities of all existing carbohydrate sequence formats and the content of publically available structure databases. We have found that none of the existing structural encoding schemata are capable of coping with the full complexity to be expected for experimentally derived structural carbohydrate sequence data across all taxonomic sources. This gap motivated us to define an encoding scheme for complex carbohydrates, named GlycoCT, to overcome the current limitations. This new format is based on a connection table approach, instead of a linear encoding scheme, to describe the carbohydrate sequences, with a controlled vocabulary to name monosaccharides, adopting IUPAC rules to generate a consistent, machine-readable nomenclature. The format uses a block concept to describe frequently occurring special features of carbohydrate sequences like repeating units. It exists in two variants, a condensed form and a more verbose XML syntax. Sorting rules assure the uniqueness of the condensed form, thus making it suitable as a direct primary key for database applications, which rely on unique identifiers. GlycoCT encompasses the capabilities of the heterogeneous landscape of digital encoding schemata in glycomics and is thus a step forward on the way to a unified and broadly accepted sequence format in glycobioinformatics.

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... dangerous to your baby. Blood clots can form inside the placenta, cutting off blood flow and harming ... 0544 | Fax 202-776-0545 ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate Research ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during ... Advances The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Find a Hematologist Clinical Trials Talking with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients ... factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any history of blood clots or ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... education program designed to improve the diagnosis and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). 2017 ASH Meeting ... and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially dangerous to your ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... known as venous thromboembolism, are highly preventable (see prevention tips below). The U.S. Surgeon General has issued ... blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially dangerous ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... known as venous thromboembolism, are highly preventable (see prevention tips below). The U.S. Surgeon General has issued ... blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially dangerous ...

  1. How Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written in everyday language. * This is ... Process How Blood Clots Resources In This Article Drugs Mentioned In This Article ... of the Blood (News) Is Binge-Watching Hazardous to Your Health? (News) ...

  2. Preventing and Treating Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of blood clots. Heparin is recommended to treat DVT and PE for the first five to ten days, as well as for preventing blood clots ... risk of bleeding. For patients who develop a deep vein thrombosis, and/or a ... blood clot prevention will be included in your overall treatment plan, ...

  3. Measurement of Plasma Clotting Using Shear Horizontal Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Tatsuya; Kondoh, Jun; Oonishi, Tomoko; Hosokawa, Kazuya

    2013-07-01

    The monitoring of blood coagulation is important during operation. In this study, a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensor is applied to monitor plasma clotting. An SH-SAW sensor with a metallized surface for mechanical perturbation detection can detect plasma clotting. As plasma clotting is a gel formation reaction, the SH-SAW sensor detects viscoelastic property changes. On the other hand, an SH-SAW sensor with a free surface for electrical perturbation detection detects only the liquid mixing effect. No electrical property changes due to plasma clotting are obtained using this sensor. A planar electrochemical sensor is also used to monitor plasma clotting. In impedance spectral analysis, plasma clotting is measured. However, in the measurement of time responses, no differences between clotting and nonclotting are obtained. Therefore, the SH-SAW sensor is useful for monitoring plasma clotting.

  4. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Fibrin Clot Phenotypes. The EuroCLOT Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Frances M K; Carter, Angela M; Kato, Bernet;

    2009-01-01

    associated with fibrin phenotypes. METHODS AND RESULTS: 447 dizygotic (DZ) and 460 monozygotic (MZ) pairs of healthy UK white female twins and 199 DZ twin pairs from Denmark were studied. D-dimer, an indicator of fibrin turnover, was measured by ELISA and measures of clot formation, morphology, and lysis...

  5. Kaolin clotting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kottayam

    2013-01-01

    The kaolin clotting time (KCT) is a sensitive test used in the laboratory detection of lupus anticoagulants (LA) (Derksen and de Groot, Thromb Res 114:521-526, 2004). It is essentially an activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test with no added phospholipid. Kaolin acts as the activator in the KCT. In the absence of additional phospholipid reagent, the quality of the test sample is extremely important since the generation of thrombin completely depends on the presence of residual cell membranes and plasma lipids (Derksen and de Groot, Thromb Res 114:521-526, 2004). Since the test contains no exogenous phospholipid, a confirmatory test using excess phospholipid is required to confirm the presence of lupus anticoagulant in the sample (Court, Br J Biomed Sci 54:287-298, 1997).

  6. Histotripsy Thrombolysis on Retracted Clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Owens, Gabe E; Cain, Charles A; Gurm, Hitinder S; Macoskey, Jonathan; Xu, Zhen

    2016-08-01

    Retracted blood clots have been previously recognized to be more resistant to drug-based thrombolysis methods, even with ultrasound and microbubble enhancements. Microtripsy, a new histotripsy approach, has been investigated as a non-invasive, drug-free and image-guided method that uses ultrasound to break up clots with improved treatment accuracy and a lower risk of vessel damage compared with the traditional histotripsy thrombolysis approach. Unlike drug-mediated thrombolysis, which is dependent on the permeation of the thrombolytic agents into the clot, microtripsy controls acoustic cavitation to fractionate clots. We hypothesize that microtripsy thrombolysis is effective on retracted clots and that the treatment efficacy can be enhanced using strategies incorporating electronic focal steering. To test our hypothesis, retracted clots were prepared in vitro and the mechanical properties were quantitatively characterized. Microtripsy thrombolysis was applied on the retracted clots in an in vitro flow model using three different strategies: single-focus, electronically-steered multi-focus and dual-pass multi-focus. Results show that microtripsy was used to successfully generate a flow channel through the retracted clot and the flow was restored. The multi-focus and the dual-pass treatments incorporating the electronic focal steering significantly increased the recanalized flow channel size compared to the single-focus treatments. The dual-pass treatments achieved a restored flow rate up to 324 mL/min without cavitation contacting the vessel wall. The clot debris particles generated from microtripsy thrombolysis remained within the safe range. The results of this study show the potential of microtripsy thrombolysis for retracted clot recanalization with the enhancement of electronic focal steering. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Case of pancreatolithiasis. CT observation of calculus formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Fumio; Koga, Sukehiko; Takeuchi, Akira (Fujita-Gakuen Univ., School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan))

    1982-11-01

    During 3-year follow-up of a case of pancreatolithiasis localized in the pancreatic head, CT showed sudden new appearance of calculi over an extensive area of the body and tail of the pancreas after acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis. This case and the etiology and mechanism of pancreatolithiasis were discussed on the basis of literature.

  8. Increase in dicentric chromosome formation after a single CT scan in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yu; Miura, Tomisato; Yoshida, Mitsuaki A; Ujiie, Risa; Kurosu, Yumiko; Kato, Nagisa; Katafuchi, Atsushi; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Ohba, Takashi; Inamasu, Tomoko; Shishido, Fumio; Noji, Hideyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuei; Yokouchi, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Kenya; Ishida, Takashi; Muto, Satoshi; Ohsugi, Jun; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Kenji; Sakai, Akira

    2015-09-09

    Excess risk of leukemia and brain tumors after CT scans in children has been reported. We performed dicentric chromosome assay (DCAs) before and after CT scan to assess effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on chromosomes. Peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes were collected from 10 patients before and after a CT scan. DCA was performed by analyzing either 1,000 or 2,000 metaphases using both Giemsa staining and centromere-fluorescence in situ hybridization (Centromere-FISH). The increment of DIC formation was compared with effective radiation dose calculated using the computational dosimetry system, WAZA-ARI and dose length product (DLP) in a CT scan. Dicentric chromosome (DIC) formation increased significantly after a single CT scan, and increased DIC formation was found in all patients. A good correlation between the increment of DIC formation determined by analysis of 2,000 metaphases using Giemsa staining and those by 2,000 metaphases using Centromere-FISH was observed. However, no correlation was observed between the increment of DIC formation and the effective radiation dose. Therefore, these results suggest that chromosome cleavage may be induced by one CT scan, and we recommend 2,000 or more metaphases be analyzed in Giemsa staining or Centromere-FISH for DCAs in cases of low-dose radiation exposure.

  9. Quantitative photoacoustic characterization of blood clot in blood: A mechanobiological assessment through spectral information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Deblina; Vasudevan, Srivathsan; Chen, George C. K.; Sharma, Norman

    2017-02-01

    Formation of blood clots, called thrombus, can happen due to hyper-coagulation of blood. Thrombi, while moving through blood vessels can impede blood flow, an important criterion for many critical diseases like deep vein thrombosis and heart attacks. Understanding mechanical properties of clot formation is vital for assessment of severity of thrombosis and proper treatment. However, biomechanics of thrombus is less known to clinicians and not very well investigated. Photoacoustic (PA) spectral response, a non-invasive technique, is proposed to investigate the mechanism of formation of blood clots through elasticity and also differentiate clots from blood. Distinct shift (increase in frequency) of the PA response dominant frequency during clot formation is reported. In addition, quantitative differentiation of blood clots from blood has been achieved through parameters like dominant frequency and spectral energy of PA spectral response. Nearly twofold increases in dominant frequency in blood clots compared to blood were found in the PA spectral response. Significant changes in energy also help in quantitatively differentiating clots from blood, in the blood. Our results reveal that increase in density during clot formation is reflected in the PA spectral response, a significant step towards understanding the mechanobiology of thrombus formation. Hence, the proposed tool, in addition to detecting thrombus formation, could reveal mechanical properties of the sample through quantitative photoacoustic spectral parameters.

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a sudden severe headache. a blood clot or bleeding within the brain shortly after a patient exhibits symptoms of a stroke. a ... CT scanning may eliminate the need for exploratory surgery and surgical biopsy. No radiation remains in a patient's body after a CT examination. X-rays used in CT ...

  11. An Antithrombin-Heparin Complex Increases the Anticoagulant Activity of Fibrin Clots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley J. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Clotting blood contains fibrin-bound thrombin, which is a major source of procoagulant activity leading to clot extension and further activation of coagulation. When bound to fibrin, thrombin is protected from inhibition by antithrombin (AT + heparin but is neutralized when AT and heparin are covalently linked (ATH. Here, we report the surprising observation that, rather than yielding an inert complex, thrombin-ATH formation converts clots into anticoagulant surfaces that effectively catalyze inhibition of thrombin in the surrounding environment.

  12. Clot resolution after 3 weeks of anticoagulant treatment of pulmonary embolism: Comparison of computed tomography and perfusion scintigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, J.; Douma, Renee; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Gerdes, V.E.A.; Verhamme, P.; Wells, P.S.; Bounameaux, H.; Lensing, A.W.A.; Büller, H.R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the natural history of clot resolution in the initial weeks of anticoagulant therapy in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Aim: To assess clot resolution of acute PE with either computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CT-scan) or perfusion

  13. Clot resolution after 3 weeks of anticoagulant treatment for pulmonary embolism : comparison of computed tomography and perfusion scintigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, J.; Douma, R. A.; Kamphuisen, P. W.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Verhamme, P.; Wells, P. S.; Bounameaux, H.; Lensing, A. W. A.; Bueller, H. R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the natural history of clot resolution in the initial weeks of anticoagulant therapy in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Clot resolution of acute PE was assessed with either computed tomography pulmonary angiography scan (CT-scan) or perfusion scintigra

  14. Relation between intravascular clots of pulmonary artery and lung perfusion defects: assessment with dual source CT low-dose contrast perfusion imaging%低剂量对比剂双能量肺灌注成像评估肺动脉内血栓与灌注缺损间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈比先; 谭四平; 彭冬红; 汪春荣; 贾飞鸽; 李元歌; 罗玉娟; 楚二伟

    2012-01-01

    目的:应用双源CT低剂量对比剂双能量肺灌注成像评估急性肺动脉栓塞患者血管内血栓与肺灌注缺损间的关系,以提高对肺动脉栓塞诊断的准确性.方法:随机选择无肺动脉栓塞患者的低剂量与常规剂量双能量肺灌注成像各15例,对比分析其图像质量;收集20例疑肺动脉栓塞患者行低剂量双能量肺灌注成像;同时获得肺动脉CTA及肺灌注图像.分析肺动脉内有无血栓.以及血栓的部位、数量及形态特征.用双能量肺灌注分析软件判断有无灌注缺损及缺损的部位、形态及范围.对比分析并统计肺动脉内血栓与肺灌注缺损间的关系.结果:肺动脉栓塞患者的低剂量与常规剂量双能量肺灌注成像质量无明显差异(P>0.05).20例疑似病例中,15例诊断为肺动脉栓塞,其中13例患者肺灌注图像中出现102个肺叶、肺段、或亚段灌注缺损,4例共6个灌注缺损CTA无明确血栓;11例肺动脉CTA显示43个血栓,其中9例血栓与灌注缺损同时存在,2例CTA共5个血栓肺内无灌注缺损.75个灌注缺损与栓塞肺动脉供血范围一致,21个灌注缺损(8段、13亚段)与肺动脉供血范围无关.结论:综合分析双源CT低剂量双能量肺灌注图与CTPA,可以提高肺动脉栓塞诊断的准确性.%Objective: To assess the relation between intravascular clots of pulmonary artery and lung perfusion defects with dual source CT low-dose contrast perfusion imaging so as to elevate the accuracy of diagnosis of PE. Methods: The image quality of low-dose and conventional dose dual energy lung perfusion imaging (DEPI) of patients without pulmonary embolism (PE). With 15 cases in each sose, were analyzed. Twenty consecutive patients with suspected PE underwent dual source CT low-dose contrast perfusion imaging and CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and lung perfusion images were aquired at the same time. The intravascular clots of pulmonary artery if or not, including the

  15. Relation between intravascular clots of pulmonary artery and lung perfusion defects: assessment with dual source CT low-dose contrast perfusion imaging%双源CT低剂量对比剂肺灌注成像评估肺动脉内血栓与灌注缺损间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭四平; 沈比先; 陈丽兴; 薛水培; 楚二伟; 刘康; 汪春荣; 贾飞鸽

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relation between intravascular clots of pulmonaiy artery and lung perfusion defects with dual source CT low-dose contrast perfusion imaging. Materials and Methods: Image quality of low-dose and conventional dose dual energy lung perfusion imaging (DEP1) in 15 patients without pulmonary embolism (PE) was analyzed. Twenty consecutive patients with suspected PE underwent dual source CT low-dose contrast perfusion imaging. CT pulmonary angiogra-phy (CTPA) and lung perfusion images were analyzed at the same time. Intravascular clots of pulmonary artery were analyzed,including the location,number and morphology by the axial image and three-dimensional reconstruction of CTPA. Lung perfusion defects and its location,extent were evaluated with lung PBV software on the workstation. The relationship between in-trava8Cular clots of pulmonary artery and lung perfusion defects were analyzed statistically. Results: No significant difference was found in the image quality of low-dose and conventional dose DEPI of patients without PE(P>0.05). One hundred and two perfusion defects were found in 13 patients by pulmonary perfusion imaging,including lobular,segmental and BubsegmentaJ perfusion defects. Six perfusion defects in 4 cases had no clear intravascular clots. Images of axial CTPA and three-dimensional reconstruction showed 43 intravascular clots in 11 patients. Two cases with 5 intravascular clots depicted by CTPA showed no perfusion defects. Nine cases showed both intravascular clots and perfusion defects,with 21 perfusion defects unrelated to the blood supply areas of pulmonary artery(8 segmental and 13 subsegmental),and the remaining 75 perfusion defects consistent with the blood supply areas of pulmonary artery. Conclusion: There is unexpected dissociation between the intravascular clots of pulmonary artery and lung perfusion defects. Analysing the perfusion maps and CTPA of dual source CT low-dose contrast perfusion image will improve the accuracy

  16. Evaluation of ovine milk clotting aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caroli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the lactodynamographic parameters was carried out on ovine milk. Besides evaluating the repeatability and reproducibility of the analytical method, the influence of some variables such as the genetic type (three breeds, the kind of milk (whole or skimmed, and its concentration after reconstitution (12g or 20g /100 ml was evaluated. The working plan involved 6 laboratories for the final statistic analyses, by the use of freeze-dried milk samples (adequately reconstituted on the basis of established methods from Sardinia, Comisana, and Massese ewes. All the considered variability factors showed a highly significant effect (P<0.001 on the lactodynamographic parameters considered. In particular, Massese ewe milk showed the shortest curd speed (k20 and the best coagulum strength (a30 and a45, although clotting time (CT was the highest one. The same trend was registered for skimmed milk and for the most concentrated one (20g. Repeatability values within laboratories were 96% and 97% for CT and k20, lowering for a30 e a45, (respectively 87% and 85%. Much lower coefficients were found for the among laboratories reproducibility, ranging from a maximum of 58% for CT to a minimum of 18% for k20. The wide variability observed indicates that lactodynamographic parameters are comparable only within the same lab. Further investigation is needed to compare different labs in order to obtain more homogeneous results.

  17. Problems concerning ovine milk clotting aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the lactodynamographic parameters was carried out on ovine milk. Besides evaluating the repeatability and reproducibility of the analytical method, the influence of some variables such as the genetic type (three breeds, the kind of milk (whole or skimmed, and its concentration after reconstitution (12g or 20g /100 ml was evaluated. The working plan involved 6 laboratories for the final statistic analyses, by the use of freeze-dried milk samples (adequately reconstituted on the basis of established methods from Sardinia, Comisana, and Massese ewes. All the considered variability factors showed a highly significant effect (P<0.001 on the lactodynamographic parameters considered. In particular, Massese ewe milk showed the shortest curd speed (k20 and the best coagulum strength (a30 and a45, although clotting time (CT was the highest one. The same trend was registered for skimmed milk and for the most concentrated one (20g. Repeatability values within laboratories were 96% and 97% for CT and k20, lowering for a30 e a45, (respectively 87% and 85%. Much lower coefficients were found for the among laboratories reproducibility, ranging from a maximum of 58% for CT to a minimum of 18% for k20. The wide variability observed indicates that lactodynamographic parameters are comparable only within the same lab. Further investigation is needed to compare different labs in order to obtain more homogeneous results.

  18. Inhibitory Effect of ADP Receptor in Platelets on Clot Formation Assessed by Thromboelastography%血栓弹力图评价血小板ADP受体抑制率对血凝块形成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎金庆; 周合冰; 郭金成; 张娟; 曾惠

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解血小板ADP受体抑制率对血凝块形成的影响,及其与年龄、性别的关系.方法 联用氯吡格雷和阿司匹林的急性冠脉综合征80例,血栓弹力图测定血小板ADP受体抑制率和ADP通道的R时间、K时间、α角、MA值和TMA.结果 80例患者ADP受体抑制率为66.4±24.6%,R时间为0.7±0.4 mm,α角为54.8°±13.7°,MA值为27.1±15.0 mm,TMA为15.9±7.8 min,K时间为6.2±4.6 min(n=51).ADP受体抑制率对R时间无影响(P>0.05);随抑制率增高,a角缩小,MA值降低,TMA缩短,K时间延长并且无K时间病例增多(P<0.05).各年龄段之间、男女患者之间ADP受体抑制率比较均无差别(P>0.05).结论 抑制血小板ADP受体不利于血凝块形成,随抑制率增高,血凝块形成减慢、强度变小;抑制率大小与年龄性别无关.%Objective To study the inhibitory effect of ADP receplor in platelets on clot formation and its associalion with age and gender. Methods 80 patients with acute coronary syndrome were treated with clopidogrel (75 mg) in combination with aspirin ( 100 mg) daily. Inhibitory rate of ADP receptor in platelets were detected by thromboelastography. The following variables of ADP channel were also recorded : R time, K time ,a angle,maximum amplitude (MA) and time to MA ( TMA). Results The inhibitory rate of ADP receptor was 66. 4 ±24. 6% . The R time ,α angle , MA and TMA of ADP channel were 0. 7 ±0. 4 min ,54. 8° ± 13. 7°,27. I ± 15. 0 mm and 15. 9 ±7. 8 min , respectively. The K time was 6. 2 ±4. 6 min( n =51 ) ,with 29 cases having no K time because of MA < 20 mm. Inhibition of ADP receptor had no effect on R time( P > 0. 05).The α angle became smaller,the MA decreased .and the TMA became shorter with the increasing ADP receptor inhibition rate (P <0. 05) . The number of cases having no K time was increased when the K time became longer. Comparison of inhibition rate between different age group, between male and female was not significant

  19. Unusual clotting dynamics of plasma supplemented with iron(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankun, Jerzy; Landeta, Philip; Pretorius, Etheresia; Skrzypczak-Jankun, Ewa; Lipinski, Bogusław

    2014-02-01

    Iron salts are used in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Diabetic patients are frequently anemic and treatment includes administration of iron. Anemic patients on hemodialysis are at an increased risk of thromboembolic coronary events associated with the formation of dense fibrin clots resistant to fibrinolysis. Moreover, in chronic kidney disease patients, high labile plasma iron levels associated with iron supplementation are involved in complications found in dialyzed patients such as myocardial infarction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether iron treatment is involved in the formation of the fibrin clots. Clotting of citrated plasma supplemented with Fe(3+) was investigated by thromboelastometry and electron microscopy. The results revealed that iron modifies coagulation in a complex manner. FeCl(3) stock solution underwent gradual chemical modification during storage and altered the coagulation profile over 29 days, suggesting that Fe(3+) interacts with both proteins of the coagulation cascade as well as the hydrolytic Fe(3+) species. Iron extends clotting of plasma by interacting with proteins of the coagulation cascade. Fe(3+) and/or its hydrolytic species interact with fibrinogen and/or fibrin changing their morphology and properties. In general FeCl(3) weakens the fibrin clot while at the same time precipitating plasma proteins immediately after application. Fe(3+) or its derivatives induced the formation of insoluble coagulums in non-enzymatic reactions including albumin and transferrin. Iron plays a role in coagulation and can precipitate plasma proteins. The formation of coagulums resistant to lysis in non‑enzymatic reactions can increase the risk of thrombosis, and extending clotting of plasma can prolong bleeding.

  20. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots during the first several weeks of recovery from surgery. Warning Signs of Blood Clots Pain ... herein. This information is provided as an educational service and is not intended to serve as medical ...

  1. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

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    Full Text Available ... Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery One of the major risks facing patients who undergo surgery is a complication ... on the legs and hip are especially at risk. A pulmonary embolism is a blood clot that ...

  2. Identification of quantitative trait loci for fibrin clot phenotypes: The EuroCLOT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frances MK; Carter, Angela M; Kato, Bernet; Falchi, Mario; Bathum, Lise; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Palotie, Aarno; Spector, Tim D; Grant, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Fibrin makes up the structural basis of an occlusive arterial thrombus and variability in fibrin phenotype relates to cardiovascular risk. The aims of the current study from the EU consortium EuroCLOT were to 1) determine the heritability of fibrin phenotypes and 2) identify QTLs associated with fibrin phenotypes. Methods 447 dizygotic (DZ) and 460 monozygotic (MZ) pairs of healthy UK Caucasian female twins and 199 DZ twin pairs from Denmark were studied. D-dimer, an indicator of fibrin turnover, was measured by ELISA and measures of clot formation, morphology and lysis were determined by turbidimetric assays. Heritability estimates and genome-wide linkage analysis were performed. Results Estimates of heritability for d-dimer and turbidometric variables were in the range 17 - 46%, with highest levels for maximal absorbance which provides an estimate of clot density. Genome-wide linkage analysis revealed 6 significant regions with LOD>3 on 5 chromosomes (5, 6, 9, 16 and 17). Conclusions The results indicate a significant genetic contribution to variability in fibrin phenotypes and highlight regions in the human genome which warrant further investigation in relation to ischaemic cardiovascular disorders and their therapy. PMID:19150881

  3. Abolished ventilation and perfusion of lung caused by blood clot in the left main bronchus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Bergmann, A; Henriksen, J H

    2015-01-01

    /Q) scintigraphy with single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT. V/Q SPECT/CT demonstrated abolished ventilation due to obstruction of the left main bronchus and markedly reduced perfusion of the entire left lung, a condition that was completely reversed after removal of a blood clot. We present the first pictorially......It is generally assumed that the lungs possess arterial autoregulation associated with bronchial obstruction. A patient with pneumonia and congestive heart failure unexpectedly developed frequent haemoptysis. High-resolution CT and diagnostic CT were performed as well as ventilation/perfusion (V...

  4. Fibrin clot formation and lysis: basic mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, JJ; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    induced by coagulation factor XIII (FXIII), and the degradation of fibrinogen and fibrin mediated by plasmin and elastase. Furthermore, factors influencing fibrin structure and fibrin breakdown are addressed; in particular polymorphisms in the genes coding for fibrinogen and FXIII, but also the physical...

  5. Effects of aspirin on clot structure and fibrinolysis using a novel in vitro cellular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjan, R A; Standeven, K F; Khanbhai, M; Phoenix, F; Gersh, K C; Weisel, J W; Kearney, M T; Ariëns, R A S; Grant, P J

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the direct effects of aspirin on fibrin structure/function. Chinese Hamster Ovary cell lines stably transfected with fibrinogen were grown in the absence (0) and presence of increasing concentrations of aspirin. Fibrinogen was purified from the media using affinity chromatography, and clots were made from recombinant protein. Mean final turbidity [OD(+/-SEM)] was 0.083(+/-0.03), 0.093(+/-0.002), 0.101(+/-0.005), and 0.125(+/-0.003) in clots made from 0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/L aspirin-treated fibrinogen, respectively (Paspirin respectively (Pstructure and increased fiber thickness of clots made from aspirin-treated fibrinogen, whereas rheometer studies showed a significant 30% reduction in clot rigidity. Fibrinolysis was quicker in clots made from aspirin-treated fibrinogen. Ex vivo studies in 3 normal volunteers given 150 mg aspirin daily for 1 week demonstrated similar changes in clot structure/function. Aspirin directly altered clot structure resulting in the formation of clots with thicker fibers and bigger pores, which are easier to lyse. This study clearly demonstrates an alternative mode of action for aspirin, which should be considered in studies evaluating the biochemical efficacy of this agent.

  6. [Results of fibrin clot application for acceleration of regeneration of the damaged mandible in experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maĭborodin, I V; Kolesnikov, I S; Shevela, A I; Sheplev, B V; Drovosekov, M N; Toder, M S

    2011-01-01

    The processes of regeneration of the damaged rat bottom jaw bone after application of enriched thrombocytes a fibrin clot were studied by morphological and radiovisiographic methods. At a natural course of regeneration the artificial aperture of bone was filled with blood and there the blood clot was formed. After 1 week the separate bone islets of a young tissue occurred in bone defect. In 2-3 weeks the aperture in a bottom jaw bone was completely closed by a young bone tissue. After operation with filling of bone bottom jaw defect by fibrin clot there was no formation of a blood clot. Already after 1 week the bone tissue defect was filled by the merged islets of again generated bone. By second week after fibrin use the further formation of bone tissue in defect and formation of a bone callosity was noted.

  7. Mesoscopic Modeling of Blood Clotting: Coagulation Cascade and Platelets Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Alireza; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George

    2015-11-01

    The process of clot formation and growth at a site on a blood vessel wall involve a number of multi-scale simultaneous processes including: multiple chemical reactions in the coagulation cascade, species transport and flow. To model these processes we have incorporated advection-diffusion-reaction (ADR) of multiple species into an extended version of Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method which is considered as a coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics method. At the continuum level this is equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equation plus one advection-diffusion equation for each specie. The chemistry of clot formation is now understood to be determined by mechanisms involving reactions among many species in dilute solution, where reaction rate constants and species diffusion coefficients in plasma are known. The role of blood particulates, i.e. red cells and platelets, in the clotting process is studied by including them separately and together in the simulations. An agonist-induced platelet activation mechanism is presented, while platelets adhesive dynamics based on a stochastic bond formation/dissociation process is included in the model.

  8. An Evaluation of a Factor Xa-Based Clotting Time Test for Enoxaparin: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Deborah P J; Duffull, Stephen B; Faed, James M; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Gulati, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    A well-accepted test for monitoring anticoagulation by enoxaparin is not currently available. As inadequate dosing may result in thrombosis or bleeding, a clinical need exists for a suitable test. Previous in silico and in vitro studies have identified factor Xa as an appropriate activating agent, and the phospholipid Actin FS as a cofactor for a Xa clotting time (TenaCT) test. A proof-of-concept study was designed to (1) explore the reproducibility of the TenaCT test and (2) explore factors that could affect the performance of the test. In vitro clotting time tests were carried out using plasma from 20 healthy volunteers. The effect of enoxaparin was determined at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 IU/mL. Clotting times for the volunteers were significantly prolonged with increasing enoxaparin concentrations. Clotting times were significantly shortened for frozen plasma samples. No significant differences in prolongation of clotting times were observed between male and female volunteers or between the 2 evaluated age groups. The clotting times were consistent between 2 separate occasions. The TenaCT test was able to distinguish between the subtherapeutic and therapeutic concentrations of enoxaparin. Plasma should not be frozen prior to performing the test, without defining a frozen plasma reference range. This study provided proof-of-concept for a Xa-based test that can detect enoxaparin dose effects, but additional studies are needed to further develop the test.

  9. Fibrin clot properties and haemostatic function in men and women with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Sara; Jörneskog, Gun; Ågren, Anna; Lins, Per-Eric; Wallén, Håkan; Antovic, Aleksandra

    2015-02-01

    The increased risk of vascular complications in type 1 diabetes may in part be explained by changes in haemostatic function. In the present study, we investigated the fibrin clot properties in patients with type 1 diabetes in relation to sex and microvascular complications. The study included 236 patients (107 women) aged between 20-70 years and without any history of cardiovascular disease. Fibrin clot properties, assessed by determination of the permeability coefficient (Ks) and turbidimetric clotting and lysis assays, did not differ between men and women. Compared with men, women had worse glycaemic control as well as higher levels of prothrombin fragment 1+2 and peak thrombin generation in vitro, indicating increased thrombin generation both in vivo and in vitro. Subgroup analyses of patients younger than 30 years revealed less permeable fibrin clots and prolonged lysis time in females compared with age-matched men. Patients with microvascular complications had higher fibrinogen concentrations and denser and less permeable fibrin clots. Thus, we conclude that in vitro fibrin clot properties in patients with type 1 diabetes without cardiovascular disease are not different between the sexes, but associate with prevalence of microvascular complications. Tighter fibrin clot formation in younger women, as suggested by our results, may affect their future cardiovascular risk and should be investigated in a larger population.

  10. Blood clot detection using magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Friedman, Bruce; Berwin, Brent; Shi, Yipeng; Ness, Dylan B.; Weaver, John B.

    2017-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis, the development of blood clots in the peripheral veins, is a very serious, life threatening condition that is prevalent in the elderly. To deliver proper treatment that enhances the survival rate, it is very important to detect thrombi early and at the point of care. We explored the ability of magnetic particle spectroscopy (MSB) to detect thrombus via specific binding of aptamer functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with the blood clot. MSB uses the harmonics produced by nanoparticles in an alternating magnetic field to measure the rotational freedom and, therefore, the bound state of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles’ relaxation time for Brownian rotation increases when bound [A.M. Rauwerdink and J. B. Weaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 1 (2010)]. The relaxation time can therefore be used to characterize the nanoparticle binding to thrombin in the blood clot. For longer relaxation times, the approach to saturation is more gradual reducing the higher harmonics and the harmonic ratio. The harmonic ratios of nanoparticles conjugated with anti-thrombin aptamers (ATP) decrease significantly over time with blood clot present in the sample medium, compared with nanoparticles without ATP. Moreover, the blood clot removed from the sample medium produced a significant MSB signal, indicating the nanoparticles are immobilized on the clot. Our results show that MSB could be a very useful non-invasive, quick tool to detect blood clots at the point of care so proper treatment can be used to reduce the risks inherent in deep vein thrombosis.

  11. Protein-phospholipid interactions in blood clotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, James H; Davis-Harrison, Rebecca L; Tavoosi, Narjes; Ke, Ke; Pureza, Vincent; Boettcher, John M; Clay, Mary C; Rienstra, Chad M; Ohkubo, Y Zenmei; Pogorelov, Taras V; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2010-04-01

    Most steps of the blood clotting cascade require the assembly of a serine protease with its specific regulatory protein on a suitable phospholipid bilayer. Unfortunately, the molecular details of how blood clotting proteins bind to membrane surfaces remain poorly understood, owing to a dearth of techniques for studying protein-membrane interactions at high resolution. Our laboratories are tackling this question using a combination of approaches, including nanoscale membrane bilayers, solid-state NMR, and large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. These studies are now providing structural insights at atomic resolution into clotting protein-membrane interactions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

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    Full Text Available ... Surgeons. Many of the images included in this video are courtesy of Thinkstock ©2013. Warning Signs It is important to follow your doctor's instructions carefully to minimize the risk for blood clots ...

  13. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

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    Full Text Available ... of a blood clot within a deep vein. It commonly occurs in the thigh or calf. Deep ... breaks free and travels through the veins. If it reaches the lungs, it can block the flow ...

  14. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

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    Full Text Available ... recovery from surgery. Warning Signs of Blood Clots Pain in your calf and leg, unrelated to your ... of Pulmonary Embolism Sudden shortness of breath Chest pain, particularly with breathing Notify your doctor immediately if ...

  15. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Safety Patient Stories Resources Copyright 2017 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic ... about DVT and its prevention. This video © American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Many of the images included ...

  16. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bones & Injuries Diseases & Conditions Arthritis Tumors Sports Injuries & Prevention Children Bone Health Health & Safety Treatment Treatments & Surgeries ... Your doctor will outline a program to help prevent the development of blood clots after your surgery. ...

  17. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bones & Injuries Diseases & Conditions Arthritis Tumors Sports Injuries & Prevention Children Bone Health Health & Safety Treatment Treatments & Surgeries ... Your doctor will outline a program to help prevent the development of blood clots after your surgery. ...

  18. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a blood clot within a deep vein. It commonly occurs in the thigh or calf. Deep ... breaks free and travels through the veins. If it reaches the lungs, it can block the flow ...

  19. Utility of single-energy and dual-energy computed tomography in clot characterization: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Michalak, Gregory; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Dai, Daying; Gilvarry, Michael; Duffy, Sharon; Kallmes, David F; McCollough, Cynthia; Leng, Shuai

    2017-06-01

    Background and purpose Because computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly used imaging modality for the evaluation of acute ischemic stroke patients, developing CT-based techniques for improving clot characterization could prove useful. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to determine which single-energy or dual-energy CT techniques provided optimum discrimination between red blood cell (RBC) and fibrin-rich clots. Materials and methods Seven clot types with varying fibrin and RBC densities were made (90% RBC, 99% RBC, 63% RBC, 36% RBC, 18% RBC and 0% RBC with high and low fibrin density) and their composition was verified histologically. Ten of each clot type were created and scanned with a second generation dual source scanner using three single (80 kV, 100 kV, 120 kV) and two dual-energy protocols (80/Sn 140 kV and 100/Sn 140 kV). A region of interest (ROI) was placed over each clot and mean attenuation was measured. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated at each energy level to determine the accuracy at differentiating RBC-rich clots from fibrin-rich clots. Results Clot attenuation increased with RBC content at all energy levels. Single-energy at 80 kV and 120 kV and dual-energy 80/Sn 140 kV protocols allowed for distinguishing between all clot types, with the exception of 36% RBC and 18% RBC. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the 80/Sn 140 kV dual-energy protocol had the highest area under the curve for distinguishing between fibrin-rich and RBC-rich clots (area under the curve 0.99). Conclusions Dual-energy CT with 80/Sn 140 kV had the highest accuracy for differentiating RBC-rich and fibrin-rich in-vitro thrombi. Further studies are needed to study the utility of non-contrast dual-energy CT in thrombus characterization in acute ischemic stroke.

