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Sample records for csd conflict testing

  1. Characterization of the matrix glass transition in carbon-epoxy laminates using the CSD test geometry. [centro-symmetric deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternstein, S. S.; Yang, P.

    1983-01-01

    A new test geometry, referred to as centro-symmetric deformation (CSD), is proposed for characterizing the viscoelastic behavior of the matrix of carbon-epoxy laminates. The sample consists of a thin disk, typically 6-14 plies thick, having a nominal diameter of 30 mm. The disk is freely supported on a circular anvil; the load is applied to the center of the disk using an 8-mm-diameter ball bearing nosepiece. The CSD test geometry provides viscoelastic dispersion data which are independent of the angular orientation of the sample. The test geometry is sufficiently sensitive to matrix changes to allow its use for postcuring, humidity, crosslink density, and other matrix change studies. Test results are presented for a carbon-epoxy laminate.

  2. The new Intragroup Conflict Scale: testing and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kathleen B

    2014-01-01

    The importance of healthy work environments has received attention. Health care organizations are plagued with conflict which is detrimental to work environments. Thus, conflict must be studied. The purpose of this article is to describe the testing of a measure of conflict. A survey was used to evaluate the psychometric properties. The sample consisted of 430 nurses at an academic medical center. Using principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation, a six-factor solution (30 items) that explained 74.3% of variance emerged. Coefficient alpha ranged from .95 to .81. Correlations with existing scales supported construct validity (r = -.32(-)-.58). The results are encouraging. Use of the scale may provide insight into the impact of conflict on patient, staff, and organizational outcomes.

  3. The protective effect of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) against chronic sleep deprivation (CSD)-induced memory impairments in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cong; Lv, Jingwei; Dong, Liming; Jiang, Ning; Wang, Yan; Fan, Bei; Wang, Fengzhong; Liu, Xinmin

    2018-03-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is associated with oxidative stress that causes learning and memory impairment. 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), one of the protopanaxadiol-type saponins, has antioxidant and neuroprotective effect. This study was designed to research the protective effect of PPD against cognitive deficits induced by chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) in mice. The CSD model was induced by subjecting the mice to our self-made Sleep Interruption Apparatus (SIA) continuously for 14 days. The memory enhancing effects of PPD were evaluated by behavioral tests and the related mechanism was further explored by observing the oxidative stress changes in the cortex and hippocampus of mice. The results revealed that PPD (20 and 40 μmol/kg, i.p.) administration significantly improved the cognitive performance of CSD model mice in object location recognition experiment, novel object recognition task and Morris water maze test. Furthermore, PPD effectively restored the levels/activities of antioxidant defense biomarkers in the cortex and hippocampus, including the superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity, catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (LPO). In conclusion, PPD could attenuate cognitive deficits induced by CSD, and the neuroprotective effect of PPD might be mediated by alleviation of oxidative stress. It was assumed that PPD has the potential to be a neuroprotective substance for cognition dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley T. Kerridge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the association between deaths owing to terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence from 1994–2000 and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs attributable to diarrheal and related diseases, schistosomiasis, trachoma and the nematode infections (DSTN diseases in 2002 among World Health Organization Member States. Deaths resulting from terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence were significantly related to DSTN DALYs across the majority of sex–age subgroups of the populace, after controlling for baseline levels of improved water/sanitation and a variety of economic measures: overall, a 1.0% increase in deaths owing to terrorism and related violence was associated with an increase of 0.16% in DALYs lost to DSTN diseases. Associations were greatest among 0-to-4-year olds. The results of the present study suggest that DSTN disease control efforts should target conflict-affected populations with particular attention to young children who suffer disproportionately from DSTN diseases in these settings. In view of the evidence that terrorism and related violence may influence DSTN DALYs in the longer term, control strategies should move beyond immediate responses to decrease the incidence and severity of DSTN diseases to seek solutions through bolstering health systems infrastructure development among conflict-affected populations.

  5. Area efficient radix 4/sup 2/ 64 point pipeline fft architecture using modified csd multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiq, F.; Muhammad, T.; Iqbal, M.

    2014-01-01

    A modified Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based radix 42 algorithm for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems is presented. When compared with similar schemes like Canonic signed digit (CSD) Constant Multiplier, the modified CSD multiplier can provide a improvement of more than 36% in terms of multiplicative complexity. In Comparison of area being occupied the amount of Full adders is reduced by 32% and amount of half adders is reduced by 42%. The modified CSD multiplier scheme is implemented on Xilinx ISE 10.1 using Spartan-III XC3S1000 FPGA as a target device. The synthesis results of modified CSD Multiplier on Xilinx show efficient Twiddle Factor ROM Design and effective area reduction in comparison to CSD constant multiplier. (author)

  6. Improved Helicopter Rotor Performance Prediction through Loose and Tight CFD/CSD Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Jacob C.

    of improved peak/trough magnitude prediction, better phase prediction of these locations, and a predicted signal with a frequency content more like the flight test data than the CSD code acting alone. Additionally, a tight coupling analysis was performed as a demonstration of the capability and unique aspects of such an analysis. This work shows that away from the center of the flight envelope, the aerodynamic modeling of the CSD code can be replaced with a more accurate set of predictions from a CFD code with an improvement in the aerodynamic results. The better predictions come at substantially increased computational costs between 1,000 and 10,000 processor-hours.

  7. A PC-Based Tool for Coupled CFD and CSD Simulation of Blast-Barrier Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Zen; Bewick, Bryan; Salim, Hani A; Kiger, Sam A; Dinan, Robert J; Hu, Wenquin

    2006-01-01

    ... for predicting the responses of a blast barrier. An axisymmetrical model is formulated using a coupled CFD and CSD simulation procedure designed via the Material Point Method in spatial discretization...

  8. Insights into the inhibited form of the redox-sensitive SufE-like sulfur acceptor CsdE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Peña-Soler

    Full Text Available Sulfur trafficking in living organisms relies on transpersulfuration reactions consisting in the enzyme-catalyzed transfer of S atoms via activated persulfidic S across protein-protein interfaces. The recent elucidation of the mechanistic basis for transpersulfuration in the CsdA-CsdE model system has paved the way for a better understanding of its role under oxidative stress. Herein we present the crystal structure of the oxidized, inactivated CsdE dimer at 2.4 Å resolution. The structure sheds light into the activation of the Cys61 nucleophile on its way from a solvent-secluded position in free CsdE to a fully extended conformation in the persulfurated CsdA-CsdE complex. Molecular dynamics simulations of available CsdE structures allow to delineate the sequence of conformational changes underwent by CsdE and to pinpoint the key role played by the deprotonation of the Cys61 thiol. The low-energy subunit orientation in the disulfide-bridged CsdE dimer demonstrates the likely physiologic relevance of this oxidative dead-end form of CsdE, suggesting that CsdE could act as a redox sensor in vivo.

  9. Structure of Csd3 from Helicobacter pylori, a cell shape-determining metallopeptidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Doo Ri; Kim, Hyoun Sook; Kim, Jieun; Im, Ha Na; Yoon, Hye Jin; Yoon, Ji Young; Jang, Jun Young; Hesek, Dusan; Lee, Mijoon; Mobashery, Shahriar; Kim, Soon-Jong; Lee, Byung Il; Suh, Se Won

    2015-01-01

    H. pylori Csd3 (HP0506), together with other peptidoglycan hydrolases, plays an important role in determining cell shape. Its crystal structure in the latent state is reported. Helicobacter pylori is associated with various gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. Its colonization of the human gastric mucosa requires high motility, which depends on its helical cell shape. Seven cell shape-determining genes (csd1, csd2, csd3/hdpA, ccmA, csd4, csd5 and csd6) have been identified in H. pylori. Their proteins play key roles in determining the cell shape through modifications of the cell-wall peptidoglycan by the alteration of cross-linking or by the trimming of peptidoglycan muropeptides. Among them, Csd3 (also known as HdpA) is a bifunctional enzyme. Its d, d-endopeptidase activity cleaves the d-Ala 4 -mDAP 3 peptide bond between cross-linked muramyl tetrapeptides and pentapeptides. It is also a d, d-carboxypeptidase that cleaves off the terminal d-Ala 5 from the muramyl pentapeptide. Here, the crystal structure of this protein has been determined, revealing the organization of its three domains in a latent and inactive state. The N-terminal domain 1 and the core of domain 2 share the same fold despite a very low level of sequence identity, and their surface-charge distributions are different. The C-terminal LytM domain contains the catalytic site with a Zn 2+ ion, like the similar domains of other M23 metallopeptidases. Domain 1 occludes the active site of the LytM domain. The core of domain 2 is held against the LytM domain by the C-terminal tail region that protrudes from the LytM domain

  10. Structure of Csd3 from Helicobacter pylori, a cell shape-determining metallopeptidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Doo Ri [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoun Sook [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Seoul 151 742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jieun; Im, Ha Na; Yoon, Hye Jin; Yoon, Ji Young; Jang, Jun Young [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hesek, Dusan; Lee, Mijoon; Mobashery, Shahriar [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Kim, Soon-Jong [Mokpo National University, Chonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Il [National Cancer Center, Gyeonggi 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Se Won, E-mail: sewonsuh@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    H. pylori Csd3 (HP0506), together with other peptidoglycan hydrolases, plays an important role in determining cell shape. Its crystal structure in the latent state is reported. Helicobacter pylori is associated with various gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. Its colonization of the human gastric mucosa requires high motility, which depends on its helical cell shape. Seven cell shape-determining genes (csd1, csd2, csd3/hdpA, ccmA, csd4, csd5 and csd6) have been identified in H. pylori. Their proteins play key roles in determining the cell shape through modifications of the cell-wall peptidoglycan by the alteration of cross-linking or by the trimming of peptidoglycan muropeptides. Among them, Csd3 (also known as HdpA) is a bifunctional enzyme. Its d, d-endopeptidase activity cleaves the d-Ala{sup 4}-mDAP{sup 3} peptide bond between cross-linked muramyl tetrapeptides and pentapeptides. It is also a d, d-carboxypeptidase that cleaves off the terminal d-Ala{sup 5} from the muramyl pentapeptide. Here, the crystal structure of this protein has been determined, revealing the organization of its three domains in a latent and inactive state. The N-terminal domain 1 and the core of domain 2 share the same fold despite a very low level of sequence identity, and their surface-charge distributions are different. The C-terminal LytM domain contains the catalytic site with a Zn{sup 2+} ion, like the similar domains of other M23 metallopeptidases. Domain 1 occludes the active site of the LytM domain. The core of domain 2 is held against the LytM domain by the C-terminal tail region that protrudes from the LytM domain.

  11. The emergence of the Activity Reduces Conflict Associated Strain (ARCAS) model: a test of a conditional mediation model of workplace conflict and employee strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Maria T M; Beersma, Bianca; Cornelissen, Roosmarijn A W M

    2012-07-01

    To test and extend the emerging Activity Reduces Conflict-Associated Strain (ARCAS) model, we predicted that the relationship between task conflict and employee strain would be weakened to the extent that people experience high organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). A survey among Dutch employees demonstrated that, consistent with the model, the conflict-employee strain relationship was weaker the higher employees' OBSE and the more they engaged in active problem-solving conflict management. Our data also revealed that higher levels of OBSE were related to more problem-solving conflict management. Moreover, consistent with the ARCAS model, we could confirm a conditional mediation model in which organization-based self-esteem through its relationship with problem-solving conflict management weakened the relationship between task conflict and employee strain. Potential applications of the results are discussed.

  12. The emergence of the Activity Reduces Conflict Associated Strain (ARCAS) model: a test of a conditional mediation model of workplace conflict and employee strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.T.M.; Beersma, B.; Cornelissen, R.A.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    To test and extend the emerging Activity Reduces Conflict-Associated Strain (ARCAS) model, we predicted that the relationship between task conflict and employee strain would be weakened to the extent that people experience high organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). A survey among Dutch employees

  13. The emergence of the activity reduces conflict related strain (ARCAS) model: A test of a conditional mediation model of workplace conflict and employee strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.T.M.; Beersma, B.; Cornelissen, R. A. W. M.

    2012-01-01

    To test and extend the emerging Activity Reduces Conflict-Associated Strain (ARCAS) model, we predicted that the relationship between task conflict and employee strain would be weakened to the extent that people experience high organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). A survey among Dutch employees

  14. Early effect of NEURAPAS® balance on current source density (CSD of human EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Klaus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Psychiatric patients often suffer from stress, anxiety and depression. Various plant extracts are known to fight stress (valerian, anxiety (passion flower or depression (St. John's wort. NEURAPAS® balance is a mixture of these three extracts and has been designed to cover this complex of psychiatric conditions. The study was initiated to quantitatively assess the effect of this combination on brain electric activity. Method Quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG current source density (CSD recording from 16 healthy male and female human volunteers (average age 49 years was used in a randomized, placebo-controlled cross over study. Recordings were performed 0. 5, 1. 5, 3 and 4 hours after administration of the preparations under the conditions of 6 min eyes open and 5 min d2 concentration test, mathematical calculation test and memory test, respectively. All variables (electric power within 6 frequency ranges at 17 electrode positions were fed into a linear discriminant analysis (eyes open condition. In the presence of mental load these variables were used to construct brain maps of frequency changes. Results Under the condition of mental load, centro-parietal spectral power remained statistically significantly lower within alpha1, alpha2 and beta1 frequencies in the presence of verum in comparison to placebo. Discriminant analysis revealed a difference to placebo 3 and 4 hours after intake of 6 tablets of NEURAPAS® balance. Data location within the polydimensional space was projected into the area of the effects of sedative and anti-depressive reference drugs tested earlier under identical conditions. Results appeared closer to the effects of fluoxetine than to St. John's wort. Conclusions Analysis of the neurophysiological changes following the intake of NEURAPAS® balance revealed a similarity of frequency changes to those of calming and anti-depressive drugs on the EEG without impairment of cognition. Trial registration Clinical

  15. The Distinctive Sequelae of Children's Coping with Interparental Conflict: Testing the Reformulated Emotional Security Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T.; Martin, Meredith J.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Ripple, Michael T.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2016-01-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about the distinctive psychological consequences of children's patterns of responding to interparental conflict. In Study 1, 174 preschool children (M = 4.0 years) and their mothers participated in a cross-sectional design. In Study 2, 243 preschool children (M = 4.6 years) and their parents participated in 2 annual…

  16. Twisting Tongues to Test for Conflict-Monitoring in Speech Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eAcheson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies have hypothesized that monitoring in speech production may occur via domain-general mechanisms responsible for the detection of response conflict. Outside of language, two ERP components have consistently been elicited in conflict-inducing tasks (e.g., the flanker task: The stimulus-locked N2 on correct trials, and the response-locked error-related negativity (ERN. The present investigation used these electrophysiological markers to test whether a common response conflict monitor is responsible for monitoring in speech and non-speech tasks.EEG was recorded while participants performed a tongue twister (TT task and a manual version of the flanker task. In the TT task, people rapidly read sequences of four nonwords arranged in TT and non-TT patterns three times. In the flanker task, people responded with a left/right button press to a center-facing arrow, and conflict was manipulated by the congruency of the flanking arrows.Behavioral results showed typical effects of both tasks, with increased error rates and slower speech onset times for TT relative to non-TT trials and for incongruent relative to congruent flanker trials. In the flanker task, stimulus-locked EEG analyses replicated previous results, with a larger N2 for incongruent relative to congruent trials, and a response-locked ERN. In the TT task, stimulus-locked analyses revealed broad, frontally-distributed differences beginning around 50 ms and lasting until just before speech initiation, with TT trials more negative than non-TT trials; response-locked analyses revealed an ERN. Correlation across these measures showed some correlations within a task, but little evidence of systematic cross-task correlation. Although the present results do not speak against conflict signals from the production system serving as cues to self-monitoring, they are not consistent with signatures of response conflict being mediated by a single, domain-general conflict monitor.

  17. Work-family conflict, locus of control, and women's well-being: tests of alternative pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Noraini M

    2002-10-01

    The author tested for the 3 possible pathways (i.e., direct, moderator, and mediator effects) in which locus of control can influence the relationship between work-family conflict and well-being. The author predicted that work-family conflict would be negatively correlated with well-being. In a sample of 310 Malaysian employed women with families, work-family conflict was a significant predictor of both job satisfaction and distress--negatively related to job satisfaction and positively related to symptoms of distress. More important, the results provided support for the effects of all 3 pathways of control on the relationship between work-family conflict and well-being, depending on the outcome measure: For job satisfaction, locus of control had direct effects, acted as a partial mediator, and played a significant moderating role. In contrast, only the direct effect of locus of control predicted distress. The author discusses those findings with reference to the literature on work-family conflict, locus of control, and the issue of stress-distress specificity.

  18. Group Independent Component Analysis (gICA) and Current Source Density (CSD) in the study of EEG in ADHD adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Valery A; Mueller, Andreas; Candrian, Gian; Grin-Yatsenko, Vera A; Kropotov, Juri D

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the performance of the spectral analysis of resting EEG, Current Source Density (CSD) and group independent components (gIC) in diagnosing ADHD adults. Power spectra of resting EEG, CSD and gIC (19 channels, linked ears reference, eyes open/closed) from 96 ADHD and 376 healthy adults were compared between eyes open and eyes closed conditions, and between groups of subjects. Pattern of differences in gIC and CSD spectral power between conditions was approximately similar, whereas it was more widely spatially distributed for EEG. Size effect (Cohen's d) of differences in gIC and CSD spectral power between groups of subjects was considerably greater than in the case of EEG. Significant reduction of gIC and CSD spectral power depending on conditions was found in ADHD patients. Reducing power in a wide frequency range in the fronto-central areas is a common phenomenon regardless of whether the eyes were open or closed. Spectral power of local EEG activity isolated by gICA or CSD in the fronto-central areas may be a suitable marker for discrimination of ADHD and healthy adults. Spectral analysis of gIC and CSD provides better sensitivity to discriminate ADHD and healthy adults. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Valence evaluation with approaching or withdrawing cues: directly testing valence-arousal conflict theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Mei; Li, Ting; Li, Lin

    2017-07-19

    The valence-arousal conflict theory assumes that both valence and arousal will trigger approaching or withdrawing tendencies. It also predicts that the speed of processing emotional stimuli will depend on whether valence and arousal trigger conflicting or congruent motivational tendencies. However, most previous studies have provided evidence of the interaction between valence and arousal only, and have not provided direct proof of the interactive links between valence, arousal and motivational tendencies. The present study provides direct evidence for the relationship between approach-withdrawal tendencies and the valence-arousal conflict. In an empirical test, participants were instructed to judge the valence of emotional words after visual-spatial cues that appeared to be either approaching or withdrawing from participants. A three-way interaction (valence, arousal, and approach-withdrawal tendency) was observed such that the response time was shorter if participants responded to a negative high-arousal stimulus after a withdrawing cue, or to a positive low-arousal stimulus after an approaching cue. These findings suggest that the approach-withdrawal tendency indeed plays a crucial role in valence-arousal conflict, and that the effect depends on the congruency of valence, arousal and tendency at an early stage of processing.

  20. Progress of long coated conductors fabrication with fluorine-free CSD method at SWJTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, W.T.; Lei, M.; Pu, M.H.; Zhang, Y.; Cheng, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent progress on the long coated conductors fabrication by F-free CSD method is presented. • Single buffer and partial-melting technology and slot-die coating methods have been developed. • Reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved. -- Abstract: Recent progress on the fabrication of long high-T c superconducting coated conductors with a fluorine-free chemical solution deposition (CSD) method is presented. Developments including such novel methods as single buffer technology, partial-melting process on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO), slot-die coating and drying; reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved in the effort on high-T c superconducting coated conductors at SWJTU, which form a comprehensive technology to fabricate long coated tapes with high performances

  1. Progress of long coated conductors fabrication with fluorine-free CSD method at SWJTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia); Wang, W.T.; Lei, M.; Pu, M.H.; Zhang, Y. [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Recent progress on the long coated conductors fabrication by F-free CSD method is presented. • Single buffer and partial-melting technology and slot-die coating methods have been developed. • Reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved. -- Abstract: Recent progress on the fabrication of long high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors with a fluorine-free chemical solution deposition (CSD) method is presented. Developments including such novel methods as single buffer technology, partial-melting process on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO), slot-die coating and drying; reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved in the effort on high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors at SWJTU, which form a comprehensive technology to fabricate long coated tapes with high performances.

  2. Addressing conflicts of interest in nanotechnology oversight: lessons learned from drug and pesticide safety testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Kevin C., E-mail: ke@sc.edu [University of South Carolina, Department of Philosophy, USC NanoCenter (United States); Volz, David C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Financial conflicts of interest raise significant challenges for those working to develop an effective, transparent, and trustworthy oversight system for assessing and managing the potential human health and ecological hazards of nanotechnology. A recent paper in this journal by Ramachandran et al., J Nanopart Res, 13:1345-1371 (2011) proposed a two-pronged approach for addressing conflicts of interest: (1) developing standardized protocols and procedures to guide safety testing; and (2) vetting safety data under a coordinating agency. Based on past experiences with standardized test guidelines developed by the international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and implemented by national regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we argue that this approach still runs the risk of allowing conflicts of interest to influence toxicity tests, and it has the potential to commit regulatory agencies to outdated procedures. We suggest an alternative approach that further distances the design and interpretation of safety studies from those funding the research. In case the two-pronged approach is regarded as a more politically feasible solution, we also suggest three lessons for implementing this strategy in a more dynamic and effective manner.

  3. Addressing conflicts of interest in nanotechnology oversight: lessons learned from drug and pesticide safety testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Kevin C.; Volz, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Financial conflicts of interest raise significant challenges for those working to develop an effective, transparent, and trustworthy oversight system for assessing and managing the potential human health and ecological hazards of nanotechnology. A recent paper in this journal by Ramachandran et al., J Nanopart Res, 13:1345–1371 (2011) proposed a two-pronged approach for addressing conflicts of interest: (1) developing standardized protocols and procedures to guide safety testing; and (2) vetting safety data under a coordinating agency. Based on past experiences with standardized test guidelines developed by the international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and implemented by national regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we argue that this approach still runs the risk of allowing conflicts of interest to influence toxicity tests, and it has the potential to commit regulatory agencies to outdated procedures. We suggest an alternative approach that further distances the design and interpretation of safety studies from those funding the research. In case the two-pronged approach is regarded as a more politically feasible solution, we also suggest three lessons for implementing this strategy in a more dynamic and effective manner.

  4. Addressing conflicts of interest in nanotechnology oversight: lessons learned from drug and pesticide safety testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kevin C.; Volz, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Financial conflicts of interest raise significant challenges for those working to develop an effective, transparent, and trustworthy oversight system for assessing and managing the potential human health and ecological hazards of nanotechnology. A recent paper in this journal by Ramachandran et al., J Nanopart Res, 13:1345-1371 (2011) proposed a two-pronged approach for addressing conflicts of interest: (1) developing standardized protocols and procedures to guide safety testing; and (2) vetting safety data under a coordinating agency. Based on past experiences with standardized test guidelines developed by the international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and implemented by national regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we argue that this approach still runs the risk of allowing conflicts of interest to influence toxicity tests, and it has the potential to commit regulatory agencies to outdated procedures. We suggest an alternative approach that further distances the design and interpretation of safety studies from those funding the research. In case the two-pronged approach is regarded as a more politically feasible solution, we also suggest three lessons for implementing this strategy in a more dynamic and effective manner.

  5. Non-uniform cosine modulated filter banks using meta-heuristic algorithms in CSD space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaeen Kalathil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient design of non-uniform cosine modulated filter banks (CMFB using canonic signed digit (CSD coefficients. CMFB has got an easy and efficient design approach. Non-uniform decomposition can be easily obtained by merging the appropriate filters of a uniform filter bank. Only the prototype filter needs to be designed and optimized. In this paper, the prototype filter is designed using window method, weighted Chebyshev approximation and weighted constrained least square approximation. The coefficients are quantized into CSD, using a look-up-table. The finite precision CSD rounding, deteriorates the filter bank performances. The performances of the filter bank are improved using suitably modified meta-heuristic algorithms. The different meta-heuristic algorithms which are modified and used in this paper are Artificial Bee Colony algorithm, Gravitational Search algorithm, Harmony Search algorithm and Genetic algorithm and they result in filter banks with less implementation complexity, power consumption and area requirements when compared with those of the conventional continuous coefficient non-uniform CMFB.

  6. Use of the CSD program package for structure determination from powder data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akselrud, L.G.; Zavalii, P.Yu.; Grin, Yu.N.; Pecharski, V.K.; Baumgartner, B.; Woelfel, E.

    1993-01-01

    Although Rietveld's method of full profile structure refinement of powder data is a much-used tool today, ab initio structure solution from powder data is still not a routine task. One of the reasons for this is that fully overlapped peaks usually cannot be handled by routine structure determination programs. This shortcoming is not present in the Crystal Structure Determination (CSD) package which accepts intensities from powder diagrams as well as single crystal data. In order to demonstrate the possibilities of the CSD package, powder diagrams of five substances with already known crystal structure were collected and evaluated with the CSD package. The samples were scheelite (CaWO 4 ), pentaerythritol (C(CH 2 OH) 4 ), sodium sulfite (Na 2 SO 3 ), copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO 4 .5H 2 O) and silver germanium phosphide (Ag 6 Ge 10 P 12 ) and showed problems typical for powder work like preferred orientation and heavy peak overlapping. For four of the samples, correct atomic positions for some atoms could be found from the automatic MULTAN solution, which were then used in subsequent least squares- and difference Fourier calculations to locate the remaining atoms. Surprisingly, the cubic Ag 6 Ge 10 P 12 posed the most problems for the structure solution although one third of the observed intensities was single-indexed and the final R-value was as low as 4%. (orig.)

  7. Diagnostics on LALR(k) conflicts based on a method for LR(k) testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1981-01-01

    A user of an LALR(k) parser generator system may have difficulties in understanding how a given LALR(k) conflict is generated. This is especially difficult if the conflict does not correspond to an LR(k) conflict. A practical method for giving informative diagnostics on LALR(k) conflicts is prese......A user of an LALR(k) parser generator system may have difficulties in understanding how a given LALR(k) conflict is generated. This is especially difficult if the conflict does not correspond to an LR(k) conflict. A practical method for giving informative diagnostics on LALR(k) conflicts...

  8. An Assessment of CFD/CSD Prediction State-of-the-Art by Using the HART II International Workshop Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marilyn J.; Lim, Joon W.; vanderWall, Berend G.; Baeder, James D.; Biedron, Robert T.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Jayaraman, Buvana; Jung, Sung N.; Min, Byung-Young

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, there have been significant advancements in the accuracy of rotor aeroelastic simulations with the application of computational fluid dynamics methods coupled with computational structural dynamics codes (CFD/CSD). The HART II International Workshop database, which includes descent operating conditions with strong blade-vortex interactions (BVI), provides a unique opportunity to assess the ability of CFD/CSD to capture these physics. In addition to a baseline case with BVI, two additional cases with 3/rev higher harmonic blade root pitch control (HHC) are available for comparison. The collaboration during the workshop permits assessment of structured, unstructured, and hybrid overset CFD/CSD methods from across the globe on the dynamics, aerodynamics, and wake structure. Evaluation of the plethora of CFD/CSD methods indicate that the most important numerical variables associated with most accurately capturing BVI are a two-equation or detached eddy simulation (DES)-based turbulence model and a sufficiently small time step. An appropriate trade-off between grid fidelity and spatial accuracy schemes also appears to be pertinent for capturing BVI on the advancing rotor disk. Overall, the CFD/CSD methods generally fall within the same accuracy; cost-effective hybrid Navier-Stokes/Lagrangian wake methods provide accuracies within 50% the full CFD/CSD methods for most parameters of interest, except for those highly influenced by torsion. The importance of modeling the fuselage is observed, and other computational requirements are discussed.

  9. Insights into the Structure of Dimeric RNA Helicase CsdA and Indispensable Role of Its C-Terminal Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Wang, Lijun; Peng, Junhui; Li, Fudong; Wu, Lijie; Zhang, Beibei; Lv, Mengqi; Zhang, Jiahai; Gong, Qingguo; Zhang, Rongguang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Zhang, Zhiyong; Wu, Jihui; Tang, Yajun; Shi, Yunyu

    2017-12-05

    CsdA has been proposed to be essential for the biogenesis of ribosome and gene regulation after cold shock. However, the structure of CsdA and the function of its long C-terminal regions are still unclear. Here, we solved all of the domain structures of CsdA and found two previously uncharacterized auxiliary domains: a dimerization domain (DD) and an RNA-binding domain (RBD). Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments helped to track the conformational flexibilities of the helicase core domains and C-terminal regions. Biochemical assays revealed that DD is indispensable for stabilizing the CsdA dimeric structure. We also demonstrate for the first time that CsdA functions as a stable dimer at low temperature. The C-terminal regions are critical for RNA binding and efficient enzymatic activities. CsdA_RBD could specifically bind to the regions with a preference for single-stranded G-rich RNA, which may help to bring the helicase core to unwind the adjacent duplex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Testing the effects of adolescent alcohol use on adult conflict-related theta dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jeremy; Malone, Stephen M; Iacono, William G

    2017-11-01

    Adolescent alcohol use (AAU) is associated with brain anomalies, but less is known about long-term neurocognitive effects. Despite theoretical models linking AAU to diminished cognitive control, empirical work testing this relationship with specific cognitive control neural correlates (e.g., prefrontal theta-band EEG dynamics) remains scarce. A longitudinal twin design was used to test the hypothesis that greater AAU is associated with reduced conflict-related EEG theta-band dynamics in adulthood, and to examine the genetic/environmental etiology of this association. In a large (N=718) population-based prospective twin sample, AAU was assessed at ages 11/14/17. Twins completed a flanker task at age 29 to elicit EEG theta-band medial frontal cortex (MFC) power and medial-dorsal prefrontal cortex (MFC-dPFC) connectivity. Two complementary analytic methods (cotwin control analysis; biometric modeling) were used to disentangle the genetic/shared environmental risk towards AAU from possible alcohol exposure effects on theta dynamics. AAU was negatively associated with adult cognitive control-related theta-band MFC power and MFC-dPFC functional connectivity. Genetic influences primarily underlie these associations. Findings provide strong evidence that genetic factors underlie the comorbidity between AAU and diminished cognitive control-related theta dynamics in adulthood. Conflict-related theta-band dynamics appear to be candidate brain-based endophenotypes/mechanisms for AAU. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of a patient decision aid on decisional conflict related to PSA testing: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Robert L; Xu, Ye; Volk, Robert J; Scholl, Lawrence E; Kamin, Stephanie L; Holden, E Wayne; Stroud, Leonardo A

    2008-11-01

    To examine the impact of a decision aid (DA) designed to promote informed decision making for screening with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and to test a theoretical model of factors influencing decisional conflict. Structural equation modeling examined pathways between DA exposure, knowledge, schema, prostate cancer risk perceptions, decisional anxiety, and decisional conflict. Sample participants included 200 men from the general population (exclusive of African Americans) and 200 African American men. Half of the men in each subsample were randomly assigned to receive the DA. Decisional conflict regarding prostate cancer screening. The DA influences level of decisional conflict by increasing patient knowledge. This effect of knowledge on decisional conflict is indirect, however, through an association with greater perceived risk and lower decisional anxiety. Also, positive PSA schema was associated with lower decisional anxiety and decisional conflict. It is important that exposure to the DA had no impact on PSA schema. Schemas about testing must be considered in developing messages about the risks and benefits of testing. If schemas are counter to message content, mechanisms for modifying schemas must be incorporated into interventions.

  12. Evaluation of the CSD of the national report of Colombia presented in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saavedra Sandra; Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Parra, Ernesto

    1996-01-01

    In the annual meeting of the CSD an analysis and a diagnosis are elaborated on the world situation of the sustainable development in the regional themes, the program 21 is divided, starting from the national reports that all the countries should present. For the analysis work and pursuit of each one of the sectors that the program 21 contemplate, it was necessary to create special groups of work denominated AD HOC Open-Ended working Groups on regional Issues. These they met between February 27 and March 3 1995 to discuss and to analyze the six regional reports: integral handling of the resources of the earth, sustainable agriculture and rural development, fights against the desertification, sustainable development of mountains, forests and biodiversity, that the secretary of the commission of sustainable development elaborated with base in the national reports sent by the countries members. During the last years, Colombia, one of the countries agents of the CSD, it has conferred the biggest importance to the development and execution of an environmental national politics that it responds to their development necessities and at the same time consult the lineaments and parameters worldwide settled down in the program 21

  13. The distinctive sequelae of children's coping with interparental conflict: Testing the reformulated emotional security theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T; Martin, Meredith J; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Ripple, Michael T; Cicchetti, Dante

    2016-10-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about the distinctive psychological consequences of children's patterns of responding to interparental conflict. In Study 1, 174 preschool children (M = 4.0 years) and their mothers participated in a cross-sectional design. In Study 2, 243 preschool children (M = 4.6 years) and their parents participated in 2 annual measurement occasions. Across both studies, multiple informants assessed children's psychological functioning. Guided by the reformulated version of emotional security theory, behavioral observations of children's coping with interparental conflict assessed their tendencies to exhibit 4 patterns based on their function in defusing threat: secure (i.e., efficiently address direct instances of threat), mobilizing (i.e., react to potential threat and social opportunities), dominant (i.e., directly defeat threat), and demobilizing (i.e., reduce salience as a target of hostility). As hypothesized, each profile predicted unique patterns of adjustment. Greater security was associated with lower levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and greater social competence, whereas higher dominance was associated with externalizing problems and extraversion. In contrast, mobilizing patterns of reactivity predicted more problems with self-regulation, internalizing symptoms, externalizing difficulties, but also greater extraversion. Finally, higher levels of demobilizing reactivity were linked with greater internalizing problems and lower extraversion but also better self-regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Selfish mothers? An empirical test of parent-offspring conflict over extended parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Manabi; Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Bhadra, Anindita

    2014-03-01

    Parent-offspring conflict (POC) theory is an interesting conceptual framework for understanding the dynamics of parental care. However, this theory is not easy to test empirically, as exact measures of parental investment in an experimental set-up are difficult to obtain. We have used free-ranging dogs Canis familiaris in India, to study POC in the context of extended parental care. We observed females and their pups in their natural habitat for the mother's tendency to share food given by humans with her pups in the weaning and post-weaning stages. Since these dogs are scavengers, and depend largely on human provided food for their sustenance, voluntary sharing of food by the mother with her pups is a good surrogate for extended parental care. Our behavioural observations convincingly demonstrate an increase of conflict and decrease of cooperation by the mother with her offspring over given food within a span of 4-6 weeks. We also demonstrate that the competition among the pups in a litter scales with litter size, an indicator of sib-sib competition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Locomotor Sensory Organization Test: How Sensory Conflict Affects the Temporal Structure of Sway Variability During Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung Hung; Mukherjee, Mukul; Siu, Ka-Chun; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    When maintaining postural stability temporally under increased sensory conflict, a more rigid response is used where the available degrees of freedom are essentially frozen. The current study investigated if such a strategy is also utilized during more dynamic situations of postural control as is the case with walking. This study attempted to answer this question by using the Locomotor Sensory Organization Test (LSOT). This apparatus incorporates SOT inspired perturbations of the visual and the somatosensory system. Ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT and the corresponding six conditions on the LSOT. The temporal structure of sway variability was evaluated from all conditions. The results showed that in the anterior posterior direction somatosensory input is crucial for postural control for both walking and standing; visual input also had an effect but was not as prominent as the somatosensory input. In the medial lateral direction and with respect to walking, visual input has a much larger effect than somatosensory input. This is possibly due to the added contributions by peripheral vision during walking; in standing such contributions may not be as significant for postural control. In sum, as sensory conflict increases more rigid and regular sway patterns are found during standing confirming the previous results presented in the literature, however the opposite was the case with walking where more exploratory and adaptive movement patterns are present.

  16. Conflict about conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehn, K.A.; Rispens, S.; Thatcher, S.M.B.; Mannix, E.; Neale, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – There are a number of ongoing debates in the organizational literature about conflict in groups and teams. We investigate two "conflicts about conflict" (i.e., two meta-conflicts) in the literature: we examine whether and under what conditions conflict in workgroups might be beneficial and

  17. Sleep deprivation selectively disrupts top-down adaptation to cognitive conflict in the Stroop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Wim; Deliens, Gaetane; Hoffmann, Sophie; Notebaert, Wim; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to exert detrimental effects on various cognitive domains, including attention, vigilance and working memory. Seemingly at odds with these findings, prior studies repeatedly failed to evidence an impact of prior sleep deprivation on cognitive interference in the Stroop test, a hallmark paradigm in the study of cognitive control abilities. The present study investigated further the effect of sleep deprivation on cognitive control using an adapted version of the Stroop test that allows to segregate top-down (attentional reconfiguration on incongruent items) and bottom-up (facilitated processing after repetitions in responses and/or features of stimuli) components of performance. Participants underwent a regular night of sleep or a night of total sleep deprivation before cognitive testing. Results disclosed that sleep deprivation selectively impairs top-down adaptation mechanisms: cognitive control no longer increased upon detection of response conflict at the preceding trial. In parallel, bottom-up abilities were found unaffected by sleep deprivation: beneficial effects of stimulus and response repetitions persisted. Changes in vigilance states due to sleep deprivation selectively impact on cognitive control in the Stroop test by affecting top-down, but not bottom-up, mechanisms that guide adaptive behaviours. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Estimation of the level of anxiety in rats: differences in results of open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel's conflict test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Nazarova, G A; Alekseeva, E V; Bashkatova, V G

    2013-07-01

    We compared individual anxiety assessed by three standard tests, open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel conflict drinking test, in the same animals. No significant correlations between the main anxiety parameters were found in these three experimental models. Groups of animals with high and low anxiety rats were formed by a single parameter and subsequent selection of two extreme groups (10%). It was found that none of the tests could be used for reliable estimation of individual anxiety in rats. The individual anxiety level with high degree of confidence was determined in high-anxiety and low-anxiety rats demonstrating behavioral parameters above and below the mean values in all tests used. Therefore, several tests should be used for evaluation of the individual anxiety or sensitivity to emotional stress.

  19. Gastric potential difference and pH in ulcer patients and normal volunteers during Stroop's colour word conflict test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Bendtsen, Flemming

    1989-01-01

    Whether mental stress is important in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal disorders is not clearly established. This study investigated the relationship between sympathetic activation caused by the Stroop's colour word conflict test and gastric mucosal function, monitored by measuring the gastric...... mucosal electrical potential difference (PD). In 13 healthy volunteers and 12 duodenal ulcer patients gastric PD, pH, and heart rate were measured continuously during basal conditions, during mental stress evoked by the Stroop's colour word conflict test, and after return to basal conditions...

  20. Draft Tube Baffle (DTB) crystallizers: A study of stationary and dynamically behaving Crystal Size Distributions (CSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleer, B. G. M.

    1981-11-01

    Based on population balance, CSD behavior as a function of geometrical and operating variables was studied, using a crystallizer. A potash alum-water system, involving a separation technique which uses surface active agents and an apolar, organic liquid to separate potash alum crystals from mother liquid under the influence of gravity was used to check experimental findings against literature data. Results show action of annular settling spaces is strongly influenced by fluid velocities perpendicular to those directed upwards. The well-mixed volume decreases with increasing crystallizer size until a minimum effective volume is reached. As supersaturation is constant throughout the crystallizer volume under stationary operating conditions, the annular settling space behaves like a growth chamber for crystals in its volume. Swirl in the lower part of the annular volume introduces significant back mixing. Crystals within this space either grow and return to the well-mixed part, or withdraw from the annular volume permanently.

  1. Systematic Procedure for Generating Operational Policies to Achieve Target Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) in Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    Batch cooling crystallization is one of the important unit operations involving separation of solid-liquid phases. Usually the most common crystal product qualities are directly related to the crystal size distribution (CSD). However the main difficulty in batch crystallization is to obtain a uni...

  2. Priming can affect naming colours using the study-test procedure. Revealing the role of task conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dinkar

    2016-11-14

    The Stroop paradigm has been widely used to study attention whilst its use to explore implicit memory have been mixed. Using the non-colour word Stroop task we tested contrasting predictions from the proactive-control/task-conflict model (Kalanthroff, Avnit, Henik, Davelaar & Usher, 2015) that implicate response conflict and task conflict for the priming effects. Using the study-test procedure 60 native English speakers were tested to determine whether priming effects from words that had previously been studied would cause interference when presented in a colour naming task. The results replicate a finding by MacLeod (1996) who showed no differences between the response latencies to studied and unstudied words. However, this pattern was predominately in the first half of the study where it was also found that both studied and unstudied words in a mixed block were slower to respond to than a block of pure unstudied words. The second half of the study showed stronger priming interference effects as well as a sequential modulation effect in which studied words slowed down the responses of studied words on the next trial. We discuss the role of proactive and reactive control processes and conclude that task conflict best explains the pattern of priming effects reported. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Effects of arousal on cognitive control: empirical tests of the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen B R E; van Steenbergen, Henk; Kedar, Tomer; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of empirical phenomena that were previously interpreted as a result of cognitive control, turn out to reflect (in part) simple associative-learning effects. A prime example is the proportion congruency effect, the finding that interference effects (such as the Stroop effect) decrease as the proportion of incongruent stimuli increases. While this was previously regarded as strong evidence for a global conflict monitoring-cognitive control loop, recent evidence has shown that the proportion congruency effect is largely item-specific and hence must be due to associative learning. The goal of our research was to test a recent hypothesis about the mechanism underlying such associative-learning effects, the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which proposes that the effect of conflict on associative learning is mediated by phasic arousal responses. In Experiment 1, we examined in detail the relationship between the item-specific proportion congruency effect and an autonomic measure of phasic arousal: task-evoked pupillary responses. In Experiment 2, we used a task-irrelevant phasic arousal manipulation and examined the effect on item-specific learning of incongruent stimulus-response associations. The results provide little evidence for the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which requires additional empirical support to remain tenable.

