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Sample records for csfr czechoslovakian vver-440

  1. Safety of VVER-440 reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Slugen, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Safety of VVER-440 Reactors endeavours to promote an increase in the safety of VVER-440 nuclear reactors via the improvement of fission products limitation systems and the implementation of special non-destructive spectroscopic methods for materials testing. All theoretical and experimental studies performed the by author over the last 25 years have been undertaken with the aim of improving VVER-440 defence in depth, which is one of the most important principle for ensuring safety in nuclear power plants. Safety of VVER-440 Reactors is focused on the barrier system through which the safety pri

  2. KARATE - a code for VVER-440 core calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gado, J.; Hegedus, Cs.J.; Hegyi, Gy.; Kereszturi, A.; Makai, M.; Maraczi, Cs.; Telbisz, M.

    1994-12-31

    A modular calculation system has been elaborated at the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute for VVER-440 cores. The purpose of KARATE is the calculation of neutron physical and thermal-hydraulic processes in the core at normal, startup, and slow transient conditions. KARATE is under validation and verification (V&V) against mathematical, experimental, and operational data.

  3. Methodological studies on the VVER-440 control assembly calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hordosy, G.; Kereszturi, A.; Maraczy, C. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-31

    The control assembly regions of VVER-440 reactors are represented by 2-group albedo matrices in the global calculations of the KARATE code system. Some methodological aspects of calculating albedo matrices with the COLA transport code are presented. Illustrations are given how these matrices depend on the relevant parameters describing the boron steel and steel regions of the control assemblies. The calculation of the response matrix for a node consisting of two parts filled with different materials is discussed.

  4. Investigation of station blackout scenario in VVER440/v230 with RELAP5 computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gencheva, Rositsa Veselinova, E-mail: roseh@mail.bg; Stefanova, Antoaneta Emilova, E-mail: antoanet@inrne.bas.bg; Groudev, Pavlin Petkov, E-mail: pavlinpg@inrne.bas.bg

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • We have modeled SBO in VVER440. • RELAP5/MOD3 computer code has been used. • Base case calculation has been done. • Fail case calculation has been done. • Operator and alternative operator actions have been investigated. - Abstract: During the development of symptom-based emergency operating procedures (SB-EOPs) for VVER440/v230 units at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) a number of analyses have been performed using the RELAP5/MOD3 (Carlson et al., 1990). Some of them investigate the response of VVER440/v230 during the station blackout (SBO). The main purpose of the analyses presented in this paper is to identify the behavior of important VVER440 parameters in case of total station blackout. The RELAP5/MOD3 has been used to simulate the SBO in VVER440 NPP model (Fletcher and Schultz, 1995). This model was developed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE-BAS), Sofia, for analyses of operational occurrences, abnormal events and design based scenarios. The model provides a significant analytical capability for specialists working in the field of NPP safety.

  5. Influence of Bypass on Thermo-Hydraulics of VVER 440 Fuel Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubec Jakub

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with CFD modelling and simulation of coolant flow within the nuclear reactor VVER 440 fuel assembly. The influence of coolant flow in bypass on the temperature distribution at the outlet of the fuel assembly and pressure drop was investigated. Only steady-state analyses were performed. Boundary conditions are based on operating conditions. ANSYS CFX is chosen as the main CFD software tool, where all analyses are performed.

  6. Application of the thermal-hydraulic codes in VVER-440 steam generators modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejovic, P.; Vranca, L.; Vaclav, E. [Nuclear Power Plant Research Inst. VUJE (Slovakia)

    1995-12-31

    Performances with the CATHARE2 V1.3U and RELAP5/MOD3.0 application to the VVER-440 SG modelling during normal conditions and during transient with secondary water lowering are described. Similar recirculation model was chosen for both codes. In the CATHARE calculation, no special measures were taken with the aim to optimize artificially flow rate distribution coefficients for the junction between SG riser and steam dome. Contrary to RELAP code, the CATHARE code is able to predict reasonable the secondary swell level in nominal conditions. Both codes are able to model properly natural phase separation on the SG water level. 6 refs.

  7. Radiochemical Assays of Irradiated VVER-440 Fuel for Use in Spent Fuel Burnup Credit Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J

    2005-04-25

    The objective of this spent fuel burnup credit work was to study and describe a VVER-440 reactor spent fuel assembly (FA) initial state before irradiation, its operational irradiation history and the resulting radionuclide distribution in the fuel assembly after irradiation. This work includes the following stages: (1) to pick out and select a specific spent (irradiated) FA for examination; (2) to describe the FA initial state before irradiation; (3) to describe the irradiation history, including thermal calculations; (4) to examine the burnup distribution of select radionuclides along the FA height and cross-section; (5) to examine the radionuclide distributions; (6) to determine the Kr-85 release into the plenum; (7) to select and prepare FA rod specimens for destructive examinations; (8) to determine the radionuclide compositions, isotope masses and burnup in the rod specimens; and (9) to analyze, document and process the results. The specific workscope included the destructive assay (DA) of spent fuel assembly rod segments with an {approx}38.5 MWd/KgU burnup from a single VVER-440 fuel assembly from the Novovorenezh reactor in Russia. Based on irradiation history criteria, four rods from the fuel assembly were selected and removed from the assembly for examination. Next, 8 sections were cut from the four rods and sent for destructive analysis of radionuclides by radiochemical analyses. The results were documented in a series of seven reports over a period of {approx}1 1/2 years.

  8. Microstructure and embrittlement of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel steels; Microstructure et fragilisation des aciers de cuve des reacteurs nucleaires VVER 440

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennion, A

    1999-03-15

    27 VVER 440 pressurised water reactors operate in former Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe. The pressure vessel, is made of Cr-Mo-V steel. It contains a circumferential arc weld in front of the nuclear core. This weld undergoes a high neutron flux and contains large amounts of copper and phosphorus, elements well known for their embrittlement potency under irradiation. The embrittlement kinetic of the steel is accelerated, reducing the lifetime of the reactor. In order to get informations on the microstructure and mechanical properties of these steels, base metals, HAZ, and weld metals have been characterized. The high amount of phosphorus in weld metals promotes the reverse temper embrittlement that occurs during post-weld heat treatment. The radiation damage structure has been identified by small angle neutron scattering, atomic probe, and transmission electron microscopy. Nanometer-sized clusters of solute atoms, rich in copper with almost the same characteristics as in western pressure vessels steels, and an evolution of the size distribution of vanadium carbides, which are present on dislocation structure, are observed. These defects disappear during post-irradiation tempering. As in western steels, the embrittlement is due to both hardening and reduction of interphase cohesion. The radiation damage specificity of VVER steels arises from their high amount of phosphorus and from their significant density of fine vanadium carbides. (author)

  9. Technology of repair of selected equipment in the power plant type VVER 440

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barborka, J.; Magula, V. [Welding Research Inst. (WRI), Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1998-11-01

    This article is divided in two parts: The first part is studying the effect of individual parameters by the usual and pulsed welding of 15CH2MFA steel. It can be concluded that by use of mechanized or automatic TIG process in PC position with addition of a cold wire with high nickel content the desired quality of repair welded joints of a pressure vessel of VVER 440 reactor can be achieved. Based on the results of the second laboratory study of the renovation technology applied for the rotary surfaces of pressure-tight cover and spindle of the main closing armature type DN 500 it can be concluded, that the developed technology for surfacing the sealing surfaces by TIG process with addition of a high-nickel cold wire the functional capability of the mentioned parts can be fully restored.

  10. Sequence of decommissioning of the main equipment in a central type VVER 440 V-230; Secuencia de desmantelamiento de los equipos principales de una central Tipo VVer 440 V-230

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, E.; Garcia Ruiz, R.

    2014-10-01

    IBERDROLA Ingenieria y Construccion S.A.U., leader of consortium with Empresarios Agrupados and INDRA, has developed the Basic Engineering for the decommissioning of contaminated systems and building of a VVER 440 V-230 Nuclear Power Plant, establishing the sequence and methodology for the main equipment fragmentation. For that, it has been designed dry and wet cutting zones to be set up in the area where steam generators, main cooling pumps and pressurizer are located; these components will be dismantled previously. (Author)

  11. Analysis of loss of off-site power ATWS in VVER-440 concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppner, G.; Siltanen, P.; Kotro, J.

    1987-01-01

    During 1985 the Finnish state-owned utility Imatran Voima Oy signed a work order with Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit mbH of the Federal Republic of Germany (GRS) for the analysis of abnormal transients in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) concept based on a Soviet design. The results of these calculations were intended to be introduced into the licensing process and to support a decision to build such a nuclear power station. A computer model was constructed of the VVER-440 concept, a 500-MW(electric) PWR designed in the USSR and modified for Finland. The ALMOD4 code, developed at GRS, was used for the investigation. The ALMOD4 code is a fast running code for the analysis of operational and abnormal transients in PWRs. Input data were set up to calculate anticipated transients without scram, most notably the loss of off-site power case. One-dimensional neutron kinetics was used to correctly model the neutronics feedback of axially distributed moderator density and fuel temperature in a changing axial power profile. Interlocking signals and the engineered safety systems were modeled to assess the overall systems response to this abnormal transient. Special analytical problems were encountered since a detailed and verified model of the steam generator (SG) with horizontally positioned heat exchanger tubes was not available. Therefore, two bounding calculations were performed with different SG models.

  12. A Four Group Reference Code for Solving Neutron Diffusion Equation in a VVER-440 Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, Simo [Fortum Nuclear Services Ltd., P.O. Box 100, 00048 Fortum (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear reactor core power calculation is essential in the analysis of the nuclear power plant and especially the core. Currently, the core power distribution in Loviisa VVER-440 core is calculated using nodal code HEXBU-3D and pin-power reconstruction code ELSI-1440 that solve the two group neutron diffusion equation. The computer power available has increased significantly during the last decades allowing us to develop a fine mesh code HEXRE for solving the four group diffusion equation. The diffusion equations are discretized using piecewise linear polynomials. The core is discretized using one node per fuel pin cell. The axial discretization can be chosen freely. The boundary conditions are described using diffusion theory and albedos. Burnup dependence is modelled by tabulating diffusion parameters at certain burnup values and using interpolation for the intermediate values. A two degree polynomial is used for the modelling of the feedback effects. Eigenvalue calculation for both boron concentration and multiplication factor control has been formulated. A possibility to perform fuel loading and shuffling operations is implemented. HEXRE has been thoroughly compared with HEXBU-3D and ELSI-1440. The effect of the different energy and space discretizations used is investigated. Some safety criteria for the core calculated with the HEXRE and HEXBU-3D/ELSI-1440 have been compared. From the calculations (e.g. the safety criteria) we can estimate whether there exists systematic deviations in HEXBU- 3D/ELSI-1440 calculations or not. (author)

  13. Adoption of in-vessel retention concept for VVER-440/V213 reactors in Central European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejovic, Peter, E-mail: peter.matejovic@ivstt.sk [Inzinierska Vypoctova Spolocnost (IVS), Jana Holleho 5, 91701 Trnava (Slovakia); Barnak, Miroslav; Bachraty, Milan; Vranka, Lubomir [Inzinierska Vypoctova Spolocnost (IVS), Jana Holleho 5, 91701 Trnava (Slovakia); Berky, Robert [Integrita a Bezpecnost Ocelovych Konstrukcii, Rybnicna 40, 831 07 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Design of in-vessel retention concept for VVER-440/V213 reactors. • Thermal loads acting on the inner reactor surface. • Structural response of reactor pressure vessel. • External reactor vessel cooling. - Abstract: An in-vessel retention (IVR) concept was proposed for standard VVER-440/V213 reactors equipped with confinement made of reinforced concrete and bubbler condenser pressure suppression system. This IVR concept is based on simple modifications of existing plant technology and thus it was attractive for plant operators in Central European Countries. Contrary to the solution that was adopted before at Loviisa NPP in Finland (two units of VVER-440/V213 reactor with steel confinement equipped with ice condenser), the coolant access to the reactor pressure vessel from flooded cavity is enabled via closable hole installed in the centre of thermal shield of the reactor lower head instead of lowering this massive structure in the case of severe accident. As a consequence, the crucial point of this IVR concept is narrow gap between torispherical lower head and thermal and biological shield. Here the highest thermal flux is expected in the case of severe accident. Thus, realistic estimation of thermal load and corresponding deformations of reactor wall and their impact on gap width for coolant flow are of primarily importance. In this contribution the attention is paid especially to the analytical support with emphasis to the following points: 1) {sup ∗}Estimation of thermal loads acting on the inner reactor surface; 2) {sup ∗}Estimation of structural response of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) with emphasis on the deformation of outer reactor surface and its impact on the annular gap between RPV wall and thermal/biological shield; 3) {sup ∗}Analysis of external reactor vessel cooling. For this purpose the ASTEC code was used for performing analysis of core degradation scenarios, the ANSYS code for structural analysis of reactor vessel

  14. PMK-2, the First Integral Thermal-Hydraulics Tests for the Safety Evaluation of VVER-440/213 Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gy. Ézsöl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The PMK-2 facility is a full-pressure thermal-hydraulic model of the primary and partly the secondary circuit of the VVER-type units of Paks NPP. The facility was the first integral-type facility for VVERs. The PMK-2 was followed later by the PACTEL (for VVER-440, the ISB, and PSB for VVER-1000. Since the startup of the facility in 1985, 55 experiments have been performed primarily in international frameworks with the participation of experts from 29 European and overseas countries forming a scientific school to better understand VVER system behaviour and reach a high level of modelling of accident sequences. The ATHLET, CATHARE, and RELAP5 codes have been validated including both qualitative and quantitative assessments. The former was almost exclusively applied to the early phase of validation by integral experiments, while the quantitative assessments have been performed by the Fast Fourier Transform Based Method. Paper gives comprehensive information on the design features of PMK-2 facility with a special respect to the representativeness of phenomena, the experiments performed, and the results of the validation of ATHLET, CATHARE, and RELAP5 codes. Safety significance of the PMK-2 projects is also discussed.

  15. Start-up of a cold loop in a VVER-440, the 7{sup th} AER benchmark calculation with HEXTRAN-SMABRE-PORFLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovi, Ville; Taivassalo, Veikko; Haemaelaeinen, Anitta; Raety, Hanna; Syrjaelahti, Elina [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, VTT (Finland)

    2017-09-15

    The 7{sup th} dynamic AER benchmark is the first in which three-dimensional thermal hydraulics codes are supposed to be applied. The aim is to get a more precise core inlet temperature profile than the sector temperatures available typically with system codes. The benchmark consists of a start-up of the sixth, isolated loop in a VVER-440 plant. The isolated loop initially contains cold water without boric acid and the start-up leads to a somewhat asymmetrical core power increase due to feedbacks in the core. In this study, the 7{sup th} AER benchmark is calculated with the three-dimensional nodal reactor dynamics code HEXTRAN-SMABRE coupled with the porous computational fluid dynamics code PORFLO. These three codes are developed at VTT. A novel two-way coupled simulation of the 7{sup th} AER benchmark was performed successfully demonstrating the feasibility and advantages of the new reactor analysis framework. The modelling issues for this benchmark are reported and some evaluation against the previously reported comparisons between the system codes is provided.

  16. STC Germany/Russia. Fluence calculations of surveillance specimens of the VVER-440. Final report; WTZ Russland. Fluenzberechnungen fuer Voreilproben beim WWER-440. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konheiser, J.; Grahn, A.

    2014-07-01

    Reactor pressure vessels (RPV) are non-restorable equipment and their lifetime may restrict the nuclear power plant-life as a whole. Surveillance specimen programs for RPV materials are among the most important measures of in-service inspection programs that are necessary for realistic and reliable assessment of the RPV residual lifetime. In addition to the chemical composition of the RPV steel, the radiation parameters (neutron and gamma fluences and spectra) have the most important impact on the RPV embrittlement characteristics. In this work, different geometric positions which have influence on the radiation conditions of the samples are investigated. Thus, the uncertainties can be determined in the fluence values of surveillance specimens. The fluence calculations were carried out by the codes TRAMO and DORT. This study was accompanied by ex-vessel neutron dosimetry experiments at Kola NPP, Unit 3 (VVER-440/213), which provide the basis for validation of calculated neutron fluences. The main neutron-activation monitoring reactions were {sup 54}Fe(n,p){sup 54}Mn and {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co. The activity measurements were carried out by ''Scientific and Engineering Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SEC NRS). Good agreement between the deterministic and stochastic calculation results as well as between the calculations and the ex-vessel measurements was found. The average difference between measured and calculated values is 5%. The influence of the channels for surveillance specimens and the shielding effect of a baffle rib on the monitors and on the Monte-Carlo calculated results was studied. For the surveillance specimens in the maximum of the flux, an average flux of around 2.45 * 10{sup 12} neutrons/cm{sup 2} was calculated for the neutron flux E> 0.5 MeV. The differences in the surveillance specimens could be up to 20% depending on the direction to the core. Discrepancies up to 10% can be caused by the change of the position of the

  17. G-CSFR ubiquitination critically regulates myeloid cell survival and proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ai

    Full Text Available The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR is a critical regulator of granulopoiesis. Mutations in the G-CSFR in patients with severe congenital neutropenia (SCN transforming to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML have been shown to induce hypersensitivity and enhanced growth responses to G-CSF. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of the ubiquitin/proteasome system in the initiation of negative signaling by the G-CSFR. To further investigate the role of ubiquitination in regulating G-CSFR signaling, we generated a mutant form of the G-CSFR (K762R/G-CSFR which abrogates the attachment of ubiquitin to the lysine residue at position 762 of the G-CSFR that is deleted in the Delta716 G-CSFR form isolated from patients with SCN/AML. In response to G-CSF, mono-/polyubiquitination of the G-CSFR was impaired in cells expressing the mutant K762R/G-CSFR compared to cells transfected with the WT G-CSFR. Cells stably transfected with the K762R/G-CSFR displayed a higher proliferation rate, increased sensitivity to G-CSF, and enhanced survival following cytokine depletion, similar to previously published data with the Delta716 G-CSFR mutant. Activation of the signaling molecules Stat5 and Akt were also increased in K762R/G-CSFR transfected cells in response to G-CSF, and their activation remained prolonged after G-CSF withdrawal. These results indicate that ubiquitination is required for regulation of G-CSFR-mediated proliferation and cell survival. Mutations that disrupt G-CSFR ubiquitination at lysine 762 induce aberrant receptor signaling and hyperproliferative responses to G-CSF, which may contribute to leukemic transformation.

  18. Cloning and expression analysis of grouper (Epinephelus coioides) M-CSFR gene post Cryptocaryon irritans infection and distribution of M-CSFR(+) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Xue-Ming; Zhong, Zheng-Ping; Li, Yan-Wei; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Li, An-Xing

    2013-08-01

    The M-CSF/M-CSFR system plays a central role in the cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and maturation of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. In present study, we cloned the sequence of the M-CSFR cDNA from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Sequence analysis reveals that ten cysteines in the extracellular immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domains of EcM-CSFR are conserved in fish and mammals, its nine possible N-glycosylation sites are conserved in fish but not mammals, 7 of 8 identified mammal M-CSFR intracellular autophosphorylation tyrosine sites was found in EcM-CSFR. Real-time PCR showed that the constitutive expression level of EcM-CSFR was the highest in the spleen, less in the gill, kidney, head kidney and liver, least in the blood, skin, gut and thymus. A rabbit anti-EcM-CSFR polyclonal antibody against the recombinant EcM-CSFR extracellular domain was developed and it was efficient in labeling the monocytes and macrophages isolated from the head kidney. Immunochemistry analysis showed that M-CSFR(+) cells located in all tested paraffin-embedded tissues and M-CSFR(+) cell centres with the characteristic of melano-macrophage centres(MMCs) was found in the spleen, head kidney, kidney, gut and liver. All these results indicate the widespread distribution of macrophages in grouper tissues and its importance in fish immune system. In Crytocaryon irritans infected grouper, EcM-CSFR was transient up-regulated and rapidly down-regulated in skin, gill, head kidney and spleen. The possible activation mechanism of macrophage via EcM-CSFR signal transduction in the fish anti-C. irritans infection was discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pressure Vessel Calculations for VVER-440 Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordósy, G.; Hegyi, Gy.; Keresztúri, A.; Maráczy, Cs.; Temesvári, E.; Vértes, P.; Zsolnay, É.

    2003-06-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were performed for a selected cycle of the Paks NPP Unit II to test a computational model. In the model the source term was calculated by the core design code KARATE and the neutron transport calculations were performed by the MCNP. Different forms of the source specification were examined. The calculated results were compared with measurements and in most cases fairly good agreement was found.

  20. From Wolves to Dogs, and Back: Genetic Composition of the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Smetanová

    Full Text Available The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is a unique dog breed that originated from hybridization between German Shepherds and wild Carpathian wolves in the 1950s as a military experiment. This breed was used for guarding the Czechoslovakian borders during the cold war and is currently kept by civilian breeders all round the world. The aim of our study was to characterize, for the first time, the genetic composition of this breed in relation to its known source populations. We sequenced the hypervariable part of the mtDNA control region and genotyped the Amelogenin gene, four sex-linked microsatellites and 39 autosomal microsatellites in 79 Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs, 20 German Shepherds and 28 Carpathian wolves. We performed a range of population genetic analyses based on both empirical and simulated data. Only two mtDNA and two Y-linked haplotypes were found in Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs. Both mtDNA haplotypes were of domestic origin, while only one of the Y-haplotypes was shared with German Shepherds and the other was unique to Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs. The observed inbreeding coefficient was low despite the small effective population size of the breed, possibly due to heterozygote advantages determined by introgression of wolf alleles. Moreover, Czechoslovakian Wolfdog genotypes were distinct from both parental populations, indicating the role of founder effect, drift and/or genetic hitchhiking. The results revealed the peculiar genetic composition of the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog, showing a limited introgression of wolf alleles within a higher proportion of the dog genome, consistent with the reiterated backcrossing used in the pedigree. Artificial selection aiming to keep wolf-like phenotypes but dog-like behavior resulted in a distinctive genetic composition of Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs, which provides a unique example to study the interactions between dog and wolf genomes.

  1. From Wolves to Dogs, and Back: Genetic Composition of the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanová, Milena; Černá Bolfíková, Barbora; Randi, Ettore; Caniglia, Romolo; Fabbri, Elena; Galaverni, Marco; Kutal, Miroslav; Hulva, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is a unique dog breed that originated from hybridization between German Shepherds and wild Carpathian wolves in the 1950s as a military experiment. This breed was used for guarding the Czechoslovakian borders during the cold war and is currently kept by civilian breeders all round the world. The aim of our study was to characterize, for the first time, the genetic composition of this breed in relation to its known source populations. We sequenced the hypervariable part of the mtDNA control region and genotyped the Amelogenin gene, four sex-linked microsatellites and 39 autosomal microsatellites in 79 Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs, 20 German Shepherds and 28 Carpathian wolves. We performed a range of population genetic analyses based on both empirical and simulated data. Only two mtDNA and two Y-linked haplotypes were found in Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs. Both mtDNA haplotypes were of domestic origin, while only one of the Y-haplotypes was shared with German Shepherds and the other was unique to Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs. The observed inbreeding coefficient was low despite the small effective population size of the breed, possibly due to heterozygote advantages determined by introgression of wolf alleles. Moreover, Czechoslovakian Wolfdog genotypes were distinct from both parental populations, indicating the role of founder effect, drift and/or genetic hitchhiking. The results revealed the peculiar genetic composition of the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog, showing a limited introgression of wolf alleles within a higher proportion of the dog genome, consistent with the reiterated backcrossing used in the pedigree. Artificial selection aiming to keep wolf-like phenotypes but dog-like behavior resulted in a distinctive genetic composition of Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs, which provides a unique example to study the interactions between dog and wolf genomes.