  20. Mechanical stability and fibrinolytic resistance of clots containing fibrin, DNA, and histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, Colin; Varjú, Imre; Sótonyi, Péter; Szabó, László; Krumrey, Michael; Hoell, Armin; Bóta, Attila; Varga, Zoltán; Komorowicz, Erzsébet; Kolev, Krasimir

    2013-03-08

    Neutrophil extracellular traps are networks of DNA and associated proteins produced by nucleosome release from activated neutrophils in response to infection stimuli and have recently been identified as key mediators between innate immunity, inflammation, and hemostasis. The interaction of DNA and histones with a number of hemostatic factors has been shown to promote clotting and is associated with increased thrombosis, but little is known about the effects of DNA and histones on the regulation of fibrin stability and fibrinolysis. Here we demonstrate that the addition of histone-DNA complexes to fibrin results in thicker fibers (increase in median diameter from 84 to 123 nm according to scanning electron microscopy data) accompanied by improved stability and rigidity (the critical shear stress causing loss of fibrin viscosity increases from 150 to 376 Pa whereas the storage modulus of the gel increases from 62 to 82 pascals according to oscillation rheometric data). The effects of DNA and histones alone are subtle and suggest that histones affect clot structure whereas DNA changes the way clots are lysed. The combination of histones + DNA significantly prolongs clot lysis. Isothermal titration and confocal microscopy studies suggest that histones and DNA bind large fibrin degradation products with 191 and 136 nM dissociation constants, respectively, interactions that inhibit clot lysis. Heparin, which is known to interfere with the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, appears to prolong lysis time at a concentration favoring ternary histone-DNA-heparin complex formation, and DNase effectively promotes clot lysis in combination with tissue plasminogen activator.

  1. Mechanical Stability and Fibrinolytic Resistance of Clots Containing Fibrin, DNA, and Histones*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, Colin; Varjú, Imre; Sótonyi, Péter; Szabó, László; Krumrey, Michael; Hoell, Armin; Bóta, Attila; Varga, Zoltán; Komorowicz, Erzsébet; Kolev, Krasimir

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps are networks of DNA and associated proteins produced by nucleosome release from activated neutrophils in response to infection stimuli and have recently been identified as key mediators between innate immunity, inflammation, and hemostasis. The interaction of DNA and histones with a number of hemostatic factors has been shown to promote clotting and is associated with increased thrombosis, but little is known about the effects of DNA and histones on the regulation of fibrin stability and fibrinolysis. Here we demonstrate that the addition of histone-DNA complexes to fibrin results in thicker fibers (increase in median diameter from 84 to 123 nm according to scanning electron microscopy data) accompanied by improved stability and rigidity (the critical shear stress causing loss of fibrin viscosity increases from 150 to 376 Pa whereas the storage modulus of the gel increases from 62 to 82 pascals according to oscillation rheometric data). The effects of DNA and histones alone are subtle and suggest that histones affect clot structure whereas DNA changes the way clots are lysed. The combination of histones + DNA significantly prolongs clot lysis. Isothermal titration and confocal microscopy studies suggest that histones and DNA bind large fibrin degradation products with 191 and 136 nm dissociation constants, respectively, interactions that inhibit clot lysis. Heparin, which is known to interfere with the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, appears to prolong lysis time at a concentration favoring ternary histone-DNA-heparin complex formation, and DNase effectively promotes clot lysis in combination with tissue plasminogen activator. PMID:23293023

  2. Methane hydrate distribution from prolonged and repeated formation in natural and compacted sand samples: X-ray CT observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, E.V.L.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Seol, Y.

    2010-07-01

    To study physical properties of methane gas hydrate-bearing sediments, it is necessary to synthesize laboratory samples due to the limited availability of cores from natural deposits. X-ray computed tomography (CT) and other observations have shown gas hydrate to occur in a number of morphologies over a variety of sediment types. To aid in understanding formation and growth patterns of hydrate in sediments, methane hydrate was repeatedly formed in laboratory-packed sand samples and in a natural sediment core from the Mount Elbert Stratigraphic Test Well. CT scanning was performed during hydrate formation and decomposition steps, and periodically while the hydrate samples remained under stable conditions for up to 60 days. The investigation revealed the impact of water saturation on location and morphology of hydrate in both laboratory and natural sediments during repeated hydrate formations. Significant redistribution of hydrate and water in the samples was observed over both the short and long term.

  3. Clot dissolution is better with ultrasound assisted thrombolysis for fresh clots with higher cholesterol content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Murugappan, Kanna Suresh; Ahmad, Aftab

    2012-11-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the only drug for recanalization in acute ischemic stroke, and the dose is determined by the patient's body-weight. Properties of the blood clot as well as ultrasound exposure might affect the thrombolysis outcome. In this study, clot was prepared by mixing horse blood with CaCl2 solution and cholesterin up to 1.0 mg/ml. To simulate the aging effect serum was replaced by fresh blood periodically. 225 IU/ml of tPA was used to initiate lysis. Clot was exposed to continuous 2 MHz transcranial Doppler ultrasound at acoustic intensity of 340 mW/cm2. The weight of the blood clot increased with its age (from 37.28±2.87 mg at 2 hrs to 51.56±5.34 mg at 10 hrs, p < 0.05). Although no difference between clot-cholesterol levels and thrombolysis with ultrasound or tPA alone was found, combination of these modalities induced significant lysis in the clots with cholesterol levels of more than 0.5 mg/ml (clot-weight reduced by 41.68±2.3%) as compared to clots with normal cholesterol (30.60±4.10%; p < 0.05). Altogether, sonothrombolysis seems to work better in fresh thrombi with high-cholesterol levels.

  4. Cavitation damage in blood clots under HIFU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hope; Ahadi, Golnaz; Hoelscher, Thilo; Szeri, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to accelerate thrombolysis, the dissolution of blood clots, in vitro and in vivo, for treatment of ischemic stroke. Cavitation in sonothrombolysis is thought to play an important role, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. The damage to a blood clot associated with bubble collapses in a HIFU field is studied. The region of damage caused by a bubble collapse on the fibrin network of the blood clot exposed to HIFU is estimated, and compared with experimental assessment of the damage. The mechanical damage to the network caused by a bubble is probed using two independent approaches, a strain based method and an energy based method. Immunoflourescent fibrin staining is used to assess the region of damage experimentally.

  5. Blood clotting reactions on nanoscale phospholipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, James H; Pureza, Vincent; Davis-Harrison, Rebecca L; Sligar, Stephen G; Ohkubo, Y Zenmei; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2008-01-01

    Blood clotting reactions, such as those catalyzed by the tissue factor:factor VIIa complex (TF:FVIIa), assemble on membrane surfaces containing anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine (PS). In fact, membrane binding is critical for the function of most of the steps in the blood clotting cascade. In spite of this, our understanding of how the membrane contributes to catalysis, or even how these proteins interact with phospholipids, is incomplete. Making matters more complicated, membranes containing mixtures of PS and neutral phospholipids are known to spontaneously form PS-rich membrane microdomains in the presence of plasma concentrations of calcium ions, and it is likely that blood-clotting proteases such as TF:FVIIa partition into these PS-rich microdomains. Unfortunately, little is known about how membrane microdomain composition influences the activity of blood-clotting proteases, which is typically not under experimental control even in "simple" model membranes. Our laboratories have developed and applied new technologies for studying membrane proteins to gain insights into how blood-clotting protease-cofactor pairs assemble and function on membrane surfaces. This includes using a novel, nanoscale bilayer system (Nanodiscs) that permits assembling blood-clotting protease-cofactor pairs on stable bilayers containing from 65 to 250 phospholipid molecules per leaflet. We have used this system to investigate how local (nanometer-scale) changes in phospholipid bilayer composition modulate TF:FVIIa activity. We have also used detailed molecular-dynamics simulations of nanoscale bilayers to provide atomic-scale predictions of how the membrane-binding domain of factor VIIa interacts with PS in membranes.

  6. Mechanical suction for clot evacuation: experience with "suction bridge" for safe and effective clot removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Apul; Dalela, Diwakar

    2015-05-01

    To present the experience with the use of a "suction bridge" for removal of bladder clots. In all patients presenting with bladder clots, mechanical suction was done using a "suction bridge". This bridge has a luer lock that is fixed to the cystoscope sheath, and the other end is connected to suction tube. The suction pressure was started at 250 mmHg and was increased up to 400 mmHg if needed. Twenty patients with a mean age of 59.4 years were included. The etiologies of bladder clots included bladder tumor in nine, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in two, BPH with bladder stone in one, hematochyluria in three, and post-transurethral prostate resection in 10. Eighteen patients presented in clot retention. The estimated clot size ranged from 50 mL to more than 1 L. The mean duration for clot removal was 15 min (range 5-60). The procedure was successful in all patients. There was no bladder injury. The limitations include the small number of recruits, the non-randomized nature of study, and no control group for comparison. Mechanical suction is another safe, fast, and effective option of clot removal from the urinary bladder. The suction bridge is useful while using this method.

  7. Blood flow measurements and clot detection with nearinfrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Rossow, MJ; Gatto, R.; D'amico, E.; Mantulin, WW; Gratton, E

    2006-01-01

    Detecting impeded blood flow and locating the clot causing it is a major challenge in neurosurgery. We propose an instrument that uses near-infrared spectroscopy to simultaneously detect clots and measure blood flow. © 2006 Optical Society of America.

  8. Investigation of the effect of kaolin and tissue factor-activated citrated whole blood, on clot forming variables, as evaluated by thromboelastograph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Bochsen, L.; Andersen, S.

    2008-01-01

    laboratory-based analysis, however, requires validation of the activators employed and the effect of storage of the WB sample in citrate before analysis. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The effect of kaolin, tissue factor (TF) 1:17,000, or TF 1:42,500 on TEG clotting time (R), Angle (velocity of clot formation......), and maximum clot strength (amplitude [MA]) were evaluated, together with day-to-day variation, the coefficient of variance (CV%), and the effect of citrate storage time. RESULTS: Clot formation variables were equally affected by TF 1:17,000 and kaolin activation, whereas R was significantly longer when TF 1...... minutes were evaluated with kaolin as the activator. CONCLUSION: The TEG assays evaluated were reproducible and present with an acceptable CV% for routine clinical practice. Kaolin and TF 1:17,000 equally affected the clot formation variables. Storage of WB for up to 30 minutes in citrate did not, except...

  9. Identification of fibrin clot-bound plasma proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Talens (Simone); F.W.G. Leebeek (Frank); J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSeveral proteins are known to bind to a fibrin network and to change clot properties or function. In this study we aimed to get an overview of fibrin clot-bound plasma proteins. A plasma clot was formed by adding thrombin, CaCl2 and aprotinin to citrated platelet-poor plasma and unbound

  10. Limitations of using synthetic blood clots for measuring in vitro clot capture efficiency of inferior vena cava filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson RA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ronald A Robinson, Luke H Herbertson, Srilekha Sarkar Das, Richard A Malinauskas, William F Pritchard, Laurence W GrossmanOffice of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USAAbstract: The purpose of this study was first to evaluate the clot capture efficiency and capture location of six currently-marketed vena cava filters in a physiological venous flow loop, using synthetic polyacrylamide hydrogel clots, which were intended to simulate actual blood clots. After observing a measured anomaly for one of the test filters, we redirected the focus of the study to identify the cause of poor clot capture performance for large synthetic hydrogel clots. We hypothesized that the uncharacteristic low clot capture efficiency observed when testing the outlying filter can be attributed to the inadvertent use of dense, stiff synthetic hydrogel clots, and not as a result of the filter design or filter orientation. To study this issue, sheep blood clots and polyacrylamide (PA synthetic clots were injected into a mock venous flow loop containing a clinical inferior vena cava (IVC filter, and their captures were observed. Testing was performed with clots of various diameters (3.2, 4.8, and 6.4 mm, length-to-diameter ratios (1:1, 3:1, 10:1, and stiffness. By adjusting the chemical formulation, PA clots were fabricated to be soft, moderately stiff, or stiff with elastic moduli of 805 ± 2, 1696 ± 10 and 3295 ± 37 Pa, respectively. In comparison, the elastic moduli for freshly prepared sheep blood clots were 1690 ± 360 Pa. The outlying filter had a design that was characterized by peripheral gaps (up to 14 mm between its wire struts. While a low clot capture rate was observed using large, stiff synthetic clots, the filter effectively captured similarly sized sheep blood clots and soft PA clots. Because the stiffer synthetic clots remained straight when approaching the

  11. Brillouin spectroscopy of clotting dynamics in a model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Lopez, Sandra C.; Traverso, Andrew J.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2016-02-01

    Keys to successful treatment of disease include early diagnosis and timely treatment. It is hypothesized that early clotting events may contribute to a pro-thrombotic state that exacerbates atherothrombotic vascular disease. Brillouin spectroscopy involves inelastic coupling of light with phonons and enables viscoelastic characterization of samples at the microscale. In this work, we apply Brillouin spectroscopy to a model fibrinogen-thrombin clotting system with the goal of measuring clotting dynamics at the microscale and providing characterization that is not possible with standard rheometric techniques. Here, the clotting dynamics of the model clotting system are measured at various fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations.

  12. Seamless particle-based modeling of blood clotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Alireza; Karniadakis, George

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new multiscale framework that seamlessly integrate four key components of blood clotting namely, blood rheology, cell mechanics, coagulation kinetics and transport of species and platelet adhesive dynamics. We use transport dissipative particle dynamics (tDPD) which is an extended form of original DPD as the base solver to model both blood flow and the reactive transport of chemical species in the coagulation cascade. Further, we use a coarse-grained representation of blood cell's membrane that accounts for its mechanics; both red blood cells and platelets are resolved at sub-cellular resolution, and stochastic bond formation/dissociation are included to account for platelet adhesive dynamics at the site of injury. Our results show good qualitative agreement with in vivo experiments. The numerical framework allows us to perform systematic analysis on different mechanisms of blood clotting. In addition, this new multiscale particle-based methodology can open new directions in addressing different biological processes from sub-cellular to macroscopic scales. NIH Grant No. U01HL116323.

  13. Determining Human Clot Lysis Time (in vitro with Plasminogen/Plasmin from Four Species (Human, Bovine, Goat, and Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaira Cañas Bermúdez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, including failures in the plasminogen/plasmin system which is an important factor in poor lysis of blood clots. This article studies the fibrinolytic system in four species of mammals, and it identifies human plasminogen with highest thrombolysis efficiency. It examines plasminogen from four species (human, bovine, goat, and swine and identifies the most efficient one in human clot lysis in vitro. All plasminogens were identically purified by affinity chromatography. Human fibrinogen was purified by fractionation with ethanol. The purification of both plasminogen and fibrinogen was characterized by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE (10%. Human clot formation in vitro and its dissolution by plasminogen/plasmin consisted of determining lysis time from clot formation to its dilution. Purification of proteins showed greater than 95% purity, human plasminogen showed greater ability to lyse clot than animal plasminogen. The article concludes that human plasminogen/plasmin has the greatest catalysis and efficiency, as it dissolves human clot up to three times faster than that of irrational species.

  14. Small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoar formation within meckel diverticulum: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazzini, V.I. Jr.; English, W.J.; Bashist, B.; Moore, E. [Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Intestinal obstruction due to a phytobezoar within a Meckel diverticulum is exceedingly rare, with only seven reported cases in the surgical literature. The most important precipitating factor is the ingestion of agents high in fiber and cellulose. Small bowel obstruction in all but one case was due to retrograde propagation of the bezoar into the small bowel lumen. We report the clinical and CT findings in such a patient following a vegetarian diet. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Ultrasonographic imaging of abomasal milk clotting and abomasal diameter in healthy and diarrheic calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Daniela; Schwedhelm, Lea; Wenge, Julia; Steinhöfel, Ilka; Heinrich, Christian; Coenen, Manfred; Bachmann, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    In case of diarrhea calves are treated with oral rehydration solutions (ORS), which are known to increase abomasal pH and inhibit milk clotting in vitro. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that ORS with HCO3(-) ≤ 62 mmol/L do not interfere with abomasal milk clotting in healthy calves. However, in diarrheic calves, feeding ORS and milk simultaneously may disturb abomasal curd formation and exacerbate diarrhea due to faster abomasal passage of ingesta. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to ultrasonographically examine abomasal milk clotting and diameter after feeding milk and milk replacer (MR) with and without ORS to healthy and diarrheic calves. Abomasal curd formation and diameter in healthy and diarrheic calves were ultrasonographically imaged before and after feeding milk, MR and ORS prepared in milk or MR. Feeding mixtures of milk or MR with ORS did not cause any remarkable differences in the ultrasonographic images of abomasal content. Moreover, abomasal milk clotting was not disturbed due to diarrhea. Statistically significant differences of abomasal diameter after feeding between healthy and diarrheic calves indicated that abomasal emptying is delayed in diarrheic calves. Hence, further studies are needed to determine reasons for decelerated abomasal passage in calves suffering from diarrhea.

  16. Protein-membrane interactions: blood clotting on nanoscale bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, J H; Pureza, V; Davis-Harrison, R L; Sligar, S G; Rienstra, C M; Kijac, A Z; Ohkubo, Y Z; Tajkhorshid, E

    2009-07-01

    The clotting cascade requires the assembly of protease-cofactor complexes on membranes with exposed anionic phospholipids. Despite their importance, protein-membrane interactions in clotting remain relatively poorly understood. Calcium ions are known to induce anionic phospholipids to cluster, and we propose that clotting proteins assemble preferentially on such anionic lipid-rich microdomains. Until recently, there was no way to control the partitioning of clotting proteins into or out of specific membrane microdomains, so experimenters only knew the average contributions of phospholipids to blood clotting. The development of nanoscale membrane bilayers (Nanodiscs) has now allowed us to probe, with nanometer resolution, how local variations in phospholipid composition regulate the activity of key protease-cofactor complexes in blood clotting. Furthermore, exciting new progress in solid-state NMR and large-scale molecular dynamics simulations allow structural insights into interactions between proteins and membrane surfaces with atomic resolution.

  17. Characterization of partially purified milk-clotting enzyme from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Assia I A M; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A; Hamid, Omer I A

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to extract milk-clotting enzyme from sunflower seeds and to determine its potentiality for manufacturing white soft cheese from cows and goats milk. The seeds were blended and extracted using two types of buffers and milk-clotting and proteolytic activities were evaluated. The enzyme was partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation techniques. Results indicated that sunflower seeds extracted with 5% NaCl in 50 mmol/L acetate buffer, pH 5.0, had the highest milk-clotting activity (MCA) and lowest coagulation time compared to that extracted with only acetate buffer (pH 5.0). Ammonium sulfate at 30-50% saturation purified the enzyme to 4.3 folds with MCA of 241.0 U/mL and final enzyme yield of 10.9%. The partially purified enzyme was characterized by SDS-PAGE that showed two bands with molecular weight of 120 and 62 kDa. When compared with other plant enzymes, the partially purified sunflower enzyme was found to have higher milk-clotting activity and lower proteolytic activity. Also, both milk sources and enzyme types significantly affected the cheese yield and curd formation time. The cheese made from cow milk using sunflower enzyme had higher yield compared to that obtained using commercial rennet, whereas the opposite was observed when using goat milk.

  18. Spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection complicated by pseudoaneurysm formation in pregnancy: role of CT coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weintraub Nealw F

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of a 26-year-old female, who presented at 34 weeks of an uncomplicated pregnancy with an acute ST elevation anterior wall myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization suggested a left main coronary artery dissection with pseudoaneurysm formation. The patient's course was complicated by congestive heart failure. She was initially managed conservatively by a multidisciplinary team including heart failure specialists, obstetricians, and cardiovascular surgeons. 4 days after admission, her LMC was imaged by dual-source 64 slice Cardiac computed tomography, coronary dissection was identified extending to the lumen, and the presence of pseudoaneurysm was confirmed. She underwent subsequently a staged procedure, which included placement of an intra-aortic balloon pump, cesarean section, and coronary artery bypass grafting. This case illustrates the utility of coronary artery CT imaging to assess the complexity and stability of coronary artery dissections, thereby helping to determine the need for, and timing of revascularization procedures.

  19. Spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection complicated by pseudoaneurysm formation in pregnancy: role of CT coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shahid; Abdul-Waheed, Mohammed; Helmy, Tarek; Huffman, Lynn C; Koshal, Vipin; Guitron, Julian; Merrill, Walter H; Lewis, David F; Dunlap, Stephanie; Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Weintraub, Neal L; Meyer, Christopher; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet

    2009-04-01

    We report a case of a 26-year-old female, who presented at 34 weeks of an uncomplicated pregnancy with an acute ST elevation anterior wall myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization suggested a left main coronary artery dissection with pseudoaneurysm formation. The patient's course was complicated by congestive heart failure. She was initially managed conservatively by a multidisciplinary team including heart failure specialists, obstetricians, and cardiovascular surgeons. 4 days after admission, her LMC was imaged by dual-source 64 slice Cardiac computed tomography, coronary dissection was identified extending to the lumen, and the presence of pseudoaneurysm was confirmed. She underwent subsequently a staged procedure, which included placement of an intra-aortic balloon pump, cesarean section, and coronary artery bypass grafting. This case illustrates the utility of coronary artery CT imaging to assess the complexity and stability of coronary artery dissections, thereby helping to determine the need for, and timing of revascularization procedures.

  20. Clotting of mammalian fibrinogens by papain: a re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Russell F

    2014-10-28

    Papain has long been known to cause the gelation of mammalian fibrinogens. It has also been reported that papain-fibrin is insoluble in dispersing solvents like strong urea or sodium bromide solutions, similar to what is observed with thrombin-generated clots in the presence of factor XIIIa and calcium. In those old studies, both the gelation and subsequent clot stabilization were attributed to papain, although the possibility that the second step might be due to contaminating factor XIII in fibrinogen preparations was considered. I have revisited this problem in light of knowledge acquired over the past half-century about thiol proteases like papain, which mostly cleave peptide bonds, and transglutaminases like factor XIIIa that catalyze the formation of ε-lysyl-γ-glutamyl cross-links. Recombinant fibrinogen, inherently free of factor XIII and other plasma proteins, formed a stable gel when treated with papain alone. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the intermolecular cross-linking in papain-fibrin leads to γ-chain dimers, trimers, and tetramers, just as is the case with thrombin-factor XIIIa-stabilized fibrin. Mass spectrometry of bands excised from gels showed that the cross-linked material is quite different from what occurs with factor XIIIa, however. With papain, the cross-linking occurs between γ chains in neighboring protofibrils becoming covalently linked in a "head-to-tail" fashion by a transpeptidation reaction involving the α-amino group of γ-Tyr1 and a papain cleavage site at γ-Gly403 near the carboxy terminus, rather than by the (reciprocal) "tail-to-tail" manner that occurs with factor XIIIa and that depends on cross-links between γ-Lys406 and γ-Gln398.

  1. Blood-clotting-inspired reversible polymer-colloid composite assembly in flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsieh; Fallah, Mohammad A.; Huck, Volker; Angerer, Jennifer I.; Reininger, Armin J.; Schneider, Stefan W.; Schneider, Matthias F.; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Blood clotting is a process by which a haemostatic plug is assembled at the site of injury. The formation of such a plug, which is essentially a (bio)polymer-colloid composite, is believed to be driven by shear flow in its initial phase, and contrary to our intuition, its assembly is enhanced under stronger flowing conditions. Here, inspired by blood clotting, we show that polymer-colloid composite assembly in shear flow is a universal process that can be tailored to obtain different types of aggregates including loose and dense aggregates, as well as hydrodynamically induced ‘log’-type aggregates. The process is highly controllable and reversible, depending mostly on the shear rate and the strength of the polymer-colloidbinding potential. Our results have important implications for the assembly of polymer-colloid composites, an important challenge of immense technological relevance. Furthermore, flow-driven reversible composite formation represents a new paradigm in non-equilibrium self-assembly.

  2. THE ACTION OF CHLORINATED ANTISEPTICS ON BLOOD CLOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Herbert D.; Stebbins, Marianne G.

    1919-01-01

    This work demonstrates that the chlorinated antiseptics have no power to penetrate blood clots and destroy bacteria therein contained. Correspondingly, blood clots may protect virulent bacteria for a long period of time and the organisms properly planted will be able to proliferate in a normal manner. PMID:19868298

  3. Altered plasma fibrin clot properties in essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małecki, Rafał; Gacka, Małgorzata; Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, Małgorzata; Jakobsche-Policht, Urszula; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Adamiec, Rajmund; Undas, Anetta

    2016-01-01

    Patients with increased thromboembolic risk tend to form denser fibrin clots which are relatively resistant to lysis. We sought to investigate whether essential thrombocythemia (ET) is associated with altered fibrin clot properties in plasma. Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot permeability coefficient (Ks), turbidimetry and clot lysis time (CLT) were measured in 43 consecutive patients with ET (platelet count from 245 to 991 × 10(3)/µL) and 50 control subjects matched for age, sex and comorbidities. Fibrinolysis proteins and inhibitors together with platelet activation markers were determined. Reduced Ks (-38%, p Ks inversely correlated with fibrinogen, PF4 and C-reactive protein. CLT positively correlated only with PAI-1. Patients with ET display prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype including impaired fibrinolysis, which represents a new prothrombotic mechanism in this disease.

  4. Large Right Ventricular Clot in Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum: In Defense of Biventricular Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Nilanjan; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Awasthy, Neeraj; Iyer, Parvathi U; Girotra, Sumir; Iyer, Krishna S

    2016-09-01

    Thrombus formation within the right ventricle (RV) in the setting of pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAIVS) is not a very common occurrence and can be catastrophic. We present the case of a seven-month-old child with PAIVS and RV clot who successfully underwent biventricular repair. We discuss the interesting case and the rationale for management by means of biventricular repair over single ventricle repair when feasible in such a setting.

  5. Rice body formation in bicipito-radial bursitis: ultrasound, CT, and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, L.D.; Adams, J.; Eustace, S. [Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, One Boston Medical Center Place, Boston MA 02118 (United States); Gibbons, D. [Department of Pathology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mason, M.D. [Department of Orthopedics, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The bicipito-radial bursa, which lies at the biceps tendon insertion on the radial tuberosity, is a rare site of chronic bursitis. We describe the clinical, radiological, and pathological findings in a case complicated by multiple rice body formation. In so doing, we describe MR appearances that allow discrimination of this entity from both synovial chondromatosis and pigmented villonodular synovitis. (orig.) With 3 figs., 8 refs.

  6. Fibronectin provides a conduit for fibroblast transmigration from collagenous stroma into fibrin clot provisional matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiling, D; Clark, R A

    1997-04-01

    After injury, the wound space is filled with a fibrin/fibronectin clot containing growth factors released by platelets and monocytes. In response to these factors, fibroblasts migrate into the fibrin clot and contribute to the formation of granulation tissue. The functional mechanisms allowing fibroblasts to leave the collagenous matrix of normal connective tissue and invade the provisional matrix of the fibrin clot have not been fully defined. To investigate these mechanisms we established a new in vitro model which simulates specific aspects of early wound healing, that is, the migration of fibroblasts from a three-dimensional collagen matrix into a fibrin clot. This transmigration could be induced by physiological concentrations of platelet releasate or platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) in a concentration-dependent manner. At 24 hours irradiated fibroblasts invaded the fibrin gel almost as well as non-irradiated cells, indicating that transmigration was independent of proliferation. Plasminogen and its activators appear to be necessary for invasion of the fibrin clot since protease inhibitors decreased the amount of migration. These serine proteases, however, were not necessary for exit from the collagen gel as fibroblasts migrated out of the collagen gel onto a surface coated with fibrin fibrils even in the presence of inhibitors. Removal of fibronectin (FN) from either the collagen gel or the fibrin gel markedly decreased the number of migrating cells, suggesting that FN provides a conduit for transmigration. Cell movement in the in vitro model was inhibited by RGD peptide, and by monoclonal antibodies against the subunits of the alpha5 beta1 and alpha v beta3 integrin receptor. Thus, the functional requirements for fibroblast transmigration from collagen-rich to fibrin-rich matrices, such as occurs in early wound healing, have been partially defined using an in vitro paradigm of this important biologic process.

  7. Monitoring of the Formation and Development Process for Infection and Inflammation Using F-18 FDG, PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan Ertay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many radiopharmaceuticals have been evaluated extensively in both preclinical and clinical studies as potential diagnostic agents to identify the sites of infection. There is a definite role of FDG-PET in diagnosis, extent of assessing the disease, evaluation of treatment response and disease activity in patients with infections and inflammation. The aim of the study, the process of formation and development of infection and inflammation is monitored using (18 F 2’-deoxy-2-fluoroD-glucose (F-18 FDG by Positron Emission Computed Tomography (PET-CT. Methods: In this study, sterile abscess was induced by using turpentine and infected abscess was induced by using Staphylococcus aureus atcc 25923 strain on rats. In the abscess formation on rats, three grups rats were used as sterile, infected and control grups. There were examined male White Wistar Rats, the clinical healthy animals were 150-220 gr body weight. Bacterial strain and rat model for abscess formation for infected abscess formation on rats (n=7, S. aureus 0.5 ml 107 CFU/ml was inoculated in the right arm of the rats as subcutaneous. For sterile abscess formation on rats (n=7 0.2-0.4 ml turpentine (sigma-aldrich was injected into the right arm of the rats as subcutaneous. In control group (n=6, 0.5 ml 0.9% NaCl was injected into the right arm of the rats as subcutaneous. First day imsaging was acquired 24 hours after inoculation of S.aureus and turpentine. 1 mCi 18F-FDG was injected intravenously via the tail vein. Prior to 18F-FDG injection, rats fasted at least 4 hours and well hydrated. Imaging was done using PET-CT (PHILIPS Gemini TF, beginning 1 hour following injection of 18F-FDG IV in the first day and at intervals of 24 hours for five days. First day imaging was performed 1. hour after IV injection of 18F-FDG to obtain optimum imaging time. PET/CT images were visually and semiquantitatively assessed. For semiquantitative analysis of the PET images, a region of interest

  8. Fibrin clot structure and platelet aggregation in patients with aspirin treatment failure.

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    Søs Neergaard-Petersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aspirin is a cornerstone in prevention of cardiovascular events and modulates both platelet aggregation and fibrin clot formation. Some patients experience cardiovascular events whilst on aspirin, often termed aspirin treatment failure (ATF. This study evaluated both platelet aggregation and fibrin clot structure in patients with ATF. METHODS: We included 177 stable coronary artery disease patients on aspirin monotherapy. Among these, 116 (66% had ATF defined as myocardial infarction (MI whilst on aspirin. Platelet aggregation was assessed by Multiplate® aggregometry and VerifyNow®, whereas turbidimetric assays and scanning electron microscopy were employed to study fibrin clot characteristics. RESULTS: Enhanced platelet aggregation was observed in patients with ATF compared with non-MI patients following stimulation with arachidonic acid 1.0 mM (median 161 (IQR 95; 222 vs. 97 (60; 1776 AU*min, p = 0.005 and collagen 1.0 µg/mL (293 (198; 427 vs. 220 (165; 370 AU*min, p = 0.03. Similarly, clot maximum absorbance, a measure of fibrin network density, was increased in patients with ATF (0.48 (0.41; 0.52 vs. 0.42 (0.38; 0.50, p = 0.02, and this was associated with thinner fibres (mean ± SD: 119.7±27.5 vs. 127.8±31.1 nm, p = 0.003 and prolonged lysis time (552 (498; 756 vs. 519 (468; 633 seconds; p = 0.02. Patients with ATF also had increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP (1.34 (0.48; 2.94 and 0.88 (0.32; 1.77 mg/L, p = 0.01 compared with the non-MI group. Clot maximum absorbance correlated with platelet aggregation (r = 0.31-0.35, p-values<0.001 and CRP levels (r = 0.60, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with aspirin treatment failure showed increased platelet aggregation and altered clot structure with impaired fibrinolysis compared with stable CAD patients without previous MI. These findings suggest that an increased risk of aspirin treatment failure may be identified by measuring both platelet

  9. Fibrin clot structure and platelet aggregation in patients with aspirin treatment failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neergaard-Petersen, Søs; Ajjan, Ramzi; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Hess, Katharina; Larsen, Sanne Bøjet; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin is a cornerstone in prevention of cardiovascular events and modulates both platelet aggregation and fibrin clot formation. Some patients experience cardiovascular events whilst on aspirin, often termed aspirin treatment failure (ATF). This study evaluated both platelet aggregation and fibrin clot structure in patients with ATF. We included 177 stable coronary artery disease patients on aspirin monotherapy. Among these, 116 (66%) had ATF defined as myocardial infarction (MI) whilst on aspirin. Platelet aggregation was assessed by Multiplate® aggregometry and VerifyNow®, whereas turbidimetric assays and scanning electron microscopy were employed to study fibrin clot characteristics. Enhanced platelet aggregation was observed in patients with ATF compared with non-MI patients following stimulation with arachidonic acid 1.0 mM (median 161 (IQR 95; 222) vs. 97 (60; 1776) AU*min, p = 0.005) and collagen 1.0 µg/mL (293 (198; 427) vs. 220 (165; 370) AU*min, p = 0.03). Similarly, clot maximum absorbance, a measure of fibrin network density, was increased in patients with ATF (0.48 (0.41; 0.52) vs. 0.42 (0.38; 0.50), p = 0.02), and this was associated with thinner fibres (mean ± SD: 119.7±27.5 vs. 127.8±31.1 nm, p = 0.003) and prolonged lysis time (552 (498; 756) vs. 519 (468; 633) seconds; p = 0.02). Patients with ATF also had increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (1.34 (0.48; 2.94) and 0.88 (0.32; 1.77) mg/L, p = 0.01) compared with the non-MI group. Clot maximum absorbance correlated with platelet aggregation (r = 0.31-0.35, p-valuesaspirin treatment failure showed increased platelet aggregation and altered clot structure with impaired fibrinolysis compared with stable CAD patients without previous MI. These findings suggest that an increased risk of aspirin treatment failure may be identified by measuring both platelet function and fibrin clot structure.