  4. Effects of arousal on cognitive control: Empirical tests of the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B.R.E. Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of empirical phenomena that were previously interpreted as a result of cognitive control, turn out to reflect (in part simple associative-learning effects. A prime example is the proportion congruency effect, the finding that interference effects (such as the Stroop effect decrease as the proportion of incongruent stimuli increases. While this was previously regarded as strong evidence for a global conflict monitoring-cognitive control loop, recent evidence has shown that the proportion congruency effect is largely item-specific and hence must be due to associative learning. The goal of our research was to test a recent hypothesis about the mechanism underlying such associative-learning effects, the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which proposes that the effect of conflict on associative learning is mediated by phasic arousal responses. In Experiment 1, we examined in detail the relationship between the item-specific proportion congruency effect and an autonomic measure of phasic arousal: task-evoked pupillary responses. In Experiment 2, we used a task-irrelevant phasic arousal manipulation and examined the effect on item-specific learning of incongruent stimulus-response associations. The results provide little evidence for the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which requires additional empirical support to remain tenable.

  5. Cloning, Characterization and Expression Pattern Analysis of a Cytosolic Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase (SaCSD1 in a Highly Salt Tolerant Mangrove (Sonneratia alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enze Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are critical marine resources for their remarkable ability to tolerate seawater. Antioxidant enzymes play an especially significant role in eliminating reactive oxygen species and conferring abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, a cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SaCSD1 cDNA of Sonneratia alba, a mangrove species with high salt tolerance, was successfully cloned and then expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami (designated as SaCSD1. SaCSD1 comprised a complete open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp which encoded a protein of 152 amino acids. Its mature protein is predicted to be 15.32 kDa and the deduced isoelectric point is 5.78. SaCSD1 has high sequence similarity (85%–90% with the superoxide dismutase (CSD of some other plant species. SaCSD1 was expressed with 30.6% yield regarding total protein content after being introduced into the pET-15b (Sma I vector for expression in Rosetta-gami and being induced with IPTG. After affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA, recombinant SaCSD1 was obtained with 3.2-fold purification and a specific activity of 2200 U/mg. SaCSD1 showed good activity as well as stability in the ranges of pH between 3 and 7 and temperature between 25 and 55 °C. The activity of recombinant SaCSD1 was stable in 0.25 M NaCl, Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO, glycerol, and chloroform, and was reduced to a great extent in β-mercaptoethanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, H2O2, and phenol. Moreover, the SaCSD1 protein was very susceptive to pepsin digestion. Real-time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assay demonstrated that SaCSD1 was expressed in leaf, stem, flower, and fruit organs, with the highest expression in fruits. Under 0.25 M and 0.5 M salt stress, the expression of SaCSD1 was down-regulated in roots, but up-regulated in leaves.

  6. Growth and characterization of yttrium iron garnet films on Si substrates by Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xin; Chen, Ying; Wang, Genshui [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Function Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Rd., Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Yuanyuan [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200241 (China); Ge, Jun [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Function Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Rd., Shanghai 200050 (China); Tang, Xiaodong [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200241 (China); Ponchel, Freddy; Rémiens, Denis [Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology (IEMN)–DOAE, UMR CNRS 8520, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Dong, Xianlin, E-mail: xldong@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Function Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Rd., Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2016-06-25

    Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) films were prepared on Si substrates by Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) technique using acetic acid and deionized water as solvents. Well-crystallized and crack-free YIG films were obtained when annealed at 750 °C and 850 °C respectively, showing a low surface roughness of several nanometers. When annealed at 750 °C for 30 min, the saturated magnetization (Ms) and coercive field (Hc) of YIG films were 0.121 emu/mm{sup 3} (4πMs = 1.52 kGs) and 7 Oe respectively, which were similar to that prepared by PLD technique. The peak-to-peak linewidth of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) was 220 Oe at 9.10 GHz. The results demonstrated that CSD was an excellent technique to prepare high quality yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films on silicon, which could provide a lower-cost way for large-scale production on Si-based integrated devices. - Highlights: • The preparation of YIG films by Chemical Solution Deposition are demonstrated. • Well-crystallized and crack-free YIG films can be obtained on Si substrate by CSD. • YIG films can be crystallized in 750 °C with good magnetic performances. • It's beneficial to large-scale production of YIG films on Si integrated devices.

  7. The congruency sequence effect 3.0: a critical test of conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthoo, Wout; Abrahamse, Elger L; Braem, Senne; Boehler, C Nico; Notebaert, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the congruency sequence effect (CSE) -the finding of a reduced congruency effect following incongruent trials in conflict tasks- has played a central role in advancing research on cognitive control. According to the influential conflict-monitoring account, the CSE reflects adjustments in selective attention that enhance task focus when needed, often termed conflict adaptation. However, this dominant interpretation of the CSE has been called into question by several alternative accounts that stress the role of episodic memory processes: feature binding and (stimulus-response) contingency learning. To evaluate the notion of conflict adaptation in accounting for the CSE, we construed versions of three widely used experimental paradigms (the colour-word Stroop, picture-word Stroop and flanker task) that effectively control for feature binding and contingency learning. Results revealed that a CSE can emerge in all three tasks. This strongly suggests a contribution of attentional control to the CSE and highlights the potential of these unprecedentedly clean paradigms for further examining cognitive control.

  8. Managing conflict in Dutch organizations: A test of the relevance of DeutschUs cooperation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Tjosvold, D.

    1997-01-01

    Deutsch's theory of cooperative and competitive conflict may be usefully extended to Dutch people. Results of LISREL analyses on data collected from interviews of Dutch employees in 2 companies indicate that competitive goals interfered with the open, constructive discussion of opposing views.

  9. The congruency sequence effect 3.0: a critical test of conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wout Duthoo

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the congruency sequence effect (CSE -the finding of a reduced congruency effect following incongruent trials in conflict tasks- has played a central role in advancing research on cognitive control. According to the influential conflict-monitoring account, the CSE reflects adjustments in selective attention that enhance task focus when needed, often termed conflict adaptation. However, this dominant interpretation of the CSE has been called into question by several alternative accounts that stress the role of episodic memory processes: feature binding and (stimulus-response contingency learning. To evaluate the notion of conflict adaptation in accounting for the CSE, we construed versions of three widely used experimental paradigms (the colour-word Stroop, picture-word Stroop and flanker task that effectively control for feature binding and contingency learning. Results revealed that a CSE can emerge in all three tasks. This strongly suggests a contribution of attentional control to the CSE and highlights the potential of these unprecedentedly clean paradigms for further examining cognitive control.

  10. Marital conflict, maternal and paternal parenting, and child adjustment: a test of mediation and moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczynski, Karen J; Lindahl, Kristin M; Malik, Neena M; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe

    2006-06-01

    Parenting was examined as a mediator of associations between marital and child adjustment, and parent gender was examined as a moderator of associations among marital, parental, and child functioning in 226 families with a school-age child (146 boys). Parenting fully mediated associations between marital conflict and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Parent gender did not moderate associations when data from the full sample or families with girls only were evaluated. Parent gender did moderate associations when families with boys were evaluated, with the association between marital conflict and parenting stronger for fathers than mothers. A trend suggested fathers' parenting may be more strongly related to internalizing behavior and mothers' parenting may be more strongly related to externalizing behavior in boys. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaal, Simon; Lamme, Victor A F; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2010-07-09

    In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked) or unconsciously (strongly masked primes). We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  12. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Gaal

    Full Text Available In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked or unconsciously (strongly masked primes. We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  13. Promoting children's learning and development in conflict-affected countries: Testing change process in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, J Lawrence; Tubbs, Carly; Torrente, Catalina; Halpin, Peter F; Johnston, Brian; Starkey, Leighann; Shivshanker, Anjuli; Annan, Jeannie; Seidman, Edward; Wolf, Sharon

    2017-02-01

    Improving children's learning and development in conflict-affected countries is critically important for breaking the intergenerational transmission of violence and poverty. Yet there is currently a stunning lack of rigorous evidence as to whether and how programs to improve learning and development in conflict-affected countries actually work to bolster children's academic learning and socioemotional development. This study tests a theory of change derived from the fields of developmental psychopathology and social ecology about how a school-based universal socioemotional learning program, the International Rescue Committee's Learning to Read in a Healing Classroom (LRHC), impacts children's learning and development. The study was implemented in three conflict-affected provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and employed a cluster-randomized waitlist control design to estimate impact. Using multilevel structural equation modeling techniques, we found support for the central pathways in the LRHC theory of change. Specifically, we found that LRHC differentially impacted dimensions of the quality of the school and classroom environment at the end of the first year of the intervention, and that in turn these dimensions of quality were differentially associated with child academic and socioemotional outcomes. Future implications and directions are discussed.

  14. Solidarity-conflict and ambivalence: testing two conceptual frameworks and their impact on quality of life for older family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Ariela

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test empirically two major conceptualizations of parent-child relations in later adulthood-intergenerational solidarity-conflict and ambivalence paradigms-and their predictive validity on elders' quality of life using comparative cross-national data. Data were from a sample of 2,064 elders (aged 75 and older) from the five-country OASIS study (Old Age and Autonomy: The Role of Service Systems and Intergenerational Family Solidarity; Norway, England, Germany, Spain, and Israel). Multivariate and block-recursive regression models estimated the predictivity of the two conceptualizations of family dynamics on quality of life controlling for country, personal characteristics, and activity of daily living functioning. Descriptive analyses indicated that family solidarity, especially the affective/cognitive component (called Solidarity A), was high in all five countries, whereas conflict and ambivalence were low. When I entered all three constructs into the regression Solidarity A, reciprocal intergenerational support and ambivalence predicted quality of life. Controlling for activity of daily living functioning, socioeconomics status, and country, intergenerational relations had only a weak explanatory power, and personal resources explained most of the variance. The data suggest that the three constructs exist simultaneously but in varying combinations, confirming that in cross-cultural contexts family cohesion predominates, albeit with low degrees of conflict and ambivalence. The solidarity construct evidenced relatively robust measurement. More work is required to enhance the ambivalence measurement.

  15. Amygdala Lesions Reduce Anxiety-like Behavior in a Human Benzodiazepine-Sensitive Approach-Avoidance Conflict Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Christoph W; Vunder, Johanna; Miró, Júlia; Fuentemilla, Lluís; Hurlemann, Rene; Bach, Dominik R

    2017-10-01

    Rodent approach-avoidance conflict tests are common preclinical models of human anxiety disorder. Their translational validity mainly rests on the observation that anxiolytic drugs reduce rodent anxiety-like behavior. Here, we capitalized on a recently developed approach-avoidance conflict computer game to investigate the impact of benzodiazepines and of amygdala lesions on putative human anxiety-like behavior. In successive epochs of this game, participants collect monetary tokens on a spatial grid while under threat of virtual predation. In a preregistered, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we tested the effect of a single dose (1 mg) of lorazepam (n = 59). We then compared 2 patients with bilateral amygdala lesions due to Urbach-Wiethe syndrome with age- and gender-matched control participants (n = 17). Based on a previous report, the primary outcome measure was the effect of intra-epoch time (i.e., an adaptation to increasing potential loss) on presence in the safe quadrant of the spatial grid. We hypothesized reduced loss adaptation in this measure under lorazepam and in patients with amygdala lesions. Lorazepam and amygdala lesions reduced loss adaptation in the primary outcome measure. We found similar results in several secondary outcome measures. The relative reduction of anxiety-like behavior in patients with amygdala lesions was qualitatively and quantitatively indistinguishable from an impact of anterior hippocampus lesions found in a previous report. Our results establish the translational validity of human approach-avoidance conflict tests in terms of anxiolytic drug action. We identified the amygdala, in addition to the hippocampus, as a critical structure in human anxiety-like behavior. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Coordination Behavior of Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ in Tetrahedral 1-Methylimidazole Complexes: A DFT/CSD Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tetteh, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    The interaction between nickel (Ni2+), copper (Cu2+), and zinc (Zn2+) ions and 1-methylimidazole has been studied by exploring the geometries of eleven crystal structures in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). The coordination behavior of the respective ions was further investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) methods. The gas-phase complexes were fully optimized using B3LYP/GENECP functionals with 6-31G∗ and LANL2DZ basis sets. The Ni2+ and Cu2+ complexes show distorted ...

  17. Enhancing conflict competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Roberta; McKinney, Nicole S

    2014-01-01

    Professional nurses are taking on leadership roles of diverse healthcare teams. Development of conflict competence is essential, yet requires self-awareness and deliberate effort. Heightened awareness of one's preferred conflict style and cognizance of the implications of overuse and/or underuse of these styles is important. DESIGN/METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: A pre-post survey design (N = 14) used paired sample T-test. Paired sample correlations and an overview of the paired sample test are reported. Students gained self-awareness about their preferred conflict style, recognized that each conflict style has its utility depending on any given situation, and demonstrated a difference in their most frequently used style. Limited data conveys conflict behavior styles among pre-licensure nursing; however, students can influence their own environments (either causing or fueling situations) by their personal conflict-handling styles. Early development of these skills can raise awareness and cultivate ease in the management of conflict within varied settings.

  18. Flowage differentiation in an andesitic dyke of the Motru Dyke Swarm (Southern Carpathians, Romania) inferred from AMS, CSD and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkono, Collin; Féménias, Olivier; Diot, Hervé; Berza, Tudor; Demaiffe, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    Two dykes of different thickness (5.5 m for TJ31 and 23 m for TJ34) from the late Pan-African calc-alkaline Motru Dyke Swarm (S. Carpathians, Romania) have been studied by electron microprobe (mineral chemistry), crystal size distribution (CSD), anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and whole-rock geochemistry. All the physical and chemical variations observed across the dyke's width point to concordant results and show that the variations of both modal abundance and size of the amphibole and biotite microphenocrysts inside the dykes (deduced from the classical CSD measurements) are the result of a mechanical segregation of suspended crystals during magmatic transport. Despite a pene-contemporaneous regional tectonic, the flow-induced differentiation in the thicker dyke is characterized by the concentration of pre-existing Ti-rich pargasite-tschermakite, clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystals in the core of the dyke and of the extracted differentiated liquid near the walls. This mechanical differentiation induces a chemical differentiation with a basaltic andesite composition for the core of the dyke whereas the margins are andesitic. Thus the chilled margins appear as a slightly more evolved liquid with a Newtonian behaviour when compared to the average composition of the dyke. The localization of the liquid on both sides of the dyke has certainly facilitated the ascent of the central part of the dyke that behaved as a Binghamian mush.

  19. Generator localization by current source density (CSD): Implications of volume conduction and field closure at intracranial and scalp resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenke, Craig E.; Kayser, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    The topographic ambiguity and reference-dependency that has plagued EEG/ERP research throughout its history are largely attributable to volume conduction, which may be concisely described by a vector form of Ohm’s Law. This biophysical relationship is common to popular algorithms that infer neuronal generators via inverse solutions. It may be further simplified as Poisson’s source equation, which identifies underlying current generators from estimates of the second spatial derivative of the field potential (Laplacian transformation). Intracranial current source density (CSD) studies have dissected the “cortical dipole” into intracortical sources and sinks, corresponding to physiologically-meaningful patterns of neuronal activity at a sublaminar resolution, much of which is locally cancelled (i.e., closed field). By virtue of the macroscopic scale of the scalp-recorded EEG, a surface Laplacian reflects the radial projections of these underlying currents, representing a unique, unambiguous measure of neuronal activity at scalp. Although the surface Laplacian requires minimal assumptions compared to complex, model-sensitive inverses, the resulting waveform topographies faithfully summarize and simplify essential constraints that must be placed on putative generators of a scalp potential topography, even if they arise from deep or partially-closed fields. CSD methods thereby provide a global empirical and biophysical context for generator localization, spanning scales from intracortical to scalp recordings. PMID:22796039

  20. Consumer Quality Index Chronic Skin Disease (CQI-CSD): a new instrument to measure quality of care from the patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Cranenburgh, O D; Krol, M W; Hendriks, M C P; de Rie, M A; Smets, E M A; de Korte, J; Sprangers, M A G

    2015-10-01

    Assessing quality of care from the patient's perspective is considered to be highly relevant. As a standardized instrument in dermatology was lacking, we developed a patient experience questionnaire regarding chronic skin disease care: the Consumer Quality Index Chronic Skin Disease (CQI-CSD). (i) To evaluate the dimensional structure of the CQI-CSD, (ii) to assess its ability to distinguish between hospitals according to patients' experiences with quality of care, (iii) to explore patients' experiences with dermatological care and priorities for quality improvement according to the patients, and (iv) to optimize the questionnaire based on psychometric results and stakeholders' input. In a cross-sectional study 5647 adult patients who received dermatological care in the past 12 months in 20 hospitals were randomly selected and invited to fill out the questionnaire. Overall 1160 of 3989 eligible respondents (29% response rate, 30-87 per hospital) were included for analysis. The CQI-CSD comprised seven scales with high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0·74-0·92). The instrument's discriminative power was limited. Patients were positive about the care provided by nurses and doctors, but the provision of information by healthcare providers, accessibility of care and patient involvement could be improved. We optimized the CQI-CSD, resulting in a revised questionnaire containing 65 items. In conclusion, the CQI-CSD is a useful instrument to measure patient experiences with dermatological care. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Political Violence and Child Adjustment: Longitudinal Tests of Sectarian Antisocial Behavior, Family Conflict and Insecurity as Explanatory Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the impact of political violence on child maladjustment is a matter of international concern. Recent research has advanced a social ecological explanation for relations between political violence and child adjustment. However, conclusions are qualified by the lack of longitudinal tests. Towards examining pathways longitudinally, mothers and their adolescents (M = 12.33, SD =1.78, at time 1) from two-parent families in Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures assessing multiple levels of a social ecological model. Utilizing autoregressive controls, a three-wave longitudinal model test (T1, n = 299; T2, n = 248; T3, n = 197) supported a specific pathway linking sectarian community violence, family conflict, children’s insecurity about family relationships, and adjustment problems. PMID:22313052

  2. Conflict of interest between a nematode and a trematode in an amphipod host: Test of the "sabotage" hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Frédéric; Fauchier, Jerome; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    Microphallus papillorobustus is a manipulative trematode that induces strong behavioural alterations in the gamaridean amphipod Gammarus insensibilis, making the amphipod more vulnerable to predation by aquatic birds (definitive hosts). Conversely, the sympatric nematodeGammarinema gammari uses Gammarus insensibilis as a habitat and a source of nutrition. We investigated the conflict of interest between these two parasite species by studying the consequences of mixed infection on amphipod behaviour associated with the trematode. In the field, some amphipods infected by the trematode did not display the altered behaviour. These normal amphipods also had more nematodes, suggesting that the nematode overpowered the manipulation of the trematode, a strategy that would prolong the nematode's life. We hypothesize that sabotage of the trematode by the nematode would be an adaptive strategy for the nematode consistent with recent speculation about co-operation and conflict in manipulative parasites. A behavioural test conducted in the laboratory from naturally infected amphipods yielded the same result. However, exposing amphipods to nematodes did not negate or decrease the manipulation exerted by the trematode. Similarly, experimental elimination of nematodes from amphipods did not permit trematodes to manipulate behaviour. These experimental data do not support the hypothesis that the negative association between nematodes and manipulation by the trematode is a result of the "sabotage" hypothesis.

  3. Characterization of the mechanism of protection mediated by CS-D7, a monoclonal antibody to Staphylococcus aureus iron regulated surface determinant B (IsdB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory ePancari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported the development of a human monoclonal antibody (CS-D7, IgG1 with specificity and affinity for the iron regulated surface determinant B (IsdB of Staphylococcus aureus. CS-D7 mediates opsonophagocytic killing in vitro and protection in a murine sepsis model. In light of recent data indicating that IsdB specific T cells (CD4+, Th17, not Ab, mediate protection after vaccination with IsdB, it is important to investigate the mechanism of protection mediated by CS-D7. The mAb was examined to determine if it blocked heme binding to IsdB in vitro. The mAb was not found to have heme blocking activity, nor did it prevent bacterial growth under in vivo conditions, in an implanted growth chamber. To assess the role of the mAb Fc a point mutation was introduced at aa 297 (CS-D7●N297A. This point mutation removes Fc effector functions. In vitro analysis of the mutein confirmed that it lacked measurable binding to FcγR, and that it did not fix complement. The mutein had dramatically reduced in vitro opsonic OP activity compared to CS-D7. Nonetheless, the mutein conferred protection equivalent to the wild type mAb in the murine sepsis model. Both wild type and mutein mAbs were efficacious in FcγR deletion mice (including both FcγRII-/- mice and FcγRIII-/- mice, indicating that these receptors were not essential for mAb mediated protection in vivo. Protection mediated by CS-D7 was lost in Balb/c mice depleted of C3 with cobra venom factor (CFV, was lost in mice depleted of superoxide dismutase (SOD in P47phox deletion mice, and was absent in SCID mice. Enhanced clearance of S. aureus in the liver of CS-D7 treated mice and enhanced production of INF-γ, but not of IL17, may play a role in the mechanism of protection mediated by the mAb. CS-D7 apparently mediates survival in challenged mice through a mechanism involving complement, phagocytes, and lymphocytes, but which does not depend on interaction with FcγR, or on blocking heme

  4. Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William; Koue, Glen

    1991-01-01

    Discusses general issues involved in conflict management and provides more specific examples of conflict management in libraries. Causes of conflict are considered, including organizational structure, departmentalization, performance appraisal, poor communication, and technological change; and methods of dealing with conflict are described,…

  5. Comparative Analyses of Zebrafish Anxiety-Like Behavior Using Conflict-Based Novelty Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kysil, Elana V; Meshalkina, Darya A; Frick, Erin E; Echevarria, David J; Rosemberg, Denis B; Maximino, Caio; Lima, Monica Gomes; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Ana C; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Song, Cai; Kalueff, Allan V

    2017-06-01

    Modeling of stress and anxiety in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly utilized in neuroscience research and central nervous system (CNS) drug discovery. Representing the most commonly used zebrafish anxiety models, the novel tank test (NTT) focuses on zebrafish diving in response to potentially threatening stimuli, whereas the light-dark test (LDT) is based on fish scototaxis (innate preference for dark vs. bright areas). Here, we systematically evaluate the utility of these two tests, combining meta-analyses of published literature with comparative in vivo behavioral and whole-body endocrine (cortisol) testing. Overall, the NTT and LDT behaviors demonstrate a generally good cross-test correlation in vivo, whereas meta-analyses of published literature show that both tests have similar sensitivity to zebrafish anxiety-like states. Finally, NTT evokes higher levels of cortisol, likely representing a more stressful procedure than LDT. Collectively, our study reappraises NTT and LDT for studying anxiety-like states in zebrafish, and emphasizes their developing utility for neurobehavioral research. These findings can help optimize drug screening procedures by choosing more appropriate models for testing anxiolytic or anxiogenic drugs.

  6. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray analysis of CsdL/TcdA reveal a new tRNA binding motif in the MoeB/E1 superfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López-Estepa

    Full Text Available Cyclic N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine ('cyclic t6A', ct(6A is a non-thiolated hypermodification found in transfer RNAs (tRNAs in bacteria, protists, fungi and plants. In bacteria and yeast cells ct(6A has been shown to enhance translation fidelity and efficiency of ANN codons by improving the faithful discrimination of aminoacylated tRNAs by the ribosome. To further the understanding of ct(6A biology we have determined the high-resolution crystal structures of CsdL/TcdA in complex with AMP and ATP, an E1-like activating enzyme from Escherichia coli, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent dehydration of t6A to form ct(6A. CsdL/TcdA is a dimer whose structural integrity and dimer interface depend critically on strongly bound K+ and Na+ cations. By using biochemical assays and small-angle X-ray scattering we show that CsdL/TcdA can associate with tRNA with a 1:1 stoichiometry and with the proper position and orientation for the cyclization of t6A. Furthermore, we show by nuclear magnetic resonance that CsdL/TcdA engages in transient interactions with CsdA and CsdE, which, in the latter case, involve catalytically important residues. These short-lived interactions may underpin the precise channeling of sulfur atoms from cysteine to CsdL/TcdA as previously characterized. In summary, the combination of structural, biophysical and biochemical methods applied to CsdL/TcdA has afforded a more thorough understanding of how the structure of this E1-like enzyme has been fine tuned to accomplish ct(6A synthesis on tRNAs while providing support for the notion that CsdA and CsdE are able to functionally interact with CsdL/TcdA.

  7. Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of high efficiency waste-fired power generation system using CSD and other wastes; Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (CSD nado haikibutsu riyo) jigyoka FS chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the feasibility of enterprise on power generation by thermal recycle and selling power together with volume reduction, de-harming (de-toxification) and stabilization of the shredder dust. Contents of the study include the investigation of generation amount of car shredder dust (CSD) and its properties, trial design of high efficiency power generation facilities, selection of boiler tube materials, incineration test with a melting kiln test plant, disposal and effective use of melted slag and fly ash, and environmental impact assessment. The capacity of waste disposal in the trial design contains 1,140 ton/day of shredder dust, 60 ton/day of waste plastics, sludge and waste paper, and 130 ton/day of waste oil. Melting kiln with secondary combustion chamber was adopted as the incineration type. The high temperature and high pressure waste heat boiler with an extraction condensing turbine was adopted as the waste heat recovery and power generation type. Stable combustion was confirmed from the results using a test plant. According to the consideration of cost and unit cost results for wholesale power supply, if it is postulated that income for waste disposal is 12,000 yen/ton, power generation costs in excess power selling and wholesales are 6.4 yen/kWh and 9.1 yen/kWh, respectively. 67 figs., 48 tabs.

  8. National report for CSD-16 The Netherlands: A review of sustainable development in agriculture, land and rural development, drought and desertification, and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, W.; Boone, K.; de Bont, C.; Brouwers, J.; Hack-Ten Broeke, M.; Migchels, G.; Oenema, O.; van de Peet, G.; Pinxterhuis, I.; Smit, A.; Stuiver, M.; Sukkel, W.; Verkerke, W.; Verzandvoort, S.; Visser, A.; Zwart, K.; Damen, M.

    2008-01-01

    This report forms the Netherlands’ contribution to CSD-16 (2008) of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. It comprises an overview of the Netherlands’ policies, priorities and activities with regard to sustainable development in the fields of agriculture, land and rural development, drought

  9. Consumer Quality Index Chronic Skin Disease (CQI-CSD): a new instrument to measure quality of care from the patient's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cranenburgh, O. D.; Krol, M. W.; Hendriks, M. C. P.; de Rie, M. A.; Smets, E. M. A.; de Korte, J.; Sprangers, M. A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing quality of care from the patient's perspective is considered to be highly relevant. As a standardized instrument in dermatology was lacking, we developed a patient experience questionnaire regarding chronic skin disease care: the Consumer Quality Index Chronic Skin Disease (CQI-CSD). (i)

  10. A Comparative Test of Work-Family Conflict Models and Critical Examination of Work-Family Linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jesse S.; Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.; Kotrba, Lindsey M.; LeBreton, James M.; Baltes, Boris B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive meta-analysis of over 20 years of work-family conflict research. A series of path analyses were conducted to compare and contrast existing work-family conflict models, as well as a new model we developed which integrates and synthesizes current work-family theory and research. This new model accounted for 40% of the…

  11. A comparison of face to face and group education on informed choice and decisional conflict of pregnant women about screening tests of fetal abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Masoumeh; Riyazi, Sahar; Lotfalizade, Marziyeh; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Suny, Hoseyn Jafari

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND GOAL: Screening of fetal anomalies is assumed as a necessary measurement in antenatal cares. The screening plans aim at empowerment of individuals to make the informed choice. This study was conducted in order to compare the effect of group and face-to-face education and decisional conflicts among the pregnant females regarding screening of fetal abnormalities. METHODS: This study of the clinical trial was carried out on 240 pregnant women at education course were held in two weekly sessions for intervention groups during two consecutive weeks, and the usual care was conducted for the control group. The rate of informed choice and decisional conflict was measured in pregnant women before education and also at weeks 20–22 of pregnancy in three groups. The data analysis was executed using SPSS statistical software (version 16), and statistical tests were implemented including Chi-square test, Kruskal–Wallis test, Wilcoxon test, Mann–Whitney U-test, one-way analysis of variance test, and Tukey's range test. The P education group, 64 members (80%) in group education class, and 20 persons (25%) in control group had the informed choice regarding screening tests, but there was no statistically significant difference between two individual and group education classes. Similarly, during the postintervention phase, there was a statistically significant difference in mean score of decisional conflict scale among pregnant women regarding screening tests in three groups (P = 0.001). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: With respect to effectiveness of group and face-to-face education methods in increasing the informed choice and reduced decisional conflict in pregnant women regarding screening tests, each of these education methods may be employed according to the clinical environment conditions and requirement to encourage the women for conducting the screening tests. PMID:29417066

  12. Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Munteanu

    2016-01-01

    It is advisable to tackle conflicts as part of organizational life. It is necessary to be aware thatan employee brings with itself at different work values, and strategies of the individual workingunder these conditions conflict opportunities are numerous.

  13. Family-Supportive Organization Perceptions, Multiple Dimensions of Work-Family Conflict, and Employee Satisfaction: A Test of Model across Five Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Laurent M.; Spector, Paul E.; Allen, Tammy D.; Poelmans, Steven; Cooper, Cary L.; O'Driscoll, Michael P.; Sanchez, Juan I.; Brough, Paula; Kinnunen, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Using samples of managers drawn from five Western countries, we tested a theoretical model linking employees' perceptions of their work environment's family-supportiveness to six different dimensions of work-family conflict (WFC), and to their job satisfaction, family satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Our results are consistent with a causal…

  14. Developing and testing a new method “Theme-situations” for the diagnostics of psychological readiness to developmental conflict resolution in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Gorlova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the procedure of development of the author's method for the study of psychological readiness to development conflict management in youth, consisting of three parts, which use the method of projection to varying degrees. The method involves diagnosis of development conflict management in adolescence and actualization of the basic contradictions of adolescence, associated with the importance of the following topics to a maturing individual: setting long-term goals, choice of professional self-realization, partner choice in a romantic relationship, solving the existential questions. The method involves identification of strategies to solve these conflicts by young people (asserting own position and “existential” type of answer to the existential question. It has been tested on the retest reliability and construct validity and showed a wide range of connections to the scales of many well-known psycho-diagnostic tools.

  15. Putting theory to the test: Examining family context, caregiver motivation, and conflict in the Family Check-Up model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Van Ryzin, Mark; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined contextual factors (caregiver depression, family resources, ethnicity, and initial levels of youth problem behavior) related to the effectiveness of the Family Check-Up (FCU) and evaluated family processes as a mediator of FCU intervention response and adolescent antisocial behavior. We followed a sample of 180 ethnically diverse youths of families who engaged in the FCU intervention. Family data were collected as part of the FCU assessment, and youth data were collected over 4 years, from sixth through ninth grade. Findings indicated that caregiver depression and minority status predicted greater caregiver motivation to change. In turn, caregiver motivation was the only direct predictor of FCU intervention response during a 1-year period. Growth in family conflict from sixth through eighth grade mediated the link between FCU response and ninth-grade antisocial behavior. This study explicitly tested core aspects of the FCU intervention model and demonstrated that caregiver motivation is a central factor that underlies family response to the FCU. The study also provided support for continued examination of family process mechanisms that account for enduring effects of the FCU and other family-centered interventions. PMID:24438894

  16. Putting theory to the test: examining family context, caregiver motivation, and conflict in the Family Check-Up model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosco, Gregory M; Van Ryzin, Mark; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Dishion, Thomas J

    2014-05-01

    This study examined contextual factors (caregiver depression, family resources, ethnicity, and initial levels of youth problem behavior) related to the effectiveness of the Family Check-Up (FCU) and evaluated family processes as a mediator of FCU intervention response and adolescent antisocial behavior. We followed a sample of 180 ethnically diverse youths of families who engaged in the FCU intervention. Family data were collected as part of the FCU assessment, and youth data were collected over 4 years, from sixth through ninth grade. Findings indicated that caregiver depression and minority status predicted greater caregiver motivation to change. In turn, caregiver motivation was the only direct predictor of FCU intervention response during a 1-year period. Growth in family conflict from sixth through eighth grade mediated the link between FCU response and ninth-grade antisocial behavior. This study explicitly tested core aspects of the FCU intervention model and demonstrated that caregiver motivation is a central factor that underlies family response to the FCU. The study also provided support for continued examination of family process mechanisms that account for enduring effects of the FCU and other family-centered interventions.

  17. Gender and work-family conflict: testing the rational model and the gender role expectations model in the Spanish cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Martínez-de-Lecea, José-María Salinas; del Carmen Aguilar-Luzón, María

    2012-01-01

    Gutek, Searle, and Klepa (1991) proposed two models to explain the gender differences in work-family conflict: the rational model and the gender role expectations model. Both models have mostly been tested on American and Canadian samples, and have obtained partial support. Given the cultural differences between North American countries and Spain, we should question whether the two models are equally applicable to Spanish society or whether one of them captures Spanish men and women's experience of work-family conflict better than the other. So, the aim of this study is to test which of the models better explains the gender differences in work-family conflict in the Spanish cultural context (or if, indeed, the two models apply equally well). Given the typical cultural dimensions of Spanish society, we expected to find greater support for the gender role expectations model than for the rational model. However, the results obtained in this study indicated that, while the rational model can explain the gender differences that were found, the gender role expectations model cannot capture Spanish people's work-family conflict experiences. The results are interpreted in terms of cultural dimensions characteristic of the Spanish context.

  18. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  19. A work-family conflict/subjective well-being process model: a test of competing theories of longitudinal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Russell A; Wayne, Julie Holliday; Ford, Michael T

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we examine competing predictions of stress reaction models and adaptation theories regarding the longitudinal relationship between work-family conflict and subjective well-being. Based on data from 432 participants over 3 time points with 2 lags of varying lengths (i.e., 1 month, 6 months), our findings suggest that in the short term, consistent with prior theory and research, work-family conflict is associated with poorer subjective well-being. Counter to traditional work-family predictions but consistent with adaptation theories, after accounting for concurrent levels of work-family conflict as well as past levels of subjective well-being, past exposure to work-family conflict was associated with higher levels of subjective well-being over time. Moreover, evidence was found for reverse causation in that greater subjective well-being at 1 point in time was associated with reduced work-family conflict at a subsequent point in time. Finally, the pattern of results did not vary as a function of using different temporal lags. We discuss the theoretical, research, and practical implications of our findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Conflict: Organizational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Stewart; Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Sewell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This article examines four contemporary treatments of the problem of organizational conflict: social psychological, anthropological, neo-Darwinian, and neo-Machiavellian. Social psychological treatments of organizational conflict focus on the dyadic relationship between individual disputants....... In contrast, anthropological treatments take a more socially and historically embedded approach to organizational conflict, focusing on how organizational actors establish negotiated orders of understanding. In a break with the social psychological and anthropological approaches, neo-Darwinians explain...... of organizational conflict where members of an organization are seen as politicized actors engaged in power struggles that continually ebb and flow....

  1. The Image of the 1967 War in Israeli History Textbooks as Test Case: Studying an Active Past in a Protracted Regional Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev, Esther

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to shed light on the dilemma facing history education in regions beset by a protracted, and as yet unresolved ethno-political conflict. The article will examine this issue by means of a unique test case that observes a dramatic war event in Israeli textbooks. The event in question is the Six-Day War of 1967 and the study of its…

  2. International Baccalaureate as a Litmus Test Revealing Conflicting Values and Power Relations in the Israeli Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, Miri; Dvir, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    This study comprises a comprehensive attempt to reveal the power relations and conflicting interests within the local-global nexus of the Israeli public education system. The perceptions of different stakeholders were explored, in regard to the implementation of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program as an example of a globally oriented…

  3. Conflict in schools: student nurses' conflict management styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantek, Filiz; Gezer, Nurdan

    2009-01-01

    Unless conflicts between the students and the instructors can be successfully managed, they will certainly result in negative outcomes for the students. The conflict management styles of the students should be recognized in detail in order to attain positive outcomes in regard to the conflict management styles. The purpose of this study was to examine the conflict management styles used by nursing students in conflict with faculty members and the differences in use of style from the aspect of some variables. This study was conducted with 151 students in a public university nursing school. Data were collected using a personal information form and the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II (ROCI II). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Tukey test, Kruskal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test and Cronbach alpha coefficient analyses. The students were found to use integrating (X=3.82) and obliging (X=3.81) styles the most, and dominating style (X=3.02) the least. In addition there were differences determined in management style between classes, frequency of experiencing conflict, and feeling of success in the conflict (pstyles were used more by those who evaluated themselves as successful in conflict management, but the avoiding and compromising styles were used more by students who evaluated themselves as unsuccessful. It was determined that the students preferred to use styles that produced positive results in conflict resolution and that the frequency of experiencing conflict and the feeling of success in conflict had an effect on choice of style. It will be helpful to analyze the relationship between the causes of conflict between the student and the instructor in the practice field and the uses of conflict management styles.

  4. Health Education in Practice: Employee Conflict Resolution Knowledge and Conflict Handling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Alexis; Renschler, Lauren; Kramer, Alaina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a brief workplace conflict resolution workshop improved employee conflict resolution knowledge and to examine which conflict handling strategies (Yielding, Compromising, Forcing, Problem-Solving, Avoiding) were most used by employees when dealing with workplace conflict. A pre-test/post-test control…

  5. Supervisor-employee power distance incompatibility, gender similarity, and relationship conflict: A test of interpersonal interaction theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Katrina A; Dust, Scott B; Ziegert, Jonathan C

    2018-03-01

    According to interpersonal interaction theory, relational harmony surfaces when two individuals have compatible interaction styles. Building from this theory, we propose that supervisor-employee power distance orientation incompatibility will be related to employees' experience of higher levels of relationship conflict with their supervisors. Additionally, we propose an asymmetrical incongruence effect such that relationship conflict will be highest when supervisors are high in power distance and employees are low in power distance. Furthermore, we address calls in interpersonal interaction research for more direct attention to the social context of the dyadic interaction and explore the moderating effects of supervisor-employee gender (dis)similarity on the relationship between this incompatibility and conflict. We propose that supervisor-employee gender dissimilarity (e.g., male-female or female-male pairs) acts as a conditional moderator, neutralizing the power distance incongruence effect and the asymmetrical incongruence effect. Using 259 supervisor-employee dyads in the physical therapy industry, the hypotheses were generally supported. Theoretical and practical implications regarding the unique benefits of power distance compatibility and gender diversity in supervisor-employee dyads are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Parenting Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Parenting Conflicts Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...

  7. When Task Conflict Becomes Personal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenter, Hannes; van Emmerik, Hetty; Schreurs, Bert; Kuypers, Tom; van Iterson, Ad; Notelaers, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association. We test a three-wave longitudinal model by means of random coefficient growth modeling, using data from 60 ongoing teams working in a health care organization. Results provide partial support for our hypotheses. Only when perceived team performance is low, do task conflicts relate with growth in relationship conflict. We conclude that perceived team performance seems to enable teams to uncouple task from relationship conflict. PMID:28190944

  8. CONFLICTING REASONS

    OpenAIRE

    Parfit, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Sidgwick believed that, when impartial reasons conflict with self-interested reasons, there are no truths about their relative strength. There are such truths, I claim, but these truths are imprecise. Many self-interested reasons are decisively outweighed by conflicting impar-tial moral reasons. But we often have sufficient self-interested reasons to do what would make things go worse, and we sometimes have sufficient self-interested reasons to act wrongly. If we reject Act Consequentialism, ...

  9. Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul; Bramsen, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Isabel Bramsen & Poul Poder 2018. Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Online Edition. Berlin: Berghof Foundation. Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Online Edition. Berlin: Berghof Foundation.

  10. Conflicts about Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terrence

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutical representatives use detailing, gift giving, and the donation of free samples as a means to gain access to and influence over physicians. In biomedical ethics, there has been an ongoing debate as to whether these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest (COI) on the part of the physician. Underlying this debate are the following antecedent questions: (1) what counts as a conflict of interest, (2) when are such conflicts unethical, and (3) how should the ethical physician respond to conflicts? This article distinguishes between two perspectives that have been developed on these issues: a reliable performance model (PM) and a trustworthiness model (TM). PM advocates argue that a conflict of interest can only be established by demonstrating that a particular influence is undermining the reliability of the physician's judgment, and this requires empirical evidence of negative patient outcomes. TM advocates, on the other hand, argue that because of the fiduciary nature of the patient-physician relationship, physicians have an obligation to develop and be worthy of patient trust. A COI, on this view, is a condition that undermines the warrant for patients to judge a physician as trustworthy. Although there is much that is right in the PM, it is argued that the TM does a better job of responsibly addressing the unique vulnerabilities of the patient. The TM is then applied to the practices of detailing, gift giving, and sample donation. It is concluded that these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest.