  2. Pituitary dwarfism in Saarloos and Czechoslovakian wolfdogs is associated with a mutation in LHX3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, AMWY; Leegwater, Peter; Kooistra, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Background Pituitary dwarfism in German Shepherd Dogs is associated with autosomal recessive inheritance and a mutation in LHX3, resulting in combined pituitary hormone deficiency. Congenital dwarfism also is encountered in breeds related to German Shepherd Dogs, such as Saarloos and Czechoslovakian

  3. Advanced power plant training simulator for VVER-440/V230 nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shier, W.; Kennett, R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Vaclav, E.; Gieci, A. [Nuclear Power Research Inst. Trnava, Inc. (Slovakia)

    1996-11-01

    An advanced, workstation based, nuclear power plant simulator has been developed for use in training the operational staff of the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant. This training simulator uses state-of- the-art computer hardware and software and provides the capability to simultaneously include six members of the power plant operating staff in the training sessions. A detailed reactor model has been developed, representing the Bohunice VVER-44O/V230 plants, for use with the RELAP5 simulation software. In addition, a comprehensive validation program has been completed that compares the simulation results of the advanced simulator with the results from a current VVER-44O/V230 simulator. A summary of the training features and capabilities of the simulator is also provided.

  4. TACIS 91: Application of leak-before-break concept in VVER 440-230

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholome, G.; Faidy, C.; Franco, C. [and others

    1997-04-01

    The applicability of the leak-before-break (LBB) concept for primary piping in the first generation of WWER type plants in Russia is investigated. The procedures for LBB behavior used in France and Germany are applied, and the evaluation is discussed within the framework of the European Technical Assistance for the Community of Independent States (TACIS) project. Emphasis is placed on experimental validation of national and international engineering practice for evaluating and optimizing existing installations. Design criteria of WWER plants are compared to western standard design.

  5. Relap5/Mod3.1 analysis of main steam header rupture in VVER- 440/213 NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kral, P. [Nuclear Research Inst. Rez (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    The presentation is focused on two main topics. First the applied modelling of PGV-4 steam generator for RELAP5 code are described. The results of steady-state calculation under reference conditions are compared against measured data. The problem of longitudinal subdivision of SG tubes is analysed and evaluated. Secondly, a best-estimate analysis of main steam header (MSH) rupture accident in WWER-440/213 NPP is presented. The low reliability of initiation of ESFAS signal `MSH Rupture` leads in this accident to big loss of secondary coolant, full depressurization of main steam system, extremely fast cool-down of both secondary and primary system, opening of PRZ SV-bypass valve with later liquid outflow, potential reaching of secondary criticality by failure of HPIS. 7 refs.

  6. Possible pressurized thermal shock events during large primary to secondary leakage. The Hungarian AGNES project and PRISE accident scenarios in VVER-440/V213 type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perneczky, L. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budabest (Hungary)

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear power plants of WWER-440/213-type have several special features. Consequently, the transient behaviour of such a reactor system should be different from the behaviour of the PWRs of western design. The opening of the steam generator (SG) collector cover, as a specific primary to secondary circuit leakage (PRISE) occurring in WWER-type reactors happened first time in Rovno NPP Unit I on January 22, 1982. Similar accident was studied in the framework of IAEA project RER/9/004 in 1987-88 using the RELAP4/mod6 code. The Hungarian AGNES (Advanced General and New Evaluation of Safety) project was performed in the period 1991-94 with the aim to reassess the safety of the Paks NPP using state-of-the-art techniques. The project comprised three type of analyses for the primary to secondary circuit leakages: Design Basis Accident (DBA) analyses, Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) study and deterministic analyses for Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). Major part of the thermohydraulic analyses has been performed by the RELAP5/mod2.5/V251 code version with two input models. 32 refs.

  7. RISKAUDIT Report no. 7, Vol. 2: Safety evaluation of VVER 440/213 and VVER 1000/320 reactors in Rovno NPP Units 1, 2 and 3. Final Report by AIB-Vincotte Nuclear, CIEMAT, ANPA, GRS, IPSN, AEA-T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-15

    The Riskaudit 7 report has been made by a group of independent experts from Western European countries representing technical organizations specialized in the support of regulatory bodies of those countries. It represents a preliminary estimation of the Ukrainian WWER B 213 and B 320 reactors, based on the example of Rovno NPP, analysed with a Western practice. The second part of the document covers the following aspects of the report: accident analysis; systems analysis; plant operation; operating experience feedback; radio protection and health; probabilistic safety assessment; summary and future plans.

  8. RISKAUDIT Report no. 7, Vol. 1: Safety evaluation of VVER 440/213 and VVER 1000/320 reactors in Rovno NPP Units 1, 2 and 3. Final Report by AIB-Vincotte Nuclear, CIEMAT, ANPA, GRS, IPSN, AEA-T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-15

    The Riskaudit 7 report has been made by a group of independent experts from Western European countries representing technical organizations specialized in the support of regulatory bodies of those countries. It represents a preliminary estimation of the Ukrainian WWER B 213 and B 320 reactors, based on the example of Rovno NPP, analysed with a Western practice. The first part of the document covers the following aspects of the report: core design and fuel management; pressurized components; electrical supply; instrumentation and control; containment; internal events; site conditions and external events.

  9. Desk study of CSFR: Power-transmission system. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    The Slovak Energy Production Company (SEP) is currently evaluating the rehabilitation/modernization of its generating plants. These generation source changes will significantly impact the SEP transmission system. In recognition of this, SEP has submitted to the U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) a package of five specific proposals related to the evaluation of transmission system upgrades, modernizations, and additions. They include: Evaluate generation source changes and additions and their impact on the SEP transmission system; Evaluate for upgrade the existing transmission lines; Evaluate upgrades and modernizations to bring SEP substations up to state-of-the-art; Evaluate new 400 kV line additions; and Feasibility study of new system generation/transmission control dispatch center at Zilina. A Desk Study of the technical, economic, and financial prospects of the submitted proposal package was commissioned by TDP. As part of the Desk Study, an evaluation of the export potential for U.S. goods and services was conducted.

  10. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues.

  11. EBO feed water distribution system, experience gained from operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O. [Energovyzkum, Brno (Switzerland); Schmidt, S.; Mihalik, M. [Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Advanced feed water distribution systems of the EBO design have been installed into steam generators at Units 3 and 4 of the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (VVER 440). Experiences gained from the operation of steam generators with the advanced feed water distribution systems are discussed in the paper. (orig.). 4 refs.

  12. Fatigue flaw growth assessment and inclusion of stratification to the LBB assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samohyl, P.

    1997-04-01

    The application of the LBB requires also fatigue flaw growth assessment. This analysis was performed for PWR nuclear power plants types VVER 440/230, VVER 440/213c, VVER 1000/320. Respecting that these NPP`s were designed according to Russian codes that differ from US codes it was needed to compare these approaches. Comparison with our experimental data was accomplished, too. Margins of applicability of the US methods and their modifications for the materials used for construction of Czech and Slovak NPP`s are shown. Computer code accomplishing the analysis according to described method is presented. Some measurement and calculations show that thermal stratifications in horizontal pipelines can lead to additive loads that are not negligible and can be dangerous. An attempt to include these loads induced by steady-state stratification was made.

  13. ANDREA 2.2 and 2.3. Advances in modelling of VVER cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havluj, Frantisek; Hejzlar, Jonatan; Vocka, Radim; Vysoudil, Jiri [UJV Rez, Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2017-09-15

    In 2016 a new version of code ANDREA for core design and reload safety analysis of VVER reactors has been released. The new code version includes several major improvements. The first of them is a seamless incorporation of short time kinetics calculations (without temperature feedback) into the code. This new feature accompanied by the possibility of excore detector signal predictions enables precise interpretation of dynamic measurements of control assembly weight during the reactor startup. Second important enhancement resides in new flexible format of cross section libraries and in new fuel temperature model based on results of TRANSURANUS fuel performance code. The new code version has been thoroughly tested and validated for both VVER440 and VVER-1000 reactors. Furthermore for the new version 2.3 which is to be released shortly we have implemented the possibility of fluent control assemblies' motion and of non-equidistant axial nodalization schemes in VVER-440 calculations.

  14. Condensation driven water hammer studies for feedwater distribution pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S.; Katajala, S.; Elsing, B.; Nurkkala, P.; Hoikkanen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Pullinen, J. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Logvinov, S.A.; Trunov, N.B.; Sitnik, J.K. [EDO Gidropress (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy, IVO, operates two VVER 440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of the feed water distribution (FWD) pipes were observed in 1989. In closer examinations FWD-pipe T-connection turned out to suffer from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been found also in other VVER 440 type NPPs. In 1994 the first new FWD-pipe was replaced and in 1996 extensive water hammer experiments were carried out together with EDO Gidropress in Podolsk. After the first phase of the experiments some fundamental changes were made to the construction of the FWD-pipe. The object of this paper is to give short insight to the design of the new FWD-pipe concentrating on water hammer experiments. (orig.).

  15. JPRS Report: Environmental Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-27

    reactors, Deputy Prime Minister Aleksandur Tomov says. The two oldest units of Soviet VVER-440 design of the mid-1970’s provide between 10 percent and...12 percent of Bulgarian power, Tomov , Minister for Energy and Vice President of the Socialist Party, formerly the Communist Party, told AFP in an...station catastrophe in the Soviet Ukraine, which killed at least 31 people and sent a plume of radiation over much of Europe. Tomov told AFP that he had

  16. Structural seismic upgrading of NPPs in Czech and Slovak republics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M. [DAVID Consulting, Engineering and Design Office, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1997-03-01

    Several Nuclear Power Plants of the VVER type has been constructed during the past years in former Czechoslovak Republic. Some of them has been already put in operation and some of them are under construction. Nuclear Power Plants V1(2 units of VVER 440/230), V2(2 units of VVER 440/213) in Slovak and NPP Dukovany (4 units of VVER 440/213) in Czech republic are in operation. NPP Mochovce (4 units of VVER 440/213) in Slovak and NPP Temelin (4 units reduced now to 2 units VVER 1000) have been already almost completed, but still under construction. All above cited NPPs have not been either explicitly designed against earthquake or the design against earthquake or its input data must be upgraded to be compatible with present requirements. The upgrading of seismic input as well the seismic upgrading of all structures and technological equipments for so many NPPs has involved a lot of comprehensive work in Czech as well as in Slovak republics. The upgrading cannot be completed in a short time and as a rule the seismic upgrading has been usually performed in several steps, beginning with the most important arrangements against seismic hazard. The basic principles and requirements for seismic upgrading has been defined in accordance with the international and particularly with the IAEA recommendations. About the requirements for seismic upgrading of NPPs in Czech and Slovak republics will be reported in other contribution. This contribution is dealing with the problems of seismic upgrading of NNPs civil engineering structures. The aim of this contribution is to point out some specific problems connected firstly with very complicated concept of Versa structures and secondly with the difficult task to increase the structural capacity to the required seismic level. (J.P.N.)

  17. MEASUREMENTS OF THE CONFINEMENT LEAKTIGHTNESS AT THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-08-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Kola Confinement Leaktightness'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.1. This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians to reduce risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Units 1 and 2, through upgrades in the confinement performance to reduce the uncontrolled leakage rate. The major technical objective of this-project was to improve the leaktightness of the Kola NPP VVER confinement boundaries, through the application of a variety of sealants to penetrations, doors and hatches, seams and surfaces, to the extent that current technology permitted. A related objective was the transfer, through training of Russian staff, of the materials application procedures to the staff of the Kola NPP. This project was part of an overall approach to minimizing uncontrolled releases from the Kola NPP VVER440/230s in the event of a serious accident, and to thereby significantly mitigate the consequences of such an accident. The US provided materials, application technology, and applications equipment for application of sealant materials, surface coatings, potting materials and gaskets, to improve the confinement leaktightness of the Kola VVER-440/23Os. The US provided for training of Russian personnel in the applications technology.

  18. La política exterior republicana en los informes diplomáticos checoslovacos (1931-1936 = The Republican Foreign Policy in the Czechoslovakian Diplomatic Reports (1931-1936.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Montilla Amador

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una aproximación al estudio de las relaciones bilaterales entre la II República española y Checoslovaquia. La joven nación centroeuropea saludó con entusiasmo la llegada del nuevo régimen español, sensación que se vio confirmada por las primeras actuaciones exteriores republicanas, muy próximas al espíritu con el que Praga afrontaba su política internacional. Esta cercanía de intereses se vio materializada en Ginebra con la formación del Grupo de los Ocho. Los tres responsables de la diplomacia checoslovaca en Madrid durante este periodo (Vlastimil Kybal, Zdeněk Formánek y Robert Flieder reflejaron en los informes remitidos a Praga los temas más importantes de la política exterior republicana. This research is an approach to the study of the bilateral relations between the Second Spanish Republic and Czechoslovakia.The young Central European nation greeted enthusiastically the arrival of the new Spanish regime. This good feeling was confirmed by the new Spanish way of dealing with the foreign affairs, very close to the spirit in which Prague was facing its international policy. As a result of this common interests was created in Geneva the Group of Eight, which included both countries.The three responsible persons for the Czecoslovakian diplomacy in Madrid during this period (Vlastimil Kybal, Zdeněk Formánek and Robert Flieder reflected in the reports submitted to Prague the most important issues of the Republican foreign policy.

  19. In-Vessel Melt Retention of Pressurized Water Reactors: Historical Review and Future Research Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Weimin; Yuan, Yidan; Sehgal, Bal Raj

    2016-01-01

    A historical review of in-vessel melt retention (IVR) is given, which is a severe accident mitigation measure extensively applied in Generation III pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The idea of IVR actually originated from the back-fitting of the Generation II reactor Loviisa VVER-440 in order to cope with the core-melt risk. It was then employed in the new deigns such as Westinghouse AP1000, the Korean APR1400 as well as Chinese advanced PWR designs HPR1000 and CAP1400. The most influential...

  20. Effects of irradiation at lower temperature on the microstructure of Cr-Mo-V-alloyed reactor pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, M.; Boehmert, J.; Gilles, R. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    The microstructural damage process due to neutron irradiation [1] proceeds in two stages: - formation of displacement cascades - evolution of the microstructure by defect reactions. Continuing our systematic investigation about the microstructural changes of Russian reactor pressure vessel steel due to neutron irradiation the microstructure of two laboratory heats of the VVER 440-type reactor pressure vessel steel after irradiation at 60 C was studied by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). 60 C-irradiation differently changes the irradiation-induced microstructure in comparison with irradiation at reactor operation temperature and can, thus, provide new insights into the mechanisms of the irradiation damage. (orig.)

  1. Sensitivity coefficients for the stochastic estimation of the radiation damage to the reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, C.M.; Hernandez Valle, S. [Centro de Investigaciones Tecnologicas, Nucleares y Ambientales, La Habana (Cuba). E-mail: calvarez@ctn.isctn.edu.cu; svalle@ctn.isctn.edu.cu

    2000-07-01

    The construction of the sensitivity matrix in the case of the vessel radiation damage estimation by Monte Carlo techniques poses new problems related to the uncertainties of the obtained responses. In the case of deterministic calculations, the sensitivity coefficient obtention is a straightforward procedure based on the perturbation formalism through the calculation of the adjoint fluxes. In the paper an alternative procedure implementation based on the differential operator method is described with the modifications needed to the used HEXANN-EVALU code for the response estimations in the VVER-440 pressure vessel. (author)

  2. Validation of depletion codes for burnup credit evaluation of LWR assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta-aho, A. [Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT, POB 1000, 02044-VTT (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reports the comparison of the CASMO-4E predictions with the radiochemical assay data from assemblies irradiated in Takahama-3 PWR and Fukushima-Daini-2 BWR, and the most recently reported spent fuel data from the VVER-440 assembly irradiated in Novovoronezh 4. Some of the calculations were repeated with the ABURN burnup code, which is a combination of the MCNP4C Monte Carlo code and the ORIGEN2 depletion code. The cross section libraries applied were based on the ENDF/B-VI and the JEF-2.2 data. (authors)

  3. Thermal-hydraulics of PGV-4 water volume during damage of the feedwater collector nozzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logvinov, S.A.; Titov, V.F. [OKB Gidropress (Russian Federation); Notaros, U.; Lenkei, I. [NPP Paks (Hungary)

    1995-12-31

    A number of VVER-440 plants has experienced the distributing nozzles of feedwater collector being damaged due to corrosion-erosion wearing. Such phenomenon could result in feedwater redistribution within the SG inventory with undesirable consequences. The collector with damaged nozzles has to be replaced but a certain time is needed for the preparatory works. The main objective of the investigation conducted is to assess if the safe operation of SG is possible before collector replacement. It was shown that the nozzle damage as observed did not result in the dangerous disturbances of thermobydraulics as compared with the conditions existing at the initial period of operation. (orig.).

  4. Diversification of the VVER fuel market in Eastern Europe and Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, Michael [Westinghouse EMEA, Brussels (Belgium); Benjaminsson, Ulf; Oenneby, Carina [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraes (Sweden)

    2015-03-15

    There are a total of 33 VVER active reactors in the EU and Ukraine, accounting for the largest percentage of the total electricity supply in the countries operating these. The responsible governments and utilities operating these units want too see an increased diversification of the nuclear fuel supply. Westinghouse is the only nuclear fuel producer outside Russia, which has taken the major steps to develop, qualify and manufacture VVER fuel designs - both for VVER-440 and VVER-1000 reactors. The company has delivered reloads of VVER-440 fuel to Loviisa 2 in Finland, VVER-1000 fuel for both the initial core and follow-on regions to Temelin 1-2 in the Czech Republic and more recently reloads of VVER-1000 fuel to South Ukraine 2-3. Technical challenges in form of mechanical interference with the resident fuel have been encountered in Ukraine, but innovative solutions have been developed and successfully implemented and today Ukraine has, for the first time in its history, a viable VVER-1000 fuel design alternative, representing a tremendous lever in energy security for the country.

  5. Calculation of the Novovoronezh Recriticality Experiment with the KARATE-440 code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegyi, György, E-mail: ghegyi@aeki.kfki.hu [MTA KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper the results of KARATE-440 calculations on Novovoronezh NPP Recriticality Experiment are presented, the corresponding parameters are analyzed. The simulation of the processes and the comparison of the results with the measurements are of particular interest as these efforts make our code to be validated in a higher level. The KARATE-440 code system has been developed and applied for VVER-440 core analysis during near twenty years, as a close collaboration among the developers and the specialists at the 4 Hungarian nuclear power units. KARATE is now a mature, demonstrated, complete and integrated system of computer codes and procedures that provide full and independent VVER core analysis capabilities. Even if only some well defined states of the experiment were simulated, satisfactory agreement was found between measured and calculated data. The results present evidence that the KARATE- 440 code package can adequately model the reactor states in a wide range of performance parameters and the special core type referred in the experiment so it is acceptable for neutronic analysis of all the VVER-440 NPP's. (author)

  6. The Plinius/Colima CA-U3 test on fission-product aerosol release over a VVER-type corium pool; L'essai Plinius/Colima CA-U3 sur le relachement des aerosols de produits de fission au-dessus d'un bain de corium de type VVER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Journeau, Ch.; Piluso, P.; Correggio, P.; Godin-Jacqmin, L

    2007-07-01

    In a hypothetical case of severe accident in a PWR type VVER-440, a complex corium pool could be formed and fission products could be released. In order to study aerosols release in terms of mechanisms, kinetics, nature or quantity, and to better precise the source term of VVER-440, a series of experiments have been performed in the Colima facility and the test Colima CA-U3 has been successfully performed thanks to technological modifications to melt a prototypical corium at 2760 C degrees. Specific instrumentation has allowed us to follow the evolution of the corium melt and the release, transport and deposition of the fission products. The main conclusions are: -) there is a large release of Cr, Te, Sr, Pr and Rh (>95%w), -) there is a significant release of Fe (50%w), -) there is a small release of Ba, Ce, La, Nb, Nd and Y (<90%w), -) there is a very small release of U in proportion (<5%w) but it is one of the major released species in mass, and -) there is no release of Zr. The Colima experimental results are consistent with previous experiments on irradiated fuels except for Ba, Fe and U releases. (A.C.)

  7. Management of primary-to-secondary leaks at Loviisa nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohnsen, B.; Jaenkaelae, K. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The Loviisa Nuclear power plant consisting of two VVER-440 type press water reactor units has been in commercial operation since the late 1970`s. Specific features for VVER-440 reactors are six primary loops with horizontal steam generators and main gate valves. The structure of the horizontal steam generators construction may cause a large primary to secondary leak in case of a break in the cover of the primary collector. An accident where two primary collector covers opened totally and two covers opened partly took place in Rovno, Ukraine January 1982. Primary to secondary leaks are one of the main contributors to the core melt frequency in VVER reactors according to the Loviisa 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The high core damage contribution has set requirements for the development of effective means to cope with all sizes of primary to secondary leaks in the steam generator. A concept for all leak sizes has been developed for Loviisa 1 and 2. The solution includes four main areas which are a new steam generator leakage monitoring system based on nitrogen-16 measurement, an upgraded pressurizer spray system, an increased emergency cooling water reserve and an automated isolation of the defected steam generator.

  8. MASS MEDIA IN ADULT EDUCATION, SEMINAR ON THE CONTRIBUTION OF RESEARCH TO THE USE OF AUDIO-VISUAL MASS MEDIA IN ADULT EDUCATION (PRAGUE, OCTOBER 5-10, 1966).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechoslovakian UNESCO Commission, Prague.

    THIS INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR, ORGANIZED BY THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE CZECHOSLOVAKIAN TRADE UNION OF EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL WORKERS AND SUPPORTED BY UNESCO AND THE CZECHOSLOVAKIAN UNESCO COMMISSION, BROUGHT TOGETHER 118 SPECIALISTS IN MASS MEDIA FROM 14 COUNTRIES. THE AIMS OF THE SEMINAR WERE TO ACCELERATE WORK RELATING TO CONTRIBUTIONS OF…

  9. In-vessel melt retention as a severe accident management strategy for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, O.; Tuomisto, H. [IVO International Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Theofanous, T.G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The concept of lower head coolability and in-vessel retention of corium has been approved as a basic element of the severe accident management strategy for IVO`s Loviisa Plant (VVER-440) in Finland. The selected approach takes advantage of the unique features of the plant such as low power density, reactor pressure vessel without penetrations at the bottom and ice-condenser containment which ensures flooded cavity in all risk significant sequences. The thermal analyses, which are supported by experimental program, demonstrate that in Loviisa the molten corium on the lower head of the reactor vessel is coolable externally with wide margins. This paper summarizes the approach and the plant modifications being implemented. During the approval process some technical concerns were raised, particularly with regard to thermal loadings caused by contact of cool cavity water and hot corium with the reactor vessel. Resolution of these concerns is also discussed.