  10. A new device for measurement of fibrin clot lysis: application to the Euglobulin Clot Lysis Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brohée D

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determination of clot lysis times on whole blood, diluted whole blood, plasma or plasma fraction has been used for many years to assess the overall activity of the fibrinolytic system. We designed a completely computerised semi-automatic 8-channel device for measurement and determination of fibrin clot lysis. The lysis time is evaluated by a mathematical analysis of the lysis curve and the results are expressed in minute (range: 5 to 9999. We have used this new device for Euglobulin Clot Lysis Time (ECLT determination, which is the most common test used in laboratories to estimate plasma fibrinolytic capacity. Results The correlation between ECLT and manual method is very tight : R = 0,99; p -6. The efficiency scores of the method are Conclusions The routine use of this new device could be useful in various situations such as assessment in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis associated diseases, coagulation survey of liver transplantations, cardiovascular surgery or pharmacological research. It has already provided highly promising results in preliminary studies on the relation between fibrinolysis and cardiovascular risk factors.

  11. A new device for measurement of fibrin clot lysis: application to the Euglobulin Clot Lysis Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjeltia, K Zouaoui; Cauchie, Ph; Remacle, Cl; Guillaume, M; Brohée, D; Hubert, JL; Vanhaeverbeek, M

    2002-01-01

    Background Determination of clot lysis times on whole blood, diluted whole blood, plasma or plasma fraction has been used for many years to assess the overall activity of the fibrinolytic system. We designed a completely computerised semi-automatic 8-channel device for measurement and determination of fibrin clot lysis. The lysis time is evaluated by a mathematical analysis of the lysis curve and the results are expressed in minute (range: 5 to 9999). We have used this new device for Euglobulin Clot Lysis Time (ECLT) determination, which is the most common test used in laboratories to estimate plasma fibrinolytic capacity. Results The correlation between ECLT and manual method is very tight : R = 0,99; p < 10-6. The efficiency scores of the method are <4% in intra-assay and <7% in inter-assay. It allows to achieve the tests on hyperlipaemic samples. This new device has been easily integrated in laboratory routine and allows to achieve several ECLT every day without disturbance of laboratory workflow. Conclusions The routine use of this new device could be useful in various situations such as assessment in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis associated diseases, coagulation survey of liver transplantations, cardiovascular surgery or pharmacological research. It has already provided highly promising results in preliminary studies on the relation between fibrinolysis and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:11985782

  12. CT imaging in acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, J.

    2016-01-01

    Time is of the essence when treating acute ischemic stroke, to limit the damage caused. One form of intra-arterial treatment (IAT) used in such cases is the mechanical removal of the blood clot using stent-retrievers. It is thought that patient selection for IAT requires improvement and that CT

  13. Characterization of the spherical intermediates and fibril formation of hCT in HEPES solution using solid-state 13C-NMR and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh-Watanabe, Hikari; Kamihira-Ishijima, Miya; Kawamura, Izuru; Kondoh, Masashi; Nakakoshi, Masamichi; Sato, Michio; Naito, Akira

    2013-10-21

    Human calcitonin (hCT) is a 32-amino acid peptide hormone that contains an intrachain disulfide bridge between Cys1 and Cys7 and a proline amide at the C-terminus. hCT tends to associate to form a fibril precipitate of the same type as amyloid fibrils, and hence has been studied as a model of amyloid fibril formation. The fibrillation process in N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) solution was examined using transmission electron microscopy. The rate of hCT fibrillation in HEPES solution was much lower than in phosphate buffer and acetic acid solution. Spherical intermediate aggregates (nuclei) were observed during the early stage of fibril formation. Short proto-fibrils appeared on the surface of the spherical intermediates. Subsequently, the spherical intermediates transformed directly into long proto-fibrils, which then elongated into mature hCT fibrils. The fibrillation process was also examined using solid-state (13)C-NMR spectroscopy, which indicated that the fibril structure was a β-sheet in the central region and a mixture of random coils and β-sheets at the C-terminus. The kinetics of fibril formation was examined in terms of a two-step autocatalytic reaction mechanism. The first-step nucleation rate (k1) was lower in HEPES solution than in phosphate buffer and acetic acid solution because the half-life of the intermediates is significantly longer in HEPES solution. In contrast, the second-step fibril elongation rate (k2) was similar in HEPES solution and acidic solutions. Specific interaction of HEPES molecules with hCT may stabilize the spherical intermediates and consequently inhibit the fibril elongation process of hCT.

  14. Thin-section CT of the lungs: Eye-tracking analysis of the visual approach to reading tiled and stacked display formats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, S.M. [Department of Radiology, London Chest Hospital, Bonner Road, London E2 9JX (United Kingdom) and Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, London SW3 6NP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Stephen.ellis@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Hu, X. [Department of Computing, 180 Queen' s Gate, South Kensington Campus Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, London SW3 6NP (United Kingdom); Dempere-Marco, L [Department of Computing, 180 Queen' s Gate, South Kensington Campus Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, London SW3 6NP (United Kingdom); Yang, G.Z. [Department of Computing, 180 Queen' s Gate, South Kensington Campus Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, London SW3 6NP (United Kingdom); Wells, A.U. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Royal Brompton Hospital Sydney Street, London SW3 6NP (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, London SW3 6NP (United Kingdom); Hansell, D.M. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Royal Brompton Hospital Sydney Street, London SW3 6NP (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, London SW3 6NP (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Objective: To use eye-tracking analysis to identify the differences in approach to and efficiency of reading thin-section CT of the lungs presented tiled and stacked soft-copy displays. Materials and methods: Four chest radiologists read 16 thin-section CT examinations displayed in either a tiled (four images at once) or stacked (full screen cine) format. Eye-movements were recorded and analysed in terms of movement type; saccade distance (classified by the calculated range of useful peripheral vision), number of fixations, duration and direction of gaze-comparison of the areas of the images viewed. Results: Cases presented in stacked format were read quicker than when presented in tiled format with a greater fixation frequency (5 fixations versus 4.5 fixations points per 100 data points; p < 0.001) and a greater proportion of short saccades (97% versus 94%; p < 0.005). The consistency with which the observers viewed equivalent areas of the scan images in different cases was greater when viewing in stacked format (mean kappa 0.45 versus 0.36; p < 0.05) suggesting a more systematic approach to reading. Conclusion: Eye-tracking data demonstrates why thin-section CT examinations of the lungs are read more efficiently when displayed in a stack as opposed to a tiled format.

  15. Removal of Chronic Intravascular Blood Clots using Liquid Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Chul; Choi, Myeong; Koo, Il; Yu, Zengqi; Collins, George

    2011-10-01

    An electrical embolectomy device for removing chronic intravascular blood clots using liquid plasma under saline environment was demonstrated. We employed a proxy experimental blood clot model of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and actual equine blood clot. Thermal damage to contiguous tissue and the collagen denaturing via the plasma irradiation were investigated by histological analysis using birefringence of the tissue and verified by FT-IR spectroscopic study, respectively, which showed the high removal rate up to 2 mm per minute at room temperature and small thermal damage less than 200 μm.

  16. Advances in clotting factor treatment for congenital hemorrhagic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Michael D; Aledort, Louis M

    2004-06-01

    During the last 50 years, clotting factor replacement has evolved from the use of frozen plasma in the 1950s, through the serendipitous discovery of cryoprecipitate in the 1960s and the development of purified clotting factors in the 1970s and 1980s, to the era of recombinant clotting factors beginning in the 1990s. The dawn of the new millennium has seen the refinement of recombinant factor (rF) VIII with enhanced safety via the elimination of plasma-derived culture media or product stabilizers. During the last decade of the 20th century, a cure for hemophilia through gene therapy became a possibility. This was, in part, facilitated by availability of large (dogs) and small (mice) animal models for hemophilia A and B. Although this review will focus primarily on clotting factor replacement, the reader may refer to recent discourse on gene therapy for hemophilia.

  17. Drinking Peroxide as 'Natural' Cure Leads to Dangerous Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163513.html Drinking Peroxide as 'Natural' Cure Leads to Dangerous Blood Clots ... 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Ingesting high-concentration hydrogen peroxide as a "natural cure" or cleansing agent may ...

  18. Adenosine diphosphate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles shorten blood clotting times, influencing the structures and varying the mechanical properties of the clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tze-Wen; Lin, Pei-Yi; Wang, Shoei-Shen; Chen, Yen-Fung

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) decorated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (ANPs) or fibrinogen (FNPs) were used to fabricate hemostatic NPs that can shorten blood clotting time and prevent severe local hemorrhage. The structure and mechanical properties of the blood clot induced with ANP (clot/ANP) or FNP (clot/FNP) were also investigated. The NPs, ANPs, and FNPs, which had particle sizes of 245.1 ± 14.0, 251.0 ± 9.8, and 326.5 ± 14.5 nm and zeta potentials of 24.1 ± 0.5, 20.6 ± 1.9, and 15.3 ± 1.5 mV (n=4), respectively, were fabricated by ionic gelation and then decorated with ADP and fibrinogen. The zeta potentials and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of the NPs confirmed that their surfaces were successfully coated with ADP and fibrinogen. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of the structure of the clot induced with "undecorated" chitosan NPs (clot/NP), clot/ANP, and clot/FNP (at 0.05 wt%) were different, after citrated bloods had been recalcified by a calcium chloride solution containing NPs, ANPs, or FNPs. This indicated that many NPs adhered on the membrane surfaces of red blood cells, that ANPs induced many platelet aggregates, and that FNPs were incorporated into the fibrin network in the clots. Measurements of the blood clotting times (Tc) of blood clot/NPs, clot/ANPs, and clot/FNPs, based on 90% of ultimate frequency shifts measured on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), were significantly (P<0.05) (n=4) shorter than that of a clot induced by a phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) (clot/PBS) (63.6% ± 3.1%, 48.3% ± 6.2%, and 63.2% ± 4.7%, respectively). The ΔF2 values in the spectra of frequency shifts associated with the propagation of fibrin networks in the clot/ANPs and clot/FNPs were significantly lower than those of clot/PBS. Interestingly, texture profile analysis of the compressional properties showed significantly lower hardness and compressibility in clot/NPs and clot/ANPs (P<0.05 or better) (n=4) compared with

  19. An apparatus for measuring the tensile strength of blood clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACFARLANE, R G; TOMLINSON, A H

    1961-05-01

    An apparatus is described which uses the principle of the ballistic pendulum to measure the tensile strength of blood clots formed in special cuvettes. The method appears to have a reproducibility which would allow a study to be made of the factors influencing clot strength. A brief survey of the findings with normal blood and with blood from cases of thrombosis and haemophilia shows significant differences between the mean values for each group.

  20. Investigation of the effect of kaolin and tissue-factor-activated citrated whole blood, on clot-forming variables, as evaluated by thromboelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Pär I; Bochsen, Louise; Andersen, Søren; Viuff, Dorthe

    2008-11-01

    The Thrombelastograph (TEG; Haemoscope Corp.) analyzes clot formation in whole blood (WB) and treatment based on this analysis has been shown to reduce transfusion requirements in liver and cardiac surgery when compared to conventional coagulation analysis. Implementing TEG as a routine laboratory-based analysis, however, requires validation of the activators employed and the effect of storage of the WB sample in citrate before analysis. The effect of kaolin, tissue factor (TF) 1:17,000, or TF 1:42,500 on TEG clotting time (R), Angle (velocity of clot formation), and maximum clot strength (amplitude [MA]) were evaluated, together with day-to-day variation, the coefficient of variance (CV%), and the effect of citrate storage time. Clot formation variables were equally affected by TF 1:17,000 and kaolin activation, whereas R was significantly longer when TF 1:42,500 was used. The CV for the different variables varied from 3 to 13 percent with no significant differences between assays. Storage of citrated WB significantly affected the TEG variables in a hypercoagulable direction. Only the R, however, was significantly affected (12%) when samples rested for 0 and 30 minutes were evaluated with kaolin as the activator. The TEG assays evaluated were reproducible and present with an acceptable CV% for routine clinical practice. Kaolin and TF 1:17,000 equally affected the clot formation variables. Storage of WB for up to 30 minutes in citrate did not, except for R, affect clot formation variables when kaolin was used as activator allowing for immediate analysis when the sample arrives in the laboratory.

  1. Weight reduction is associated with increased plasma fibrin clot lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezińska-Kolarz, Beata; Kolarz, Marek; Wałach, Angelika; Undas, Anetta

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of vascular thrombotic events. We sought to investigate how obesity and weight loss affect plasma fibrin clot properties. A total of 29 obese patients were studied before and after 3-month low-fat diet. Plasma fibrin clot parameters, including fibrin clot permeation coefficient (Ks), the lag phase of the turbidity curve, clot lysis time (t 50%), maximum rate of increase in D-dimer levels, and maximum D-dimer concentrations, were determined. Low-fat diet resulted in the reduction of body weight (P < .0001), body mass index (P < .0001), fat mass (P < .0001), total cholesterol (P < .0001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .0005), triglycerides (P = .008), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (P = .02), but not in fibrinogen or C-reactive protein. The only change in fibrin clot variables was shorter t 50% (P = .02). Baseline t 50%, but not posttreatment, correlated with waist circumference (r = .44, p = .02). This study demonstrates that weight loss in obese people can increase the efficiency of fibrin clot lysis.

  2. Identification of fibrin clot-bound plasma proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Talens

    Full Text Available Several proteins are known to bind to a fibrin network and to change clot properties or function. In this study we aimed to get an overview of fibrin clot-bound plasma proteins. A plasma clot was formed by adding thrombin, CaCl(2 and aprotinin to citrated platelet-poor plasma and unbound proteins were washed away with Tris-buffered saline. Non-covalently bound proteins were extracted, separated with 2D gel electrophoresis and visualized with Sypro Ruby. Excised protein spots were analyzed with mass spectrometry. The identity of the proteins was verified by checking the mass of the protein, and, if necessary, by Western blot analysis. Next to established fibrin-binding proteins we identified several novel fibrin clot-bound plasma proteins, including α(2-macroglobulin, carboxypeptidase N, α(1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, serum amyloid P, and the apolipoproteins A-I, E, J, and A-IV. The latter six proteins are associated with high-density lipoprotein particles. In addition we showed that high-density lipoprotein associated proteins were also present in fibrinogen preparations purified from plasma. Most plasma proteins in a fibrin clot can be classified into three groups according to either blood coagulation, protease inhibition or high-density lipoprotein metabolism. The presence of high-density lipoprotein in clots might point to a role in hemostasis.

  3. Isolation of Salmonella typhi from Standard Whole Blood Culture versus Blood-Clot Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    The use of 10% oxgall and bile broth medium, both supplemented with freshly prepared 100 u/ml streptokinase, for isolating Salmonella typhi by clot...significantly better rate of isolation than the clot culture methods. Keywords: Cultures biology; Clot cultures; Salmonella typhi ; Isolation of S. typhi; Whole blood culture; Blood-clot culture; Reprints.

  4. SMTP (Stachybotrys microspora triprenyl phenol enhances clot clearance in a pulmonary embolism model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stachybotrys microspora triprenyl phenols (SMTPs are a novel family of small molecules that enhance both activation and fibrin-binding of plasminogen. While their effects on fibrinolysis have been characterized in vitro, little is known about their activity in vivo with respect to plasminogen activation and blood clot clearance. Results To select a potent SMTP congener for the evaluation of its action in vitro and in vivo, we tested several SMTP congeners with distinct structural properties for their effects on plasminogen activation. As a result, SMTP-7 (orniplabin was found to have distinguished activity. Several lines of biochemical evidence supported the idea that SMTP-7 acted as a plasminogen modulator. SMTP-7 elevated plasma level of plasmin-α2-antiplasmin complex, an index of plasmin formation in vivo, 1.5-fold in mice after the intravenous injections at doses of 5 and 10 mg kg-1. In a rat pulmonary embolism model, SMTP-7 (5 mg kg-1 enhanced the rate of clot clearance ~3-fold in the absence of exogenous plasminogen activator. Clot clearance was enhanced further by 5 mg kg-1 of SMTP-7 in combination with single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Conclusions Our results show that SMTP-7 is a superior plasminogen modulator among the SMTP family compounds and suggest that the agent enhances plasmin generation in vivo, leading to clearance of thrombi in a model of pulmonary embolism.

  5. Highly stable plasminogen activator inhibitor type one (VLHL PAI-1) protects fibrin clots from tissue plasminogen activator-mediated fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankun, Jerzy; Aleem, Ansari M; Selman, Steven H; Skrzypczak-Jankun, Ewa; Lysiak-Szydlowska, Wieslawa; Grafos, Nicholas; Fryer, Hugh J L; Greenfield, Robert S

    2007-11-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the major specific inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) which mediates fibrin clot lysis through activation of plasminogen. Wild-type-PAI-1 (wPAI-1) is rapidly converted to the latent form (half-life of approximately 2 h) and loses its ability to inhibit tPA. We developed a very long half-life PAI-1 (VLHL PAI-1), a recombinant protein with a half-life >700 h compared with wPAI-1. In this study, VLHL PAI-1 was assessed for its ability to inhibit clot lysis in vitro. Clot formation was initiated in normal plasma supplemented with tPA by the addition of either tissue factor or human recombinant FVIIa. Clot lysis time, monitored turbidimetrically in a microtiter plate reader, was determined at various concentrations of wPAI-1 and VLHL PAI-1. Both wPAI-1 and VLHL PAI-1 caused a significant increase in clot lysis time, although the latter was somewhat less effective at lower concentrations. The VLHL PAI-1, but not wPAI-1, maintained its anti-fibrinolytic activity after preincubation overnight at 37 degrees. These studies demonstrate that VLHL PAI-1 is an effective inhibitor of fibrin clot degradation. Due to the high stability of VLHL PAI-1 compared with wPAI-1, this novel inhibitor of tPA-mediated fibrinolysis may have therapeutic applications for treating surgical and trauma patients when used directly or in conjunction with the procoagulant recombinant FVIIa.

  6. Novel mechanisms that regulate clot structure/function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariëns, Robert A S

    2016-05-01

    The structure and function of the blood clot has been associated with altered risk of thrombosis. Dense fibrin structures with small pores increase the risk of thrombosis, and have major functional consequences by increasing the resistance to fibrinolysis and altering the visco-elastic properties of the clot. However, while the structural changes to the overall fibrin network have been extensively characterised, little is known regarding the intrafibrillar structure of fibrin, the way protofibrils are arranged inside the fibrin fibers and the functional consequences of this. This brief paper aims to review recent findings regarding novel mechanisms that regulate fibrin intrafibrillar structure, including the degree of protofibril packing, their functional consequences, and the effects of FXIII activation on clot structure and thrombosis. It is concluded that fibrin intrafibrillar structure represents a major novel mechanism that influences clot structure and stability. Future studies are required to investigate the role of fibrin intrafibrillar structure in the functional characteristics of the blood clot, and in diseases of bleeding and thrombosis.

  7. High-density cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI as modifiers of plasma fibrin clot properties in apparently healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ząbczyk, Michał; Hońdo, Łukasz; Krzek, Marzena; Undas, Anetta

    2013-01-01

    Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increases cardiovascular risk, whereas its high levels protect against atherosclerosis via multiple beneficial effects. Dense and poorly lysable fibrin clot formation is observed in cardiovascular disease. We sought to investigate whether HDL-C and its major component apolipoprotein A (Apo A)-I affect fibrin clot properties. In 136 apparently healthy individuals (99 men, 37 women, aged 49-69 years) we determined plasma fibrin clot permeability (Ks coefficient) and lysis time (t50%) together with Apo A-I and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels. The median HDL-C level was 1.33  mmol/l (range from 0.77 to 2.19  mmol/l). HDL-C was positively associated with Apo A-I (r = 0.62, P Ks (r = 0.52, P Ks and t50% were associated with Lp(a) (r = -0.42, P Ks (P = 0.00016) and 17% shorter t50% (P = 0.0012) than the remainder. After adjustment for age, fibrinogen, and Lp(a), HDL-C was the independent predictor of Ks (β = 0.7, P < 0.00001) and t50% (β = -0.62, P < 0.00001). This study shows that elevated HDL-C levels are associated with improved fibrin clot permeability and lysis, indicating a novel antithrombotic mechanism underlying the postulated beneficial effects of therapy targeted at HDL-C.

  8. An optical approach for non-invasive blood clot testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Brill, Alexander; Fine, Ilya; Harmelin, Alon

    2007-02-01

    Physiological blood coagulation is an essential biological process. Current tests for plasma coagulation (clotting) need to be performed ex vivo and require fresh blood sampling for every test. A recently published work describes a new, noninvasive, in vivo approach to assess blood coagulation status during mechanical occlusion1. For this purpose, we have tested this approach and applied a controlled laser beam to blood micro-vessels of the mouse ear during mechanical occlusion. Standard setup for intravital transillumination videomicroscopy and laser based imaging techniques were used for monitoring the blood clotting process. Temporal mechanical occlusion of blood vessels in the observed area was applied to ensure blood flow cessation. Subsequently, laser irradiation was used to induce vascular micro-injury. Changes in the vessel wall, as well as in the pattern of blood flow, predispose the area to vascular thrombosis, according to the paradigm of Virchow's triad. In our experiments, two elements of Virchow's triad were used to induce the process of clotting in vivo, and to assess it optically. We identified several parameters that can serve as markers of the blood clotting process in vivo. These include changes in light absorption in the area of illumination, as well as changes in the pattern of the red blood cells' micro-movement in the vessels where blood flow is completely arrested. Thus, our results indicate that blood coagulation status can be characterized by non-invasive, in vivo methodologies.

  9. Alignment of the Fibrin Network Within an Autologous Plasma Clot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, Jan; Seybold, Dominik; Peter, Elvira; Schildhauer, Thomas Armin; Köller, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Autologous plasma clots with longitudinally aligned fibrin fibers could serve as a scaffold for longitudinal axonal regrowth in cases of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries. Three different techniques for assembling longitudinally oriented fibrin fibers during the fibrin polymerization process were investigated as follows: fiber alignment was induced by the application of either a magnetic field or-as a novel approach-electric field or by the induction of orientated flow. Fiber alignment was characterized by scanning electron microscopy analysis followed by image processing using fast Fourier transformation (FFT). Besides FFT output images, area xmin to xmax, as well as full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the FFT graph plot peaks, was calculated to determine the relative degree of fiber alignment. In addition, fluorescently labeled human fibrinogen and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used to visualize fibrin and cell orientation in aligned and nonaligned plasma clots. Varying degrees of fiber alignment were achieved by the three different methods, with the electric field application producing the highest degree of fiber alignment. The embedded MSCs showed a longitudinal orientation in the electric field-aligned plasma clots. The key feature of this study is the ability to produce autologous plasma clots with aligned fibrin fibers using physical techniques. This orientated internal structure of an autologous biomaterial is promising for distinct therapeutic applications, such as a guiding structure for cell migration and growth dynamics.

  10. 21 CFR 173.150 - Milk-clotting enzymes, microbial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Milk-clotting enzymes, microbial. 173.150 Section 173.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD...

  11. Clotting protein - An extracellular matrix (ECM) protein involved in crustacean hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkunlo, Kingkamon; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

    2017-09-21

    Hematopoietic progenitor cells in crustaceans are organized in lobule-like structures surrounded by different types of cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein in a Hematopoietic tissue (HPT). Here we show that the clotting protein (CP) is part of the ECM in HPT and is secreted during HPT cell culture. The formation of a filamentous network of CP was observed in HPT cell culture. A high amount of CP protein was detected at the surfaces of undifferentiated cells (round-shaped) compared with migrating cells (spindle shaped). Co-localization of the CP protein and TGase activity was observed on the cell surface and filamentous network between cells. A role for CP together with collagen was revealed in a 3D culture in which a collagen-I matrix was immobilized with CP or supplemented with CP. The results showed possible functions of CP, collagen, TGase and cytokine Ast1 in the regulation of HPT progenitor cell behavior. This is the first study to provide insight into the role of CP, which probably not only participates in clot formation but also functions as an ECM component protein controlling hematopoietic stem cell behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A French National Survey on Clotting Disorders in Mastocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhosa, Ana B.; Aouba, Achille; Damaj, Gandhi; Canioni, Danielle; Brouzes, Chantal; Gyan, Emmanuel; Durupt, Stéphane; Durieu, Isabelle; Cathebras, Pascal; Costédoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Launay, David; Pilmis, Benoit; Barete, Stephane; Frenzel, Laurent; Lortholary, Olivier; Hermine, Olivier; Hermans, Cedric; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mastocytosis is characterized by a clonal mast cell proliferation with organ infiltration and uncontrolled degranulation. Although not characteristic and poorly explained, some patients develop clotting abnormalities. We retrospectively identified patients with established diagnosis of mastocytosis and related clotting abnormalities (clinical and/or biological) using the national French Reference Centre for Mastocytosis database. From our cohort of 14 adult patients with clotting abnormalities (median age 46 years [range 26–75]), 4 had a presentation suggestive of a primary hemostasis disorder alone (by their symptoms and/or abnormal clotting tests [PFA, von Willebrand's disease [vWD] screening]) and 10 had a laboratory impairment of secondary hemostasis. Among these, 7 had bleeds characteristic of a coagulation cascade disorder (severe/life-threatening in 5 and mild in 2 patients). Clotting abnormalities were of variable severity, typically related to intense crisis of degranulation, such as anaphylactic reactions, and/or to severe organ infiltration by mast cells. Importantly, classical hemostatic management with platelet transfusion, fresh frozen plasma, or vitamin K infusions was unsuccessful, as opposed to the use of agents inhibiting mast cell activity, particularly steroids. This illustrates the crucial role of mast cell mediators such as tryptase and heparin, which interfere both with primary (mainly via inhibition of von Willebrand factor) and secondary hemostasis. There was interestingly an unusually high number of aggressive mastocytosis (particularly mast cell leukemia) and increased mortality in the group with secondary hemostasis disorders (n = 5, 36% of the whole cohort). Mast cell degranulation and/or high tumoral burden induce both specific biologic antiaggregant and anticoagulant states with a wide clinical spectrum ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening bleeds. Hemostatic control is achieved by mast cell inhibitors such as

  13. Thoracic CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lungs; CT scan - chest Images CT scan Thyroid cancer - CT scan Pulmonary nodule, solitary - CT scan Lung mass, right upper ... Chest Injuries and Disorders CT Scans Emphysema Lung Cancer Lung Diseases Pleural Disorders Pneumonia Pulmonary Embolism Tuberculosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  14. Capture of lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin by the blood clot: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret T Armstrong

    Full Text Available In vertebrates and arthropods, blood clotting involves the establishment of a plug of aggregated thrombocytes (the cellular clot and an extracellular fibrillar clot formed by the polymerization of the structural protein of the clot, which is fibrin in mammals, plasma lipoprotein in crustaceans, and coagulin in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Both elements of the clot function to staunch bleeding. Additionally, the extracellular clot functions as an agent of the innate immune system by providing a passive anti-microbial barrier and microbial entrapment device, which functions directly at the site of wounds to the integument. Here we show that, in addition to these passive functions in immunity, the plasma lipoprotein clot of lobster, the coagulin clot of Limulus, and both the platelet thrombus and the fibrin clot of mammals (human, mouse operate to capture lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin. The lipid A core of LPS is the principal agent of gram-negative septicemia, which is responsible for more than 100,000 human deaths annually in the United States and is similarly toxic to arthropods. Quantification using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL test shows that clots capture significant quantities of LPS and fluorescent-labeled LPS can be seen by microscopy to decorate the clot fibrils. Thrombi generated in the living mouse accumulate LPS in vivo. It is suggested that capture of LPS released from gram-negative bacteria entrapped by the blood clot operates to protect against the disease that might be caused by its systemic dispersal.

  15. Activated protein C accelerates clot lysis by virtue of its coagulant activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw, N.J. de; Tilburg, N.H. van; Haverkate, F.; Bertina, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of human activated protein C (APC) on t-PA dependent fibrinolysis was studied in vitro using plasma (and whole blood) clot lysis techniques. Clot lysis was monitored by measuring the release of soluble 125I-labelled fibrin degradation products from the clot over time. It was demonstrated

  16. Prediction of recurrent venous thromboembolism by clot lysis time: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Traby

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a chronic disease, which tends to recur. Whether an abnormal fibrinolytic system is associated with an increased risk of VTE is unclear. We assessed the relationship between fibrinolytic capacity (reflected by clot lysis time [CLT] and risk of recurrent VTE. We followed 704 patients (378 women; mean age 48 yrs with a first unprovoked VTE for an average of 46 months after anticoagulation withdrawal. Patients with natural coagulation inhibitor deficiency, lupus anticoagulant, cancer, homozygosity for factor V Leiden or prothrombin mutation, or requirement for indefinite anticoagulation were excluded. Study endpoint was symptomatic recurrent VTE. For measurement of CLT, a tissue factor-induced clot was lysed by adding tissue-type plasminogen activator. Time between clot formation and lysis was determined by measuring the turbidity. 135 (19% patients had recurrent VTE. For each increase in CLT of 10 minutes, the crude relative risk (RR of recurrence was 1.13 (95% CI 1.02-1.25; p = 0.02 and was 1.08 (95% CI 0.98-1.20; p = 0.13 after adjustment for age and sex. For women only, the adjusted RR was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.91-1.42, p = 0.22 for each increase in CLT of 10 minutes. CLT values in the 4(th quartile of the female patient population, as compared to values in the 1(st quartile, conferred a risk of recurrence of 3.28 (95% CI, 1.07-10.05; p = 0.04. No association between CLT and recurrence risk was found in men. Hypofibrinolysis as assessed by CLT confers a moderate increase in the risk of recurrent VTE. A weak association between CLT and risk of recurrence was found in women only.

  17. Evaluation of reparative dentin formation of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine and BioAggregate using micro-CT and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jia; Song, Young-Sang; Min, Kyung-San; Kim, Sun-Hun; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Lee, Bin-Na; Chang, Hoon-Sang; Hwang, In-Nam; Oh, Won-Mann; Hwang, Yun-Chan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of two new calcium silicate-based pulp-capping materials (Biodentine and BioAggregate) to induce healing in a rat pulp injury model and to compare them with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Eighteen rats were anesthetized, cavities were prepared and the pulp was capped with either of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine, or BioAggregate. The specimens were scanned using a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) system and were prepared and evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically using dentin sialoprotein (DSP). On micro-CT analysis, the ProRoot MTA and Biodentine groups showed significantly thicker hard tissue formation (p MTA showed complete dentin bridge formation with normal pulpal histology. In the Biodentine and BioAggregate groups, a thick, homogeneous hard tissue barrier was observed. The ProRoot MTA specimens showed strong immunopositive reaction for DSP. Our results suggest that calcium silicate-based pulp-capping materials induce favorable effects on reparative processes during vital pulp therapy and that both Biodentine and BioAggregate could be considered as alternatives to ProRoot MTA.

  18. Evaluation of reparative dentin formation of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine and BioAggregate using micro-CT and immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of two new calcium silicate-based pulp-capping materials (Biodentine and BioAggregate to induce healing in a rat pulp injury model and to compare them with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Materials and Methods Eighteen rats were anesthetized, cavities were prepared and the pulp was capped with either of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine, or BioAggregate. The specimens were scanned using a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT system and were prepared and evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically using dentin sialoprotein (DSP. Results On micro-CT analysis, the ProRoot MTA and Biodentine groups showed significantly thicker hard tissue formation (p < 0.05. On H&E staining, ProRoot MTA showed complete dentin bridge formation with normal pulpal histology. In the Biodentine and BioAggregate groups, a thick, homogeneous hard tissue barrier was observed. The ProRoot MTA specimens showed strong immunopositive reaction for DSP. Conclusions Our results suggest that calcium silicate-based pulp-capping materials induce favorable effects on reparative processes during vital pulp therapy and that both Biodentine and BioAggregate could be considered as alternatives to ProRoot MTA.

  19. Adenosine diphosphate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles shorten blood clotting times, influencing the structures and varying the mechanical properties of the clots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung TW

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tze-Wen Chung,1,3 Pei-Yi Lin,2 Shoei-Shen Wang,2 Yen-Fung Chen31Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, 2Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaAbstract: Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs decorated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP (ANPs or fibrinogen (FNPs were used to fabricate hemostatic NPs that can shorten blood clotting time and prevent severe local hemorrhage. The structure and mechanical properties of the blood clot induced with ANP (clot/ANP or FNP (clot/FNP were also investigated. The NPs, ANPs, and FNPs, which had particle sizes of 245.1±14.0, 251.0±9.8, and 326.5±14.5 nm and zeta potentials of 24.1±0.5, 20.6±1.9, and 15.3±1.5 mV (n=4, respectively, were fabricated by ionic gelation and then decorated with ADP and fibrinogen. The zeta potentials and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy of the NPs confirmed that their surfaces were successfully coated with ADP and fibrinogen. The scanning electron microscope (SEM micrographs of the structure of the clot induced with "undecorated" chitosan NPs (clot/NP, clot/ANP, and clot/FNP (at 0.05 wt% were different, after citrated bloods had been recalcified by a calcium chloride solution containing NPs, ANPs, or FNPs. This indicated that many NPs adhered on the membrane surfaces of red blood cells, that ANPs induced many platelet aggregates, and that FNPs were incorporated into the fibrin network in the clots. Measurements of the blood clotting times (Tc of blood clot/NPs, clot/ANPs, and clot/FNPs, based on 90% of ultimate frequency shifts measured on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM, were significantly (P<0.05 (n=4 shorter than that of a clot induced by a phosphate-buffered solution (PBS (clot/PBS (63.6%±3.1%, 48.3%±6.2%, and 63.2%±4.7%, respectively. The ∆F2

  20. Evaluation of Bone Metastasis from Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT and {sup 99mT}c HDP Bone Scintigraphy: Characteristics of Soft Tissue Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyo Jung; Choi, Yun Jung; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Jeong, Youg Hyu; Cho, Arthur; Lee, Jae Hoon; Yun, Mijin; Choi, Hye Jin; Lee, Jong Doo; Kang, Won Jun [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Bone metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can present with soft tissue formation, resulting in oncologic emergency. Contrast enhanced FDG PET/CT and bone scintigraphy were compared to evaluate characteristics of bone metastases with of without soft tissue formation from HCC. of 4,151 patients with HCC, 263 patients had bone metastases. Eighty five patients with bone metastasis from HCC underwent contrast enhanced FDG PET/CT. Fifty four of the enrolled subjects had recent {sup 99mT}c HDP bone scintigraphy available for comparison. Metastatic bone lesions were identified with visual inspection on FDG PET/CT, and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was used for the quantitative analysis. Confirmation of bone metastasis was based on histopathology, combined imaging modalities, or serial follow up studies. Forty seven patients (55%) presented with soft tissue formation, while the remaining 38 patients presented without soft tissue formation. Frequent sites of bone metastases from HCC were the spine (39%), pelvis (19%), and rib cage (14%). The soft tissue formation group had more frequent bone pain (77 vs. 37%, p<0.0001), higher SUVmax (6.02 vs. 3.52, p<0.007), and higher incidence of photon defect in bone scintigraphy (75 vs. 0%) compared to the non soft tissue formation group. FDG PET/CT had higher detection rate for bone metastasis than bone scintigraphy both in lesion based analysis (98 vs. 53%, p=0.0015) and in patient based analysis (100 vs. 80%, p<0.001). Bone metastasis from HCC showed a high incidence of soft tissue formation requiring emergency treatment. Although the characteristic findings for soft tissue formation such as photon defect in bone scintigraphy are helpful in detection, overall detectability of bone metastasis is higher in FDG PET/CT. Contrast enhanced PET/CT will be useful in finding and delineating soft tissue forming bone metastasis from HCC.