  11. When conflicts are good: nonconscious goal conflicts reduce confirmatory thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Tali; Hassin, Ran R

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we argue that nonconscious goal conflicts are accompanied by a mindset that has wide-ranging implications for reasoning and thinking in content areas that are not part of the conflict itself. Specifically, we propose that nonconscious goal conflicts induce a mode of processing information that increases the likelihood of approaching an issue from opposing perspectives. This hypothesis is examined by investigating the effects of nonconscious goal conflicts on confirmatory thinking, that is, a way of thinking that narrowly focuses on confirmation rather than on broader examination of information. In 5 experiments, we show that nonconscious goal conflicts significantly reduce confirmatory hypothesis testing (Experiments 1 through 3) and anchoring (Experiments 4 and 5). We further show that these effects result from a goal conflict by rejecting explanations based on priming of semantic opposites, and priming of multiple goals that do not conflict (Experiments 2 and 3), and by examining decision times as a conflict process variable (Experiment 5). Using various probes, we show that these changes in confirmatory judgments are not accompanied by changes in conflict phenomenology. Together, these results suggest that nonconscious goal conflicts attenuate the robust confirmatory thinking strategy that characterizes human thinking in numerous domains.

  12. Friendship Conflict, Conflict Responses, and Instability: Unique Links to Anxious and Angry Forms of Rejection Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Carissa D.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) instigates conflict and prompts maladaptive conflict responses within romantic relationships. We tested whether RS had similar effects within friendships (N = 262, X[subscript age] = 11.7) by investigating whether (a) RS was associated with more frequent conflict, (b) two RS forms prompted different conflict responses,…

  13. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    their everyday life in Denmark, and to single out specific contemporary political events like the publishing of the cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad, local clashes with the Danish police and the Israeli invasion of Gaza. The ethnography discloses that the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is not a chronological...

  14. Celebritizing Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2 In......, conflict, and development in Africa....

  15. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.; Bauer, F.; Groß, H.; Sieglen, G.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  16. Conceptions of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Clegg, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    . In doing so, we first apply a genealogical approach to study conceptions of conflict, and we find that three distinct and essentially contested conceptions frame studies of conflict at work. Second, we employ two empirical examples of conflict to illustrate how organizational conflict research can benefit......Diverse and often unacknowledged assumptions underlie organizational conflict research. In this essay, we identify distinct ways of conceptualizing conflict in the theoretical domain of organizational conflict with the aim of setting a new critical agenda for reflexivity in conflict research...

  17. Factors Influencing of Social Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwandi Sumartias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social conflicts that occur in several areas in Indonesia lately, one of them is caused by the weakness of law certainty. This is feared to threaten the integration of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to determine the factors that affect social conflict in Manis Lor village in Kuningan district. The method used the explanatory quantitative methods, the statistical test Path Analysis. The study population was a formal and informal community leaders (village chief, clergy, and youth, and the people who involved in a conflict in Manis Lor village Kuningan regency. The result shows a There is no significant influence between social identity factors with social conflict anarchist. b There is significant influence between socio-economic factors with social conflict anarchists. c There is no significant influence between the credibility factor anarchist leaders with social conflict. d There is no significant influence between the motive factor with anarchist social conflict. e There is significant influence between personality factors/beliefs with anarchist social conflict. f There is significant influence of behavioral factors anarchist communication with social conflict.

  18. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): Exploring the Factor Structure and Cutoff Thresholds in a Representative Post-Conflict Population in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Alden Hooper; Pearce, Margo Ellen; Katamba, Achilles; Malamba, Samuel S; Muyinda, Herbert; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2017-05-01

    Despite increased use of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have assessed its underlying conceptual framework, and none have done so in post-conflict settings. Further, significant inconsistencies exist between definitions used for problematic consumption. Such is the case in Uganda, facing one of the highest per-capita alcohol consumption levels regionally, which is thought to be hindering rebuilding in the North after two decades of civil war. This study explores the impact of varying designation cutoff thresholds in the AUDIT as well as its conceptual factor structure in a representative sample of the population. In all, 1720 Cango Lyec Project participants completed socio-economic and mental health questionnaires, provided blood samples and took the AUDIT. Participant characteristics and consumption designations were compared at AUDIT summary score thresholds of ≥3, ≥5 and ≥8. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) explored one-, two- and three-factor level models overall and by sex with relative and absolute fit indicators. There were no significant differences in participant demographic characteristics between thresholds. At higher cutoffs, the test increased in specificity to identify those with hazardous drinking, disordered drinking and suffering from alcohol-related harms. All conceptual models indicated good fit, with three-factor models superior overall and within both sexes. In Northern Uganda, a three-factor AUDIT model best explores alcohol use in the population and is appropriate for use in both sexes. Lower cutoff thresholds are recommended to identify those with potentially disordered drinking to best plan effective interventions and treatments. A CFA of the AUDIT showed good fit for one-, two, and three-factor models overall and by sex in a representative sample in post-conflict Northern Uganda. A three-plus total AUDIT cutoff score is suggested to screen for hazardous drinking in this or

  19. Political Violence and Child Adjustment: Longitudinal Tests of Sectarian Antisocial Behavior, Family Conflict, and Insecurity as Explanatory Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Edward M.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of political violence on child maladjustment is a matter of international concern. Recent research has advanced a social ecological explanation for relations between political violence and child adjustment. However, conclusions are qualified by the lack of longitudinal tests. Toward examining pathways longitudinally,…

  20. Patch testing with uranyl acetate in veterans exposed to depleted uranium during the 1991 Gulf war and the Iraqi conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartsbeyn, Marianna; Tuchinda, Papapit; Gaitens, Joanna; Squibb, Katherine S; McDiarmid, Melissa A; Gaspari, Anthony A

    2011-01-01

    The Depleted Uranium Follow-Up Program is a clinical surveillance program run by the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center since 1993 for veterans of the Gulf and Iraqi wars who were exposed to depleted uranium (DU) as a result of "friendly-fire" incidents. In 2009, 40 veterans from this cohort were screened for skin reactivity to metals by patch-testing with extended metal series and uranyl acetate (0.25%, 2.5%, and 25%). A control arm comprised 46 patients without any known occupational exposures to DU who were seen at the University of Maryland Dermatology Clinic for evaluation of allergic contact dermatitis. Excluding irritant reactions, no patch-test reactions to uranyl acetate were observed in the participants. Irritant reactions to DU were more common in the clinic cohort, likely reflective of the demographic differences between the two arms of the study. Biologic monitoring of urine uranium concentrations in the DU program participants with 24-hour urine samples showed evidence of percutaneous uranium absorption from the skin patches. We conclude that dermatitis observed in a subset of the veterans was unrelated to their military DU exposure. Our data suggest that future studies of skin testing with uranyl acetate should utilize 0.25%, the least irritating concentration.

  1. Prenatal HIV testing: the compartmentalization of women's sexual risk exposure and the return of the maternal fetal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kristin; Hampson, Sarah Cote; Huff, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the researchers in this study was to investigate how women who were being tested for HIV during their pregnancies were evaluating, conceptualizing, and negotiating their risk of infection. The study included two focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews with 30 patients, ages 17-38 years, from diverse ethnic/racial, social, and economic backgrounds. Qualitative analyses of the interview transcripts revealed support for the idea that pregnant women have a responsibility to minimize risks to their fetus, with all interviewees describing actions to minimize those risks while pregnant. Two sub-themes emerged that were related to the presence of differences in how interviewees conceptualized risk depending on the type of risk being discussed. In the case of diet and lifestyle influences, interviewees framed their health and the health of the fetus as connected. In contrast, when the issue of HIV risk and testing was raised, the interviewees described the risk of HIV to themselves and their fetuses as separate concerns and, with few exceptions, reported no effort to reduce the risk of becoming infected while pregnant (beyond consenting to HIV screening while receiving prenatal care). Findings suggest the importance of developing HIV prevention messages that counter the compartmentalization of risk during pregnancy.

  2. Koumine exhibits anxiolytic properties without inducing adverse neurological effects on functional observation battery, open-field and Vogel conflict tests in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Jie; Zhong, Zhi-Feng; Xin, Zhi-Ming; Hong, Long-Hui; Su, Yan-Ping; Yu, Chang-Xi

    2017-04-01

    Koumine, an active alkaloid of neurotoxic plant Gelsemium, has been focused on its therapeutic uses, especially in central nervous system. Nevertheless, less is known about the neurological effects of koumine, which hampers its potential therapeutic exploitation. Moreover, as the anxiolytic potential of Gelsemium has raised many critical issues, its active principles on the anxiolytic and other neurological effects need to be further investigated. Here, we used functional observation battery (FOB) of mice to systematically measure the neurological effects of koumine at the effective doses, and then further confirmed its anxiolytic properties in open-field test (OFT) of mice and Vogel conflict test (VCT) of rats. Koumine exhibited anxiolytic-like activities but did not affect other autonomic, neurological and physical functions in FOB. Furthermore, koumine released anxiolytic responses and anti-punishment action in a manner similar to diazepam in OFT and VCT, respectively. The results constitutes solid set of fundamental data further demonstrating anxiolytic properties of koumine at the therapeutic doses without inducing adverse neurological effects, which supports the perspectives for the development of safe and effective koumine medicine against pathological anxiety.

  3. The effect of psychological capital between work-family conflict and job burnout in Chinese university teachers: Testing for mediation and moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jun; Hou, Hanpo; Ma, Ruiyang; Sang, Jinyan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between work-family conflict and job burnout as well as the potential mediation/moderation effects of psychological capital. Participants were 357 university teachers who completed a questionnaire packet containing a work-family conflict scale, psychological capital questionnaire, and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General survey. According to the results, work-family conflict and psychological capital were both significantly correlated with job burnout. In addition, psychological capital cannot mediate-but can moderate-the relationship between work-family conflict and job burnout. Taken together, our findings shed light on the psychological capital underlying the association of work-family conflict and job burnout.

  4. The Universal Constitutionalism in an Age of Religious Diversity. Western Secularism Tested by “New” Cultural Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Alicino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An abridged version of this article (reported by Prof. Nicola Colaianni, University of Bari “Aldo Moro” was presented at the Seminar on “Secularism and Liberal Constitutionalism”, held at the University of LUISS “Guido Carli” (Rome on 6th July 2010.This article is due to be published in the International Review of Sociology, in 2011. SUMMARY: 1. Introduction – 2. Relation-Collaboration between the State and Churches in Constitutional Democracies – 3. The laicité à la française Tested by a Deprivatised Religious Process – 3.1. The French Rigid Secularism. Freedom (of Religion through the State – 4. Canada’s Open Secularism. The  question of Religious-Based Family Law Disputes – 4.1 Reasonable Accommodation and “New” Religious Nomoi Groups – 5. Collaboration-Relation between the State and Churches in Italy – 5.1. The Italian Secularism Tested by the New “Religious Geography” – 6. Conclusion. Abstract Under the pressing process of immigration and globalisation many Western constitutional democracies have moved from a number of religions, sharing a common culture, to today's age of diversity. As opposed to the past, the current democracies are facing the lack of overlapping consensus over the basic constitutional laws: namely, the meaning and the scope of freedom of religion, secularism, the separation Church-State, equal treatment and the rule of law. This is because individuals often come to adopt their basic values by very different ways. The nature, scope and force of such values are likely to be affected by competing and, sometimes, contested fundamental values and worldviews. From here stems the pressing tension – or dilemma – between “unity” and “diversity”. This essay starts with general considerations about the freedom of religion principle, strictly related with the “separation” as well as “collaboration” between secular States and Churches; then the author analyses three case

  5. Varieties of Organizational Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Louis R.

    1969-01-01

    The viewpoints and findings of the seven empirical studies of organizational conflict contained in this issue are compared and contrasted. A distinction is made between conflict within a stable organization structure and conflict aimed at changing the organization structure. (Author)

  6. Healthy Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Without healthy conflict management skills, conflict can often escalate or intensify over time. This fact sheet gives tips on utilizing key negotiation skills to help individuals effectively address and cope with conflict and potentially build stronger relationships with others.

  7. Cardiovascular reactivity to a marital conflict version of the Trier social stress test in intimate partner violence perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Angel; Nunes-Costa, Rui; Lila, Marisol; González-Bono, Esperanza; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2014-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators have been categorized into two groups based on their heart rate (HR) reactivity to stress following Gottman's studies. Overall, type I perpetrators tend to show autonomic underarousal, whereas type II or reactive perpetrators present a hyper-reactivity in anticipation of stress. In this study, changes in HR, pre-ejection period (PEP), vagal ratio as well as psychological state variables (anxiety and anger) in response to stress were assessed, comparing a group of type II IPV perpetrators (based on violence reports and psychological assessment; n = 17; mean age = 37) with non-violent controls (n = 17; mean age = 35) using modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. IPV perpetrators had higher HRs and lower vagal ratios than controls, particularly during the recovery period. Moreover, the former presented shorter PEPs than controls. There were no differences between groups in the magnitude of response of the HR, PEP or vagal ratio. High baseline anxiety and anger were associated with an HR increase during the preparation time in IPV perpetrators but not in controls. These findings indicate a different cardiovascular pattern of response to psychosocial stress in IPV perpetrators, especially during recovery. Thus, they contribute to understanding the biological functioning of violence sub-types, supporting the validity of cardiovascular measures as diagnostic indicators for IPV classification.

  8. Conflict Termination: Every Conflict Must End

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garza, Mario

    1997-01-01

    .... The operational commander and his staff must understand the nature of conflict termination and the post-conflict activities so that they will be able to effectively translate the desired end state...

  9. A Contingency Model of Conflict and Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jason D.; Zhu, Jing; Duffy, Michelle K.; Scott, Kristin L.; Shih, Hsi-An; Susanto, Ely

    2011-01-01

    The authors develop and test theoretical extensions of the relationships of task conflict, relationship conflict, and 2 dimensions of team effectiveness (performance and team-member satisfaction) among 2 samples of work teams in Taiwan and Indonesia. Findings show that relationship conflict moderates the task conflict-team performance…

  10. Substantive and relational effectiveness of organizational conflict behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euwema, M C; Van de Vliert, E; Bakker, A B

    2003-01-01

    In this observation study the theory of conglomerated conflict behavior is tested. The impact of seven conflict behaviors on substantive and relational conflict outcomes is examined through multiple independent observations of 103 Dutch nurse managers handling a standardized conflict. Results show

  11. The reasons for conflict and conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Adnan; Ergün, Ercan; Alpkan, Lütfihak

    2000-01-01

    This study has been conducted in order to investigate the nature, types, reasons and parties of conflict, and thus to contribute to the conflict management. After defining the concept of conflict as "a struggle in the form of a limited competition" or "disagreement or discord among the parties" , this article has mentioned the fact that conflict is unavoidable and also if managed properly, it can bring to the organization some functional advantage. In this respect, we conducted a question...

  12. Daily work-family conflict and alcohol use: testing the cross-level moderation effects of peer drinking norms and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Liu, Songqi; Zhan, Yujie; Shi, Junqi

    2010-03-01

    In the current study, we conducted daily telephone interviews with a sample of Chinese workers (N = 57) for 5 weeks to examine relationships between daily work-family conflict and alcohol use. Drawn from the tension reduction theory and the stressor-vulnerability model, daily work-family conflict variables were hypothesized to predict employees' daily alcohol use. Further, social variables (i.e., peer drinking norms, family support, and coworker support) were hypothesized to moderate the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use. Results showed that daily work-to-family conflict but not family-to-work conflict had a significant within-subject main effect on daily alcohol use. In addition, there was significant between-subject variation in the relationship between work-to-family conflict and alcohol use, which was predicted by peer drinking norms, coworker support, and family support. The current findings shed light on the daily health behavior consequences of work-family conflict and provide important theoretical and practical implications. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  13. CROSS CULTURAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES: DATA REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray ALAGÖZLÜ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The way conflicts are solved is thought to be culturally learned (Hammer, 2005; therefore, this is reflected through language use. Conflicts, as inevitable parts of communication, naturally mirror cultural differences. Intercultural conflict styles have been studied so far by various researchers. How conflicts are initiated, maintained and escalated or terminated are all culture bound (Leung, 2002 and all the related stages vary from one culture to another. In the related literature, there have been attempts to describe different conflict handling classifications. Using Hammer’s (2005 categorization that was found to be more refined and summative, conflict resolution styles of Turkish and American College students were explored using Discourse Completion Tests (DCT with eight conflict situations where the respondents were required to write verbal solutions to overcome the conflicts described in the test. Those utterances were categorized according to Directness/Indirectness Scale modified from Hammer’s (2005 “International Conflict Style Inventory (ICSI” that classifies intercultural conflict resolution styles as high/low level of directness and high/low level of emotional expressiveness. It is believed that the study provides insight into intercultural communication as there are culturally generalizable (etic and learned patterns of conflict resolution styles pertinent to different cultures (Hammer, 2009, p. 223; Ting-Toomey, 1994.

  14. Employee pathway to voluntary turnover: Testing the direct and ınteractive roles of work family conflict and work family facilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Okechukwu Ethelbert Amah

    2009-01-01

    The direct effect of work family conflict on turnover has received much attention in organizational studies. However, neither the direct effect of work family facilitation on turnover nor the effect of its interaction with work family conflict on voluntary turnover has received similar attention. This has resulted in low explained variance in turnover in models that excluded these relationships. Using 450 participants drawn from employees in Nigeria, I found significant direct and interaction...

  15. Consequences of Work-Family Conflict: Testing a New Model of Work-Related, Non-Work-Related and Sress-Related Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Esson, Patrice L.

    2004-01-01

    With the demographic layout of the workplace changing constantly, as more women enter the workforce, and as new organizational hiring practices lead to more diversity in the work environment, both researchers and employers have become increasingly interested in understanding the consequences of work-family conflict. Work-family conflict affects the individuals suffering from it, their families, and their employers. Thus, it is important to have a robust and comprehensive causal model that exp...

  16. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict Management in the Bawku Municipal ... institutional arrangements for conflict monitoring and evaluation. Such processes are 'sine qua non' to pre-conflict and post-conflict prevention.

  17. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  18. Interpersonal Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Albert E.

    1978-01-01

    The difference between constructive and destructive conflicts may be traced to the way in which they are managed. Third-party help is often utilized to achieve constructive conflict management. This article describes two models for conflict management consultation. Five guidelines are given for constructive conflict management. (Author/JEL)

  19. Exploring relations between task conflict and informational conflict in the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entel, Olga; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Shahar, Nitzan

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we tested the proposal that the Stroop task involves two conflicts--task conflict and informational conflict. Task conflict was defined as the latency difference between color words and non-letter neutrals, and manipulated by varying the proportion of color words versus non-letter neutrals. Informational conflict was defined as the latency difference between incongruent and congruent trials and manipulated by varying the congruent-to-incongruent trial ratio. We replicated previous findings showing that increasing the ratio of incongruent-to-congruent trials reduces the latency difference between the incongruent and congruent condition (i.e., informational conflict), as does increasing the proportion of color words (i.e., task conflict). A significant under-additive interaction between the two proportion manipulations (congruent vs. incongruent and color words vs. neutrals) indicated that the effects of task conflict and informational conflict were not additive. By assessing task conflict as the contrast between color words and neutrals, we found that task conflict existed in all of our experimental conditions. Under specific conditions, when task conflict dominated behavior by explaining most of the variability between congruency conditions, we also found negative facilitation, thus demonstrating that this effect is a special case of task conflict.

  20. Can closeness, conflict, and dependency be used to characterize students' perceptions of the affective relationship with their teacher? Testing a new child measure in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomen, Helma M Y; Jellesma, Francine C

    2015-12-01

    The constructs of closeness, conflict, and dependency, which are derived from attachment theory, are widely used to qualify teachers' perceptions of relationships with individual children. Our main aim was to reveal whether similar and reliable dimensions could be identified in middle childhood with a newly developed student measure Student Perception of Affective Relationship with Teacher Scale (SPARTS). Additional validity support was sought by examining gender differences and associations with (1) teacher relationship perceptions and (2) problem and prosocial behaviours in children. Factor structure was determined in a sample of 586 children (46.5% boys) from 26 regular elementary Dutch classrooms (grade 4-6). Associations with teacher relationship reports (n = 82) and child behaviours (n = 64) were analysed in random subsamples. Students' relationship perceptions were assessed with the SPARTS; teachers' relationship perceptions with the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS; closeness, conflict, and dependency); and problem and prosocial behaviours in children with the teacher-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 3-factor model of conflict, closeness, and a third factor, unexpectedly reflecting negative expectations of the student instead of dependency. Satisfactory internal consistency was found for all three scales. Additional validity evidence included the following: Substantial student-teacher agreement for conflict and closeness; meaningful associations with problem and prosocial behaviours in children; and expected gender differences showing that, compared to boys, girls share more favourable relationships (more closeness and less conflict) with teachers. The 3-dimensional SPARTS comes close to the attachment-derived teacher STRS, as far as conflict and closeness are concerned. The third dimension, negative expectations, represents a new and relevant attachment

  1. Managing Organizational Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali PATHAK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of conflict, being an outcome of behaviours, is an integral part of human life. Wherever there is a difference of opinion there are chances of conflict. Managing conflict effectively demands multifarious professional abilities and acumen. To resolve and manage conflict, the organisations must understand the causes, theories, approaches and strategies of conflict management. Conflict and stress are interlinked as they are dependent on each other. It is a psychological phenomenon that requires a high level of attention and thorough understanding. It appears that there is a very little margin to remain unaffected from the clutches of stress in contemporary time.

  2. Personality Types and Development of Adolescents' Conflict with Friends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan J. T.; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    This study examined the development of adolescents' conflict frequency and conflict resolution with their best friends, and tested whether adolescents with different personality types differed in these developmental changes from early to middle adolescence. Dutch adolescents (N = 922, 468 boys;

  3. Can closeness, conflict, and dependency be used to characterize students’ perceptions of the affective relationship with their teacher? Testing a new child measure in middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomen, H.M.Y.; Jellesma, F.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The constructs of closeness, conflict, and dependency, which are derived from attachment theory, are widely used to qualify teachers’ perceptions of relationships with individual children. Aims Our main aim was to reveal whether similar and reliable dimensions could be identified in

  4. Can Closeness, Conflict, and Dependency Be Used to Characterize Students' Perceptions of the Affective Relationship with Their Teacher? Testing a New Child Measure in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Jellesma, Francine C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The constructs of closeness, conflict, and dependency, which are derived from attachment theory, are widely used to qualify teachers' perceptions of relationships with individual children. Aims: Our main aim was to reveal whether similar and reliable dimensions could be identified in middle childhood with a newly developed student…

  5. Fulani herdsmen's pastoral activities, conflict and conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LGA) of Oyo state Nigeria had come with some challenges over the years of interacting with their host community. This study was aimed at determining the effects of nomadic farming in the study area attendant conflicts and conflict management ...

  6. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  7. CONFLICT AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: A SPRINGBOARD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this paper, which is basically a literature review, the writer undertook a critical analysis of the causes and consequences of organisational conflict. He further ... The relevance and function of conflict in organisations have been an issue of ..... Studies have shown that “too much work can lead to a variety of stress-related.

  8. Managing Conflict during Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join AAMFT Approved Supervisors My Account Benefits Managing Conflict During Divorce Ending a marriage or a long- ... themselves in the middle of confusing and overwhelming conflict. When children are involved, finding ways to manage ...

  9. The Darfur Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    present Presentation Interactive Media Element This interactive media element provides information related to the Darfur conflict in Sudan such as the locations of attacks, a conflict timeline, etc. NS4311 Contemporary Issues in African Politics

  10. Heuristics in Conflict Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Christian; Gebser, Martin; Kaufmann, Benjamin; Schaub, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Modern solvers for Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) and Answer Set Programming (ASP) are based on sophisticated Boolean constraint solving techniques. In both areas, conflict-driven learning and related techniques constitute key features whose application is enabled by conflict analysis. Although various conflict analysis schemes have been proposed, implemented, and studied both theoretically and practically in the SAT area, the heuristic aspects involved in conflict analysis have not yet receive...

  11. Conflict in workgroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehn, K.A.; Rispens, S.; Barlings, J.; Cooper, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    The original research on conflict in organizations suggested that conflict was a negative force, but some of the early theorizing also suggested some positive effects (e.g., idea generation, constructive criticism, creativity). A resurgence of research on workgroup conflict in the past 15 years

  12. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is

  13. Conflicts and social impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Nielsen, Helle

    2017-01-01

    The transition to renewable energy is currently in many places challenged by conflicts over specific projects. For example siting of onshore wind turbines often causes conflicts with local communities, sometimes leading to abandonment of the project or plan. This paper presents an analysis...... of such conflicts, and the role social impacts play. The paper analyses in depth four cases of renewable energy projects, utilizing a conceptualization of conflict constituted by three elements: Attitude, behavior and contradictions. Through analysis of EIA reports and hearing responses as well as interviews......, the paper digs deeper to nuance what constitutes the conflicts and what role social impacts play....

  14. Conflict management and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay; Wood, Beverly P

    2006-03-01

    When people work collaboratively, conflict will always arise. Understanding the nature and source of conflict and its progression and stages, resolution, and outcome is a vital aspect of leadership. Causes of conflict include the miscomprehension of communication, emotional issues, personal history, and values. When the difference is understood and the resultant behavior properly addressed, most conflict can be settled in a way that provides needed change in an organization and interrelationships. There are serious consequences of avoiding or mismanaging disagreements. Informed leaders can effectively prevent destructive conflicts.

  15. Pharmacists' experience of conflict in community practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Zubin; Gregory, Paul A M; Martin, J Craig

    2010-03-01

    Interpersonal conflict may be characterized as intellectual disagreement with emotional entanglement. While interpersonal conflict has been studied and described in different health care settings, there is little research that focuses on community pharmacists and the ways in which they experience conflict in professional practice. To describe and characterize the experience of interpersonal conflict within community pharmacy practice. A self-reporting narrative log was developed in which actively recruited pharmacists reported and reflected upon their day-to-day experiences of interpersonal conflict in professional practice. Focus groups of pharmacists were convened following data analysis to provide context and confirmation of identified themes. Based on this analysis, an explanatory model for interpersonal conflict in community pharmacy practice was generated. Participants were actively recruited from community pharmacy settings in the Toronto (Canada) area. A total of 41 community pharmacists participated. Interpersonal conflict in pharmacy practice is ubiquitous and results from diverse triggers. A conflict stance model was developed, based on the worldview and the communication style of the individual pharmacist. Specific conflict stances identified were: imposing, thwarting, settling, and avoiding. Further testing and refinement of this model is required. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    2001-01-01

    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  17. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is important in determining whether conflicts are functional or dysfunctional. Moreover, the way conflicts are handled might reveal information about the nature of relationships and their developmental status...

  18. A conflict management scale for pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Zubin; Gregory, Paul A; Martin, Craig

    2009-11-12

    To develop and establish the validity and reliability of a conflict management scale specific to pharmacy practice and education. A multistage inventory-item development process was undertaken involving 93 pharmacists and using a previously described explanatory model for conflict in pharmacy practice. A 19-item inventory was developed, field tested, and validated. The conflict management scale (CMS) demonstrated an acceptable degree of reliability and validity for use in educational or practice settings to promote self-reflection and self-awareness regarding individuals' conflict management styles. The CMS provides a unique, pharmacy-specific method for individuals to determine and reflect upon their own conflict management styles. As part of an educational program to facilitate self-reflection and heighten self-awareness, the CMS may be a useful tool to promote discussions related to an important part of pharmacy practice.

  19. Conflict in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Smolinski, Remigiusz; Speakman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this conceptual paper is to apply the insights of recent routine research in the area of conflict and conflict management. As a result, the authors identify four different types of conflict sources that are rooted in routines and the specific difficulties connected with their change......: the repetitive character of routine, disagreement over the “validity” of the existing routines, disagreement concerning the definition of new targets, and resistance towards change processes. Further the authors point to the inherent tendency to routinize conflict management strategies and the risks...... that are associated with this process. As a result, this paper offers new insights into the causes and structure of conflicts triggered by change processes as well as into the management of repetitive conflicts....

  20. Conflict or Consensus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Poulsen, Birgitte

    forms of institutional design of citizen participation processes, less attention has been paid to the role of public administrators, and their role in facilitating processes of citizen participation. Public administrators have to work with diverse groups of citizens with diverging, and often conflicting......, interests. However, many public administrators have not been adequately exposed to the rationales of conflicts and the skills in resolving conflicts. The aim of this paper is to analyse the different types of conflicts that public administrators experience in formal processes of citizen involvement. Whereas...... as drivers for innovation, provided they are carefully managed. However, we claim that more focus on different types of conflicts and the handling of these conflicts is important in public administration and processes of citizen participation. The paper, thus, aims at connecting the knowledge from vast...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT MEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA G. MIHUT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At a time of global economic crisis followed by resource crisis, a period in which the world seeks alternative resources through eco-investment, environmental conflicts are inevitable. Romania is among the few countries that do not pay enough attention to environmental conflicts and to the advantages to of solving them through mediation procedure. The present paper deals with areas in which conflicts can be applied in environmental mediation and its benefits.

  2. Resolving conflicts within organization

    OpenAIRE

    Augulytė, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between individuals, whether it would be with colleagues, business partners or supervisors, is inevitable in every organisation. Collaborative work and aim for common goals encourages idea, experience and insight exchange. From time to time differences in opinions might arise, which result in value- related or intellectual clash, also known as a conflict. Therefore, it is paramount to know how to manage conflicts. In order to successfully overcome the conflicts, organisations shou...

  3. I’ll Never Forgive You: High Conflict Divorce, Social Network, and Co-Parenting Conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.M.; Finkenauer, Catrin; Schoemaker, Kim S.; Kluwer, Esther S.; van der Rijken, Rachel; van Lawick, Justine; Bom, Hans; de Schipper, J. Clasien; Lamers, F.

    2017-01-01

    The relation between divorce, co-parenting conflicts, and children’s adjustment problems has been well established. An unresolved question for research and clinical interventions, however, is how conflicts between parents are maintained and/or escalate. This cross-sectional research tested the

  4. I'll never forgive you: High conflict divorce, social network, and co-parenting conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Finkenauer, C.; Schoemaker, K.; Kluwer, E.S.; Rijken, R.E.A. van der; Lawick, M.J. van; Bom, H.; Schipper, J.C. de; Lamers, F.

    2017-01-01

    The relation between divorce, co-parenting conflicts, and children's adjustment problems has been well established. An unresolved question for research and clinical interventions, however, is how conflicts between parents are maintained and/or escalate. This cross-sectional research tested the

  5. Three cheers for conflict!

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D

    1981-01-01

    Conflict is pervasive and an inevitable part of life--at work and elsewhere. But author Dennis King, organizational consultant for The Procter & Gamble Manufacturing Company, adds that it is also a functional part of the social process. Managing conflict on the job involves the ability to identify, seek out, and utilize the functions of conflict and its outcomes. He identifies fifteen functions of conflict in three major categories: maintaining or reinforcing identity and innate strength, increasing operational effectiveness, and dealing with others. For example, conflict can lead to minor clashes that actually strengthen a relationship because they function as safety valves--preventing the buildup of tension to the stage of explosion. (Note, however, that a conflict over the basic foundation of a relationship spells trouble.) Similarly, in the union-management relationship, both negotiations and grievance handling focus on adjusting or eliminating problem elements so that the employer-employee relationship can exist satisfactorily. Recognizing and exploiting the functions of a conflict situation--that is, functional conflict management--can work to our benefit. If we develop a "functional mind-set," looking for the positive aspects of conflict will become natural.

  6. Committees and Conflict: Developing a Conflict Resolution Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Describes development of conflict-resolution framework to address committee conflict. Describes several conflict-resolution strategies. Matches appropriate strategies with different types of committee conflict. For example, compromise is listed at the appropriate strategy to resolve interpersonal conflict. (Contains 24 references.) (PKP)

  7. Seeing the conflict: an attentional account of reasoning errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, André; Ferreira, Mário B; Voss, Andreas; Kollei, Tanja

    2017-12-01

    In judgment and reasoning, intuition and deliberation can agree on the same responses, or they can be in conflict and suggest different responses. Incorrect responses to conflict problems have traditionally been interpreted as a sign of faulty problem-solving-an inability to solve the conflict. However, such errors might emerge earlier, from insufficient attention to the conflict. To test this attentional hypothesis, we manipulated the conflict in reasoning problems and used eye-tracking to measure attention. Across several measures, correct responders paid more attention than incorrect responders to conflict problems, and they discriminated between conflict and no-conflict problems better than incorrect responders. These results are consistent with a two-stage account of reasoning, whereby sound problem solving in the second stage can only lead to accurate responses when sufficient attention is paid in the first stage.

  8. Antecedents and consequences of intra-group conflict among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost, Joan; Doran, Diane M; McGillis Hall, Linda; Spence Laschinger, Heather K

    2010-11-01

    To test a theoretical model linking selected antecedent variables to intra-group conflict among nurses, and subsequently conflict management style, job stress and job satisfaction. A contributing factor to the nursing shortage is job dissatisfaction as a result of conflict among nurses. To develop strategies to reduce conflict, research is needed to understand the causes and outcomes of conflict in nursing work environments. A predictive, non-experimental design was used in a random sample of 277 acute care nurses. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the hypothesised model. Nurses' core self-evaluations, complexity of care and relationships with managers and nursing colleagues influenced their perceived level of conflict. Conflict management style partially mediated the relationship between conflict and job satisfaction. Job stress had a direct effect on job satisfaction and core self-evaluation had a direct effect on job stress. Conflict and its associated outcomes is a complex process, affected by dispositional, contextual and interpersonal factors. How nurses manage conflict may not prevent the negative effects of conflict, however, learning to manage conflict using collaboration and accommodation may help nurses experience greater job satisfaction. Strategies to manage and reduce conflict include building interactional justice practices and positive interpersonal relationships. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Probability judgments under ambiguity and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Whether conflict and ambiguity are distinct kinds of uncertainty remains an open question, as does their joint impact on judgments of overall uncertainty. This paper reviews recent advances in our understanding of human judgment and decision making when both ambiguity and conflict are present, and presents two types of testable models of judgments under conflict and ambiguity. The first type concerns estimate-pooling to arrive at "best" probability estimates. The second type is models of subjective assessments of conflict and ambiguity. These models are developed for dealing with both described and experienced information. A framework for testing these models in the described-information setting is presented, including a reanalysis of a multi-nation data-set to test best-estimate models, and a study of participants' assessments of conflict, ambiguity, and overall uncertainty reported by Smithson (2013). A framework for research in the experienced-information setting is then developed, that differs substantially from extant paradigms in the literature. This framework yields new models of "best" estimates and perceived conflict. The paper concludes with specific suggestions for future research on judgment and decision making under conflict and ambiguity.

  10. Women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution among the Issa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the role of women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution, and the participation of women in social ... According to the field work investigation, such kinds of conflicts were ...... Narrative Activity and Performance Report, January through ...

  11. Models of Conflict Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-03

    that participants are fully engaged in the conflict. My task has more to do with classification and detection of conflict. In [ Sina et al., 2014] the...characters. In Ninth Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital En- tertainment Conference. [ Sina et al., 2014] Sina , S., Kraus, S., and Rosenfeld

  12. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  13. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation

  14. Child emotional security and interparental conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T; Harold, Gordon T; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Cummings, E Mark; Shelton, Katherine; Rasi, Jennifer A

    2002-01-01

    Guided by the emotional security hypothesis developed by Davies & Cummings (1994), studies were conducted to test a conceptual refinement of children's adjustment to parental conflict in relation to hypotheses of other prominent theories. Study 1 examined whether the pattern of child responses to simulations of adult conflict tactics and topics was consistent with the emotional security hypothesis and social learning theory in a sample of 327 Welsh children. Supporting the emotional security hypothesis, child reports of fear, avoidance, and involvement were especially prominent responses to destructive conflict. Study 2 examined the relative roles of child emotional insecurity and social-cognitive appraisals in accounting for associations between parental conflict and child psychological symptoms in a sample of 285 Welsh children and parents. Findings indicated that child emotional insecurity was a robust intervening process in the prospective links between parental conflict and child maladjustment even when intervening processes proposed in the social-cognitive models were included in the analyses. Studies 3 and 4 explored pathways among parental conflict, child emotional insecurity, and psychological adjustment in the broader family context with a sample of 174 children and mothers. Supporting the emotional security hypothesis, Study 3 findings indicated that child insecurity continued to mediate the link between parental conflict and child maladjustment even after specifying the effects of other parenting processes. Parenting difficulties accompanying interparental conflict were related to child maladjustment through their association with insecure parent-child attachment. In support of the emotional security hypothesis, Study 4 findings indicated that family instability, parenting difficulties, and parent-child attachment insecurity potentiated mediational pathways among parental conflict, child insecurity, and maladjustment. Family cohesiveness, interparental

  15. Darfur: rainfall and conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevane, Michael; Gray, Leslie

    2008-07-01

    Data on rainfall patterns only weakly corroborate the claim that climate change explains the Darfur conflict that began in 2003 and has claimed more than 200 000 lives and displaced more than two million persons. Rainfall in Darfur did not decline significantly in the years prior to the eruption of major conflict in 2003; rainfall exhibited a flat trend in the thirty years preceding the conflict (1972 2002). The rainfall evidence suggests instead a break around 1971. Rainfall is basically stationary over the pre- and post-1971 sub-periods. The break is larger for the more northerly rainfall stations, and is less noticeable for En Nahud. Rainfall in Darfur did indeed decline, but the decline happened over 30 years before the conflict erupted. Preliminary analysis suggests little merit to the proposition that a structural break several decades earlier is a reasonable predictor of the outbreak of large-scale civil conflict in Africa.

  16. Assessing Psychodynamic Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Joshua; Constantinides, Prometheas; Perry, J Christopher; Drapeau, Martin; Sheptycki, Amanda R

    2015-09-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapies suggest that symptomatic relief is provided, in part, with the resolution of psychic conflicts. Clinical researchers have used innovative methods to investigate such phenomenon. This article aims to review the literature on quantitative psychodynamic conflict rating scales. An electronic search of the literature was conducted to retrieve quantitative observer-rated scales used to assess conflict noting each measure's theoretical model, information source, and training and clinical experience required. Scales were also examined for levels of reliability and validity. Five quantitative observer-rated conflict scales were identified. Reliability varied from poor to excellent with each measure demonstrating good validity. However a small number of studies and limited links to current conflict theory suggest further clinical research is needed.

  17. Conflict and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on conflict and memory aims to underscore the importance of memory (whether individual and collective) in relation to intergroup conflicts. We argue that the way in which societies reconstruct and bring the past into the present—especially, the historical past......—is crucial when it comes to the study of intergroup conflict dynamics. In this regard, we also highlight the growing importance of memory studies within the area of social sciences as well as the multiple ways of approaching memory. Drawing from this wide theoretical framework, we introduce the articles...... of this issue, eight articles that tackle the role of memory in different conflicts, whether currently under way, in progress of being resolved, in postwar settings, or in contexts conflicts expected to happen do not arise....

  18. Dialectic and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Kousholt, Dorte

    to turn into conflicts and the conflicts have personal and existential meanings to the participant in social practice (related to their possibilities for conducting everyday life) and they are historical and political (related to societal questions about education). We draw on conceptualizations of social......In this paper, we aim to develop a dialectical approach to analyzing social conflicts concerning children’s school life. Public education can be seen as a common cause different parties at the same time are engaged in and conflicting about. We want to discuss this unity between the distribution...... practice as contradictory and developed through its contradictions (Lave, Dreier, Axel). The theoretical discussion will be illustrated through examples from conflicts between children and between parents - in relation to dealing with focus on the tasks of the school as well as flexibility in relation...

  19. Darfur: rainfall and conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevane, Michael; Gray, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Data on rainfall patterns only weakly corroborate the claim that climate change explains the Darfur conflict that began in 2003 and has claimed more than 200 000 lives and displaced more than two million persons. Rainfall in Darfur did not decline significantly in the years prior to the eruption of major conflict in 2003; rainfall exhibited a flat trend in the thirty years preceding the conflict (1972-2002). The rainfall evidence suggests instead a break around 1971. Rainfall is basically stationary over the pre- and post-1971 sub-periods. The break is larger for the more northerly rainfall stations, and is less noticeable for En Nahud. Rainfall in Darfur did indeed decline, but the decline happened over 30 years before the conflict erupted. Preliminary analysis suggests little merit to the proposition that a structural break several decades earlier is a reasonable predictor of the outbreak of large-scale civil conflict in Africa

  20. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    Over the past two decades, a new man-made domain of conflict has materialized. Alongside armed conflict in the domains of land, sea, air, and space, hostilities between different types of political actors are now taking place in cyberspace. This volume addresses the challenges posed by cyberspace...... the different scholarly and political positions associated with various key aspects of cyber conflict and seek to answer the following questions: do existing theories provide sufficient answers to the current challenges posed by conflict in cyberspace, and, if not, could alternative approaches be developed......?; how do states and non-state actors make use of cyber-weapons when pursuing strategic and political aims?; and, how does the advent of conflict in cyberspace challenge our established legal framework? By asking important strategic questions on the theoretical, strategic, ethical and legal implications...

  1. Can conflict be energizing? a study of task conflict, positive emotions, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Gergana; Bear, Julia B; Weingart, Laurie R

    2014-05-01

    Scholars have assumed that the presence of negative emotions during task conflict implies the absence of positive emotions. However, emotions researchers have shown that positive and negative emotions are not 2 ends of a bipolar continuum; rather, they represent 2 separate, orthogonal dimensions. Drawing on affective events theory, we develop and test hypotheses about the effects of task conflict on positive emotions and job satisfaction. To this end, we distinguish among the frequency, intensity, and information gained from task conflict. Using field data from 232 employees in a long-term health care organization, we find that more frequent mild task conflict expression engenders more information acquisition, but more frequent intense task conflict expression hinders it. Because of the information gains from mild task conflict expression, employees feel more active, energized, interested, and excited, and these positive active emotions increase job satisfaction. The information gained during task conflict, however, is not always energizing: It depends on the extent to which the behavioral context involves active learning and whether the conflict is cross-functional. We discuss theoretical implications for conflict, emotions, and job satisfaction in organizations. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The NPD team conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...