  10. Multiphysics simulation of fast transients with the FINIX fuel behaviour module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonen Timo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available FINIX is a recently developed fuel behaviour module that is designed to provide “simple but sufficient” descriptions of the most essential fuel behaviour phenomena in multiphysics simulations. In such simulations, it is possible to obtain significant improvement in the feedback to neutronics or thermal hydraulics modelling even with a relatively simple fuel performance model. In this work, FINIX is used as an internal fuel behaviour module both in reactor physics and in reactor dynamics codes to simulate coupled behaviour in fast transient scenarios. With the Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent we model a prompt transient in a VVER-1000 pin cell, and with the reactor dynamics code HEXTRAN, a control rod ejection accident in a VVER-440 reactor.

  11. The influence of operational and water chemistry parameters on the deposits of corrosion products on fuel assemblies at nuclear power plants with VVER reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritskii, V. G.; Berezina, I. G.; Rodionov, Yu. A.; Gavrilov, A. V.

    2011-07-01

    The phenomenon involving a growth of pressure drop in the reactor core and redistribution of deposits in the reactor core and primary coolant circuit of a nuclear power station equipped with VVER-440 reactors is considered. A model is developed, the physicochemical foundation of which is based on the dependence of corrosion product transfer on the temperature and pH t value of coolant and on the correlation between the formation rate of corrosion products (Fe) (after subjecting the steam generators to decontamination) and rate with which they are removed from the circuit. The purpose of the simulation carried on the model is to predict the growth of pressure drop on the basis of field data obtained from nuclear power installations and correct the water chemistry (by adjusting the concentrations of KOH, H2, and NH3) so as to keep the pressure drop in the reactor at a stable level.

  12. Modeling of Flow in Nuclear Reactor Fuel Cell Outlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František URBAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Safe and effective load of nuclear reactor fuel cells demands qualitative and quantitative analysis of relations between coolant temperature in fuel cell outlet temperature measured by thermocouple and middle temperature of coolant in thermocouple plane position. In laboratory at Insitute of thermal power engineering of the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava was installed an experimental physical fuel cell model of VVER 440 nuclear power plant with V 213 nuclear reactors. Objective of measurements on physical model was temperature and velocity profiles analysis in the fuel cell outlet. In this paper the measured temperature and velocity profiles are compared with the results of CFD simulation of fuel cell physical model coolant flow.

  13. PACTEL: Experiments on the behaviour of the new horizontal steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouhia, J.; Riikonen, V.; Purhonen, H. [VTT Energy, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Experiments were performed to study the behaviour of the PACTEL facility, a medium scale integral test loop simulating VVER 440 pressurized water reactors. The study focused on the operation of the new horizontal steam generator model installed in PACTEL. Three experiments were conducted: a small-break test to observe the steam generator behaviour over a range of primary coolant inventories, a hot leg loop seal experiment to study the cyclic behaviour of a loop seal and a loss of secondary side feedwater test to examine the effect of uncovered tubes in the steam generator. A reverse flow was observed in the lower part of the U-tube bundle of the steam generator during natural circulation. The flow reversal point dropped when the tubes uncovered, during secondary inventory reduction. (orig.). 5 refs.

  14. CATHARE Assessment of PACTEL LOCA Experiments with Accident Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luben Sabotinov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the analysis results of three PACTEL experiments, carried out with the advanced thermal-hydraulic system computer CATHARE 2 code as a part of the second work package WP2 (analytical work of the EC project “Improved Accident Management of VVER nuclear power plants” (IMPAM-VVER. The three LOCA experiments, conducted on the Finnish test facility PACTEL (VVER-440 model, represent 7.4% cold leg breaks with combination of secondary bleed and primary bleed and feed and different actuation modes of the passive safety injection. The code was used for both defining and analyzing the experiments, and to assess its capabilities in predicting the associated complex VVER-related phenomena. The code results are in reasonable agreement with the measurements, and the important physical phenomena are well predicted, although still further improvement and validation might be necessary.

  15. Support calculations for management of PRISE leakage accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejovic, P.; Vranka, L. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Inst. Vuje, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Accidents involving primary-to-secondary leakage (PRISE) caused by rupture of one or a few tubes are well known design basis events in both, western and VVER NPPs. Operating experience and in-service inspections of VVER-440 units have demonstrated also the potential for large PRISE leaks in the case of the steam generator (SG) primary collector cover lift-up (Rovno NPP). Without performing any countermeasure for limitation of SG collector cover lift-up, a full opening results in PRISE leak with an equivalent diameter 107 mm. Although this accident was not considered in the original design, this event is usually analysed as DBA too. Different means are available for detection and mitigation of PRISE leakage in NPPs currently in operation (J.Bohunice V-1 and V-2) or under construction (Mochovce) in Slovakia. 8 refs.

  16. Conceptual study of advanced PWR core design. Development of advanced PWR core neutronics analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hyo; Kim, Seung Cho; Kim, Taek Kyum; Cho, Jin Young; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Lee, Jung Hun; Jung, Gu Young [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    The neutronics design system of the advanced PWR consists of (i) hexagonal cell and fuel assembly code for generation of homogenized few-group cross sections and (ii) global core neutronics analysis code for computations of steady-state pin-wise or assembly-wise core power distribution, core reactivity with fuel burnup, control rod worth and reactivity coefficients, transient core power, etc.. The major research target of the first year is to establish the numerical method and solution of multi-group diffusion equations for neutronics code development. Specifically, the following studies are planned; (i) Formulation of various numerical methods such as finite element method(FEM), analytical nodal method(ANM), analytic function expansion nodal(AFEN) method, polynomial expansion nodal(PEN) method that can be applicable for the hexagonal core geometry. (ii) Comparative evaluation of the numerical effectiveness of these methods based on numerical solutions to various hexagonal core neutronics benchmark problems. Results are follows: (i) Formulation of numerical solutions to multi-group diffusion equations based on numerical methods. (ii) Numerical computations by above methods for the hexagonal neutronics benchmark problems such as -VVER-1000 Problem Without Reflector -VVER-440 Problem I With Reflector -Modified IAEA PWR Problem Without Reflector -Modified IAEA PWR Problem With Reflector -ANL Large Heavy Water Reactor Problem -Small HTGR Problem -VVER-440 Problem II With Reactor (iii) Comparative evaluation on the numerical effectiveness of various numerical methods. (iv) Development of HEXFEM code, a multi-dimensional hexagonal core neutronics analysis code based on FEM. In the target year of this research, the spatial neutronics analysis code for hexagonal core geometry(called NEMSNAP-H temporarily) will be completed. Combination of NEMSNAP-H with hexagonal cell and assembly code will then equip us with hexagonal core neutronics design system. (Abstract Truncated)

  17. RELAP5 simulation of surge line break accident using combined and best estimate plus uncertainty approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristof, Marian [AiNS, Na hlinach 51, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)], E-mail: marian.kristof@ains.sk; Kliment, Tomas [VUJE a.s., Okruzna 5, 918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Petruzzi, Alessandro [Nuclear Research Group of San Piero a Grado, University of Pisa (Italy); Lipka, Jozef [Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2009-11-15

    Licensing calculations in a majority of countries worldwide still rely on the application of combined approach using best estimate computer code without evaluation of the code models uncertainty and conservative assumptions on initial and boundary, availability of systems and components and additional conservative assumptions. However best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) approach representing the state-of-the-art in the area of safety analysis has a clear potential to replace currently used combined approach. There are several applications of BEPU approach in the area of licensing calculations, but some questions are discussed, namely from the regulatory point of view. In order to find a proper solution to these questions and to support the BEPU approach to become a standard approach for licensing calculations, a broad comparison of both approaches for various transients is necessary. Results of one of such comparisons on the example of the VVER-440/213 NPP pressurizer surge line break event are described in this paper. A Kv-scaled simulation based on PH4-SLB experiment from PMK-2 integral test facility applying its volume and power scaling factor is performed for qualitative assessment of the RELAP5 computer code calculation using the VVER-440/213 plant model. Existing hardware differences are identified and explained. The CIAU method is adopted for performing the uncertainty evaluation. Results using combined and BEPU approaches are in agreement with the experimental values in PMK-2 facility. Only minimal difference between combined and BEPU approached has been observed in the evaluation of the safety margins for the peak cladding temperature. Benefits of the CIAU uncertainty method are highlighted.

  18. The corrosion and corrosion mechanical properties evaluation for the LBB concept in VVERs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscak, M.; Chvatal, P.; Karnik, D.

    1997-04-01

    One of the conditions required for Leak Before Break application is the verification that the influence of corrosion environment on the material of the component can be neglected. Both the general corrosion and/or the initiation and, growth of corrosion-mechanical cracks must not cause the degradation. The primary piping in the VVER nuclear power plant is made from austenitic steels (VVER 440) and low alloy steels protected with the austenitic cladding (VVER 1000). Inspection of the base metal and heterogeneous weldments from the VVER 440 showed that the crack growth rates are below 10 m/s if a low oxygen level is kept in the primary environment. No intergranular cracking was observed in low and high oxygen water after any type of testing, with constant or periodic loading. In the framework of the LBB assessment of the VVER 1000, the corrosion and corrosion mechanical properties were also evaluated. The corrosion and corrosion mechanical testing was oriented predominantly to three types of tests: stress corrosion cracking tests corrosion fatigue tests evaluation of the resistance against corrosion damage. In this paper, the methods used for these tests are described and the materials are compared from the point of view of response on static and periodic mechanical stress on the low alloyed steel 10GN2WA and weld metal exposed in the primary circuit environment. The slow strain rate tests and static loading of both C-rings and CT specimens were performed in order to assess the stress corrosion cracking characteristics. Cyclic loading of CT specimens was done to evaluate the kinetics of the crack growth under periodical loading. Results are shown to illustrate the approaches used. The data obtained were evaluated also from the point of view of comparison of the influence of different structure on the stress corrosion cracking appearance. The results obtained for the base metal and weld metal of the piping are presented here.

  19. Formulation of the extract of the stem bark of Alstonia boonei as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed using crushing strength and friability and the crushing strength:friability ratio (CSFR) while drug release properties were evaluated using disintegration and dissolution times. Results: There were statistically significant (p<0.01) differences in the CSFR values and drug.

  20. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences No. 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-05

    Quantum Optics Generators, Moscow Scientific Research Oncology Institute imeni P. A. Gertsen, Moscow COMPARATIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF EXPERIMENTAL...Russian, 2 Czechoslovakian, 21 Western. 2/2 YUGOSLAVIA DJURIC, GORDANA, Assistant, Department for Radiology and Physiotherapy , School of Veterinary

  1. The Dynamic Characteristics of Silver Nanoparticles in Physiological Fluids: Toxicological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-19

    endocytosis .13,14 The ability of NMs to agglomerate leads to atypical concentration gradients and greatly complicates dosimetry.15 Moreover, through a... measuring CD68 and CSFR-1 expression. The CD68 protein is a known marker for active phagocytosis, and CSFR-1 serves to normalize CD68 expression by ensuring...are known to be taken up via endocytosis both in vitro and in vivo by phagocytic cells, such as macrophages, highlighting the need to evaluate the

  2. In-Vessel Melt Retention of Pressurized Water Reactors: Historical Review and Future Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A historical review of in-vessel melt retention (IVR is given, which is a severe accident mitigation measure extensively applied in Generation III pressurized water reactors (PWRs. The idea of IVR actually originated from the back-fitting of the Generation II reactor Loviisa VVER-440 in order to cope with the core-melt risk. It was then employed in the new deigns such as Westinghouse AP1000, the Korean APR1400 as well as Chinese advanced PWR designs HPR1000 and CAP1400. The most influential phenomena on the IVR strategy are in-vessel core melt evolution, the heat fluxes imposed on the vessel by the molten core, and the external cooling of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV. For in-vessel melt evolution, past focus has only been placed on the melt pool convection in the lower plenum of the RPV; however, through our review and analysis, we believe that other in-vessel phenomena, including core degradation and relocation, debris formation, and coolability and melt pool formation, may all contribute to the final state of the melt pool and its thermal loads on the lower head. By looking into previous research on relevant topics, we aim to identify the missing pieces in the picture. Based on the state of the art, we conclude by proposing future research needs.

  3. Analysis of Steam Generators Corrosion Products from Slovak NPP Bohunice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Degmová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of the nuclear industry is to increase the nuclear safety and reliability of nuclear power plants (NPPs. As the steam generator (SG is the most corrosion sensitive component of NPPs, it is important to analyze the corrosion process and optimize its construction materials to avoid damages like corrosion cracking. For this purpose two different kinds of SGs and its feed water distributing systems from the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice were studied by nondestructive Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were scraped from the surface and analyzed in transmission geometry. Magnetite and hematite were found to be the main components in the corrosion layers of both SGs. Dependant of the material the SG consisted of, and the location in the system where the samples were taken, the ratios between magnetite and hematite and the paramagnetic components were different. The obtained results can be used to improve corrosion safety of the VVER-440 secondary circuit as well as to optimize its water chemistry regime.

  4. Some uncertainty results obtained by the statistical version of the KARATE code system related to core design and safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panka, Istvan; Hegyi, Gyoergy; Maraczy, Csaba; Temesvari, Emese [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Reactor Analysis Dept.

    2017-11-15

    The best-estimate KARATE code system has been widely used for core design calculations and simulations of slow transients of VVER reactors. Recently there has been an increasing need for assessing the uncertainties of such calculations by propagating the basic input uncertainties of the models through the full calculation chain. In order to determine the uncertainties of quantities of interest during the burnup, the statistical version of the KARATE code system has been elaborated. In the first part of the paper, the main features of the new code system are discussed. The applied statistical method is based on Monte-Carlo sampling of the considered input data taking into account mainly the covariance matrices of the cross sections and/or the technological uncertainties. In the second part of the paper, only the uncertainties of cross sections are considered and an equilibrium cycle related to a VVER-440 type reactor is investigated. The burnup dependence of the uncertainties of some safety related parameters (e.g. critical boron concentration, rod worth, feedback coefficients, assembly-wise radial power and burnup distribution) are discussed and compared to the recently used limits.

  5. Design report of the disposal canister for twelve fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Salo, J.P. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-05-01

    The report provides a summary of the design of the canister for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The canister structure consists of a cylindrical massive nodular graphite cast iron insert covered by a 50 mm thick copper overlay. The capacity of the canister is 12 assemblies of BWR or VVER 440 fuel. The canister shall be tight with a high probability for about 100 000 years. The good and long lasting tightness requires: (1) The good initial tightness that is achieved by high quality requirements and extensive quality control, (2) The good corrosion resistance, which is obtained by the overpack of oxygen free copper, and (3) Mechanical strength of the canister, that is ensured by analyses (the following loads are considered: hydrostatic pressure, even and uneven swelling pressure of bentonite, thermal effects, and elevated hydrostatic pressure during glaciation. The allowed stresses and strains are set in such a way that reasonable engineering safety factors are obtained in all assessed design base loading cases). The canister shall limit the radiation dose rate outside the canister to minimise the radiolysis of the water in the vicinity of the canister. The canister insert shall keep the fuel assemblies in a subcritical configuration even if the void in the canister is filled with water due to postulated leakage. The design basis of the canister is set, the performed analyses are summarised and the results are assessed and discussed in the report. (orig.) 35 refs.

  6. Theoretical Study of Steam Condensation Induced Water Hammer Phenomena in Horizontal Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Barna, Imre Ferenc

    2014-01-01

    We investigate steam condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) phenomena and present new theoretical results. We use the WAHA3 model based on two-phase flow six first-order partial differential equations that present one dimensional, surface averaged mass, momentum and energy balances. A second order accurate high-resolution shock-capturing numerical scheme was applied with different kind of limiters in the numerical calculations. The applied two-fluid model shows some similarities to Relap5 which is widely used in the nuclear industry to simulate nuclear power plant accidents. This model was validated with different CIWH experiments which were performed in the PMK-2 facility, which is a full-pressure thermo-hydraulic model of the nuclear power plant of VVER-440/312 type in the Energy Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest and in the Rosa facility in Japan. In our recent study we show the first part of a planned large database which will give us the upper and lower flooding mass flow ...

  7. Results of questionnaire for the needs of measured data for the steady-state calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yrjoelae, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    In the First International Seminar on the Modelling of Horizontal Steam Generators arranged in March 1991 was agreed to arrange a common calculational exercise to calculate the secondary side flow conditions during normal plant operation. OKB Gidropress of Russia supplied the experimental results for the exercise. They included some measured data of the local velocities and void fractions for the steam generators of the VVER-440 and VVER-1000 type reactors. The results of the common calculational exercise presented in the Second International Seminar in September 1992 were still mainly preliminary and it was felt necessary to continue these efforts. It was concluded that the given experimental results were not sufficient for a real code assessment - still too many quantities have to be guessed. It was pointed out that it is advisable to define a minimum set of necessary data. For this reason it was decided that VTT should made a query among the participants of the seminar, where they can give their opinion of the essential data. In this presentation the results of the questionnaire are given.

  8. Risk-informed regulation and safety management of nuclear power plants--on the prevention of severe accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himanen, Risto; Julin, Ari; Jänkälä, Kalle; Holmberg, Jan-Erik; Virolainen, Reino

    2012-11-01

    There are four operating nuclear power plant (NPP) units in Finland. The Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) power company has two 840 MWe BWR units supplied by Asea-Atom at the Olkiluoto site. The Fortum corporation (formerly IVO) has two 500 MWe VVER 440/213 units at the Loviisa site. In addition, a 1600 MWe European Pressurized Water Reactor supplied by AREVA NP (formerly the Framatome ANP--Siemens AG Consortium) is under construction at the Olkiluoto site. Recently, the Finnish Parliament ratified the government Decision in Principle that the utilities' applications to build two new NPP units are in line with the total good of the society. The Finnish utilities, Fenno power company, and TVO company are in progress of qualifying the type of the new nuclear builds. In Finland, risk-informed applications are formally integrated in the regulatory process of NPPs that are already in the early design phase and these are to run through the construction and operation phases all through the entire plant service time. A plant-specific full-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is required for each NPP. PRAs shall cover internal events, area events (fires, floods), and external events such as harsh weather conditions and seismic events in all operating modes. Special attention is devoted to the use of various risk-informed PRA applications in the licensing of Olkiluoto 3 NPP. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. CATHARE2 calculation of SPE-3 test small break loca on PMK facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, E.; Radet, J. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache (France)

    1995-09-01

    Bind and post test calculations with CATHARE2 have been performed concerning the SPE-4 exercise organized under the auspices of IAEA on the hungarian PMK-2 facility, a one loop scaled model of VVER 440/213 Nuclear Power Plant. The SPE-4 test is a cold leg SBLOCA associated to a {open_quotes}bleed and feed{close_quotes} procedure applied in the secondary circuit. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of the post test calculation. For the first part of the transient (until the end of the SIT activations), the primary and secondary pressures are rather well predicted, leading to a good agreement with the experimental trips, as scram, flow coast down, SIT beginning and end of activation. Nevertheless, some discrepancy with the experiment may be due to an over prediction of the thermal exchanges from the primary to the secondary circuits. For the second part of the transient, the predicted primary circuit repressurization is shifted after the SITs are off, while in the experiment this event immediately follows the end of SIT activation. The delay in the calculation leads to underpredict primary and secondary pressures, thus anticipating the timing of events, such as LPIS and emergency feedwater activation.

  10. Evaluation of passive autocatalytic recombiners operation efficiency by means of the lumped parameter approach*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bury Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of hydrogen behavior in containment buildings of nuclear reactors belongs to thermal-hydraulic area. Taking into account the size of systems under consideration and, first of all, safety issues, such type of analyses cannot be done by means of full-scale experiments. Therefore, mathematical modeling and numerical simulations are widely used for these purposes. A lumped parameter approach based code HEPCAL has been elaborated in the Institute of Thermal Technology of the Silesian University of Technology for simulations of pressurized water reactor containment transient response. The VVER-440/213 and European pressurised water reactor (EPR reactors containments are the subjects of analysis within the framework of this paper. Simulations have been realized for the loss-of-coolant accident scenarios with emergency core cooling system failure. These scenarios include core overheating and hydrogen generation. Passive autocatalytic recombiners installed for removal of hydrogen has been taken into account. The operational efficiency of the hydrogen removal system has been evaluated by comparing with an actual hydrogen concentration and flammability limit. This limit has been determined for the three-component mixture of air, steam and hydrogen. Some problems related to the lumped parameter approach application have been also identified.

  11. Experiments with the HORUS-II test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, S.; Lischke, W. [Univ. for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz, Zittau (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Within the scope of the German reactor safety research the thermohydraulic computer code ATHLET which was developed for accident analyses of western nuclear power plants is more and more used for the accident analysis of VVER-plants particularly for VVER-440,V-213. The experiments with the HORUS-facilities and the analyses with the ATHLET-code have been realized at the Technical University Zittau/Goerlitz since 1991. The aim of the investigations was to improve and verify the condensation model particularly the correlations for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficients in the ATHLET-code for pure steam and steam-noncondensing gas mixtures in horizontal tubes. About 130 condensation experiments have been performed at the HORUS-II facility. The experiments have been carried out with pure steam as well as with noncondensing gas injections into the steam mass flow. The experimental simulations are characterized as accident simulation tests for SBLOCA for VVER-conditions. The simulation conditions had been adjusted correspondingly to the parameters of a postulated SBLOCA`s fourth phase at the original plant. 4 refs.

  12. Replacement of nickel sealing rings by expanded graphite sealing rings -upgrading of SG primary collector flange connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cikryt, F.; Bednarek, L.; Kusyn, L. [Vitkovice, Ostrava (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    One of the most loaded parts of a steam generator of VVER 440 MW type are the bolts and thread holes of the primary collector cover sealing set. The strength calculations and tensometric measurings performed during operation proved the high degree of a load on the bolts. The conditions of the stress limitation are not met in some cases according to the pertinent standards. The untightnesses at nickel rings occurred during putting the units of Jaslovske Bohunice and Dukovany nuclear power stations into operation. With regard to improve the reliability, the producer has taken measures to improve the quality of the rings and users have introduced more strict regulations for bolts tightening. Due to these measures the high reliability of the set has been obtained from point of view of the tightness, but substantial reduction of bolts and holes threads loading have not been obtained. Several years operation experience proved relatively low service of bolts, damage of thread holes and sealing grooves. As the degree of mechanical load is one of the vital parameters influencing the damage of sealing set, in 1996 we started with the works aimed at a possibility of nickel sealing rings replacement for a more modern type of sealing which assure the higher reliability and service life of the individual part of sealing set under the reduced load.