  1. Partial deletion of the αC-domain in the Fibrinogen Perth variant is associated with thrombosis, increased clot strength and delayed fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Sarah K; Duval, Cédric; Philippou, Helen; Brown, Rebecca; Lee, Kurtis R; Murden, Sherina L; Phillips, Emma; Reilly-Stitt, Christopher; Whalley, Daniel; Ariëns, Robert A; Mumford, Andrew D

    2013-12-01

    Genetic fibrinogen (FGN) variants that are associated with bleeding or thrombosis may be informative about fibrin polymerisation, structure and fibrinolysis. We report a four generation family with thrombosis and heritable dysfibrinogenaemia segregating with a c.[1541delC];[=] variation in FGA (FGN-Perth). This deletion predicts a truncated FGN αC-domain with an unpaired terminal Cys at residue 517 of FGN-Aα. In keeping with this, SDS-PAGE of purified FGN-Perth identified a truncated FGN-Aα chain with increased co-purification of albumin, consistent with disulphide bonding to the terminal Cys of the variant FGN-Aα. Clot visco-elastic strength in whole blood containing FGN-Perth was greater than controls and tPA-mediated fibrinolysis was delayed. In FGN-Perth plasma and in purified FGN-Perth, there was markedly reduced final turbidity after thrombin-mediated clot generation. Consistent with this, FGN-Perth formed tighter, thinner fibrin fibres than controls indicating defective lateral aggregation of protofibrils. Clots generated with thrombin in FGN-Perth plasma were resistant to tPA-mediated fibrinolysis. FGN-Perth clot also displayed impaired tPA-mediated plasmin generation but incorporated α2-antiplasmin at a similar rate to control. Impaired fibrinolysis because of defective plasmin generation potentially explains the FGN-Perth clinical phenotype. These findings highlight the importance of the FGN αC-domain in the regulation of clot formation and fibrinolysis.

  2. SPECT-CT and PET-CT progress in the research of computer analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of multimodal imaging equipment is milestone in the development of imaging, after the PET-CT, American GE company launched a Discovery 670 NM/CT, CT and SPECT, the organic integration of the formation of SPECT-CT new molecular medical imaging equipment, with SPECT, CT and PET-CT is getting more and more widely attention and application, many of SPECT-CT and PET-CT image analysis computer method arises at the historic moment, getting increasing attention of the clinical and imaging science. The paper carried on the detailed description of the SPECT-CT and PET-CT computer analysis method.

  3. Changes to the structure of blood clots formed in the presence of fine particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metassan, Sofian; Routledge, Michael N [Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Leeds Institute for Health, Genetics and Therapeutics, LIGHT Laboratories, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ariens, Robert A S; Scott, D Julian, E-mail: umphsp@leeds.ac.u [Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research Division, Leeds Institute for Health, Genetics and Therapeutics, The LIGHT Laboratories, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    Both long-term and short-term exposure (one to two hours) to particulate matter are associated with morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms leading to cardiovascular events are unclear, however, changes to blood coagulability upon exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM, the smallest of which can enter the circulation) is a plausible mechanism. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the direct effects of particulate matter on fibrin polymerization, lateral aggregation and the formation of fibrin network structure. Methods: Standard Urban Particulate Matter (PM) was suspended in Tris buffer centrifuged and filtered with <200nm filter to obtain ultrafine PM or their water-soluble components. Purified normal fibrinogen was made to clot by adding thrombin and calcium chloride in the presence of varying concentrations of PM. Permeation properties (Darcy constant [Ks]) and turbidity of clots were measured to investigate the effects on flow-rate, pore size, and fibrin polymerization. In addition, confocal microscopy was performed to study detailed clot structure. Results: Total PM increased the Ks of clots in a dose dependant manner (Ks = 4.4, 6.9 and 13.2 x 10-9 cm2 for 0, 50 and 100 |ag/ml total PM concentrations, respectively). Filtered PM also produced a significant increase in Ks at PM concentration of 17 |ag/ml. Final turbidity measurements at 20min were obtained for varying concentrations of PM. Maximum optical density (OD) for 1 mg/ml fibrinogen at 0, 50, 100 and 200 |ag/ml total PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42, 0.45 and 0.46, respectively. The maximum OD for 0, 17, 34 and 68 |ag/ml filtered PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42 0.47 and 0.51, respectively, suggesting an increase in fibre diameter with increasing particulate concentration. The lag phase was significantly shorter and the rate of polymerisation was significantly faster in the presence of 68 |ag/ml filtered PM. Confocal microscopy results showed

  4. CT examinations of healing fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutz, V.; Uexkuell-Gueldenband, V. v.

    1988-10-01

    The CT appearances of healing fractures were studied following tibial osteotomy in a dog. Traditional radiological investigations and CT were carried out until healing was complete; CT showed callus on the ninth day, whereas radiographs only showed it after 19 days. After 32 days, callus filled nearly the entire medullary cavity. Similar observations were made in several human situations. CT demonstrates interposed material in the fracture very clearly, even if there is marked callus formation within the fracture.

  5. Selective light-triggered release of DNA from gold nanorods switches blood clotting on and off.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena de Puig

    Full Text Available Blood clotting is a precise cascade engineered to form a clot with temporal and spatial control. Current control of blood clotting is achieved predominantly by anticoagulants and thus inherently one-sided. Here we use a pair of nanorods (NRs to provide a two-way switch for the blood clotting cascade by utilizing their ability to selectively release species on their surface under two different laser excitations. We selectively trigger release of a thrombin binding aptamer from one nanorod, inhibiting blood clotting and resulting in increased clotting time. We then release the complementary DNA as an antidote from the other NR, reversing the effect of the aptamer and restoring blood clotting. Thus, the nanorod pair acts as an on/off switch. One challenge for nanobiotechnology is the bio-nano interface, where coronas of weakly adsorbed proteins can obscure biomolecular function. We exploit these adsorbed proteins to increase aptamer and antidote loading on the nanorods.

  6. An automated method for fibrin clot permeability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ząbczyk, Michał; Piłat, Adam; Awsiuk, Magdalena; Undas, Anetta

    2015-01-01

    The fibrin clot permeability coefficient (Ks) is a useful measure of porosity of the fibrin network, which is determined by a number of genetic and environmental factors. Currently available methods to evaluate Ks are time-consuming, require constant supervision and provide only one parameter. We present an automated method in which drops are weighed individually, buffer is dosed by the pump and well defined clot washing is controlled by the software. The presence of a straight association between drop mass and their dripping time allows to shorten the measurement time twice. In 40 healthy individuals, Ks, the number of drops required to reach the plateau (DTP), the time to achieve the plateau (TTP) and the DTP/TTP ratio (DTR) were calculated. There was a positive association between Ks (r = 0.69, P Ks (r = -0.55, P Ks (r = 0.70, P < 0.0001 for the manual method and r = 0.76, P < 0.0001 for the automated method), fibrinogen (r = -0.58, P < 0.0001) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = -0.47, P < 0.01). The automated method might be a suitable tool for research and clinical use and may offer more additional parameters describing fibrin clot structure.

  7. Thromboelastography on plasma reveals delayed clot formation and accelerated clot lyses in HIV-1 infected persons compared with healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönsholt, Frederikke Falkencrone; Gerstoft, Jan; Ullum, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    in the hemostatic system in a pro-coagulant direction based on measurements of isolated components of the coagulation pahways. In disease conditions, the flowing blood may change from "normal" to hyper- or hypocoagulant or to hyper- or hypofibrinolytic. A balance may exist in the flowing blood, i.e. between blood......BACKGROUND: Thromboembolic events among HIV infected persons are a recognized clinical problem but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To assess whether coagulation and fibrinolysis differ between long-term treated HIV infected individuals (HIV+) and healthy controls (CON), we...... =-0.651, p = 0.012). DISCUSSION: No previous studies have examined plasma coagulation by TEG in HIV, however, we have previously demonstrated that HIV+ display hypocoagulability in whole blood by TEG in accordance with the results of this study. Others have reported of HIV associated changes...

  8. Evaluation of reparative dentin formation of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine and BioAggregate using micro-CT and immunohistochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jia; Song, Young-Sang; Min, Kyung-San; Kim, Sun-Hun; Koh, Jeong-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of two new calcium silicate-based pulp-capping materials (Biodentine and BioAggregate) to induce healing in a rat pulp injury model and to compare them with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Materials and Methods Eighteen rats were anesthetized, cavities were prepared and the pulp was capped with either of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine, or BioAggregate. The specimens were scanned using a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) system and were prepared and evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically using dentin sialoprotein (DSP). Results On micro-CT analysis, the ProRoot MTA and Biodentine groups showed significantly thicker hard tissue formation (p Biodentine and BioAggregate groups, a thick, homogeneous hard tissue barrier was observed. The ProRoot MTA specimens showed strong immunopositive reaction for DSP. Conclusions Our results suggest that calcium silicate-based pulp-capping materials induce favorable effects on reparative processes during vital pulp therapy and that both Biodentine and BioAggregate could be considered as alternatives to ProRoot MTA. PMID:26877988

  9. Formation of image artifact in SIEMENS sensation 16CT and its maintenance%西门子Sensation16CT图像伪影形成与检修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新治

    2013-01-01

    通过介绍西门子Sensation16C图像伪影检修基本方法、基本步骤,排除伪影故障-般方法及-些技匚,了解多层面CT成像的基本结构、基本原现,图像伪影的形成原因.利用仪器自带的软件进行校正,分段检测各部位配件状态,查出不良部件,采取相应的措施排除故障.充分地应用好检修软件,能快速全面地查出各种原因形成的伪影,准确地查出故障部位并排除故障.%To find out the basic structure of the multi slice CT images, the fundamental principle, the reasons for the formation of the image artifacts, the introduction of the basic maintenance methods for the image artifact in SIEMENS Sensation 16CT, basic steps, some common fault resolutions and skills were described. To adjust by using its software of the instrument, detect the state for each part of the machine piecewise, find out undesirable components and take some proper measures to solve the problems. We can be quick to inquire out the causes of the different kinds of formations for the imagine artifacts. We are able to make full use of its software, find out its wrong parts correctly and solve the problems as soon as possible.

  10. PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF MILK-CLOTTING ENZYME FROM THE SEEDS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna E. Tajalsir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to search for milk clotting substitute from different parts (flowers, seeds, stem, leaves, ripe and unripe fruits of Moringa oleifera. The samples were blended and extracted using different types of extracting solutions. The most reliable, quick and efficient enzyme extracting solution was found to be 5% NaCl in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0, which was used throughout the study. The milk clotting activity was only observed in the seeds extract while the other parts were either deficient or has very low milk clotting activity. Thus, the moringa seeds were used as source of milk clotting enzyme. The extracted proteins were fractionated with ammonium sulfate at concentration of 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 %. Highest milk clotting activity was observed in the 20 % fraction. This fraction was assumed to contain the clotting enzymes and characterized for its heating stability (30 – 90°C and optimum temperature (30 – 90°C. The results demonstrated that moringa seeds milk clotting enzyme is stable up to 50°C with an optimum milk clotting activity of 70°C. The high ratio of milk-clotting to proteolytic activity of the partially purified enzyme indicates the potential of this enzyme as suitable rennet substitute in dairy industry. However, further study is needed to completely purify and characterize this promising milk clotting enzyme from moringa seeds.

  11. Zeolite-based hemostat QuikClot releases calcium into blood and promotes blood coagulation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Wei CAO; Xiao-xing LV; Li JIANG; Yue-jun LI; Wang-zhou LI; Shao-zong CHEN

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To examine the changes in electrolyte concentrations after addition of zeolite-based hemostat QuikClot in blood and the effects of zeolite on blood coagulation in vitro.Methods:Fresh blood was taken from healthy adult volunteers and sheep,and the electrolyte concentrations in blood were measured using a blood electrolyte analyzer.Zeolite Saline Solution (ZSS) was prepared by addition of 2 g zeolite to 0.9% NaCl solution (4,8,or 16 mL).The electrolytes in ZSS were measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.The prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of blood were measured using the test tube method.The activated clotting time (ACT) and clotting rate (CR) of blood were measured with Sonoclot Coagulation and Platelet Function Analyzer.Results:Addition of zeolite (50 and 100 mg) in 2 mL human blood significantly increased Ca2+ concentration,while Na+ and K+ concentrations were significantly decreased.Addition of zeolite (50 and 100 mg) in 0.9% NaCl solution (2 mL) caused similar changes in Ca2+ and Na+ concentrations.Si4+ (0.2434 g/L) and Al3+ (0.2575 g/L) were detected in ZSS (2 g/8 mL).Addition of ZSS in sheep blood shortened APTT in a concentration dependent manner,without changing PT.ZSS or aqueous solution of CaCl2 that contained Ca2+ concentration identical to that of ZSS significantly shortened ACT in human blood without significantly changing CR,and the effect of ZSS on ACT was not significantly different from that of CaCl2.Conclusion:Zeolite releases Ca2+ into blood,thus accelerating the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation and shortening the clot formation time.

  12. MASP-1 Induced Clotting--The First Model of Prothrombin Activation by MASP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Jenny

    Full Text Available Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1, a protein of the complement lectin pathway, resembles thrombin in terms of structural features and substrate specificity. Due to its interplay with several coagulation factors, it has the ability to induce fibrin clot formation independent of the usual coagulation activation pathways. We have recently shown that MASP-1 activates prothrombin and identified arginine (R 155, R271, and R393 as potential cleavage sites. FXa cleaves R320 instead of R393, and thrombin cleaves R155 and R284 in prothrombin. Here we have used three arginine-to-glutamine mutants of prothrombin, R271Q, R320Q, R393Q and the serine-to-alanine active site mutant S525A to investigate in detail the mechanism of MASP-1 mediated prothrombin activation. Prothrombin wildtype and mutants were digested with MASP-1 and the cleavage products were analysed by SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing. A functional clotting assay was performed by thrombelastography. We have found that MASP-1 activates prothrombin via two simultaneous pathways, either cleaving at R271 or R393 first. Both pathways result in the formation of several active alternative thrombin species. Functional studies confirmed that both R393 and R320 are required for prothrombin activation by MASP-1, whereas R155 is not considered to be an important cleavage site in this process. In conclusion, we have described for the first time a detailed model of prothrombin activation by MASP-1.

  13. Influence of styptic fiber on clotting time in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jun; JIANG Su-yun

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of styptic fiber on clotting time in rabbits so as to provide experiment data for its development. Methods Onto 0.1 mL aliquots of citrated anti-coagulant rabbit blood placed in a surfacial plate 25 ul of 0.2 mol·L-1 CaCl2 solution was dropped, and mixed well with glass stirrer;the resulting mixture was immediately capped with a piece of styptic fiber (test product group) or absorptive gelatin sponge(positive control group) of 2 cm diameter. Then, the surficial plate was rinsed with 30ml of purified water at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min after capping; the rinsings were allowed to stand for 1 h and were subjected to OD determination at a wavelength of 541 nm. The above procedure was repeated twice, the average value of the twice experiments was taken for evaluation of the hemostatic effect of test product. For negative control group, all procedures except for capping were same as the test product group. The haemostatic effect was judged by percent OD relative to OD at 0 min in negative control group (OD 0 min) (OD 0 min was considered as 100% );if OD value at a time was less than 80% of OD 0 min, it should be designated as primary clotting time(PCT), less than 20 96 as complete clotting time(CCT). Results The measured PCT was 20min for both negative and positive control groups;CCT was 50, 30 and 5 min for negative control, positive control and test product groups, respectively, showing the test styptic fiber had a CCT 8 times shorter than untreated blood, 10 times shorter than negative control and 6 times shorter than positive control. Conclusions The test styptic fiber has powerful hemostatic effect.

  14. Evaluation of Dentin Defect Formation during Retreatment with Hand and Rotary Instruments: A Micro-CT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Yilmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence and longitudinal propagation of dentin defects after gutta-percha removal with hand and rotary instruments using microcomputed tomography. Twenty mandibular incisors were prepared using the balanced-force technique and scanned in a 19.9 μm resolution. Following filling with the lateral compaction technique, gutta-percha was removed with ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTUR or hand instruments. After rescanning, a total of 24,120 cross-sectional images were analyzed. The numbers, types, and longitudinal length changes of defects were recorded. Defects were observed in 36.90% of the cross sections. A total of 73 defects were comprised of 87.67% craze lines, 2.73% partial cracks, and 9.58% fractures. No significant difference in terms of new defect formation was detected between the retreatment groups. The apical and middle portions of the roots had more dentin defects than the coronal portions. Defects in three roots of the PTUR instrument group increased in length. Under the conditions of this in vitro study, gutta-percha removal seemed to not increase the incidence of dentin defect formation, but the longitudinal defect propagation finding suggests possible cumulative dentinal damage due to additional endodontic procedures. Hand and rotary instrumentation techniques caused similar dentin defect formation during root canal retreatment.

  15. Travail et pouvoir d’agir d’Yves Clot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Leplat

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Yves Clot est titulaire de la Chaire de psychologie du travail du Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM au sein duquel il dirige l’équipe de clinique de l’activité. Cet ouvrage est le second qu’il publie dans cette collection, le premier « La fonction psychologique du travail » est paru en 1999. Entre les deux s’inscrivent un grand nombre de publications, dont beaucoup avec d’autres chercheurs, comme on pourra le constater en consultant la bibliographie de ce livre. Ce denier réun...

  16. Procoagulant control strategies for the human blood clotting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurino, Marco; Menara, Tommaso; Stella, Alessandro; Betta, Monica; Landi, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes the comparison between two drug control strategies to hemophilia A. To emulate blood clotting and the pathological condition of hemophilia, a mathematical model composed by 14 ordinary differential equations is considered. We adopt a variable structure non-linear PID approach and a Model Predictive Control in order to control the dosage of procoagulant factor used in the treatment of hemophiliac patient. The two control actions are sampled for a practical application. Finally, we discuss and compare the results of the two control approaches, introducing a suited control index (eINR).

  17. CT findings of osteogenesis imperfecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, Nobuto; Otsuru, Katsuyasu; Lee, Soichi; Takagi, Shigeyuki; Shigemori, Minoru.

    1987-08-01

    Two cases of osteogenesis imperfecta found in one family (father and daughter) are reported, and the CT findings are described. Case 1 is a 58-year-old man who fell and struck his head at home on November 10, 1984. He was transferred to Omuta City Hospital when he became semicomatose and decerebrate posturing was noted. His family history revealed 8 persons with osteogenesis imperfecta. A skull X-ray film showed a large skull vault, many wormian bones at the lambdoid suture, platybasia, and a basilar impression. A CT scan demonstrated a right acute subdural hematoma, while the bone image showed well-developed mastoid air cells and a skull deformity characteristic of osteogenesis imperfecta. He had an emergency operation, and a 170-gr clot was successfully evacuated. A postoperative CT scan demonstrated brain atrophy, possibly present before head trauma. Case 2 is the daughter of Case 1 (a 27-year-old woman). She also showed characteristic neuroradiological manifestations on a plain skull film and on a CT scan. A basilar impression and platybasia were also demonstrated. In this report, the possible mechanism of the production of a traumatic acute subdural hematoma is also discussed.

  18. Calibrated automated thrombin generation measurement in clotting plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemker, H Coenraad; Giesen, Peter; Al Dieri, Raed; Regnault, Véronique; de Smedt, Eric; Wagenvoord, Rob; Lecompte, Thomas; Béguin, Suzette

    2003-01-01

    Calibrated automated thrombography displays the concentration of thrombin in clotting plasma with or without platelets (platelet-rich plasma/platelet-poor plasma, PRP/PPP) in up to 48 samples by monitoring the splitting of a fluorogenic substrate and comparing it to a constant known thrombin activity in a parallel, non-clotting sample. Thus, the non-linearity of the reaction rate with thrombin concentration is compensated for, and adding an excess of substrate can be avoided. Standard conditions were established at which acceptable experimental variation accompanies sensitivity to pathological changes. The coefficients of variation of the surface under the curve (endogenous thrombin potential) are: within experiment approximately 3%; intra-individual: AVK, heparin(-likes), direct inhibitors]. In PRP, it is diminished in von Willebrand's disease, but it also shows the effect of platelet inhibitors (e.g. aspirin and abciximab). Addition of activated protein C (APC) or thrombomodulin inhibits thrombin generation and reflects disorders of the APC system (congenital and acquired resistance, deficiencies and lupus antibodies) independent of concomitant inhibition of the procoagulant pathway as for example by anticoagulants.

  19. Altered fibrin clot structure/function in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome: association with thrombotic manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celińska-Lowenhoff, M; Iwaniec, T; Padjas, A; Musiał, J; Undas, A

    2014-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that plasma fibrin clot structure/function is unfavourably altered in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Ex vivo plasma clot permeability, turbidity and susceptibility to lysis were determined in 126 consecutive patients with APS enrolled five months or more since thrombotic event vs 105 controls. Patients with both primary and secondary APS were characterised by 11% lower clot permeability (p<0.001), 4.8% shorter lag phase (p<0.001), 10% longer clot lysis time (p<0.001), and 4.7% higher maximum level of D-dimer released from clots (p=0.02) as compared to the controls. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser fibrin networks composed of thinner fibres in APS. Clots from patients with "triple-antibody positivity" were formed after shorter lag phase (p=0.019) and were lysed at a slower rate (p=0.004) than in the remainder. Clots from APS patients who experienced stroke and/or myocardial infarction were 8% less permeable (p=0.01) and susceptible to lysis (10.4% longer clot lysis time [p=0.006] and 4.5% slower release of D-dimer from clots [p=0.01]) compared with those following venous thromboembolism alone. Multivariate analysis adjusted for potential confounders showed that in APS patients, lupus anticoagulant and "triple-positivity" were the independent predictors of clot permeability, while "triple-positivity" predicted lysis time. We conclude that APS is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, with more pronounced abnormalities in arterial thrombosis. Molecular background for this novel prothrombotic mechanism in APS remains to be established.

  20. Impact of design of installations and in the personal staff formation of the hybrid equipment: PET-CT; Impacto en el diseno de instalaciones y en la formacion del personal de los equipos hibridos: PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, R.; Soler, K.; Alonso, I., E-mail: ramon@orasen.co.cu, E-mail: karen@orasen.co.cu, E-mail: azul@orasen.con.cu [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-11-01

    In this article the general principles to be considered in the design of a Nuclear Medicine department with PET-CT, and address the existing problems regarding training needs and staff training, to take on this new technology.

  1. 42 CFR 410.63 - Hepatitis B vaccine and blood clotting factors: Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hepatitis B vaccine and blood clotting factors... Other Health Services § 410.63 Hepatitis B vaccine and blood clotting factors: Conditions... under § 410.10, subject to the specified conditions: (a) Hepatitis B vaccine: Conditions. Effective...

  2. 7 CFR 58.436 - Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. 58.436 Section 58.436 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be...

  3. Biological variation in tPA-induced plasma clot lysis time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Talens (Simone); J.J.M.C. Malfliet (Joyce); G. Rudež (Goran); H.M.H. Spronk (Henri); N.A.H. Janssen (Nicole); P. Meijer (Piet); C. Kluft (Cornelius); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHypofibrinolysis is a risk factor for venous and arterial thrombosis, and can be assessed by using a turbidimetric tPA-induced clot lysis time (CLT) assay. Biological variation in clot lysis time may affect the interpretation and usefulness of CLT as a risk factor for thrombosis. Suffici

  4. Integration of acoustic radiation force and optical imaging for blood plasma clot stiffness measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caroline W; Perez, Matthew J; Helmke, Brian P; Viola, Francesco; Lawrence, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the life-preserving function blood clotting serves in the body, inadequate or excessive blood clot stiffness has been associated with life-threatening diseases such as stroke, hemorrhage, and heart attack. The relationship between blood clot stiffness and vascular diseases underscores the importance of quantifying the magnitude and kinetics of blood's transformation from a fluid to a viscoelastic solid. To measure blood plasma clot stiffness, we have developed a method that uses ultrasound acoustic radiation force (ARF) to induce micron-scaled displacements (1-500 μm) on microbeads suspended in blood plasma. The displacements were detected by optical microscopy and took place within a micro-liter sized clot region formed within a larger volume (2 mL sample) to minimize container surface effects. Modulation of the ultrasound generated acoustic radiation force allowed stiffness measurements to be made in blood plasma from before its gel point to the stage where it was a fully developed viscoelastic solid. A 0.5 wt % agarose hydrogel was 9.8-fold stiffer than the plasma (platelet-rich) clot at 1 h post-kaolin stimulus. The acoustic radiation force microbead method was sensitive to the presence of platelets and strength of coagulation stimulus. Platelet depletion reduced clot stiffness 6.9 fold relative to platelet rich plasma. The sensitivity of acoustic radiation force based stiffness assessment may allow for studying platelet regulation of both incipient and mature clot mechanical properties.

  5. Biological variation in tPA-induced plasma clot lysis time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Talens (Simone); J.J.M.C. Malfliet (Joyce); G. Rudež (Goran); H.M.H. Spronk (Henri); N.A.H. Janssen (Nicole); P. Meijer (Piet); C. Kluft (Cornelius); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHypofibrinolysis is a risk factor for venous and arterial thrombosis, and can be assessed by using a turbidimetric tPA-induced clot lysis time (CLT) assay. Biological variation in clot lysis time may affect the interpretation and usefulness of CLT as a risk factor for thrombosis.

  6. Growth of hydroxyapatite on physiologically clotted fibrin capped gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, T P; Sundaraseelan, J; Swarnalatha, K; Sobhana, S S Liji; Makheswari, M Uma; Sekar, S; Mandal, A B [Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai-600020, Tamilnadu (India)], E-mail: sastrytp@hotmail.com, E-mail: abmandal@hotmail.com

    2008-06-18

    The growth of hydroxyapatite (HAp) on physiologically clotted fibrin (PCF)-gold nanoparticles is presented for the first time by employing a wet precipitation method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the characteristic functionalities of PCF and HAp in the PCF-Au-HAp nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images have shown cuboidal nanostructures having a size in the range of 70-300 nm of HAp, whereas 2-50 nm sized particles were visualized in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have confirmed the presence of HAp. These results show that gold nanoparticles with PCF acted as a matrix for the growth of HAp, and that PCF-Au-HAp nanocomposite is expected to have better osteoinductive properties.

  7. Polymorphism of clotting factors in Hungarian patients with Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemirani, Amir-Houshang; Szomják, Edit; Balogh, Emese; András, Csilla; Kovács, Dóra; Acs, Judit; Csiki, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon may have a genetically determined risk for clotting factors that predispose them to aberrant microvascular thrombosis. We investigated the prevalence of factor V substitution of G to A at position 1691 (FVLeiden), prothrombin G20210A, and methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutations in these patients. Two hundred (158 women, 42 men, mean age of 42.4 ± 13.7 years) consecutive patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon and 200 age-sex-matched healthy controls of Hungarian origin were included in a case-control study. The prevalence of methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T homozygous among patients was significantly lower than in the control group (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.9, P Raynaud's phenomenon and control subjects. FVLeiden, prothrombin G20210A, and polymorphism, prothrombin G20210A mutations have no apparent effect on the etiology of primary Raynaud's phenomenon.

  8. Factors affecting the lung perfused blood volume in patients with intrapulmonary clots after anti-coagulation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Masuda, Yu [4th Grade of 6-year Medicine Doctor Program, Department of Medicine, Yamaguchi University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Oosaki 77, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Nomura, Takafumi; Nakao, Sei [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Department of Radiology, St Hills Hospital, Imamurakita 3-7-18, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-0155 (Japan); Kido, Shoji [Computer-aided Diagnosis and Biomedical Imaging Research Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering Science Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Dual-energy CT can provide morphological and functional lung images in the same examination. • The subsequent dual-energy CT demonstrates the increased whole lung perfused blood volume (V{sub 120}) despite the residual intrapulmonary clots after treatment in one examination. • The increased whole lung perfusion (V{sub 120}) and a decreased low perfusion volume (V{sub 5}) result in the improvement in the low perfusion rate (%V{sub 5}) in the patients with acute pulmonary embolism after treatment. - Abstract: Objectives: Factors affecting the improvement in the lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) were evaluated based on the presence of intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) after anti-coagulation therapy using 64-slice dual-energy CT. Materials and methods: 96 patients exhibiting venous thromboembolism underwent initial and repeated LPBV examinations between December 2008 and July 2014. Fifteen patients were excluded due to pulmonary comorbidities, and a total of 81 patients were included in this study. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed in 46 of the patients (56.7%). LPBV images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with two threshold ranges: 1–120 HU (V{sub 120}) and 1–5 HU (V{sub 5}), and the relative value of V{sub 5} per V{sub 120} expressed as %V{sub 5}. These values were subsequently compared with indicators of the severity of PE, such as the D-dimer level, heart rate and CT measurements. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Results: In patients with IPCs, the D-dimer, V{sub 5} and %V{sub 5}values were significantly larger (p ≤ 0.01) in the initial LPBV, although these differences disappeared in subsequent LPBV after treatment. The right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio and %V{sub 5} values were also significantly reduced, whereas the V{sub 5} value did not significantly decrease (p = 0.07), but V{sub 120} value significantly increased (p < 0.001) after treatment. However, in

  9. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... hold your breath for short periods. A complete scan usually take only 30 seconds to a few ...

  10. Helical CT for lumbosacral spinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuno, Satoshi; Fukuda, Kunihiko [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of helical CT for lumbosacral pathology. We performed helical CT with multiplanar reconstruction, including the formation of oblique transaxial and coronal images, in 62 patients with various lumboscral disorders, including 32 non-enhanced CT and 36 CT after myelography. We correlated the appearance of the stenotic spinal canal and neoplastic disease with the findings on MRI obtained at nearly the same time. We obtained helical CT images in all cases in about 30 seconds. The diagnostic ability of helical CT was roughly equal to that of MRI in patients with spondylosis deformans, spondylolisthesis and herniated nucleus pulposus. There was no significant difference in diagnostic value for degenerative lumbosacral disease with canal and foraminal stenosis between non-enhanced and post-myelography helical CT. However, non-enhanced helical CT could not clearly demonstrate neoplastic disease because of the poor contrast resolution. Helical CT was useful in evaluating degenerative disorder and its diagnostic value was nearly equal to that of MRI. We considered that helical CT may be suitable for the assessment of patients with severe lumbago owing to the markedly shortened examination time. However, if helical CT is used as a screening method for lumbosacral disease, one must be careful of its limitations, for example, poor detectability of neoplastic disease, vascular anomalies and so on. (author)

  11. Impact in the facilities design and the personnel formation of the hybrid equipment s: PET-CT; Impacto en el diseno de instalaciones y en la formacion del personal de los equipos hibridos: PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, R.; Soler, K.; Alonso, I., E-mail: ramon@orasen.co.cu [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, Calle 28 No. 504, Miramar, La Habana (Cuba)

    2014-08-15

    The Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT), in the last years has demonstrated to be an image technique very effective for the diagnosis and the treatments continuation in different medical applications, because provides a valuable clinical information for the patient handling. The PET-CT is a technology used in the nuclear medicine for diagnostic, because integrates two different image techniques in an only device and in a single exam or study combine the results of both techniques. Also, is a hybrid tomograph that provides in a single image the biochemical information of a technique and the anatomical information of the other, what means that unifies the spatial resolution of a technique and the contrast resolution of the other, allowing this way to obtain a more precise and detailed diagnostic information, opening new opportunities in diagnostic, Radiotherapy planning and treatments continuation to the patients, being generated new links among the different radiological medical specialties. In nuclear medicine facilities with PET-CT, the radiological protection presents particular characteristics, due to the photons coexistence of 511 keV (generated by the annihilation of the emitted positrons from the different exposure sources) together to the X-rays emitted by the CT, what impacts in a direct way in those design requirements of the areas. On the other hand, this combination of the two image techniques imposes additional requirements to the learning and training of personnel, not considered until the present time. In this article are exposed the general principles that should be considered in the design of a Nuclear Medicine Area with PET-CT, and the existent problems related to the learning and training of personnel to assume this new technology are also approached. (Author)

  12. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  13. Comparative Effect of Quercetin and Quercetin-3-O-β-d-Glucoside on Fibrin Polymers, Blood Clots, and in Rodent Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Hui; Kim, Kyung-Je; Kim, Seung

    2016-11-01

    The present study evaluates the in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo antithrombotic and anticoagulant effect of two flavonoids: quercetin and quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (isoquercetin). The present results have shown that quercetin and isoquercetin inhibit the enzymatic activity of thrombin and FXa and suppress fibrin clot formation and blood clotting. The prolongation effect of quercetin and isoquercetin against epinephrine and collagen-induced platelet activation may have been caused by intervention in intracellular signaling pathways including coagulation cascade and aggregation response on platelets and blood. The in vivo and ex vivo anticoagulant efficacy of quercetin and isoquercetin was evaluated in thrombin-induced acute thromboembolism model and in ICR mice. Our findings showed that in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of quercetin were slightly higher than that of quercetin glucoside, whereas in vitro and ex vivo anticoagulant effects of quercetin were weaker than that of quercetin glucoside because of their structural characteristics.