  3. Ecosystemic Complexity Theory of Conflict: Understanding the Fog of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Greg; Lassiter, Pamela S.; Hill, Michele B.; Moore, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors often engage in conflict mediation in professional practice. A model for understanding the complex and subtle nature of conflict resolution is presented. The ecosystemic complexity theory of conflict is offered to assist practitioners in navigating the fog of conflict. Theoretical assumptions are discussed with implications for clinical…

  4. Parent-Adolescent Conflicts, Conflict Resolution Types, and Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…

  5. Playing With Conflict: Teaching Conflict Resolution through Simulations and Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Richard B.; Kirkpatrick, Kat

    2013-01-01

    Playing With Conflict is a weekend course for graduate students in Portland State University's Conflict Resolution program and undergraduates in all majors. Students participate in simulations, games, and experiential exercises to learn and practice conflict resolution skills. Graduate students create a guided role-play of a conflict. In addition…

  6. Approaches to Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Toddler Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nicole; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    The importance of conflict and its resolution for children's short- and long-term adjustment has been well established within the research literature. Conflict and conflict resolution differs according to a number of constructs, including age, gender and relationship status. The purpose of this study was to explore conflict origins, resolution…

  7. Managing Conflict during Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the underlying emotional issues that may be fueling conflict and keeping them from negotiating an agreement. The “strategic mediation” model is a practical problem-solving approach that focuses on addressing hidden dimensions of ...

  8. Dialectic and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Kousholt, Dorte

    In this paper, we aim to develop a dialectical approach to analyzing social conflicts concerning children’s school life. Public education can be seen as a common cause different parties at the same time are engaged in and conflicting about. We want to discuss this unity between the distribution...... are at one hand historical, and they demand situated handling and coordination in concrete situations to make things work. The involved experience the contradictions from different positions, types of responsibilities and with insight from different locations. In this way contradictions have potential...... to turn into conflicts and the conflicts have personal and existential meanings to the participant in social practice (related to their possibilities for conducting everyday life) and they are historical and political (related to societal questions about education). We draw on conceptualizations of social...

  9. Resolving Marital Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Hatixhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

  10. Conflict, Memory, and Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basque...... conflict adopted their respective positions, and interpretation of the conflict, and how, in light of same, they reconstruct the failed peace process that took place in 2006 between the terrorist group ETA (Euzkadi ta Azcatasuna, or Basque Country and Freedom in English) and the Spanish government. Results...... show that the positioning adopted by participants gives rise to a certain form of interpreting the conflict, which, in turn, affects how the peace process is remembered. This occurs within a particular argumentative context in which each version constitutes an implicit response to a competing...

  11. Sexual conflict in plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other sex, usually through direct reproductive interactions. This leads ... Most of the interaction is through .... clearly indicating parental conflict over offspring provision- ing. ... Ba˜nuelos M. J. and Obeso J. R. 2003 Maternal provisioning, sibling.

  12. Are status inconsistency, work stress and work-family conflict associated with depressive symptoms? Testing prospective evidence in the lidA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Richard; March, Stefanie; du Prel, Jean-Baptist

    2016-02-01

    Depressive symptoms are common and economically relevant. Women suffer more often than men do. We analyze associations between social status inconsistency, psychosocial factors, and depressive symptoms stratified by gender. In the present study, 3340 employees of two age cohorts (1959, 1965) working in two waves (2011, 2014) of the prospective German lidA-study and who gave written consent to link register data regarding their employment histories were included. Gender-specific influences of social status inconsistency (deviation of observed income from expected average income based on acquired education) on depressive symptoms and mediation of these associations by work stress in terms of effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) and work-family-conflict (WFC) were analyzed with confirmatory cross-lagged path models. Among men, consistent status (i.e., average income in a specific educational group) increased the frequency of depressive symptoms. No association between negative SSI (i.e., income below the average income given a specific educational attainment) or positive SSI (i.e., income above the average income given a specific educational attainment) and depressive symptoms was observed among men or women. ERI and WFC were longitudinally associated with the outcome and differed slightly regarding gender, i.e., showing stronger effects of ERI for women and of WFC for men. Mediation of the association between social status and depressive symptoms was observed for men and for consistent status (path: consistent status → ERI → depressive symptoms) but not for SSI. ERI and WFC increase the risk of future episodes with depressive symptoms in men and in women irrespective of SSI, occupational position, full- or part-time work, regional factors or individual characteristics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Preventing Deadly Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    34an ounce of type-A botulinal toxin, properly dis- persed, could kill every man, woman , and child in North America. . . just eight ounces of the...attend to the short-term humanitarian needs generated by conflict, frequently a good deal of "wheel- spinning " occurs; little headway is made in...Empire’s millet system, for exam- ple, where the religious leaders of Judaism and several Christian churches were entrusted with arbitrating conflicts

  14. Religious fundamentalism and conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz

    2006-01-01

    This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...

  15. Effects of a Brief Psychoeducational Intervention for Family Conflict: Constructive Conflict, Emotional Insecurity and Child Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Graff, Laura E; Cummings, E Mark; Bergman, Kathleen N

    2016-10-01

    The role of emotional security in promoting positive adjustment following exposure to marital conflict has been identified in a large number of empirical investigations, yet to date, no interventions have explicitly addressed the processes that predict child adjustment after marital conflict. The current study evaluated a randomized controlled trial of a family intervention program aimed at promoting constructive marital conflict behaviors thereby increasing adolescent emotional security and adjustment. Families (n = 225) were randomized into 1 of 4 conditions: Parent-Adolescent (n = 75), Parent-Only (n = 75), Self-Study (n = 38) and No Treatment (n = 37). Multi-informant and multi-method assessments were conducted at baseline, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up. Effects of treatment on destructive and constructive conflict behaviors were evaluated using multilevel models where observations were nested within individuals over time. Process models assessing the impact of constructive and destructive conflict behaviors on emotional insecurity and adolescent adjustment were evaluated using path modeling. Results indicated that the treatment was effective in increasing constructive conflict behaviors (d = 0.89) and decreasing destructive conflict behaviors (d = -0.30). For the Parent-Only Group, post-test constructive conflict behaviors directly predicted lower levels of adolescent externalizing behaviors at 6-month follow-up. Post-test constructive conflict skills also indirectly affected adolescent internalizing behaviors through adolescent emotional security. These findings support the use of a brief psychoeducational intervention in improving post-treatment conflict and emotional security about interparental relationships.

  16. Conflict, Space and Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schoonderbeek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Footprint 19 focuses on the more recent roles of architecture in the contemporary spaces of conflict. Departing from a spatial understanding of geopolitical, climatological and economical conflicts, the various contributions highlight the large scale and phenomenal transitions in the physical world and in society by extrapolating, through examples, the abundance of relations that can be traced between conflict, territory and architecture. Conflict areas often prove to be fertile grounds for innovation and for the emergence of new spatial forms. The issue reports on the state of perpetual global unrest in architecture through a series of articles and case studies that highlight the consequences of conflicts in the places and spaces that we inhabit. In the introduction, these are discussed as an interlinked global reality rather than as isolated incidents. In doing so, the contemporary spaces of conflict are positioned in the context of emerging global trends, conditions, and discourses in the attempt to address their indicative symptoms while reflecting on their underlying causes.

  17. Automating the conflict resolution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to initiate a discussion of how the conflict resolution process at the Network Control Center can be made more efficient. Described here are how resource conflicts are currently resolved as well as the impacts of automating conflict resolution in the ATDRSS era. A variety of conflict resolution strategies are presented.

  18. Managing and mitigating conflict in healthcare teams: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost, Joan; Wolff, Angela C; Stewart-Pyne, Althea; McCormick, Loretta G; Strachan, Diane; D'Souza, Christine

    2016-07-01

    To review empirical studies examining antecedents (sources, causes, predictors) in the management and mitigation of interpersonal conflict. Providing quality care requires positive, collaborative working relationships among healthcare team members. In today's increasingly stress-laden work environments, such relationships can be threatened by interpersonal conflict. Identifying the underlying causes of conflict and choice of conflict management style will help practitioners, leaders and managers build an organizational culture that fosters collegiality and create the best possible environment to engage in effective conflict management. Integrative literature review. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Proquest ABI/Inform, Cochrane Library and Joanne Briggs Institute Library were searched for empirical studies published between 2002-May 2014. The review was informed by the approach of Whittemore and Knafl. Findings were extracted, critically examined and grouped into themes. Forty-four papers met the inclusion criteria. Several antecedents influence conflict and choice of conflict management style including individual characteristics, contextual factors and interpersonal conditions. Sources most frequently identified include lack of emotional intelligence, certain personality traits, poor work environment, role ambiguity, lack of support and poor communication. Very few published interventions were found. By synthesizing the knowledge and identifying antecedents, this review offers evidence to support recommendations on managing and mitigating conflict. As inevitable as conflict is, it is the responsibility of everyone to increase their own awareness, accountability and active participation in understanding conflict and minimizing it. Future research should investigate the testing of interventions to minimize these antecedents and, subsequently, reduce conflict. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Work-family conflict and family-work conflict in aspects of sex and intergenerational differences

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sylwia Lubrańska

    2014-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the results of the study concerning mutual relations between work–family conflict and family– work conflict in the context of age and sex. Material and Methods: The study included 223 subjects (115 women, 108 men, 74 mothers and 61 fathers), aged 21–63. The Work–Family and Family–Work Conflicts Questionnaire and socio-demographic questionnaire were used as the survey tools. To verify hypotheses the correlation analysis and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used. Res...

  20. Unpacking the Meaning of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Clegg, Steward

    2018-01-01

    In this conceptual essay, we review the field of organizational conflict to unpack how it has been constructed genealogically and with what consequences by investigating three major shifts in theorization that have occurred over the past six decades. First, a move away from viewing conflict...... as dysfunctional to viewing it as constructive. Second, a shift from normative prescriptions to descriptions of what disputants do in conflict. Third, a shift from psychological functional analyses to studying conflict as an organizational phenomenon. We find that three distinct and essentially contested...... conceptions frame studies of conflict at work: conflict as a distinct behavioral phenomenon, conflict as an instrumental means of achieving something else, and conflict as a social construction contingent on how reality is perceived. This conceptual essay adds to current thinking in organizational conflict...

  1. Sampling bias in climate-conflict research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Courtland; Ide, Tobias; Barnett, Jon; Detges, Adrien

    2018-03-01

    Critics have argued that the evidence of an association between climate change and conflict is flawed because the research relies on a dependent variable sampling strategy1-4. Similarly, it has been hypothesized that convenience of access biases the sample of cases studied (the `streetlight effect'5). This also gives rise to claims that the climate-conflict literature stigmatizes some places as being more `naturally' violent6-8. Yet there has been no proof of such sampling patterns. Here we test whether climate-conflict research is based on such a biased sample through a systematic review of the literature. We demonstrate that research on climate change and violent conflict suffers from a streetlight effect. Further, studies which focus on a small number of cases in particular are strongly informed by cases where there has been conflict, do not sample on the independent variables (climate impact or risk), and hence tend to find some association between these two variables. These biases mean that research on climate change and conflict primarily focuses on a few accessible regions, overstates the links between both phenomena and cannot explain peaceful outcomes from climate change. This could result in maladaptive responses in those places that are stigmatized as being inherently more prone to climate-induced violence.

  2. Towards Validating Game Scenarios for Teaching Conflict Resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Grappiolo, Corrado; Pedersen, Christoffer Holmgård

    2013-01-01

    Teaching conflict resolution skills via serious games has received increasing attention in recent years. This paper describes game scenarios that were developed to evoke variant levels of conflict intensity to children. To validate the scenarios, we implemented a prototype and created videos from...... play-throughs of the prototype. We then carried out a user study and ran statistical analyses to test if children would perceive the game scenarios as intended by scenario designers in terms of conflict....

  3. Exposure to Violence across the Social Ecosystem and the Development of Aggression: A Test of Ecological Theory in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Landau, Simha F.; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological model proposes that events in higher order social ecosystems should influence human development through their impact on events in lower order social ecosystems. This proposition was tested with respect to ecological violence and the development of children's aggression via analyses of 3 waves of data (1 wave…

  4. Intercultural conflict styles: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batkhina A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.

  5. GENDER CONFLICTS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Moskalyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of work. Student age has the most favourable conditions for psychological, biological and social development; however, there are reasons why such natural advantages over other social groups can be completely or partially levelled. One of them is the presence of conflicts in the life of a student, a special group, among which there are women. The causes of the emergence of gender conflicts in individual social groups and the strategies for their solution have not been sufficiently explored and require further study and, therefore, are relevant. Purpose of the article is to investigate the causes of gender conflicts among students as a separate social group and to develop measures to address them and prevent them. Methodology. The research conducted in the work is based on the analysis and generalization of the causes of the emergence of gender conflicts among students, the identification of the main sources of information that form the consciousness of children and adolescents, and also influence their attitude to gender equality. Originality. The nature of gender conflicts has been quite effectively studied for a long time. However, the scope of research is limited to the most numerous social groups, such as the family, labour collective, political and public organizations, etc. Being a dynamic and socio-demographic formation, the students perform an important function in society – it takes a direct part in the transformation of all spheres of the life activity of the society. Based on the study of the objective conditions of the social environment with certain models of socialization that form the consciousness of students from early childhood, a three-component system of influence was first proposed, which is aimed at overcoming gender inequality and preventing gender conflicts among students. At the same time, the interaction of the components of the system will allow to minimize the gender inequality index in our country

  6. Negotiating through conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormick, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    There are several major causes of conflict over the nuclear waste disposal siting process but conflict should not be ended or avoided merely to have peace. A number of issues are listed that should be addressed to ensure that negotiations can be performed in a manner that will result in agreements. During the negotiation process, participants should not reveal all secrets, but must not appear to be holding things back. The agreements reached as a result of negotiations should be spelled out clearly, in writing. The agreement should tell how to implement the decision and state how all parties will be involved. The agreement should also contain provisions for continued interaction among parties

  7. Environmental Systems Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipel, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR) is applied to a real-life groundwater contamination dispute to demonstrate how one can realistically model and analyze the controversy in order to obtain an enhanced understanding and strategic insights for permitting one to make informed decisions. This highly divisive conflict is utilized to explain a rich range of inherent capabilities of GMCR, as well as worthwhile avenues for extensions, which make GMCR a truly powerful decision technology for addressing challenging conflict situations. For instance, a flexible preference elicitation method called option prioritization can be employed to obtain the relative preferences of each decision maker (DM) in the dispute over the states or scenarios which can occur, based upon preference statements regarding the options or courses of actions available to the DMs. Solution concepts, reflecting the way a chess player thinks in terms of moves and counter-moves, are defined to mirror the ways humans may behave under conflict, varying from short to long term thinking. After ascertaining the best outcome that a DM can achieve on his or her own in a conflict, coalition analysis algorithms are available to check if a DM can fare even better via cooperating with others. The ability of GMCR to take into account emotions, strength of preference, attitudes, misunderstandings (referred to as hypergames), and uncertain preferences (unknown, fuzzy, grey and probabilistic) greatly broadens its scope of applicability. Techniques for tracing how a conflict can evolve over time from a status quo state to a final specified outcome, as well as how to handle hierarchical structures, such as when a central government interacts with its provinces or states, further enforces the comprehensive nature of GMCR. Within ongoing conflict research mimicking how physical systems are analyzed, methods for inverse engineering of preferences are explained for determining the preferences required by one or

  8. Understanding Conflict Management Styles in Anesthesiology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Giordano, Christopher R; Hagan, Jack D; Fahy, Brenda G

    2018-05-17

    Successful conflict resolution is vital for effective teamwork and is critical for safe patient care in the operating room. Being able to appreciate the differences in training backgrounds, individual knowledge and opinions, and task interdependency necessitates skilled conflict management styles when addressing various clinical and professional scenarios. The goal of this study was to assess conflict styles in anesthesiology residents via self- and counterpart assessment during participation in simulated conflict scenarios. Twenty-two first-year anesthesiology residents (first postgraduate year) participated in this study, which aimed to assess and summarize conflict management styles by 3 separate metrics. One metric was self-assessment with the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), summarized as percentile scores (0%-99%) for 5 conflict styles: collaborating, competing, accommodating, avoiding, and compromising. Participants also completed self- and counterpart ratings after interactions in a simulated conflict scenario using the Dutch Test for Conflict Handling (DUTCH), with scores ranging from 5 to 25 points for each of 5 conflict styles: yielding, compromising, forcing, problem solving, and avoiding. Higher TKI and DUTCH scores would indicate a higher preference for a given conflict style. Sign tests were used to compare self- and counterpart ratings on the DUTCH scores, and Spearman correlations were used to assess associations between TKI and DUTCH scores. On the TKI, the anesthesiology residents had the highest median percentile scores (with first quartile [Q1] and third quartile [Q3]) in compromising (67th, Q1-Q3 = 27-87) and accommodating (69th, Q1-Q3 = 30-94) styles, and the lowest scores for competing (32nd, Q1-Q3 = 10-57). After each conflict scenario, residents and their counterparts on the DUTCH reported higher median scores for compromising (self: 16, Q1-Q3 = 14-16; counterpart: 16, Q1-Q3 = 15-16) and problem solving (self: 17, Q1-Q3 = 16

  9. A theory-based measure of conflict management strategies in the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Evers, A.; Beersma, B.; Kluwer, E.S.; Nauta, A.

    2001-01-01

    Conflict management influences individual well-being, group performance and organizational effectiveness. This research examined the psychometric qualities of two versions of the newly developed test for conflict handling (the Dutch Test for Conflict Handling). The lean version (Study 1 and 2)

  10. [Types of conflicts and conflict management among Hungarian healthcare workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Éva; Kuna, Ágnes; Pintér, Judit Nóra; Kaló, Zsuzsa; Csabai, Márta

    2017-04-01

    Efficient communication, conflict management and cooperation are the key factors of a successful patient care. This study is part of an international comparative research. The aim of this study is to unfold conflicts among healthcare workers. 73 healthcare workers were interviewed using a standardized interview protocol. The in-person interviews used the critical incident method. 30 interviews (15 doctors, 15 nurses) were analysed with the Atlas.ti 7 content analysis software. The sources, types, effects of conflicts and conflict management strategies were investigated. The content analysis unfolded the specificities of conflicts in healthcare based on personal experiences. Organizational hierarchy was a substantial source of conflict, especially among physicians, which originates from implicit rules. As a result of the avoiding conflict management the conflicts remain partly unresolved which has negative individual and group effect. Our conceptual framework helps to develop a proper intervention specific to healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(16), 625-632.

  11. A theory-based measure of conflict management strategies in the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Evers, Arne; Beersma, Bianca; Kluwer, Esther S.; Nauta, Aukje

    Conflict management influences individual wellbeing, group performance and organizational effectiveness. This research examined the psychometric qualities of two versions of the newly developed test for conflict handling. The lean version (Study 1 and 2) included problem solving, forcing, yielding

  12. Identities in Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    When Danish soldiers wage war abroad and far from home, family relations are strained. Both during the mission and after return, the soldier experiences civil life as unorderly and conflicting with the warrior mindset with its clear demarcations of friend/foe, peace and war, battletime and the time...

  13. Derailing Intragroup Management Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, John; Vaughn, Glen

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of management conflict highlights differing job perceptions held by middle managers. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Assessment Program is described, and a management structure that requires members of each group to experience job perceptions and tasks of the other group is recommended for performance improvement. (Contains three…

  14. Leading through Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzon, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about leading significant learning opportunities through conflict of ideas in a school system. Catalyzing school change can turn emotional differences of opinion into learning opportunities. Leaders who want to deal effectively with these challenging, often tense situations need to be more than good managers. They need to be…

  15. The conflict zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Ana Maria Ribeiro de

    2006-01-01

    The chapter gives an overview on the beginning of the nuclear energy in the world passing through the conflicts at United Nations - UN, the new political order, the revision of MacMahon Law, the nuclear control, the fear peace and searching for the equilibrium

  16. Constructive conflict at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vliert, Evert; Nauta, Aukje; Giebels, Ellen; Janssen, Onne

    1999-01-01

    Two field studies of interpersonal conflict in organizations and a simulated dyadic negotiation show that problem solving and forcing are frequently combined simultaneously and sequentially. As a robust finding, conglomerations of problem solving and forcing appear to enhance the parties' joint

  17. Intralocus sexual conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, G. Sander; Schlichting, CD; Mousseau, TA

    2009-01-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict arises when there are sex-specific optima for a trait that is expressed in both sexes and when the constraint of a shared gene pool prevents males and females from reaching their optima independently. This situation may result in a negative intersexual correlation for

  18. Spousal Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shana R.

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…

  19. Constructive conflict at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Nauta, A.; Giebels, E.; Janssen, O.

    Two field studies of interpersonal conflict in organizations and a simulated dyadic negotiation show that problem solving and forcing are frequently combined simultaneously and sequentially. As a robust finding, conglomerations of problem solving and forcing appear to enhance the parties' joint

  20. Conflict and Tao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lyall

    What can philosophical Taoism teach us about interpersonal conflict and effective approaches for dealing with it? Examination of selected portions of the R. Hendricks translation of the "Lao-Tzu" or "Te-Tao Ching," and experiences recorded in fieldnotes while a member of a Taoist commune suggest a four-point protocol for…

  1. Exposure to violence across the social ecosystem and the development of aggression: a test of ecological theory in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Paul; Rowell Huesmann, L; Dubow, Eric F; Landau, Simha F; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological model proposes that events in higher order social ecosystems should influence human development through their impact on events in lower order social ecosystems. This proposition was tested with respect to ecological violence and the development of children's aggression via analyses of 3 waves of data (1 wave yearly for 3 years) from 3 age cohorts (starting ages: 8, 11, and 14) representing three populations in the Middle East: Palestinians (N = 600), Israeli Jews (N = 451), and Israeli Arabs (N = 450). Results supported a hypothesized model in which ethnopolitical violence increases community, family, and school violence and children's aggression. Findings are discussed with respect to ecological and observational learning perspectives on the development of aggressive behavior. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... Such processes are 'sine qua non' to pre-conflict and post-conflict prevention. .... A Basic Approach to Pre-Conflict Management Planning ... and also factor in an evaluation of perception variables that help us to understand ...

  3. Personality types and development of adolescents' conflict with friends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, R.; Branje, S.T.J.; Keijsers, L.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the development of adolescents' conflict frequency and conflict resolution with their best friends, and tested whether adolescents with different personality types differed in these developmental changes from early to middle adolescence. Dutch adolescents (N = 922, 468 boys;

  4. The Development of the Post-Divorce Parental Conflict Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenblick, Renee; Schwarz, J. Conrad

    One difficulty in studying the long-term impact of divorce on children has been the lack of a reliable and valid measure of parental conflict for divorced parents. Items for a post-divorce conflict scale were written and tested using 32 male and 63 female college students from divorced families for Study 1 and 60 male and 75 female students from…

  5. Perceived sources of conflict among academic and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived sources of conflict among academic and management staff in colleges of education in Borno state, Nigeria. ... To what extent do male and female academic staff differ on the perceived sources of conflict? The study adopted an exploratory ... Chi-Square was computed to test for sex differences. The study found ...

  6. Emotion regulation and conflict transformation in multi-team systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.L.; Meeus, M.T.H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to test the moderating role of emotion regulation in the transformation of both task and process conflict into relationship conflict. Design/methodology/approach A field study of multi-teams systems, in which (94) respondents are engaged in interpersonal and

  7. Conflict management, Part 1. Conflict management checklist: a diagnostic tool for assessing conflict in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siders, C T; Aschenbrener, C A

    1999-01-01

    Complex interpersonal conflicts are inevitable in the high speed, high stakes, pressured work of health care. Poorly managed, conflict saps productivity, erodes trust, and spawns additional disputes. Well managed, conflict can enhance the self-confidence and self-esteem of the parties, build relationships, and engender creative solutions beyond expectations. Just as thoughtful differential diagnosis precedes optimum treatment in the doctor-patient relationship, management of conflict is greatly enhanced when preceded by careful assessment. In the first of two articles, the authors present a diagnostic approach, the Conflict Management Checklist, to increase self-awareness and decrease anxiety around conflict.

  8. Military Strategy in Ethnic Conflicts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nesbitt, Wanda L

    1997-01-01

    .... It is therefor ironic to find so many of today's observers of the international scene arguing that the Cold War kept a lid on ethnic conflict and that with its passing this type of conflict is likely to proliferate...

  9. Constructive Conflict in Academic Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Collective bargaining is seen as a process of shared authority used in some institutions to manage conflict. Some ways in which parties to bargaining can significantly alter their relationships to promote constructive and creative outcomes of conflict are suggested. (MLW)

  10. Stress from Role Conflict: Consequences for Professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ex-post facto data collected from 600 teachers and 2400 senior secondary two students from Cross River State were analyzed to determine the influence of stress arising from role conflict on professional effectiveness. One hypothesis was tested using One-Way Analysis of Variance. The result of the data analyses ...

  11. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on literature and personal experiences, vector-borne diseases and conflicts are reviewed. Simple rapid diagnostic tests for three important parasitoses are available. Resort is often made to case definitions and to presumptive treatment. Resistance is an emerging problem. Vaccines are still...

  12. Armed conflict and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  13. Conflict prevention, conflict mitigation, and manifestations of conflict during emergency department consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresa; Bakewell, Francis; Orlich, Donika; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to determine the causes of and mitigating factors for conflict between emergency physicians and other colleagues during consultations. From March to September 2010, a total of 61 physicians (31 residents and 30 attendings from emergency medicine [EM], internal medicine, and general surgery) were interviewed about how junior learners should be taught about emergency department (ED) consultations. During these interviews, they were asked if and how conflict manifests during the ED consultation process. Two investigators reviewed the transcripts independently to generate themes related to conflict until saturation was reached. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. The trustworthiness of the analysis was ensured by generating an audit trail, which was subsequently audited by an investigator not involved with the initial analysis. This analysis was compared to previously proposed models of trust and conflict from the sociology and business literature. All participants recalled some manifestation of conflict. There were 12 negative conflict-producing themes and 10 protective conflict-mitigating themes. When comparing these themes to a previously developed model of the domains of trust, each theme mapped to domains of the model. Conflict affects the ED consultation process. Areas that lead to conflict are identified that map to previous models of trust and conflict. This work extends the current understanding about intradisciplinary conflict in the clinical realm. These new findings may improve the understanding of the nature of conflicts that occur and form the foundation for interventions that may decrease conflict during ED consultations. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  14. Marital Conflicts and Parent-Adolescent Conflicts: The Mediator Role of Adolescents' Appraisals of Interparental Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ایرج مختارنیا

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mediating role of adolescents' appraisals from interparents conflict on the relationship of marital conflicts and parent-adolescent conflict. The study was descriptive correlational and the population of this study included students of Qods town of Tehran province. Sample size was 700 students that were selected by multistage random sampling. The data were collected by Parent-Adolescent Conflict Questionnaire (PACQ, Marital Conflict Scale (MCS and Children's Appraisals of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC. The results of structural equation modeling analysis showed that the theoretical model of the study included in the model was properly fitted with the data. This means that the variable of adolescent's appraisals of interparents’ conflict can be considered as a mediator variable in the relationship of marital conflict and parent-adolescent conflict. Furthermore, in this model all direct and indirect paths to predict parent-adolescent conflict were recognized. Therefore, marital conflict can predict parent-adolescent conflicts through mediating factors. Also, it can be concluded that the model of cognitive-contextual is capable of explaining the parent-adolescent conflicts.

  15. Family conflicts and conflict resolution regarding food choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria; Brunsø, Karen

    2011-01-01

    with food‐related conflicts, conflict resolutions or specific influence techniques with a focus on parents and tweens in family decision‐making. This article focuses on parents and tweens’ joint decision processes in evaluation and choice of food, specifically conflicts and conflict resolution. Assumptions......Previous studies on family decision‐making show that not only parents but also children participate actively in and achieve influence on the decision process, for instance during food buying. When decision‐making includes several active participants, conflicts may occur, but not much research deals...

  16. Digital Images and Globalized Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette; Mortensen, Mette; Neumayer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    As the number of digital images of globalized conflicts online grow, critical examination of their impact and consequence is timely. This editorial provides an overview of digital images and globalized conflict as a field of study by discussing regimes of visibility and invisibility, proximity...... of conflict-related images raise issues of knowledge production and research....

  17. Monitoring Financial Conflict of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Conflict of interest is heavily intertwined with research. The purpose of this study was to examine the literature and regulations in order to describe efforts required to properly monitor and disclose conflict of interest as researchers become steadily involved in innovation and discovery. The public assumes that when a conflict is disclosed, it…

  18. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...-10] RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule...'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are necessary to the functionality or... body of its annual report whether its conflict minerals originated in the Democratic Republic of the...

  19. Recognizing and Managing Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Nancy; Hovland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Practical advice is offered, to managers and supervisors at any level, on recognizing and analyzing interpersonal conflicts, managing such conflicts and making them productive, and ensuring that performance reviews result in progress for both supervisor and employee. Conflict is seen as inevitable, an opportunity to take action, and manageable.…

  20. Introduction: Negotiation in intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, S.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Although conflicts most often occur between groups, research and theory on conflict management and negotiation have largely focused on the interpersonal system and ignored how groups negotiate a solution to their intergroup conflict. Thus we have a thorough understanding of the motivational,

  1. Managing conflicts in systems development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, E

    1997-05-01

    Conflict in systems development is nothing new. It can vary in intensity, but there will always be two possible outcomes--one constructive and the other destructive. The common approach to conflict management is to draw the battle lines and apply brute force. However, there are other ways to deal with conflict that are more effective and more people oriented.

  2. Cognitive conflict without explicit conflict monitoring in a dynamical agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robert; Ward, Ronnie

    2006-11-01

    We examine mechanisms for resolving cognitive conflict in an embodied, situated, and dynamic agent, developed through an evolutionary learning process. The agent was required to solve problems of response conflict in a dual-target "catching" task, focusing response on one of the targets while ignoring the other. Conflict in the agent was revealed at the behavioral level in terms of increased latencies to the second target. This behavioral interference was correlated to peak violations of the network's stable state equation. At the level of the agent's neural network, peak violations were also correlated to periods of disagreement in source inputs to the agent's motor effectors. Despite observing conflict at these numerous levels, we did not find any explicit conflict monitoring mechanisms within the agent. We instead found evidence of a distributed conflict management system, characterized by competitive sources within the network. In contrast to the conflict monitoring hypothesis [Botvinick, M. M., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychological Review, 108(3), 624-652], this agent demonstrates that resolution of cognitive conflict does not require explicit conflict monitoring. We consider the implications of our results for the conflict monitoring hypothesis.

  3. Conflicts and alliances in insect families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundström, L.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2001-01-01

    to forgo reproduction and instead help others reproduce. Social Hymenoptera are also special because relatedness patterns within families can be asymmetrical, so that optimal sex-ratios, preferred male parentage or preferred mating frequencies become objects of reproductive conflict. The now extensive...... inclusive fitness theory provides precise qualitative predictions with respect to the emergence of such conflicts. Recent advances in the power of genetic markers applied to resolve family structure in insect societies have brought about a series of studies that have tested these predictions. In support...... of kin selection as a major evolutionary force, the results suggest that workers frequently control sex allocation. However, the very establishment of such worker control has made new conflicts come to light, between mothers and fathers and between adult individuals and brood. Evidence...

  4. Predicting Future Conflict under REDD+ Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Silori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the current complexity of issues facing forest and land management, the implementation of the REDD+ initiative comes with significant risks, including conflict. While the exact nature and shape of conflict in REDD+ implementation is difficult to pinpoint, this study aims to build a preliminary predictive framework to identify possible sources of impairment that may result in conflict over management of forests and natural resources. The framework was developed from an extensive literature review and was tested in three REDD+ pilot project sites in Nepal. The results indicate that most of the sources of impairment are present in all study sites, particularly issues relating to benefit sharing, which have been main drivers of conflict prior to REDD+. While we found that the application of the framework has been useful in the Nepalese context, there are some limitations in its scope and precision. Nonetheless, this study points to important implications with regards to REDD+ implementation and conflict management that can be useful for policy makers and practitioners involved in REDD+ strategy designs, as well as other areas of forest management involving outsiders and communities.

  5. Conflict Resolution in Computer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Mojarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A conflict situation in computer systems CS is the phenomenon arising when the processes have multi-access to the shared resources and none of the involved processes can proceed because of their waiting for the certain resources locked by the other processes which, in turn, are in a similar position. The conflict situation is also called a deadlock that has quite clear impact on the CS state.To find the reduced to practice algorithms to resolve the impasses is of significant applied importance for ensuring information security of computing process and thereupon the presented article is aimed at solving a relevant problem.The gravity of situation depends on the types of processes in a deadlock, types of used resources, number of processes, and a lot of other factors.A disadvantage of the method for preventing the impasses used in many modern operating systems and based on the preliminary planning resources required for the process is obvious - waiting time can be overlong. The preventing method with the process interruption and deallocation of its resources is very specific and a little effective, when there is a set of the polytypic resources requested dynamically. The drawback of another method, to prevent a deadlock by ordering resources, consists in restriction of possible sequences of resource requests.A different way of "struggle" against deadlocks is a prevention of impasses. In the future a prediction of appearing impasses is supposed. There are known methods [1,4,5] to define and prevent conditions under which deadlocks may occur. Thus the preliminary information on what resources a running process can request is used. Before allocating a free resource to the process, a test for a state “safety” condition is provided. The state is "safe" if in the future impasses cannot occur as a result of resource allocation to the process. Otherwise the state is considered to be " hazardous ", and resource allocation is postponed. The obvious

  6. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  7. Conflict field energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebsbach-Gnath, C.

    1981-01-01

    Violent social controversies characterize the treatment of the energy problem. Solutions of this conflict decisively depend on the knowledge and evaluation of the causes and the possible development. How is it possible to explain the opinions, views, and the attitude of the population to different kinds of energy. Which factors are decisive for the explosive effect and the stability of the conflict in the field of nulcear energy. What will happen when there arises a possible lack of energy. Which socio-political effects will such a lack have. Are there new proposals for solving problems in the nulcear-energy debate. The contributions of this book are results of scientific and empiric works. They provide perceptive approaches and analyses to the problems and by discussing them are useful in giving an orientation for political action. (orig.) [de

  8. Conflict engagement: workplace dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra

    2015-04-01

    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  9. Islam: Ideology and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    brands ’ (‘ popular fronts’ and ‘liberation fronts’). The difference was that the ‘fronts’ often had real state backers while the current VEOs do not...assuming the al Qaeda brand name. This underscores the essential role of local conflicts and rivalries.5 To a significant degree, this paper argues...under poor leadership it was disas- trous. The Abbasids did not have that luxury . They were far more dependent on political power centers that

  10. Solicitors' conflicts of interest

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford, Colin

    2003-01-01

    Brief overview of the need for the Law Society of England and Wales to formulate new rules to address conflicts of interest situations and accommodate modern practices which have followed from the merger of firms of solicitors resulting for example in requests to act in a dispute with a former client or to represent several parties in the same commercial or financial transaction. Published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal ...

  11. Institutional conflicts in Jungian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisold, K

    2001-04-01

    This paper explores how the institutional life of analytical psychology has been beset by its historical and continuing conflictual relationship with psychoanalysis. Stemming from a division in Jung's identity, that of the spiritual seeker and that of a mental health practitioner, the organizations of analytical psychology have repeatedly enacted that division, resulting in an unclear mission and considerable conflict. In England those conflicts have led to schisms; in America they have played out in internal conflicts within training institutes. Examples of areas of conflict are provided, along with suggestions for addressing these conflicts by recognizing them more openly.

  12. Conflict: an imperative for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, F J

    1986-04-01

    Conflict in organizations of any type is inevitable. Medical institutions, particularly multispecialty clinics, are no exception. This paper presents an examination of the anatomy of conflict in group practice settings. Several case studies, including the "Hunterdon Experiment," are presented to illustrate the outcome of conflict situations where management was unable to direct its energy to productive ends. Recommendations are made for identifying, considering, and resolving conflicts in a proactive fashion. The conflict management role of the top management of the organization is described, with particular emphasis on the pivotal position of the Medical Director.

  13. Flexible Conflict Management: Conflict Avoidance and Conflict Adjustment in Reactive Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Kiesel, Andrea; Eder, Andreas B.

    2015-01-01

    Conflict processing is assumed to serve two crucial, yet distinct functions: Regarding task performance, control is adjusted to overcome the conflict. Regarding task choice, control is harnessed to bias decision making away from the source of conflict. Despite recent theoretical progress, until now two lines of research addressed these…

  14. Timing of cyber conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert; Iliev, Rumen

    2014-01-28

    Nations are accumulating cyber resources in the form of stockpiles of zero-day exploits as well as other novel methods of engaging in future cyber conflict against selected targets. This paper analyzes the optimal timing for the use of such cyber resources. A simple mathematical model is offered to clarify how the timing of such a choice can depend on the stakes involved in the present situation, as well as the characteristics of the resource for exploitation. The model deals with the question of when the resource should be used given that its use today may well prevent it from being available for use later. The analysis provides concepts, theory, applications, and distinctions to promote the understanding strategy aspects of cyber conflict. Case studies include the Stuxnet attack on Iran's nuclear program, the Iranian cyber attack on the energy firm Saudi Aramco, the persistent cyber espionage carried out by the Chinese military, and an analogous case of economic coercion by China in a dispute with Japan. The effects of the rapidly expanding market for zero-day exploits are also analyzed. The goal of the paper is to promote the understanding of this domain of cyber conflict to mitigate the harm it can do, and harness the capabilities it can provide.

  15. Parental decision making involvement and decisional conflict: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Laura; Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Saarimaki, Anton; Lawson, Margaret L

    2017-06-13

    Decisional conflict is a state of uncertainty about the best treatment option among competing alternatives and is common among adult patients who are inadequately involved in the health decision making process. In pediatrics, research shows that many parents are insufficiently involved in decisions about their child's health. However, little is known about parents' experience of decisional conflict. We explored parents' perceived decision making involvement and its association with parents' decisional conflict. We conducted a descriptive survey study in a pediatric tertiary care hospital. Our survey was guided by validated decisional conflict screening items (i.e., the SURE test). We administered the survey to eligible parents after an ambulatory care or emergency department consultation for their child. Four hundred twenty-nine respondents were included in the analysis. Forty-eight percent of parents reported not being offered treatment options and 23% screened positive for decisional conflict. Parents who reported being offered options experienced less decisional conflict than parents who reported not being offered options (5% vs. 42%, p conflict after their clinical consultation. Involving parents in the decision making process might reduce their risk of decisional conflict. Evidence based interventions that support parent decision making involvement, such as shared decision making, should be evaluated and implemented in pediatrics as a strategy to reduce parents' decisional conflict.

  16. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Otunba, Ganiyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  17. Functional imaging of decision conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Riis, Jason; Sanfey, Alan G; Nystrom, Leigh E; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2008-03-26

    Decision conflict occurs when people feel uncertain as to which option to choose from a set of similarly attractive (or unattractive) options, with many studies demonstrating that this conflict can lead to suboptimal decision making. In this article, we investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of decision conflict, in particular, the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Previous studies have implicated the ACC in conflict monitoring during perceptual tasks, but there is considerable controversy as to whether the ACC actually indexes conflict related to choice, or merely conflict related to selection of competing motor responses. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we dissociate the decision and response phases of a decision task, and show that the ACC does indeed index conflict at the decision stage. Furthermore, we show that it does so for a complex decision task, one that requires the integration of beliefs and preferences and not just perceptual judgments.

  18. Conflict management: importance and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Laurie

    2017-01-26

    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  19. The nature of conflict between hikers and recreational stock users in the John Muir wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; M. J. Niccolucci; Daniel R. Williams

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the extent of conflict between hikers and recreational stock users in a Sierra Nevada wilderness and to test the relative importance of various hypothetical predictors of conflict using multiple conflict measures. A survey of hikers and recreational stock users of the John Muir Wilderness in California revealed the ability...

  20. A Study of Interpersonal Conflict Among Operating Room Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsui-Fen; Chen, Chung-Kuang; Chen, Ming-Jia

    2017-12-01

    Team collaboration is an important factor that affects the performance of the operating room (OR). Therefore, the ability of OR nurses to adapt to and manage interpersonal conflict incidents properly is very important. The aims of this study were to investigate the interpersonal conflict management capabilities of OR nursing staffs and to find the relationships among the demographics of OR nurses and the following: work-related variables, interpersonal conflict management style, and target of interpersonal conflict. This study investigated 201 OR nurses who had worked for more than 6 months at the target hospitals, which were located in the three counties of Changhua, Yunlin, and Chiayi. The questionnaire that was used to collect data included three components: a demographic and work-related variables survey, interpersonal conflict management factor analysis scale, and interpersonal conflict parties and frequency scale. Data were analyzed using independent t test, analysis of variance, Scheffe's test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The main findings were as follows: (a) Integration and arbitration were the major interpersonal conflict management strategies adopted by the participants; (b) medical doctor, OR nurses, and anesthetists were the primary targets of conflict for the participants; (c) the factors of educational background, job position, experience in other departments, seniority, attending courses in conflict management, and level of hospital significantly affected the strategies that participants used to manage interpersonal conflict; and (d) license level, experience in other departments, seniority, and inclination toward serving in the OR were each found to relate significantly to the target of interpersonal conflict and the frequency of interpersonal conflict incidents. The main implications of this study are as follows: (a) The environment for communication in the OR should be made more friendly to encourage junior OR nurses to adopt

  1. Exploring how Conflict Management Training Changes Workplace Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima

    2012-01-01

    While many organisations offer conflict management training to both staff and management, there has been little research investigating the changes resulting from such training. Using an interpretive framework of analysis, a qualitative case study was conducted to understand how 'sensemakings' about...... conflicts change when enacted from the perspective of staff and management in a non-profit organisation that participated in conflict management training. The case study was constructed as a longitudinal investigation with ethnographic fieldwork as the primary method of inquiry. The training worked...... as a catalyst for the development of new sensemakings about workplace conflicts. These included increasing acknowledgement of workplace conflicts, recognition of interdependent and context embedded relationships in interpersonal conflicts, and enactment of active resistance in a subordinated occupational group...