  13. Criticality and shielding study for reracking of the spent fuel storage of NPP Jaragua; Estudio de la criticalidad y el blindaje del almacen de combustible irradiado de la Central Electronuclear de Juragua para redes compactas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Valdes, Ramiro; Lopez Aldama, Daniel; Rodriguez Gual, Maritza; Garcia Yip, Fernando; Alvarez Cardona, Caridad [Centro de Tecnologia Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    1996-07-01

    Annually one third of the fuel assemblies are discharged from VVER-440 reactor core. After 2 years of decay in the refueling pool, these assemblies are transferred to the spent fuel storage pool. With two units in operation, it would exhaust its storage capability in about 10 years. According to the trend of extending the interim storage period, the reracking of the spent fuel storage pool has become a viable option to enlarge storage capability at the nuclear power plant. The present paper deals with the criticality and shielding analysis for reracking of the spent fuel storage pool of NPP Juragua. The WIMS/D4 lattice code is used for the criticality study. For doses calculations, the source strength is estimated with ORIGEN 2 and the shielding problem is solved with the combination of the code ANISN and the multigroup library CASK. It is shown that it is possible to compact the storage rack in a factor of 1.98 using 3 mm thick boron steel clads. While the source is nearly doubled in the pool, the doses in its boundaries are increased approximately in only 1.24 times. (author)

  14. PACER -- A fast running computer code for the calculation of short-term containment/confinement loads following coolant boundary failure. Volume 2: User information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, J.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Engineering Div.

    1997-06-01

    A fast running and simple computer code has been developed to calculate pressure loadings inside light water reactor containments/confinements under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. PACER was originally developed to calculate containment/confinement pressure and temperature time histories for loss-of-coolant accidents in Soviet-designed VVER reactors and is relevant to the activities of the US International Nuclear Safety Center. The code employs a multicompartment representation of the containment volume and is focused upon application to early time containment phenomena during and immediately following blowdown. PACER has been developed for FORTRAN 77 and earlier versions of FORTRAN. The code has been successfully compiled and executed on SUN SPARC and Hewlett-Packard HP-735 workstations provided that appropriate compiler options are specified. The code incorporates both capabilities built around a hardwired default generic VVER-440 Model V230 design as well as fairly general user-defined input. However, array dimensions are hardwired and must be changed by modifying the source code if the number of compartments/cells differs from the default number of nine. Detailed input instructions are provided as well as a description of outputs. Input files and selected output are presented for two sample problems run on both HP-735 and SUN SPARC workstations.

  15. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant.

  16. Prague as the Centre of Russian Educational Emigration: Czechoslovakia's Educational Policy for Russian Emigrants (1918-1938)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchitarjan, Irina

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at the role played by the Czechoslovakian Republic in the establishment and maintenance of the "Russian education system in exile" in Europe during the 1920s and 1930s. No other country supported the educational activities of the Russian emigrants as generously as Czechoslovakia. Thanks to this extensive and targeted…

  17. The Soviet Style of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    CAMPAIGN 1. Background; Czechoslovakian Campaign After World War II Czechoslovakia became a politica . battleground between the camps of democracy and...34 (as Marx would define it) and with only a small number of well educated elite, the Soviet Union was able to find enough "Communists" to form a

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, On Stalin and Stalinism: Historical Essays by Roy Medvedev

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-05

    as Mongolian, Czechoslovakian, French, American, Finnish, Spanish, and even Brazilian commu- nists. At the end of the 1930’s, all schools of the...prominent film directors, although "cases" against them had been pre- pared in the NKVD. Perhaps because he liked the cinema . Some films—"The Great

  19. TYPHUS FEVER AMONG RECENT IMMIGRANTS : EXPERIMENTAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE IDENTITY OF THIS DISEASE WITH EUROPEAN EPIDEMIC TYPHUS FEVER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, P K

    1921-09-30

    It is experimentally demonstrated in the guinea pig that the blood from an infected Czecho-Slovakian arriving at the Port of New York from Italy contained the virus of typhus fever and that this strain is identical with the epidemic virus present in man and louse in Poland.

  20. The Russian-European Union Competition in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    227Wilson, The Ukrainians, 19. 63 The western Ukrainian territory of Galicia has through the centuries been part of Austrian...Polish, and Czechoslovakian polities, creating an enduring connection to Europe.228 Evidence suggest that ethnic Ukrainians in Galicia and as far east as

  1. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Oral session 1: Retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel at the 3rd unit of Dukovany NPP / M. Marek ... [et al.]. Retrospective dosimetry study at the RPV of NPP Greifswald unit 1 / J. Konheiser ... [et al.]. Test of prototype detector for retrospective neutron dosimetry of reactor internals and vessel / K. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Neutron doses to the concrete vessel and tendons of a magnox reactor using retrospective dosimetry / D. A. Allen ... [et al.]. A retrospective dosimetry feasibility study for Atucha I / J. Wagemans ... [et al.]. Retrospective reactor dosimetry with zirconium alloy samples in a PWR / L. R. Greenwood and J. P. Foster -- Oral session 2: Experimental techniques. Characterizing the Time-dependent components of reactor n/y environments / P. J. Griffin, S. M. Luker and A. J. Suo-Anttila. Measurements of the recoil-ion response of silicon carbide detectors to fast neutrons / F. H. Ruddy, J. G. Seidel and F. Franceschini. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the HB-4 cold source at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory / J. L. Robertson and E. B. Iverson. Feasibility of cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for dose rate monitoring on nuclear reactor / H. Tomita ... [et al.]. Measuring transistor damage factors in a non-stable defect environment / D. B. King ... [et al.]. Neutron-detection based monitoring of void effects in boiling water reactors / J. Loberg ... [et al.] -- Poster session 1: Power reactor surveillance, retrospective dosimetry, benchmarks and inter-comparisons, adjustment methods, experimental techniques, transport calculations. Improved diagnostics for analysis of a reactor pulse radiation environment / S. M. Luker ... [et al.]. Simulation of the response of silicon carbide fast neutron detectors / F. Franceschini, F. H. Ruddy and B. Petrović. NSV A-3: a computer code for least-squares adjustment of neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G

  2. Adaptive Connectivity Restoration from Node Failure(s in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiyuan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there is a growing interest in the applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. A set of sensor nodes is deployed in order to collectively survey an area of interest and/or perform specific surveillance tasks in some of the applications, such as battlefield reconnaissance. Due to the harsh deployment environments and limited energy supply, nodes may fail, which impacts the connectivity of the whole network. Since a single node failure (cut-vertex will destroy the connectivity and divide the network into disjoint blocks, most of the existing studies focus on the problem of single node failure. However, the failure of multiple nodes would be a disaster to the whole network and must be repaired effectively. Only few studies are proposed to handle the problem of multiple cut-vertex failures, which is a special case of multiple node failures. Therefore, this paper proposes a comprehensive solution to address the problems of node failure (single and multiple. Collaborative Single Node Failure Restoration algorithm (CSFR is presented to solve the problem of single node failure only with cooperative communication, but CSFR-M, which is the extension of CSFR, handles the single node failure problem more effectively with node motion. Moreover, Collaborative Connectivity Restoration Algorithm (CCRA is proposed on the basis of cooperative communication and node maneuverability to restore network connectivity after multiple nodes fail. CSFR-M and CCRA are reactive methods that initiate the connectivity restoration after detecting the node failure(s. In order to further minimize the energy dissipation, CCRA opts to simplify the recovery process by gridding. Moreover, the distance that an individual node needs to travel during recovery is reduced by choosing the nearest suitable candidates. Finally, extensive simulations validate the performance of CSFR, CSFR-M and CCRA.

  3. Radioactive waste management and plutonium recovery within the context of the development of nuclear energy in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnikov, V. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-05-01

    The Russian strategy for radioactive waste and plutonium management is based on the concept of the closed fuel cycle that has been adopted in Russia, and, to a great degree, falls under the jurisdiction of the existing Russian nuclear energy structures. From its very beginning, Russian atomic energy policy was based on finding the most effective method of developing the new fuel direction with the maximum possible utilization of the energy potential from the fission of heavy atoms and the achievement of fuel self-sufficiency through the recycling of secondary fuel. Although there can be no doubt about the importance of economic considerations (for the future), concerns for the safety of the environment are currently of the utmost importance. In this context, spent NPP fuel can be viewed as a waste to be buried only if there is persuasive evidence that such an approach is both economically and environmentally sound. The production of I GW of energy per year is accompanied by the accumulation of up to 800-1000 kg of highly radioactive fission products and approximately 250 kg of plutonium. Currently, spent fuel from the VVER 100 and the RBNK reactors contains approximately 25 tons of plutonium. There is an additional 30 tons of fuel-grade plutonium in the form of purified oxide, separated from spent fuels used in VVER440 reactors and other power production facilities, as well as approximately 100 tons of weapons-grade plutonium from dismantled warheads. The spent fuel accumulates significant amounts of small actinoids - neptunium americium, and curium. Science and technology have not yet found technical solutions for safe and secure burial of non-reprocessed spent fuel with such a broad range of products, which are typically highly radioactive and will continue to pose a threat for hundreds of thousands of years.

  4. Exploratory Study of Irradiation, Annealing, and Reirradiation Effects on American and Russian Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernobaeva, A.A., Kryukov, A.M., Nikolaev, Y.A., Korolev, Y.N. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)], Sokolov, M.A., Nanstad, R.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVS) is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. even though a postirradiation anneal may be deemed successful, a critical aspect of continued RPV operation is the rate of embrittlement upon reirradiation. There are insufficient data available to allow for verification models of reirradiation embrittlement or for the development of a reliable predictive methodology. This is especially true in the case of fracture toughness data. Under the U.S.-Russia Joint Coordinating Committee for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS), Working Group 3 on Radiation Embrittlement, Structural Integrity, and Life Extension of Reactor Vessels and Supports agreed to conduct a comparative study of annealing and reirradiation effects on RPV steels. The working group agreed that each side would irradiate, anneal, reirradiate (if feasible), and test two materials of the other; so far, only charpy impact and tensile specimens have been included. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ornl) conducted such a program (irradiation and annealing) with two weld metals representative of VVER-440 AND VVER-1000 RPVS, while the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute (RRC-KI) conducted a program (irradiation,annealing, reirradiation, and reannealing) with Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) program plate 02 and Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) program weld 73w. The results for each material from each laboratory are compared with those from the other laboratory. the ORNL experiments with the VVER welds included irradiation to about 1 x 10 (exp 19) N/SQ CM ({gt}1 MeV), while the RRC-KI experiments with the U.S. materials included irradiations from about 2 to 18 X 10 (exp 19) N/SQ CM ({gt}1 MeV).

  5. Low cycle thermomechanical fatigue of reactor steels: Microstructural and fractographic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekete, Balazs, E-mail: fekete.mm.bme@gmail.com [College of Dunaujvaros, Tancsics 1A, Dunaujvaros H-2400 (Hungary); Department of Applied Mechanics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem 5, Budapest H-1111 (Hungary); Kasl, Josef; Jandova, Dagmar [Výzkumný a zkušební ústav Plzeň s.r.o., Tylova 1581/46, 316 00 Plzen (Czech Republic); Jóni, Bertalan [College of Dunaujvaros, Tancsics 1A, Dunaujvaros H-2400 (Hungary); Eötvös Loránd University, Egyetem tér 1-3, Budapest H-1053 (Hungary); Misják, Fanni [Centre for Energy Research, Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Konkoly-Thege M. 29-33, Budapest H-1121 (Hungary); Trampus, Peter [College of Dunaujvaros, Tancsics 1A, Dunaujvaros H-2400 (Hungary)

    2015-07-29

    The fatigue life of the structural materials 15Ch2MFA (CrMoV-alloyed ferritic steel) and 08Ch18N10T (CrNi-alloyed austenitic steel) of a VVER-440 reactor pressure vessel were investigated under fully reversed total strain controlled low cycle fatigue tests. The measurements were carried out in isothermal conditions at 260 °C and with thermal-mechanical conditions in the range 150–270 °C using a GLEEBLE-3800 servo-hydraulic thermal-mechanical simulator. The low cycle fatigue results were evaluated with the Coffin–Manson law, and the parameters of the Ramberg–Osgood stress–strain relation were investigated. Fracture mechanics behavior was observed using scanning electron microscopic analysis of the crack shapes and fracture surfaces. Crack propagation was assessed in relation to the actual crack size and the loading level. Interrupted fatigue tests were also carried out to investigate the kinetics of the fatigue evolution of the materials. Microstructural evaluation of the samples was performed using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffraction, and measurement of dislocations was completed using TEM and XRD. The course of dislocation density in relation to cumulative usage factor was similar for both steels. However, the nature and distribution of dislocations were different in the individual steels and this resulted in different mechanical behaviors. The nature of the fracture surfaces of both steels appeared similar despite differences in dislocation arrangement. The distances between striation lines initially increased with increasing crack length and then became saturated. The low cycle fatigue behavior investigated can provide a reference for the remaining life assessment and lifetime extension analysis of nuclear power plant components.

  6. Integrated experimental test program on waterhammer pressure pulses and associated structural responses within a feedwater sparger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurkkala, P.; Hoikkanen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the methods and systems as utilized in an integrated experimental thermohydraulic/mechanics analysis test program on waterhammer pressure pulses within a revised feedwater sparger of a Loviisa generation VVER-440-type reactor. This program was carried out in two stages: (1) measurements with a strictly limited set of operating parameters at Loviisa NPP, and (2) measurements with the full set of operating parameters on a test article simulating the revised feedwater sparger. The experiments at Loviisa NPS served as an invaluable source of information on the nature of waterhammer pressure pulses and structural responses. These tests thus helped to set the objectives and formulate the concept for series of tests on a test article to study the water hammer phenomena. The heavily instrumented full size test article of a steam generator feedwater sparger was placed within a pressure vessel simulating the steam generator. The feedwater sparger was subjected to the full range of operating parameters which were to result in waterhammer pressure pulse trains of various magnitudes and duration. Two different designs of revised feedwater sparger were investigated (i.e. `grounded` and `with goose neck`). The following objects were to be met within this program: (1) establish the thermohydraulic parameters that facilitate the occurrence of water hammer pressure pulses, (2) provide a database for further analysis of the pressure pulse phenomena, (3) establish location and severity of these water hammer pressure pulses, (4) establish the structural response due to these pressure pulses, (5) provide input data for structural integrity analysis. (orig.). 3 refs.

  7. Results of operation and current safety performance of nuclear facilities located in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. M.; Khvostova, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    After the NPP radiation accidents in Russia and Japan, a safety statu of Russian nuclear power plants causes concern. A repeated life time extension of power unit reactor plants, designed at the dawn of the nuclear power engineering in the Soviet Union, power augmentation of the plants to 104-109%, operation of power units in a daily power mode in the range of 100-70-100%, the use of untypical for NPP remixed nuclear fuel without a careful study of the results of its application (at least after two operating periods of the research nuclear installations), the aging of operating personnel, and many other management actions of the State Corporation "Rosatom", should attract the attention of the Federal Service for Ecological, Technical and Atomic Supervision (RosTekhNadzor), but this doesn't happen. The paper considers safety issues of nuclear power plants operating in the Russian Federation. The authors collected statistical information on violations in NPP operation over the past 25 years, which shows that even after repeated relaxation over this period of time of safety regulation requirements in nuclear industry and highly expensive NPP modernization, the latter have not become more safe, and the statistics confirms this. At a lower utilization factor high-power pressure-tube reactors RBMK-1000, compared to light water reactors VVER-440 and 1000, have a greater number of violations and that after annual overhauls. A number of direct and root causes of NPP mulfunctions is still high and remains stable for decades. The paper reveals bottlenecks in ensuring nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities. Main outstanding issues on the storage of spent nuclear fuel are defined. Information on emissions and discharges of radioactive substances, as well as fullness of storages of solid and liquid radioactive waste, located at the NPP sites are presented. Russian NPPs stress test results are submitted, as well as data on the coming removal from operation of NPP

  8. Seismic assessment and upgrading of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katona, T.; Kostov, M.

    1997-03-01

    The basic findings of the seismic re-qualification programmes going on recently at all VVER plants in Eastern Europe can be summarised. The problems of the seismic safety have to be solved taking into account the general concept of the nuclear safety enhancement of the units. There are cases where the system improvements lead to better and more effective solution of the problem than the structural upgrading. The equipment and piping of the primary system have sufficient capacity. The viscous dampers are considered usually for the upgrading. The equipment anchorage especially the electrical and I and C equipment anchorage have to be upgraded. There are general consideration for replacement of the hydraulic snubbers by viscous dampers in the primary circuit of the VVER 440/V230. The considerations are not only because of the better seismic behaviour but mainly because of the better operational performance. There is relatively good seismic instrumentation at the plants considered. The definition of the scram level of the units not designed for an OBE is an essential problem. More effort needed for the definition of this level on the basis of re-evaluation experience of the plant equipment and after the proper definition of post-earthquake activities. The seismic re-evaluation and re-qualification of the VVER units is a general safety issue in Easter European countries. This rather complex problem can be solved adopting the experience, methods and requirements of western countries and taking into account the design features of the VVER units as well as the as built and as it is conditions. (J.P.N.)

  9. Simulation of a loss of coolant accident: Results of a standard problem exercise of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, S.M.; Hassan, Y. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results generated from the IBM version of RELAP5/MOD2 to the experimental data of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard problem exercise. The standard problem exercise data were that of a 7.4% break loss-of-coolant accident conducted at a test facility in Hungary. The United States did not formally participate in this exercise whose aim was to assess the capabilities of computer codes and modeling techniques and in which a total of 17 organizations from 12 countries participated. The results obtained using the IBM version of RELAP5/MOD2 compared favorably with the experimental data. The experimental facility, PMK-NVH (Paks Model Circuit), is a scaled-down model of a Hungarian reactor, the VVER-440 Paks nuclear power plant. A volume and power scaling ratio of 1:2070 is used. The six loops of the actual reactor are modeled by one active loop called the PMK. The secondary loop in the experimental facility is the NVH loop. The coolant in the facility is water, and the operating conditions are the same as in the actual reactor. The orientation of the steam generator is horizontal, as opposed to the vertical design of once-through and U-tube steam generators. The parameters of the accident are that it starts at full power, a 3-mm cold-side break occurs at the upper head of the downcomer, there is no injection from hydroaccumulators, the high-pressure injection system corresponds to the case in which one-third of the pumps are available, and isolation of the secondary occurs immediately after transient initiation.

  10. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE USSR: A REVIEW OF UNCLASSIFIED SOURCES, 1963-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D. J.; Schneider, K. J.

    1990-03-01

    The Soviet Union operates a vast and growing radioactive waste management system. Detailed information on this system is rare and a general overall picture only emerges after a review of a great deal of literature. Poor waste management practices and slow implementation of environmental restoration activities have caused a great deal of national concern. The release of information on the cause and extent of an accident involving high-level waste at the Kyshtym production reactor site in 1957, as well as other contamination at the site, serve to highlight past Soviet waste management practices. As a result, the area of waste management is now receiving greater emphasis, and more public disclosures. Little is known about Soviet waste management practices related to uranium mining, conversion, and fuel fabrication processes. However, releases of radioactive material to the environment from uranium mining and milling operations, such as from mill tailings piles, are causing public concern. Official Soviet policy calls for a closed fuel cycle, with reprocessing of power reactor fuel that has been cooled for five years. For power reactors, only VVER-440 reactor fuel has been reprocessed in any significant amount, and a decision on the disposition of RBMK reactor fuel has been postponed indefinitely. Soviet reprocessing efforts are falling behind schedule; thus longer storage times for spent fuel will be required, primarily at multiple reactor stations. Information on reprocessing in the Soviet Union has been severely limited until 1989, when two reprocessing sites were acknowledged by the Soviets. A 400-metric ton (MT) per year reprocessing facility, located at Kyshtym, has been operational since 1949 for reprocessing production reactor fuel. This facility is reported to have been reprocessing VVER-440 and naval reactor fuel since 1978, with about 2000 MT of VVER-440 fuel being reprocessed by July 1989. A second facility, located near Krasnoyarsk and having a 1500 MT per

  11. Leukemoid reaction associated with transitional cell carcinoma: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... apoptosis of 5637 glucocorticoid receptor (GR) cells. 5637 GR cells implanted in nude mice induced formation of a huge subcutaneous tumor, demonstrating that the autocrine (paracrine) pathway of G-CSF/G-CSFR promotes survival and growth of bladder cancer cells.[10] An increasing number of case ...

  12. The Pharmaceutical Quality of Brands of Metformin Tablets in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... D had significantly lower balance of mechanical and release properties as determined by CSFR/DT. There is therefore a continuous need for random assessment of the quality of metformin brands by regulatory bodies to ensure compliance to specifications. Keywords: Metformin brands, community pharmacists, doctors, ...

  13. Abstracts of Papers Presented at the International Symposium on Time, Frequency and Dating in Geomorphology Held in Bratislava (Czechoslovakia) on 16- 21 June 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-21

    and in the Nizke Tatry Mts. Geological Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, CSFR 16 SOME COMMENTS ON THE POTENTIAL FOR USING CAESIUM...similar injuries may be caused by avalanches and timber transport. The most reliable among several current dating methods proved to be the determination of

  14. Československá kinematografie v německých filmových periodikách v letech 1933-1945

    OpenAIRE

    Bělohlávková, Alice

    2010-01-01

    Diploma thesis "Perception of Czechoslovakian cinematography by German film periodicals between 1933 - 1945" deals with the Czech film industry as it was received by German specialized press with an emphasis on the recognition of changes, that took place after the formation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. The period is divided into two stages. The first, 1933 to March 15, 1939 and the second, March 16, 1939 to May 1945, when the end of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was p...