  14. The local phospholipid environment modulates the activation of blood clotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Andrew W; Pureza, Vincent S; Sligar, Stephen G; Morrissey, James H

    2007-03-02

    Examples abound of membrane-bound enzymes for which the local membrane environment plays an important role, including the ectoenzyme that triggers blood clotting, the plasma serine protease, factor VIIa, bound to the integral membrane protein, tissue factor. The activity of this enzyme complex is markedly influenced by lipid bilayer composition and further by tissue factor partitioning into membrane microdomains on some cell surfaces. Unfortunately, little is known about how membrane microdomain composition controls factor VIIa-tissue factor activity, as reactions catalyzed by membrane-tethered enzymes are typically studied under conditions in which the experimenter cannot control the composition of the membrane in the immediate vicinity of the enzyme. To overcome this problem, we used a nanoscale approach that afforded complete control over the membrane environment surrounding tissue factor by assembling the factor VIIa.tissue factor complex on stable bilayers containing 67 +/- 1 phospholipid molecules/leaflet (Nanodiscs). We investigated how local changes in phospholipid bilayer composition modulate the activity of the factor VIIa.tissue factor complex. We also addressed whether this enzyme requires a pool of membrane-bound protein substrate (factor X) for efficient catalysis, or alternatively if it could efficiently activate factor X, which binds directly to the membrane nanodomain adjacent to tissue factor. We have shown that full proteolytic activity of the factor VIIa.tissue factor complex requires extremely high local concentrations of anionic phospholipids and further that a large pool of membrane-bound factor X is not required to support sustained catalysis.

  15. Renal trauma in occult ureteropelvic junction obstruction: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastia, M.C.; Rodriguez-Dobao, M.; Quiroga, S.; Pallisa, E.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Alvarez-Castells, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital General Universitari Vall d`Hebron, Barcelona (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present CT findings of occult ureteropelvic junction obstruction in patients with renal trauma and to describe the clinical signs and singular CT features that are characteristically observed with trauma and are relevant to management of these patients. We retrospectively reviewed 82 helical CT studies in patients with renal trauma referred to our institution. We found 13 cases of occult preexisting renal pathology, six of which were occult ureteropelvic junction obstructions. The clinical presentation, radiologic findings of trauma according to the Federle classification, and CT findings of obstructed ureteropelvic junction are presented. We found three category-I lesions (one in a horseshoe kidney), two of them treated with nephrostomy because of increased ureteropelvic junction obstruction due to pelvic clots; two category-II lesions (parenchymal and renal pelvis lacerations) that had presented only with microhematuria; and one category-IV lesion (pelvic laceration alone). Pelvic extension was demonstrated in all the cases with perirenal collections. The CT studies in all the cases with suspected ureteropelvic junction obstruction showed decreased parenchymal thickness and enhancement, and dilatation of the renal pelvis and calyx, with a normal ureter. Computed tomography can provide information to confidently diagnose underlying ureteropelvic junction obstruction in renal trauma, categorize the traumatic injury (at times clinically silent) and facilitate proper management according to the singularities observed, such us rupture of the renal pelvis alone (Federle category IV) and increasing ureteropelvic obstruction due to clots which can be decompressed by nephrostomy. (orig.) With 6 figs., 3 tabs., 13 refs.

  16. Too Many Stroke Victims Don't Get Clot-Busting Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163756.html Too Many Stroke Victims Don't Get Clot-Busting Drug: Study ... 23, 2017 THURSDAY, Feb. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Stroke victims can be saved through the timely use ...

  17. Imaging and Elastometry of Blood Clots Using Magnetomotive Optical Coherence Tomography and Labeled Platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Amy L.; Wu, Gongting; Spivak, Dmitry; Tsui, Frank; Wolberg, Alisa S.; Fischer, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods for imaging and assessment of vascular defects are needed for directing treatment of cardiovascular pathologies. In this paper, we employ magnetomotive optical coherence tomography (MMOCT) as a platform both to detect and to measure the elasticity of blood clots. Detection is enabled through the use of rehydrated, lyophilized platelets loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIO-RL platelets) that are functional infusion agents that adhere to sites of vascular endothelial damage. Evidence suggests that the sensitivity for detection is improved over threefold by magnetic interactions between SPIOs inside RL platelets. Using the same MMOCT system, we show how elastometry of simulated clots, using resonant acoustic spectroscopy, is correlated with the fibrin content of the clot. Both methods are based upon magnetic actuation and phase-sensitive optical monitoring of nanoscale displacements using MMOCT, underscoring its utility as a broad-based platform to detect and measure the molecular structure and composition of blood clots. PMID:23833549

  18. C-Section Raises Risk of Blood Clots After Childbirth: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161301.html C-Section Raises Risk of Blood Clots After Childbirth: ... international studies found that women who had a C-section were four times more likely to develop ...

  19. Antenatal glucocorticoids attenuate activation of the inflammatory reaction and clotting in preterm lambs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, AS; Geven, WB; van Oeveren, W; Bambang-Oetomo, S

    2004-01-01

    Recently we have shown that activation of inflammatory reaction and clotting can be found immediately after delivery in preterm lambs ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). To investigate whether antenatal glucocorticoids would attenuate postnatal activation of the inflammatory reaction

  20. Fibrin Association at Hybrid Biointerfaces Made of Clot-Binding Peptides and Polythiophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puiggalí-Jou, A; Del Valle, Luis J; Armelin, Elaine; Alemán, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The properties as biointerfaces of electroactive conducting polymer-peptide biocomposites formed by poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and CREKA or CR(NMe)EKA peptide sequences (where Glu has been replaced by N-methyl-Glu in the latter) have been compared. CREKA is a linear pentapeptide that recognizes clotted plasma proteins and selectively homes to tumors, while CR(NMe)EKA is an engineer to improve such properties by altering peptide-fibrin interactions. Differences between PEDOT-CREKA and PEDOT-CR(NMe)EKA reflect dissemblance in the organization of the peptides into the polymeric matrix. Both peptides affect fibrinogen thrombin-catalyzed polymerization causing the immediate formation of fibrin, whereas in the absence of thrombin this phenomenon is only observed for CR(NMe)EKA. Consistently, the fibrin-adsorption capacity is higher for PEDOT-CR(NMe)EKA than for PEDOT-CREKA, even though in both cases adsorbed fibrin exhibits round-like morphologies rather than the characteristic fibrous structure. PEDOT-peptide films coated with fibrin are selective in terms of cell adhesion, promoting the attachment of metastatic cells with respect to normal cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayavel Arumugam

    Full Text Available Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve. In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system.

  2. Localization of Short-Chain Polyphosphate Enhances its Ability to Clot Flowing Blood Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Ju Hun; Mazinani, Nima; Schlappi, Travis S.; Chan, Karen Y. T.; Baylis, James R.; Smith, Stephanie A.; Donovan, Alexander J.; Kudela, Damien; Stucky, Galen D.; Liu, Ying; Morrissey, James H.; Kastrup, Christian J.

    2017-02-01

    Short-chain polyphosphate (polyP) is released from platelets upon platelet activation, but it is not clear if it contributes to thrombosis. PolyP has increased propensity to clot blood with increased polymer length and when localized onto particles, but it is unknown whether spatial localization of short-chain polyP can accelerate clotting of flowing blood. Here, numerical simulations predicted the effect of localization of polyP on clotting under flow, and this was tested in vitro using microfluidics. Synthetic polyP was more effective at triggering clotting of flowing blood plasma when localized on a surface than when solubilized in solution or when localized as nanoparticles, accelerating clotting at 10–200 fold lower concentrations, particularly at low to sub-physiological shear rates typical of where thrombosis occurs in large veins or valves. Thus, sub-micromolar concentrations of short-chain polyP can accelerate clotting of flowing blood plasma under flow at low to sub-physiological shear rates. However, a physiological mechanism for the localization of polyP to platelet or vascular surfaces remains unknown.

  3. Application and validation of the lattice Boltzmann method for modelling flow-related clotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S E; Smith, S M; Bernsdorf, J; Hose, D R; Lawford, P V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a simple clotting model, based on residence time and shear stress distribution, that can simulate the deposition over time of enzyme-activated milk in an in vitro system. Results for the model are compared with experiments exhibiting clot deposition in the region of a sharp-edged stenosis. The milk experiments have been shown to be a valuable analogue for the experimental representation of flow-induced blood clotting, particularly in the context of separation of hydrodynamic from biochemical factors. The facility to predict the flow-induced clotting of the blood analogue, in which the chemistry reduces to what is effectively a zeroth order reaction, gives confidence in this physics-based approach to simulation of the final part of the coagulation cascade. This type of study is a necessary precursor to the development of a complex, multi-factorial, biochemical model of the process of thrombosis. In addition to the clotting simulations, comparisons are reported between the computed flow patterns prior to clot deposition and flow visualisation studies. Excellent agreement of hydrodynamic parameters is reported for a Reynolds number of 100, and qualitative agreement is seen for the complex, disturbed flow occurring at a physiologically relevant Reynolds number of 550. The explicit, time-stepping lattice Boltzmann approach may have particular merit for the transitional flow at this higher Reynolds number.

  4. Partial purification of new milk-clotting enzyme produced by Nocardiopsis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, M T H; Teixeira, M F S; Lima Filho, J L; Porto, A L F

    2004-05-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to replace calf rennet with other milk clotting proteases because of limited supply and increasingly high prices. The aim of this work was to investigate the characteristic of the milk-clotting enzyme from Nocardiopsis sp. The partial purification extract was obtained by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulphate. Of the fractions obtained by precipitation, 40-60% possessed the milk-clotting activity (156.25 U/mg). The chromatography of 40-100% ammonium sulphate fraction in DEAE-cellulose yielded four fractions (F4, F5, F6, F7) with milk-clotting activity. The F5 yielded the best milk-clotting activity (20 U/ml). Both crude and partially purified extract were active at the range pH 4.5-11.0, however, optimum activity was displayed at pH 11.0 and pH 7.5, respectively. The milk-clotting activity was highest at 55 degrees C for both crude and partially purified extract. The crude and partial purification extract were inactivated at 65 and 75 degrees C after 30 min.

  5. Acute toxicity of diphacinone in Northern bobwhite: Effects on survival and blood clotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Johnston, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was slightly toxic (acute oral LD50 2014 mg/kg) to Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) in a 14-day acute toxicity trial. Precise and sensitive assays of blood clotting (prothrombin time, Russell?s Viper venom time, and thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in quail, and this combination of assays is recommended to measure the effects of anticoagulant rodenticides. A single oral sublethal dose of diphacinone (434 mg/kg body weight) prolonged clotting time at 48 h post-dose compared to controls. At 783 mg/kg (approximate LD02), clotting time was prolonged at both 24 and 48 h post-dose. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and was detected before overt signs of toxicity were apparent at the greatest dosages (2868 and 3666 mg/kg) in the acute toxicity trial. These clotting time assays and toxicity data will assist in the development of a pharmacodynamic model to predict toxicity, and also facilitate rodenticide hazard and risk assessments in avian species.

  6. A Fictitious Domain Method for Resolving the Interaction of Blood Flow with Clot Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Debanjan; Shadden, Shawn

    2016-11-01

    Thrombosis and thrombo-embolism cause a range of diseases including heart attack and stroke. Closer understanding of clot and blood flow mechanics provides valuable insights on the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of thrombotic diseases. Such mechanics are complicated, however, by the discrete and multi-scale phenomena underlying thrombosis, and the complex interactions of unsteady, pulsatile hemodynamics with a clot of arbitrary shape and microstructure. We have developed a computational technique, based on a fictitious domain based finite element method, to study these interactions. The method can resolve arbitrary clot geometries, and dynamically couple fluid flow with static or growing clot boundaries. Macroscopic thrombus-hemodynamics interactions were investigated within idealized vessel geometries representative of the common carotid artery, with realistic unsteady flow profiles as inputs. The method was also employed successfully to resolve micro-scale interactions using a model driven by in-vivo morphology data. The results provide insights into the flow structures and hemodynamic loading around an arbitrarily grown clot at arterial length-scales, as well as flow and transport within the interstices of platelet aggregates composing the clot. The work was supported by AHA Award No: 16POST27500023.

  7. Arterial Input Function Placement for Accurate CT Perfusion Map Construction in Acute Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rafael M.; Lev, Michael H.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.; Kamalian, Shahmir; Schaefer, Pamela W.; Furie, Karen L.; Gonzalez, R. Gilberto; Sanelli, Pina C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of varying arterial input function (AIF) placement on the qualitative and quantitative CT perfusion parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS Retrospective analysis of CT perfusion data was performed on 14 acute stroke patients with a proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) clot. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) maps were constructed using a systematic method by varying only the AIF placement in four positions relative to the MCA clot including proximal and distal to the clot in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres. Two postprocessing software programs were used to evaluate the effect of AIF placement on perfusion parameters using a delay-insensitive deconvolution method compared with a standard deconvolution method. RESULTS One hundred sixty-eight CT perfusion maps were constructed for each software package. Both software programs generated a mean CBF at the infarct core of < 12 mL/100 g/min and a mean CBV of < 2 mL/100 g for AIF placement proximal to the clot in the ipsilateral hemisphere and proximal and distal to the clot in the contralateral hemisphere. For AIF placement distal to the clot in the ipsilateral hemisphere, the mean CBF significantly increased to 17.3 mL/100 g/min with delay-insensitive software and to 19.4 mL/100 g/min with standard software (p < 0.05). The mean MTT was significantly decreased for this AIF position. Furthermore, this AIF position yielded qualitatively different parametric maps, being most pronounced with MTT and CBF. Overall, CBV was least affected by AIF location. CONCLUSION For postprocessing of accurate quantitative CT perfusion maps, laterality of the AIF location is less important than avoiding AIF placement distal to the clot as detected on CT angiography. This pitfall is less severe with deconvolution-based software programs using a delay-insensitive technique than with those using a standard deconvolution

  8. Addition of a sequence from α2-antiplasmin transforms human serum albumin into a blood clot component that speeds clot lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gataiance Sharon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasma protein α2-antiplasmin (α2AP is cross-linked to fibrin in blood clots by the transglutaminase factor XIIIa, and in that location retards clot lysis. Competition for this effect could be clinically useful in patients with thrombosis. We hypothesized that fusion of N-terminal portions of α2-antiplasmin to human serum albumin (HSA and production of the chimeric proteins in Pichia pastoris yeast would produce a stable and effective competitor protein. Results Fusion protein α2AP(13-42-HSA was efficiently secreted from transformed yeast and purified preparations contained within a mixed population the full-length intact form, while fusions with longer α2AP moieties were inefficiently secreted and/or degraded. The α2AP(13-42-HSA protein, but not recombinant HSA, was cross-linked to both chemical lysine donors and fibrin or fibrinogen by factor XIIIa, although with less rapid kinetics than native α2AP. Excess α2AP(13-42-HSA competed with α2AP for cross-linking to chemical lysine donors more effectively than a synthetic α2AP(13-42 peptide, and reduced the α2AP-dependent resistance to fibrinolysis of plasma clots equally effectively as the peptide. Native α2AP was found in in vivo clots in rabbits to a greater extent than α2AP(13-42, however. Conclusion In this first report of transfer of transglutamination substrate status from one plasma protein to another, fusion protein α2AP(13-42-HSA was shown to satisfy initial requirements for a long-lasting, well-tolerated competitive inhibitor of α2-antiplasmin predicted to act in a clot-localized manner.

  9. CT features of a pericardial gossypiboma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coskun, M.; Boyvat, F.; Muhtesem Agildere, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Baskent Univ. Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

    1999-05-01

    We report a case of surgically retained pericardial sponge as a cause of paracardiac mass in a woman who had thoracotomy 3 weeks prior for replacement of mitral valve prosthesis. Computed tomography examination showed a thin-walled mass containing relatively high-density material in the central part with low-density rim at the periphery suggesting a haematoma with clot formation at first. Surgically removed mass was a retained sponge between right atrium and pericardium. Gossypiboma should be included in the differential diagnosis of an intrathoracic mass besides haematoma and abscess formation in any patient who has had previous thoracotomy. (orig.) With 1 fig., 14 refs.

  10. Diagnostic value of blood clot core during endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspirate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Emily N; Russell, Christopher D; Shilo, Konstantin; Islam, Shaheen; Wood, Karen L

    2013-06-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is being increasingly used in the sampling of pulmonary masses and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The blood clot core (BCC) often obtained during EBUS-TBNA may not be a true core and therefore may not be submitted for histological analysis. The frequency in which the blood clot core is positive in patients with negative cytology undergoing EBUS-TBNA is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic role of the blood clot core obtained during EBUS-TBNA. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart review was performed from January through September 2011 for all patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA at The Ohio State University. The data collection included cytology and histology results for each procedure. Blood clot cores obtained from the EBUS-TBNA needle were sent in formalin for histological examination. Seventy patients underwent EBUS-TBNA and 51 (72.8 %) patients had procedures that yielded a BCC for histology and aspirate for cytology. Forty-nine percent of patients with a BCC were diagnosed with malignancy. Of those with a BCC obtained, five (9.8 %) patients diagnosed with malignancy were done so based only on the results of blood clot core alone with negative cytology. Blood clot cores obtained at EBUS-TBNA contain diagnostic material and should be subjected histopathological examination. When blood clot cores are sent for analysis, there is the potential to spare up to 10 % of patients more invasive diagnostic biopsy procedures.

  11. The Contribution of Pin End-Cup Interactions to Clot Strength Assessed with Thrombelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G

    2016-01-01

    Viscoelastic methods have been developed to assess the contribution of plasma proteins and platelets to coagulation in vitro to guide clinical transfusion therapy. One of the cardinal precepts of determining clot strength is making sure that the viscoelastic technique includes complete exposure of the plastic pin in the testing chamber with the fluid analyzed so as to assure maximal interaction of the cup wall with the pin surface. However, the various contributions of the pin surface area to final clot strength have not been investigated. That is, it is not clear what is more important in the in vitro determination of clot strength, the surface area shared between the cup and pin filled with fluid or the final viscoelastic resistance of the gel matrix formed. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the clot strength when only the tip of the pin was engaged with plasma thrombus and to compare these values with clot strength values obtained when the pin was completely in plasma. After determining the minimal amount of plasma required to cover a pin tip in a thrombelastographic system (30 μL), clot strength (elastic modulus, G) was determined in plasma samples of 30 or 360 μL final volume (n = 12 per condition) after tissue factor activation. The G value with 30 μL volume was 1057 ± 601 dynes/cm (mean ± SD; 95% confidence interval, 675-1439 dynes/cm), which was (P = 0.0015) smaller than the G value associated with 360-μL sample volumes, that was 1712 ± 48 dynes/cm (confidence interval, 1681-1742 dynes/cm). In conclusion, these data demonstrate that clot strength is not determined by a simple ratio of surface area of pin and cup to volume of sample, but rather strength is importantly influenced by the viscoelastic resistance of the fluid assessed.

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aneurysm in a patient with a sudden severe headache. a blood clot or bleeding within the brain ... a few seconds, and even faster in small children. Such speed is beneficial for all patients but ...

  13. CT Enterography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may also be asked to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras ... kind, unlike MRI. No radiation remains in a patient's body after a CT ... side effects. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special ... the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT ...

  15. Shrimp Alpha-2-Macroglobulin Prevents the Bacterial Escape by Inhibiting Fibrinolysis of Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikeeratisak, Vorrapon; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2012-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of the hemocytic proteins of Penaeus monodon (Pm) has previously shown that alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) was among the proteins that showed substantially altered expression levels upon Vibrio harveyi infection. Therefore, in this study its potentially important role in the response of shrimp to bacterial infection was further characterized. The yeast two-hybrid system revealed that the receptor binding domain of PmA2M interacted with the carboxyl-terminus of one or both of the transglutaminase type II isoforms, which are key enzymes involved in the shrimp clotting system. In accord with this, PmA2M was found to be localized on the extracellular blood clots and to colocalize with clottable proteins. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of A2M transcript levels reduced the PmA2M transcript levels (∼94%) and significantly reduced the bacterial seizing ability of the clotting system, resulting in an up to 3.3-fold higher number of V. harveyi that systemically disseminated into the circulatory system at 5 min post-infection before subsequent clearance by the immune system. Furthermore, an appearance of PmA2M depleted clots in the presence of V. harveyi strikingly demonstrated fibrinolysis zones surrounding the bacteria. This study provides the first evidence of the vital role of PmA2M in enhancing bacterial sequestration by protecting blood clots against fibrinolysis. PMID:23082160

  16. Blood clot initiation by mesocellular foams: dependence on nanopore size and enzyme immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sarah E; Sawvel, April M; Fan, Jie; Shi, Qihui; Strandwitz, Nicholas; Stucky, Galen D

    2008-12-16

    Porous silica materials are attractive for hemorrhage control because of their blood clot promoting surface chemistry, the wide variety of surface topologies and porous structures that can be created, and the potential ability to achieve high loading of therapeutic proteins within the silica support. We show that silica cell-window size variation in the nanometers to tens of nanometers range greatly affects the rate at which blood clots are formed in human plasma, indicating that window sizes in this size range directly impact the accessibility and diffusion of clotting-promoting proteins to and from the interior surfaces and pore volume of mesocellular foams (MCFs). These studies point toward a critical window size at which the clotting speed is minimized and serve as a model for the design of more effective wound-dressing materials. We demonstrate that the clotting times of plasma exposed to MCF materials are dramatically reduced by immobilizing thrombin in the pores of the MCF, validating the utility of enzyme-immobilized mesoporous silicas in biomedical applications.

  17. Effect of thiol derivatives on mixed mucus and blood clots in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risack, L E; Vandevelde, M E; Gobert, J G

    1978-01-01

    The disintegrating effect of three reducing thiol derivatives: [sodium mercaptoethane sulphonate (Mesna), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and dithio-1,4-threitol (DTT)] was investigated in vitro upon blood clots formed in the absence or in the presence of tracheobronchial secretions and compared with the effect of iso-osmotic saline solution. The amounts of haemoglobin released from the clots after 30 min incubation and the initial rates of haemoglobin release were compared for the different products at different concentrations. All three reducing agents showed some ability to disintegrate mixed clots to an extent depending on their concentration. After 30 min incubation, statistical analysis showed a highly significant difference in favour of Mesna at the three concentrations used, i.e. 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mmol/1. The initial rate of haemoglobin release in presence of Mesna was at all concentrations significantly higher than that of NAC or DTT. The effects on normal blood clots were much less pronounced. The effectiveness of Mesna in splitting up mixed blood and mucus clots in the management of patients who had inhaled blood is discussed.

  18. In vivo ultrasound visualization of non-occlusive blood clots with thrombin-sensitive contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Matthew A; Barback, Christopher V; Fitch, Kirsten R; Farwell, Alexander R; Esener, Sadik C; Mattrey, Robert F; Cha, Jennifer N; Goodwin, Andrew P

    2013-12-01

    The use of microbubbles as ultrasound contrast agents is one of the primary methods to diagnose deep venous thrombosis. However, current microbubble imaging strategies require either a clot sufficiently large to produce a circulation filling defect or a clot with sufficient vascularization to allow for targeted accumulation of contrast agents. Previously, we reported the design of a microbubble formulation that modulated its ability to generate ultrasound contrast from interaction with thrombin through incorporation of aptamer-containing DNA crosslinks in the encapsulating shell, enabling the measurement of a local chemical environment by changes in acoustic activity. However, this contrast agent lacked sufficient stability and lifetime in blood to be used as a diagnostic tool. Here we describe a PEG-stabilized, thrombin-activated microbubble (PSTA-MB) with sufficient stability to be used in vivo in circulation with no change in biomarker sensitivity. In the presence of actively clotting blood, PSTA-MBs showed a 5-fold increase in acoustic activity. Specificity for the presence of thrombin and stability under constant shear flow were demonstrated in a home-built in vitro model. Finally, PSTA-MBs were able to detect the presence of an active clot within the vena cava of a rabbit sufficiently small as to not be visible by current non-specific contrast agents. By activating in non-occlusive environments, these contrast agents will be able to detect clots not diagnosable by current contrast agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulmonary embolism: spiral CT evaluation; Embolie pulmonaire: apport de la tomodensitometrie helicoidale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senac, J.P.; Vernhet, H.; Bousquet, C.; Giron, J.; Pieuchot, P.; Durand, G.; Benezet, O.; Aubas, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    1995-06-01

    Purpose: Spiral computed tomography was compared retrospectively with digital substraction pulmonary angiography (PA) in 45 patients suspected of having acute or chronic pulmonary embolism. Materials and method : 45 patients in whom the presence of acute or chronic pulmonary embolism was suspected underwent examination by spiral CT and PA. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism was based on the direct visualization of intraluminal clots. The study of the agreement between the two methods was based on the Kappa test. In 35 cases, pulmonary emboli were proved. Acute pulmonary emboli were present in 28 cases and chronic in 7 cases. Results: Spiral computed tomography represents an excellent way to detect acute pulmonary embolism. In the chronic form, spiral CT is better than PA to detect intraluminal clots. However, Spiral CT can fail to detect small emboli in the peripheral arterial bed. In the 10 patients without pulmonary embolism, the spiral CT proved diagnosis pulmonary oedema (n=3), lymphangi-carcinoma (n=4), pleural effusion (n=3). Conclusion: This study suggest that the spiral CT examination is accurate for diagnosis of pulmonary embolism specifically in case of suspected important embolism. The advantages of spiral CT are multiple (non invasive, wide diagnosis spectrum). However, may be a limitation to is use is insufficient distal thrombi detection. This eventuality (5 to 10% in the Pioped study) justify the practice of pulmonary angiography. Spiral CT improvements should reduce this insufficiency in the next future. (Authors). 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. A 14-3-3γ dimer-based scaffold bridges CtBP1-S/BARS to PI(4)KIIIβ to regulate post-Golgi carrier formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Carmen; Turacchio, Gabriele; Mariggiò, Stefania; Pagliuso, Alessandro; Gaibisso, Renato; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Santoro, Michele; Formiggini, Fabio; Spanò, Stefania; Piccini, Daniele; Polishchuk, Roman S; Colanzi, Antonino; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela

    2012-02-26

    Large pleiomorphic carriers leave the Golgi complex for the plasma membrane by en bloc extrusion of specialized tubular domains, which then undergo fission. Several components of the underlying molecular machinery have been identified, including those involved in the budding/initiation of tubular carrier precursors (for example, the phosphoinositide kinase PI(4)KIIIβ, the GTPase ARF, and FAPP2), and in the fission of these precursors (for example, PKD, CtBP1-S/BARS). However, how these proteins interact to bring about carrier formation is poorly understood. Here, we describe a protein complex that mediates carrier formation and contains budding and fission molecules, as well as other molecules, such as the adaptor protein 14-3-3γ. Specifically, we show that 14-3-3γ dimers bridge CtBP1-S/BARS with PI(4)KIIIβ, and that the resulting complex is stabilized by phosphorylation by PKD and PAK. Disrupting the association of these proteins inhibits the fission of elongating carrier precursors, indicating that this complex couples the carrier budding and fission processes.

  1. Effect of carryover of clot activators on coagulation tests during phlebotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukugawa, Yoko; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Ishii, Takahiro; Tanouchi, Ayako; Sano, Junko; Miyawaki, Haruko; Kishino, Tomonori; Ohtsuka, Kouki; Yoshino, Hideaki; Watanabe, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the effect of clot activators carried over from the serum tube on major coagulation tests during phlebotomy. First, blood specimens from 30 normal subjects were mixed with small amounts of fluid containing clot activators, and their effects on various coagulation tests were determined. Only the value of fibrin monomer complex displayed a remarkable change when thrombin-containing fluid was added to the blood specimens. Subsequently, 100 paired blood specimens (taken from 75 healthy volunteers and 25 patients taking warfarin) were collected in coagulation tubes before and after the serum tube using standard phlebotomy procedures. Various coagulation tests were performed to determine the effect of contamination of thrombin-containing blood on coagulation parameters. Differences between the 2 tubes were minimal but significant for some of the coagulation tests. Therefore, we conclude that the effect of clot activators in the serum tube on coagulation tests is minimal when standard phlebotomy procedures are used.

  2. Honey Bee Venom (Apis mellifera Contains Anticoagulation Factors and Increases the Blood-clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zolfagharian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bee venom (BV is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Methods: Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography (sephadex G-50, and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Blood samples were obtained from 10 rabbits, and the prothrombin time (PT and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT tests were conducted. The approximate lethal dose (LD values of BV were determined. Results: Crude BV increased the blood clotting time. For BV concentrations from 1 to 4 mg/mL, clotting was not observed even at more than 300 seconds, standard deviations (SDs = ± 0.71; however, clotting was observed in the control group 13.8 s, SDs = ± 0.52. Thus, BV can be considered as containing anti-coagulation factors. Crude BV is composed 4 protein bands with molecular weights of 3, 15, 20 and 41 kilodalton (kDa, respectively. The LD50 of the crude BV was found to be 177.8 μg/mouse. Conclusion: BV contains anti-coagulation factors. The fraction extracted from the Iranian bees contains proteins that are similar to anti-coagulation proteins, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and melittin, and that can increase the blood clotting times in vitro.

  3. A turbidimetric assay for the measurement of clotting times of procoagulant venoms in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Margaret A; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the procoagulant effect of snake venoms is important for understanding their effects. The aim of this study was to develop a simple automated method to measure clotting times to assess procoagulant venoms. A turbidimetric assay was developed which monitors changes in optical density when plasma and venom are mixed. Plasma was added simultaneously to venom solutions in a 96 well microtitre plate. After mixing, the optical density at 340 nm was monitored in a microplate reader every 30 s over 30 min. The clotting time was defined as the lag time until the absorbance sharply increased. The turbidimetric method was compared to manual measurement of the clotting time defined as the time when a strand of fibrin can be drawn out of the mixture. The two methods were done simultaneously, with the same venom and plasma, and compared by plotting the manual versus turbidimetric clotting times. Within-day and between-day runs were done and the coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated. Plots comparing manual clotting times to the lag time in the turbidimetric assay showed good correlation between the two methods for brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) venom, including 24 determinations in triplicate over six days for seven different venom concentrations. Good correlation was also found for four other venoms: tiger snake (Notechis scutatus), Carpet viper (Echis carinatus), Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) and Malaysian pit piper (Calloselasma rhodostoma). Between-day CV was in the range 10-20% for both methods, while within-day CV <10%. The turbidimetric assay appears to be a simple and convenient automated method for the measurement of clotting times to assess the effects of procoagulant venoms. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Red Blood Cells Accelerate the Onset of Clot Formation in Polytrauma and Hemorrhagic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    was produced as described in our previous work.7 A well- validated lethal triad ( acidosis , coagulopathy, and hypother- Submitted for publication...outcome in 466 massively transfused civilian trauma patients. Ann Surg. 2008;248:447–458. 3. Sperry JL, Ochoa JB, Gunn SR, et al; Inflammation the Host

  5. Computational Study of Thrombus Formation and Clotting Factor Effects under Venous Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-26

    each has its limitations. The recent emergence of systems biology has suggested a way to circumvent some of the lim- itations of traditional...when geometries for large blood vessels (e.g., coronary arteries) are involved (37). These considerations reinforced our decision to simplify the...bleeding. Vox Sang. 94:221–226. 11. Karlsson, M., L. Ternström,., A. Jeppsson. 2009. Prophylactic fibrin- ogen infusion reduces bleeding after coronary

  6. High-Quality and -Quantity DNA Extraction from Frozen Archival Blood Clots for Genotyping of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Steffen; Nexø, Bjørn Andersen; Andersen, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recovery of biological samples for genetic epidemiological studies can be cumbersome. Blood clots are routinely collected for serological examinations. However, the extraction of DNA from blood clots can be difficult and often results in low yields. Aim: The aim was to compare...

  7. CT urography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobkin, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2005-11-15

    With the advent of multidetector row CT scanners, evaluation of the urothelium of the entire urinary tract with high-resolution thin sections during a single breath-hold has become a reality. Multidetector CT urography (MDCTU) is a single examination that allows evaluation of potential urinary tract calculi, renal parenchymal masses, and both benign and malignant urothelial lesions. Initial results with this new technique are encouraging. Current investigations of MDCTU focus on methods to improve opacification and distension of the upper urinary tract - the collecting systems, pelvis, and ureters. The role of abdominal compression, infusion of saline and/or furosemide, and optimal time delay of excretory phase imaging is being explored. Upper tract urothelial malignancies, including small lesions less the 5 mmin diameter, can be detected with high sensitivity. Methods to reduce radiation exposure are being explored, including split-bolus contrast injection techniques that combine nephrographic and excretory phases into a single phase. It is likely that in the near future, radiological evaluation of significant unexplained hematuria or of known or prior urothelial malignancy will consist of a single examination - MDCTU. (orig.)

  8. The activated clotting time in cardiac surgery : Should Celite or kaolin be used?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Adrianus J.; Lansink-Hartgring, Annemieke Oude; Fernhout, Freek-Jan; Huet, Rolf C. G.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    OBJECTIVES: Both kaolin- and Celite-activated clotting times (ACT) are used to guide anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass. It is unknown whether these methods lead to similar management procedures for anticoagulation in patients and are thus interchangeable in terms of bias, precision and

  9. Using hydrogen peroxide as a bladder irrigation solution for clot evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bagheri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gross hematuria or macroscopic hematuria is a high risk urologic condition that might occur in different settings. In the case of continued gross hematuria, blood clot size may grow and lead to complete obstruction of urinary outflow. Placement of three-way catheter, continuous bladder irrigation with normal saline, and cystoscopy are conventional treatments. Here we introduce a case with urinary obstruction who did not respond to conventional therapies. A subject of Hodgkin lymphoma with urinary obstruction caused by heavy gross hematuria was presented to emergency department. Three-way catheter was inserted to facilitate urination. However, there was no urinary drainage and bladder was distended. Consequently, 100 ml solution of hydrogen peroxide 0.15% was prepared and administered into the bladder to irrigate and evacuate the clots. A single intravesical infusion of hydrogen peroxide rapidly resolved urinary obstruction and improved patient distress. After administration of hydrogen peroxide solution, blood clots and bloody urine were evacuated successfully. These findings suggest that an intravesical injection of hydrogen peroxide can induce dissolution of blood clots and may be a simple and efficient therapy for urinary obstruction due to gross hematuria.

  10. Thrombin-Accelerated Quick Clotting Serum Tubes: An Evaluation with 22 Common Biochemical Analytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Yoong Ng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clot activator serum tubes have significantly improved turnaround times for result reporting compared to plain tubes. With increasing workload and service performance expectations confronting clinical laboratories with high-volume testing and with particular emphasis on critical analytes, attention has focussed on preanalytical variables that can be improved. We carried out a field study on the test performance of BD vacutainer rapid serum tubes (RSTs compared to current institutional issued BD vacutainer serum separator tubes (SSTs in its test result comparability, clotting time, and stability on serum storage. Data from the study population (n=160 of patients attending outpatient clinics and healthy subjects showed that results for renal, liver, lipids, cardiac, thyroid, and prostate biochemical markers were comparable between RSTs and SSTs. Clotting times of the RSTs were verified to be quick with a median time of 2.05 min. Analyte stability on serum storage at 4°C showed no statistically significant deterioration except for bicarbonate, electrolytes, and albumin over a period of 4 days. In conclusion, RSTs offered savings in the time required for the clotting process of serum specimens. This should translate to further trimming of the whole process from blood collection to result reporting without too much sacrifice on test accuracy and performance compared to the current widely used SSTs in most clinical laboratories.