  2. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  3. [Work-family conflict in call center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Ricotta, Simona; Colombo, Lara

    2012-01-01

    The working environment of call centers, which have seen a significant growth in recent years, has been the subject of several studies aiming at understanding its specific dynamics, with particular attention to the possible causes of stress and discomfort. Despite the fact that the work-family conflict is considered a source of stress responsible for undermining workers' well-being, and as such has been explored in many work environments, there is still very little research specific to call centers. This study had the following aims: to explore work-family conflict perceived by call-center operators taking account of any differences related to respondents'professional and personal characteristics; to understand which demands and resources can have an impact on work-family conflict in this context. The study was carried out on a sample of 898 call center operators in a telecommunications company through the administration of a self-reporting questionnaire. Data analysis included: t-test, one-way analysis of variance, linear correlations and multiple regressions. A higher perception of work-family conflict among workers having a full-time contract was observed compared to those having part-time contracts. Multiple regression analysis identified as sources of influence on work-family conflict: emotional dissonance, uneasiness due customer dissatisfaction, workload, avoidance coping and working hours. Work-family conflict in the context studied is not particularly critical: it is in part influenced by professional and personal characteristics of respondents and primarily caused by work demands. Managerial implications are discussed, especially referred to training activities.

  4. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT. SOME PROSPECTS ON THE LABOR CONFLICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Bădoi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Managers wish for harmony within their organizations, that the satisfied employees to work in well balanced teams in order to achieve the institutional goals without taking into account the individual and cultural differences, personal or group interests. Conflicts can be classified according to several criteria. This study aims to present the particularities of conflict resolution within labor relations. Starting from the analysis of the conflict concept viewed from several perspectives, including legal term, this paper aims to reveal the sources of labor disputes through statistical tools, to explain the development of the conflict and to propose solutions to reduce / solve conflicts. From the traditionalist perspective all conflicts are bad, being subsumed to terms of violence, anarchy, destruction, chaos, requiring major reality changes. Conflicts are seen as natural, normal, and cyclical from the human relations point of view. Moreover, inter-actionist perspective suggests encouraging for triggering conflicts because a group that is too long peaceful may become inert, listless and noncreative. This theory proposes to the leaders to maintain a level of conflict within institutions so that to be in the presence of a dynamic group, the manifestation of critical thinking, innovation and improvement of the human relationships’ quality.

  5. Conflicts in Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lindskog

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last couple of years, there has been a tendency to include more and more political goals into public procurements, such as environmental and societal considerations. This can result in higher prices paid by the public sector compared with similar procurements in the private sector. The decision makers at local level are elected and should represent the interest of their communities and voters, which includes promoting regional/local companies and economic development. This task can sometimes get into conflict with public procurement law or the political goals of a central government. (original abstract

  6. Towards managing diversity: Cultural aspects of conflict management in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Hamdorf

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated cultural aspects of conflict management in organizations in response to the growing need for an understanding of how people from diverse cultural backgrounds can work together without the often-resulting problem of intercultural conflict. Culture was evaluated through self-assessments of how independent or interdependent the subjects were (Markus & Kitayama, 1991, and conflict behavior through eight conflict management styles: dominating, integrating, compromising, avoiding, obliging, emotion, neglect and third-party help (Rahim, 1983; Ting-Toomey et al., 2000. Furthermore, drawing upon face-negotiation theory (Ting-Toomey, 1988; Ting-Toomey & Kurogi, 1998, a test was made of whether self-face, other-face and mutual-face concerns could explain cultural differences in conflict behavior. A total of 185 professionals from different countries completed an Internet questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis of the eight styles revealed three factors which seem to describe direct, indirect and integrating plus compromising conflict behaviors. In line with this study's hypotheses, persons with a tendency to act independently mentioned direct styles, as well as integrating, and persons with a tendency to act interdependently mentioned indirect styles in addition to integrating and compromising. Furthermore, a concern for self-face maintenance was related to direct conflict behavior, a concern for other-face maintenance to indirect conflict behavior, and a concern for mutual-face maintenance to integrating and compromising. However, persons with a tendency to act independently do not seem to be particularly concerned about self-face maintenance. Persons with a tendency to act interdependently, on the other hand, show other- and mutual-face concerns in conflict situations. It was concluded that face concerns do play a crucial role, but mainly in explaining the conflict behavior of persons with a tendency to act interdependently

  7. Power effects on cognitive control: Turning conflict into action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Petra C; Kleiman, Tali; Amodio, David M

    2015-06-01

    Power is known to promote effective goal pursuit, especially when it requires one to overcome distractions or bias. We proposed that this effect involves the ability to engage and implement cognitive control. In Study 1, we demonstrated that power enhances behavioral performance on a response conflict task and that it does so by enhancing controlled processing rather than by reducing automatic processing. In Study 2, we used an event-related potential index of anterior cingulate activity to test whether power effects on control were due to enhanced conflict sensitivity or action implementation. Power did not significantly affect neural sensitivity to conflict; rather, high power was associated with a stronger link between conflict processing and intended action, relative to low power. These findings suggest a new perspective on how social factors can affect controlled processing and offer new evidence regarding the transition between conflict detection and the implementation of action control. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The cerebellum mediates conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Tom A; Oriet, Chris; Meiran, Nachshon; Alexander, Michael P; Cusimano, Michael; Stuss, Donald T

    2007-12-01

    Regions within the frontal and parietal cortex have been implicated as important neural correlates for cognitive control during conflict resolution. Despite the extensive reciprocal connectivity between the cerebellum and these putatively critical cortical areas, a role for the cerebellum in conflict resolution has never been identified. We used a task-switching paradigm that separates processes related to task-set switching and the management of response conflict independent of motor processing. Eleven patients with chronic, focal lesions to the cerebellum and 11 healthy controls were compared. Patients were slower and less accurate in conditions involving conflict resolution. In the absence of response conflict, however, tasks-witching abilities were not impaired in our patients. The cerebellum may play an important role in coordinating with other areas of cortex to modulate active response states. These results are the first demonstration of impaired conflict resolution following cerebellar lesions in the presence of an intact prefrontal cortex.

  9. Conflict Elaboration and Cognitive Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Buchs, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio; Mugny, Gabriel; Darnon, Céline

    2004-01-01

    This article presents advice for teachers about using sociocognitive conflicts to promote academic learning. In doing so, the conditions under which sociocognitive conflicts are constructive or disruptive are examined and the relevant research is reviewed on social development, cooperative learning, and social influence. Two types of conflict elaboration—epistemic and relational—are identified. Epistemic elaborations focus students on task resolution leading to positive cognitive outcomes, an...

  10. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    OpenAIRE

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS) implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts). To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. I...

  11. Interdisciplinary conflict and organizational complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, M E

    1986-01-01

    Most people think that conflict among the professional staff is inevitable and results from each profession's unique set of values. Each profession then defends itself by claiming its own turf. This article demonstrates that organizational complexity, not professional territorialism, influences the amount of intraorganizational conflict. In a comparison of two psychiatric hospitals, this study shows that there is not necessarily greater conflict across professions than within professions. However, there is a significantly greater amount of conflict among staff at a structurally more complex hospital than at a less-complex hospital, regardless of profession. Implications for management are discussed.

  12. Armed conflict and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health\\ud throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives\\ud in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely\\ud to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark\\ud contrast to the effect on children, the international arms\\ud trade results in huge profits for the large corporations\\ud involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions.\\ud Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important\\ud health issue that should be...

  13. The cultural contagion of conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y.; Bruss, C. Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  14. [Relationship of perception conflict and assertiveness in nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojčić, Živko; Perković, Lada; Stašević, Ina; Stojčić, Nevena; Ropac, Darko

    2014-06-01

    At their workplace, nurses are exposed to a number of conflict situations. On dealing with such situations, a significant role is played by assertiveness skills. Assertiveness is the necessity of efficient communication between nurses and patients. Thus, development of these skills can enhance patient confidence in the nursing profession. The aim of the study was to determine whether there are differences in assertiveness with respect to age and sex, and whether there is and what is the connection between assertiveness, potential sources of conflict at work, conflicts due to the behavior of associates, resolving conflicts and self-assessment in resolving conflicts. The survey included 87 hospital nurses. The questionnaire included assessment of assertiveness. On processing the results, we calculated the indicators of descriptive statistics, carried out the variance analysis and t-test, and calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients. It was found that the majority of subjects expressed a medium level of assertiveness, i.e. they could be considered as relatively assertive persons. There were significant differences in assertiveness according to age of the subjects and length of service, where the oldest age group was significantly less assertive. More assertive subjects frequently observed behaviors that may be a source of conflict and problems in the organization of work. At the same time, they often had conflicts because of such behavior, which indicated that more assertive subjects were bolder and more secure. More assertive subjects believed that they were more successful in resolving conflicts than non-assertive subjects.

  15. Response inhibition under alcohol: effects of cognitive and motivational conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, M T; Vogel-Sprott, M

    2000-03-01

    This experiment tested the effect of cognitive and motivational conflict on response inhibition under alcohol. Fifty-six male social drinkers were randomly assigned to one of eight groups (n = 8). Four pairs of groups received 0.62 g/kg of alcohol, or a placebo, and each pair performed a go/stop choice reaction time task under one of four conflict conditions. One condition (C) produced cognitive conflict by presenting "go" and "stop" signals in the task. Another condition (IR) added motivational conflict by administering an equal monetary reward for inhibiting responses to stop-signals, and for responding to go-signals. The remaining two conditions resolved the motivational conflict by administering the monetary reward only for inhibitions (I), or only for responses (R). Compared with placebo, alcohol reduced inhibitions (i.e., impaired inhibitory control) under cognitive conflict (C; p = .041) and under motivational conflict (IR; p = .012). No significant effect of alcohol on inhibitions was observed in conditions where conflict was resolved (i.e., I and R). The study shows that alcohol can reduce the ability to inhibit a response. However, impaired inhibitory control is not an inevitable outcome of the drug action, because it can be counteracted by the consequences of behavior in the situation.

  16. Neural conflict-control mechanisms improve memory for target stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Ruth M; Boehler, Carsten N; De Belder, Maya; Egner, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    According to conflict-monitoring models, conflict serves as an internal signal for reinforcing top-down attention to task-relevant information. While evidence based on measures of ongoing task performance supports this idea, implications for long-term consequences, that is, memory, have not been tested yet. Here, we evaluated the prediction that conflict-triggered attentional enhancement of target-stimulus processing should be associated with superior subsequent memory for those stimuli. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a novel variant of a face-word Stroop task that employed trial-unique face stimuli as targets, we were able to assess subsequent (incidental) memory for target faces as a function of whether a given face had previously been accompanied by congruent, neutral, or incongruent (conflicting) distracters. In line with our predictions, incongruent distracters not only induced behavioral conflict, but also gave rise to enhanced memory for target faces. Moreover, conflict-triggered neural activity in prefrontal and parietal regions was predictive of subsequent retrieval success, and displayed conflict-enhanced functional coupling with medial-temporal lobe regions. These data provide support for the proposal that conflict evokes enhanced top-down attention to task-relevant stimuli, thereby promoting their encoding into long-term memory. Our findings thus delineate the neural mechanisms of a novel link between cognitive control and memory. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Conflicts and alliances in insect families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, L; Boomsma, J J

    2001-05-01

    Hamilton's principle of inclusive fitness implies that reproductive altruism can evolve, because individuals can pass on genes not only through their own offspring, but also through the offspring of their relatives. Social insects are spectacular examples of how some individuals may be selected to forgo reproduction and instead help others reproduce. Social Hymenoptera are also special because relatedness patterns within families can be asymmetrical, so that optimal sex-ratios, preferred male parentage or preferred mating frequencies become objects of reproductive conflict. The now extensive inclusive fitness theory provides precise qualitative predictions with respect to the emergence of such conflicts. Recent advances in the power of genetic markers applied to resolve family structure in insect societies have brought about a series of studies that have tested these predictions. In support of kin selection as a major evolutionary force, the results suggest that workers frequently control sex allocation. However, the very establishment of such worker control has made new conflicts come to light, between mothers and fathers and between adult individuals and brood. Evidence for these conflicts is only just beginning to be gathered. Recent studies tend to include issues such as 'information' and 'power' (i.e. the ability to perceive signals and the opportunity to act upon this information), and to address selection for selfishness at the individual level with costs of social disruption at the colony level.

  18. Causes of Conflict and Conflict Resolution Styles among Bahir Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the causes of conflict and conflict resolution styles among university students. The participants were 390 (49 female and 341 male) sophomore (87.7%), junior (5.6%), and senior (6.7%) university students. Students identified themselves as Amhara, Oromo, Tigre, and as belonging to other ethnic groups ...

  19. "Conflict management" and "conflict resolution" are not synonymous terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S P

    1978-01-01

    Robbins sees functional conflict as an absolute necessity within organizations and explicitly encourages it. He explains: "Survival can result only when an organization is able to adapt to constant changes in the environment. Adaption is possible only through change, and change is stimulated by conflict." Robbins cites evidence indicating that conflict can be related to increased productivity and that critical thinking encourages well-developed decisions. He admits, however, that not all conflicts are good for the organization. Their functional or dysfunctional nature is determined by the impact of the conflict on the objectives of the organization. The author identifies several factors underlying the need for conflict stimulation: (1) managers who are surrounded by "yes men"; (2) subordinates who are afraid to admit ignorance or uncertainty; (3) decision-makers' excessive concern about hurting the feelings of others; or (4) an environment where new ideas are slow in coming forth. He suggests techniques for stimulating conflict; manipulating the communication channels (i.e., repression of information); changing the organizational structure (i.e., changes in size or position); and altering personal behavior factors (i.e., role incongruence). Robbins stresses that the actual method to be used in either resolving or stimulating conflict must be appropriate to the situation.

  20. The impact of conflict on HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edward J; Singh, Sonal; Nelson, Brett D; Nachega, Jean B

    2006-11-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa disproportionately represents the largest incidence of both HIV/AIDS and internal conflicts. The impact of conflict on HIV incidence is largely unknown. Current epidemiological evidence paradoxically suggests that in most populations affected by conflict, HIV prevalence is lower than surrounding communities. However, in situations of conflict, the most vulnerable populations, such as women and children, are at increased risk for HIV through sexual violence, forced occupational exposure and an absence of access to health care or testing. Together, these dimensions of conflict create a complex and challenging situation for prevention of HIV/AIDS and delivery of care to conflict-affected populations. We examine the complexity of monitoring HIV/AIDS in conflict settings. We argue that increased efforts are needed to protect vulnerable populations and design health-delivery systems that are sustainable in settings of conflict.

  1. Situational analysis of conflict interaction of employees belonging to generations X and Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishchik V.I.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article described the situational approach to the analysis of conflicts between representatives of different generations, and analyzed intergenerational conflict, psychological portraits of members of generations X and Y. The study surveyed 144 people. Applied techniques: test Thomas, methods of identifying conflicts of expectations S.I. Erina, E.P. Sharapova; methods of identifying potential interpersonal conflicts A.N. Lebedeva, I.I. Level; developed a questionnaire analysis of the conflict, as well as using situation analysis (related to various situations of the conflict of different generations, their evaluation and analysis. The studies confirmed the differences in perceptions and attitudes to conflict situations of different generations. According to the obtained results we were able to identify a number of patterns, relations, and describe the attitude of employees of different generations to emerging or potential conflicts.

  2. How Team-Level and Individual-Level Conflict Influences Team Commitment: A Multilevel Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyun; Kwon, Seungwoo; Shin, Shung J.; Kim, MinSoo; Park, In-Jo

    2018-01-01

    We investigate how two different types of conflict (task conflict and relationship conflict) at two different levels (individual-level and team-level) influence individual team commitment. The analysis was conducted using data we collected from 193 employees in 31 branch offices of a Korean commercial bank. The relationships at multiple levels were tested using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). The results showed that individual-level relationship conflict was negatively related to team commitment while individual-level task conflict was not. In addition, both team-level task and relationship conflict were negatively associated with team commitment. Finally, only team-level relationship conflict significantly moderated the relationship between individual-level relationship conflict and team commitment. We further derive theoretical implications of these findings. PMID:29387033

  3. How Team-Level and Individual-Level Conflict Influences Team Commitment: A Multilevel Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyun Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how two different types of conflict (task conflict and relationship conflict at two different levels (individual-level and team-level influence individual team commitment. The analysis was conducted using data we collected from 193 employees in 31 branch offices of a Korean commercial bank. The relationships at multiple levels were tested using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM. The results showed that individual-level relationship conflict was negatively related to team commitment while individual-level task conflict was not. In addition, both team-level task and relationship conflict were negatively associated with team commitment. Finally, only team-level relationship conflict significantly moderated the relationship between individual-level relationship conflict and team commitment. We further derive theoretical implications of these findings.

  4. Grin and Bear It?: Employees' Use of Surface Acting During Co-worker Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Ashley E; Bruk-Lee, Valentina; Spector, Paul E

    2017-04-01

    Using survey data from 459 employed individuals, the conditional indirect effects of three types of interpersonal conflict at work on strains and performance through surface acting were tested. Results indicated that task, relationship and non-task organizational conflict were positively related to depressive and physical symptoms and negatively related to performance. Task conflict had a significantly weaker association with employee outcomes than either relationship or non-task organizational conflict. Surface acting negatively related to all types of conflict, although it had a weaker association with relationship conflict than task or non-task organizational conflict. Support was found for moderated mediation relationships whereby surface acting mediated the associations between all types of conflict with depressive symptoms, as well as the association between relationship and non-task organizational conflict with physical symptoms, when conflict was infrequent. Surface acting also mediated the associations between all types of conflict and performance when conflict was frequent. Future research directions are discussed that can advance our theoretical understanding of how emotional labour and interpersonal conflict interact to affect employees, as well as further our ability to improve employee well-being and organizational functioning. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. How Important is Conflict Detection to the Conflict Resolution Task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Joey; Gabets, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Edwards, Tamsyn; Bienert, Nancy; Claudatos, Lauren; Homola, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the capabilities and limitations of human operators and automation in separation assurance roles, the second of three Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) part-task studies investigates air traffic controllers ability to detect and resolve conflicts under varying task sets, traffic densities, and run lengths. Operations remained within a single sector, staffed by a single controller, and explored, among other things, the controllers conflict resolution performance in conditions with or without their involvement in the conflict detection task. Whereas comparisons of conflict resolution performance between these two conditions are available in a prior publication, this paper explores whether or not other subjective measures display a relationship to that data. Analyses of controller workload and situation awareness measures attempt to quantify their contribution to controllers ability to resolve traffic conflicts.

  6. Ethical conflict in critical care nursing: Correlation between exposure and types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcó-Pegueroles, Anna; Lluch-Canut, Teresa; Roldan-Merino, Juan; Goberna-Tricas, Josefina; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan

    2015-08-01

    Ethical conflicts in nursing have generally been studied in terms of temporal frequency and the degree of conflict. This study presents a new perspective for examining ethical conflict in terms of the degree of exposure to conflict and its typology. The aim was to examine the level of exposure to ethical conflict for professional nurses in critical care units and to analyze the relation between this level and the types of ethical conflict and moral states. This was a descriptive correlational study. Central and dispersion, normality tests, and analysis of variance were carried out. A total of 203 nurses were from two third-level teaching hospitals in Spain. Both centers are part of the University of Barcelona Health Network. Participants filled out the Ethical Conflict in Nursing Questionnaire-Critical Care Version. This investigation received the approval of the ethical committees for clinical investigation of the two participating hospitals. Participants were informed of the authorship and aims of the study. The index of exposure to ethical conflict was [Formula: see text]. The situations involving analgesic treatment and end-of-life care were shown to be frequent sources of conflict. The types of ethical conflict and moral states generally arranged themselves from lesser to greater levels of index of exposure to ethical conflict. The moderate level of exposure to ethical conflict was consistent with other international studies. However, the situations related with family are infrequent, and this presents differences with previous research. The results suggest that there is a logical relationship between types of conflict and levels of exposure to ethical conflict. The types of ethical conflict and moral states were related with the levels of exposure to ethical conflict. The new perspective was shown to be useful for analyzing the phenomenon of ethical conflict in the nurse. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Task-dependent response conflict monitoring and cognitive control in anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chobok; Chung, Chongwook; Kim, Jeounghoon

    2013-11-06

    Previous experience affects our behavior in terms of adjustments. It has been suggested that the conflict monitor-controller system implemented in the prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in such adjustments. Previous studies suggested that there exists multiple conflict monitor-controller systems associated with the level of information (i.e., stimulus and response levels). In this study, we sought to test whether different types of conflicts occur at the same information processing level (i.e., response level) are independently processed. For this purpose, we designed a task paradigm to measure two different types of response conflicts using color-based and location-based conflict stimuli and measured the conflict adaptation effects associated with the two types of conflicts either independently (i.e., single conflict conditions) or simultaneously (i.e., a double-conflict condition). The behavioral results demonstrated that performance on current incongruent trials was faster only when the preceding trial was the same type of response conflict regardless of whether they included a single- or double-conflict. Imaging data also showed that anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices operate in a task-specific manner. These findings suggest that there may be multiple monitor-controller loops for color-based and location-based conflicts even at the same response level. Importantly, our results suggest that double-conflict processing is qualitatively different from single-conflict processing although double-conflict shares the same sources of conflict with two single-conflict conditions. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Starting and Stopping Spontaneous Family Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchinich, Samuel

    1987-01-01

    Examined how 52 nondistressed families managed spontaneous verbal conflicts during family dinners. Found conflict initiation to be evenly distributed across family roles. Extension of conflict was constrained by constant probability of a next conflict move occurring. Most conflicts ended with no resolution. Mothers were most active in closing…

  9. Social networks and intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takács, Károly

    2002-01-01

    Conflicts between groups are among the most challenging problems of mankind. They arise as groups compete for the possession of certain scarce resources. Under what conditions does such competition lead to conflict or to a peaceful coexistence? Why do individual group members, despite the likelihood

  10. Climate Change, Conflict, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We have good reason to predict that a warming climate will produce more conflict and violence. A growing contingent of researchers has been examining the relationship in recent years, and they've found that hotter temperatures and reduced rainfall are linked to increases in conflict at all scales, from interpersonal violence to war. Children are…

  11. Managing conflict in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weygman, L

    1986-08-01

    Conflict is inevitable in the workplace. Mounting pressures to reduce staffing levels and improve productivity will almost certainly increase the level of conflict in the hospital setting in the coming months and years. The most effective managers will be those who can handle it constructively.

  12. The Logic of Animal Conflict

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is not surprising that ani- mals are often in conflict because they compete for limited resources. What is surprising however is that such conflict is often re- solved by a trial of strength, followed by the weaker ani- mal surrendering resources to the stronger rival, with- out an injurious fight until. A sparring match between male ...

  13. Auditory Conflict Processing in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Rosa; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Konig, Claudia; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was conducted to gain insight into conflict processing…

  14. Conflict Elaboration and Cognitive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Celine; Butera, Fabrizio; Mugny, Gabriel; Darnon, Celine

    2004-01-01

    This article presents advice for teachers about using sociocognitive conflicts to promote academic learning. In doing so, the conditions under which sociocognitive conflicts are constructive or disruptive are examined and the relevant research is reviewed on social development, cooperative learning, and social influence. Two types of conflict…

  15. Conflict management in online relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kumi

    2010-08-01

    With the diffusion of networked technology, personal relationships can be easily formed and maintained online today. Similar to a face-to-face situation, conflict is also seen in these online relationships. Early theories suggested that computer-mediated communication (CMC) tends to increase conflicts because of the lack of social-context cues, and CMC is not rich enough to manage conflict. As CMC has become part of our daily life, we often face conflict online, and thus we need to understand how people manage conflict online. This study explored how online users manage interpersonal conflict. Self-report survey data from 159 university students were analyzed to examine their conflict-management styles in association with the perceived closeness of the online relationship and a future intention toward the relationship. The results indicated that online users select cooperative management styles to handle conflict in their close relationships. In addition, online users avoid less cooperative styles when they want to continue the relationship.

  16. Functional imaging of decision conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pochon, J.B.; Riis, J.; Sanfey, A.G.; Nystrom, L.E.; Cohen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Decision conflict occurs when people feel uncertain as to which option to choose from a set of similarly attractive ( or unattractive) options, with many studies demonstrating that this conflict can lead to suboptimal decision making. In this article, we investigate the neurobiological underpinnings

  17. Worldview conflict in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, M.J.; Crawford, Jarret; van Tongeren, D.R.

    2018-01-01

    Building on laboratory- and survey-based research probing the psychology of ideology and the experience of worldview conflict, we examined the association between worldview conflict and emotional reactions, psychological well-being, humanity esteem, and political ideology in everyday life using

  18. Email Adaptation for Conflict Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Joyce Yi‐Hui; Panteli, Niki; Bülow, Anne Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the context of email‐based communication in anestablished but fragile, inter‐organisational partnership, which wasoften overlain with conflict. Drawing upon adaptation theory, thisstudy explores how participants adapt to the use of email to handleconflict. Extensive data were...... obtained during a 6‐month field studyof a case of cross‐border inter‐organisational collaboration in EastAsia. We observed that the individuals involved in the cross‐borderpartnership used email as a lean form of communication to stopcovert conflict from explicitly emerging. In contrast to prior researchon...... the leanness of email in managing conflict, we found that underthe described conflict situation the very leanness of emailwas appreciated and thus, exploited by those concerned tomanage the conflict situation. Specifically, we identified 4 keyconflict‐triggered adaptation strategies, namely...

  19. Considerations Regarding the Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Manolescu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The conflict has always been present among people. It arises at the level of human relationships and has a specific form of expression, according to its evolutionary stage. Because of the fact that people are part of an organization, they bring the conflict with themselves. Any attempt of efficiently managing an organization without taking into account the fact that organizational conflicts are inevitable are bound to failure. In order to successfully handle conflicting situations, old habits and empirical pieces of knowledge are no longer sufficient. We therefore witness the birth of new theoretical concepts and innovative practices, as well as the coming into being of different strategies and approaches re garding conflict management which are based on a set of clear ideas that we will develop in the following article.

  20. The high cost of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forté, P S

    1997-01-01

    Conflict is inevitable, especially in highly stressed environments. Clinical environments marked by nurse-physician conflict (and nurse withdrawal related to conflict avoidance) have been proven to be counterproductive to patients. Clinical environments with nurse-physician professional collegiality and respectful communication show decreased patient morbidity and mortality, thus enhancing outcomes. The growth of managed care, and the organizational turmoil associated with rapid change, makes it imperative to structure the health care environment so that conflict can be dealt with in a safe and healthy manner. Professional health care education programs and employers have a responsibility to provide interactive opportunities for multidisciplinary audiences through which conflict management skills can be learned and truly change the interpersonal environment. Professionals must be free to focus their energy on the needs of the patient, not on staff difficulties.

  1. Creating constructive outcomes in conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, B

    1998-06-01

    1. Conflict and disagreement are a fact of business life. Effort toward optomizing differences rather than minimizing them is a value added activity--leading to greater creativity, increasing levels of respect in relationships, and better solutions. 2. Proactively looking at potential conflict--where diasgreeing parties are often inherent and/or predictable--can save energy, relationships, and costly mistakes. Diagnosing or "reading" a situation and planning an approach is wise. 3. Several options or responses are available when facing conflict. Knowing when to use a given response is an important interpersonal skill. Relying on learned, habitual, and exclusive approaches to conflict may be limiting. 4. Implementation of effective conflict resolution is a function of attitude, initiative, and flexibility. An exploratory posture and a willingness to learn are constructive in attempting to reach agreements with optimum short and long term effect.

  2. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Steve M; Young, Juliette; Evely, Anna; Adams, William M; Sutherland, William J; Whitehouse, Andrew; Amar, Arjun; Lambert, Robert A; Linnell, John D C; Watt, Allan; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-02-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing and need to be managed to minimise negative impacts on biodiversity, human livelihoods, and human well-being. Here, we explore strategies and case studies that highlight the long-term, dynamic nature of conflicts and the challenges to their management. Conflict management requires parties to recognise problems as shared ones, and engage with clear goals, a transparent evidence base, and an awareness of trade-offs. We hypothesise that conservation outcomes will be less durable when conservationists assert their interests to the detriment of others. Effective conflict management and long-term conservation benefit will be enhanced by better integration of the underpinning social context with the material impacts and evaluation of the efficacy of alternative conflict management approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of Datasets on Scientific Influence within Conflict Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Van Holt

    Full Text Available We inductively tested if a coherent field of inquiry in human conflict research emerged in an analysis of published research involving "conflict" in the Web of Science (WoS over a 66-year period (1945-2011. We created a citation network that linked the 62,504 WoS records and their cited literature. We performed a critical path analysis (CPA, a specialized social network analysis on this citation network (~1.5 million works, to highlight the main contributions in conflict research and to test if research on conflict has in fact evolved to represent a coherent field of inquiry. Out of this vast dataset, 49 academic works were highlighted by the CPA suggesting a coherent field of inquiry; which means that researchers in the field acknowledge seminal contributions and share a common knowledge base. Other conflict concepts that were also analyzed-such as interpersonal conflict or conflict among pharmaceuticals, for example, did not form their own CP. A single path formed, meaning that there was a cohesive set of ideas that built upon previous research. This is in contrast to a main path analysis of conflict from 1957-1971 where ideas didn't persist in that multiple paths existed and died or emerged reflecting lack of scientific coherence (Carley, Hummon, and Harty, 1993. The critical path consisted of a number of key features: 1 Concepts that built throughout include the notion that resource availability drives conflict, which emerged in the 1960s-1990s and continued on until 2011. More recent intrastate studies that focused on inequalities emerged from interstate studies on the democracy of peace earlier on the path. 2 Recent research on the path focused on forecasting conflict, which depends on well-developed metrics and theories to model. 3 We used keyword analysis to independently show how the CP was topically linked (i.e., through democracy, modeling, resources, and geography. Publically available conflict datasets developed early on helped

  4. The Role of Datasets on Scientific Influence within Conflict Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holt, Tracy; Johnson, Jeffery C; Moates, Shiloh; Carley, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    We inductively tested if a coherent field of inquiry in human conflict research emerged in an analysis of published research involving "conflict" in the Web of Science (WoS) over a 66-year period (1945-2011). We created a citation network that linked the 62,504 WoS records and their cited literature. We performed a critical path analysis (CPA), a specialized social network analysis on this citation network (~1.5 million works), to highlight the main contributions in conflict research and to test if research on conflict has in fact evolved to represent a coherent field of inquiry. Out of this vast dataset, 49 academic works were highlighted by the CPA suggesting a coherent field of inquiry; which means that researchers in the field acknowledge seminal contributions and share a common knowledge base. Other conflict concepts that were also analyzed-such as interpersonal conflict or conflict among pharmaceuticals, for example, did not form their own CP. A single path formed, meaning that there was a cohesive set of ideas that built upon previous research. This is in contrast to a main path analysis of conflict from 1957-1971 where ideas didn't persist in that multiple paths existed and died or emerged reflecting lack of scientific coherence (Carley, Hummon, and Harty, 1993). The critical path consisted of a number of key features: 1) Concepts that built throughout include the notion that resource availability drives conflict, which emerged in the 1960s-1990s and continued on until 2011. More recent intrastate studies that focused on inequalities emerged from interstate studies on the democracy of peace earlier on the path. 2) Recent research on the path focused on forecasting conflict, which depends on well-developed metrics and theories to model. 3) We used keyword analysis to independently show how the CP was topically linked (i.e., through democracy, modeling, resources, and geography). Publically available conflict datasets developed early on helped shape the

  5. Mismatch and conflict: neurophysiological and behavioral evidence for conflict priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Ralph; Meuth, Sven G; Kräuchi, Kurt; Schmidlin, Maria; Müller-Spahn, Franz; Falkenstein, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Conflict-related cognitive processes are critical for adapting to sudden environmental changes that confront the individual with inconsistent or ambiguous information. Thus, these processes play a crucial role to cope with daily life. Generally, conflicts tend to accumulate especially in complex and threatening situations. Therefore, the question arises how conflict-related cognitive processes are modulated by the close succession of conflicts. In the present study, we investigated the effect of interactions between different types of conflict on performance as well as on electrophysiological parameters. A task-irrelevant auditory stimulus and a task-relevant visual stimulus were presented successively. The auditory stimulus consisted of a standard or deviant tone, followed by a congruent or incongruent Stroop stimulus. After standard prestimuli, performance deteriorated for incongruent compared to congruent Stroop stimuli, which were accompanied by a widespread negativity for incongruent versus congruent stimuli in the event-related potentials (ERPs). However, after deviant prestimuli, performance was better for incongruent than for congruent Stroop stimuli and an additional early negativity in the ERP emerged with a fronto-central maximum. Our data show that deviant auditory prestimuli facilitate specifically the processing of stimulus-related conflict, providing evidence for a conflict-priming effect.

  6. CONFLICT PERSONALITY AS A PARTICIPANT OF CONFLICT DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyranyan Margarita Yuryevna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict discourse as a communicative event reveals the characteristics of its participants as linguistic personalities. In this respect, this study enables us to reveal and describe their personal and social features. Undoubtedly, the individual characteristics of participants, their cultural and ideological differences and similarities have a great impact on the interaction process in general and on the use of linguistic means in particular. To better understand the nature of conflict discourse, its causes and consequences, one should take into account that adverse behaviour depends on the personality type and the role the speaker plays in different situations. Conflict personality is referred to as an archetype, transcendental phenomenon common to everybody. The research revealed such key characteristics typical of conflict personality as: verbal (use of language units with "conflict" connotation, the "manipulation" of speech means that convey negative, conflict meaning in particular contexts and non-verbal (communicative aim, communication medium, pre- and post-supposition of the speaker and the listener, mode of behaviour. It also proved that conflict patterns of behavior may lead to confrontation and/or transfer of collaborative interaction into an adverse one.

  7. Local Political Conflict and Pela Gandong Amidst the Religious Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny SB Hoedodo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pela Gandong which is believed by Ambonese for its propitiational value is in fact failed to prevent horizontal conflict that victimized a big number of life and financial damages. However, Wayame villagem is found to survive from those conflicts, and the community of this village, comprising of Islam and Christian religious group, succeeds to maintain harmonious relation. The research aims at, first, describing the perception of Wayamae village community to Pela Gandong in the post-conflict period; second, analyzing the cultural competence of pela Gandong in conflict resolution in the era of technology. This research employed qualitative method, involving in-field data gathering based on official report, digging out information from the resource persons who were directly witnessing the conflict when it occured and other references obtained through Forum Group Discussion (FGD. An analysis was performed to seek answer concerning on how the community of Wayame village viewed Pela Gandong in post-conflict period, how it is – as a local wisdom – maintained in the middle of changing and how Pela Gandong was revitalized. Research showed that Pela Gandong was maintained by involving all elements such as customary community and the government. Pela Gandong grew as the icon of Ambonese society in settling conflicts by raising awareness that they are Eastern people, collectivistic in nature, and place kinship into priority.

  8. Is consciousness necessary for conflict detection and conflict resolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ling; Wang, Baoxi; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-06-15

    Is conflict control dependent on consciousness? To answer this question, we used high temporal resolution event-related potentials (ERPs) to separate conflict detection from conflict resolution in a masked prime Stroop task. Although behavioral interference effect was present in both the masked and unmasked conditions, the electrophysiological findings revealed more complex patterns. ERP analyses showed that N450 was greater for incongruent trials than for congruent trials and that it was located in the ACC and nearby motor cortex, regardless of whether the primes were masked or unmasked; however, the effects were smaller for the masked than unmasked condition. These results suggest that consciousness of conflict information may not be necessary for detecting conflict, but that it may modulate conflict detection. The analysis of slow potential (SP) amplitude showed that it distinguished incongruent trials from congruent trials, and that this modulation effects was reduced to a greater extent for the masked condition than for the unmasked condition. Moreover, the prefrontal-parietal control network was activated under the unmasked but not under the masked condition. These results suggest that the consciousness of conflict information may be a necessary boundary condition for the subsequent initiation of control operations in the more extended PFC-parietal control network. However, considering that the conflict interference effect was significantly reduced in the masked condition, it may be that, with larger unconscious conflict effects, more extensive cognitive control networks would have been activated. These findings have important implications for theories on the relationship between consciousness and cognitive control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of Conflict Resolution Training on Conflict Handling Styles of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waithaka, Abel Gitimu; Moore-Austin, Shante'; Gitimu, Priscilla N.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of conflict resolution skills training on conflict handling styles, and conflict orientation of college students. Conflict handling styles was measured by the Thomas-Kilmann MODE instrument, while Conflict orientation was measured by conflict orientation survey instrument. A sample of 135…

  10. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  11. Management of Conflicts within Beer Drinking Settings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toshiba

    2017-10-07

    Oct 7, 2017 ... Key words: conflict resolution, conflict management, public sphere, beer, conflict ... Alcohol is any beverage planned for consumption having least possible .... dropping out of school due to lack of good food and tuition fees ...

  12. Intergenerational Conflicts among Latinos in Early Adulthood: Separating Values Conflicts with Parents from Acculturation Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jessica; Basanez, Tatiana; Farahmand, Anahita

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of Latino and non-Latino college students sought to examine the ways in which perceived intergenerational conflicts with parents are related to acculturation, family dynamics, and psychosocial functioning. Participants reported the extent to which they experienced two types of intergenerational conflicts with parents:…

  13. Task conflict and relationship conflict in top management teams: the pivotal role of intragroup trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, T L; Peterson, R S

    2000-02-01

    Task conflict is usually associated with effective decisions, and relationship conflict is associated with poor decisions. The 2 conflict types are typically correlated in ongoing groups, however, which creates a prescriptive dilemma. Three explanations might account for this relationship--misattribution of task conflict as relationship conflict, harsh task conflict tactics triggering relationship conflict, and misattribution of relationship conflict as task conflict. The authors found that intragroup trust moderates the relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict in 70 top management teams. This result supports the "misattribution of task conflict" explanation. The authors also found a weak effect that is consistent with the argument that tactical choices drive the association between the 2 conflict types. We infer that trust is a key to gaining the benefits of task conflict without suffering the costs of relationship conflict.

  14. Development and initial validation of a measure of work, family, and school conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kristine J

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the development and initial validation of a theoretically based measure of conflict between work, family, and college student roles. The measure was developed through the assessment of construct definitions and an assessment of measurement items by subject matter experts. Then, the measurement items were assessed with data from 500 college students who were engaged in work and family responsibilities. The results indicate that conflict between work, family, and school are effectively measured by 12 factors assessing the direction of conflict (e.g., work-to-school conflict, and school-to-work conflict) as well as the form of conflict (i.e., time, strain, and behavior based conflict). Sets of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the 12 factors of the new measure are distinct from the 6 factors of the Carlson, Kacmar, and Williams (2000) work-family conflict measure. Criterion validity of the measure was established through a series of regression analyses testing hypothesized relationships between antecedent and outcome variables with role conflict. Results indicate that role demand was a robust predictor of role conflict. To extend the literature, core self-evaluations and emotional stability were established as predictors of role conflict. Further, work, family, and school role satisfaction were significantly impacted with the presence of role conflict between work, family, and school. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Climate change, conflict and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Devin C; Butler, Colin D; Morisetti, Neil

    2015-10-01

    Future climate change is predicted to diminish essential natural resource availability in many regions and perhaps globally. The resulting scarcity of water, food and livelihoods could lead to increasingly desperate populations that challenge governments, enhancing the risk of intra- and interstate conflict. Defence establishments and some political scientists view climate change as a potential threat to peace. While the medical literature increasingly recognises climate change as a fundamental health risk, the dimension of climate change-associated conflict has so far received little attention, despite its profound health implications. Many analysts link climate change with a heightened risk of conflict via causal pathways which involve diminishing or changing resource availability. Plausible consequences include: increased frequency of civil conflict in developing countries; terrorism, asymmetric warfare, state failure; and major regional conflicts. The medical understanding of these threats is inadequate, given the scale of health implications. The medical and public health communities have often been reluctant to interpret conflict as a health issue. However, at times, medical workers have proven powerful and effective peace advocates, most notably with regard to nuclear disarmament. The public is more motivated to mitigate climate change when it is framed as a health issue. Improved medical understanding of the association between climate change and conflict could strengthen mitigation efforts and increase cooperation to cope with the climate change that is now inevitable. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  16. Gaming and Simulating Ethno-Political Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Barry G.; Bharathy, Gnana K.; Nye, Benjamin D.

    This chapter begins by describing a universally recurring socio-cultural “game” of inter-group competition for control of resources. It next describes efforts to author software agents able to play the game as real humans would - which suggests the ability to study alternative ways to influence them, observe PMESII effects, and potentially understand how best to alter the outcomes of potential conflict situations. These agents are unscripted, but use their decision making to react to events as they unfold and to plan out responses. For each agent, a software called PMFserv operates its perception and runs its physiology and personality/value system to determine fatigue and hunger, injuries and related stressors, grievances, tension buildup, impact of rumors and speech acts, emotions, and various collective and individual action decisions. The chapter wraps up with a correspondence test from a SE Asian ethnic conflict, the results of which indicate significant correlation between real and agentbased outcomes.