  15. Anti-communist Activities of the Exile White Legion and its Operation by the State Security in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Varinský

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the activities of the White Legion broadcaster station and the establishment of the White Legion Organizations in Slovakia. The key role in these activities was played by the anti-communist protagonists of the White Legion broadcasting station from abroad, but some of the White Legion Organizations were designed also by the Czechoslovakian Secret Police as an act of provocation

  16. Irradiation, Annealing, and Reirradiation Effects on American and Russian Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernobaeva, A.A.; Korolev, Y.N.; Nanstad, R.K.; Nikolaev, Y.A.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1998-06-16

    One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. Even though a postirradiation anneal may be deemed successful, a critical aspect of continued RPV operation is the rate of embrittlement upon reirradiation. There are insufficient data available to allow for verification of available models of reirradiation embrittlement or for the development of a reliable predictive methodology. This is especially true in the case of fracture toughness data. Under the U.S.-Russia Joint Coordinating Committee for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS), Working Group 3 on Radiation Embrittlement, Structural Integrity, and Life Extension of Reactor Vessels and Supports agreed to conduct a comparative study of annealing and reirradiation effects on RPV steels. The Working Group agreed that each side would irradiate, anneal, reirradiate (if feasible ), and test two materials of the other. Charpy V-notch (CVN) and tensile specimens were included. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted such a program (irradiation and annealing, including static fracture toughness) with two weld metals representative of VVER-440 and VVER-1000 RPVs, while the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute (RRC-KI) conducted a program (irradiation, annealing, reirradiation, and reannealing) with Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program Plate 02 and Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program Weld 73W. The results for each material from each laboratory are compared with those from the other laboratory. The ORNL experiments with the VVER welds included irradiation to about 1 x 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV), while the RRC-KI experiments with the U.S. materials included irradiations from about 2 to 18 x 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (>l MeV). In both cases, irradiations were conducted at {approximately}290 C and annealing treatments were conducted

  17. Validation of coupled neutronic / thermal-hydraulic codes for VVER reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittag, S.; Grundmann, U.; Kliem, S.; Kozmenkov, Y.; Rindelhardt, U.; Rohde, U.; Weiss, F.-P.; Langenbuch, S.; Krzykacz-Hausmann, B.; Schmidt, K.-D.; Vanttola, T.; Haemaelaeinen, A.; Kaloinen, E.; Kereszturi, A.; Hegyi, G.; Panka, I.; Hadek, J.; Strmensky, C.; Darilek, P.; Petkov, P.; Stefanova, S.; Kuchin, A.; Khalimonchuk, V.; Hlbocky, P.; Sico, D.; Danilin, S.; Ionov, V.; Nikonov, S.; Powney, D.

    2004-08-01

    In recent years, the simulation methods for the safety analysis of nuclear power plants have been continuously improved to perform realistic calculations. Therefore in VALCO work package 2 (WP 2), the usual application of coupled neutron-kinetic / thermal-hydraulic codes to VVER has been supplemented by systematic uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis has been carried out. The GRS uncertainty and sensitivity method based on the statistical code package SUSA was applied to the two transients studied earlier in SRR-1/95: A load drop of one turbo-generator in Loviisa-1 (VVER-440), and a switch-off of one feed water pump in Balakovo-4 (VVER-1000). The main steps of these analyses and the results obtained by applying different coupled code systems (SMABRE - HEXTRAN, ATHLET - DYN3D, ATHLET - KIKO3D, ATHLET - BIPR-8) are described in this report. The application of this method is only based on variations of input parameter values. No internal code adjustments are needed. An essential result of the analysis using the GRS SUSA methodology is the identification of the input parameters, such as the secondary-circuit pressure, the control-assembly position (as a function of time), and the control-assembly efficiency, that most sensitively affect safety-relevant output parameters, like reactor power, coolant heat-up, and primary pressure. Uncertainty bands for these output parameters have been derived. The variation of potentially uncertain input parameter values as a consequence of uncertain knowledge can activate system actions causing quite different transient evolutions. This gives indications about possible plant conditions that might be reached from the initiating event assuming only small disturbances. In this way, the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis reveals the spectrum of possible transient evolutions. Deviations of SRR-1/95 coupled code calculations from measurements also led to the objective to separate neutron kinetics from

  18. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor and Its Potential Application for Skeletal Muscle Repair and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Wright

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF was originally discovered in the context of hematopoiesis. However, the identification of the G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR being expressed outside the hematopoietic system has revealed wider roles for G-CSF, particularly in tissue repair and regeneration. Skeletal muscle damage, including that following strenuous exercise, induces an elevation in plasma G-CSF, implicating it as a potential mediator of skeletal muscle repair. This has been supported by preclinical studies and clinical trials investigating G-CSF as a potential therapeutic agent in relevant disease states. This review focuses on the growing literature associated with G-CSF and G-CSFR in skeletal muscle under healthy and disease conditions and highlights the current controversies.

  19. Measurement of coronary flow response to cold pressor stress in asymptomatic women with cardiovascular risk factors using spiral velocity-encoded cine MRI at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroules, Christopher D.; Peshock, Ronald M. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)), e-mail: Ron.Peshock@UTSouthwestern.edu; Chang, Alice Y.; Kontak, Andrew (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); Dimitrov, Ivan; Kotys, Melanie (Dept. of Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH (United States))

    2010-05-15

    Background: Coronary sinus (CS) flow in response to a provocative stress has been used as a surrogate measure of coronary flow reserve, and velocity-encoded cine (VEC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established technique for measuring CS flow. In this study, the cold pressor test (CPT) was used to measure CS flow response because it elicits an endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation that may afford greater sensitivity for detecting early changes in coronary endothelial function. Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and reproducibility of CS flow reactivity (CSFR) to CPT using spiral VEC MRI at 3 Tesla in a sample of asymptomatic women with cardiovascular risk factors. Material and Methods: Fourteen asymptomatic women (age 38 years +- 10) with cardiovascular risk factors were studied using 3D spiral VEC MRI of the CS at 3 T. The CPT was utilized as a provocative stress to measure changes in CS flow. CSFR to CPT was calculated from the ratio of CS flow during peak stress to baseline CS flow. Results: CPT induced a significant hemodynamic response as measured by a 45% increase in rate-pressure product (P<0.01). A significant increase in CS volume flow was also observed (baseline, 116 +- 26 ml/min; peak stress, 152 +- 34 ml/min, P=0.01). CSFR to CPT was 1.31 +- 0.20. Test-retest variability of CS volume flow was 5% at baseline and 6% during peak stress. Conclusion: Spiral CS VEC MRI at 3 T is a feasible and reproducible technique for measuring CS flow in asymptomatic women at risk for cardiovascular disease. Significant changes in CSFR to CPT are detectable, without demanding pharmacologic stress

  20. Terminalia gum as a directly compressible excipient for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiro, Oluyemisi A; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Sinha, Vivek R; Kumar, Ruchita

    2012-03-01

    The exudates from the incised trunk of Terminalia randii has been evaluated as controlled release excipient in comparison with xanthan gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) using carvedilol (water insoluble) and theophylline (water soluble) as model drugs. Matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression and the effects of polymer concentration and excipients-spray dried lactose, microcrystalline cellulose and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate on the mechanical (crushing strength (CS) friability (F) and crushing strength-friability ratio (CSFR)) and drug release properties of the matrix tablets were evaluated. The drug release data were fitted into different release kinetics equations to determine the drug release mechanism(s) from the matrix tablets. The results showed that the CS and CSFR increased with increase in polymer concentration while F decreased. The ranking of CS and CSFR was HPMC > terminalia > xanthan while the ranking was reverse for F. The ranking for t(25) (i.e. time for 25% drug release) at a polymer concentration of 60% was xanthan > terminalia = HPMC. The dissolution time, t(25), of theophylline matrices was significantly lower (p excipients used with the release mechanisms varying from Fickian to anomalous. Terminalia gum compared favourably with standard polymers when used in controlled release matrices and could serve as a suitable alternative to the standard polymers in drug delivery.

  1. Evaluation of the effects of khaya gum on the mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeku, O A; Itiola, O A

    2003-03-01

    A study of the comparative effects of khaya gum and two standard binding agents-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and gelatin--on crushing strength and friability, and the disintegration and dissolution characteristics of paracetamol tablets was made. The crushing strength-friability ratio (CSFR), the disintegration times, D, and the dissolution times t50, t90, and t1 (derived from the equation of Noyes and Whitney), all increased with an increase in binder concentration; however, the dissolution rate constants, k1 and k2, decreased. The ranking for the values of CSFR for tablets containing the different binders was PVP > gelatin > khaya gum. The ranking for D and the dissolution times was gelatin > khaya gum > PVP, whereas the ranking for the dissolution rate constants was PVP > khaya gum > gelatin. There were significant linear correlations between CSFR, D, t50, t90, and t1 for the tablets. There were also significant correlations between k1 and D, t50, t90, and t1, and between k2 and t90. The results suggest that khaya gum could be useful as an alternative binding agent to produce tablets with particular mechanical strength and drug release profiles.

  2. Influence of the composition on the radiation embrittlement alloys; Einfluss der Zusammensetzung auf die Strahlenversproedungslegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmert, J.; Kryukov, A.; Nikolaev, Yu.A.; Korolev, Yu.N.; Erak, D.Yu.; Gerashenko, S.S.

    1999-02-01

    The radiation embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel is highly safety-relevant for VVER-type pressure vessels. The sensitivity against radiation embrittlement depends on the chemical composition of the pressure vessel steel. Using an irradiation experiment at surveillance positions in two Russian VVER 440-type reactors the effects of copper, phosphorus and nickel on the radiation embrittlement should be investigated. For that, eight mock-up alloys were selected. Their chemical composition varied between 0.015 and 0.42% Cu, 0.002 and 0.039% P, 0.01 and 1.98% Ni, 0.09 and 0.37% Si, and 0.35 and 0.49% Mn. Charpy-V impact tests and tensile tests were performed with specimens machined from these alloys. The specimens were tested in the as-received state, in the irradiated state (fluence: 1x10{sup 19} and 8x10{sup 19}/cm{sup 2} [E>0.5 MeV]) and in the post-irradiation annealed state. In the as-received state, the alloys have a ferritic microstructure. Apart from Cu, the alloyed elements are solved in the matrix. Irradiation produces strong hardening and embrittlement. The effect increases with the Cu and P content. Ni causes an additional embrittlement. It is independent on the Ni concentration within the range of 1.1 to 2% Ni and results in a shift of the ductile-brittle transition temperature of about 120 C after a fluence of 1x10{sup 19}/cm{sup 2} by a flux of 4x10{sup 11}/cm{sup 2} s. The shift does not depend on the Cu or P content. Furthermore, the upper shelf energy is especially reduced by the Mi-rich alloys. For very low content of Cu and P these relations are not valid. The irradiation effect can be eliminated by annealing at 475 C/100 h. For high content of Cu or P the recovery is incomplete, it remains a residue of 20 to 25% of the irradiation effect. Ni has no influence on the recovery. Comparing the results of this study with the ones of the surveillance programmes of the VVER 440-type reactors, the alloys with low Ni content show the same irradiation

  3. The antioxidant protein peroxiredoxin 4 is epigenetically down regulated in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karishma K Palande

    Full Text Available The antioxidant peroxiredoxin (PRDX protein family comprises 6 members, which are implicated in a variety of cellular responses, including growth factor signal transduction. PRDX4 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, where it locally controls oxidative stress by reducing H(2O(2 levels. We recently provided evidence for a regulatory function of PRDX4 in signal transduction from a myeloid growth factor receptor, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR. Upon activation, the ligand-induced G-CSFR undergoes endocytosis and routes via the early endosomes where it physically interacts with ER-resident PRDX4. PRDX4 negatively regulates G-CSFR mediated signaling. Here, we investigated whether PRDX4 is affected in acute myeloid leukemia (AML; genomic alterations and expression levels of PRDX4 were investigated. We show that genomic abnormalities involving PRDX4 are rare in AML. However, we find a strong reduction in PRDX4 expression levels in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL compared to normal promyelocytes and different molecular subtypes of AML. Subsequently, the possible role of DNA methylation and histone modifications in silencing of PRDX4 in APLs was investigated. We show that the reduced expression is not due to methylation of the CpG island in the promoter region of PRDX4 but correlates with increased trimethylation of histone 3 lysine residue 27 (H3K27me3 and lysine residue 4 (H3K4me3 at the transcriptional start site (TSS of PRDX4, indicative of a bivalent histone code involved in transcriptional silencing. These findings suggest that the control of G-CSF responses by the antioxidant protein PRDX4 may be perturbed in APL.

  4. G-CSF ameliorates neuronal apoptosis through GSK-3β inhibition in neonatal hypoxia–ischemia in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Klebe, Damon; Doycheva, Desislava; McBride, Devin W.; Krafft, Paul R.; Flores, Jerry; Zhou, Changman; Zhang, John H.; Tang, Jiping

    2014-01-01

    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a growth factor, has known neuroprotective effects in a variety of experimental brain injury models. Herein we show that G-CSF administration attenuates neuronal apoptosis after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) via glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibition. Ten day old Sprague-Dawley rat pups (n=157) were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5hrs of hypoxia or sham surgery. HI animals received control siRNA, GSK-3β siRNA (4μL/pup), G-CSF (50μg/kg), G-CSF combined with 0.1 or 0.4nM G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) siRNA, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor Wortmannin (86ng/pup), or DMSO (vehicle for Wortmannin). Pups were euthanized 48hrs post-HI to quantify brain infarct volume. G-CSFR, activated Akt (p-Akt), activated GSK-3β (p-GSK-3β), Cleaved Caspase-3 (CC3), Bcl-2, and Bax were quantified using Western blot analysis and the localizations of each was visualized via immunofluorescence staining. Neuronal cell death was determined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Our results showed p-GSK-3β increased after HI until its peak at 48hrs post-ictus, and both GSK-3β siRNA and G-CSF administration reduced p-GSK-3β expression, as well as infarct volume. p-GSK-3β and CC3 were generally co-localized in neurons. Furthermore, G-CSF increased p-Akt expression and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and also decreased p-GSK-3β and CC3 expression levels in the ipsilateral hemisphere, which were all reversed by G-CSFR siRNA, Wortmannin, and GSK-3β siRNA. In conclusion, G-CSF attenuated caspase activation and reduced brain injury by inhibiting GSK-3β activity after experimental HI in rat pups. This neuroprotective effect was abolished by both G-CSFR siRNA and Wortmannin. PMID:25448005

  5. Influence of operating and water-chemistry parameters on fuel cladding corrosion and deposition of corrosion products on cladding surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritsky, V.G.; Berezina, I.G.; Rodionov, Y.A., E-mail: kritsky@givnipiet.spb.ru, E-mail: alemaskina@givnipiet.ru [Leading Inst. ' VNIPIET' , Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    A description of mass transfer mechanism of corrosion products in the primary coolant circuit is a complicated problem. The deposits of crud is to be proportional to the amount of corrosion products circulating in the primary coolant circuit, therefore all models of mass transfer in the circuit include the change of corrosion products concentration and the corrosion rate in time, removing these products by filters and deposition. Decontamination of the circuit equipment and replacement work needs lead to a local change of corrosion rate which results in the increase of corrosion products concentration in the circuit and the increase of deposits on surfaces. If due to incorrect water chemistry conditions for corrosion products deposition in the core are created not only the activity of the coolant increases but the hydraulic resistance of the reactor also grows which results in the increase of the pressure drop at the reactor. The phenomenon of 'pressure drop' which takes place in NPP with VVER reactors was considered. The reasons of this phenomenon are the following: the great removal of corrosion products (CP) from steam generator surfaces after decontamination, change of CP behavior and then consequent deposit of CP on the fuel element surfaces; and, sub-cooled boiling takes place on the some of fuel element and results in the acceleration of corrosion products deposit, the increase of nuclide activation period and coolant radioactivity. A model was developed to explain pressure drop rise in-core and deposits redistribution in the core and in the primary circuit of NPP with VVER-440. The physical-chemical basis of the model is the transport corrosion products dependence on temperature, pH{sub T} value of coolant, and correlation between rates of corrosion products (Fe) formation (after steam generators decontamination) and their removing from the circuit. The aim of our modeling is to predict the growth of pressure difference on the basis of regular

  6. Qualification of the nuclear reactor core model DYN3D coupled to the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET, applied as an advanced tool for accident analysis of VVER-type reactors. Final report; Qualifizierung des Kernmodells DYN3D im Komplex mit dem Stoerfallcode ATHLET als fortgeschrittenes Werkzeug fuer die Stoerfallanalyse von WWER-Reaktoren. T. 1. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, U.; Kliem, S.; Krepper, E.; Mittag, S; Rohde, U.; Schaefer, F.; Seidel, A.

    1998-03-01

    The nuclear reactor core model DYN3D with 3D neutron kinetics has been coupled to the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET. In the report, activities on qualification of the coupled code complex ATHLET-DYN3D as a validated tool for the accident analysis of russian VVER type reactors are described. That includes: - Contributions to the validation of the single codes ATHLET and DYN3D by the analysis of experiments on natural circulation behaviour in thermohydraulic test facilities and solution of benchmark tasks on reactivity initiated transients, - the acquisition and evaluation of measurement data on transients in nuclear power plants, the validation of ATHLET-DYN3D by calculating an accident with delayed scram and a pump trip in VVER plants, - the complementary improvement of the code DYN3D by extension of the neutron physical data base, implementation of an improved coolant mixing model, consideration of decay heat release and xenon transients, - the analysis of steam leak scenarios for VVER-440 type reactors with failure of different safety systems, investigation of different model options. The analyses showed, that with realistic coolant mixing modelling in the downcomer and the lower plenum, recriticality of the scramed reactor due to overcooling can be reached. The application of the code complex ATHLET-DYN3D in Czech Republic, Bulgaria and the Ukraine has been started. Future work comprises the verification of ATHLET-DYN3D with a DYN3D version for the square fuel element geometry of western PWR. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Reaktorkernmodell DYN3D mit 3D Neutronenkinetik wurde an den Thermohydraulik-Systemcode ATHLET angekoppelt. Im vorliegenden Bericht werden Arbeiten zur Qualifizierung des gekoppelten Codekomplexes zu einem validierten Hilfsmittel fuer Stoerfallablaufanalysen zu Reaktoren des russischen Typs WWER dargestellt. Diese umfassten im einzelnen: - Beitraege zur Validierung der Einzelcodes ATHLET und DYN3D anhand der Nachrechnung von Experimenten zum

  7. Progress and perspectives of ASTEC applications in the European Network SARNET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dorsselaere, J.P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DPAM), 13 - St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Allelein, H.J.; Neu, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koln (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The ASTEC integral code is jointly developed by IRSN (France) and GRS (Germany) for LWR source term Severe Accident (SA) evaluation, PSA level 2 studies and SA management evaluation. ASTEC constitutes now the reference European integral code through its role in the Network SARNET (Severe Accident Network of Excellence) in the EC 6. Framework Program. The models of next version V1.3, released before end of 2006, represent the current State of the Art, its validation is very extensive (in particular on Phebus FP) and, after next implementation of a model for reflooding of degraded cores, it will cover all needs for SA evaluation in PWR and VVER. It will be the reference code for the IRSN PSA level 2 (Probabilistic Safety Analysis) on French PWR 1300 MWe that starts in 2006. In the frame of SARNET, IRSN coordinates the ASTEC Topic gathering 30 partners that assess the code through validation against experiments and benchmarks with reference codes like CATHARE or RELAP5 for the reactor coolant circuit and COCOSYS for the containment. Plant application calculations are compared with MELCOR and MAAP4 results for a series of different SA sequences. Besides, the knowledge generated by SARNET Topics (Corium, Source Term and Containment) will be progressively integrated into the code through improved or new models. The 2. Users' Club organized at Aix-en-Provence in June 06, with 45 participants from 27 organizations, allowed fruitful discussions with the Maintenance Team. After 2 years of work, code validation shows good overall results, often close to results of reference codes. Some results reach the limits of present knowledge, for instance on Molten-Corium-Concrete-Interaction (MCCI) and Direct Containment Heating (DCH). Benchmarks on plant applications have been performed on diverse reactor types: PWR 900, Konvoi 1300, Westinghouse 1000, VVER-1000 and VVER-440. The main trends of results are similar to MELCOR or MAAP4 results. The objective of the quantitative

  8. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for the modeling of transients with interaction of thermal hydraulics and neutron kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeren Kliem; Siegfried Mittag [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (FZR), Institute of Safety Research, P.O.B. 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Siegfried Langenbuch [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, P.O.B. 13 28, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The transition from the application of conservative models to the use of best-estimate models raises the question about the uncertainty of the obtained results. This question becomes especially important, if the best-estimate models should be used for safety analyses in the field of nuclear engineering. Different methodologies were developed to assess the uncertainty of the calculation results of computer simulation codes. One of them is the methodology developed by Gesellschaft fuer Anlagenund Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) which uses the statistical code package SUSA. In the past, this methodology was applied to the calculation results of the advanced thermal hydraulic system code ATHLET. In the frame of the recently finished EU FP5 funded research project VALCO, that methodology was extended and successfully applied to different coupled code systems, including the uncertainty analysis for neutronics. These code systems consist of a thermal hydraulic system code and a 3D neutron kinetic core model. One of the code systems applied was ATHLET coupled with the Rossendorf kinetics code DYN3D. Two real transients at NPPs with VVER-type reactors documented within the VALCO project were selected for analyses. One was the load drop of one of two turbines to house load level at the Loviisa-1 NPP (VVER-440), the second was a test with the switching-off of one of two main feed water pumps at the VVER-1000 Balakovo-4 NPP. The current paper is dedicated to the different steps of the use and implementation of the GRS methodology to coupled code systems and to the assessment of the results obtained by the DYN3D/ATHLET code. Based on the relevant physical processes in both transients, lists of possible sources of uncertainties were compiled. They are specific for the two transients. Besides control parameters like control rod movement and thermal hydraulic parameters like secondary side pressure, mass flow rates, pressurizer sprayer and heater

  9. A soluble granulocyte colony stimulating factor decoy receptor as a novel tool to increase hematopoietic cell homing and reconstitution in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Audrey; Benabdallah, Basma; Palacio, Lina; Carbonneau, Cynthia L; Le, Oanh N; Haddad, Elie; Beauséjour, Christian M

    2013-03-15

    The relative ineffectiveness of hematopoietic stem cells in reaching the bone marrow upon transplantation combined with the limited number of these cells available is a major reason for graft failure and delayed hematopoietic recovery. Hence, the development of strategies that could enhance homing is of high interest. Here, we provide evidence that homing is severely impaired postexposure to ionizing radiation (IR) in mice, an effect we found was time dependent and could be partially rescued using mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy. In an attempt to further increase homing, we took advantage of our observation that the granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a cytokine known to induce cell mobilization, is increased in the marrow of mice shortly after their exposure to IR. As such, we developed a truncated, yet functional, soluble G-CSF receptor (solG-CSFR), which we hypothesized could act as a decoy and foster homing. Using MSCs or conditioned media as delivery vehicles, we show that an engineered solG-CSFR has the potential to increase homing and hematopoietic reconstitution in mice. Altogether, our results provide novel findings at the interplay of IR and stromal cell therapy and present the regulation of endogenous G-CSF as an innovative proof-of-concept strategy to manipulate hematopoietic cell homing.

  10. Operating experience with slurry-free operation with slip-free reheat of the FGD systems in Bayernwerk AG's Schwandorf power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietl, R.; Drechsler, D. (Bayernwerk, Munich (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    At Schwandorf Bayernwerk AG operate a coal-fired power station, Units B and C each have an electrical output of 100MW and Unit D has an output of 300MW. The fuel is Czechoslovakian hard brown coal. The flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plants were retrofitted in two stages: Units C/D in 1988 and Unit B in 1989. The desulphurisation process is a wet, two-stage method with pulverised limestone as the reagent. This process is characterised by its high level of desulphurisation and optimum limestone utilisation for all operating states and high, fluctuating SO[sub 2] concentrations. Additives are not necessary. The end product is used as landfill.