  11. Staphylococcus chromogenes, a Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Species That Can Clot Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; Dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864.7140 Section 864.7140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... pulmonary embolism by measuring the coagulation time of whole blood. (b) Classification. Class II...

  13. Alteration of blood clot structures by interleukin-1 beta in association with bone defects healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Friis, Thor E.; Masci, Paul P.; Crawford, Ross W.; Liao, Wenbo; Xiao, Yin

    2016-01-01

    The quality of hematomas are crucial for successful early bone defect healing, as the structure of fibrin clots can significantly influence the infiltration of cells, necessary for bone regeneration, from adjacent tissues into the fibrin network. This study investigated if there were structural differences between hematomas from normal and delayed healing bone defects and whether such differences were linked to changes in the expression of IL-1β. Using a bone defect model in rats, we found that the hematomas in the delayed healing model had thinner fibers and denser clot structures. Moreover, IL-1β protein levels were significantly higher in the delayed healing hematomas. The effects of IL-1β on the structural properties of human whole blood clots were evaluated by thrombelastograph (TEG), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), compressive study, and thrombolytic assays. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was applied to modulate de novo hematoma structure and the impact on bone healing was evaluated in the delayed healing model. We found that GSNO produced more porous hematomas with thicker fibers and resulted in significantly enhanced bone healing. This study demonstrated that IL-1β and GSNO had opposing effects on clot architecture, the structure of which plays a pivotal role in early bone healing. PMID:27767056

  14. Correlation of fibrinogen level and absorbance change in both PT and APTT clotting curves on BCSXP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojie Zhang; Bing Bai

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation of fibrinogen level and absorbance change in both PT and APTT clotting curves on BCSXP Analyzer. Methods:A serial of standard fibrinogen and 250 patient plasma samples with different qualities(normal, hemolysis,icterus, and lipemia) were run on BCSXP for assays PT, APTT and Fibrinogen. The absorbance change(DeltaA) from baseline to plateau in clotting curve was retrieved and analyzed on its correlation with the Fibrinogen result. Influence of plasma quality and PT/APTT result on this correlation was also studied respectively. Results:Both PT-DeltaA and APTT-DeltaA showed good linear regression with fibrinogen level in the sample, with Re close to 0.90 in both standard and patient samples. Hemolysis(H), itcterus(1) and lipemia(L) of the sample with valid clotting curves were found to have no significant difference in this correlation from normal(N) sample(R2: 0.83H, 0.92I 0.81L and 0.79N in PT; 0.89H, 0.95I, 0.91L and 0.89N in APTT) in either PT or APTT curve. PT or APTT result also has little impact on this correlation(0.71 in range 7 ~ 10 sec, 0.56 in10 ~ 20 sec, and 0.70 in 20 sec~; R2 in APTT: 0.88 in 20~30 sec,0.92 in 30~40 sec, and 0.95 in 40 sec~). Conclusion:The absorbance change in either PT or APTT clotting curve correlates well with the fibrinogen level in plasma, which is independent of plasma quality PT or APTT results. The absorbance change can be used as an alternative way to roughly estimate fibrinogen level in either PT or APTT clotting curve when the result of clauss-based fibrinogen measurement is not available.

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a relatively short time, especially when compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CT scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. A ... CT is less sensitive to patient movement than MRI. CT can be performed if you have an ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CT is less sensitive to patient movement than MRI. CT can be performed if you have an implanted medical device of any kind, unlike MRI. A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate ...

  17. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CT Scanning of the Abdomen and Pelvis? What is CT Scanning of the Abdomen/Pelvis? Computed tomography, ... the body being studied. top of page How is the CT scan performed? The technologist begins by ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can scan through large sections of ... after the procedure? CT exams are generally painless, fast and easy. With multidetector CT, the amount of ...

  19. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Abdomen and Pelvis Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen ... and Pelvis? What is CT Scanning of the Abdomen/Pelvis? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ...

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Abdomen and Pelvis Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen ... and Pelvis? What is CT Scanning of the Abdomen/Pelvis? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ...

  1. Fractal dimension (df) as a new structural biomarker of clot microstructure in different stages of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Nia Anne; Harrison, Nicholas Kim; Morris, Roger H Keith; Noble, Simon; Lawrence, Matthew James; D'Silva, Lindsay Antonio; Broome, Laura; Brown, Martin Rowan; Hawkins, Karl M; Williams, Phylip Rhodri; Davidson, Simon; Evans, Phillip Adrian

    2015-11-25

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in cancer patients, and is the second commonest cause of death associated with the disease. Patients with chronic inflammation, such as cancer, have been shown to have pathological clot structures with modulated mechanical properties. Fractal dimension (df) is a new technique which has been shown to act as a marker of the microstructure and mechanical properties of blood clots, and can be performed more readily than current methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We measured df in 87 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer prior to treatment and 47 matched-controls. Mean group values were compared for all patients with lung cancer vs controls and for limited disease vs extensive disease. Results were compared with conventional markers of coagulation, fibrinolysis and SEM images. Significantly higher values of df were observed in lung cancer patients compared with controls and patients with extensive disease had higher values than those with limited disease (p< 0.05), whilst conventional markers failed to distinguish between these groups. The relationship between df of the incipient clot and mature clot microstructure was confirmed by SEM and computational modelling: higher df was associated with highly dense clots formed of smaller fibrin fibres in lung cancer patients compared to controls. This study demonstrates that df is a sensitive technique which quantifies the structure and mechanical properties of blood clots in patients with lung cancer. Our data suggests that df has the potential to identify patients with an abnormal clot microstructure and greatest VTE risk.

  2. CT perfusion mapping of hemodynamic disturbances associated to acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fainardi, Enrico; Borrelli, Massimo; Saletti, Andrea; Ceruti, Stefano; Tamarozzi, Riccardo [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Neuroradiology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ferrara (Italy); Schivalocchi, Roberta; Cavallo, Michele [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ferrara (Italy); Azzini, Cristiano [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ferrara (Italy); Chieregato, Arturo [Ospedale M. Bufalini, Neurocritical Care Unit, Cesena (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    We sought to quantify perfusion changes associated to acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) by means of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging. We studied 89 patients with supratentorial SICH at admission CT by using CTP scanning obtained within 24 h after symptom onset. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and mean transit time (rMTT) levels were measured in four different regions of interest manually outlined on CT scan: (1) hemorrhagic core; (2) perihematomal low-density area; (3) 1 cm rim of normal-appearing brain tissue surrounding the perilesional area; and (4) a mirrored area, including the clot and the perihematomal region, located in the non-lesioned contralateral hemisphere. rCBF, rCBV, and rMTT mean levels showed a centrifugal distribution with a gradual increase from the core to the periphery (p < 0.0001). Perfusion absolute values were indicative of ischemia in hemorrhagic core, oligemia in perihematomal area, and hyperemia in normal-appearing and contralateral areas. Perihematomal rCBF and rCBV mean levels were higher in small ({<=}20 ml) than in large (>20 ml) hematomas (p<0.01 and p <0.02, respectively). Multi-parametric CTP mapping of acute SICH indicates that perfusion values show a progressive improvement from the core to the periphery. In the first 24 h, perihemorrhagic region was hypoperfused with CTP values which were not suggestive of ischemic penumbra destined to survive but more likely indicative of edema formation. These findings also argue for a potential influence of early amounts of bleeding on perihematomal hemodynamic abnormalities. (orig.)

  3. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Willemijn M.; Bosboom, Dennis G.H.; Koopmanschap, Desiree H.J.L.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  4. Large Bladder Clot-An Unusual Presentation of Neonatal Bilateral Renal Vein Thrombosis-Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandari, Jathin; Dangle, Pankaj P; Tennyson, Lauren E; Correa, Andres F; Cannon, Glenn M

    2015-10-01

    A 1-day-old boy born at 37 weeks gestation presented with hematuria, thrombocytopenia, and palpable irregular right flank mass. Renal ultrasound demonstrated large clot within the bladder, bilateral kidney masses with loss of corticomedullary differentiation, and reversal of diastolic flow. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral renal vein thrombosis and was managed conservatively. There was complete resolution of the bladder clot with restoration of corticomedullary differentiation bilaterally. We report the first case of renal vein thrombosis associated with a large bladder clot in a neonate.

  5. Spectrum of esophageal abnormality seen on thoracic CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu; Jeon, Yong Sun; Jeong, Seok [Inha university Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Jin [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    A variety of diseases involve the esophagus including esophagitis, benign or malignant tumors, varices, and esophageal perforation. We reviewed the thoracic CT of these various esophageal diseases, and classified them by similar CT findings. The CT findings were circumferential wall thickening, nodular wall thickening, abnormal luminal dilatation, fistula formation, and mass or mass like lesion. Although CT alone has limited diagnostic ability in esophageal disease, it may have an important role in diagnosing submucosal dissection, fistula, perforation, and intramural abscess.

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or leaking aneurysm in a patient with a sudden severe headache. a blood clot or bleeding within ... exam. You may also be asked to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women ... on the images. This loss of image quality can resemble the blurring seen ...

  7. Real-time visual/near-infrared analysis of milk-clotting parameters for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, G; Merin, U; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Bezman, D; Katz, G

    2012-07-01

    The economical profitability of the dairy industry is based on the quality of the bulk milk collected in the farms, therefore it was based on the herd level rather than on the individual animals at real time. Udder infection and stage of lactation are directly related to the quality of milk produced on the herd level. However, improvement of milk quality requires testing each animal's milk separately and continuously. Recently, it was postulated that online equipment can estimate milk quality according to its clotting parameters, and thus result in better economical return for cheese making. This study further investigated the potential application of the AfiLab™ equipment to provide real-time analysis of milk-clotting parameters for cheese manufacture and cheese yield on quarter (1018) and individual cow (277) levels. Days in milk, lactose, log SCC and udder infection were found to have a significant effect on curd firmness and cheese properties and yield. The results clearly indicate that: (a) the parameter Afi-CF determined with the AfiLab™ is suitable for assessing milk quality for its clotting parameters, a value which is not provided by merely measuring fat and protein content on the gland and the cow levels; (b) bacterial type is the single major cause of reduced milk quality, with variations depending on the bacterial species; and (c) early and late lactation also had negative effects on milk-clotting parameters. Cheese made from the various milk samples that were determined by the Afilab™ to be of higher quality for cheese making resulted in higher yield and better texture, which were related mainly to the bacterial species and stage of lactation.

  8. Relationship between Acquired Deficiency of Vitamin K-dependent Clotting Factors And Hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锐; 张小平; 魏文宁; 洪梅; 杨焰; 胡豫

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the changes of activities of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors(VKDCF) under various pathological conditions and explored the relationship between acquired deficiency of VKDCFs and hemorrhage.Clinical data of 35 patients who were diagnosed as having acquired deficiency of VKDCF were retrospectively analyzed.Coagulation factors involved in the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways were detected in these patients and 41 control subjects.The results showed that the average activities of VKDCFs...

  9. Possibilities of the Videothoracoscopy for the Post-Traumatic Clotted Hemothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Shavkat I. Karimov; Ulugbek B. Berkinov; Erjan R. Fayzullaev; Yuliya V. Khamidova

    2014-01-01

    Background. Among the complications of blunt thoracic trauma, hemothorax is the most common and serious problem of modern thoracic surgery. The frequency of this complication according to some authors, varies from 26% to 80% and is not connnected with nature of the trauma and patient's age. 804 patients with the chest injuries treated between 2006 and 2012 at the 2nd clinic Tashkent Medical Academy. 179 of patients had penetrating stab wounds, and 625 - blunt. The clotted hemothorax was d...

  10. Specialized proresolving lipid mediators in patients with coronary artery disease and their potential for clot remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elajami, Tarec K; Colas, Romain A; Dalli, Jesmond; Chiang, Nan; Serhan, Charles N; Welty, Francine K

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation in arterial walls leads to coronary artery disease (CAD). Because specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs; lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins) stimulate resolution of inflammation in animal models, we tested whether n-3 fatty acids impact SPM profiles in patients with CAD and promote clot remodeling. Six patients with stable CAD were randomly assigned to either treatment with daily 3.36 g Lovaza for 1 yr or without. Targeted lipid mediator-metabololipidomics showed that both groups had absence of resolvin D1 (RvD1), RvD2, RvD3, RvD5 and resolvin E1-all of which are present in healthy patients. Those not taking Lovaza had an absence of aspirin-triggered resolvin D3 (AT-RvD3) and aspirin-triggered lipoxin B4 (AT-LXB4). Lovaza treatment restored AT-RvD3 and AT-LXB4 and gave levels of RvD6 and aspirin-triggered protectin D1 (AT-PD1) twice as high (resolvin E2 ∼5 fold) as well as lower prostaglandins. Principal component analysis indicated positive relationships for patients with CAD who were receiving Lovaza with increased AT-RvD3, RvD6, AT-PD1, and AT-LXB4 SPMs identified in Lovaza-treated patients with CAD enhanced ∼50% at 1 nM macrophage uptake of blood clots. These results indicate that patients with CAD have lower levels and/or absence of specific SPMs that were restored with Lovaza; these SPMs promote macrophage phagocytosis of blood clots. Together, they suggest that low vascular SPMs may enable progression of chronic vascular inflammation predisposing to coronary atherosclerosis and to thrombosis.-Elajami, T. K., Colas, R. A., Dalli, J., Chiang, N., Serhan, C. N., Welty, F. K. Specialized proresolving lipid mediators in patients with coronary artery disease and their potential for clot remodeling.

  11. Suction Curettage for Removal of Retained Intrathoracic Blood Clots and Pleural Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Redan, Jay Alan; Palmer, Meade Todd; Tylutki, Francis John

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To develop a thoracoscopic technique for correcting and/or removing an intrathoracic disease process using our existing operating room equipment and without a “small thoracotomy.” Methods and Procedures: Fifty-eight patients from October 1994 to April 1998 were prospectively studied. All were undergoing procedures involving the removal of a suspected benign (or infectious) pleural process or a retained blood clot. Three or four thoracic ports were used in all cases. Straight and cu...

  12. Purification and characterization of anti-clotting protein component (ACPF-7221) from venom of Agkistrodon acutus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUI Jing; HUAI Jian-guo; ZHANG Ye; CHENG Dong-yun; PAN Xue-bing

    2009-01-01

    Background Snake venom contains a number of components with different pharmacological and biological activities, especially in cancer therapy, and has increasingly become a research focus. This study was designed to isolate and purify a novel anti-clotting protein component from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus, and to explore its physico-chemical properties and biological activity.Methods The venom of Agkistrodon was isolated and purified by ion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Sepharose Fast Flow, molecular sieve filtration through Sephadex G75, SP-Sepharose Fast Flow and molecular sieve filtration through Sephadex G50. We detected the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of the eluant to select the anti-clotting protein component of interest. The molecular weight was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamid gel electrphoresis (SDS-PAGE) and liquid chromatography. Its protein content was detected by bicinchoninic acid (BCA).Results SDS-PAGE vertical gel electrophoresis showed that the anticoagulant factor is a tripolymer composed of three proteins whose molecular weights are 25 KDa, 30 KDa and 50 KDa. The factor contains about 65% percent protein.Conclusions A novel anti-clotting protein component was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve filtration from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus and was found to be composed of three kinds of proteins.

  13. Improvement of fibrin clot structure after factor VIII injection in haemophilia A patients treated on demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antovic, Aleksandra; Mikovic, Danijela; Elezovic, Ivo; Zabczyk, Michael; Hutenby, Kjell; Antovic, Jovan P

    2014-04-01

    Patients with haemophilia A have seriously impaired thrombin generation due to an inherited deficiency of factor (F)VIII, making them form unstable fibrin clots that are unable to maintain haemostasis. Data on fibrin structure in haemophilia patients remain limited. Fibrin permeability, assessed by a flow measurement technique, was investigated in plasma from 20 patients with severe haemophilia A treated on demand, before and 30 minutes after FVIII injection. The results were correlated with concentrations of fibrinogen, FVIII and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), and global haemostatic markers: endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and overall haemostatic potential (OHP). Fibrin structure was visualised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The permeability coefficient Ks decreased significantly after FVIII treatment. Ks correlated significantly with FVIII levels and dosage, and with ETP, OHP and levels of TAFI. SEM images revealed irregular, porous fibrin clots composed of thick and short fibers before FVIII treatment. The clots had recovered after FVIII replacement almost to levels in control samples, revealing compact fibrin with smaller intrinsic pores. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of fibrin porosity and structure before and after FVIII treatment of selected haemophilia patients. It seems that thrombin generation is the main determinant of fibrin structure in haemophilic plasma.

  14. Evaluation of the effects of levobupivacaine on clotting and fibrinolysis using thromboelastography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, S A

    2012-02-03

    Amide local anaesthetics inhibit platelet function. We hypothesized that residual anaesthetic in the epidural space could decrease efficacy of an epidural blood patch in preventing postdural puncture headache. Levobupivacaine has recently been approved for epidural anaesthesia. Its effects on coagulation have not previously been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of levobupivacaine on clotting using thromboelastography. Ten ASA Class I volunteers were studied. Venous blood samples were analysed using a Haemoscope 2000D TEG analyser. Whole blood, a 50% saline control and two levobupivacaine solutions (2.5 mg mL(-1) and 2.5 microg mL(-1) in blood) were compared. The former reproduces that produced in the epidural space by blood (20 mL for an epidural blood patch) and levobupivacaine 0.5% (20 mL). The latter approximates plasma concentrations following epidural injection of levobupivacaine 0.5% (20 mL). P < 0.05 was considered significant. Maximum amplitude (MA), a measure of clot strength, is decreased by levobupivacaine 2.5 mg mL(-1). Levobupivacaine 2.5 mg mL(-1) decreases clot strength and may reduce efficacy of a prophylactic epidural blood patch.

  15. Modification of fibrinogen with poly(ethylene glycol) and its effects on fibrin clot characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, T H; Fuller, G M; Klinger, M M; Feldman, D S; Hagood, J S

    2001-09-15

    The suitability of existing topical fibrin glue preparations for tissue sealing or local drug delivery applications is greatly limited by their poor mechanical properties and the limited capacity of fibrinogen (Fgn) to actively bind growth factors or other therapeutic agents. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) offers potential solutions to these problems by providing a mechanism for increasing the number of crosslinks between adjacent fibrin monomer molecules or for covalently crosslinking Fgn to therapeutic agents. The feasibility of this approach requires the full biological activity, or clottability, of PE glycolated Fgn. This study characterizes the clot characteristics of Fgn modified to varying degrees with monofunctional succinimidyl propionate PEG (5000 Da). The data indicate that, although thrombin clotting times are significantly altered, Fgn maintains 90% of its capacity to clot upon the addition of up to 5 PEG/Fgn. Further derivatization significantly decreases the Fgn clottability. The addition of up to 5 PEG/Fgn has little, if any, effect on the kinetics of degradation by plasmin. The results suggest that limited modification of Fgn with lysine-reactive PEG allows therapeutic enhancement of fibrin glues. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 56: 529--535, 2001

  16. Real-time monitoring of human blood clotting using a lateral excited film bulk acoustic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Wang, Jingjng; Wang, Peng; Guo, Qiuquan; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Jilong

    2017-04-01

    Frequent assay of hemostatic status is an essential issue for the millions of patients using anticoagulant drugs. In this paper, we presented a micro-fabricated film bulk acoustic sensor for the real-time monitoring of blood clotting and the measurement of hemostatic parameters. The device was made of an Au/ZnO/Si3N4 film stack and excited by a lateral electric field. It operated under a shear mode resonance with the frequency of 1.42 GHz and had a quality factor of 342 in human blood. During the clotting process of blood, the resonant frequency decreased along with the change of blood viscosity and showed an apparent step-ladder curve, revealing the sequential clotting stages. An important hemostatic parameter, prothrombin time, was quantitatively determined from the frequency response for different dilutions of the blood samples. The effect of a typical anticoagulant drug (heparin) on the prothrombin time was exemplarily shown. The proposed sensor displayed a good consistency and clinical comparability with the standard coagulometric methods. Thanks to the availability of direct digital signals, excellent potentials of miniaturization and integration, the proposed sensor has promising application for point-of-care coagulation technologies.

  17. Evaluation of new bone formation in normal and osteoporotic rats with a 3-mm femur defect: functional assessment with dynamic PET-CT (dPET-CT) using 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ( (18)F-FDG) and (18)F-fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Caixia; Alt, Volker; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Pan, Leyun; Thormann, Ulrich; Schnettler, Reinhard; Weber, Klaus; Strauss, Ludwig G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the formation of new bone in a 3-mm created defect in the femur and its adjacent bone tissue in osteoporotic and normal animals. The assessment is based on bone remodeling and glucose metabolism in a rat model with a 3-mm created defct in the femur using (18)F-fluoride and 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) as tracers for dynamic PET-CT (dPET-CT). The (18)F-fluoride PET data were compared with those of (18)F-FDG. Osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy and a calcium restricted diet in each rat (n = 7). Alternatively, a sham operation was performed in the control group (n = 8). After 3 months, all rats were operated to create a 3-mm defect using an oscillating saw in the distal metaphyseal femur, which was internally fixed with a metal plate. Eighteen weeks after osteoporosis induction and 6 weeks following femoral surgery, dPET-CT studies scan were performed with (18)F-FDG and (18)F-fluoride. Following PET data acquisition, standardized uptake values (SUVs) were calculated from the tracer concentration values. Then, a two-tissue compartmental learning-machine model was applied to the data for the calculation of the compartment parameters (K1-k4, VB, Ki). Furthermore, a non-compartmental model based on the fractal dimension was applied for quantitative analysis of both groups and both tracers. Finally, multivariate analysis was performed for the statistical analysis of the kinetic data. The values for K1 and Ki were higher in the osteoporotic rats than in the control group. Ki and K1 of (18)F-fluoride in the adjacent bone tissue differ significantly based on the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for the osteoporotic and control group (p < 0.05). The sensitivity and the negative predictive value (NPV) based on linear discriminant analysis was high with a value of 100 % for both tracers and both evaluated regions (defect and adjacent bone tissue) when comparing control and osteoporotic rats. The overall

  18. Tranexamic acid combined with recombinant factor VIII increases clot resistance to accelerated fibrinolysis in severe hemophilia A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Anne-Mette; Sørensen, Hanne Thykjær; Norengaard, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most patients with severe hemophilia A suffer from a profoundly compromised hemostatic response. In addition to both the delayed and slow development of a clot, previous studies have documented that severe hemophilia A is also associated with reduced clot stability. OBJECTIVES: We...... examined whether the clot stability in hemophiliacs could be improved by treatment with tranexamic acid (TXA) in combination with recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII). PATIENTS/METHODS: Baseline blood samples were obtained from eight males with severe hemophilia A. Thereafter, a bolus injection of r...... the elasticity curve increased 5-fold after rFVIII and 24-fold after addition of TXA. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates that simultaneous treatment with TXA and rFVIII significantly improves the clot stability in patients with hemophilia A. Udgivelsesdato: December...

  19. Ultrastructural characteristics of fibrin clots from canine and feline platelet concentrates activated with calcium gluconate or calcium gluconate plus batroxobin

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Raúl F; Carmona, Jorge U; Rezende, Cleuza MF

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to use transmission electron microscopy to describe the ultrastructural characteristics of clots obtained from canine and feline platelet concentrates (PC) that had been activated with calcium gluconate (CG) or CG plus batroxobin (CGB). Platelets from fibrin clots were classified according their morphological changes. The area of the intercellular space (μm2), the area of the fibrin fibers (μm2), and the width of the fibrin fibers (μm) were determined for ...

  20. The Interobserver Agreement between Residents and Experienced Radiologists for Detecting Pulmonary Embolism and DVT with Using CT Pulmonary Angiography and Indirect CT Venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavas, Ulas Savas; Calisir, Cuneyt; Ozkan; Ibrahim Ragip [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan)

    2008-12-15

    We wanted to prospectively evaluate the interobserver agreement between radiology residents and expert radiologists for interpreting CT images for making the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). We assessed 112 consecutive patients, from April 2007 to August 2007, who were referred for combined CT pulmonary angiography and indirect CT venography for clinically suspected acute PE. CT scanning was performed with a 64x0.5 collimation multi-detector CT scanner. The CT studies were initially interpreted by the radiology residents alone and then the CT images were subsequently interpreted by a consensus of the resident plus an experienced general radiologist and an experienced chest radiologist. Two of the 112 CTs were unable to be interpreted (1.7%). Pulmonary artery clots were seen on 36 of the thoracic CT angiographies (32%). The interobserver agreement between the radiology residents and the consensus interpretation was good (a kappa index of 0.73). All of the disagreements (15 cases) were instances of overcall by the resident on the initial interpretation. Deep venous thrombosis was detected in 72% (26 of 36) of the patients who had PE seen on thoracic CT. The initial and consensus interpretations of the CT venography images disagreed for two cases (kappa statistic: 0.96). It does not seem adequate to base the final long-term treatment of PE on only the resident's reading, as false positives occurred in 13% of such cases. Timely interpretation of the CT pulmonary angiography and CT venography images should be performed by experienced radiologists for the patients with suspected PE.

  1. Homocysteine influences blood clot properties alone and in combination with total fibrinogen but not with fibrinogen γ' in Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; de Lange, Zelda; Pieters, Marlien

    2015-06-01

    Simultaneously increased fibrinogen and homocysteine (Hcy) in blood are believed to elevate the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved are unknown. We sought to determine whether Hcy or its genetic determinants influence blood clot properties alone or in combination with fibrinogen. In addition, we investigated, for the first time, the gamma prime (γ') isoform of fibrinogen with Hcy in relation to clot architecture and lysis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms, Hcy and hemostatic variables, including clot lysis, determined with a global fibrinolytic assay [giving lag time, slope, maximum absorbance and clot lysis time (CLT)], were measured in 1867 healthy black South Africans and cross-sectionally analyzed. Increasing Hcy did not affect fiber cross-sectional area (maximum absorbance). However, it decreased the time needed to initiate the coagulation cascade and for fibrin fibers to grow (lag time), it increased the tempo of lateral aggregation (slope) and reduced CLT. None of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms measured had effects on clot properties. Combined effects were observed between Hcy and total fibrinogen in predicting CLT. Fibrinogen γ', which affected markers of the fibrinolytic assay, did not have conjoint effects with Hcy. We believe that there is value in recognizing the combined effects of Hcy and fibrinogen, but not its γ' isoform in relation to clot structure and lysis. The enhanced fibrinolysis rate observed in patients with low fibrinogen and high Hcy may have adverse consequences for health if it disturbs hemostasis and results in a bleeding tendency.

  2. Small-animal CT: Its difference from, and impact on, clinical CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritman, Erik L.

    2007-10-01

    For whole-body computed tomography (CT) images of small rodents, a voxel resolution of at least 10 -3 mm 3 is needed for scale-equivalence to that currently achieved in clinical CT scanners (˜1 mm 3) in adult humans. These "mini-CT" images generally require minutes rather than seconds to complete a scan. The radiation exposure resulting from these mini-CT scans, while higher than clinical CT scans, is below the level resulting in acute tissue damage. Hence, these scans are useful for performing clinical-type diagnostic and monitoring scans for animal models of disease and their response to treatment. "Micro-CT", with voxel size pathological accumulations of metals such as Fe and Ca, which occur in the arterial wall following hemorrhage or tissue damage. Micro-CT can also be used as a test bed for exploring the utility of several modes of X-ray image formation, such as the use of dual-energy X-ray subtraction, X-ray scatter, phase delay and refraction-based imaging for increasing the contrast amongst soft tissue components. With the recent commercial availability of high speed, multi-slice CT scanners which can be operated in dual-energy mode, some of these micro-CT scanner capabilities and insights are becoming implementable in those CT scanners. As a result, the potential diagnostic spectrum that can be addressed with those scanners is broadened considerably.

  3. Dicentric chromosomes and gamma-H2AX foci formation in lymphocytes of human blood samples exposed to a CT scanner: a direct comparison of dose response relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfier, Sven; Jost, Gregor; Pietsch, Hubertus; Lengsfeld, Philipp; Eckardt-Schupp, Friederike; Schmid, Ernst; Voth, Matthias

    2009-02-01

    Experiments using the induction of dicentric chromosomes (dicentrics) as well as the gamma-H2AX foci formation in lymphocytes of blood samples from a healthy donor were performed to directly evaluate the radiation sensitivity of both biological endpoints. For computed tomography scans at dose levels from 0.025 to 1 Gy, a linear-quadratic dose-response relationship for dicentrics and a linear dose-response relationship for gamma-H2AX foci were obtained. The coefficients of the dose-response relationship for dicentrics are alpha = (3.76 +/- 0.29) x 10(-2) Gy(-1) and beta = (5.54 +/- 0.45) x 10(-2) Gy(-2), the linear coefficient for gamma-H2AX foci is (7.38 +/- 0.11) Gy(-1). The findings indicate that scoring of dicentrics as well as microscopic analysis of gamma-H2AX foci are sensitive methods to quantify a radiation-induced biological damage at low doses. However, since gamma-H2AX foci can be partially repaired within a few hours, biological damages present for days or even months, which constitute the clinically relevant endpoints, can only be quantified reliably by scoring of chromosome aberrations. Thus currently the quantification of dicentrics or reciprocal translocations remains the recommended method for estimating the effect of exposures to low dose levels of radiation ('biological dosimetry'). However, owing to the high radiation sensitivity of the gamma-H2AX foci assay observed in the present study, further investigations on the effectiveness of low-linear energy transfer radiation qualities in producing gamma-H2AX foci in lymphocytes from healthy donors should be performed.

  4. Fenestral otosclerosis: significance of preoperative CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, J.D.; Faerber, E.N.; Wolfson, R.J.; Marlowe, F.I.

    1984-06-01

    Thirty-five consecutive patients with the clinical diagnosis of fenestral otosclerosis were evaluated with high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Twenty-six were diagnosed as having this disorder by CT evidence of abnormal bony excrescences at or adjacent to the oval window. Sections were also evaluated for evidence of plaque formation elsewhere in the lateral wall of the labyrinth and for surgical obstacles such as an abnormally wide cochlear aqueduct, a high jugular vein, and a dehiscent facial nerve. It is concluded that fenestral otosclerosis may be accurately diagnosed with proper CT techniques.

  5. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. http://accessmedicine.com. Accessed April 18, 2016. Understand your risk ... York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. http://accessmedicine.com. Accessed April 18, 2016. Papadakis MA, et ...

  6. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ASH ASH Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... the scanner at one time such as with MRI. If an intravenous contrast material is used, you ... CT is less sensitive to patient movement than MRI. CT can be performed if you have an ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT of the sinuses is primarily used ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of ...

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of ...

  12. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more ... the body being studied. top of page How is the procedure performed? The technologist begins by positioning ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, ... the body being studied. top of page How is the procedure performed? The technologist begins by positioning ...

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. In emergency cases, it ... additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can scan through large sections of ...

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  18. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ... prescribed procedure with your doctor, the medical facility staff and/or your insurance provider to get a ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ... prescribed procedure with your doctor, the medical facility staff and/or your insurance provider to get a ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ... prescribed procedure with your doctor, the medical facility staff and/or your insurance provider to get a ...

  1. CT Grading of Otosclerosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, T.C; Aviv, R.I; Chen, J.M; Nedzelski, J.M; Fox, A.J; Symons, S.P

    2009-01-01

    ...: The CT grading system for otosclerosis was proposed by Symons and Fanning in 2005. The purpose of this study was to determine if this CT grading system has high interobserver and intraobserver agreement...

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... CT scanner technique will be adjusted to their size and the area of interest to reduce the ... Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... CT scanner technique will be adjusted to their size and the area of interest to reduce the ... Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... CT scanner technique will be adjusted to their size and the area of interest to reduce the ... Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and ...

  5. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... page How should I prepare for the CT scan? You should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to ... studied. top of page How is the CT scan performed? The technologist begins by positioning you on ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  8. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits CT scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. ... CT scans should have no immediate side effects. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  10. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Viewing a CT scan, an experienced radiologist ... CT scans should have no immediate side effects. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits A CT scan is one of the ... CT scans should have no immediate side effects. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ... special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ... special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in ...

  14. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ... special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Ultrasound - Abdomen X- ...

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and ... generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... to a CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide ... clicking and whirring sounds as the CT scanner's internal parts, not usually visible to you, revolve around ...

  17. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. In emergency cases, it ... additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can scan through large sections of ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... which may be causing hearing problems. determine whether inflammation or other changes are present in the paranasal ... CT scans . CT is not sensitive in detecting inflammation of the meninges —the membranes covering the brain. ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... a stroke. a stroke, especially with a new technique called Perfusion CT. brain tumors. enlarged brain cavities ( ... brain. assess aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations through a technique called CT angiography. For more information, see the ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... to urinate; however, this is actually a contrast effect and subsides quickly. When you enter the CT ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... to urinate; however, this is actually a contrast effect and subsides quickly. When you enter the CT ...

  2. Cardiac CT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combine these pictures to create a three-dimensional (3D) model of the whole heart. This imaging test ... findings from earlier chest x rays. Different CT scanners are used for different purposes. A multidetector CT ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT of the sinuses is primarily used ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... benefits vs. risks? Benefits A CT scan is one of the safest means of studying the sinuses. ... CT scanning provides very detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, ...

  6. Gallstone ileus: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabrousse, E.; Bartholomot, B.; Sohm, O.; Kastler, B. [Dept. of Radiology A, CHU Jean Minjoz, University of Besancon (France); Wallerand, H. [Dept. of Surgery, CHU Jean Minjoz, University of Besancon (France)

    2000-06-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of recurrent gallstone cholecystitis. The classic radiographic triad of small bowel obstruction, pneumobilia and ectopic gallstone on abdominal plain radiograph is described with CT imaging. Because of the better resolution of CT compared with abdominal radiography and its recent accession to emergency use, radiologists should be aware of CT findings of gallstone ileus. We report a case in which gallstone ileus was initially diagnosed by CT. (orig.)