  17. Conflict and Ambiguity: Implementing Evolutionary Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sylvester, Richard

    2003-01-01

    .... Organizational conflict is inevitable but not necessarily counterproductive. In fact the original policy can be improved as the organization undergoes an iterative process of interpretation conflict and refinement.

  18. Conflict with less distress: promoting team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, V I; Bennett, J A; Birdsall, C

    1993-01-01

    As nurses increasingly turn to teamwork as a viable option for accomplishing a myriad of duties and responsibilities, they are discovering that teamwork can also be a source of conflict and stress. This article suggests that conflict is both inevitable and necessary within a team. A model of conflict is presented that aims not at reducing conflict, but at making it less distressing and thus more effective. The authors trace the influence of pre-conflict conditions and perspective-taking on conflict and ultimately team effectiveness. Finally, to apply the conflict model to practice, two examples are presented demonstrating both an ineffective and an effective use of conflict.

  19. Conflict and human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  1. Conflict and conflict resolution in Africa: Engaging the colonial factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maintaining colonial-style approaches to African conflicts at the expense of a ... Educational Leadership at the College of Education and Human Services, University of .... Colonial rule was the antithesis of democracy, because it was premised.

  2. Environmental conflicts and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugallo, Alicia Irene

    2006-01-01

    In 1998 the Yungas forest of Argentina became the subject of tremendous debates, caused by the construction of the Norandino Gas-pipeline. Apart from technical and financial considerations, the discussion of constructing the duct confronted the different actors in questions of great ethical relevance. Environmental activists assumed positions that not only consider persons, but also the rest of living beings as morally relevant. An untenable strong anthropocentrism, which is a predominant attitude in our developed societies, was questioned. The final implementation of the Yungas Biosphere Reserve showed the conflictive process as a 'witness case' in which the will to dialogue and the wise rationality have predominated, with the application of a new active conservationist, which make it possible to make compatible human development with care of the environment. The incorporation of socio-cultural topics to conservation imply a true conceptual and methodological revolution, taking into account the intangible and not quantifiable elements of action and human spirit, the different perceptions of each population, their development way and life quality, their ambitions, the sense of belonging or of self-realization feeling

  3. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slider, J.E.; Patterson, M.

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of open-quotes safety culture.close quotes This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to open-quotes do the right thingclose quotes even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants

  4. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adolescence. Hence, this paper explores different types of conflict with peers and friends with the aim of determining the preferred conflict resolution strategies and using the obtained results to consider the implications for the improvement of constructive conflict resolution programmes. The research was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. The method of hypothetical conflict situations was used for studying the preferred conflict resolution strategies. The key results, which should be taken into account when developing constructive conflict resolution programmes, indicate that the preference for a conflict resolution strategy varies depending on conflict type (problem solving is mostly used in conflicts occurring due to opinion differences and disrespect of agreement, unlike the conflicts arising due to provocations, stubbornness and dishonesty and relationship types (in conflicts with friends, adolescents prefer problem solving, while in peer conflicts they more frequently opt for competition. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije

  5. Digital Images and Globalized Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette; Mortensen, Mette; Neumayer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    As the number of digital images of globalized conflicts online grow, critical examination of their impact and consequence is timely. This editorial provides an overview of digital images and globalized conflict as a field of study by discussing regimes of visibility and invisibility, proximity...... and distance, and the multiplicity of images. It engages critically with these interlinking themes as they are addressed in the contributing articles to the Special Issue as well as beyond, asking how genres and tropes are reproduced, how power plays a role in access to images, and how the sheer quantity...... of conflict-related images raise issues of knowledge production and research....

  6. The Role of Datasets on Scientific Influence within Conflict Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holt, Tracy; Johnson, Jeffery C.; Moates, Shiloh; Carley, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    We inductively tested if a coherent field of inquiry in human conflict research emerged in an analysis of published research involving “conflict” in the Web of Science (WoS) over a 66-year period (1945–2011). We created a citation network that linked the 62,504 WoS records and their cited literature. We performed a critical path analysis (CPA), a specialized social network analysis on this citation network (~1.5 million works), to highlight the main contributions in conflict research and to test if research on conflict has in fact evolved to represent a coherent field of inquiry. Out of this vast dataset, 49 academic works were highlighted by the CPA suggesting a coherent field of inquiry; which means that researchers in the field acknowledge seminal contributions and share a common knowledge base. Other conflict concepts that were also analyzed—such as interpersonal conflict or conflict among pharmaceuticals, for example, did not form their own CP. A single path formed, meaning that there was a cohesive set of ideas that built upon previous research. This is in contrast to a main path analysis of conflict from 1957–1971 where ideas didn’t persist in that multiple paths existed and died or emerged reflecting lack of scientific coherence (Carley, Hummon, and Harty, 1993). The critical path consisted of a number of key features: 1) Concepts that built throughout include the notion that resource availability drives conflict, which emerged in the 1960s-1990s and continued on until 2011. More recent intrastate studies that focused on inequalities emerged from interstate studies on the democracy of peace earlier on the path. 2) Recent research on the path focused on forecasting conflict, which depends on well-developed metrics and theories to model. 3) We used keyword analysis to independently show how the CP was topically linked (i.e., through democracy, modeling, resources, and geography). Publically available conflict datasets developed early on helped

  7. Emotion triggers executive attention: anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala responses to emotional words in a conflict task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Philipp; Kotz, Sonja A

    2011-02-01

    Coherent behavior depends on attentional control that detects and resolves conflict between opposing actions. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study tested the hypothesis that emotion triggers attentional control to speed up conflict processing in particularly salient situations. Therefore, we presented emotionally negative and neutral words in a version of the flanker task. In response to conflict, we found activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and of the amygdala for emotional stimuli. When emotion and conflict coincided, a region in the ventral ACC was activated, which resulted in faster conflict processing in reaction times. Emotion also increased functional connectivity between the ventral ACC and activation of the dorsal ACC and the amygdala in conflict trials. These data suggest that the ventral ACC integrates emotion and conflict and prioritizes the processing of conflict in emotional trials. This adaptive mechanism ensures rapid detection and resolution of conflict in potentially threatening situations signaled by emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boonstra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts. To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. In so doing, it aims to identify various types of IS conflicts and to develop a framework that can be helpful in assessing these conflicts. To this end, we have conducted a meta-ethnographic study – that is, we synthesized earlier case studies in which IS conflicts are described. We purposefully selected 11 descriptions of IS conflicts and we analyzed the topics, contexts, and processes of these conflicts. Based on this analysis, we propose a two-dimensional framework of IS conflicts that leads to a categorization involving four IS conflict types: task; implementation process; structure; and value conflicts. Based on the conflicts that were studied, this paper also reveals that, in reality, many IS conflicts have a hybrid form and develop from one type to another over time.

  9. Conflicts of the Global State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2016), s. 378-392 ISSN 2159-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : global state * global * conflicts * critical theory * recognition Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  10. Revisiting peace and conflict studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    dominant geopolitics it initially set out to criticise. Secondly, I will map – undoubtedly in cursory and incomplete fashion – the scholarly communities and literatures dealing with questions of peace and conflict. Rather than a literature review or an attempt at synthesis, my purpose is to highlight...... the broad variety of existing units of analysis, motivations, theories and methodologies of peace and conflict studies. Thirdly, I will propose a number of suggestions for a research attitude that, in absence of a better word, I subsume under the heading of ‘critical peace and conflict research’, striving...... to understand peace and conflict as concomitantly subjective and objective, as critique and hegemony, as normative and value-free, as local and global....

  11. Neurovascular conflict in oculomotor imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Agafonovna Totolyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on the data of Russian and foreign literature, considers modern approaches to the understanding of neurovascular conflict (NVC term, different causes of its development and realization mechanisms; statistical data are presented on its occurrence in different medical specialties; modern approaches to early diagnosis of neurovascular conflicts are covered. Special attention is drawn to oculomotor imbalances being one of neurovascular conflict manifestations. Based on global experience, approaches to most exact and early diagnosis are described, differences in notion terminology of neurovascular contact and neurovascular conflict are shown. As most effective method for NVC diagnosis, the use of neurovisualization method, that is high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI (high field MRI, is positioned.

  12. Conflict Resolution for Contrasting Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifford C.; Lipp, G. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    A seven-step process can help people from different cultures understand each other's intentions and perceptions so they can work together harmoniously: problem identification, problem clarification, cultural exploration, organizational exploration, conflict resolution, impact assessment, and organizational integration. (JOW)

  13. Conflict in medical teams: opportunity or danger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lindred L; Saygi, Ozum; Aaldering, Hillie; de Dreu, Carsten K W

    2012-10-01

      Intragroup conflicts often occur when people are called upon to collaborate in the accomplishment of a task. For example, when surgeons and nurses work together during an operation, conflicts may emerge because of differences in functional understanding. Whether these conflicts are beneficial or detrimental to team outcomes has been the source of much debate. From one perspective, a conflict that stems from differences in members' functional understanding may enhance team members' understanding and performance of the task at hand. By contrast, such a conflict may cause hostility, emotionality and distraction from actual task accomplishment.   This study reviews findings on the relationships between intragroup conflict and team outcomes, discusses potential conflict resolution strategies for intragroup conflicts and explores how these link to the field of medical education.   Three primary types of conflict have been distinguished, involving, respectively, task-, process- and relationship-associated conflict. Both process conflict, or conflict about the logistics of task accomplishment, and relationship conflict, or conflict about interpersonal incompatibilities, have been shown to detract from effective team functioning. Task conflict, or conflict about the content of the task itself, is also generally negative for team functioning, but under certain conditions its negative effects may be minimised. For example, when teams can clearly separate task issues from relationship issues, task conflicts are less destructive for team outcomes. However, achieving such a separation in practice, and thereby realising the benefits of task conflict, is quite difficult to achieve.   Intragroup conflicts pose a challenge to effective team functioning. In the education of medical professionals, effective training in conflict management skills and their application to specific team conflict dynamics, such as with reference to how to resolve task as opposed to relationship

  14. Effect of Conflict Resolution Maneuver Execution Delay on Losses of Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines uncertainty in the maneuver execution delay for data linked conflict resolution maneuvers. This uncertainty could cause the previously cleared primary conflict to reoccur or a secondary conflict to appear. Results show that the likelihood of a primary conflict reoccurring during a horizontal conflict resolution maneuver increases with larger initial turn-out angles and with shorter times until loss of separation. There is also a significant increase in the probability of a primary conflict reoccurring when the time until loss falls under three minutes. Increasing horizontal separation by an additional 1.5 nmi lowers the risk, but does not completely eliminate it. Secondary conflicts were shown to have a small probability of occurring in all tested configurations.

  15. When Task Conflict Becomes Personal: The Impact of Perceived Team Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenter, Hannes; van Emmerik, Hetty; Schreurs, Bert; Kuypers, Tom; van Iterson, Ad; Notelaers, Guy

    2016-10-01

    Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association. We test a three-wave longitudinal model by means of random coefficient growth modeling, using data from 60 ongoing teams working in a health care organization. Results provide partial support for our hypotheses. Only when perceived team performance is low, do task conflicts relate with growth in relationship conflict. We conclude that perceived team performance seems to enable teams to uncouple task from relationship conflict.

  16. The influence of negative stimulus features on conflict adaption:Evidence from fluency of processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eFritz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive control enables adaptive behavior in a dynamically changing environment. In this context, one prominent adaptation effect is the sequential conflict adjustment, i.e. the observation of reduced response interference on trials following conflict trials. Increasing evidence suggests that such response conflicts are registered as aversive signals. So far, however, the functional role of this aversive signal for conflict adaptation to occur has not been put to test directly. In two experiments, the affective valence of conflict stimuli was manipulated by fluency of processing (stimulus contrast. Experiment 1 used a flanker interference task, Experiment 2 a color-word Stroop task. In both experiments, conflict adaptation effects were only present in fluent, but absent in disfluent trials. Results thus speak against the simple idea that any aversive stimulus feature is suited to promote specific conflict adjustments. Two alternative but not mutually exclusive accounts, namely resource competition and adaptation-by-motivation, will be discussed.

  17. Distribution Channels Conflict and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, Dr Vasanth; Majumdar, Dr Mousumi; Kishore, Dr Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Relationships in distribution channels tend to be long-term oriented and members of the channel rely on each other to jointly realize their goals by serving buyers. Despite the channels focus on serving buyers, conflicts often arise between channel members because of each members self-interest. When conflicts arise, the perceptions of a channel member based on normative, rational/instrumental, or emotional reasoning will influence relational norms like trust and commitment that characterize t...

  18. Test-retest reliability of computer-based video analysis of general movements in healthy term-born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Susanne Collier; Støen, Ragnhild; Sæther, Rannei; Jensenius, Alexander Refsum; Adde, Lars

    2015-10-01

    A computer-based video analysis has recently been presented for quantitative assessment of general movements (GMs). This method's test-retest reliability, however, has not yet been evaluated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of computer-based video analysis of GMs, and to explore the association between computer-based video analysis and the temporal organization of fidgety movements (FMs). Test-retest reliability study. 75 healthy, term-born infants were recorded twice the same day during the FMs period using a standardized video set-up. The computer-based movement variables "quantity of motion mean" (Qmean), "quantity of motion standard deviation" (QSD) and "centroid of motion standard deviation" (CSD) were analyzed, reflecting the amount of motion and the variability of the spatial center of motion of the infant, respectively. In addition, the association between the variable CSD and the temporal organization of FMs was explored. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 1.1 and ICC 3.1) were calculated to assess test-retest reliability. The ICC values for the variables CSD, Qmean and QSD were 0.80, 0.80 and 0.86 for ICC (1.1), respectively; and 0.80, 0.86 and 0.90 for ICC (3.1), respectively. There were significantly lower CSD values in the recordings with continual FMs compared to the recordings with intermittent FMs (ptest-retest reliability of computer-based video analysis of GMs, and a significant association between our computer-based video analysis and the temporal organization of FMs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Conflict of interest and bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemelmajer De Carlucci, Aida

    2014-06-01

    "Conflicts of interests" is a multi-meaning expression. To give a juridical concept is not easy because this concept is applied in public and private law. Maybe this is the reason of not having a law giving a valid definition in any case In health area, a conflict of interests is present many times, i.e. at the beginning of a research, when informing its results, etc. This conflict of interests may affect different aspects of the research work, economic or not; sometimes totally or partially. The economic resources is one of the most common reasons of the conflict of interests. The mass media often cause conflicts of interests informing the general public about new scientific discovery in a simple way to be understood but without been quite assertive. Other times, great enterprises hide information about new and better medicines due to the fact that they have many old medicines that should be sold before introducing in the market the new ones. From the academic point of view, conflicts may arise when the public funds are wrongly used to support unworthy researches.

  20. Genomic Signatures of Sexual Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimatis, Katja R; Nelson, Thomas C; Phillips, Patrick C

    2017-10-30

    Sexual conflict is a specific class of intergenomic conflict that describes the reciprocal sex-specific fitness costs generated by antagonistic reproductive interactions. The potential for sexual conflict is an inherent property of having a shared genome between the sexes and, therefore, is an extreme form of an environment-dependent fitness effect. In this way, many of the predictions from environment-dependent selection can be used to formulate expected patterns of genome evolution under sexual conflict. However, the pleiotropic and transmission constraints inherent to having alleles move across sex-specific backgrounds from generation to generation further modulate the anticipated signatures of selection. We outline methods for detecting candidate sexual conflict loci both across and within populations. Additionally, we consider the ability of genome scans to identify sexually antagonistic loci by modeling allele frequency changes within males and females due to a single generation of selection. In particular, we highlight the need to integrate genotype, phenotype, and functional information to truly distinguish sexual conflict from other forms of sexual differentiation. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Emotional conflict in interpersonal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, María; Tudela, Pío

    2011-01-15

    Facial displays of emotions can help to infer the mental states of other individuals. However, the expectations we generate on the basis of people's emotions can mismatch their actual behaviour in certain circumstances, which generates conflict. In the present study, we explored the neural mechanisms of emotional conflict during interpersonal interactions. Participants had to accept or reject economic offers made by several partners who displayed emotional expressions. On every trial, a cue informed participants of whether they could trust the emotion of their partner or not. Trustworthy (low-conflict) partners with happy facial expressions were cooperative and those with angry expressions did not cooperate. Untrustworthy (high-conflict) partners, on the other hand, cooperated when their expression was angry and did not cooperate when they displayed a happy emotion. Behavioural responses were faster for trustworthy than for untrustworty partners. High-conflict partners activated the anterior cingulate and the anterior insula. In turn, trustworthy partners were associated with activations in the left precuneus. Our results suggest that the emotion displayed by another person affects our decision-making in social contexts. When emotional expressions are linked to their natural consequences, they engage ToM processes. In contrast, untrustworthy emotional expressions engage conflict-related brain regions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental changes and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Böhmelt, Tobias; Koubi, Vally

    2012-01-01

    This letter reviews the scientific literature on whether and how environmental changes affect the risk of violent conflict. The available evidence from qualitative case studies indicates that environmental stress can contribute to violent conflict in some specific cases. Results from quantitative large-N studies, however, strongly suggest that we should be careful in drawing general conclusions. Those large-N studies that we regard as the most sophisticated ones obtain results that are not robust to alternative model specifications and, thus, have been debated. This suggests that environmental changes may, under specific circumstances, increase the risk of violent conflict, but not necessarily in a systematic way and unconditionally. Hence there is, to date, no scientific consensus on the impact of environmental changes on violent conflict. This letter also highlights the most important challenges for further research on the subject. One of the key issues is that the effects of environmental changes on violent conflict are likely to be contingent on a set of economic and political conditions that determine adaptation capacity. In the authors' view, the most important indirect effects are likely to lead from environmental changes via economic performance and migration to violent conflict. (letter)

  3. Family Conflict Interacts with Genetic Liability in Predicting Childhood and Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Shelton, Katherine H.; Thapar, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To test for gene-environment interaction with depressive symptoms and family conflict. Specifically, to first examine whether the influence of family conflict in predicting depressive symptoms is increased in individuals at genetic risk of depression. Second, to test whether the genetic component of variance in depressive symptoms…

  4. Familial Predictors of Sibling and Romantic-Partner Conflict Resolution: Comparing Late Adolescents from Intact and Divorced Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese-Weber, M.; Kahn, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined whether predictors of romantic-partner conflict may vary as a function of family structure. Using a cross-sectional design, we tested a mediation model of conflict resolution behaviours among late adolescents from intact (n=185) and divorced (n=87) families. Adolescents rated conflict resolution behaviours in five dyadic…

  5. Carving Executive Control at Its Joints: Working Memory Capacity Predicts Stimulus-Stimulus, but Not Stimulus-Response, Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matt E.; Kane, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and 2 different forms of cognitive conflict: stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) interference. Our goal was to test whether WMC's relation to conflict-task performance is mediated by stimulus-identification processes (captured by S-S conflict),…

  6. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Danijela S.; Vučetić Milica

    2012-01-01

    Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adol...

  7. Preparing Students for Early Work Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Larson, R. Sam

    2005-01-01

    To improve college students' skills in resolving workplace conflict, the authors studied the types of workplace conflicts that students encounter with peers or supervisors in part-time or seasonal work and with whom they discuss these conflicts. The authors found that most students report conflicts that are process or relational in nature, with…

  8. 32 CFR 776.6 - Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict. 776.6 Section 776.6 National Defense... Conflict. To the extent that a conflict exists between this part and the rules of other jurisdictions that... conflict between the rules contained in subpart B of this part and the rules of other jurisdictions shall...

  9. Evaluation conflicts in the enterprises activities

    OpenAIRE

    Podolchak, N.; Kovalchuk, G.

    2015-01-01

    It has been elaborated the method for quantitative evaluation of level and structure of the interpersonal management conflicts that prevail over the other conflicts in the machine-building enterprises functioning. According to the reasons of appearance investigated interpersonal management conflicts were divided into the following types: informational, behavioral, structural, conflicts of relationships and values.

  10. Information system conflicts : causes and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they

  11. 76 FR 61046 - TARP Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... conflict may depend on a variety of factors, including the type of conflict, the scope of work under the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 31 CFR Part 31 RIN 1505-AC05 TARP Conflicts of Interest AGENCY... interim rule that provided guidance on conflicts of interest pursuant to Section 108 of the Emergency...

  12. Conflict Management at School: An Unavoidable Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondesio, Mike J.

    Conflict management has become an integral part of a headmaster's tasks. Headmasters are not required to suppress or resolve conflict, but to manage it. Since 1976, conflict in black schools has increased, and headmasters have had to manage serious and dangerous situations. Unfortunately, there has been little research in conflict management in…

  13. Managing Conflict with Effective Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Dick B.

    Conflict is a basic social process; there is no conceivable way of removing all conflict from an organization. Interpersonal conflict, often created by interdependency of people and tasks within an organization, lowers staff morale and employee productivity and drives people away. Difficult employees who foster conflicts fall into five distinct…

  14. IDENTIFYING THE CRITICAL CAUSES OF CONFLICT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Completing construction projects entails inputs from various professional disciplines; this makes projects prone to conflicts. It has been acknowledged that management of conflict is crucial to improving project performance. Thus, understanding the causes of conflicts in construction project will ease the process of conflict ...

  15. Searching for climate-conflict links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Cullen S.

    2018-03-01

    Environmental scarcity caused by climate change has been implicated as a driver of violent conflict. Now, research shows significant bias in the regions analysed for climate-conflict links. This may limit understanding of the socioeconomic and political conditions in which such conflict occurs, and how these conflicts could be prevented.

  16. Constructive Management of Conflict in Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rex C.; Mitchell, Rie R.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a concise overview of important conflict management concepts and strategies for those working in group settings. Presents a brief conceptual basis for understanding conflict and group memebers' behavior when in conflict, followed by specific recommendations for managing and making use of conflict in groups. (JAC)

  17. Resolving Conflict: Methods Used by TV Characters and Teenage Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Michael E.; Greenberg, Bradley S.

    1979-01-01

    Tested hypotheses that action/adventure characters are perceived by teenagers as likely to engage in antisocial conflict resolution; situation comedy/family drama characters, in prosocial modes. Also tested was hypothesis that, as favorite character's perceived use of a mode increases, so does the viewer's intention to use the same mode. (SW)

  18. Cognitive Conflict and Situational Interest as Factors Influencing Conceptual Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hunsik; Scharmann, Lawrence C.; Kang, Sukjin; Noh, Taehee

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationships among cognitive conflict and situational interest induced by a discrepant event, attention and effort allocated to learning, and conceptual change in learning the concept of density. Subjects were 183 seventh graders from six middle schools in Seoul, Korea. A preconception test, a test of responses…

  19. Efeito ergogênico de uma bebida esportiva cafeinada sobre a performance em testes de habilidades específicas do futebol Ergogenic effect of a caffeinated sports drink on performance in soccer specific abilities tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Muniz Guttierres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de cafeína tem demonstrado promover efeitos ergogênicos sobre a performance de atletas de esportes coletivos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o efeito de uma bebida esportiva cafeinada (BEC frente a uma bebida carboidratada comercial (BCC sobre a performance durante a execução de testes físico-motores de habilidades específicas do futebol. Os atletas foram submetidos a dois testes, salto vertical (Sargent Jump e teste de agilidade (Illinois Agility Test, que foram executados antes e após as partidas durante as quais foram consumidas BEC (7% de carboidratos (CHO, concentração de cafeína correspondente a 250mg.l-1 ou BCC (sem cafeína, 7% de CHO. Os resultados demonstraram que BEC aumentou significantemente (p Consumption of caffeine has been shown to promote ergogenic effects on the performance of team sports' athletes. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of the consumption of a caffeinated sports drink (CSD and an advertised carbohydrate drink (ACD on soccer players' performance in tests to evaluate physical-motor soccer game skills. The athletes were submitted to two tests, vertical jump (Sargent Jump and Illinois Agility Test, which were performed before and after the games during which CSD (7% of carbohydrate (CHO, caffeine concentration equivalent to 250 mg.l-1 or ACD (no caffeine, 7% of CHO were ingested. The results indicated that CSD significantly increased (p<0.01 the height reached in the jump compared to before its consumption and to after ACD consumption (p=0.02. ACD did not increase power of lower limbs (PLL. Neither CSD (p =0.62 nor ACD (p = 0.93 increased test skills evaluated after the game in comparison to before the game. Neither drinks improved performance in the test skills after the game (p = 0.95. The consumption of CSD led to soccer player ergogenic effect by increasing the PLL explosive strength. However, in terms of skill, it was not possible to identify advantages in

  20. PENGARUH ROLE AMBIGUITY DAN ROLE CONFLICT TERHADAP KOMITMEN INDEPENDENSI AUDITOR INTERNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Prasetyo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influence of role conflict (role conflict against the commitmentof internal auditors’ independence, and know the effect of role ambiguity (role ambiguity ofthe Internal Auditor independence commitment. Data was collected through primary method byusing a questionnaire. Then performed the data analysis that includes classical assumption test,F test, t test, and analysis of coefficient of determination (R2. To analyze using SPSS softwareversion 16. Based on research result shows that role conflict has a significant negative effect oncommitment to the independence of internal auditors, and role ambiguity (role ambiguity has asignificant negative effect on commitment to the independence of internal auditors. While basedon simultaneous test (F test, role conflict (role conflict and role ambiguity (role ambiguity havean influence on the commitment of internal auditor independence.

  1. Fighting over forest : toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that

  2. Fighting over forest: toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, T.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that

  3. Conflict Resolution in Organization through Strategic Management

    OpenAIRE

    F. Zafar; H. Ashfaq; Muhammad Ahmad Ali; M. Imran

    2014-01-01

    This study reveals the conflict Resolution in organization through Strategic management. There are different causes of conflicts within Organization and impact of conflicts on organization performance. The past decade researches identify the negative relation of conflict with employee performance. The research methodology was case study approach of different National and Multinational companies. The aim of study is to alleviate conflicts in organization through strategic management for enhanc...

  4. Role of conflict in decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellman, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    In the siting process for a low-level waste disposal facility, there is a place for conflict, negotiation, arbitration, and public involvement. Contrary to popular belief, conflict is good. It signals pluralism and demonstrates a distribution of power. Conflict should not be eliminated because it is a dynamic method of decision-making. Conflict causes negotiation, which leads to compromise. Conflict is the product of the legitimacy of dissent

  5. The conciliation of collective labour conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Iulia Badoi

    2013-01-01

    The present article envisages presenting the conciliation as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts. The conciliation was stipulated as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts even from the first acts that regulated this domain, being foreseen as a mandatory phase within the process of solving this type of conflicts. The subject of conciliation was approached before within the doctrine, from this juridical in...

  6. Interpersonal conflict: strategies and guidelines for resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, D E; Bushardt, S C

    1985-02-01

    Historically, management theorists have recommended the avoidance or suppression of conflict. Modern management theorists recognize interpersonal conflict as an inevitable byproduct of growth and change. The issue is no longer avoidance of conflict but the strategy by which conflict is resolved. Various strategies of conflict resolution and the consequences of each are discussed in this article, along with guidelines for the effective use of confrontation strategy.

  7. [Validity of the axis "conflicts" of the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics (OPD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieh, Christoph; Frisch, Martin; Meyer, Nicole; Loew, Thomas; Lahmann, Claas

    2009-01-01

    This clinical trial is concerned with controlling the validity of unconscious conflicts within the OPD by verifying the hypotheses by means of psychometric analysis. Unconscious conflicts were determined by use of the OPD as well as by psychometric tests (GT, IIP, RQ-2) for patients in treatment in a psychosomatic hospital; they were divided into an explorative (n=1377) and a confirmative (n=1380) sample. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, we investigated the connection between the main conflicts according to OPD-1 and the psychometric findings. For seven of most frequently chosen conflict types, a great coherence was found. For the others the results were inconsistent. Concerning the seven most frequently chosen conflict types, the OPD is a valid diagnose tool. As to the other conflicts, this study cannot clear up open questions concerning validity.

  8. Inductive game theory and the dynamics of animal conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon DeDeo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Conflict destabilizes social interactions and impedes cooperation at multiple scales of biological organization. Of fundamental interest are the causes of turbulent periods of conflict. We analyze conflict dynamics in an monkey society model system. We develop a technique, Inductive Game Theory, to extract directly from time-series data the decision-making strategies used by individuals and groups. This technique uses Monte Carlo simulation to test alternative causal models of conflict dynamics. We find individuals base their decision to fight on memory of social factors, not on short timescale ecological resource competition. Furthermore, the social assessments on which these decisions are based are triadic (self in relation to another pair of individuals, not pairwise. We show that this triadic decision making causes long conflict cascades and that there is a high population cost of the large fights associated with these cascades. These results suggest that individual agency has been over-emphasized in the social evolution of complex aggregates, and that pair-wise formalisms are inadequate. An appreciation of the empirical foundations of the collective dynamics of conflict is a crucial step towards its effective management.

  9. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on literature and personal experiences, vector-borne diseases and conflicts are reviewed. Simple rapid diagnostic tests for three important parasitoses are available. Resort is often made to case definitions and to presumptive treatment. Resistance is an emerging problem. Vaccines are still...... not available for most diseases. Promising preventive methods, including long-lasting impregnated bed-nets and tents, are available. War has been an impetus for disclosing life-cycles of vector-borne diseases and for control methods; peace, reconciliation and poverty reduction are required to achieve lasting...

  10. MANAGING CONFLICT IN SOCIAL SPHERE OF LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Alabugin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a model of problem-solving training in new technologies, methods of tracking the demand of multi-functional groups on the basis of a temporary type ofspecially designed subsystems for knowledge management. On the basis ofdiagnostic test characteristics are determined by the prevailing educational methods for sustainable conflict-free development, and analyzes the degree of interactivity, and, as a general result that gives a holistic view of the process of self-organization for innovation development.

  11. Nuclear power and political conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitschelt, H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper is limited to the first phase of conflict up to 1977. The various forms of controversy on the issue of nuclear energy are examined. The conflict is explained as being the result of relevant research and (energy) infrastructure policies. The first task of such an investigation is to analyse the depoliticization of nuclear energy policy which took place over a period of nearly 20 years (1955-1973/4). This depoliticization and non-decisionmaking on the social consequences of nuclear energy have laid the foundations for the development of the conflict which occured in the first cycle of the nuclear energy conflict. The second task is to highlight the social structure of the opposition movement, its forms of struggle, and the response of the state apparatus, The crisis of the nuclear power policy has led to a more or less distinct paralysis of the state apparatus because the political and industrial decisionmaking processes in this area were not designed to cope with social conflicts. In fact, their very structure had excluded the possibility of political opposition to a specific technology. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Association Between Work–Family Conflict and Smoking Quantity Among Daily Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Recent work demonstrated a direct relation between work–family conflict and likelihood of smoking. This study furthered this area of research by (a) testing the association between work–family conflict and smoking quantity and (b) testing demographic, workplace, and home factors as moderators of this relation. Methods: Participants (N = 423) were daily smokers from a Midwestern community-based sample. Ordinal regression analysis tested work-to-home and home-to-work conflict as predictors (after controlling for demographic characteristics, home factors, and workplace factors) of smoking quantity. Additionally, we tested whether the demographic, home, and workplace factors moderated the effects of work-to-home conflict and home-to-work conflict on smoking quantity. Results: Males (OR = 8.81, p = .005), older participants (OR = 1.09, p = .012), those with less educational attainment (OR = 1.87, p = .001), those who reported lower levels of workplace smoking restrictions (OR = 0.87, p = .019), and those who reported higher levels of work-to-home conflict (OR = 1.39, p = .026) smoked more cigarettes per day. There was no significant main effect of home-to-work conflict on smoking quantity (OR = 1.46, p = .099). A significant interaction (OR = 0.55, p = .043) revealed that home-to-work conflict was associated with smoking quantity for females but not for males. Conclusions: After controlling for demographic characteristics and potential confounders, work-to-home conflict had a negative impact on smoking quantity for all participants, and home-to-work conflict was associated with smoking quantity for women. Workplace wellness programs to reduce smoking among employees should take into account the direction of conflict and how the effect of the conflict on smoking behavior may vary based on other factors. PMID:23709611

  13. Association between work-family conflict and smoking quantity among daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C

    2013-11-01

    Recent work demonstrated a direct relation between work-family conflict and likelihood of smoking. This study furthered this area of research by (a) testing the association between work-family conflict and smoking quantity and (b) testing demographic, workplace, and home factors as moderators of this relation. Participants (N = 423) were daily smokers from a Midwestern community-based sample. Ordinal regression analysis tested work-to-home and home-to-work conflict as predictors (after controlling for demographic characteristics, home factors, and workplace factors) of smoking quantity. Additionally, we tested whether the demographic, home, and workplace factors moderated the effects of work-to-home conflict and home-to-work conflict on smoking quantity. Males (OR = 8.81, p = .005), older participants (OR = 1.09, p = .012), those with less educational attainment (OR = 1.87, p = .001), those who reported lower levels of workplace smoking restrictions (OR = 0.87, p = .019), and those who reported higher levels of work-to-home conflict (OR = 1.39, p = .026) smoked more cigarettes per day. There was no significant main effect of home-to-work conflict on smoking quantity (OR = 1.46, p = .099). A significant interaction (OR = 0.55, p = .043) revealed that home-to-work conflict was associated with smoking quantity for females but not for males. After controlling for demographic characteristics and potential confounders, work-to-home conflict had a negative impact on smoking quantity for all participants, and home-to-work conflict was associated with smoking quantity for women. Workplace wellness programs to reduce smoking among employees should take into account the direction of conflict and how the effect of the conflict on smoking behavior may vary based on other factors.

  14. Regional conflicts and nuclear fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, K.

    1984-01-01

    The real danger of nuclear weapons in the Third World is not that developing countries will acquire them, but that advanced countries will intervene in Third World affairs with them. Nuclear weapons can play a part in Third World conflicts in two ways: a recognized nuclear weapon power can threaten to use the weapon in the conflict situation or a clandestine nuclear power may do so. In noting that most conflicts in the Third World can be sustained only through support from the developing countries, the author complains that the Non-Proliferation Treaty is pernicious because it legitimizes the use of nuclear weapons by a few weapon powers. He urges a two-step effort to pressure the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the United Nations to make nuclear weapons illegal. 17 references

  15. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    in the five countries and discuss its implications. The present paper synthesizes possible ‘blind spots’ in the national policy, legal or administrative water governance frameworks with reference to the identified types of water-related conflictive and cooperative situations identified during the inventories.......In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...

  16. Technological risks and social conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.; Krebsbach-Gnath, C.

    1980-12-01

    This volume of materials is part of the report on 'Technological risks and social conflicts. Political risk strategies in the field of nuclear power'. The interested reader who wants to deepen his knowledge on the results and reasoning of the main report, will here find detailed explanations and brief drafts of subprojects; fundamental aspects of problems are presented in detail, and theoretical-conceptional, methodological and scientific-political points of view are explained. Furthermore it contains general reflections on the application-oriented research by order, a review of the status of risk research, historical considerations on the nuclear energy conflict, and finally explanations are attempted for the nuclear energy conflict. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Automatic Conflict Detection on Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Stephen; Pace, Gordon J.; Schneider, Gerardo

    Many software applications are based on collaborating, yet competing, agents or virtual organisations exchanging services. Contracts, expressing obligations, permissions and prohibitions of the different actors, can be used to protect the interests of the organisations engaged in such service exchange. However, the potentially dynamic composition of services with different contracts, and the combination of service contracts with local contracts can give rise to unexpected conflicts, exposing the need for automatic techniques for contract analysis. In this paper we look at automatic analysis techniques for contracts written in the contract language mathcal{CL}. We present a trace semantics of mathcal{CL} suitable for conflict analysis, and a decision procedure for detecting conflicts (together with its proof of soundness, completeness and termination). We also discuss its implementation and look into the applications of the contract analysis approach we present. These techniques are applied to a small case study of an airline check-in desk.

  18. Work-Family Conflict, Perceived Organizational Support and Professional Commitment: A Mediation Mechanism for Chinese Project Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junwei; Wu, Guangdong

    2018-02-15

    Projects are characterized by long working hours, complex tasks and being a kind of temporary organization. As such, work-family conflict is particularly prominent for project employees. This research examined whether and how work-family conflict affects professional commitment among Chinese project professionals. Research hypotheses were developed to explore the relationship between work-family conflict, professional commitment to the project and the mediating effects of perceived organizational support. Data were collected from 327 project managers or professionals working in construction enterprises in China; data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, applying the bootstrapping method. Results showed that there were three dimensions of work-family conflict: time-based conflict, strain-based conflict and behavior-based conflict. There were two dimensions of perceived organizational support: emotional support and instrumental support. The study also tested the negative effect of work-family conflict on professional commitment and the positive effect of perceived organizational support on professional commitment. Specifically, time-based conflict and emotional support had positive effects on professional commitment. Perceived organizational support had a total mediating effect between work-family conflict and professional commitment. The strain-based conflict dimension of work-family conflict had negative impacts on professional commitment through perceived emotional support and instrumental support. Overall, our findings extend a better understanding of work-family conflict and professional commitment in the project setting and verify the importance of social support in balancing work and family and improving employee mobility.

  19. Work-Family Conflict, Perceived Organizational Support and Professional Commitment: A Mediation Mechanism for Chinese Project Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Projects are characterized by long working hours, complex tasks and being a kind of temporary organization. As such, work-family conflict is particularly prominent for project employees. This research examined whether and how work-family conflict affects professional commitment among Chinese project professionals. Research hypotheses were developed to explore the relationship between work-family conflict, professional commitment to the project and the mediating effects of perceived organizational support. Data were collected from 327 project managers or professionals working in construction enterprises in China; data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, applying the bootstrapping method. Results showed that there were three dimensions of work-family conflict: time-based conflict, strain-based conflict and behavior-based conflict. There were two dimensions of perceived organizational support: emotional support and instrumental support. The study also tested the negative effect of work-family conflict on professional commitment and the positive effect of perceived organizational support on professional commitment. Specifically, time-based conflict and emotional support had positive effects on professional commitment. Perceived organizational support had a total mediating effect between work-family conflict and professional commitment. The strain-based conflict dimension of work-family conflict had negative impacts on professional commitment through perceived emotional support and instrumental support. Overall, our findings extend a better understanding of work-family conflict and professional commitment in the project setting and verify the importance of social support in balancing work and family and improving employee mobility. PMID:29462860

  20. Relationship and task conflict at work: interactive short-term effects on angry mood and somatic complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Laurenz L; Gross, Sven; Spector, Paul E; Semmer, Norbert K

    2013-04-01

    Our research examined short-term within-person effects of relationship and task conflict on angry mood and somatic complaints. We assumed that conflicts of both kinds would be prospectively related to both indicators of impaired well-being, that the effect of relationship conflict would be stronger than the effect of task conflict, and that the effect of relationship conflict would be stronger when task conflict is low than when it is high. We tested our hypotheses with a daily diary study with ratings made 3 times/day for 2 weeks, involving 131 participants. We found a prospective main effect of relationship conflict on angry mood, but not on somatic complaints. In contrast, controlling for relationship conflict, task conflict was unrelated to both angry mood and somatic complaints. Supporting our assumption, task conflict moderated the effect of relationship conflict. Relationship conflict had a prospective effect on angry mood and somatic complaints that lasted until the next day if, and only if, task conflict was low.

  1. Work-Family Conflict, Perceived Organizational Support and Professional Commitment: A Mediation Mechanism for Chinese Project Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Projects are characterized by long working hours, complex tasks and being a kind of temporary organization. As such, work-family conflict is particularly prominent for project employees. This research examined whether and how work-family conflict affects professional commitment among Chinese project professionals. Research hypotheses were developed to explore the relationship between work-family conflict, professional commitment to the project and the mediating effects of perceived organizational support. Data were collected from 327 project managers or professionals working in construction enterprises in China; data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, applying the bootstrapping method. Results showed that there were three dimensions of work-family conflict: time-based conflict, strain-based conflict and behavior-based conflict. There were two dimensions of perceived organizational support: emotional support and instrumental support. The study also tested the negative effect of work-family conflict on professional commitment and the positive effect of perceived organizational support on professional commitment. Specifically, time-based conflict and emotional support had positive effects on professional commitment. Perceived organizational support had a total mediating effect between work-family conflict and professional commitment. The strain-based conflict dimension of work-family conflict had negative impacts on professional commitment through perceived emotional support and instrumental support. Overall, our findings extend a better understanding of work-family conflict and professional commitment in the project setting and verify the importance of social support in balancing work and family and improving employee mobility.

  2. Specificity of peer conflicts in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the survey conducted on the sample of 530 adolescents are presented in this paper. The sample included two age groups (13 and 16 years. The research was realized in 11 town and 26 schools. The method of the retrospection of the conflict contents, with one week retrospection interval, was used to research the perception of the conflict characteristics. The distinctive characteristics and the effects of the peer conflicts in adolescence have been identified by comparing them to the conflicts with friends, romantic partners, siblings and teachers. According to the results peer conflicts have certain specificity. Although less frequent than conflicts with parents and siblings, the peer conflicts in adolescence are widen phenomenon - on average, the adolescents get in conflict with their peers more than 13 times in a week, almost twice in a day. The most frequent causes are teasing and inappropriate jokes, deliberate provoking, gossips, insults and not respecting the differences in opinion. Peers follow the teachers as the least important persons in the conflict. Compared to the conflicts in other types of the social relations, the conflicts with peers are the least uncomfortable. Yielding is the least, competition the most present resolution strategy in peer conflicts. As well as the most conflicts in this age conflicts with peers are short time episode.