  11. Dal diario di una piccola comunista. Ricostruzione della vicenda umana nella Cecoslovacchia di Husák

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Mella

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present Dal diario di una piccola comunista (From the diary of a young communist girl, the first novel by the Slovak writer Michaela Šebőková. Through the main character’s voice, the eleven-year-old Alžbeta, Šebőková portrays Czechoslovakian society in the years of “normalization” and also offers a deeper understanding of children’s ideological manipulation under the regime of Gustav Husák through to the Young Pioneers Organization. Growing up as a member of this organization, Alžbeta, initially driven by strong Communist ideals, ends up realizing the undeniable contradiction between Communist rhetoric and its actual behaviour. She will reach awareness that lies and pretence are the only values underpinning the communist system of those years.

  12. Use of various microdosimetric models for the prediction of radon induced damage in human lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, R.; Nikodemov, D.; Holy, K

    2003-07-01

    Exposure to radon and radon decay products in some residential areas and at workplaces constitutes one of the greatest risks from natural sources of ionising radiation. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the precise estimations of this health risk by numerous models. The compartmental model published in ICRP Publication 66 (HRTM) has been used for calculating alpha activity concentration in human lung. Energy deposition in the tissue was calculated by the Bethe-Bloch equation. The aim of this study was to check the performance and to compare the reliability of the microdosimetric models. In this work different thicknesses of mucus in the cases of non-smokers and smokers has been considered. Transformed cells were considered as the radiation risk parameters. The radiation risk evaluation for different exposure levels was based on homogeneous and heterogeneous distributions of target cells. The results of application of these procedures were compared with the epidemiological study of Czechoslovakian uranium miners. (author)

  13. Cestování Čechů na jihoslovanské pobřeží ve dvacátých letech 20. století

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šoukal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article centres around the Czechoslovakian perception of holiday travel to Yugoslavia in the 1920s with particular attention to the typology of Czech tourists. It has been shown that travel to Yugoslavia was very popular among the middle classes who had enough time and money. The wealthier classes preferred France. The main selling points travel agents and hotel owners used to promote travel to Yugoslavia were affordability, service targeted to Czechs and Pan-slavism. The idea of a mutual Slavonic tradition had been in existence since the 19th century. Evidence would seem to show that the most significant factor for repeat travel was affordability. Conservative Czech tourists remained loyal guests of Yugoslavia during the 1920s and 1930s.

  14. Sinking shafts I and II at the Kaczyce mine through a cover of carbon rocks by a special method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, W.; Cieslik, M.

    1979-10-01

    Kaczyce mine is situated near the Czechoslovakian border in the Cieszyn coal area. Rock layer convering carboniferous rock consists of puddingstone rich in methane and water, therefore, rock freezing could not be used in shaft excavation. A special method used in the mine consists in outgassing and draining the rock layer (pudding stone and clay stone rocks) from the surface by water jets prior to shaft sinking. It was the first instance of using water jets of Polish construction for pumping water from a depth of 570-630 m. The capacity of the pump was 0.5 mat3/min. The pump has been improved twice and the latest model was successful. Detailed construction of the pumps and technical specifications are given. It is stressed that the pump worked well in spite of the high percentage (3%) of sand in the pumped water. (In Polish)

  15. [Bloodstain pattern analysis on examples from practice: Are calculations with application parabolic trajectory usable?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovický, Peter; Matlach, Radek; Pokorná, Olga; Mošna, František; Makovický, Pavol

    2015-01-01

    The bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is useful in the forensic medicine. In Czechoslovakian criminology is this method not commonly used. The objective of this work is to calculate the impact length, height and distance splashing of blood drops. The results are compared with the real values for specific cases. It is also compared to calculate the angle of incidence of blood drops, using sinα with a form using tgα. For this purposes we used two different character cases from practice with well-preserved condition and readable blood stains. Selected blood stains were documented in order to calculate the angle of incidence of blood drops and to calculateorigin splashes. For this drop of blood, the distance of impact of the drops of blood (x), the height of the sprayed blood drops (y) and the length of the flight path the drop of blood (l). The obtained data was retrospectively analysed for the two models. The first straight line is represented by the triangle (M1) and the other is the parabolic model (M2). The formulae were derived using the Euler substitution. The results show that the angle of incidence of the drop of blood can be calculated as sinα and the tgα. When applying, the triangle is appropriate to consider the application and sinα parabolic requires the calculation of the angle of incidence drops of blood tgα. Parabola is useful for the BPA. In Czechoslovakian should be providing workplace training seminars BPA primarily intended for forensic investigators.We recommend the use of this method during investigations, verification of acts in forensic practice.

  16. Modification of T cell responses by stem cell mobilization requires direct signaling of the T cell by G-CSF and IL-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Kelli P.A.; Le Texier, Laetitia; Zhang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    the hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic compartments were wild-type, IL-10(-/-), G-CSFR(-/-), or combinations thereof we demonstrated that the attenuation of alloreactive T cell responses after G-CSF mobilization required direct signaling of the T cell by both G-CSF and IL-10. IL-10 was generated principally by radio......-resistant tissue, and was not required to be produced by T cells. G-CSF mobilization significantly modulated the transcription profile of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, promoted their expansion in the donor and recipient and their depletion significantly increased graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In contrast......, stem cell mobilization with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 did not alter the donor T cell's ability to induce acute GVHD. These studies provide an explanation for the effects of G-CSF on T cell function and demonstrate that IL-10 is required to license regulatory function but T cell production of IL-10...

  17. The metastasis suppressor NME1 regulates expression of genes linked to metastasis and patient outcome in melanoma and breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, Joseph R; Leonard, Mary K; Kraner, Susan D; Blalock, Eric M; Ma, Deqin; Zimmer, Stephen G; Kaetzel, David M

    2014-01-01

    NME1 is a well-documented metastasis suppressor gene, with suppressor activity demonstrated across a wide spectrum of human cancers including melanoma and carcinomas of the breast, stomach and thyroid. A primary aim of the current study was to identify profiles of genes whose expression is regulated by NME1 in cell lines of melanoma and thyroid carcinoma origin. Impact of NME1 was determined by forcing its expression transiently in cell lines using a novel Ad5-based adenoviral vector (Ad5-NME1), followed 48 h later by analysis of RNA expression profiles using the U133A microarray chip. Robust NME1 expression was achieved following infection with the Ad5-NME1 adenovirus in the human metastasis-derived cell lines WM1158 (melanoma) and WRO82 (follicular thyroid carcinoma), resulting in wide-ranging effects on gene expression in both settings. A substantial proportion of the NME1-regulated genes identified in the analyses were of clear potential relevance to metastasis, such as matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1), angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), SERPINB9 and colony stimulating factor receptor-2B (CSFR2B). Nine genes were identified (false discovery rate metastasis-relevant activities as stress fiber formation and focal adhesion (PPM1E, ZYX, PFN1), chemotaxis (CCR1) epithelial-mesenchymal signaling (WNT6), differentiation and morphogenesis (TBX4, ZFP36L2), and G protein modulation (GPR52 and PFN1). In addition, a number of the NME1-regulated genes were shown to be of prognostic value for distant disease-free survival and overall survival in melanoma and breast cancer. The combined expression of three NME1-regulated genes CSFR2B, MSF4A1 and SERPINB9 provided a strongly synergistic correlation with distant disease-free survival in the basal subtype of breast cancer (pmelanoma. Copyright© 2014, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF biological actions on human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Montagnani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are involved in all pathologies characterized by increased ExtraCellularMatrix synthesis, from wound healing to fibrosis. Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF is a cytokine isolated as an hemopoietic growth factor but recently indicated as a differentiative agent on endothelial cells. In this work we demonstrated the expression of the receptor for GM-CSF (GMCSFR on human normal skin fibroblasts from healthy subjects (NFPC and on a human normal fibroblast cell line (NHDF and we try to investigate the biological effects of this cytokine. Human normal fibroblasts were cultured with different doses of GM-CSF to study the effects of this factor on GMCSFR expression, on cell proliferation and adhesion structures. In addition we studied the production of some Extra-Cellular Matrix (ECM components such as Fibronectin, Tenascin and Collagen I. The growth rate of fibroblasts from healthy donors (NFPC is not augmented by GM-CSF stimulation in spite of increased expression of the GM-CSFR. On the contrary, the proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF cell line seems more influenced by high concentration of GM-CSF in the culture medium. The adhesion structures and the ECM components appear variously influenced by GM-CSF treatment as compared to fibroblasts cultured in basal condition, but newly only NHDF cells are really induced to increase their synthesis activity. We suggest that the in vitro treatment with GM-CSF can shift human normal fibroblasts towards a more differentiated state, due or accompanied by an increased expression of GM-CSFR and that such “differentiation” is an important event induced by such cytokine.

  19. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Heidenhain variant: case report with MRI (DWI) findings; Doenca de Creutzfeldt-Jakob forma Heidenhain: relato de caso com achados de ressonancia magnetica e DWI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Walter Oleschko; Bordignon, Kelly C.; Milano, Jeronimo B.; Ramina, Ricardo [Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: warruda@speednet.com.br

    2004-06-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a pre senile dementia characterized by rapidly progressive mental deterioration, myoclonic jerking, and other less common neurological signs. Few accentuates cases have been described in Brazil. A 54-year-old white woman, was admitted in our service with a month history of progressive, bilateral cortical blindness. After admission, she developed right partial motor seizures (right facial, upper and lower limbs), she became progressively aphasic (mixed aphasia). Seizures were controlled with phenytoine, but she developed choreoathetotic movements on her right dimidium, with partial control after introduction of chlorpromazine 25 mg q/d. She could no longer stand up or walk due to severe ataxia. The first EEG (October, 2001) showed left hemisphere severe seizure activity (status epilepticus partial is). She was delivered home with enteral nutrition, phenytoine, chlorpromazine and mepacrine 100 mg q d. The following laboratory tests were negative or normal: blood series, platelets, ESR, kidney and liver function, copper, ceruloplasmin, Vedril, HIV, HTLV-1, lactate, and cerebral Dsa (performed in other service). A spinal tap with normal opening pressure was perform and CSFR examination was normal. CSFR 14-3-3 protein was positive, CSF specific neuronal enolase 7.5 ng/ml(normal). Genetic study of PRNP gene did not disclosed any known mutation. A MRI (October, 2001) showed areas of hyperintense signal (T 2 and FLAIR) without Gd-enhancement on T1, in the left temporal lobe and in both occipital lobes; basal ganglia have a normal appearance. DWI imaging showed bright areas at the same sites. An EEG (March, 2002) disclosed a periodical sharp triphasic waves pattern, suggestive of CJD. A second MRI (April, 2002) showed mild generalized atrophy, no ventricular dilatation, and the hyperintense sites disappeared. She remained clinically stable and under use of chlorpromazine and mepacrine until she died due to pulmonary complications on April

  20. Blockade of GM-CSF pathway induced sustained suppression of myeloid and T cell activities in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Higgs, Brandon W; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Wu, Yuling; Karsdal, Morten A; Kuziora, Michael; Godwood, Alex; Close, David; Ryan, Patricia C; Roskos, Lorin K; White, Wendy I

    2018-01-01

    Targeting the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) pathway holds great potential in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Mavrilimumab, a human monoclonal GM-CSF receptor-α antibody, has demonstrated clinical efficacy in RA. Our current study aimed to elucidate mechanisms of action and identify peripheral biomarkers associated with therapeutic responses of GM-CSF antagonism in RA. A 24-week placebo (PBO)-controlled trial was conducted in 305 RA patients who received mavrilimumab (30, 100 or 150 mg) or PBO once every 2 weeks. Serum biomarkers and whole blood gene expression profiles were measured by protein immunoassay and whole genome microarray. Mavrilimumab treatment induced significant down-regulation of type IV collagen formation marker (P4NP 7S), macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22), IL-2 receptor α and IL-6 compared with PBO. Both early and sustained reduction of P4NP 7S was associated with clinical response to 150 mg mavrilimumab treatment. Gene expression analyses demonstrated reduced expression of transcripts enriched in macrophage and IL-22/IL-17 signalling pathways after GM-CSF blockade therapy. Myeloid and T cell-associated transcripts were suppressed in mavrilimumab-treated ACR20 responders but not non-responders. While CCL22 and IL-6 down-regulation may reflect a direct effect of GM-CSFR blockade on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators by myeloid cells, the suppression of IL-2 receptor α and IL-17/IL-22 associated transcripts suggests an indirect suppressive effect of mavrilimumab on T cell activation. Our results demonstrated association of peripheral biomarker changes with therapeutic response to mavrilimumab in RA patients. The sustained efficacy of mavrilimumab in RA may result from both direct effects on myeloid cells and indirect effects on T cell activation after GM-CSFR blockade.

  1. Results of Post Irradiation Examinations of VVER Leaky Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markov, D.; Perepelkin, S.; Polenok, V.; Zhitelev, V.; Mayorshina, G. [Head of Fuel Research Department, JSC ' SSC RIAR' , 433510, Dimitrovgrad-10, Ulyanovsk region (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    The most important requirement imposed on fuel elements is to maintain integrity of fuel rod claddings under operation, storage and transportation, since it is directly related to the operational safety. However, failed rod claddings are sometimes observed under reactor operation. Identification and unloading of fuel assemblies with leaky rods from VVER is available only at the time of planned preventive maintenance. An unscheduled reactor shutdown due to the excess of coolant activity limit as well as a preterm unloading of the fuel assembly cause economic damage to nuclear plant. Therefore, models and calculation codes were developed to forecast coolant contamination and failed fuel rod behavior. Criteria based on calculations were set to determine the admissible number of the failed rods in core and the opportunity to continue the reactor operation or pre-term unloading of the fuel assembly with the failed rods. Nevertheless, to prevent the fuel rod failure (for unfailing operation) it is necessary to reveal disadvantages of the design, fabrication method and fuel operation conditions, and to eliminate defects. The most complete and significant information about spent fuel assemblies may be received following the post irradiation material examinations. In order to reveal failure origins and mechanism of changes in VVER fuel and failed rod cladding condition depending on the operation, the examinations of 12 VVER-1000 fuel assemblies and 3 VVER-440 fuel assemblies, operated under normal conditions up to the fuel burnup 13..47 MWd/kgU were carried out. To evaluate the rod cladding condition, reveal defects and determine their parameters, the ultrasonic control of cladding integrity, surface visual inspection, eddy current defectoscopy, measurement of geometrical parameters were applied. In separate cases we used the metallography, measured the hydrogen percentage and carried out the mechanical tests of o-ring samples. The pellet condition was evaluated in

  2. Economic Transformation in Democratic Czechoslovakia (1990–1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Baka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the implementation of economic reforms in the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, which took place in the aftermath of the Velvet Revolution, from 1990 to 1992. The author examines the positive and negative effects of economic transformation in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. Particular attention is paid to influence of siting of the defense industry in the growth of unemployment in Slovakia. The article also touches upon the issue of privatization process, defined its main elements and stages. It is spoken in detail about illegal machinations, which are primarily engaged in by privatization investment funds. According to the article, Czechoslovakian politicians and economists agreed on a scenario of rapid market reforms, and Czech part of the federation was been better prepare for this step. Much attention is given to the problem of restitution of property that was nationalized in the period of communism. The researcher concludes that the economic transformation have contributed to the collapse of the federal state of Czechs and Slovaks.

  3. Il monumento praghese a Stalin: un’ombra ingombrante sul ‘disgelo’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tria

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Monument to Stalin in Prague. A Shadow that loomed over the 'Thaw' The author of the article focuses on the historical moment immediately preceding the death of Stalin and on the following period of partial political and cultural liberalization in the European countries under Soviet influence. He then concentrates on some guidelines of the so-called “destalinization” process, in particular regarding Czechoslovakia from 1953 to 1963. He points out how, for a few years, the leaders of the Czech Communist Party managed to stem the tide of positive reform and anti-dogmatic protests that instead spread faster and wider in countries like Hungary and Poland, as well as in the Soviet Union itself. The essay effectively highlights a symbolic episode of particular importance: the construction of the gigantic statue of Stalin, that dominated the landscape of Prague until 1962. Due to its particular chronology and its emblematic significance, this event summarizes the paradoxical features of the Czechoslovakian political context; in the historical moment in question, Czech politicians were particularly reluctant to welcome the liberal stimuli coming directly from Moscow and the Soviet leaders. Finally, he notes how the statue of Stalin has featured in several texts of Czech literature, in particular amongst dissenters and emigrants, but also in a classic such as Bohumil Hrabal, a testimony to the strong emotional and cultural impact that the statue had on the society and culture of Prague and of Czechoslovakia as a whole.

  4. Prognostic Relevance of Cytokine Receptor Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Interleukin-2 Receptor α-Chain (CD25 Expression Predicts a Poor Prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Nakase

    Full Text Available A variety of cytokine/cytokine receptor systems affect the biological behavior of acute leukemia cells. However, little is known about the clinical relevance of cytokine receptor expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. We quantitatively examined the expression of interleukin-2 receptor α-chain (IL-2Rα, also known as CD25, IL-2Rβ, IL-3Rα, IL-4Rα, IL-5Rα, IL-6Rα, IL-7Rα, the common β-chain (βc, γc, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSFRα, G-CSFR, c-fms, c-mpl, c-kit, FLT3, and GP130 in leukemia cells from 767 adult patients with AML by flow cytometry and determined their prevalence and clinical significance. All cytokine receptors examined were expressed at varying levels, whereas the levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, IL-2Rα, γc, c-kit, and G-CSFR exhibited a wide spectrum of ≥10,000 sites/cell. In terms of their French-American-British classification types, GM-CSFRα and c-fms were preferentially expressed in M4/M5 patients, G-CSF in M3 patients, and IL-2Rα in non-M3 patients. Elevated levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, and IL-2Rα correlated with leukocytosis. In patients ≤60 years old, higher levels of these 3 receptors correlated with poor responses to conventional chemotherapy, but only IL-2Rα was associated with a shorter overall survival. By incorporating IL-2Rα status into cytogenetic risk stratification, we could sort out a significantly adverse-risk cohort from the cytogenetically intermediate-risk group. Analyses with various phenotypical risk markers revealed the expression of IL-2Rα as an independent prognostic indicator in patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. These findings were not observed in patients >60 years old. Our results indicate that several cytokine receptors were associated with certain cellular and clinical features, but IL-2Rα alone had prognostic value that provides an additional marker to improve current risk evaluation in AML patients ≤60 years old.

  5. Large Scale EOF Analysis of Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhat, M.; Gittens, A.; Kashinath, K.; Cavanaugh, N. R.; Mahoney, M.

    2016-12-01

    We present a distributed approach towards extracting EOFs from 3D climate data. We implement the method in Apache Spark, and process multi-TB sized datasets on O(1000-10,000) cores. We apply this method to latitude-weighted ocean temperature data from CSFR, a 2.2 terabyte-sized data set comprising ocean and subsurface reanalysis measurements collected at 41 levels in the ocean, at 6 hour intervals over 31 years. We extract the first 100 EOFs of this full data set and compare to the EOFs computed simply on the surface temperature field. Our analyses provide evidence of Kelvin and Rossy waves and components of large-scale modes of oscillation including the ENSO and PDO that are not visible in the usual SST EOFs. Further, they provide information on the the most influential parts of the ocean, such as the thermocline, that exist below the surface. Work is ongoing to understand the factors determining the depth-varying spatial patterns observed in the EOFs. We will experiment with weighting schemes to appropriately account for the differing depths of the observations. We also plan to apply the same distributed approach to analysis of analysis of 3D atmospheric climatic data sets, including multiple variables. Because the atmosphere changes on a quicker time-scale than the ocean, we expect that the results will demonstrate an even greater advantage to computing 3D EOFs in lieu of 2D EOFs.

  6. The use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor induced mobilization for isolation of dental pulp stem cells with high regenerative potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masashi; Horibe, Hiroshi; Iohara, Koichiro; Hayashi, Yuki; Osako, Yohei; Takei, Yoshifumi; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Motoyama, Noboru; Kurita, Kenichi; Nakashima, Misako

    2013-12-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) contain subsets of progenitor/stem cells with high angiogenic, neurogenic and regenerative potential useful for cell therapy. It is essential to develop a safe and efficacious method to isolate the clinical-grade DPSCs subsets from a small amount of pulp tissue without using conventional flow cytometry. Thus, a method for isolation of DPSCs subsets based on their migratory response to optimized concentration of 100 ng/ml of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was determined in this study. The DPSCs mobilized by G-CSF (MDPSCs) were enriched for CD105, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR-4) and G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) positive cells, demonstrating stem cell properties including high proliferation rate and stability. The absence of abnormalities/aberrations in karyotype and lack of tumor formation after transplantation in an immunodeficient mouse were demonstrated. The conditioned medium of MDPSCs exhibited anti-apoptotic activity, enhanced migration and immunomodulatory properties. Furthermore, transplantation of MDPSCs accelerated vasculogenesis in an ischemic hindlimb model and augmented regenerated pulp tissue in an ectopic tooth root model compared to that of colony-derived DPSCs, indicating higher regenerative potential of MDPSCs. In conclusion, this isolation method for DPSCs subsets is safe and efficacious, having utility for potential clinical applications to autologous cell transplantation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Osteosarcoma cell-intrinsic colony stimulating factor-1 receptor functions to promote tumor cell metastasis through JAG1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Xi-Gong; Zhang, Yi-Jun; Ling, Zhi-Heng; Lin, Xiang-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies or inhibitors targeting CSF-1R block colony stimulating factor-1/colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1/CSF-R) signaling, and have shown remarkable efficacy in the treatment of cancer. However, little is known about tumor cell-intrinsic CSF-1R effects. Here, we show that human osteosarcomas contain CSF-1R-expressing cancer subpopulations, and demonstrate that osteosarcoma cell-intrinsic CSF-1R promotes growth in vitro and in vivo. CSF-1R inhibition in osteosarcoma cells by RNA interference suppresses cell proliferation and tumor growth in mice. Conversely, CSF-1R overexpression enhances cell proliferation and accelerates tumor growth. CSF-1R overexpression can significantly enhance osteosarcoma cell migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereas silencing CSF-1R inhibits these processes. Microarray analysis suggests that jagged 1 (JAG1) can function as a downstream mediator of CSF-1R. Moreover, we report a signaling pathway involving CSF-1R and JAG1 that sustains osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion. Our results identify osteosarcoma cell intrinsic functions of the CSF-1R/JAG1 axis in dissemination of osteosarcoma cells.