  7. Comparative evaluation of Bacillus licheniformis 5A5 and Aloe variegata milk-clotting enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ahmed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a milk clotting enzyme (MCE produced by bacteria (Bacillus licheniformis 5A5 were investigated and compared to those of rennet extracted from a plant (Aloe variegata. Production of MCE by B. licheniformis 5A5 was better in static than in shaken cultures. Maximum activity (98.3 and 160.3 U/ml of clotting was obtained at 75ºC and 80ºC with bacterial and plant rennet, respectively. In the absence of substrate, the clotting activity of Aloe MCE was found to be less sensitive to heat inactivation up to 80ºC for 75 min, retaining 63.8% of its activity, while bacterial MCE was completely inhibited. CaCl2 stimulated milk clotting activity (MCA up to 2% and 1.5% for bacterial and plant enzymes. NaCl inhibited MCA for both enzymes, even at low concentration (1%. Plant MCE was more sensitive to NaCl at 3% concentration it retained 30.2% of its activity, whereas bacterial MCE retained 64.1%. Increasing skim milk concentration caused a significant increase in MCA up to 6% for both enzymes. Mn2+ stimulated the activity of bacterial and plant enzymes to 158.6 and 177.9%, respectively. EDTA and PMSF increased the activity of plant MCE by 34.4 and 41.1%, respectively, which is higher than those for the bacterial MCE (19.1 and 20.9%. Some natural materials activated MCE, the highest activation of bacterial MCE (128.1% was obtained in the presence of Fenugreek (with acid extraction. However Lupine Giza 1 (with neutral extraction gave the highest activation of plant MCE (137.9%. All extracts from Neem plant increased MCA at range from 105.6% to 136.4%. Plant MCE exhibited much better stability when stored at room temperature (25-30ºC for 30 days, retaining 51.2% of its activity. Bacterial MCE was highly stabile when stored under freezing (-18ºC, retaining 100% of its activity after 30 days. Moreover, bacterial MCE was highly tolerant to repeated freezing and thawing without loss of activity for 8 months.

  8. Jacaratia corumbensis O. Kuntze a new vegetable source for milk-clotting enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodrigues Duarte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The partial characterization and purification of milk clotting enzyme obtained from the (root latex of Jacaratia corumbensis O. kuntze was studied, by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulphate and ion exchange chromatography. The ammonium sulphate precipitate showed five fractions (AS1- 0-20%; AS2 - 20-40%; AS3 - 40-60%; AS4 - 60-80%; AS5 - 80-100% and among the fractions obtained, the 40-60% fraction (AS3 showed the highest milk clotting activity with a purification factor of 1.2 fold in relation to the crude extract. This fraction when applied on Mono Q column yielded two protein peaks (p1 and p2, but p1 pool showed the best milk-clotting activity. The optimal pH for the crude and partially purified extract was 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. The maximum milk-clotting activity was at 55ºC for the both crude and partially purified extracts. The enzyme was inhibited by iodoacetic acid which suggested that this enzyme was a cysteine protease, with molecular weight of 33 kDa.A enzima coagulante de leite obtida de látex de raiz de Jacaratia corumbensis O. kuntze foi caracterizada parcialmente e purificada, por precipitação fracionária com sulfato de amônio e cromatografia de troca de íon. Foram utilizadas cinco frações de sulfato de amônio (AS1 - 0-20%; AS2 - 20-40%; AS3 - 40-60%; AS4 - 60-80%; AS5 - 80-100%, a fração 40-60% (AS3 mostrou alta atividade coagulante com um fator de purificação de 1,2 vezes em relação ao extrato bruto. Esta fração foi aplicada em coluna Mono Q obtendo dois picos de proteína (p1 e p2, o p1 mostrou melhor atividade coagulante. O pH ótimo para o extrato bruto e parcialmente purificado foi 6,5 e 7,0, respectivamente. A atividade coagulante foi atingida a 55ºC para ambos os extratos, bruto e parcialmente purificado. A enzima foi inibida por ácido iodoacético que sugere que esta enzima é uma cisteína protease, com peso molecular de 33 kDa.

  9. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much like other x-ray examinations. Different ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much like other x-ray examinations. Different ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much like other x-ray examinations. Different ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, ...

  12. CT angiography and CT perfusion in acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeters, T. van

    2016-01-01

    CT angiography and CT perfusion are used in patients with acute ischemic stroke for diagnostic purposes and to select patients for treatment. In this thesis, the reproducibility of CT angiography and CT perfusion is examined, the additional value of CT angiography and CT perfusion for stroke outcome

  13. Non-severe pulmonary embolism: Prognostic CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, Anne-Line [University J Fourrier, Grenoble (France); Department of Radiology, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043 Grenoble cedex (France); Bosson, Jean-Luc [University J Fourrier, Grenoble (France); Department of Statistics, CIC, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043 Grenoble cedex (France); Hohn, Noelie [Department of Radiology, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043 Grenoble cedex (France); Carpentier, Francoise [University J Fourrier, Grenoble (France); Department of Emergency Medicine, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043 Grenoble cedex (France); Pernod, Gilles [University J Fourrier, Grenoble (France); Department of Vascular Diseases, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043 Grenoble cedex (France); Ferretti, Gilbert R., E-mail: gferretti@chu-grenoble.fr [University J Fourrier, Grenoble (France); Department of Radiology, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043 Grenoble cedex (France)

    2011-09-15

    The goal of this study was to retrospectively evaluate CT cardiovascular parameters and pulmonary artery clot load score as predictors of 3-month mortality in patients with clinically non-severe pulmonary embolism (PE). We included 226 CT positive for PE in hemodynamically stable patients (112 women; mean age 67.1 years {+-}16.9). CT were independently reviewed by two observers. Results were compared with occurrence of death within 3 months using Cox regression. Twenty-four (10.6%) patients died, for whom 9 were considered to be due to PE. Interobserver agreement was moderate for the shape of interventricular septum ({kappa} = 0.41), and for the ratio between the diameters of right and left ventricle (RV/LV) ({kappa} = 0.76). Observers found no association between interventricular septum shape and death. A RV/LV diameter ratio >1 was predictive of death (OR, 3.83; p < 0.01) only when we also took into account the value of the embolic burden (<40%). In a multivariate model, CT cardiovascular parameters were not associated with death. Concomitant lower limb DVT and comorbid conditions were important predictors of death. In clinically non-severe PE, a RV/LV diameter ratio >1 is predictive of death when the embolic burden is low (<40%).

  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) ... are the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ...

  15. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CT Angiography Video: Myelography Video: CT of the Heart Video: Radioiodine I-131 Therapy Radiology and You ... CT Angiography Video: Myelography Video: CT of the Heart Video: Radioiodine I-131 Therapy Radiology and You ...

  16. An open library of CT patient projection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Holmes, David; Fletcher, Joel; McCollough, Cynthia

    2016-03-01

    Lack of access to projection data from patient CT scans is a major limitation for development and validation of new reconstruction algorithms. To meet this critical need, we are building a library of CT patient projection data in an open and vendor-neutral format, DICOM-CT-PD, which is an extended DICOM format that contains sinogram data, acquisition geometry, patient information, and pathology identification. The library consists of scans of various types, including head scans, chest scans, abdomen scans, electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated scans, and dual-energy scans. For each scan, three types of data are provided, including DICOM-CT-PD projection data at various dose levels, reconstructed CT images, and a free-form text file. Several instructional documents are provided to help the users extract information from DICOM-CT-PD files, including a dictionary file for the DICOM-CT-PD format, a DICOM-CT-PD reader, and a user manual. Radiologist detection performance based on the reconstructed CT images is also provided. So far 328 head cases, 228 chest cases, and 228 abdomen cases have been collected for potential inclusion. The final library will include a selection of 50 head, chest, and abdomen scans each from at least two different manufacturers, and a few ECG-gated scans and dual-source, dual-energy scans. It will be freely available to academic researchers, and is expected to greatly facilitate the development and validation of CT reconstruction algorithms.

  17. Marketing cardiac CT programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jason

    2010-01-01

    There are two components of cardiac CT discussed in this article: coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).The distinctive advantages of each CT examination are outlined. In order to ensure a successful cardiac CT program, it is imperative that imaging facilities market their cardiac CT practices effectively in order to gain a competitive advantage in this valuable market share. If patients receive quality care by competent individuals, they are more likely to recommend the facility's cardiac CT program. Satisfied patients will also be more willing to come back for any further testing.

  18. Possibilities of the Videothoracoscopy for the Post-Traumatic Clotted Hemothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shavkat I. Karimov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Among the complications of blunt thoracic trauma, hemothorax is the most common and serious problem of modern thoracic surgery. The frequency of this complication according to some authors, varies from 26% to 80% and is not connnected with nature of the trauma and patient's age. 804 patients with the chest injuries treated between 2006 and 2012 at the 2nd clinic Tashkent Medical Academy. 179 of patients had penetrating stab wounds, and 625 - blunt. The clotted hemothorax was diagnosed at 103 patients. For all the patients with clotted hemotorax we performed videothoracoscopy. All the operations were ended with thoracostomy. Intraoperative complications were not observed. Postoperative complications were observed in 10 (10.2% patients. In one case developed empyema, and in 9 - limited pleurisy. Inclusion of the videothoracoscopy into the complex diagnostic and treatment algorithm for the patients with chest injuries allows not only to confirm the presence of the CH, but to eliminate it highly effectively and with minimal invasion, avoiding thoracotomy.

  19. Venom Concentrations and Clotting Factor Levels in a Prospective Cohort of Russell's Viper Bites with Coagulopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K Isbister

    Full Text Available Russell's viper envenoming is a major problem in South Asia and causes venom induced consumption coagulopathy. This study aimed to investigate the kinetics and dynamics of venom and clotting function in Russell's viper envenoming.In a prospective cohort of 146 patients with Russell's viper envenoming, we measured venom concentrations, international normalised ratio [INR], prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, coagulation factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, IX and X, and von Willebrand factor antigen. The median age was 39 y (16-82 y and 111 were male. The median peak INR was 6.8 (interquartile range [IQR]: 3.7 to >13, associated with low fibrinogen [median,3 at 6 h post-antivenom but had reduced to <2, by 24 h. The aPTT had also returned to close to normal (<50 sec at 24 h. Factor VII, VIII and IX levels were unusually high pre-antivenom, median peak concentrations of 393%, 307% and 468% respectively. Pre-antivenom venom concentrations and the INR (r = 0.20, p = 0.02 and aPTT (r = 0.19, p = 0.03 were correlated (non-parametric Spearman analysis.Russell's viper coagulopathy results in prolonged aPTT, INR, low fibrinogen, factors V, VIII and X which recover over 48 h. Severity of clotting abnormalities was associated with venom concentrations.

  20. The Influence of a Micropolar Fluid on Peristaltic Transport in an Annulus: Application of the Clot Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. S. Mekheimer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A serious pathological condition is encountered when some blood constituents deposited on the blood vessels get detached from the wall, join the blood stream again and form a clot. Study of the peristaltic transport of a micropolar fluid in an annular region is investigated under low Reynolds number and long wavelength approximations. We model a small artery as a tube having a sinusoidal wave travelling down its wall and a clot model inside it. Closed form solutions are obtained for the velocity and the microrotation components, as well as the stream function, and they contain new additional parameters, namely, δ, the height of the clot, N, the coupling number and m, the micropolar parameter. The pressure rise and friction force on the inner and the outer tubes have been discussed for various values of the physical parameters of interest.

  1. Acute small bowel obstruction due to a large intraluminal blood clot after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jessica; Ikuine, Tomoko; Hacker, Shoshana; Urrego, Hernan; Tuggle, Karleena

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel obstructions (SBOs) are a known perioperative complication of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and common etiologies include internal hernia, port site hernia, jejunojejunostomy stricture, ileus and adhesions. Less commonly, SBO can be caused by superior mesenteric artery syndrome, intussusception and intraluminal blood clot. We present a case of SBO caused by intraluminal blood clot from jejunojejunostomy staple line bleeding in a patient with a normal coagulation profile. Computed tomography was used to elucidate the cause of perioperative SBO, and diagnostic laparoscopy was used to both diagnose and treat the complication. In this case, the intraluminal clot was evacuated laparoscopically by enterotomy, thrombectomy and primary closure without anastomotic revision since there was no evidence of continued bleeding. Administration of enoxaparin and Toradol post-operatively may have exacerbated mild intraluminal bleeding occurring at the stapled jejunojejunal anastomosis. Prompt recognition and treatment of perioperative SBO can prevent catastrophic consequences related to bowel perforation. PMID:27554828

  2. Do some of physiotherapy and rehabilitation programs improve the health state of patients suffering from cerebral clot?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad OMAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral stroke represents one of the most important diseases resulting from blood clot in the middle cerebral artery, this is due to atherosclerotic clot and the brain has area of deprived blood , therefore blood becomes unable to pass the clot, in this case leads to total or partial paralysis. Rehabilitation programs are one of the most effective therapies for cerebral stroke. These pr ograms include rehabilitation exercises, therapeutic massage and kinet otherapy. The present study deals with the application of organized rehabilitation program and identify it's effect on the movement system and joints. This study examined the effect of rehabilitation program to improve the efficiency of the Locomotor system of patient who complain of cerebral stroke.

  3. Ruptured corpus luteal cyst: Prediction of clinical outcomes with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Seok; Moon, Min Hoan; Woo, Hyun Sik; Sung, Chang Kyu; Jeon, Hye Won; Lee, Taek Sang [SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the determinant pretreatment CT findings that can predict surgical intervention for patients suffering from corpus luteal cyst rupture with hemoperitoneum. From January 2009 to December 2014, a total of 106 female patients (mean age, 26.1 years; range, 17–44 years) who visited the emergency room of our institute for acute abdominal pain and were subsequently diagnosed with ruptured corpus luteal cyst with hemoperitoneum were included in the retrospective study. The analysis of CT findings included cyst size, cyst shape, sentinel clot sign, ring of fire sign, hemoperitoneum depth, active bleeding in portal phase and attenuation of hemoperitoneum. The comparison of CT findings between the surgery and conservative management groups was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test or chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant CT findings in predicting surgical intervention for a ruptured cyst. Comparative analysis revealed that the presence of active bleeding and the hemoperitoneum depth were significantly different between the surgery and conservative management groups and were confirmed as significant CT findings for predicting surgery, with adjusted odds ratio (ORs) of 3.773 and 1.318, respectively (p < 0.01). On the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis for hemoperitoneum depth, the optimal cut-off value was 5.8 cm with 73.7% sensitivity and 58.6% specificity (Az = 0.711, p = 0.004). In cases with a hemoperitoneum depth > 5.8 cm and concurrent active bleeding, the OR for surgery increased to 5.786. The presence of active bleeding and the hemoperitoneum depth on a pretreatment CT scan can be predictive warning signs of surgery for a patient with a ruptured corpus luteal cyst with hemoperitoneum.

  4. Hemostatic, milk clotting and blood stain removal potential of cysteine proteases from Calotropis gigantea (L. R. Br. Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omana Sukumaran Bindhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plant latex is a natural source of biologically active compounds and several hydrolytic enzymes responsible for their diverse health benefits. Recent past has witnessed substantial progress in understanding their supplementary industrial and pharmaceutical utility. Calotropis gigantea is one of the important latex producing plants belonging to asclepediaceae family with wide ethnopharmacological applications and is rich in proteolytic enzymes. Present study investigates hemostatic, milk clotting and blood stain removal potential of C. gigantea latex proteases. Materials and Methods: The protease activity of crude enzyme (CE, obtained by centrifugation followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis, was assayed using casein as the substrate. Effect of pH, temperature and specific inhibitors on protease activity was determined. Native PAGE and in gel protease activity of CE was performed. Hemostatic (Fibrinogen polymerization, fibrinogen agarose plate and blood clot lysis assays, milk clotting and blood stain removal efficacies of CE were determined. Results: CE exhibited high caseinolytic activity. Enzyme activity was optimum at 37-50ºC and pH 8.0. Fibrinogen polymerization assay showed concentration dependent increase in turbidity indicating thrombin like activity which was further confirmed by fibrinogen agarose plate assays. Clot lysis assay indicated 92.41% thrombolysis by CE in 90 min. CE also revealed significantly high ratio of milk clotting to protease activity (Milk Clotting Index, MCI = 827.59 ± 1.52. Complete destaining of blood stained fabric was observed when incubated with 1% detergent incorporated with 0.1mg/ml CE. The study highlights and validates the compound application potential of latex cysteine proteases from C. gigantea.

  5. Pancreatic changes in cystic fibrosis: CT and sonographic appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daneman, A. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario); Gaskin, K.; Martin, D.J.; Cutz, E.

    1983-10-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) and sonographic appearances of the late stages of pancreatic damage in three patients with cystic fibrosis are illustrated. All three had severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency with steatorrhea. In two patients CT revealed complete fatty replacement of the entire pancreas. In the third, increased echogenicity of the pancreas on sonography and the inhomogeneous attenuation on CT were interpreted as being the result of a combination of fibrosis, fatty replacement, calcification, and probable cyst formation.

  6. Immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis 5A1 milk-clotting enzyme and characterization of its enzyme properties

    OpenAIRE

    Esawy, Mona A.; Combet-Blanc, Yannick

    2006-01-01

    Milk-clotting enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis 5A1 was immobilized on Amberlite IR-120 by ionic binding. Almost all the enzyme activity was retained on the support. The immobilized milk-clotting enzyme was repeatedly used to produce cheese in a batch reactor. The production of cheese was repeated 5 times with no loss of activity. The specific activity calculated on a bound-protein basis was slightly higher than that of free enzyme. The free and immobilized enzyme were highly tolerant to rep...

  7. The effects of long-term malathion or diazinon ingestion on the activity of hepatic synthesized clotting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lox, C D; Davis, J R

    1983-12-01

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a drinking solution of 1 ppm Diazinon or malathion dissolved in water for 6 months. At the conclusion of the experiment liver tissue and plasma were examined. Clotting studies included the prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, and factors II, V, VII, X, plus the platelet count. Hepatic morphology, basically hepatocyte degeneration, was altered by malathion while diazinon had no notable effect. Likewise, malathion prolonged both the PT and APTT, the only changes in clotting activity.

  8. PET/CT Artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Blodgett, Todd M.; Mehta, Ajeet S.; Mehta, Amar S.; Laymon, Charles M; Carney, Jonathan; Townsend, David W.

    2011-01-01

    There are several artifacts encountered in PET/CT imaging, including attenuation correction (AC) artifacts associated with using CT for attenuation correction. Several artifacts can mimic a 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) avid malignant lesions and therefore recognition of these artifacts is clinically relevant. Our goal was to identify and characterize these artifacts and also discuss some protocol variables that may affect image quality in PET/CT.

  9. In black south africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. de Lange (Zelda); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman); T. Hoekstra (Tiny); K.R. Conradie (Karin); J.C. Jerling (Johann); M. Pieters (Marlien)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractData on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysi

  10. Leakage of protein into lungs of preterm ventilated rabbits is correlated with activation of clotting, complement, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, F; vanOeveren, W; Heikamp, A; Okken, A; Oetomo, SB

    We investigated whether leakage of protein in lungs of pre term ventilated rabbits of 28- and 29-d gestational age is correlated with activation of clotting, complement, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in plasma. We found signs of systemic activation of clotting, complement, and PMN in

  11. Leakage of protein into lungs of preterm ventilated rabbits is correlated with activation of clotting, complement, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, F; vanOeveren, W; Heikamp, A; Okken, A; Oetomo, SB

    1996-01-01

    We investigated whether leakage of protein in lungs of pre term ventilated rabbits of 28- and 29-d gestational age is correlated with activation of clotting, complement, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in plasma. We found signs of systemic activation of clotting, complement, and PMN in ventil

  12. PEMANFAATAN MILK CLOTTING ENZYME DARI Lactobacillus casei D11 UNTUK PEMBUATAN KEJU MOZZARELLA [Utilization of Milk Clotting Enzyme from Lactobacillus casei D11 for Mozzarella Cheese Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmatussolihat -

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk Clotting Enzyme (MCE is an active agent for cheese making which may be produced by Lactic acid bacteria (LAB. MCE activity differs according to the LAB strains used. Lactobacillus casei D11 could produced MCE when it is grown in MRS broth medium. In this study, MCE of L. casei D11 with the addition of rennet is used and optimized for the production of mozzarella cheese using Response Surface Method (RSM with Central Composite Design (CCD. The organoleptic properties were determined by hedonics test involving 30 respondents and analyzed statistically which was followed by a Duncan's test. Furthermore, a proximate analysis of mozzarella cheese was conducted. Our results show that the MCE activity produced by L. casei D11 was 8.471 Soxhlet Unit with protease activity of 3.28 U/mL. The ANOVA results showed that the concentration of MCE significantly influence the production of curd. Theoptimum concentration of MCE and rennet for the production of curd suited for the production of mozzarella cheese were 20 and 0.002%, respectively, with a maximum predicted curd yield of 14.996% (g/100 mL milk which is increased by 13.9% as compared to the curd yield before optimization. The statistical analysis on taste, color, flavor, and cheese texture by respondents shows that mozzarella cheese made by a combination of 15% of MCE and 0.00079 and 0.0015% of rennet, were organoleptically superior to the commercial mozzarella used in this experiment. The proximate analysis shows that mozzarella produced has a moisture content of 33.34%(w/w, 3.48% ash, 30.44% fat, 25.12% protein, 7.53% carbohydrate and energy of 404 kkal/100g.

  13. Intracranial Thrombus Morphology and Composition Undergoes Time-Dependent Changes in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A CT Densitometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikija, Slaven; Magdic, Jozef; Trkulja, Vladimir; Unterkreuter, Peter; Mutzenbach, Johannes Sebastian; Novak, Helmut F; Weymayr, Friedrich; Hauer, Larissa; Sellner, Johann

    2016-11-23

    The aim of our study was to assess whether cerebral artery clots undergo time-dependent morphological and compositional changes in acute ischemic stroke. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients admitted within 5 h from symptom onset to three European stroke centers and evaluated non-contrast-enhanced CT (NECT) for hyperdense artery signs (HAS) in 2565 scans. The occlusion site, density of HAS expressed in Hounsfield units (HU), area of HAS, and relative density (rHU) (HU clot/HU non-affected artery) were studied and related to time from symptom onset, clinical severity, stroke etiology, and laboratory parameters. A HAS was present in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in 185 (7.2%) and further explored. The mean time from symptom onset to CT was 100 min (range 17-300). We found a time-dependent loss of density in the occluded M1 segment within the first 5 h (N = 118, 95% CI [-15, -2], p = 0.01). Further, the thrombus area in the M2 segment decreased with time (cubic trend N = 67, 95% CI [-63, -8], p = 0.02). Overall, and especially in the M2 segment, a lower clot area was associated with higher fibrinogen (-21.7%, 95% CI [-34.8, -5.8], p = 0.009). In conclusion, our results disclosed time-dependent changes of intracranial thrombi with regard to occlusion site, density and area.

  14. The F7 gene and clotting factor VII levels: dissection of a human quantitative trait locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Jose Manuel; Almasy, Laura; Souto, Juan Carlos; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Blangero, John

    2005-10-01

    Localization of human quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is now routine. However, identifying their functional DNA variants is still a formidable challenge. We present a complete dissection of a human QTL using novel statistical techniques to infer the most likely functional polymorphisms of a QTL that influence plasma levels of clotting factor VII (FVII), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Resequencing of 15 kb in and around the F7 gene identified 49 polymorphisms, which were then genotyped in 398 people. Using a Bayesian quantitative trait nucleotide (BQTN) method, we identified four to seven functional variants that completely account for this QTL. These variants include both rare coding variants and more common, potentially regulatory polymorphisms in intronic and promoter regions.

  15. The euglobulin clot lysis time to assess the impact of nanoparticles on fibrinolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minet, Valentine, E-mail: valentine.minet@unamur.be; Alpan, Lutfiye; Mullier, François [University of Namur – UNamur, Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Toussaint, Olivier [Laboratory of Cellular Biochemistry and Biology (URBC) (Belgium); Lucas, Stéphane [University of Namur (UNamur), Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR-LARN), Namur Nanosafety Center NNC, NAmur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Dogné, Jean-Michel; Laloy, Julie, E-mail: julie.laloy@unamur.be [University of Namur – UNamur, Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are developed for many applications in various fields, including nanomedicine. The NPs used in nanomedicine may disturb homeostasis in blood. Secondary hemostasis (blood coagulation) and fibrinolysis are complex physiological processes regulated by activators and inhibitors. An imbalance of this system can either lead to the development of hemorrhages or thrombosis. No data are currently available on the impact of NPs on fibrinolysis. The objectives of this study are (1) to select a screening test to study ex vivo the impact of NPs on fibrinolysis and (2) to test NPs with different physicochemical properties. Euglobulin clot lysis time test was selected to screen the impact of some NPs on fibrinolysis using normal pooled plasma. A dose-dependent decrease in the lysis time was observed with silicon dioxide and silver NPs without disturbing the fibrin network. Carbon black, silicon carbide, and copper oxide did not affect the lysis time at the tested concentrations.

  16. The Effect of Cyanosis on Active Clotting Time During Diagnostic Catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Molaei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiac catheterization is a common procedure which needs a careful coagulation monitoring. In our study, we aimed to find factors influencing active clotting time (ACT following heparin therapy. Methods: ACT of 71 patients who were scheduled to undergo transcutaneous diagnostic catheterization and angiography were measured at baseline, 2 and 60 minutes after 50 IU/kg heparin loading. ACT in two groups of patients (cyanotic and non-cyanotic was compared. All data were analyzed with Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney test and Pearson in SPSS 16, P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: ACT following heparin at 2nd and 60th minutes was not significantly different in cyanotic and non-cyanotic groups. At 60th minute following heparin administration, ACT decreased more dramatically in older children. Conclusion: Cyanosis does not affect ACT measures following heparin treatment. Moreover, after 60 minutes, heparin efficacy (ACT values decreased more with increase in patients’ age.

  17. The euglobulin clot lysis time to assess the impact of nanoparticles on fibrinolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, Valentine; Alpan, Lutfiye; Mullier, François; Toussaint, Olivier; Lucas, Stéphane; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Laloy, Julie

    2015-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are developed for many applications in various fields, including nanomedicine. The NPs used in nanomedicine may disturb homeostasis in blood. Secondary hemostasis (blood coagulation) and fibrinolysis are complex physiological processes regulated by activators and inhibitors. An imbalance of this system can either lead to the development of hemorrhages or thrombosis. No data are currently available on the impact of NPs on fibrinolysis. The objectives of this study are (1) to select a screening test to study ex vivo the impact of NPs on fibrinolysis and (2) to test NPs with different physicochemical properties. Euglobulin clot lysis time test was selected to screen the impact of some NPs on fibrinolysis using normal pooled plasma. A dose-dependent decrease in the lysis time was observed with silicon dioxide and silver NPs without disturbing the fibrin network. Carbon black, silicon carbide, and copper oxide did not affect the lysis time at the tested concentrations.

  18. A general review of major global coagulation assays: thrombelastography, thrombin generation test and clot waveform analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancé, Marcus D

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis and hemorrhage are major contributors to morbidity and mortality. The traditional laboratory tests do not supply enough information to diagnose and treat patients timely and according to their phenotype. Global hemostasis tests might improve this circumstance. The viscoelastic tests (ROTEM/TEG) demonstrated to ameliorate treatment of acute hemorrhage in terms of decreased amount of transfusion and lowered costs. Thrombin generation measurement is indicative for thrombosis and might also become an important tool in managing hemorrhage. While the clot waveform analysis is less well known it could be of worth in staging sepsis patients, early detection of DIC and also in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of hemophiliac patients. Although in different degree all three methods still need more background, standardization and acceptance before a wide clinical application.

  19. Regulation of human clotting factor IX cDNA expression in transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡以平; 邱信芳; 薛京伦; 刘祖洞

    1995-01-01

    To study the expression of human dotting factor IX cDNA in transgenic mice,Which is an es-sential work on gene therapy for hemophilia B,3 recombinant constructions containing different lengths ofhuman dotting factor IX cDNA have been introduced into the cultured cells.All of the recombinant constructionswere found to he expressed well in vitro.They were then microinjected into the male pronudei of the fertilizedmouse eggs respectively for generating trahsgenic mice.Unfortunately,none of them was expressed in any transgenicmice.These results show that the expression of the human clotting factor IX cDNA in the transgenic mice canbe determined by cis regulatory element(s).As compared With the results from other related works,it is sug-gested that the cis regulatory element(s)is resided in the 5’-end non-coding region.

  20. Tumour imaging by the detection of fibrin clots in tumour stroma using an anti-fibrin Fab fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obonai, Toshifumi; Fuchigami, Hirobumi; Furuya, Fumiaki; Kozuka, Naoyuki; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of early and aggressive types of cancer is important for providing effective cancer therapy. Cancer-induced fibrin clots exist only within lesions. Previously, we developed a monoclonal antibody (clone 102-10) that recognizes insoluble fibrin but not fibrinogen or soluble fibrin and confirmed that fibrin clots form continuously in various cancers. Here, we describe the development of a Fab fragment probe of clone 102-10 for tumour imaging. The distribution of 102-10 Fab was investigated in genetically engineered mice bearing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and its effect on blood coagulation was examined. Immunohistochemical and ex vivo imaging revealed that 102-10 Fab was distributed selectively in fibrin clots in PDAC tumours 3 h after injection and that it disappeared from the body after 24 h. 102-10 Fab had no influence on blood coagulation or fibrinolysis. Tumour imaging using anti-fibrin Fab may provide a safe and effective method for the diagnosis of invasive cancers by detecting fibrin clots in tumour stroma.

  1. Kinetic Model Facilitates Analysis of Fibrin Generation and Its Modulation by Clotting Factors: Implications for Hemostasis-Enhancing Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    facilitates analysis of fibrin generation and its modulation by clotting factors: implications for hemostasis-enhancing therapies† Alexander Y...Syst. Biol.Med., 2011, 3, 136–146. 62 M. Schneider, N. Brufatto, E. Neill and M. Nesheim, J. Biol. Chem., 2004, 279, 13340–13345. 63 J. H. Foley, P. F

  2. Plasma carboxypeptidase U (CPU, CPB2, TAFIa) generation during in vitro clot lysis and its interplay between coagulation and fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaerts, Dorien; Aernouts, Jef; Van Der Veken, Pieter; Sim, Yani; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Hendriks, Dirk

    2017-07-26

    Carboxypeptidase U (CPU, CPB2, TAFIa) is a basic carboxypeptidase that is able to attenuate fibrinolysis. The inactive precursor procarboxypeptidase U is converted to its active form by thrombin, the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex or plasmin. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise the time course of CPU generation in healthy individuals. In plasma of 29 healthy volunteers, CPU generation was monitored during in vitro clot lysis. CPU activity was measured by means of an enzymatic assay that uses the specific substrate Bz-o-cyano-Phe-Arg. An algorithm was written to plot the CPU generation curve and calculate the parameters that define it. In all individuals, CPU generation was biphasic. Marked inter-individual differences were present and a reference range was determined. The endogenous CPU generation potential is the composite effect of multiple factors. With respect to the first CPU activity peak characteristics, we found correlations with baseline proCPU concentration, proCPU Thr325Ile polymorphism, time to clot initiation and the clot lysis time. The second CPU peak related with baseline proCPU levels and with the maximum turbidity of the clot lysis profile. In conclusion, our method offers a technique to determine the endogenous CPU generation potential of an individual. The parameters obtained by the method quantitatively describe the different mechanisms that influence CPU generation during the complex interplay between coagulation and fibrinolysis, which are in line with the threshold hypothesis.

  3. Increased Oxidation as an Additional Mechanism Underlying Reduced Clot Permeability and Impaired Fibrinolysis in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lados-Krupa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. We sought to investigate whether enhanced oxidation contributes to unfavorable fibrin clot properties in patients with diabetes. Methods. We assessed plasma fibrin clot permeation (Ks, a measure of the pore size in fibrin networks and clot lysis time induced by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (CLT in 163 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients (92 men and 71 women aged 65 ± 8.8 years with a mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c of 6.8%. We also measured oxidative stress markers, including nitrotyrosine, the soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL, and advanced glycation end products (AGE. Results. There were inverse correlations between Ks and nitrotyrosine, sRAGE, 8-iso-PGF2α, and oxLDL. CLT showed a positive correlation with oxLDL and nitrotyrosine but not with other oxidation markers. All these associations remained significant for Ks after adjustment for fibrinogen, disease duration, and HbA1c (all P<0.05, while oxLDL was the only independent predictor of CLT. Conclusions. Our study shows that enhanced oxidative stress adversely affects plasma fibrin clot properties in type 2 diabetic patients, regardless of disease duration and glycemia control.

  4. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls.

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... images or pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted ... of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a monitor. CT ...

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... images or pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted ... of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a monitor. CT ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... images or pictures of the inside of the body. The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted ... of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a monitor. CT ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... the best way to see if treatment is working or if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits A CT scan is one of the safest means of studying the sinuses. CT is the most reliable imaging ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... you have a hard time staying still, are claustrophobic or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to be stressful. The technologist or nurse, under the direction of a physician, may offer you some medication to help you tolerate the CT scanning procedure. If an ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... you have a hard time staying still, are claustrophobic or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to be stressful. The technologist or nurse, under the direction of a physician, may offer you some medication to help you tolerate the CT scanning procedure. If an ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a stroke. a stroke, especially with a new technique called Perfusion CT. brain tumors. enlarged brain ... be asked to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras ... does the equipment look like? The CT scanner is typically a ...

  12. CT of tracheal agenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strouse, Peter J.; Hernandez, Ramiro J. [C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Newman, Beverley [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Department of Pediatric Radiology; Afshani, Ehsan [Children' s Hospital of Buffalo, NY (United States). Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics; Bommaraju, Mahesh [Women' s and Children' s Hospital of Buffalo, Division of Neonatology, University Pediatrics Associates, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Tracheal agenesis is a rare and usually lethal anomaly. In the past, opaque contrast medium was injected via the esophagus to demonstrate the anatomy. To demonstrate the utility of helical and multidetector CT in delineating the aberrant anatomy in newborns with tracheal agenesis. Four newborns with tracheal agenesis were identified from three institutions. Imaging studies and medical records were reviewed. Each child was imaged with chest radiography. One child was imaged on a single-detector helical CT scanner and the other three on multidetector scanners. Helical and multidetector CT with 2D and 3D reconstructions clearly delineated the aberrant tracheobronchial and esophageal anatomy in each infant. Minimum intensity projection reformatted CT images were particularly helpful. One infant each had type I and type II tracheal agenesis. Two infants had type III tracheal agenesis. All four infants died. CT is a useful tool for delineating the aberrant anatomy of newborns with tracheal agenesis and thus helps in making rational clinical decisions. (orig.)

  13. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... CT is less sensitive to patient movement than MRI. CT can be performed if you have an implanted medical device of any kind, unlike MRI. CT imaging provides real-time imaging, making it ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is ... a CT scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT is used to help diagnose a ... the CT examination. top of page What does the equipment look like? The CT scanner is typically ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is ... a CT scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways, CT scanning is like other ... scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called "multislice CT" or "multidetector CT," ...