  3. Affective and substantive conflicts and interpersonal conflict management styles in the Turkish organizational context

    OpenAIRE

    Eruzun, Ayşegül; Eruzun, Aysegul

    2004-01-01

    Previous literature on affective and substantive workplace conflicts has been dominated by studies on intragroup efficiency and effectiveness with little attention paid to the relationship between these types of conflicts and interpersonal conflict management styles. To improve understanding of how different types of conflicts are managed by employees this thesis has explored the relationship between affective and substantive types of conflicts and interpersonal conflict management styles in ...

  4. Behavioral Responses to Interpersonal Conflict in Decision Making Teams: A Clarification of the Conflict Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Felice Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict in organizations plays an important role in performance, but the exact nature of that role remains unclear. Among conflict researchers a shift has occurred from believing that all conflict is debilitating for organizational performance to the realization that there are both positive and negative aspects of conflict. Contemporary research adopts a distinction between task conflict and relationship conflict. Conceptually, a positive relationship has been proposed between ...

  5. Armed Conflict in Colombia : Different Resources Different Conflicts ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most research on armed conflict in Colombia has focused on the narcotics trade. Little attention has been ... From “gender as usual” to “gender as transformative” ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards. IDRC is ...

  6. GABA-B receptor activation and conflict behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelaars, C.E.J.; Bollen, E.L.; Rigter, H.; Bruinvels, J.

    1988-01-01

    Baclofen and oxazepam enhance extinction of conflict behavior in the Geller-Seifter test while baclofen and diazepam release punished behavior in Vogel's conflict test. In order to investigate the possibility that the effect of the selective GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen is mediated indirectly via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex, the effect of pretreatment of rats with baclofen on [ 3 H]-diazepam binding to washed and unwashed cortical and cerebellar membranes of rats has been studied. Baclofen pretreatment increase Bmax in washed cerebellar membranes when bicuculline was present in the incubation mixture. No effect was seen in cortical membranes. The present results render it unlikely that the effect of baclofen on extinction of conflict behavior and punished drinking is mediated via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex. 50 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

  7. The relationship between conflict awareness and behavioral and oscillatory signatures of immediate and delayed cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Correa, Camile M; Geerts, Jesse; van Gaal, Simon

    2018-05-08

    Cognitive control over conflict, mediated by the prefrontal cortex, is an important skill for successful decision-making. Although it has been shown that cognitive control may operate unconsciously, it has recently been proposed that control operations may be driven by the metacognitive awareness of conflict, e.g. arising from the feeling of task difficulty or the ease of action selection, and therefore crucially depends on conflict awareness. Behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG) data are presented from 64 subjects performing a masked priming paradigm to test this hypothesis. Although the subjective experience of conflict elicited behavioral adaptation, this was also the case when conflict was present, but not experienced. In EEG, typical oscillatory markers of conflict processing in the theta-, alpha- and beta-band were observed (relative broadband), but these were differentially modulated by conflict experience. This demonstrates that conflict adaptation does not depend on conflict experience, but that conflict experience is associated with increased cognitive control. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Conflict control of children with different intellectual levels: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Shi, Jiannong; Zhao, Daheng; Liu, Jizhong

    2011-02-25

    Conflict control is an important cognitive ability in human behavioral regulation. The Eriksen flanker task was employed to explore the neural correlation between conflict control and intelligence with the aid of event-related potential (ERP) techniques. Two groups of early adolescents with different intellectual levels participated in the current study (an intellectually gifted group of 20 children vs. an intellectually average group of 21 children, with mean scores of 43 vs. 35.7 in Cattell's Culture Fair Test, respectively). Behavioral results indicate that the gifted children had better conflict control performances, with increased accuracy and faster response speeds than the intellectually average children. Electrophysiological results further show that the gifted children had more efficient N2 activations during conflict monitoring processing, faster P3 responses over frontal regions, and stronger P3 activations over central-parietal regions during attentional control processing. The difference waveform analysis showed that the gifted children had the weakest N2d activations when elicited by multiple conflicts. N2d amplitudes can be used to distinguish a stimulus conflict from a response conflict, and P3d amplitudes can be used to separate multiple conflicts from a single conflict. The results support the neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence and shed light on the close relationship between conflict control ability and human intelligence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Posttraumatic stress disorder and responses to couple conflict: implications for cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caska, Catherine M; Smith, Timothy W; Renshaw, Keith D; Allen, Steven N; Uchino, Bert N; Birmingham, Wendy; Carlisle, McKenzie

    2014-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and difficulties in intimate relationships. Greater frequency and severity of couple conflict and greater cardiovascular reactivity to such conflict might contribute to CHD risk in those with PTSD, but affective and physiological responses to couple conflict have not been examined previously in this population. In a preliminary test of this hypothesis, 32 male veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars with PTSD and their female partners, and 33 control male veterans without PTSD and their female partners completed relationship quality assessments and a conflict discussion task. PTSD diagnosis was confirmed through diagnostic interviews and questionnaires. State anger, state anxiety, and cardiovascular measures (i.e., blood pressure, heart rate) were recorded during baseline and the conflict discussion. Compared with controls, PTSD couples reported greater couple conflict and less warmth, and displayed pronounced increases in anger and greater increases in systolic blood pressure in response to the conflict task (all ps conflict in veterans with PTSD and their partners. PTSD was associated with greater frequency and severity of couple conflict, and greater anger and cardiovascular reactivity to conflict discussions. Anger and physiological responses to couple discord might contribute to CHD risk in veterans with PTSD, and perhaps their partners, as well. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Let's Talk About Sex: A Diary Investigation of Couples’ Intimacy Conflicts in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Although intimacy plays a central role in our closest relationships, we know surprisingly little about how couples handle intimacy conflicts in their daily lives. We utilized 100 married couples’ diary reports of 748 instances of naturalistic marital conflict to test whether intimacy as a topic was associated with other conflict topics; conflict characteristics, such as recurrence and significance; and spouses’ constructive, angry, and depressive conflict expressions. Results from dyadic hierarchical linear modeling revealed that intimacy issues were not likely to be discussed along with other topics (e.g., children, finances). Results also indicated that intimacy conflicts were likely to be recurrent and held relatively high levels of current and long-term importance to the relationship. Husbands and wives generally handled intimacy conflicts in constructive ways (e.g., expressed problem solving and positive emotions). However, husbands’ depression symptoms emerged as a potent moderator of how intimacy conflicts were handled: Among couples that included a husband with higher levels of depression symptoms, discussing intimacy in conflict in the home was associated with greater use of angry expressions and depressive expressions by both husbands and wives. The current findings enhance understanding of intimacy conflicts in naturalistic contexts and offer clinical treatment implications and future research directions. PMID:24167756

  11. Let's Talk About Sex: A Diary Investigation of Couples' Intimacy Conflicts in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Cummings, E Mark

    2013-03-01

    Although intimacy plays a central role in our closest relationships, we know surprisingly little about how couples handle intimacy conflicts in their daily lives. We utilized 100 married couples' diary reports of 748 instances of naturalistic marital conflict to test whether intimacy as a topic was associated with other conflict topics; conflict characteristics, such as recurrence and significance; and spouses' constructive, angry, and depressive conflict expressions. Results from dyadic hierarchical linear modeling revealed that intimacy issues were not likely to be discussed along with other topics (e.g., children, finances). Results also indicated that intimacy conflicts were likely to be recurrent and held relatively high levels of current and long-term importance to the relationship. Husbands and wives generally handled intimacy conflicts in constructive ways (e.g., expressed problem solving and positive emotions). However, husbands' depression symptoms emerged as a potent moderator of how intimacy conflicts were handled: Among couples that included a husband with higher levels of depression symptoms, discussing intimacy in conflict in the home was associated with greater use of angry expressions and depressive expressions by both husbands and wives. The current findings enhance understanding of intimacy conflicts in naturalistic contexts and offer clinical treatment implications and future research directions.

  12. Psychosocial Predictors of Relationship Conflict Styles as Mediated by Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Monteiro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of age, gender, and emotional intelligence (EI on conflict management styles among dating age adults in Botswana. A mixed survey and quasi-experimental design was used to assess the relationship between age and gender and the mediating influence of EI on participants’ preferred conflict management strategies (avoidance, competition, compromise, accommodation, and collaboration in response to violent and nonviolent relationship conflict. One hundred fifty-two participants were surveyed before (with the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale and after (with the Conflict Style Questionnaire watching video clips of nonviolent and violent relationship conflict. Correlations, t tests, and regression analyses were conducted. Findings revealed that women were more likely than men to report use of collaboration conflict strategies in response to the nonviolent video, and men were more likely than women to report accommodation strategies in response to the violent video. In the regression analysis, gender was a significant predictor of accommodation conflict style in response to the violent video, and EI had a significant independent and partial mediating relationship with compromise in response to the violent situation and collaboration in response to both violent and nonviolent conflict situations. Findings highlight the important role of EI in the use of higher-level relationship conflict strategies. Implications in the way of communication and conflict management for dating age adults and couples are discussed.

  13. Conflict-Triggered Top-Down Control: Default Mode, Last Resort, or No Such Thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    The conflict monitoring account posits that globally high levels of conflict trigger engagement of top-down control; however, recent findings point to the mercurial nature of top-down control in high conflict contexts. The current study examined the potential moderating effect of associative learning on conflict-triggered top-down control engagement by testing the Associations as Antagonists to Top-Down Control (AATC) hypothesis. In 4 experiments, list-wide proportion congruence was manipulated, and conflict-triggered top-down control engagement was examined by comparing interference for 50% congruent items across mostly congruent (low conflict) and mostly incongruent (high conflict) lists. Despite the fact that global levels of conflict were varied identically across experiments, evidence of conflict-triggered top-down control engagement was selective to those experiments in which responses could not be predicted on the majority of trials via simple associative learning, consistent with the AATC hypothesis. In a fifth experiment, older adults showed no evidence of top-down control engagement under conditions in which young adults did, a finding that refined the interpretation of the patterns observed in the prior experiments. Collectively, these findings suggest that top-down control engagement in high conflict contexts is neither the default mode nor an unused (or non-existent) strategy. Top-down control is best characterized as a last resort that is engaged when reliance on one’s environment, and in particular associative responding, is unproductive for achieving task goals. PMID:24274385

  14. Goal conflicts, attainment of new goals, and well-being among managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, Hugo M

    2003-07-01

    Researchers widely understand that conflicts among goals inhibit the attainment of these goals. However, this notion comes close to tautological reasoning. To avert this problem, this study examined whether preexisting goal conflict also inhibits success in newly set goals. Using the context of management training, in which managers collectively set new goals, the study variables were assessed at 3 testing periods covering 5 months. Results indicate that goal conflicts that persevere over time were associated with inhibited attainment of new goals but not with decreased subjective well-being (SWB). Goal attainment, however, was positively related to SWB. Interactions of residual changes in goal conflict and goal attainment were associated with positive affect.

  15. Conflict Avoidance and University Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliacozzo, Daisy M.

    The conditions that intensify conflict avoidance by the central administration in making strategic decisions, and the consequences of such avoidance for the management of college affairs, are discussed. The implication of an emerging decision-making style for adapting the organization to changing environments is also considered. Some of the…

  16. African Journal on Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal on Conflict Resolution (AJCR) publishes the writings of a wide range of African and international authors in the field, but emphasis has deliberately been kept on African writers and the thinking emerging from African universities, colleges and organisations. Other websites assiciated with this Journal: ...

  17. The semiosis of family conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-01-01

    by family members in attempts to break a cycle of conflict—violence but they also exacerbate negative emotions, which we see in the case of conflict. The article develops a critique of the practice of punishment and reward. By analyzing psychotherapy as signs and technologies of the self impacting family...

  18. Interactive behavior in conflict situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quant, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with interactive behavior in conflict situations. The first chapters consider several issues in relation to bankruptcy theory. Thereafter, several operations research problems are modeled within the framework of cooperative game theory. The main focus is on what is optimal for a

  19. Sexual conflict and life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedell, N.; Kvarnemo, C.; Lessells, C.M.; Tregenza, T.

    2006-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the costs of mating and in how this leads to sex differences in the optimal mating rate. Here, we attempt to look beyond an exclusive focus on matings to examine the fundamental conflicts that arise out of the fact that sexual reproduction involves investment in

  20. Distinguishing targets in armed conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main object of international humanitarian law (IHL) is the amelioration of the effect of armed conflict on the populace. It seeks to accomplish this by establishing rules that ensure that objects the destruction of which will not give military advantage e are protected; thus, such objects are not to be targeted or destroyed.

  1. Peace and conflict in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many interpretations of peace and conflict in Africa are too simplistic. The book under review, therefore, seeks to deviate from those interpretations and provide a more detailed perspective. A collection of essays edited by David J. Francis, the book is touted as an introduction text to key themes with regard to peace and.

  2. Conflict resolution in Western Sahara

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for the North African region vis-à-vis their Realpolitik conflict containment approach towards the ... Sahara (MINURSO) effectively monitors the ceasefire and the region remains relatively stable. ...... Nación Árabe, 47, pp. 33–39. Mcelroy, D.

  3. Intragroup Conflict during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Co-national groups of individuals from the same country can provide members with psychological and sociocultural support when coping with the stresses of studying abroad. This article examines intragroup task and relationship conflict that occurred in one co-national group during a 14-week short-term study abroad program. Findings reveal the…

  4. The paradox of intragroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Franciscus Remendus Cornelis de

    2013-01-01

    During group decision making, people often experience disagreements in which they need to choose between their own viewpoint and the viewpoint of another group member, for example, when cabinet members disagree about the best decision to tackle a crisis. These intragroup conflicts often pose a

  5. Games, the Socialization of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    The function of games in a society is discussed in this paper. An earlier definition of games as a concretistic way of processing information of cultural antitheses is enlarged to include a more bio-adaptive definition: the game is also a socialization of conflict. This view is compared and contrasted with those of Sigmund Freud and G. H. Mead.…

  6. Conflicting Pressures in Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.

    Papers were presented on these subcategories of the theme of conflicting pressures in postsecondary education: privacy and confidentiality; program analysis, goals, and outcomes; planning, research, and modeling; financing and resource allocation; faculty; and students. Individual topics addressed include: student-faculty interaction; student…

  7. Auditory conflict processing in ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, R.; Sergeant, J.A.; Helsenfeld, D.; Konig, C.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was

  8. Internal Conflicts in Muslim Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Ali Shah

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of psychological theories and the social dynamics of the society help identify salient attributes and processes relevant to conflict among Muslims. The psychodynamic concept of personality and frustration-aggression hypothesis account for the socialization practices in the Muslim societies, emotional instability, unfavorable evaluation of those holding a different viewpoint and venting out one's aggression on the weaker. The tendency of the Muslims to praise their sect/tribe/religious group leads to a groupthink situation that polarizes intergroup relationships. The acts of categorization in group and out group, as postulated by the social identity theory, contribute towards the distorted perception of each other. The Islamic notions of brotherhood, unity and ethnic identity as means of personal identification and social interaction seems to have been forgotten by the Muslims. Though the Western social-psychological constructs are helpful in understanding the causes of conflict among Muslims, they are not germane to Muslim societies. The group belongingness and group favouritism is not necessarily a tool of discrimination and conflict but is an essential component of one's survival in a collectivist society. The Western theories also do not address the economic and political circumstances responsible for the multitude of conflicts among Muslims.

  9. Coping with employee, family, and student roles: evidence of dispositional conflict and facilitation tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Tracy D; McCarthy, Julie M

    2010-07-01

    Balancing multiple roles is a challenge for individuals in many sectors of the population. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that individuals have dispositional tendencies to experience interrole conflict and facilitation. We also aimed to show that coping styles and life satisfaction are correlates of dispositional conflict and facilitation tendencies. Two survey studies were conducted with individuals involved in 3 life roles (i.e., employee, student, and family member; Study 1: N = 193; Study 2: N = 284). The hierarchical structure of conflict and facilitation was examined in both studies. Support for the dispositional model was found in both cases through the use of hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses. In Study 2, a longitudinal assessment of the nomological network surrounding conflict and facilitation tendencies was conducted with structural equation modeling analyses; we found that coping styles had synchronous relations with dispositional conflict and facilitation; dispositional conflict had a lagged and negative relation with life satisfaction.

  10. Dissociable effects of motivation and expectancy on conflict processing: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutschek, Alexander; Stelzel, Christine; Paschke, Lena; Walter, Henrik; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that both motivation and task difficulty expectations activate brain regions associated with cognitive control. However, it remains an open question whether motivational and cognitive determinants of control have similar or dissociable impacts on conflict processing on a neural level. The current study tested the effects of motivation and conflict expectancy on activity in regions related to processing of the target and the distractor information. Participants performed a picture-word interference task in which we manipulated the size of performance-dependent monetary rewards (level of motivation) and the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials within a block (level of conflict expectancy). Our results suggest that motivation improves conflict processing by facilitating task-relevant stimulus processing and task difficulty expectations mainly modulate the processing of distractor information. We conclude that motivation and conflict expectancy engage dissociable control strategies during conflict resolution.

  11. Connecting the Dots: Social Network Structure, Conflict, and Group Cognitive Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curseu, Petru L.; Janssen, Steffie E. A.; Raab, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    The current paper combines arguments from the social capital and group cognition literature to explain two different processes through which communication network structures and intra group conflict influence groups' cognitive complexity (GCC). We test in a sample of 44 groups the mediating role of intra group conflict in the relationship between…

  12. Mental set and creative thought in social conflict : Threat rigidity versus motivated focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    According to the traditional threat-rigidity reasoning, people in social conflict will be less flexible, less creative, more narrow-minded, and more rigid in their thinking when they adopt a conflict rather than a cooperation mental set. The authors propose and test an alternative, motivated focus

  13. The effects of conflict asymmetry on work group and individual outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehn, K.A.; Rispens, S.; Thatcher, S.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the consequences of an often ignored aspect of work group conflict—asymmetric conflict perceptions—for the effectiveness of individuals and groups. Tests of our multilevel hypotheses using data on 51 work groups showed that group conflict asymmetry (the degree to which members differ in

  14. Domain-Specific Control Mechanisms for Emotional and Nonemotional Conflict Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutschek, Alexander; Schubert, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the human brain activates dissociable cognitive control networks in response to conflicts arising within the cognitive and the affective domain. The present study tested the hypothesis that nonemotional and emotional conflict regulation can also be dissociated on a functional level. For that purpose, we…

  15. Recreation conflict potential and management in the northern/central Black Forest Nature Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Mann; J. D. Absher

    2008-01-01

    This study explores conflict in recreational use of the Black Forest Nature Park (BFNP) by six different nature sports groups as a function of infrastructure, forest management and other users. A multi-step, methodological triangulation conflict model from US recreation management was applied and tested in the Park. Results from two groups, hikers and mountain bikers,...

  16. Intentions for cooperative conflict resolution in groups : An application of the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodoiu, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to test to what extent a cooperative conflict management style can be related to attitudes, norms and perceived volitional control. Second, because conflict resolution is an activity that unfolds at the team level, the validity of the theoretical

  17. Indigenous Approaches to Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the developing countries are a manifestation of a people's quest for self-identity, ... cultures, there exist pathways in the ethnic wisdom for managing conflicts. .... study of war focuses on attempts to explain armed conflicts as a universal feature.

  18. Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menk, Peter

    2001-01-01

    ... nations and the United Nations. The purpose of the Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop was to examine the United States military ground forces role in the post-conflict phase of operations...

  19. Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center (CPRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center is EPA's primary resource for services and expertise in the areas of consensus-building, collaborative problem solving, alternative dispute resolution, and environmental collaboration and conflict resolution.

  20. Conflict in organizations : Beyond effectiveness and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Beersma, Bianca

    Conflict theory and research has traditionally focused on conflict management strategies, in relation to individual and work-team effectiveness and productivity. Far less attention has been devoted to "soft" outcomes including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intentions, and

  1. Low-intensity conflict in multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Andersen, Poul Houman; Storgaard, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    in four Danish MNCs. Findings: They describe consequences of low-intensity conflict and identify three types of actions by headquarters’ representatives that could lead to the development of low-intensity conflicts, namely, ignoring, bypassing and educating. Originality/value: Very few studies have dealt......Purpose: This paper aims to identify antecedents for, and consequences of, low-intensity inter-unit conflict in multinational corporations (MNCs). Inter-unit conflict in MNCs is an important and well-researched theme. However, while most studies have focused on open conflict acknowledged by both...... parties, much less research has dealt with low-intensity conflicts. Still, low-intensity conflicts can be highly damaging – not least because they are rarely resolved. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a qualitative approach to understanding low-intensity conflict relying on 170 interviews...

  2. Environmental Degradation, Livelihood and Conflicts the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    able exploitation by man. One notable .... action of any of the parties in the quest to realise or secure those values. The struggle ... ethnic conflicts when they move to new areas, while decreases in ..... and Responses to International Conflict.

  3. Temporality of couple conflict and relationship perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D; Horne, Rebecca M; Hardy, Nathan R; Anderson, Jared R

    2018-05-03

    Using 5 waves of longitudinal survey data gathered from 3,405 couples, the present study investigates the temporal associations between self-reported couple conflict (frequency and each partner's constructive and withdrawing behaviors) and relationship perceptions (satisfaction and perceived instability). Autoregressive cross-lagged model results revealed couple conflict consistently predicted future relationship perceptions: More frequent conflict and withdrawing behaviors and fewer constructive behaviors foretold reduced satisfaction and conflict frequency and withdrawal heightened perceived instability. Relationship perceptions also shaped future conflict, but in surprising ways: Perceptions of instability were linked with less frequent conflict, and male partner instability predicted fewer withdrawing behaviors for female partners. Higher satisfaction from male partners also predicted more frequent and less constructive conflict behavior in the future. These findings illustrate complex bidirectional linkages between relationship perceptions and couple conflict behaviors in the development of couple relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Conflicting health information: a critical research need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Geryk, Lorie L; Chen, Annie T; Nagler, Rebekah H; Dieckmann, Nathan F; Han, Paul K J

    2016-12-01

    Conflicting health information is increasing in amount and visibility, as evidenced most recently by the controversy surrounding the risks and benefits of childhood vaccinations. The mechanisms through which conflicting information affects individuals are poorly understood; thus, we are unprepared to help people process conflicting information when making important health decisions. In this viewpoint article, we describe this problem, summarize insights from the existing literature on the prevalence and effects of conflicting health information, and identify important knowledge gaps. We propose a working definition of conflicting health information and describe a conceptual typology to guide future research in this area. The typology classifies conflicting information according to four fundamental dimensions: the substantive issue under conflict, the number of conflicting sources (multiplicity), the degree of evidence heterogeneity and the degree of temporal inconsistency. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Conflict interaction management as a cultural phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е L Ryabova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the definition for the concept of conflict interaction culture, reveals its functions as well as the structure of its elements and components. Conflict interactions are also examined in the paper.

  6. Links between Conflict Management Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explicates the implications of my research on conflict management for self improvement and for practitioners who work to improve the conflict management of others. I also note how my experiences with practitioners have informed my research.

  7. A Brief History of Propaganda During Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroro J. Ingram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency in scholarly and strategic-policy fields to see the propaganda produced by groups like Islamic State and Al-Qaeda as historically unheralded. As evidence, slickly produced communiques and a penchant for using social media are typically highlighted. This narrow perspective, in placing the current phenomenon into an historical and thematic vacuum, infers that history has little to offer contemporary efforts to understand and confront extremist propaganda. This Research Paper explores the history of propaganda during conflict and draws out key lessons for improving counter-terrorism strategic communications. For millennia the evolution of propaganda strategies during conflict has been driven by three fundamental factors: (i. developments in communication technology, (ii. advancements in military technology and strategy, and (iii. the shifting relationship between the political elite and the populace. This rich history offers vital lessons for contextualising and improving current (and future efforts. Overall, history suggests that a strategic communications campaign during conflict is more likely to succeed if it based on a multifaceted approach characterised by the deployment of a diversity of messages that leverage a variety of target audience motivations, uses all pertinent means of communication (not just the latest, and synchronises this messaging with strategic-policy/politico-military actions. This Research Paper is a publication within ICCT’s Counter-Terrorism Strategic Communications (CTSC Project, which brings together experts from Europe, USA and Australia as well as researchers from the Middle East and South Asia. It was set up to tackle one of the most significant national and global security challenges facing the world today: how to understand and confront the propaganda messaging of violent extremists like al-Qaeda and the so-called Islamic State. Through empirical research, based largely on primary source

  8. Managing Conflict in The Nigerian Construction Industry: A Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the causes of conflictin the Nigerian construction industry and, the strategies for managing them in terms of resolutions and prevention. A quantitative approach using questionnaire survey was adopted to empirically test the opinions of construction professionals on causes of conflicts and ...

  9. An Intervention Model of Constructive Conflict Resolution and Cooperative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quanwu

    1994-01-01

    Tests an intervention model of constructive conflict resolution (CCR) and cooperative learning in three urban high schools. Findings show that improvements in CCR increased social support and decreased victimization for the students. These changes improved student's attitudes, self-esteem, interpersonal relations, and academic achievement. (GLR)

  10. Role of Emotional Intelligence in Conflict Management Strategies of Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başoğul, Ceyda; Özgür, Gönül

    2016-09-01

    This study analyzes the emotional intelligence levels and conflict management strategies of nurses and the association between them. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 277 nurses in a stratified random sample from a university hospital in Turkey. The data were collected from nurses who gave their informed consent to participate using a personal information form, the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II and Bar-On's Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I). Data were assessed by descriptive statistics, t tests, and Pearson correlation analyses, using SPSS software. The levels of the nurses' strategies were as follows: avoiding (M = 2.98), dominating (M = 2.76), and obliging (M = 2.71) were medium; compromising (M = 1.99) and integration (M = 1.96) were low. The levels of the emotional intelligence of nurses (mean = 2.75) were medium on a 5-point scale. Integration (r = .168), obliging (r = .25), dominating (r = .18), and compromising (r = .33), which are conflict management strategies, were positively correlated with scores of emotional intelligence, and avoiding (r = -.25) was negatively correlated with scores of emotional intelligence (p emotional intelligence affects conflict management strategies. To use effective strategies in conflict management, nurses must develop emotional intelligence. Training programs on conflict management and emotional intelligence are needed to improve effective conflict management in healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Conflict Management Strategies for Rangeland Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Metadata only record Numerous strategies have been developed to cope with conflicts. Collaborative processes are one group of conflict management strategies used. When successful these processes have several common features: they are voluntary, build trust, develop a shared vision, and use consensus. These techniques have often led to false expectations because the source of the conflict was ignored or adequately trained facilitators were not used. The source of the conflict (lack of infor...

  12. Army Officers’ Attitudes of Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-11

    The purpose of this study was to measure the attitudes of the middle level career Army officers relative to the concepts of conflict management . The...the literature concerning conflict management and its related fields of study, an exploratory analysis employing Hierarchical Clustering Schemes, and... conflict management . (2) No difference exists in the attitudes of conflict management according to the sample’s three branch groups: combat arms

  13. Conflict Management Styles of Turkish Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalp, Enver; Sungur, Zerrin; Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 managers conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory-II. Findings: First,…

  14. University Students' Perceptions of Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the perceptions of American and international students on conflict resolution, and to determine if the students were willing to participate in conflict resolution. A survey was given to 226 students at an eastern university that asked them to identify a major international conflict and whether they felt…

  15. Conflict: How to Beat the Odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patricia L.

    1993-01-01

    Conflict between people can arise over breakdowns in communication, work policies and practices, adversarial management, and personality conflict. A conflict-resolution plan involves defining the problem, collecting the facts and opinions, considering all solutions proposed, implementing the solutions, and evaluating the situation. (MLF)

  16. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gendron, R.; Hille, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are

  17. Conflict Resolution between Friends during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anupama

    2008-01-01

    The author interviewed 74 children (ages 8.5-11.5 years) in an exploratory study of interpersonal conflict resolution between children. Results suggest that children (a) most frequently used assertion and discussion as conflict resolution strategies, (b) used more than one strategy in a single conflict, and (c) used a strategy that corresponded to…

  18. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…

  19. Coping with Conflict in Educational Circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebgen, Mary K.

    1979-01-01

    The author presents ideas on what the school administrator should know in order to successfully manage conflict situations so that the conflict does not impede school functioning, and suggests that proper handling of the inevitable conflict situations that arise can bring about group cohesiveness and unity. (KC)

  20. Negotiating School Conflicts to Prevent Student Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, John P.; Roberts, John K.

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter presents a model of negotiation as a means to resolve school conflict. The assumption is that school conflict is inevitable, but student delinquency is not. Delinquent behavior results from the way that the school deals with conflict. Students resort to…

  1. Conflict management strategies for effective performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community conflicts are becoming regular feature of social life in many developing countries since the 1960(s). This study proposes for the inclusion of conflict resolution strategies in agricultural extension programs as farmers and farm lands are the most affected. It also examines the various conflict survival strategies ...

  2. Cross-Cultural Conflicts within Sports Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stura, Claudia; Johnston, Linda M.

    2018-01-01

    Since sports are increasingly used a way to bring formerly conflicting parties together post-conflict, more work needs to be done to ensure that sports are actually conducted in a way that promotes peace rather than exacerbates the conflict. Since many sports-for-peace programs cross cultural boundaries, this exploratory study was conducted to…

  3. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, Bryan

    2012-01-09

    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.

  4. Conflict in medical teams: opportunity or danger?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greer, L.L.; Saygi, O.; Aaldering, H.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives  Intragroup conflicts often occur when people are called upon to collaborate in the accomplishment of a task. For example, when surgeons and nurses work together during an operation, conflicts may emerge because of differences in functional understanding. Whether these conflicts are

  5. Energizing Learning: The Instructional Power of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    2009-01-01

    Although intellectual conflict may be an important instructional tool (because of its potential constructive outcomes), conflict is rarely structured in instructional situations (because of its potential destructive outcomes). Many educators may be apprehensive about instigating intellectual conflict among students because of the lack of…

  6. The African Union and Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-02

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE AFRICAN UNION AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT by Lieutenant Colonel Flemming Mathiasen Royal Danish Army Colonel Patrick...AUTHOR: Lieutenant Colonel Flemming Mathiasen TITLE: The African Union and Conflict Management FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 2 March 2006...WORD COUNT: 5850 PAGES: 28 KEY TERMS: African Union, Africa, Conflict Management , Capabilities CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified Africa is a continent with a

  7. Conflict management: difficult conversations with difficult people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Amy R; Lowry, Ann C

    2013-12-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  8. Conflict Management: Difficult Conversations with Difficult People

    OpenAIRE

    Overton, Amy R.; Lowry, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  9. Intra-Organizational Conflict in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Richard

    There is no abundance of research on intra-organizational conflict, and there are no simple answers to the tricky business of managing organizational conflicts. This paper states some propositions about conflict and suggests some management stratagems that can be used in sustaining constructive organizational characteristics. The propositions are…

  10. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via…

  11. A Case Study in Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Lawrence J.; Smith, Val R.

    This paper presents a model for a message-centered theory of human conflict based on the assumption that conflict will result from the pairing of any two functional messages that share a common antecedent but contain different consequences with oppositely signed affect. The paper first shows how to represent conflict situations diagrammatically…

  12. Orwellian risks in European conflict prevention discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Conflict prevention has been the nomenclature of a non-military type of security policy, but that is changing. During the Cold War, the OSCE was a forum for conflict prevention at an interstate level. After the Cold War, OSCE conflict prevention turned to domestic affairs, comparable to NGO

  13. Look Inside for Conflicts of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakewell, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses conflicts of interest in higher education, offering rules of thumb for judging individual situations, tools to help board members address such conflicts, and possible standards to apply when considering conflicts of interest. Also touches on the need to be realistic and the importance of collegiality and trust. (EV)

  14. The Impact of Perceptions on Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longaretti, Lynette; Wilson, Jeni

    2006-01-01

    This article describes research that explored student and teacher perceptions and management of conflict within the primary school context. It was found that both teachers and students shared similarities in their views of conflict and in their management of interpersonal problems at school. Conflict was generally perceived to be a negative…

  15. "Dealing with Racial Conflicts in Schools."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Ben

    In dealing with racial tension and conflict, the principal is not limited to a wing and a prayer and benign neglect. The roots of conflict can be identified. Conflict can be planned for and utilized constructively. For 10 years, in approximately 2,000 instances, conciliators and mediators of the Community Relations Service have stood side-by-side…

  16. Context, Not Conflict, Drives Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Martini, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Theories of cognitive control generally assume that perceived conflict acts as a signal to engage inhibitory mechanisms that suppress subsequent conflicting information. Crucially, an absence of conflict is not regarded as being a relevant signal for cognitive control. Using a cueing, a priming, and a Simon task, we provide evidence that conflict…

  17. Conflict between work and nonwork roles of employees in the mining industry: Prevalence and differences between demographic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsie Steyl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: International researchers have increasingly recognised the interaction between work and nonwork roles as an interesting and important topic. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different work–nonwork conflict subscales and differences between demographic groups in work– nonwork conflict. Motivation for the study: Several studies have shown that demographic groups differ in their experiences of the interaction between work and family life. This may also be true of conflict between work and nonwork roles. The prevalence of work–nonwork conflict and nonwork– work conflict is also very important for organisations that may find the results very valuable for developing organisational and individual interventions and performance management in organisations. Research design, approach and method: The researchers chose a random sample of mining employees (n = 245 from a platinum mine in Rustenburg. The researchers used self-developed items similar to items developed in the Work–nonwork Interference Scale of Koekemoer, Mostert and Rothmann (2010 to measure conflict between work and various nonwork roles. The researchers used descriptive statistics, paired-sample t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance and one-way analysis of variance to analyse the data. Main findings: Work–nonwork conflict was more prevalent than nonwork–work conflict. Work–family conflict was more prevalent than work–domestic conflict and work–religion/ spirituality conflict. The researchers found significant differences for marital status and language groups about work–nonwork conflict. Results showed that participants who spoke African languages experienced higher levels of private–work conflict. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations need to recognise the negative interference or conflict between work and nonwork roles for different demographic groups and address the prevalent work

  18. Interpersonal Conflicts and Styles of Managing Conflicts among Students at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazezew, Arega; Neka, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict happens everywhere and at any time and is inherent in all societies. However, the methods of managing such conflict are quite different from one organisation to the other. The general objective of the study was to assess interpersonal conflicts and styles of managing conflicts among students at Bahir Dar University.…

  19. Examining the longitudinal relations among adolescents' conflict management styles with parents and conflict frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, L.; Luyckx, K.; Branje, S.J.T.; Hale, W.W.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Parent-adolescent conflicts are not necessarily detrimental for adolescent development. The way adolescents handle conflicts with parents is of crucial importance. The present five-wave longitudinal study (N = 1313) focuses on how adolescents' conflict management behaviors and conflict frequency

  20. The Effects of Marital Conflict on Korean Children's Appraisal of Conflict and Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived…

  1. Let's Resolve Conflicts Together: High School Classroom Activities. Conflict Management Week, May 1-7, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management, Columbus.

    The week of May 1-7, 2000 has been designated by the Governor of Ohio to be Conflict Management Week With heightened awareness to issues of school safety, it is important for high schools to take an active role in promoting constructive responses to conflict. Conflict is a natural and inevitable part of living, but managing conflict is difficult…

  2. Let's Resolve Conflicts Together: Elementary School Classroom Activities. Conflict Management Week, May 1-7, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management, Columbus.

    With heightened awareness to issues of school safety, it is important for elementary schools to take an active role in promoting constructive responses to conflict. The week of May 1-7, 2000 has been designated as Conflict Management Week by the Governor of Ohio. Conflict is a natural and inevitable part of living; however, managing conflict is…

  3. Examining the longitudinal relations among adolescents' conflict management with parents and conflict frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Parent-adolescent conflicts are not necessarily detrimental for adolescent development. The way adolescents handle conflicts with parents is of crucial importance. The present five-wave longitudinal study (N = 1313) focuses on how adolescents' conflict management behaviors and conflict frequency

  4. Pengaruh Work-Family Conflict Terhadap Komitmen Organisasi: Kepuasan Kerja Sebagai Variabel Mediasi

    OpenAIRE

    Buhali, Giovanny Anggasta; Margaretha, Meily

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have examined how work-family conflict affectorganizational commitment. The aim of the study was to test whether work-family conflict affect the commitment variable mediated by satisfaction. The study was conducted at Maranatha Christian University. Subjects were 30 employees at Maranatha Christian University. Method of data collection using questionnaires.Test validity, reliability, multiple regression. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis. The results...

  5. Integrating agricultural expansion into conservation biogeography: conflicts and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dobrovolski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing food production without compromising biodiversity is one of the great challenges for humanity. The aims of my thesis were to define spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation and to evaluate conservation conflicts considering agricultural expansion in the 21st century. I also tested the effect of globalizing conservation efforts on both food production and biodiversity conservation. I found spatial conflicts between biodiversity conservation and agricultural expansion. However, incorporating agricultural expansion data into the spatial prioritization process can significantly alleviate conservation conflicts, by reducing spatial correlation between the areas under high impact of agriculture and the priority areas for conservation. Moreover, developing conservation blueprints at the global scale, instead of the usual approach based on national boundaries, can benefit both food production and biodiversity. Based on these findings I conclude that the incorporation of agricultural expansion as a key component for defining global conservation strategies should be added to the list of solutions for our cultivated planet.

  6. [Styles of conflict management among nurses. Instrument validation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, M T; Clos, A C; dos Santos, I; Larrubia, E de O

    1997-01-01

    The present study has as an object the modalities of conflict administration adopted by nurses in professional praxis. Considering the Management Grid Theory (BLAKE & MOUNTON, 1978), the conflict can be solved in different levels of quality or even, not solved, influenced by the manager behavior model. It is intended to identify nurses managing styles in conflict administration, analyzing their interactions. A questionnaire composed with 25 items, in its majority of popular adagios which express the five basic models of the Management Grid, has been tested. The research was run at the Rio de Janeiro State University Pedro Ernesto University Hospital from June, 1996 to August, 1997, and descriptive method and check-list schedule type functional analysis technique have been used. The factorial analysis of items has showed an occurrence of eight interdependent factors which designing the following styles that have been adopted by nurses: confrontation, negotiation, facing, conciliation, manipulation, acceptance, submission and withdrawing. The authors recommend data collect instrument revalidation.

  7. Resolving social conflict among females without overt aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cant, Michael A; Young, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Members of animal societies compete over resources and reproduction, but the extent to which such conflicts of interest are resolved peacefully (without recourse to costly or wasteful acts of aggression) varies widely. Here, we describe two theoretical mechanisms that can help to understand variation in the incidence of overt behavioural conflict: (i) destruction competition and (ii) the use of threats. The two mechanisms make different assumptions about the degree to which competitors are socially sensitive (responsive to real-time changes in the behaviour of their social partners). In each case, we discuss how the model assumptions relate to biological reality and highlight the genetic, ecological and informational factors that are likely to promote peaceful conflict resolution, drawing on empirical examples. We suggest that, relative to males, reproductive conflict among females may be more frequently resolved peacefully through threats of punishment, rather than overt acts of punishment, because (i) offspring are more costly to produce for females and (ii) reproduction is more difficult to conceal. The main need now is for empirical work to test whether the mechanisms described here can indeed explain how social conflict can be resolved without overt aggression.

  8. Relationship between work - family conflict and marital satisfaction among nurses and midwives in hospitals of Zabol university of medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mansouri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work-family conflicts described as incompatibility between work and family roles. There is mutual relationship between marital satisfaction and job so that the tension in one of two areas of career and family are affected. Objective: To examine the relationship between marital satisfaction and work-family conflict among nurses and midwives. Methods: All of 289 employees of married nursing and midwifery of Zabol University of Medical Sciences hospitals participated in the study in 2014. The data were collected with questionnaires of Enrich marital satisfaction and Carlson work-family conflict and were analyzed with statistical tests including Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test and linear regression analysis. Findings: Marital satisfaction score of the staff was 168.52 which indicates the relative satisfaction of spouses from each other. The mean score of work-family conflict among employees was 3.26; it can be said that employees in terms of work-family conflict, the conflict a moderate experience. There is a significant negative correlation among marital satisfaction and work-family conflict of employees. In fact, marital satisfaction decreases when the conflict between work and family is decreased. Nursing staffs have a higher marital satisfaction and in terms of work-family conflict they experience less conflict. Conclusion: According to the findings, the managers should create conditions that minimize the role conflicts and consequently increase the level of marital satisfaction.

  9. The benefit of expecting no conflict--Stronger influence of self-generated than cue-induced conflict expectations on Stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Maike; Gaschler, Robert; Schwager, Sabine; Schubert, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The role of expectations in sequential adaptation to cognitive conflict has been debated controversially in prior studies. On the one hand, a sequential congruency effect (SCE) has been reported for trials in which participants expect a repetition of conflict level. On the other hand, conflict level expectations vs. the SCE have been shown to develop differentially across runs of trials with the same conflict level, arguing against the theory that the SCE is purely driven by expectation. The current verbal Stroop experiment addresses this controversy by two means. First, we tested which specific type of expectation (cue-induced expectations vs. self-generated predictions) might affect the SCE. Second, we assessed the impact of expectation on the SCE as well as the development of SCE and expectation with congruency level run length in one design. We observed a dissociation between expectations and SCE, demonstrating that the SCE is not exclusively driven by expectations. At the same time, we found evidence that (self-generated) expectations do have an impact on the SCE. Our data document especially high performance for one specific combination of task events: congruent trial accompanied by congruent prediction and conflict level repetition. Our results are in line with theories attributing conflict adaptation effects to the "adaption to the lack of conflict". We discuss our results in a broader context of theories about conflict monitoring. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The biology of cultural conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Gregory S; Atran, Scott

    2012-03-05

    Although culture is usually thought of as the collection of knowledge and traditions that are transmitted outside of biology, evidence continues to accumulate showing how biology and culture are inseparably intertwined. Cultural conflict will occur only when the beliefs and traditions of one cultural group represent a challenge to individuals of another. Such a challenge will elicit brain processes involved in cognitive decision-making, emotional activation and physiological arousal associated with the outbreak, conduct and resolution of conflict. Key targets to understand bio-cultural differences include primitive drives-how the brain responds to likes and dislikes, how it discounts the future, and how this relates to reproductive behaviour-but also higher level functions, such as how the mind represents and values the surrounding physical and social environment. Future cultural wars, while they may bear familiar labels of religion and politics, will ultimately be fought over control of our biology and our environment.