  8. Colony stimulating factor-1 receptor as a treatment for cognitive deficits postfractionated whole-brain irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Rosi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole-brain irradiation (WBI is commonly used to treat primary tumors of the central nervous systems tumors as well as brain metastases. While this technique has increased survival among brain tumor patients, the side effects of including a decline in cognitive abilities that are generally progressive. In an effort to combat WBI side effects, researchers explored the treatment of colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R inhibitor. Data show that when a CSF-1R inhibitor is administered with fractionated WBI treatment, there is a decline in the number of resident and peripheral mononuclear phagocytes, a decrease in dendritic spine loss and a reduction in functional and memory deficits. CSFR-1R inhibitors have displayed promising results as an effective counter-treatment for WBI-induced deficits. Further research is required to optimize treatment strategies, establish a treatment timeline and gain a better understanding of the long-term side effects of targeting CSF-1R as a treatment strategy for WBI symptoms. This paper is a review article. Referred literature in this paper has been listed in the references section. The datasets supporting the conclusions of this article are available online by searching various databases, including PubMed. Some original points in this article come from the laboratory practice in our research center and the authors' experiences.

  9. [Molecular characterization of atypical chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic neutrophilic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senín, Alicia; Arenillas, Leonor; Martínez-Avilés, Luz; Fernández-Rodríguez, Concepción; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Florensa, Lourdes; Besses, Carles; Álvarez-Larrán, Alberto

    2015-06-08

    Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) and chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) display similar clinical and hematological characteristics. The objective of the present study was to determine the mutational status of SETBP1 and CSF3R in these diseases. The mutational status of SETBP1 and CSF3R was studied in 7 patients with aCML (n = 3), CNL (n = 1) and unclassifiable myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN-u) (n = 3). Additionally, mutations in ASXL1, SRSF2, IDH1/2, DNMT3A, and RUNX1 were also analyzed. SETBP1 mutations (G870S and G872R) were detected in 2 patients with MPN-u, and one of them also presented mutations in SRSF2 (P95H) and ASXL1 (E635fs). The CNL case showed mutations in CSFR3 (T618I), SETBP1 (G870S) and SRSF2 (P95H). No patient classified as aCML had mutations in SETBP1 or CSF3R. One of the patients with mutations evolved to acute myeloid leukemia, while the other 2 had disease progression without transformation to overt leukemia. The knowledge of the molecular alterations involved in these rare diseases is useful in the diagnosis and may have an impact on both prognosis and therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. CO2/H2O adsorption equilibrium and rates on metal-organic frameworks: HKUST-1 and Ni/DOBDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Yu; Benin, Annabelle I; Jakubczak, Paulina; Willis, Richard R; LeVan, M Douglas

    2010-09-07

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently attracted intense research interest because of their permanent porous structures, huge surface areas, and potential applications as novel adsorbents and catalysts. In order to provide a basis for consideration of MOFs for removal of carbon dioxide from gases containing water vapor, such as flue gas, we have studied adsorption equilibrium of CO(2), H(2)O vapor, and their mixtures and also rates of CO(2) adsorption in two MOFs: HKUST-1 (CuBTC) and Ni/DOBDC (CPO-27-Ni or Ni/MOF-74). The MOFs were synthesized via solvothermal methods, and the as-synthesized products were solvent exchanged and regenerated before experiments. Pure component adsorption equilibria and CO(2)/H(2)O binary adsorption equilibria were studied using a volumetric system. The effects of H(2)O adsorption on CO(2) adsorption for both MOF samples were determined, and the results for 5A and NaX zeolites were included for comparison. The hydrothermal stabilities for the two MOFs over the course of repetitive measurements of H(2)O and CO(2)/H(2)O mixture equilibria were also studied. CO(2) adsorption rates from helium for the MOF samples were investigated by using a unique concentration-swing frequency response (CSFR) system. Mass transfer into the MOFs is rapid with the controlling resistance found to be macropore diffusion, and rate parameters were established for the mechanism.

  11. Dietary dehydrated lemon peel improves the immune but not the antioxidant status of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Beltrán, José María; Espinosa, Cristóbal; Guardiola, Francisco A; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2017-05-01

    Lemon (Citrus limon) is the third most important species of citrus in the world, while Spain is the major producer in Europe. Numerous beneficial effects of lemon are known, which explains their use in traditional medicine. The paper describes the effect of dietary dehydrated lemon peel (a sub-product of the lemon industry) on the growth, immune and antioxidant status of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) over a period of 30 days. Fish fed diets enriched with dehydrated lemon peel (1.5% and 3%) for 15 days showed improved growth and both humoral (seric immunoglobulin M) and cellular (peroxidase activity and phagocytic ability of head kidney leucocytes) immunity, as well as the expression of some immune-related genes (nkefa, il1β, igth and csfr1). However, decreases growth promotion was observed after thirty days of trial. Neither the anti-oxidant enzymes activity nor the expression of several anti-oxidants and anti-stress genes in liver was improved by the diet. The possible inclusion of dehydrated lemon peel in fish diets for its immunostimulant effects is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immune roles of amphibian (Xenopus laevis) tadpole granulocytes during Frog Virus 3 ranavirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubourli, Daphne V; Wendel, Emily S; Yaparla, Amulya; Ghaul, Jonathan R; Grayfer, Leon

    2017-07-01

    Infections by Frog Virus 3 (FV3) and other ranaviruses (RVs) are contributing to the amphibian declines, while the mechanisms controlling anuran tadpole susceptibility and adult frog resistance to RVs, including the roles of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) during anti-FV3 responses, remain largely unknown. Since amphibian kidneys represent an important FV3 target, the inability of amphibian (Xenopus laevis) tadpoles to mount effective kidney inflammatory responses to FV3 is thought to contribute to their susceptibility. Here we demonstrate that a recombinant X. laevis granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) generates PMNs with hallmark granulocyte morphology. Tadpole pretreatment with G-CSF prior to FV3 infection reduces animal kidney FV3 loads and extends their survival. Moreover, G-CSF-derived PMNs are resistant to FV3 infection and express high levels of TNFα in response to this virus. Notably, FV3-infected tadpoles fail to recruit G-CSFR expressing granulocytes into their kidneys, suggesting that they lack an integral inflammatory effector population at this site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Compressional, mechanical and release properties of a novel gum in paracetamol tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedokun Musiliu O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The binding properties of Eucalyptus gum obtained from the incised trunk of Eucalyptus tereticornis, were evaluated in paracetamol tablet formulations, in comparison with that of Gelatin B.P. In so doing, the compression properties were analyzed using density measurements and the compression equations of Heckel, Kawakita and Gurham. In our work, the mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed using the crushing strength and friability of the tablets, while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration and dissolution times. The results of the study reveal that tablet formulations incorporating Eucalyptus gum as binder, exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing gelatin. What is more, the Gurnham equation could be used as a substitute for the Kawakita equation in describing the compression properties of pharmaceutical tablets. Furthermore, the crushing strength, disintegration and dissolution times of the tablets increased with binder concentration, while friability values decreased. We noted that no significant differences in properties exist between formulations derived from the two binders (p > 0.05 exist. While tablets incorporating gelatin exhibited higher values for mechanical properties, Eucalyptus gum tablets had better balance between mechanical and release properties - as seen from the CSFR/Dt values. Tablets of good mechanical and release properties were prepared using Eucalyptus gum as a binder, and, therefore, it could serve as an alternative binder in producing tablets with good mechanical strength and fast drug release.

  14. John Whitridge Williams' contribution to democracy abroad. (The fetus treated as a patient).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasicka, A

    1999-04-01

    The idealism of American pioneers was a driving force in the development of science, democracy, and sociology in the United States. It also served as a model for the development of new democracies abroad. The first American grafted democracy was established in Czechoslovakia in 1918, under Thomas Garrigue Masaryk as President. As a former professor of philosophy, at Charles University in Prague, he built the foundation of Czechoslovakian democracy on the historical principles of Jan Hus' search for the truth (1415), Jan Amos Komensky's use of Science and Humanism (1630), and on the values of American democracy as he conceived it from multiple visits to the United States and from the practical philosophy of his American wife. His major educational means was the use of science. He became a founder of political science. As president he recognized, that democracy, as a state form, does not educate people, they educate themselves through family, school, church, physician and life experience. In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, on the eve of the opening of John Hopkin's University Hospital, a young American scientist by the name John Whitridge Williams came to Prague, Vienna, and other Europeans cities for the purpose of studying scientific obstetrics. He believed in the power of the truth in the power of the truth equally as Masaryk did and used science uncompromisingly in his speciality. He became the founder of American scientific obstetrics. He was shy of political science and ethnic problems. There was no personal connection between Masaryk and Williams. In 1903, John Whitridge Williams published his review of European and American obstetrics: he abolished the craft of obstetrics and worked the science of physiology and pathology into the practice of obstetrics. For Czechoslovaks the political democracy coming out of America through Masaryk was attractive, but of particular interest was native and personal democracy of Americans as a way of life. John

  15. ŠIMÁNĚ 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Foreword

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Czecho-Slovak Student Conference on Nuclear EngineeringPrague, Czech Republic, 12. – 13. May 2016Edited byVojtěch Caha, Martin Cesnek, Adam Kecek, Martin Ševeček and Milan ŠtefánikOrganizing InstitutionFaculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Nuclear Reactors (FNSPE CTU, Czech Technical University in PragueOrganizing CommitteeVojtěch Caha, FNSPE CTU, Czech RepublicMartin Cesnek, FNSPE CTU, MagyarországAdam Kecek, FNSPE CTU, Czech RepublicMartin Ševeček, FNSPE CTU, Czech RepublicMilan Štefánik, FNSPE CTU, Czech RepublicForeword:Nuclear science and technology have a long history within the Czechoslovakia. Even though the Czech Republic and Slovakia have been separated since 1993, wide cooperation on different levels including education and research still exists. In 2015, the 60th anniversary of the Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering and also several other institutions and companies in the Czech Republic was celebrated. In the light of these events, the organizing committee decided to hold a student conference on nuclear engineering. The only question was whom should be the conference dedicated. The right person seemed to be professor Čestmír Šimáně, one of the Czechoslovakian nuclear pioneers.Professor Šimáně graduated at the Dr. Edvard Beneš Technical university in Brno. During his early career, he had the opportunity to study at Fréderic Joliot-Curie at College de France. Later in Czechoslovakia, he significantly contributed the foundation of the nuclear science and industry in the Czechoslovakia. He became the first employee of the Institute of Nuclear Physics at the Czechoslovakian Academy of Science, later he became the first director of the Nuclear Research Institute in Řež. Professor Šimáně was well established even on the international level. He was in charge as a director assign at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia or as a division director at

  16. Atlanto-axial malformation and instability in dogs with pituitary dwarfism due to an LHX3 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbij, A M W Y; Meij, B P; van Bruggen, L W L; Grinwis, G C M; Stassen, Q E M; Kooistra, H S

    2015-01-01

    Canine pituitary dwarfism or combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) in shepherd dogs is associated with an LHX3 mutation and can lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations. Some dogs with CPHD have neurological signs that are localized to the cervical spine. In human CPHD, caused by an LHX3 mutation, anatomical abnormalities in the atlanto-axial (C1-C2) joint have been described. To evaluate the presence of atlanto-axial malformations in dogs with pituitary dwarfism associated with an LHX3 mutation and to investigate the degree of similarity between the atlanto-axial anomalies found in canine and human CPHD patients with an LHX3 mutation. Three client-owned Czechoslovakian wolfdogs and 1 client-owned German shepherd dog, previously diagnosed with pituitary dwarfism caused by an LHX3 mutation, with neurological signs indicating a cervical spinal disorder. Radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging of the cranial neck and skull, necropsy, and histology. Diagnostic imaging identified abnormal positioning of the dens axis and incomplete ossification of the suture lines between the ossification centers of the atlas with concurrent atlanto-axial instability and dynamic compression of the spinal cord by the dens axis. The malformations and aberrant motion at C1-C2 were confirmed at necropsy and histology. The atlanto-axial abnormalities of the dwarf dogs resemble those encountered in human CPHD patients with an LHX3 mutation. These findings suggest an association between the LHX3 mutation in dogs with CPHD and atlanto-axial malformations. Consequently, pituitary dwarfs should be monitored closely for neurological signs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Multilocus detection of wolf x dog hybridization in italy, and guidelines for marker selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randi, Ettore; Hulva, Pavel; Fabbri, Elena; Galaverni, Marco; Galov, Ana; Kusak, Josip; Bigi, Daniele; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Smetanová, Milena; Caniglia, Romolo

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression can impact the evolution of natural populations. Several wild canid species hybridize in nature, sometimes originating new taxa. However, hybridization with free-ranging dogs is threatening the genetic integrity of grey wolf populations (Canis lupus), or even the survival of endangered species (e.g., the Ethiopian wolf C. simensis). Efficient molecular tools to assess hybridization rates are essential in wolf conservation strategies. We evaluated the power of biparental and uniparental markers (39 autosomal and 4 Y-linked microsatellites, a melanistic deletion at the β-defensin CBD103 gene, the hypervariable domain of the mtDNA control-region) to identify the multilocus admixture patterns in wolf x dog hybrids. We used empirical data from 2 hybrid groups with different histories: 30 presumptive natural hybrids from Italy and 73 Czechoslovakian wolfdogs of known hybrid origin, as well as simulated data. We assessed the efficiency of various marker combinations and reference samples in admixture analyses using 69 dogs of different breeds and 99 wolves from Italy, Balkans and Carpathian Mountains. Results confirmed the occurrence of hybrids in Italy, some of them showing anomalous phenotypic traits and exogenous mtDNA or Y-chromosome introgression. Hybridization was mostly attributable to village dogs and not strictly patrilineal. The melanistic β-defensin deletion was found only in Italian dogs and in putative hybrids. The 24 most divergent microsatellites (largest wolf-dog FST values) were equally or more informative than the entire panel of 39 loci. A smaller panel of 12 microsatellites increased risks to identify false admixed individuals. The frequency of F1 and F2 was lower than backcrosses or introgressed individuals, suggesting hybridization already occurred some generations in the past, during early phases of wolf expansion from their historical core areas. Empirical and simulated data indicated the identification of the past

  18. Multilocus detection of wolf x dog hybridization in italy, and guidelines for marker selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Randi

    Full Text Available Hybridization and introgression can impact the evolution of natural populations. Several wild canid species hybridize in nature, sometimes originating new taxa. However, hybridization with free-ranging dogs is threatening the genetic integrity of grey wolf populations (Canis lupus, or even the survival of endangered species (e.g., the Ethiopian wolf C. simensis. Efficient molecular tools to assess hybridization rates are essential in wolf conservation strategies. We evaluated the power of biparental and uniparental markers (39 autosomal and 4 Y-linked microsatellites, a melanistic deletion at the β-defensin CBD103 gene, the hypervariable domain of the mtDNA control-region to identify the multilocus admixture patterns in wolf x dog hybrids. We used empirical data from 2 hybrid groups with different histories: 30 presumptive natural hybrids from Italy and 73 Czechoslovakian wolfdogs of known hybrid origin, as well as simulated data. We assessed the efficiency of various marker combinations and reference samples in admixture analyses using 69 dogs of different breeds and 99 wolves from Italy, Balkans and Carpathian Mountains. Results confirmed the occurrence of hybrids in Italy, some of them showing anomalous phenotypic traits and exogenous mtDNA or Y-chromosome introgression. Hybridization was mostly attributable to village dogs and not strictly patrilineal. The melanistic β-defensin deletion was found only in Italian dogs and in putative hybrids. The 24 most divergent microsatellites (largest wolf-dog FST values were equally or more informative than the entire panel of 39 loci. A smaller panel of 12 microsatellites increased risks to identify false admixed individuals. The frequency of F1 and F2 was lower than backcrosses or introgressed individuals, suggesting hybridization already occurred some generations in the past, during early phases of wolf expansion from their historical core areas. Empirical and simulated data indicated the

  19. Rossum's universal robots: not the machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-12-01

    One assumes in the era of rapidly expanding technology that robot implies mechanical beings. This is not how the word was used initially and represents one of those metamorphoses to another conceptualization. This is an investigation into Capek's original play, Rossum's Universal Robots, for an understanding of his intended meaning. Karel Capek was Czechoslovakian. His play was written in 1920, first performed in 1921, and presented in New York in 1922. It has come to symbolize Western society's feelings about robots. Capek's writing and the original play might clarify the definition of robot for the record, in light of some controversy as to whether the da Vinci Surgical System is a robot or not. THE PLAY: Rossum was a great physiologist who chemically synthesized living protoplasm and was capable of constructing artificial life forms: first, a dog; then, a man. His son was an engineer who quickly was able to manufacture large numbers of humanoids at lower costs " ... producing a robot has been brought down within 15 years from $10,000 to $150." This is the first foreshadowing of Moore's Law. But critically, these are not machines, even though his robots outperform humans. The story turns sinister as the robots eventually revolt and kill their creators. Like many things in our vocabulary, the term robot was initially used for a biologic organism that was created for servitude. Defined by the Robotic Institute of America (1979), a robot is ... "a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks." This is far from the in tended use envisioned by Capek, but applies to the da Vinci Surgical System. As Alquist in R.U.R. concludes: "... if there are no more human beings left, at least let there be Robots!"

  20. Evaluation of a High-Resolution Regional Reanalysis for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlwein, C.; Wahl, S.; Keller, J. D.; Bollmeyer, C.

    2014-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers 6 years (2007-2012) and is currently extended to 16 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  1. The high-resolution regional reanalysis COSMO-REA6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlwein, C.

    2016-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers the past 20 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  2. A High-resolution Reanalysis for the European CORDEX Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzien, Sabrina; Bollmeyer, Christoph; Crewell, Susanne; Friederichs, Petra; Hense, Andreas; Keller, Jan; Keune, Jessica; Kneifel, Stefan; Ohlwein, Christian; Pscheidt, Ieda; Redl, Stephanie; Steinke, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    A High-resolution Reanalysis for the European CORDEX Region Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. The work presented here focuses on the regional reanalysis for Europe with a domain matching the CORDEX-EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km). The COSMO reanalysis system comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO and is complemented by a special soil moisture analysis and boundary conditions given by ERA-interim data. The reanalysis data set currently covers 6 years (2007-2012). The evaluation of the reanalyses is done using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations. The development and evaluation of the COSMO-based reanalysis for the CORDEX-Euro domain can be seen as a preparation for joint European activities on the development of an ensemble system of regional reanalyses for Europe.

  3. Histone modifications patterns in tissues and tumours from acute promyelocytic leukemia xenograft model in response to combined epigenetic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiulienė, Giedrė; Treigytė, Gražina; Savickienė, Jūratė; Matuzevičius, Dalius; Alksnė, Milda; Jarašienė-Burinskaja, Rasa; Bukelskienė, Virginija; Navakauskas, Dalius; Navakauskienė, Rūta

    2016-04-01

    Xenograft models are suitable for in vivo study of leukemia's pathogenesis and the preclinical development of anti-leukemia agents but understanding of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms linking to adult cell functions in pathological conditions during different in vivo treatments is yet unknown. In this study, for the first time epigenetic chromatin modifications were characterized in tissues and tumours from murine xenograft model generated using the human acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) NB4 cells engrafted in immunodeficient NOG mice. Xenografts were subjected to combined epigenetic treatment by histone deacetylase inhibitor Belinostat, histone methyltransferase inhibitor 3-DZNeaplanocin A and all-trans-retinoic acid based on in vitro model, where such combination inhibited NB4 cell growth and enhanced retinoic acid-induced differentiation to granulocytes. Xenotransplantation was assessed by peripheral blood cells counts, the analysis of cell surface markers (CD15, CD33, CD45) and the expression of certain genes (PML-RAR alpha, CSF3, G-CSFR, WT1). The combined treatment prolonged APL xenograft mice survival and prevented tumour formation. The analysis of the expression of histone marks such as acetylation of H4, trimethylation of H3K4, H3K9 and H3K27 in APL xenograft mice tumours and tissues demonstrated tissue-specific changes in the level of histone modifications and the APL prognostic mark, WT1 protein. In summary, the effects of epigenetic agents used in this study were positive for leukemia prevention and linked to a modulation of the chromatin epigenetic environment in adult tissues of malignant organism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. ELANE Mutations in Cyclic and Severe Congenital Neutropenia—Genetics and Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Marshall S.; Corey, Seth J.; Grimes, H. Leighton; Tidwell, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    There are two main forms of hereditary neutropenia: cyclic and severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). Cyclic neutropenia is an autosomal dominant disorder in which neutrophil counts fluctuate between nearly normal levels and close to zero with 21-day periodicity. In contrast, SCN, also known as Kostmann syndrome, consists of chronic and profound neutropenia, with a characteristic promyelocytic maturation arrest in the bone marrow. Unlike cyclic neutropenia, SCN displays frequent acquisition of somatic mutations in the gene, CSF3R, encoding the Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Receptor (G-CSFR), and a strong predisposition to developing myelodysplasia (MDS) and/or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Cyclic neutropenia is caused by heterozygous mutations in the gene, ELANE (formerly known as ELA2), encoding the neutrophil granule serine protease, neutrophil elastase. SCN is genetically heterogeneous, but it is most frequently associated with ELANE mutations. While some of the different missense mutations in ELANE exhibit phenotype-genotype correlation, the same mutations are sometimes found in patients with either form of inherited neutropenia. The mutations lead to production of a mutant polypeptide, but no common biochemical abnormality, including effects on proteolysis, has been identified. Two non-mutually exclusive theories have been advanced to explain how the mutations might produce neutropenia. The mislocalization hypothesis states that mutations within neutrophil elastase or involving other proteins responsible for its intracellular trafficking cause neutrophil elastase to accumulate in inappropriate subcellular compartments. The misfolding hypothesis proposes that mutations prevent the protein from properly folding, thereby inducing the stress response pathway within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We discuss how the mutations themselves provide clues into pathogenesis, describe supporting and contradictory observations for both theories, and highlight

  5. Depletion of Tumor-Associated Macrophages with a CSF-1R Kinase Inhibitor Enhances Antitumor Immunity and Survival Induced by DC Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeijer, Floris; Lievense, Lysanne A; Kaijen-Lambers, Margaretha E; van Nimwegen, Menno; Bezemer, Koen; Hegmans, Joost P; van Hall, Thorbald; Hendriks, Rudi W; Aerts, Joachim G

    2017-07-01

    New immunotherapeutic strategies are needed to induce effective antitumor immunity in all cancer patients. Malignant mesothelioma is characterized by a poor prognosis and resistance to conventional therapies. Infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) is prominent in mesothelioma and is linked to immune suppression, angiogenesis, and tumor aggressiveness. Therefore, TAM depletion could potentially reactivate antitumor immunity. We show that M-CSFR inhibition using the CSF-1R kinase inhibitor PLX3397 (pexidartinib) effectively reduced numbers of TAMs, circulating nonclassical monocytes, as well as amount of neoangiogenesis and ascites in mesothelioma mouse models, but did not improve survival. When combined with dendritic cell vaccination, survival was synergistically enhanced with a concomitant decrease in TAMs and an increase in CD8(+) T-cell numbers and functionality. Total as well as tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in tumor tissue of mice treated with combination therapy showed reduced surface expression of the programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), a phenomenon associated with T-cell exhaustion. Finally, mice treated with combination therapy were protected from tumor rechallenge and displayed superior T-cell memory responses. We report that decreasing local TAM-mediated immune suppression without immune activation does not improve survival. However, combination of TAM-mediated immune suppression with dendritic cell immunotherapy generates robust and durable antitumor immunity. These findings provide insights into the interaction between immunotherapy-induced antitumor T cells and TAMs and offer a therapeutic strategy for mesothelioma treatment. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(7); 535-46. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Analysis of Paired Primary-Metastatic Hormone-Receptor Positive Breast Tumors (HRPBC Uncovers Potential Novel Drivers of Hormonal Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Manso

    Full Text Available We sought to identify genetic variants associated with disease relapse and failure to hormonal treatment in hormone-receptor positive breast cancer (HRPBC. We analyzed a series of HRPBC with distant relapse, by sequencing pairs (n = 11 of tumors (primary and metastases at >800X. Comparative genomic hybridization was performed as well. Top hits, based on the frequency of alteration and severity of the changes, were tested in the TCGA series. Genes determining the most parsimonious prognostic signature were studied for their functional role in vitro, by performing cell growth assays in hormonal-deprivation conditions, a setting that mimics treatment with aromatase inhibitors. Severe alterations were recurrently found in 18 genes in the pairs. However, only MYC, DNAH5, CSFR1, EPHA7, ARID1B, and KMT2C preserved an independent prognosis impact and/or showed a significantly different incidence of alterations between relapsed and non-relapsed cases in the TCGA series. The signature composed of MYC, KMT2C, and EPHA7 best discriminated the clinical course, (overall survival 90,7 vs. 144,5 months; p = 0.0001. Having an alteration in any of the genes of the signature implied a hazard ratio of death of 3.25 (p<0.0001, and early relapse during the adjuvant hormonal treatment. The presence of the D348N mutation in KMT2C and/or the T666I mutation in the kinase domain of EPHA7 conferred hormonal resistance in vitro. Novel inactivating mutations in KMT2C and EPHA7, which confer hormonal resistance, are linked to adverse clinical course in HRPBC.