  18. Changes in clot lysis levels of reteplase and streptokinase following continuous wave ultrasound exposure, at ultrasound intensities following attenuation from the skull bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roijer Anders

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound (US has been used to enhance thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of stroke. Considerable attenuation of US intensity is however noted if US is applied over the temporal bone. The aim of this study was therefore to explore possible changes in the effect of thrombolytic drugs during low-intensity, high-frequency continuous-wave ultrasound (CW-US exposure. Methods Clots were made from fresh venous blood drawn from healthy volunteers. Each clot was made from 1.4 ml blood and left to coagulate for 1 hour in a plastic test-tube. The thrombolytic drugs used were, 3600 IU streptokinase (SK or 0.25 U reteplase (r-PA, which were mixed in 160 ml 0.9% NaCl solution. Continuous-wave US exposure was applied at a frequency of 1 MHz and intensities ranging from 0.0125 to 1.2 W/cm2. For each thrombolytic drug (n = 2, SK and r-PA and each intensity (n = 9 interventional clots (US-exposed, n = 6 were submerged in thrombolytic solution and exposed to CW-US while control clots (also submerged in thrombolytic solution, n = 6 were left unexposed to US. To evaluate the effect on clot lysis, the haemoglobin (Hb released from each clot was measured every 20 min for 1 hour (20, 40 and 60 min. The Hb content (mg released was estimated by spectrophotometry at 540 nm. The difference in effect on clot lysis was expressed as the difference in the amount of Hb released between pairs of US-exposed clots and control clots. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results Continuous-wave ultrasound significantly decreased the effects of SK at intensities of 0.9 and 1.2 W/cm2 at all times (P 2 and at 1.2 W/cm2, following 40 min exposure at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm2, and following 60 min of exposure at 0.05 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm2 (all P Conclusion Increasing intensities of CW-US exposure resulted in increased clot lysis of r-PA-treated blood clots, but decreased clot lysis of SK-treated clots.

  19. CT findings of acute pyelonephritis and clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rha, Sung Eun; Byun, Jae Young; Kim, Ki Jun; Kim, Jong Kyu; Kim, Han Bock; Chun, Ho Jong; Bang, Byung Gi; Choi, Kyu Ho; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate postcontrast CT findings of acute pyelonephritis and correlate these with clinical findings and severities. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and CT scans of 50 patients with abnormal CT findings among 52 patients of acute pyelonephritis whose postcontrast CT scans had been examined. Fifty cases of acute pyelonephritis were classified into three subgroups on the basis of postcontrast CT findings : Group 1(n=20, 40%) wedge-shaped lesions; Group 2(n=13, 26%) mass-like lesions; Group 3 (n=17, 34%) renal abscess formation. In each group, clinical findings and severity were analyzed and correlated with CT findings. The results were statistically analyzed. Although mean values of clinical parameters of group 1 were lower than those of group 2 and 3 with regard to all clinical parameters (including maximal temperature and duration of fever, flank pain, leukocytosis, and admission period), there was no statistically significant correlation among the three groups (p > 0.05). All cases were successfully treated with antibiotics only, despite the high rate of abscess formation (34%). Acute pyelonephritis spans a continuum of CT findings of varying severity from wedge-shaped or mass-like lesions to multifocal abscesses; postenhanced CT scan shows high sensitivity (96%) in the detection of acute pyelonephritis. Although the clinical course of groups of mass-like lesions and abscess formation was longer and more severe than that of wedge-shaped lesions, there was no statistically significant clinicoradiologic correlation among the three groups.

  20. Platelet factor XIII increases the fibrinolytic resistance of platelet-rich clots by accelerating the crosslinking of alpha 2-antiplasmin to fibrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. L.; Matsueda, G. R.; Haber, E.

    1992-01-01

    Platelet clots resist fibrinolysis by plasminogen activators. We hypothesized that platelet factor XIII may enhance the fibrinolytic resistance of platelet-rich clots by catalyzing the crosslinking of alpha 2-antiplasmin (alpha 2AP) to fibrin. Analysis of plasma clot structure by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting revealed accelerated alpha 2AP-fibrin crosslinking in platelet-rich compared with platelet-depleted plasma clots. A similar study of clots formed with purified fibrinogen (depleted of factor XIII activity), isolated platelets, and specific factor XIII inhibitors indicated that this accelerated crosslinking was due to the catalytic activity of platelet factor XIII. Moreover, when washed platelets were aggregated by thrombin, there was evidence of platelet factor XIII-mediated crosslinking between platelet alpha 2AP and platelet fibrin(ogen). Specific inhibition (by a monoclonal antibody) of the alpha 2AP associated with washed platelet aggregates accelerated the fibrinolysis of the platelet aggregate. Thus in platelet-rich plasma clots, and in thrombin-induced platelet aggregates, platelet factor XIII actively formed alpha 2AP-fibrin crosslinks, which appeared to enhance the resistance of platelet-rich clots to fibrinolysis.

  1. Comparison of Tenecteplase with Alteplase on clinical rating scores following small clot embolic strokes in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapchak, Paul A; Araujo, Dalia M; Zivin, Justin A

    2004-01-01

    Tenecteplase (TNK) was engineered to have increased fibrin specificity and an increased half-life compared to Alteplase. Although Tenecteplase is currently being tested in a Phase II clinical trial in acute ischemic stroke patients, little is known about the pharmacology and dose-response or therapeutic window for Tenecteplase in embolic stroke models. In the present study, we compared Tenecteplase with Alteplase on behavioral outcome in rabbits with embolic strokes. Male New Zealand white rabbits were embolized by injecting a suspension of small blood clots into the middle cerebral artery (MCA) via a catheter. The rabbit small clot embolic stroke model (RSCEM) was used for a dose-response profile analysis of Tenecteplase (0.1 mg/kg-3.3 mg/kg) and Alteplase (0.9 mg/kg-3.3 mg/kg) given intravenously 1 h following embolization. In additional studies, Tenecteplase (0.9 mg/kg) or Alteplase (3.3 mg/kg) was administered 3 (or 6) h following embolization to determine the therapeutic window for the thrombolytics. For both studies, behavioral analysis was conducted 24 h following embolization, allowing for the determination of the effective stroke dose (P50) or clot amount (mg) that produces neurological deficits in 50% of the rabbits. Using the RSCEM, a drug is considered beneficial if it significantly increases the P50 compared with the control group. The P50 of controls 24 h after embolization was 1.13 +/- 0.15 mg. Rabbits treated 1 h post-embolization with Tenecteplase (0.1, 0.25, 0.9, 1.5 or 3.3 mg/kg) had P50 values of 1.48 +/- 0.33, 2.20 +/- 0.44, 2.76 +/- 0.37, 2.15 +/- 0.29 and 2.78 +/- 0.31 mg, respectively. In Alteplase-treated rabbits, only the 3.3 mg/kg dose significantly increased the group P50 by 189% compared to control. Tenecteplase was also effective at increasing the P50 value to 2.21 +/- 0.43 mg if there was a 3-h delay following embolization, but not if there was a 6-h delay before administration. Alteplase was only effective if administered 1 h

  2. CT scan of choristoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriki, A.; Morimoto, M.; Sada, Y.; Kurisaka, M.; Mori, K.

    1987-02-01

    Choristoma is a rare tumor that occurs in the pituitary gland. The case presented here is a 44-year-old male. A plain CT scan demonstrated a slight high-density mass near the posterior clinoid of the sella turcica, while a moderate and homogeneous enhancing effect and a clear borderline were shown by an enhanced CT scan. A cornal CT scan study showed that the tumor extended from the intrasellar to the suprasellar region. The diagnosis of choristoma was made by means of histology.

  3. {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668, a new tracer for imaging venous thromboemboli: pre-clinical biodistribution and incorporation into plasma clots in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, David [Grove Centre, Research and Development, GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences, Little Chalfont (United Kingdom); Uppsala University Hospital, Institution of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Section of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lewis, Joanne; Battle, Mark; Lear, Rochelle; Farrar, Gill; Barnett, D.J.; Godden, Vanessa; Oliveira, Alexandra; Coombes, Catherine [Grove Centre, Research and Development, GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences, Little Chalfont (United Kingdom); Ahlstroem, Haakan [Uppsala University Hospital, Institution of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Section of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 is a new radiotracer being developed to aid the diagnosis of thromboembolism. The structure of NC100668 is similar to a region of human {alpha}{sub 2}-antiplasmin, which is a substrate for factor XIIIa (FXIIIa). The purpose of this study was to confirm the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 into forming plasma clot and to establish the biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 in Wistar rats. The in vitro plasma clot uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 and other compounds with known affinities to FXIIIa was measured using a plasma clot assay. The biodistribution and blood clot uptake of radioactivity of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 in normal Wistar rats and those bearing experimentally induced deep vein thrombi were investigated. The in vitro uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 was greater than that for [{sup 14}C]dansyl cadaverine, a known substrate of FXIIIa in the plasma clot assay. The biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 in male and female Wistar rats up to 24 h p.i. showed that radioactivity was rapidly excreted, predominantly into the urine, with very little background tissue retention. In vivo the uptake and retention of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 into the blood clot was greater than could be accounted for by non-specific accumulation of the radiotracer within the blood clot. {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 was retained by plasma clots in vitro and blood clots in vivo. No significant tissue retention which could interfere with the ability to image thrombi in vivo was observed. This evidence suggests that {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 might be useful in the detection of thromboembolism. (orig.)

  4. An approach for quantitative image quality analysis for CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Amir; Cochran, Joe; Mooney, Doug; Regensburger, Joe

    2016-03-01

    An objective and standardized approach to assess image quality of Compute Tomography (CT) systems is required in a wide variety of imaging processes to identify CT systems appropriate for a given application. We present an overview of the framework we have developed to help standardize and to objectively assess CT image quality for different models of CT scanners used for security applications. Within this framework, we have developed methods to quantitatively measure metrics that should correlate with feature identification, detection accuracy and precision, and image registration capabilities of CT machines and to identify strengths and weaknesses in different CT imaging technologies in transportation security. To that end we have designed, developed and constructed phantoms that allow for systematic and repeatable measurements of roughly 88 image quality metrics, representing modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, noise power spectra, slice sensitivity profiles, streak artifacts, CT number uniformity, CT number consistency, object length accuracy, CT number path length consistency, and object registration. Furthermore, we have developed a sophisticated MATLAB based image analysis tool kit to analyze CT generated images of phantoms and report these metrics in a format that is standardized across the considered models of CT scanners, allowing for comparative image quality analysis within a CT model or between different CT models. In addition, we have developed a modified sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) method to generate a modified set of PCA components as compared to the standard principal component analysis (PCA) with sparse loadings in conjunction with Hotelling T2 statistical analysis method to compare, qualify, and detect faults in the tested systems.

  5. Effect of intermittent pneumatic compression on disability, living circumstances, quality of life, and hospital costs after stroke: secondary analyses from CLOTS 3, a randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud The results of the CLOTS 3 trial showed that intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) reduced the risk of deep vein thrombosis and improved survival in immobile patients with stroke. IPC is now being widely used in stroke units. Here we describe the disability, living circumstances, quality of life, and hospital costs of patients in CLOTS 3.\\ud \\ud Methods\\ud \\ud In CLOTS 3, a parallel group trial in 94 UK hospitals, immobile patients with stroke from days 0 to 3 of admissio...

  6. Clot composition and treatment approach to acute ischemic stroke: The road so far

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramdeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent histological studies of thrombi retrieved from patients with an acute ischemic stroke using the endovascular thrombectomy devices and correlation with early vessel computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI characteristics have given relevant insights into the pathophysiology of thrombotic lesions and may facilitate the development of improved reperfusion treatment approaches. We present a review of recent studies on the histopathologic analysis of thrombi, studies of MRI, and CT imaging correlation with thrombus histology, and detailed structural analysis of thromboemboli retrieved by thrombectomy devices during an acute ischemic stroke.

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... need for exploratory surgery and surgical biopsy. No radiation remains in a patient's body after a CT ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... need for exploratory surgery and surgical biopsy. No radiation remains in a patient's body after a CT ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as needle biopsies and needle aspirations of many areas of the ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... eliminate the need for exploratory surgery and surgical biopsy. No radiation remains in a patient's body after ...

  11. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as needle biopsies and needle aspirations of many areas of the ...

  12. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... CT scanning procedure. For exams (excluding head and neck) your head will remain outside the hole in ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ...

  13. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... liver, shows up in shades of gray, and air appears black. With CT scanning, numerous x-ray ... injected into a vein) to help evaluate blood vessels and organs such as the liver, kidneys and ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... liver, shows up in shades of gray, and air appears black. With CT scanning, numerous x-ray ... ability to image bone, soft tissue and blood vessels all at the same time. Unlike conventional x- ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... is painless, noninvasive and accurate. It’s also the most reliable imaging technique for determining if the sinuses ... CT scan of the sinuses, the patient is most commonly positioned lying flat on the back. The ...

  16. CT Angiography (CTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during the procedure. Metal objects, including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins, may affect the CT images and ... of the procedure, you may be asked to complete a questionnaire to ensure your safety during this ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... visibility of certain tissues or blood vessels. A nurse or technologist will insert an intravenous (IV) line ... CT exam to be stressful. The technologist or nurse, under the direction of a physician, may offer ...

  18. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... CT exam to be stressful. The technologist or nurse, under the direction of a physician, may offer ... to you, revolve around you during the imaging process. You will be alone in the exam room ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... CT exam to be stressful. The technologist or nurse, under the direction of a physician, may offer ... to you, revolve around you during the imaging process. You will be alone in the exam room ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... time staying still, are claustrophobic or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to be stressful. The technologist or nurse, under the direction of a physician, may offer ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... time staying still, are claustrophobic or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to be stressful. The technologist or nurse, under the direction of a physician, may offer ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Contrast Materials Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... hours prior to your exam. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... the CT images and should be left at home or removed prior to your exam. You may ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... hours prior to your exam. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... the CT images and should be left at home or removed prior to your exam. You may ...

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... hours prior to your exam. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... the CT images and should be left at home or removed prior to your exam. You may ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... liver, shows up in shades of gray, and air appears black. With CT scanning, numerous x-ray ... cause blurring of the images and degrade the quality of the examination the same way that it ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... liver, shows up in shades of gray, and air appears black. With CT scanning, numerous x-ray ... cause blurring of the images and degrade the quality of the examination the same way that it ...

  9. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... tomography (CT) scan View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  12. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... Abdomen and Pelvis? What is CT Scanning of the Abdomen/Pelvis? Computed tomography, more commonly known as ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? This procedure is typically used to help ...

  13. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... your exam. You should inform your physician of all medications you are taking and if you have ... body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... your exam. You should inform your physician of all medications you are taking and if you have ... body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... your exam. You should inform your physician of all medications you are taking and if you have ... body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a ...

  16. CT- and MR colonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Michael Patrick; Bülow, Steffen; Rosenberg, J

    2002-01-01

    . Lately, CT- and MR colonography have emerged as non-invasive methods for colon imaging. METHODS: At present, CTC and MRC require bowel preparation. However, preliminary studies have been carried out without colon preparation. After the colon has been filled with air or contrast, the patient is scanned....... CONCLUSIONS: With the exponential development in computer processing power, CT- and MR colonography holds the promise for future colon examination with the advantages of non-invasiveness, no need for sedation, and probably no bowel preparation. A major disadvantage, however, is the radiation dose during CT...... colonography. Future developments with the use of "intelligent" computers, better resolution and faster examinations will make CT and/or MR colonography realistic options to replace conventional diagnostic colonoscopy....

  17. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. The ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... additional view capabilities. Modern CT scanners are so fast that they can scan through large sections of ... remain still during the exam. Many scanners are fast enough that children can be scanned without sedation. ...

  1. Pediatric CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as lymphoma. kidney ... and organs such as the liver, kidneys and pancreas. When you enter the CT scanner, special light ...

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... an image on a special electronic image recording plate. Bones appear white on the x-ray; soft ... which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into a loaf ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... an image on a special electronic image recording plate. Bones appear white on the x-ray; soft ... which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into a loaf ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an image on a special electronic image recording plate. Bones appear white on the x-ray; soft ... which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into a loaf ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... an image on a special electronic image recording plate. Bones appear white on the x-ray; soft ... which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into a loaf ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an image on a special electronic image recording plate. Bones appear white on the x-ray; soft ... which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into a loaf ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT examinations are fast ... of many areas of the body, particularly the lungs, abdomen, pelvis and bones. A diagnosis determined by ...

  9. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT examinations are fast ... of many areas of the body, particularly the lungs, abdomen, pelvis and bones. A diagnosis determined by ...

  10. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... to arriving. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? CT exams are ... at most a minute or two. You may experience a sensation like you have to urinate; however, ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? CT exams are ... at most a minute or two. You may experience a sensation like you have to urinate; however, ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? CT exams are ... at most a minute or two. You may experience a sensation like you have to urinate; however, ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... cavity. CT scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. It’s also the most reliable imaging technique for determining ... parts absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. It is this crucial difference in absorption that allows ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. CT scanning is, in general, ...

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. CT scanning is, in general, ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. CT scanning is, in general, ...

  17. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer Radiation Therapy for Colorectal Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ... GI Tract X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Colorectal Cancer Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Abdomen and ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... rays used in CT scans should have no immediate side effects. Risks There is always a slight ... possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... rays used in CT scans should have no immediate side effects. Risks There is always a slight ... possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... rays used in CT scans should have no immediate side effects. Risks There is always a slight ... possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than ...

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT examinations are fast and simple; in emergency cases, they can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. CT examinations are fast and simple; in emergency cases, they can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ...

  4. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... during the procedure. Metal objects, including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins, may affect the CT images and ... may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women should always inform their physician and the ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... during the procedure. Metal objects, including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins, may affect the CT images and ... may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. The radiologist also should know if you have ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... during the procedure. Metal objects, including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins, may affect the CT images and ... may increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women should always inform their physician and the ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... is reduced. Though the scanning itself causes no pain, there may be some discomfort from having to ... time staying still, are claustrophobic or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to be ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... is reduced. Though the scanning itself causes no pain, there may be some discomfort from having to ... time staying still, are claustrophobic or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to be ...

  9. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. ... help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional ... hours beforehand, as contrast material will be used in your exam. You should inform your physician of ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and ... generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like ... contrast materials and a metallic taste in your mouth that lasts for at most a minute or ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like ... contrast materials and a metallic taste in your mouth that lasts for at most a minute or ...

  14. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like ... contrast materials and a metallic taste in your mouth that lasts for at most a minute or ...

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may ... particularly the lungs, abdomen, pelvis and bones. A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate the need ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may ... medical device of any kind, unlike MRI. A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate the need ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may ... particularly the lungs, abdomen, pelvis and bones. A diagnosis determined by CT scanning may eliminate the need ...

  18. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... preferable over CT scanning. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org: Radiation Therapy for Bladder ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... brain cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save ... to a CD or DVD. CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide ...

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... quickly. When you enter the CT scanner, special light lines may be seen projected onto your body, ... and its references. The risk of serious allergic reaction to contrast materials that contain iodine is extremely ...

  4. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... pancreas. When you enter the CT scanner, special light lines may be seen projected onto your body, ... in the womb. The risk of serious allergic reaction to contrast materials that contain iodine is extremely ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... quickly. When you enter the CT scanner, special light lines may be seen projected onto your body, ... and its references. The risk of serious allergic reaction to contrast materials that contain iodine is extremely ...

  6. CT head in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Padma, E-mail: padma.rao@rch.org.au [Royal Children' s Hospital and the University of Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Bekhit, Elhamy, E-mail: elhamy.bekhit@rch.org.au [Royal Children' s Hospital and the University of Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Ramanauskas, Fiona, E-mail: fiona.ramanauskas@rch.org.au [Royal Children' s Hospital and the University of Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Kumbla, Surekha, E-mail: surekha.kumbla@rch.org.au [Royal Children' s Hospital and the University of Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3052 (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    The advances in computerized technology (CT) technique over the last few decades have greatly modified imaging protocols in children. The range of pathologies that can now be demonstrated has broadened with the advent of newer techniques such as CT perfusion and the ability to perform complex reconstructions. Increasing speed of scanning and reduction in scan time have influenced the need for sedation and general anaesthetic as well as impacting on motion artefact. Additionally, concerns about radiation safety and avoidance of unnecessary radiation have further impacted on the inclusion of CT in the imaging armamentarium. Justification and image optimisation are essential. It is important to familiarize oneself with the appearances of normal variants or age related developmental changes. CT does however remain an appropriate investigation in a number of conditions.

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... modality for sinusitis. CT of the sinuses is now widely available and is performed in a relatively short time, especially when compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). ...

  8. Lumbosacral spine CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Broken bone CT scan Cyst Herniated disk Osteoarthritis Osteomalacia Tumor Review Date 9/8/2014 Updated by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding after receiving intravenous contrast. For further information please ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... cavity and sinuses. plan for surgery by defining anatomy. top of page How should I prepare? You ... pregnancy and x-rays. CT scanning is, in general, not recommended for pregnant women unless medically necessary ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... and accurate. It’s also the most reliable imaging technique for determining if the sinuses are obstructed and ... to obtain images. For children, the CT scanner technique will be adjusted to their size and the ...

  12. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... to obtain images. For children, the CT scanner technique will be adjusted to their size and the ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ...

  13. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... of electronic x-ray detectors rotate around you, measuring the amount of radiation being absorbed throughout your ... pancreas. When you enter the CT scanner, special light lines may be seen projected onto your body, ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... of electronic x-ray detectors rotate around you, measuring the amount of radiation being absorbed throughout your ... quickly. When you enter the CT scanner, special light lines may be seen projected onto your body, ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... lives. CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  18. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. Tell your ... emergency cases, they can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. CT has ...

  19. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras containing metal ... increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women should always inform their physician and the CT ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras containing metal ... have diabetes —particularly if you are taking Glucophage . Women should always inform their physician and the CT ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras containing metal ... increase the risk of an unusual adverse effect. Women should always inform their physician and the CT ...

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... CT scan? You should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to your exam. You may be given a ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... to wear a lead apron to minimize radiation exposure. After a CT exam, the intravenous line used ... always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... to wear a lead apron to minimize radiation exposure. After a CT exam, the intravenous line used ... always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate ...

  5. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... to wear a lead apron to minimize radiation exposure. After a CT exam, the intravenous line used ... always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate ...

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... view of the body's interior. Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ... to urinate; however, this is actually a contrast effect and subsides quickly. If the contrast material is ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 Radiological ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 Radiological ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 Radiological ...

  10. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... painless, noninvasive and accurate. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to ... cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... therapy for brain cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to ... cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even ...

  12. Chest CT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can combine these pictures to create three-dimensional (3D) models to help show the size, shape, and ... a medical imaging facility or hospital. The CT scanner is a large, tunnel-like machine that has ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications you’re taking, and allergies. You ... a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple ...

  14. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications you’re taking, and allergies. You ... a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications you’re taking, and allergies. You ... a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple ...

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding ... vessels. CT examinations are fast and simple; in emergency cases, they can reveal internal injuries and bleeding ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding ... vessels. CT examinations are fast and simple; in emergency cases, they can reveal internal injuries and bleeding ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on head ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. A CT scan of the face produces images ...

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... CT) of the abdomen and pelvis is a diagnostic imaging test used to help detect diseases of the ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... of the nasal cavity and sinuses. plan for surgery by defining anatomy. top of page How should ... CT scanning may eliminate the need for exploratory surgery and surgical biopsy. No radiation remains in a ...

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... treatments. plan for and assess the results of surgery, such as organ transplants. stage, plan and properly ... CT scanning may eliminate the need for exploratory surgery and surgical biopsy. No radiation remains in a ...

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... as: infections such as appendicitis , pyelonephritis or infected fluid collections, also known as abscesses. inflammatory bowel disease ... caused by a burst appendix or an infected fluid collection and the subsequent spread of infection. CT ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... cavity. CT scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. It’s also the most reliable imaging technique for determining ... parts absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. It is this crucial difference in absorption that allows ...

  5. Lumbar spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... your breath for short periods of time. The scan should take only 10 to 15 minutes.

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... Abdomen and Pelvis? What is CT Scanning of the Abdomen/Pelvis? Computed tomography, more commonly known as ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? This procedure is typically used to help ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

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    Full Text Available ... entire body will be "inside" the scanner at one time such as with MRI. If an intravenous ... CT scanning provides very detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, ...

  8. Cervical spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects of the cervical spine Bone problems Fracture Osteoarthritis Disc herniation Risks Risks of CT scans include: ... Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, ...

  9. Recombinant factor VIIa improves clot formation but not fibrolytic potential in patients with cirrhosis and during liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisman, T; Leebeek, FWG; Meijer, K; Van Der Meer, J; Nieuwenhuis, HK; De Groot, PG

    2002-01-01

    Cirrhosis is associated with a bleeding tendency, which is particularly pronounced during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). A novel approach to treating the bleeding diathesis of patients with cirrhosis is administration of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa). This study examined whether the effi

  10. Combination of recombinant factor VIIa and fibrinogen corrects clot formation in primary immune thrombocytopenia at very low platelet counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole H; Stentoft, Jesper; Radia, Deepti

    2013-01-01

    Haemostatic treatment modalities alternative to platelet transfusion are desirable to control serious acute bleeds in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This study challenged the hypothesis that recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) combined with fibrinogen concentrate may correct whole b...

  11. CT- and MR colonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Michael Patrick; Bülow, Steffen; Rosenberg, J

    2002-01-01

    . Lately, CT- and MR colonography have emerged as non-invasive methods for colon imaging. METHODS: At present, CTC and MRC require bowel preparation. However, preliminary studies have been carried out without colon preparation. After the colon has been filled with air or contrast, the patient is scanned...... colonography. Future developments with the use of "intelligent" computers, better resolution and faster examinations will make CT and/or MR colonography realistic options to replace conventional diagnostic colonoscopy....

  12. CT of pituitary abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, T.C.; Johns, R.D.; Long, M.; Myles, S.T.

    1985-06-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare condition, with only 50 cases reported in the literature. Of those, 29 cases were well documented for analysis. Preoperative diagnosis of pituitary abscess is difficult. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of pituitary abscess was first described in 1983; the abscess was depicted by axial images with coronal reconstruction. The authors recently encountered a case of pituitary abscess documented by direct coronal CT of the sella turcica.

  13. A Simple, Inexpensive and Safe Method for DNA Extraction of Frigid and Clotted Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extraction of blood genomicDNAis one of the main approaches for clinical and molecular biology studies. Although several methods have been developed for extraction of blood genomic DNA, most of these methods consume long time and use expensive chemicals such as proteinase K and toxic organic solvent such as phenol and chloroform. The objective of this study was to developed easy and safe method forDNAextraction from clotted and frozen whole blood. This method has many advantages: time reducing, using inexpensive materials, without phenol and chloroform, achieving of high molecular weight and good quality genomicDNA.Materials and Methods: DNA extraction was performed by two methods (new and phenol-chloroform method. Then quantity and quality parameters were evaluated by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, Nano drop analysis and efficiency of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR.Results: Extracted DNA from 500μL of blood samples were 457.7ng/μl and 212ng/μL and their purity (OD260/OD280 were 1.8 and 1.81 for new recommended and phenol–chloroform methods respectively. The PCR results indicated that D16S539 and CSF1PO loci were amplified.Conclusion: These results shown that this method is simple, fast, safe and most economical.

  14. A comparison of milk clotting characteristics and quality traits of Rendena and Holstein-Friesian cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Varotto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Milk coagulation properties (MCP and composition, as predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS, were compared between Rendena (RE local breed and Holstein- Friesian (HF cows using 4614 individual milk samples from 28 single-breed herds. Records of rennet coagulation time (RCT, min, curd firmness (a30, mm, daily milk yield and quality traits were analysed using a linear mixed model which included fixed effects of breed, herd-test-date nested within breed, lactation stage, parity, and two-way interactions between the main effects. Random effects were cow nested within breed and residual. Milk from RE coagulated 2.1 min earlier and showed a firmer curd by 4.8 mm than that of HF cows (P<0.05. Milk yield (+9.7 kg/d and fat content (+0.22 g/100 g were greater for HF than RE (P<0.05, while protein (+0.05 g/100 g and casein (+0.06 g/100 g contents were greater in milk from RE cows (P<0.05. Rennet coagulation time was shortest at the beginning of lactation, and a30 was firmest at the beginning and end of lactation. Results from this study suggest that milk of RE is more suitable for cheese processing than that of HF cows. Milk clotting characteristics of the local breed should be taken into account when developing strategies useful for its valorisation.

  15. Effect of warfarin on the kinetics of the vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainieri, H; Wingard, L B

    1977-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the time course of activities and rates of synthesis of activities for the separate clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X and to relate the rate of synthesis of activity of each factor to the plasma concentration of warfarin in individual rats after acute and chronic dosing with warfarin. Sequences of blood samples were obtained from each rat for 50 to 70 hours after an acute dose of warfarin or for 120 hours after a chronic loading dose plus 12-hour maintenance doses of warfarin and assayed for factor activities and warfarin concentration. The half-lives for degradation of factor activities ranged from 2.6 to 9.0 hours for the four factors. During periods of changing warfarin concentration (acute dosing) factor VII and X activities and rates of synthesis of activity showed large rapid changes, while factors II and IX responded more slowly. As the warfarin concentration diminished, the factor X rate of synthesis of activity appeared to exceed predrug values in all rats. During chronic dosing with warfarin the factor II activity and rate of synthesis of activity was depressed the most. The percent depression of the rate of synthesis of activity for each factor was related linearly to the logarithm of the plasma concentration of warfarin for the range 0 to 80% depression with acute dosing. However, this relationship was not suitable to explain the apparent overshoot in factor X rate of synthesis of activity.

  16. Potential of quixaba (Sideroxylon obtusifolium latex as a milk-clotting agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are several obstacles to the use of chymosin in cheese production. Consequently, plant proteases have been studied as possible rennet substitutes, but most of these enzymes are unsuitable for the manufacture of cheese. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of latex from Sideroxylon obtusifolium as a source of milk-clotting proteases and to partially characterize the enzyme. The enzyme extract showed high protease and coagulant activities, with an optimal pH of 8.0 and temperature of 55 °C. The enzyme was stable in wide ranges of temperature and pH. Its activity was not affected by any metal ions tested; but was inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and pepstatin. For the coagulant activity, the optimal concentration of CaCl2 was 10 µmol L- 1. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed four bands, with molecular weights between 17 and 64 kDa. These results indicate that the enzyme can be applied to the cheese industry.

  17. Optimization of the production and characterization of milk clotting enzymes by Bacillus subtilis natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang-Chen; Chang, Chen-Wei; Shih, Ing-Lung

    2013-12-01

    Suitable medium for production of milk clotting enzyme (MCE) by Bacillus subtilis (natto) Takahashi in submerged liquid-state fermentation was screened, the nutrient factors affecting MCE production was optimized by response surface methodology. The MCE production by B. subtilis (natto) Takahashi was increased significantly by 428% in the optimal medium developed. The MCE was filtered and concentrated by ultrafiltration. The retentate after tandem filtration carried out with the combined membranes of MWCO 50kDa and 5 kDa showed two major bands between 25kDa and 30kDa on SDS-PAGE, and the MCA and MCA/PA improved significantly in comparison with those in the initial broth. The crude enzyme thus obtained showed MCA and MCA/PA ratio of 48,000 SU/g and 6,400, which are commensurate with those (MCA 26,667 SU/g and MCA/PA 6,667) of the commercial rennet. It had optimal pH and temperature at pH 6 and 60°C, and showed excellent pH and thermal stability.

  18. Prolonged clot lysis time increases the risk of a first but not recurrent venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, Alev; Baglin, Trevor P; Luddington, Roger; Baglin, Caroline A; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid

    2016-03-01

    The role of the fibrinolytic system in the development of venous thrombosis (VT) is unclear. We studied the risk of first and recurrent VT associated with reduced fibrinolysis, as measured by clot lysis time (CLT). We also studied the relationship between CLT and thrombin generation to determine if any relationship between CLT and VT was affected by thrombin generation. Analyses were performed in the Thrombophilia Hypercoagulability Environmental risk for Venous Thromboembolism Study, a two-centre population-based case-control study, including 579 patients and 338 controls, with patients followed from the event to determine incidence of recurrent VT. Hypofibrinolysis was associated with a 1·8-fold increased risk of a first VT [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·2-2·7]. Adjustment for sex, age, study location and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) did not change the result. The risk of VT was 2·9-fold increased when the 90th percentiles of prolonged CLT and high ETP were combined, with the highest risk for unprovoked first events (Odds Ratio = 4·2, 95% CI 1·3-13·5). In the follow-up study the Hazard Ratio for a recurrent VT associated with hypofibrinolysis was 1·5 (95% CI 0·9-2·6). A weak dose response effect was observed in relation to prolongation of CLT and recurrent VT. Although hypofibrinolysis constitutes a risk factor for a first VT, an association with recurrence is, at best, weak.

  19. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method from Fresh, Frozen, Dried and Clotted Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Barar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other recent advances in science, the role of science to improve reliable DNA extraction methods is more relevant than ever before. The ideal process for genomic DNA extraction demands high quantities of pure, integral and intact genomic DNA (gDNA from the sample with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Here, we report the development of a very rapid, less-hazardous, and high throughput protocol for extracting of high quality DNA from blood samples. Methods: Dried, clotted and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA treated fresh and frozen blood samples were extracted using this method in which the quality and integrity of the extracted DNA were corroborated by agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR reaction and DNA digestion using restricted enzyme. The UV spectrophotometric and gel electrophoresis analysis resulted in high A260/A280 ratio (>1.8 with high intactness of DNA. Results: PCR and DNA digestion experiments indicated that the final solutions of extracted DNA contained no inhibitory substances, which confirms that the isolated DNA is of good quality. Conclusion: The high quality and quantity of current method, no enzymatic processing and accordingly its low cost, make it appropriate for DNA extraction not only from human but also from animal blood samples in any molecular biology labs.

  20. Efficient delivery of human clotting factor Ⅸ after injection of lentiviral vectors in utero

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-guang CHEN; Huan-zhang ZHU; Ju-li GONG; Feng LI; Jing-lun XUE

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore gene transfer feasibility for human clotting factor IX (hFⅨ) mediated by recombinant lentivirus in utero. METHODS: ICR mice fetus at 17-19 d gestation were received lentiviral vectors carrying hFⅨ eDNA under the control of liver specific promoter by intrahepatic injection. The expression and distribution of hFⅨ cDNA and possible immune responses against the hFIX were assessed by ELISA, PCR, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry, respectively. RESULTS: The serum hFⅨ protein were detected at different time points in all newborn mice, the highest level of hFⅨ was 50 μg/L and lasted for more than 30 d. Anti-hⅨ antibody was not detected, hFIX cDNA was detected in liver, spleen, and heart. The expression of hFⅨ eDNA was only detected in liver. Besides, no germ line transmission was found at DNA and RNA levels, and no side effect associated with gene transfer was detected. CONCLUSION: The efficient delivery of hFⅨ can be achieved by prenatal gene transfer. It thus shows the feasibility of gene therapy for hemophilia in utero.