  7. STAT3-activated GM-CSFRα translocates to the nucleus and protects CLL cells from apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Harris, David; Liu, Zhiming; Rozovski, Uri; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wang, Yongtao; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Grgurevic, Srdana; Wierda, William; Burger, Jan; O'Brien, Susan; Faderl, Stefan; Keating, Michael; Estrov, Zeev

    2014-09-01

    Here, it was determined that chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells express the α subunit, but not the β subunit, of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (GM-CSFR/CSF2R). GM-CSFRα was detected on the surface, in the cytosol, and in the nucleus of CLL cells via confocal microscopy, cell fractionation, and GM-CSFRα antibody epitope mapping. Because STAT3 is frequently activated in CLL and the GM-CSFRα promoter harbors putative STAT3 consensus binding sites, MM1 cells were transfected with truncated forms of the GM-CSFRα promoter, then stimulated with IL6 to activate STAT3 and to identify STAT3-binding sites. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and an electoromobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed STAT3 occupancy to those promoter regions in both IL6-stimulated MM1 and CLL cells. Transfection of MM1 cells with STAT3-siRNA or CLL cells with STAT3-shRNA significantly downregulated GM-CSFRα mRNA and protein levels. RNA transcripts, involved in regulating cell survival pathways, and the proteins KAP1 (TRIM28) and ISG15 coimmunoprecipitated with GM-CSFRα. GM-CSFRα-bound KAP1 enhanced the transcriptional activity of STAT3, whereas GM-CSFRα-bound ISG15 inhibited the NF-κB pathway. Nevertheless, overexpression of GM-CSFRα protected MM1 cells from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, and GM-CSFRα knockdown induced apoptosis in CLL cells, suggesting that GM-CSFRα provides a ligand-independent survival advantage. Constitutively, activation of STAT3 induces the expression of GM-CSFRα that protects CLL cells from apoptosis, suggesting that inhibition of STAT3 or GM-CSFRα may benefit patients with CLL. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Differential regulation of sense and antisense promoter activity at the Csf1R locus in B cells by the transcription factor PAX5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Richard M; Valeaux, Stephanie; Wilson, Nicola; Bouhlel, M Amine; Clarke, Deborah; Krüger, Imme; Kulu, Divine; Suske, Guntram; Philipsen, Sjaak; Tagoh, Hiromi; Bonifer, Constanze

    2011-07-01

    The transcription factor PAX5 is essential for the activation of B-cell-specific genes and for the silencing of myeloid-specific genes. We previously determined the molecular mechanism by which PAX5 silences the myeloid-specific colony-stimulating-factor-receptor (Csf1R) gene and showed that PAX5 directly binds to the Csf1r promoter as well as to an intronic enhancer that generates an antisense transcript in B cells. Here we examine the role of PAX5 in the regulation of sense and antisense transcription in B cells. We performed PAX5-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses across the Csfr1 locus. We investigated the role of PAX5 in regulating Csf1r sense and antisense promoter activity by transient transfections and by employing a Pax5(-/-) pro-B-cell line expressing an inducible PAX5 protein. PAX5 interacting factors were identified by pull-down experiments. The role of the transcription factor Sp3 in driving antisense promoter expression was examined in B cells from Sp3 knockout mice. PAX5 differentially regulates the Csf1r promoter and the promoter of the antisense transcript. PAX5 interferes with PU.1 transactivation at the sense promoter by binding to a PAX5 consensus sequence. At the antisense promoter, PAX5 does not specifically recognize DNA, but interacts with Sp3 to upregulate antisense promoter activity. Antisense promoter activation by PAX5 is dependent on the presence of its partial homeo-domain. We demonstrate that PAX5 regulates Csf1r in B cells by reducing the frequency of binding of the basal transcription machinery to the promoter and by activating antisense RNA expression. Copyright © 2011 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) immune responses are modulated after feeding with purified antinutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Benjamín; Couto, Ana; Azeredo, Rita; Machado, Marina; Krogdahl, Ashild; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of two purified antinutrients, soy saponins and phytosterols, in an important species for Mediterranean aquaculture. For this purpose, gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were fed six experimental diets containing two levels of those antinutrients, alone or in combination, and a control diet, to apparent visual satiation under controlled conditions. Blood and head-kidney were collected at 7, 15 and 48 days following first feeding in order to assess immune parameters and the expression of immune-related genes. Plasma bactericidal and alternative complement pathway activities increased in fish fed antinutrients compared to fish fed the control diet during the course of the experiment, with more important changes at 7 and 48 days for bactericidal activity and at 7 and 15 days for complement values. In contrast, plasma total immunoglobulins (Ig) increased in fish fed antinutrients only at 48 days. Caspase 1 (casp1), interleukin 18 (il18), colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (csfr) and hepcidin (hep) presented similar patterns of expression with more important changes at 7 and 48 days, while interleukin 10 (il10) and β-defensin (def) were mainly up-regulated in fish fed antinutrients at 48 days. The level of expression of IgM increased already at 7 days in fish fed the low concentration of both saponins and phytosterols while a general up-regulation was observed at 48 days compared to fish fed the control diet. Results suggest that feeding seabream a diet with purified saponins and phytosterols, alone or in combination, induces a number of changes that are related to the development of inflammation, with most important changes in fish fed the lower phytosterols concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Review of current and anticipated regulations on air protection in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jilek, P.; Novotny, V. [Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Environmental issues, especially the solution of the air pollution problem, have taken on great significance in the Czech Republic (which was a part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic until the end of 1992) since the 1989 {open_quotes}Velvet{close_quotes} Revolution. The former CSFR Federal Committee for the Environment and both the Republic Ministries started immediately with creating new environmental legislation, which is the main governmental tool for protecting the environment in the newly developing democracy state system with a market oriented economy. The inspiration for that activity was found in legislation of developed countries - member states of the European Union, and in German environmental law in particular. This paper surveys the major laws and regulations that gradually came into force in the Czech Republic since 1990. The provisions of the primary significance are the Act No.309/1991 S.B., dated July 9, 1991, on the protection of the air against pollutants - The Clean Air Act, the Act No.218/1992 S.B., dated April 27, 1992, which changes and supplements the Act No.309 - The Clean Air Act, the Measure of the Federal Committee for the Environment of October 1, 1991 to the Clean Air Act, and its amended wordings of June 23, 1992, 84/1991 S.B., and 84/1992 S.B., the Act No.389/1991 S.B., dated September 10, 1991 on the state administration of air protection and charges for the pollution of air, and several regulations based on the Act No.389/1991 S.B., issued in the period 1992 -1993.

  11. Direct anti-inflammatory effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on activation and functional properties of human T cell subpopulations in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malashchenko, Vladimir Vladimirovich; Meniailo, Maxsim Evgenievich; Shmarov, Viacheslav Anatolievich; Gazatova, Natalia Dinislamovna; Melashchenko, Olga Borisovna; Goncharov, Andrei Gennadievich; Seledtsova, Galina Victorovna; Seledtsov, Victor Ivanovich

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the direct effects of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on functionality of human T-cell subsets. CD3 + T-lymphocytes were isolated from blood of healthy donors by positive magnetic separation. T cell activation with particles conjugated with antibodies (Abs) to human CD3, CD28 and CD2 molecules increased the proportion of cells expressing G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR, CD114) in all T cell subpopulations studied (CD45RA + /CD197 + naive T cells, CD45RA - /CD197 + central memory T cells, CD45RA - /CD197 - effector memory T cells and CD45RA + /CD197 - terminally differentiated effector T cells). Upon T-cell activation in vitro, G-CSF (10.0 ng/ml) significantly and specifically enhanced the proportion of CD114 + T cells in central memory CD4 + T cell compartment. A dilution series of G-CSF (range, 0.1-10.0 ng/ml) was tested, with no effect on the expression of CD25 (interleukin-2 receptor α-chain) on activated T cells. Meanwhile, G-CSF treatment enhanced the proportion of CD38 + T cells in CD4 + naïve T cell, effector memory T cell and terminally differentiated effector T cell subsets, as well as in CD4 - central memory T cells and terminally differentiated effector T cells. G-CSF did not affect IL-2 production by T cells; relatively low concentrations of G-CSF down-regulated INF-γ production, while high concentrations of this cytokine up-regulated IL-4 production in activated T cells. The data obtained suggests that G-CSF could play a significant role both in preventing the development of excessive and potentially damaging inflammatory reactivity, and in constraining the expansion of potentially cytodestructive T cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular Analysis of a Short-term Model of β-Glucans-Trained Immunity Highlights the Accessory Contribution of GM-CSF in Priming Mouse Macrophages Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walachowski, Sarah; Tabouret, Guillaume; Fabre, Marion; Foucras, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    β-Glucans (BGs) are glucose polymers present in the fungal cell wall (CW) and, as such, are recognized by innate immune cells as microbial-associated pattern through Dectin-1 receptor. Recent studies have highlighted the ability of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans or its CW-derived β(1,3) (1,6)-glucans to increase human monocytes cytokine secretion upon secondary stimulation, a phenomenon now referred as immune training. This ability of monocytes programming confers BGs an undeniable immunotherapeutic potential. Our objective was to determine whether BGs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a non-pathogenic yeast, are endowed with such a property. For this purpose, we have developed a short-term training model based on lipopolysaccharide re-stimulation of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages primed with S. cerevisiae BGs. Through a transcriptome analysis, we demonstrated that BGs induced a specific gene expression signature involving the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway as in human monocytes. Moreover, we showed that over-expression of Csf2 (that encodes for GM-CSF) was a Dectin-1-dependent feature of BG-induced priming of macrophages. Further experiments confirmed that GM-CSF up-regulated Dectin-1 cell surface expression and amplified macrophages response along BG-mediated training. However, the blockade of GM-CSFR demonstrated that GM-CSF was not primarily required for BG-induced training of macrophages although it can substantially improve it. In addition, we found that mouse macrophages trained with BGs upregulated their expression of the four and a half LIM-only protein 2 (Fhl2) in a Dectin-1-dependent manner. Consistently, we observed that intracellular levels of FHL2 increased after stimulation of macrophages with BGs. In conclusion, our experiments provide new insights on GM-CSF contribution to the training of cells from the monocytic lineage and highlights FHL2 as a possible regulator of BG-associated signaling.

  13. Molecular Analysis of a Short-term Model of β-Glucans-Trained Immunity Highlights the Accessory Contribution of GM-CSF in Priming Mouse Macrophages Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Walachowski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available β-Glucans (BGs are glucose polymers present in the fungal cell wall (CW and, as such, are recognized by innate immune cells as microbial-associated pattern through Dectin-1 receptor. Recent studies have highlighted the ability of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans or its CW-derived β(1,3 (1,6-glucans to increase human monocytes cytokine secretion upon secondary stimulation, a phenomenon now referred as immune training. This ability of monocytes programming confers BGs an undeniable immunotherapeutic potential. Our objective was to determine whether BGs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a non-pathogenic yeast, are endowed with such a property. For this purpose, we have developed a short-term training model based on lipopolysaccharide re-stimulation of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages primed with S. cerevisiae BGs. Through a transcriptome analysis, we demonstrated that BGs induced a specific gene expression signature involving the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway as in human monocytes. Moreover, we showed that over-expression of Csf2 (that encodes for GM-CSF was a Dectin-1-dependent feature of BG-induced priming of macrophages. Further experiments confirmed that GM-CSF up-regulated Dectin-1 cell surface expression and amplified macrophages response along BG-mediated training. However, the blockade of GM-CSFR demonstrated that GM-CSF was not primarily required for BG-induced training of macrophages although it can substantially improve it. In addition, we found that mouse macrophages trained with BGs upregulated their expression of the four and a half LIM-only protein 2 (Fhl2 in a Dectin-1-dependent manner. Consistently, we observed that intracellular levels of FHL2 increased after stimulation of macrophages with BGs. In conclusion, our experiments provide new insights on GM-CSF contribution to the training of cells from the monocytic lineage and highlights FHL2 as a possible regulator of BG-associated signaling.

  14. STAT3-Activated GM-CSFRα Translocates to the Nucleus and Protects CLL Cells from Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Harris, David; Liu, Zhiming; Rozovski, Uri; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wang, Yongtao; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Grgurevic, Srdana; Wierda, William; Burger, Jan; O'Brien, Susan; Faderl, Stefan; Keating, Michael; Estrov, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    Here it was determined that Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) cells express the α-subunit but not the β-subunit of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (GM-CSFR/CSF3R). GM-CSFRα was detected on the surface, in the cytosol, and the nucleus of CLL cells via confocal microscopy, cell fractionation, and GM-CSFRα antibody epitope mapping. Because STAT3 is frequently activated in CLL and the GM-CSFRα promoter harbors putative STAT3 consensus binding sites, MM1 cells were transfected with truncated forms of the GM-CSFRα promoter, then stimulated with IL-6 to activate STAT3 to identify STAT3 binding sites. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and an electoromobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed STAT3 occupancy to those promoter regions in both IL-6 stimulated MM1 and CLL cells. Transfection of MM1 cells with STAT3 siRNA or CLL cells with STAT3 shRNA significantly down-regulated GM-CSFRα mRNA and protein levels. RNA transcripts, involved in regulating cell-survival pathways, and the proteins KAP1 (TRIM28) and ISG15 co-immunoprecipitated with GM-CSFRα. GM-CSFRα-bound KAP1 enhanced the transcriptional activity of STAT3, whereas ISG15 inhibited the NF-κB pathway. Nevertheless, overexpression of GM-CSFRα protected MM1 cells from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, and GM-CSFRα knockdown induced apoptosis in CLL cells, suggesting that GM-CSFRα provides a ligand-independent survival advantage. PMID:24836891

  15. Preclinical characterisation of the GM-CSF receptor as a therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, D E A; Cohen, E S; Gerlag, D M; Campbell, J; Woods, J; Davis, N; van Nieuwenhuijze, A; Lewis, A; Heasmen, S; McCourt, M; Corkill, D; Dodd, A; Elvin, J; Statache, G; Wicks, I P; Anderson, I K; Nash, A; Sleeman, M A; Tak, P P

    2015-10-01

    Previous work has suggested that the granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-GM-CSF receptor α axis (GM-CSFRα) may provide a new therapeutic target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, we investigated the cellular expression of GM-CSFRα in RA synovial tissue and investigated the effects of anti-GM-CSFRα antibody treatment in vitro and in vivo in a preclinical model of RA. We compared GM-CSFRα expression on macrophages positive for CD68 or CD163 on synovial biopsy samples from patients with RA or psoriatic arthritis (PsA) to disease controls. In addition, we studied the effects of CAM-3003, an anti-GM-CSFR antibody in a collagen induced arthritis model of RA in DBA/1 mice. The pharmacokinetic profile of CAM-3003 was studied in naïve CD1(ICR) mice (see online supplement) and used to interpret the results of the pharmacodynamic studies in BALB/c mice. GM-CSFRα was expressed by CD68 positive and CD163 positive macrophages in the synovium, and there was a significant increase in GM-CSFRα positive cells in patients in patients with RA as well as patients with PsA compared with patients with osteoarthritis and healthy controls. In the collagen induced arthritis model there was a dose dependent reduction of clinical arthritis scores and the number of F4/80 positive macrophages in the inflamed synovium after CAM-3003 treatment. In BALB/c mice CAM-3003 inhibited recombinant GM-CSF mediated margination of peripheral blood monocytes and neutrophils. The findings support the ongoing development of therapies aimed at interfering with GM-CSF or its receptor in various forms of arthritis, such as RA and PsA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. A high-resolution regional reanalysis for the European CORDEX region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmeyer, Christoph; Keller, Jan; Ohlwein, Christian; Wahl, Sabrina

    2015-04-01

    Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Weather Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations, renewable energy applications). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. The work presented here focuses on two regional reanalyses for Europe and Germany. The European reanalysis COSMO-REA6 matches the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km). Nested into COSMO-REA6 is COSMO-REA2, a convective-scale reanalysis with 2km resolution for Germany. COSMO-REA6 comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO and is complemented by a special soil moisture analysis and boundary conditions given by ERA-Interim data. COSMO-REA2 also uses the nudging scheme complemented by a latent heat nudging of radar information. The reanalysis data set currently covers 17 years (1997-2013) for COSMO-REA6 and 4 years (2010-2013) for COSMO-REA2 with a very large set of output variables and a high temporal output step of hourly 3D-fields and quarter-hourly 2D-fields. The evaluation

  17. Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor related pathways tested on an endometrial ex-vivo model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Rahmati

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recombinant human Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (rhG-CSF supplementation seems to be a promising innovative therapy in reproductive medicine, used in case of recurrent miscarriage, embryo implantation failure or thin endometrium, although its mechanisms of action remain unknown. Our aim was to identify possible endometrial pathways influenced by rhG-CSF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hypothetical molecular interactions regulated by G-CSF were designed through a previous large scale endometrial microarray study. The variation of endometrial expression of selected target genes was confirmed in control and infertile patients. G-CSF supplementation influence on these targets was tested on an endometrial ex-vivo culture. Middle luteal phase endometrial biopsies were cultured on collagen sponge with or without rhG-CSF supplementation during 3 consecutive days. Variations of endometrial mRNA expression for the selected targets were studied by RT-PCR. RESULTS: At the highest dose of rhG-CSF stimulation, the mRNA expression of these selected target genes was significantly increased if compared with their expression without addition of rhG-CSF. The selected targets were G-CSF Receptor (G-CSFR, Integrin alpha-V/beta-3 (ITGB3 implicated in cell migration and embryo implantation, Plasminogen Activator Urokinase Receptor (PLAUR described as interacting with integrins and implicated in cell migration, Thymidine Phosphorylase (TYMP implicated in local angiogenesis, CD40 and its ligand CD40L involved in cell proliferation control. CONCLUSION: RhG-CSF seems able to influence endometrial expressions crucial for implantation process involving endometrial vascular remodelling, local immune modulation and cellular adhesion pathways. These variations observed in an ex-vivo model should be tested in-vivo. The strict indications or counter indication of rhG-CSF supplementation in reproductive field are not yet established, while the safety of its

  18. LDL cholesterol modulates human CD34+ HSPCs through effects on proliferation and the IL-17 G-CSF axis.

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    Thomas R Cimato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia plays a critical role in atherosclerosis. CD34+ CD45dim Lineage- hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs give rise to the inflammatory cells linked to atherosclerosis. In mice, high cholesterol levels mobilize HSPCs into the bloodstream, and promote their differentiation to granulocytes and monocytes. The objective of our study was to determine how cholesterol levels affect HSPC quantity in humans. METHODS: We performed a blinded, randomized hypothesis generating study in human subjects (n=12 treated sequentially with statins of differing potencies to vary lipid levels. CD34+ HSPC levels in blood were measured by flow cytometry. Hematopoietic colony forming assays confirmed the CD34+ population studied as HSPCs with multlineage differentiation potential. Mobilizing cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The quantity of HSPCs was 0.15 ± 0.1% of buffy coat leukocytes. We found a weak, positive correlation between CD34+ HSPCs and both total and LDL cholesterol levels (r(2=0.096, p < 0.025. Additionally, we tested whether cholesterol modulates CD34+ HSPCs through direct effects or on the levels of mobilizing cytokines. LDL cholesterol increased cell surface expression of CXCR4, G-CSFR affecting HSPC migration, and CD47 mediating protection from phagocytosis by immune cells. LDL cholesterol also increased proliferation of CD34+ HSPCs (28 ± 5.7%, n=6, p < 0.03. Finally, the HSPC mobilizing cytokine G-CSF (r(2=0.0683, p < 0.05, and its upstream regulator IL-17 (r(2=0.0891, p < 0.05 both correlated positively with LDL cholesterol, while SDF-1 levels were not significantly affected. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support a model where LDL cholesterol levels positively correlate with CD34+ HSPC levels in humans through effects on the levels of G-CSF via IL-17 promoting mobilization of HSPCs, and by direct effects of LDL cholesterol on HSPC proliferation. The findings are provocative of further study to determine

  19. 'The Music Herald' 1922: A esthetical and ideological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Yugoslav idea. Its correspondents (more then 40 of them came from all parts of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, as well as from abroad (Poland. The music culture of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was treated with equal enthusiasm. The articles were published in both Cyrillic and Latin script, and in two languages (Serbo-Croatian and Slovenian. The editors of The Music Herald were also Slavophiles. They wrote about Czechoslovakian and Polish music, and also covered the works of Russian musicians who had emigrated to Yugoslavia after the October Revolution in 1917. The so-called 'national style' was fostered in The Music Herald, because it was believed by the editors to be the future of Serbian and Yugoslav music. Avant-garde music was treated with suspicion although on one occasion a defense of contemporary music by Stanislav Vinaver, a writer and a music critic, was published. On the other hand fostering the 'national style' did not mean that moderate means of expression sufficed for the positive evaluation of a certain music piece. That is why the compositions of Petar Stojanović were judged as 'drawing-room music'. Although it lasted for just one year, The Music Herald has an important place in the history of Serbian music periodicals. Its orientation towards music historiography is, in this respect, especially important. It blazed the trail for the Serbian musicology in its dealings with unknown music data in the past.