  11. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...... professionals from government, non-government, faith-based and private organizations. Findings: Four factors were elicited from the data, labelled—A: ‘Improved Leadership’; B: ‘Resource-centred conflict’; C: ‘Improved Governance’; and D: ‘Improved Management’. Practical Implications: Narratives of neo...

  12. CONFLICTS BETWEEN TOURISTS AND HUNTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Soare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism recreational outdoors bring revenue for the major economies of many states, for example communities should contribute with more than 800 billion dollars annually on U.S. economy, where three out of four Americans participate actively in the open air at recreation each year, as well as as well as hiking, biking, camping, wildlife generates an enormous economic power and a multiplier effect in major sectors of the economy. Empirical Research reveals a ambiguity of the feelings and attitudes concerning the relationship and potential for real conflicts between hunting recreational-sports and leisure and other activities of tourism recreational outdoors. Quantitative methods of analysis have revealed many common items, the reasons for and the environment, which are shared by both classes. An investigation carried out by means of interviews and questionnaires revealed three key elements which offers the potential of conflict: group characteristics, behavior and use of weapons for killing of animals.

  13. Technological risks and social conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.; Krebsbach-Gnath, C.

    1980-12-01

    Research on acceptance, perception and assessment of risks clearly shows that perception of risk by the public is based more on subjective assessments than on scientifically objective risk values. Risk perception by the public is influenced by a number of factors. Risk is still a central point in the conflict and always plays a major role in the opposition toward dangerous technologies. Risk forms the thematic focus for the controversy. The development of the actual conflict, the positions, interests, adaptation problems and processes of the various societal institutions, the conditions, prospects, and forms of antinuclear protest and the subjects and structures, symmetries and changes of argument in the public discussion on nuclear energy are analyzed and represented in detail in this report. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Machine Learning and Conflict Prediction: A Use Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Perry

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For at least the last two decades, the international community in general and the United Nations specifically have attempted to develop robust, accurate and effective conflict early warning system for conflict prevention. One potential and promising component of integrated early warning systems lies in the field of machine learning. This paper aims at giving conflict analysis a basic understanding of machine learning methodology as well as to test the feasibility and added value of such an approach. The paper finds that the selection of appropriate machine learning methodologies can offer substantial improvements in accuracy and performance. It also finds that even at this early stage in testing machine learning on conflict prediction, full models offer more predictive power than simply using a prior outbreak of violence as the leading indicator of current violence. This suggests that a refined data selection methodology combined with strategic use of machine learning algorithms could indeed offer a significant addition to the early warning toolkit. Finally, the paper suggests a number of steps moving forward to improve upon this initial test methodology.

  15. Trust Revision for Conflicting Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    strategy is to first revise a priori trust assignments as a function of the degree of conflict, before the evidence is fused. This paper focuses on the...practical trust transitivity seems to be idiosyncratic for humans and animals, with no true analogue among non- living forms (and in the physical world ...visiting a foreign country Alice is looking for a restaurant where the locals go, because she would like to avoid places overrun by tourists. She meets a

  16. Stakeholder conflicts and dividend policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhren, Øyvind; Josefsen, Morten G.; Steen, Pål E.

    2012-01-01

    This is the authors’ final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article This paper compares the dividend policy of owner-controlled firms with that of firms where the owners are a minority relative to non-owner employees, customers, and community citizens. We find that regardless of whether owners or non-owners control the firm, the strong stakeholder uses the dividend payout decision to mitigate rather than to intensify the conflict of interest with the weak stakeholder. H...

  17. Post-conflict affiliation as conflict management in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Chisato; Morisaka, Tadamichi; Furuta, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Akihiko; Taki, Michihiro; Mori, Yoshihisa; Amano, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Post-conflict affiliation between former opponents or between one of the former opponents and bystanders might have the function of conflict management, which reduces the costs associated with aggressions. One of the suggested functions of post-conflict affiliation is decreased renewed aggressions directed from aggressors to victims. However, the effect of post-conflict affiliation on renewed aggressions by victims has not been investigated. We examined whether post-conflict affiliations decr...

  18. Global nursing management. Avoiding conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, the healthcare industry has been no stranger to some conflicts of interest. However, as healthcare responds to demands to contain costs and adapts business models that resemble those of the corporate world, new conflicts of interest arise. Nurse executives operating in healthcare systems today must have an understanding of conflicts of interest in order to promptly identify actual as well as potential conflicts. It is imperative that strategies are set in place to prevent or handle conflicts of interest as they occur in order to build trusting relationships with patients, suppliers, and communities.

  19. Ethics of conducting research in conflict settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Edward J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Humanitarian agencies are increasingly engaged in research in conflict and post-conflict settings. This is justified by the need to improve the quality of assistance provided in these settings and to collect evidence of the highest standard to inform advocacy and policy change. The instability of conflict-affected areas, and the heightened vulnerability of populations caught in conflict, calls for careful consideration of the research methods employed, the levels of evidence sought, and ethical requirements. Special attention needs to be placed on the feasibility and necessity of doing research in conflict-settings, and the harm-benefit ratio for potential research participants.

  20. Intergenerational conflict in nursing preceptorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Vicki; Myrick, Florence; Yonge, Olive

    2013-09-01

    Within the preceptorship model of clinical teaching/learning, the creation of a cohesive relationship between a preceptor and a nursing student highly influences the overall success of the experience. Invariably, preceptors and students tend to be of different generations and as such, there exists within this context the potential for generational misunderstandings and conflict. A phenomenological study guided by van Manen's approach to human science research was conducted. The aim of this study is to explore the phenomenon of preceptorship in the intergenerational context. A purposive sample of seven preceptors and seven nursing students was recruited from an undergraduate nursing program. The collective experience of all participants was illuminated through three key themes: being affirmed, being challenged, and being on a pedagogical journey. In this article we focus on encountering conflict, a key subtheme of being challenged, and one that emerged from the participants' narratives. The study findings suggest that interpersonal conflict continues to be a reality in our profession, owing to which a collective effort must be made by nurse educators, practicing nurses, and nursing students to effect change and create a more cohesive culture. The findings have the potential to enhance generational understanding and foster a more cohesive culture in clinical practice settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Personal Conflict Impairs Performance on an Unrelated Self-Control Task: Lingering Costs of Uncertainty and Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquist, Jessica L; Baumeister, Roy F; McGregor, Ian; Core, Tammy J; Benjamin, Ilil; Tice, Dianne M

    2018-01-01

    People have the ability to make important choices in their lives, but deliberating about these choices can have costs. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that writing about conflicted personal goals and values (conflict condition) would impair self-control on an unrelated subsequent task as compared to writing about clear personal goals and values (clarity condition). Personal conflict activates the behavioral inhibition system (BIS; Hirsh, Mar, & Peterson, 2012), which may make it harder for participants to successfully execute self-control. In this large ( N =337), pre-registered study participants in the conflict condition performed worse on anagrams than participants in the clarity condition, and the effect of condition on anagram performance was mediated by a subjective uncertainty measure of BIS activation. This suggests that BIS activation leads to poor self-control. Moreover, given that conflict is inherent in the exercise of self-control, results point to BIS activation as a mechanism for why initial acts of self-control impair self-control on subsequent, unrelated tasks.

  2. The role of affective evaluation in conflict adaptation: An LRP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröber, Kerstin; Stürmer, Birgit; Frömer, Romy; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2017-08-01

    Conflict between incompatible response tendencies is typically followed by control adjustments aimed at diminishing subsequent conflicts, a phenomenon often called conflict adaptation. Dreisbach and Fischer (2015, 2016) recently proposed that it is not the conflict per se but the aversive quality of a conflict that originally motivates this kind of sequential control adjustment. With the present study we tested the causal role of aversive signals in conflict adaptation in a more direct way. To this end, after each trial of a vertical Simon task participants rated whether they experienced the last trial as rather pleasant or unpleasant. Conflict adaptation was measured via lateralized readiness potentials as a measure of early motor-related activation that were computed on the basis of event-related brain potentials. Results showed the typical suppression of automatic response activation following trials rated as unpleasant, whereas suppression was relaxed following trials rated as pleasant. That is, sequential control adaptation was not based on previous conflict but on the subjective affective experience. This is taken as evidence that negative affect even in the absence of actual conflict triggers subsequent control adjustments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) enhances conflict-triggered adjustment of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Rico; Ventura-Bort, Carlos; Hamm, Alfons; Weymar, Mathias

    2018-04-24

    Response conflicts play a prominent role in the flexible adaptation of behavior as they represent context-signals that indicate the necessity for the recruitment of cognitive control. Previous studies have highlighted the functional roles of the affectively aversive and arousing quality of the conflict signal in triggering the adaptation process. To further test this potential link with arousal, participants performed a response conflict task in two separate sessions with either transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), which is assumed to activate the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NE) system, or with neutral sham stimulation. In both sessions the N2 and P3 event-related potentials (ERP) were assessed. In line with previous findings, conflict interference, the N2 and P3 amplitude were reduced after conflict. Most importantly, this adaptation to conflict was enhanced under tVNS compared to sham stimulation for conflict interference and the N2 amplitude. No effect of tVNS on the P3 component was found. These findings suggest that tVNS increases behavioral and electrophysiological markers of adaptation to conflict. Results are discussed in the context of the potentially underlying LC-NE and other neuromodulatory (e.g., GABA) systems. The present findings add important pieces to the understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms of conflict-triggered adjustment of cognitive control.

  4. Conflict with Mothers and Siblings During Caregiving: Differential Costs for Black and White Adult Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suitor, J Jill; Gilligan, Megan; Rurka, Marissa; Con, Gulcin; Peng, Siyun; Pillemer, Karl

    2017-12-16

    Family conflict has been found to play a role in caregivers' psychological well-being; however, few studies have considered race differences in the prevalence and consequences of caregiving conflict. In this paper, we use mixed-methods to examine differences in the experiences of conflict among Black and White adult children caring for mothers. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 279 adult-child caregivers (213 White; 66 Black). Multilevel modeling revealed that conflict with mothers predicted depressive symptoms among Black, but not White caregivers, whereas there were not statistically significant race differences in the effects of conflict with siblings. However within-model tests showed stronger effects of conflict with mothers than siblings for Black caregivers, and stronger effects of conflict with siblings than mothers for White caregivers. Qualitative data revealed that Black caregivers' conflict with mothers resulted from their inability to meet their mothers' needs, inducing concern and sadness. White children's conflict stemmed from mothers' resistance to unwanted assistance and requests for support that children considered excessive, evoking irritation and frustration. This study highlights ways in which the experiences of caregivers reflect broader patterns of differences between Black and White families in both intergenerational cohesion and health disparities in midlife. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Beyond territory and scarcity - exploring conflicts over natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa......Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa...

  6. Not My Problem: Vicarious Conflict Adaptation with Human and Virtual Co-Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel M. Spapé

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Simon effect refers to an incompatibility between stimulus and response locations resulting in a conflict situation and, consequently, slower responses. Like other conflict effects, it is commonly reduced after repetitions, suggesting an executive control ability, which flexibly rewires cognitive processing and adapts to conflict. Interestingly, conflict is not necessarily individually defined: the Social Simon effect refers to a scenario where two people who share a task show a conflict effect where a single person does not. Recent studies showed these observations might converge into what could be called vicarious conflict adaptation, with evidence indicating that observing someone else’s conflict may subsequently reduce one’s own. While plausible, there is reason for doubt: both the social aspect of the Simon Effect, and the degree to which executive control accounts for the conflict adaptation effect, have become foci of debate in recent studies. Here, we present two experiments that were designed to test the social dimension of the effect by varying the social relationship between the actor and the co-actor. In Experiment 1, participants performed a conflict task with a virtual co-actor, while the actor-observer relationship was manipulated as a function of the similarity between response modalities. In Experiment 2, the same task was performed both with a virtual and with a human co-actor, while heart-rate measurements were taken to measure the impact of observed conflict on autonomous activity. While both experiments replicated the interpersonal conflict adaptation effects, neither showed evidence of the critical social dimension. We consider the findings as demonstrating that vicarious conflict adaptation does not rely on the social relationship between the actor and co-actor.

  7. Spillover between interparental conflict and parent-child conflict within and across days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Rachel Baden; Lochman, John E; DeCoster, Jamie; Stromeyer, Sara L

    2017-10-01

    The present study used a daily reporting design to examine the bidirectional spillover in conflict and conflict strategies between the interparental relationship and the parent-child relationship. Participants were 60 parents with a preadolescent child at risk for aggressive behavior. Parents reported on their experience of interparental and parent-child conflict and their use of constructive and destructive conflict strategies through daily telephone interviews over 7 days. Each day was divided into 3 equal time periods roughly corresponding to early morning, daytime, and evening. Time-lagged analyses investigated the spillover in conflict within and across days. Results revealed that the presence of interparental conflict significantly predicted the presence of parent-child conflict 1 time period later and 1 full day later. Likewise, the presence of parent-child conflict significantly predicted the presence of interparental conflict 1 full day later. In terms of conflict strategy use, results revealed that parents who engaged in constructive patterns of interparental conflict were more likely to engage in constructive patterns of parent-child conflict 1 time period later and 1 full day later. Reciprocal effects for constructive parent-child conflict predicting subsequent interparental conflict were significant across all 3 time lags assessed. There were no significant, bidirectional effects for the spillover in destructive conflict. Findings have important clinical implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The conciliation of collective labour conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia BĂDOI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article envisages presenting the conciliation as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts. The conciliation was stipulated as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts even from the first acts that regulated this domain, being foreseen as a mandatory phase within the process of solving this type of conflicts. The subject of conciliation was approached before within the doctrine, from this juridical institution development point of view, the used research methods being the observation and the comparative analysis. The legislator adapted the procedure for the resolution of conflicts of interests/ collective labour conflicts in accordance with the social and economic development of the labour relations and identified other means of resolution, such as the mediation, the arbitrage or the strike, when the conciliation didn’t lead to the end of the conflict. The present paper aims is to realize an assessment over the historical development of the labour conflicts conciliation and to draw up a study on the statistical data concerning these conflicts. The study may be used within the research activity, its contribution being set up by the updated presentation of the statistical data and on the legislation within the field of labour conflicts conciliation.

  9. Soil losses in rural watersheds with environmental land use conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, F A L; Varandas, S G P; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Valle Junior, R F

    2014-07-01

    Soil losses were calculated in a rural watershed where environmental land use conflicts developed in the course of a progressive invasion of forest and pasture/forest lands by agriculture, especially vineyards. The hydrographic basin is located in the Douro region where the famous Port wine is produced (northern Portugal) and the soil losses were estimated by the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) in combination with a Geographic Information System (GIS). Environmental land use conflicts were set up on the basis of land use and land capability maps, coded as follows: 1-agriculture, 2-pasture, 3-pasture/forest, and 4-forest. The difference between the codes of capability and use defines a conflict class, where a negative or nil value means no conflict and a positive i value means class i conflict. The reliability of soil loss estimates was tested by a check of these values against the frequency of stone wall instabilities in vineyard terraces, with good results. Using the USLE, the average soil loss (A) was estimated in A=12.2 t·ha(-1)·yr(-1) and potential erosion risk areas were found to occupy 28.3% of the basin, defined where soil losses are larger than soil loss tolerances. Soil losses in no conflict regions (11.2 t·ha(-1)·yr(-1)) were significantly different from those in class 2 (6.8 t·ha(-1)·yr(-1)) and class 3 regions (21.3 t·ha(-1)·yr(-1)) that in total occupy 2.62 km(2) (14.3% of the basin). When simulating a scenario of no conflict across the entire basin, whereby land use in class 2 conflict regions is set up to permanent pastures and in class 3 conflict regions to pine forests, it was concluded that A=0.95 t·ha(-1)·yr(-1) (class 2) or A=9.8 t·ha(-1)·yr(-1) (class 3), which correspond to drops of 86% and 54% in soil loss relative to the actual values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolution of the interpersonal conflict paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep K. Dhami

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Using Brunswik's (1952 lens model framework, Hammond (1965 proposed interpersonal conflict theory to explain the nature, source, and resolution of disagreement or ``cognitive conflict'' between parties performing judgment tasks. An early review by Brehmer (1976 highlighted the potential of this approach in, for example, understanding the structure of cognitive conflicts, and the effect of task and person variables on judgment policy change and conflict resolution. However, our bibliographic and content reviews from 1976 to the present day demonstrate that research on cognitive conflict using the lens model has declined sharply, while research on ``task conflict'' has grown dramatically. There has also been a shift to less theoretical precision and methodological rigor. We discuss possible reasons for these developments, and suggest ways in which lens model research on cognitive conflict can be revitalized by borrowing from recent theoretical and methodological advances in the field of judgment and decision making.

  11. A holistic approach to natural resource conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to the field of natural resource conflict management by investigating the holistic context of a conflict case and argues against a simple resource scarcity-conflict thesis. The article takes point of departure in a pragmatic world view of conflicts in Laikipia County, Kenya...... through a likert-type questionnaire survey (N = 352), semi-structured interviews, extensive field notes and participant observation. Using an adapted version of the Unifying Negotiation Framework (UNF) to conduct an in-depth context analysis, the article shows the multitude of ecological, social...... and institutional factors which impact on the conflict complex. The critical features of the conflict from the perspective of pastoralists and farmers in Laikipia were found to be related to trust, communication, security, governance, marginalisation and violence. By conducting a thorough conflict context analysis...

  12. Conflict resolution: practical principles for surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liz; Berger, David H; Awad, Samir S; Brandt, Mary L; Martinez, George; Brunicardi, F Charles

    2008-11-01

    Historically, surgeons have had little formal training in conflict resolution; however, there has been an increasing body of evidence that poor conflict resolution skills may have an adverse impact on patient outcomes and career advancement. Furthermore, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has recognized the importance of conflict resolution skills in resident training by mandating the training of communication skills and professionalism. These skills have often been taught in other professions, and surgeons may need to acquaint themselves with the literature from those fields. Conflict resolution techniques such as the 7-step model or principle-based conflict resolution can be applied to conflict in the operating room, wards, and among colleagues. We propose a model for conflict resolution by using the basic tools of the history and physical exam, a process well known to all physicians.

  13. Geography and Communal Conflict in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujarwoto Sujarwoto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of communal conflicts in Indonesia have been widely documented. However, most of them ignore geographical aspects of communal conflicts. This paper examines geographical determinants of communal conflicts in Indonesia. Data comes from the 2008 Village Potential Census (Podes and official statistics which consist of communal conflict information across all Indonesia’s districts (N districts = 465. Results from spatial dependent model show that communal conflict to be spatially dependent through latent determinants, meaning that communal conflict clusters because of clustering of latent determinants within district. Rather than religious and ethnic heterogeneity, communal conflict is positively associated with poverty, economic inequality, elite capture, and weak capacity of districts to manage fiscal resources.

  14. Making sense of all the conflict: a theoretical review and critique of conflict-related ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Clawson, Ann

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive control theory suggests that goal-directed behavior is governed by a dynamic interplay between areas of the prefrontal cortex. Critical to cognitive control is the detection and resolution of competing stimulus or response representations (i.e., conflict). Event-related potential (ERP) research provides a window into the nature and precise temporal sequence of conflict monitoring. We critically review the research on conflict-related ERPs, including the error-related negativity (ERN), Flanker N2, Stroop N450 and conflict slow potential (conflict SP or negative slow wave [NSW]), and provide an analysis of how these ERPs inform conflict monitoring theory. Overall, there is considerable evidence that amplitude of the ERN is sensitive to the degree of response conflict, consistent with a role in conflict monitoring. It remains unclear, however, to what degree contextual, individual, affective, and motivational factors influence ERN amplitudes and how ERN amplitudes are related to regulative changes in behavior. The Flanker N2, Stroop N450, and conflict SP ERPs represent distinct conflict-monitoring processes that reflect conflict detection (N2, N450) and conflict adjustment or resolution processes (N2, conflict SP). The investigation of conflict adaptation effects (i.e., sequence or sequential trial effects) shows that the N2 and conflict SP reflect post-conflict adjustments in cognitive control, but the N450 generally does not. Conflict-related ERP research provides a promising avenue for understanding the effects of individual differences on cognitive control processes in healthy, neurologic and psychiatric populations. Comparisons between the major conflict-related ERPs and suggestions for future studies to clarify the nature of conflict-related neural processes are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Normal cognitive conflict resolution in psychosis patients with and without schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Henderikus G O M; Bruggeman, Richard; Martens, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is thought to be associated with impairments of executive functions, among which conflict control functions play an important role. The available evidence, however, suggests that conflict control is intact in schizophrenia, despite being based on methods that have successfully unveiled conflict control problems in other disorders. Differences between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls in stimulus perception, selective attention, alertness, processing speed and reaction time variability may have been previously overlooked. By controlling for these potential confounders, the present experiments were aimed to be more rigorous tests of the hypothesis that psychosis and schizophrenia are associated with impairments of conflict control. To that end, 27 healthy controls and 53 recent-onset psychosis patients with (n = 27) and without schizophrenia (n = 26) with comparable age, intelligence, and education level, performed three iconic conflict control tasks: the Simon task, the Eriksen flanker task, and the Stroop task, all equipped with neutral trials, and analyzed for various potential confounders. They further performed a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Schizophrenia patients showed no increased conflict effects in any of the 3 tasks for any alternative measures used. Nonschizophrenia patients only showed abnormally increased response competition in the Simon task. All patients nevertheless demonstrated impaired control of attention and verbal memory. These findings indicate that the type of conflict control engaged by conflict tasks is intact in recent-onset schizophrenia, suggesting that a major component of executive function is spared in schizophrenia. We discuss these findings in terms of proactive and reactive control. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Conflicts in youth literature and resolving conflicts through mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Vodnjov, Kaja

    2015-01-01

    In the first part of my graduation thesis problems in youth literature are represented and children`s rights are exposed in few stories that I mentioned. Some special situations are taken from everyday life in kindergarten and are described by theory of Vladimir J. Propp in order of 31 functions, which are described in his book Morphology of the Folktale. Their actions are mentioned as well. In the second part of graduation thesis conflict actions are analyzed and the way of reaction is ...

  17. Risk, Conflict, Mothers' Parenting, and Children's Adjustment in Low-Income, Mexican Immigrant, and Mexican American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumka, Larry E.; Roosa, Mark W.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a test of a risk-stress process model. Examines the influence of mothers' supportive parenting and inconsistent discipline practices on risk factors and family conflict as these affect children's conduct disorder and depression. Tests on 121 families indicate that mothers' supportive patenting partially mediated family conflict effects…

  18. Crowdsourcing the Measurement of Interstate Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Vito; Kenwick, Michael; Lane, Matthew; Palmer, Glenn; Reitter, David

    2016-01-01

    Much of the data used to measure conflict is extracted from news reports. This is typically accomplished using either expert coders to quantify the relevant information or machine coders to automatically extract data from documents. Although expert coding is costly, it produces quality data. Machine coding is fast and inexpensive, but the data are noisy. To diminish the severity of this tradeoff, we introduce a method for analyzing news documents that uses crowdsourcing, supplemented with computational approaches. The new method is tested on documents about Militarized Interstate Disputes, and its accuracy ranges between about 68 and 76 percent. This is shown to be a considerable improvement over automated coding, and to cost less and be much faster than expert coding.

  19. Assessing sexual conflict in the Drosophila melanogaster laboratory model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William R; Stewart, Andrew D; Morrow, Edward H; Linder, Jodell E; Orteiza, Nicole; Byrne, Phillip G

    2006-01-01

    We describe a graphical model of interlocus coevolution used to distinguish between the interlocus sexual conflict that leads to sexually antagonistic coevolution, and the intrinsic conflict over mating rate that is an integral part of traditional models of sexual selection. We next distinguish the ‘laboratory island’ approach from the study of both inbred lines and laboratory populations that are newly derived from nature, discuss why we consider it to be one of the most fitting forms of laboratory analysis to study interlocus sexual conflict, and then describe four experiments using this approach with Drosophila melanogaster. The first experiment evaluates the efficacy of the laboratory model system to study interlocus sexual conflict by comparing remating rates of females when they are, or are not, provided with a spatial refuge from persistent male courtship. The second experiment tests for a lag-load in males that is due to adaptations that have accumulated in females, which diminish male-induced harm while simultaneously interfering with a male's ability to compete in the context of sexual selection. The third and fourth experiments test for a lag-load in females owing to direct costs from their interactions with males, and for the capacity for indirect benefits to compensate for these direct costs. PMID:16612888

  20. Airborne Management of Traffic Conflicts in Descent With Arrival Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2005-01-01

    NASA is studying far-term air traffic management concepts that may increase operational efficiency through a redistribution of decisionmaking authority among airborne and ground-based elements of the air transportation system. One component of this research, En Route Free Maneuvering, allows trained pilots of equipped autonomous aircraft to assume responsibility for traffic separation. Ground-based air traffic controllers would continue to separate traffic unequipped for autonomous operations and would issue flow management constraints to all aircraft. To evaluate En Route Free Maneuvering operations, a human-in-the-loop experiment was jointly conducted by the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers. In this experiment, test subject pilots used desktop flight simulators to resolve conflicts in cruise and descent, and to adhere to air traffic flow constraints issued by test subject controllers. Simulators at NASA Langley were equipped with a prototype Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) flight deck toolset to assist pilots with conflict management and constraint compliance tasks. Results from the experiment are presented, focusing specifically on operations during the initial descent into the terminal area. Airborne conflict resolution performance in descent, conformance to traffic flow management constraints, and the effects of conflicting traffic on constraint conformance are all presented. Subjective data from subject pilots are also presented, showing perceived levels of workload, safety, and acceptability of autonomous arrival operations. Finally, potential AOP functionality enhancements are discussed along with suggestions to improve arrival procedures.

  1. Fear conditioning induced by interpersonal conflicts in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Mitsuhiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Takaki; Konishi, Mika; Umeda, Satoshi; Terasawa, Yuri; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mimura, Masaru; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Psychophysiological markers have been focused to investigate the psychopathology of psychiatric disorders and personality subtypes. In order to understand neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions, fear-conditioning model has been widely used. However, simple aversive stimuli are too simplistic to understand mechanisms because most patients with psychiatric disorders are affected by social stressors. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a newly-designed conditioning experiment using a stimulus to cause interpersonal conflicts and examine associations between personality traits and response to that stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy individuals underwent the fear conditioning and extinction experiments in response to three types of stimuli: a simple aversive sound, disgusting pictures, and pictures of an actors' face with unpleasant verbal messages that were designed to cause interpersonal conflicts. Conditioned response was quantified by the skin conductance response (SCR). Correlations between the SCR changes, and personality traits measured by the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD) and Revised NEO Personality Inventory were explored. The interpersonal conflict stimulus resulted in successful conditioning, which was subsequently extinguished, in a similar manner as the other two stimuli. Moreover, a greater degree of conditioned response to the interpersonal conflict stimulus correlated with a higher ZAN-BPD total score. Fear conditioning and extinction can be successfully achieved, using interpersonal conflicts as a stimulus. Given that conditioned fear caused by the interpersonal conflicts is likely associated with borderline personality traits, this paradigm could contribute to further understanding of underlying mechanisms of interpersonal fear implicated in borderline personality disorder.

  2. Fear Conditioning Induced by Interpersonal Conflicts in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Mitsuhiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Takaki; Konishi, Mika; Umeda, Satoshi; Terasawa, Yuri; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mimura, Masaru; Miyazaki, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Psychophysiological markers have been focused to investigate the psychopathology of psychiatric disorders and personality subtypes. In order to understand neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions, fear-conditioning model has been widely used. However, simple aversive stimuli are too simplistic to understand mechanisms because most patients with psychiatric disorders are affected by social stressors. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a newly-designed conditioning experiment using a stimulus to cause interpersonal conflicts and examine associations between personality traits and response to that stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy individuals underwent the fear conditioning and extinction experiments in response to three types of stimuli: a simple aversive sound, disgusting pictures, and pictures of an actors’ face with unpleasant verbal messages that were designed to cause interpersonal conflicts. Conditioned response was quantified by the skin conductance response (SCR). Correlations between the SCR changes, and personality traits measured by the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD) and Revised NEO Personality Inventory were explored. The interpersonal conflict stimulus resulted in successful conditioning, which was subsequently extinguished, in a similar manner as the other two stimuli. Moreover, a greater degree of conditioned response to the interpersonal conflict stimulus correlated with a higher ZAN-BPD total score. Fear conditioning and extinction can be successfully achieved, using interpersonal conflicts as a stimulus. Given that conditioned fear caused by the interpersonal conflicts is likely associated with borderline personality traits, this paradigm could contribute to further understanding of underlying mechanisms of interpersonal fear implicated in borderline personality disorder. PMID:25978817

  3. Work-family conflict and retirement preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymo, James M; Sweeney, Megan M

    2006-05-01

    This study investigates relationships between retirement preferences and perceived levels of work-family conflict. Using the large sample of 52-54-year-old respondents to the 1992 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we estimated multinomial logistic regression models of preferences for partial and full retirement within the next 10 years. We examined the association between retirement preferences and perceived work-family conflict, evaluated the extent to which work-family conflict was a mediating mechanism between stressful work and family circumstances and preferences to retire, and explored potential gender differences in the association between work-family conflict and preferring retirement. Work-family conflict was positively related to preferences for both full and partial retirement. Yet work-family conflict did not appear to mediate relationships between stressful work and family environments and retirement preferences, nor did significant gender differences emerge in this association. Our analyses provide the first direct evidence of the role played by work-family conflict in the early stages of the retirement process, although we were not able to identify the sources of conflict underlying this relationship. Identifying the sources of this conflict and the psychological mechanisms linking work-family conflict to retirement preferences is an important task for future researchers.

  4. Members' needs, intragroup conflict, and group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jinseok S; Choi, Jin Nam

    2014-05-01

    Focusing on "what people want in their group" as a critical antecedent of intragroup conflict, the present study theorizes and empirically investigates the relationships among the psychological needs of group members, intragroup conflict, and group performance. It attends to the within-group average and dispersion of members' psychological needs and examines the effects stemming from group composition of needs on multiple types of conflict. The analyses based on multisource data from 145 organizational teams revealed significant relationships between the groups' composition with respect to the members' need for achievement and task conflict, need for affiliation and relationship conflict, and need for power and status conflict. Some of these relationships were moderated by open communication among members. The analyses also demonstrated that when the 3 types of conflict were considered together, task conflict was a positive predictor of group performance, whereas relationship conflict was a negative predictor. The findings highlight the motivational aspects of intragroup conflict, revealing the multilevel dynamics of the psychological needs in social settings. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Joke as a means of conflict settling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana A. Sadovnikova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of jokes as one of the verbal means of deintensification of confrontation. The examples from modern English works of art illustrating the use of jokes at different stages of the conflict are presented. As a rule, a joke can be used in open and post-conflict phases, the latent phase of the conflict is not expressed. The use of jokes on the open stage of the conflict can create a kind of tipping point to change the course of the conflict, and thereby help to resolve it. On the post-conflict stage, a joke helps to build relationships that can be important preventing renewed conflict. The article draws attention to the combination of other means of deintensification confrontation with a joke to achieve the best result in the conflict settlement process. The verbal means can be referred to the apology and change of subject, non-verbal gestures and kisses, para-verbal — soothing tone. All of these funds, if used in conjunction with a joke, contribute to a successful resolution of the conflict. They can also enhance the effect of the joke, which is especially important in the case of non-verbal means. The author notes that the effectiveness of the joke depends on both sides — how well one of the interviewees apply the tool and how the second would take it. In the case of a failed joke, the conflict is likely to increase.

  6. Intragroup conflicts and efficiency of production group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenkov A.V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis results of relationships of three levels of the conflict (interpersonal, microgroup and group on two types (the job and subject with indicators of subjectively perceived performance and social effectiveness of small groups and informal subgroups are provided. On selection of 42 work groups (N=334 employees it is established that performance efficiency of group according to the experts has inverse relation from all levels and types of the conflict, and by estimates of members of group — from two types of the microgroup conflict. The same type of effectiveness of informal subgroups on one indicator has inverse relation from the group conflict, and on another — from the interpersonal and microgroup conflict. Social effectiveness of group is connected with the interpersonal and group conflict, and informal subgroups are connected with the interpersonal and microgroup conflict. Levels and types of the conflict cause efficiency of group and subgroup not only separately, but also in a combination with each other. Six regression models, four of which display relationships at the same time of several levels and types of the conflict with performance effectiveness of group, and two — with social effectiveness of subgroup are revealed. Mediated and direct relationships of levels and types of the conflict with efficiency of group and subgroup are established.

  7. Risk factors for interpersonal conflicts at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raeve, Lore; Jansen, Nicole Wh; van den Brandt, Piet A; Vasse, Rineke M; Kant, Ijmert

    2008-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to identify work-related risk factors for the onset of interpersonal conflicts at work. Longitudinal data from the Maastricht Cohort Study on "fatigue at work" (N=9241) were used. After the respondents who reported an interpersonal conflict at baseline were excluded, logistic regression analyses were used to determine the role of several work-related risk factors at baseline in the onset of a conflict with coworkers or supervisors after 1 year of follow-up. Higher psychological job demands, higher levels of role ambiguity, the presence of physical demands, higher musculoskeletal demands, a poorer physical work environment, shift work, overtime, and higher levels of job insecurity significantly predicted the onset of both a coworker conflict and a supervisor conflict. Higher levels of coworker and supervisor social support, more autonomy concerning the terms of employment, good overall job satisfaction, monetary gratification, and esteem reward significantly protected against the onset of both a coworker conflict and a supervisor conflict. Higher levels of decision latitude and more career opportunities also significantly protected against the onset of a supervisor conflict. Several factors in the work environment were related to the onset of interpersonal conflicts at work. Given the rather serious consequences of interpersonal conflicts at work with respect to health and well-being, the observed risk factors can serve as a starting point for effective prevention and intervention strategies in the workplace.

  8. Naturalistically observed conflict and youth asthma symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Erin T; Kane, Heidi S; Saleh, Daniel J; Naar-King, Sylvie; Poowuttikul, Pavadee; Secord, Elizabeth; Pierantoni, Wayne; Simon, Valerie A; Slatcher, Richard B

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the links between naturalistically observed conflict, self-reported caregiver-youth conflict, and youth asthma symptoms. Fifty-four youth with asthma (age range: 10-17 years) wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) for a 4-day period to assess interpersonal conflict and caregiver-youth conflict as they occur in daily life. Conflict also was assessed with baseline self-report questionnaires and daily diaries completed by youth participants and their caregivers. Asthma symptoms were assessed using daily diaries, baseline self-reports, and wheezing, as coded from the EAR. EAR-observed measures of conflict were strongly associated with self-reported asthma symptoms (both baseline and daily diaries) and wheezing coded from the EAR. Further, when entered together in regression analyses, youth daily reports of negative caregiver-youth interactions and EAR-observed conflict uniquely predicted asthma symptoms; only EAR-observed conflict was associated with EAR-observed wheezing. These findings demonstrate the potential impact of daily conflict on youth asthma symptoms and the importance of assessing conflict as it occurs in everyday life. More broadly, they point to the importance of formulating a clear picture of family interactions outside of the lab, which is essential for understanding how family relationships "get under the skin" to affect youth health. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Alertness function of thalamus in conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangpeng; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Xue, Gui; Chen, Antao

    2016-05-15

    Conflict adaptation reflects the ability to improve current conflict resolution based on previously experienced conflict, which is crucial for our goal-directed behaviors. In recent years, the roles of alertness are attracting increasing attention when discussing the generation of conflict adaptation. However, due to the difficulty of manipulating alertness, very limited progress has been made in this line. Inspired by that color may affect alertness, we manipulated background color of experimental task and found that conflict adaptation significantly presented in gray and red backgrounds but did not in blue background. Furthermore, behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging results revealed that the modulation of color on conflict adaptation was implemented through changing alertness level. In particular, blue background eliminated conflict adaptation by damping the alertness regulating function of thalamus and the functional connectivity between thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In contrast, in gray and red backgrounds where alertness levels are typically high, the thalamus and the right IFG functioned normally and conflict adaptations were significant. Therefore, the alertness function of thalamus is determinant to conflict adaptation, and thalamus and right IFG are crucial nodes of the neural circuit subserving this ability. Present findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of conflict adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Individual differences in response conflict adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris eKeye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conflict-monitoring theory argues for a general cognitive mechanism that monitors for con-flicts in information-processing. If that mechanism detects conflict, it engages cognitive con-trol to resolve it. A slow-down in response to incongruent trials (conflict effect, and a modu-lation of the conflict effect by the congruence of the preceding trial (Gratton or context effect have been taken as indicators of such a monitoring system. The present study (N = 157 investigated individual differences in the conflict and the context effect in a horizontal and a vertical Simon task, and their correlation with working memory capacity. Strength of conflict was varied by proportion of congruent trials. Coherent factors could be formed representing individual differences in speeded performance, conflict adaptation, and context adaptation. Conflict and context factors were not associated with each other. Contrary to theories assuming a close relation between working memory and cognitive control, working memory capacity showed no relation with any factors representing adaptation to conflict.

  11. Everyday marital conflict and child aggression.

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    Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Papp, Lauren M

    2004-04-01

    Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period. Child responses to analog presentations of marital conflict tactics were also obtained. Exposure to destructive conflict tactics and negative parental emotionality increased the likelihood of aggressive behavior in children when they witnessed marital conflict, whereas constructive conflict tactics and positive parental emotionality decreased the probability of aggression. Conflict topics presumed to be threatening to the child (child- or marital-related) also heightened the likelihood of aggression. Aggressive responding to conflict in both home and laboratory predicted externalizing behavior problems. Fathers' and mothers' separate diary reports, and child responses to analog presentation of conflict, provided generally consistent findings. An exposure hypothesis for marital conflict as an influence on child aggression is discussed.

  12. Measuring teamwork and conflict among emergency medical technician personnel.

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    Patterson, P Daniel; Weaver, Matthew D; Weaver, Sallie J; Rosen, Michael A; Todorova, Gergana; Weingart, Laurie R; Krackhardt, David; Lave, Judith R; Arnold, Robert M; Yealy, Donald M; Salas, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We sought to develop a reliable and valid tool for measuring teamwork among emergency medical technician (EMT) partnerships. We adapted existing scales and developed new items to measure components of teamwork. After recruiting a convenience sample of 39 agencies, we tested a 122-item draft survey tool (EMT-TEAMWORK). We performed a series of exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test reliability and construct validity, describing variation in domain and global scores using descriptive statistics. We received 687 completed surveys. The EFAs identified a nine-factor solution. We labeled these factors 1) Team Orientation, 2) Team Structure & Leadership, 3) Partner Communication, Team Support, & Monitoring, 4) Partner Trust and Shared Mental Models, 5) Partner Adaptability & Back-Up Behavior, 6) Process Conflict, 7) Strong Task Conflict, 8) Mild Task Conflict, and 9) Interpersonal Conflict. We tested a short-form (30-item SF) and long-form (45-item LF) version. The CFAs determined that both the SF and the LF possess positive psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity. The EMT-TEAMWORK-SF has positive internal consistency properties, with a mean Cronbach's alpha coefficient ≥0.70 across all nine factors (mean = 0.84; minimum = 0.78, maximum = 0.94). The mean Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the EMT-TEAMWORK-LF was 0.87 (minimum = 0.79, maximum = 0.94). There was wide variation in weighted scores across all nine factors and the global score for the SF and LF. Mean scores were lowest for the Team Orientation factor (48.1, standard deviation [SD] 21.5, SF; 49.3, SD 19.8, LF) and highest (more positive) for the Interpersonal Conflict factor (87.7, SD 18.1, for both SF and LF). We developed a reliable and valid survey to evaluate teamwork between EMT partners.

  13. Measuring teamwork and conflict among Emergency Medical Technician personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Weaver, Matthew D.; Weaver, Sallie J.; Rosen, Michael A.; Todorova, Gergana; Weingart, Laurie R.; Krackhardt, David; Lave, Judith R.; Arnold, Robert M.; Yealy, Donald M.; Salas, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought to develop a reliable and valid tool for measuring teamwork among Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) partnerships. Methods We adapted existing scales and developed new items to measure components of teamwork. After recruiting a convenience sample of 39 agencies, we tested a 122-item draft survey tool. We performed a series of Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to test reliability and construct validity, describing variation in domain and global scores using descriptive statistics. Results We received 687 completed surveys. The EFA analyses identified a 9-factor solution. We labeled these factors [1] Team Orientation, [2] Team Structure & Leadership, [3] Partner Communication, Team Support, & Monitoring, [4] Partner Trust and Shared Mental Models, [5] Partner Adaptability & Back-Up Behavior, [6] Process Conflict, [7] Strong Task Conflict, [8] Mild Task Conflict, and [9] Interpersonal Conflict. We tested a short form (30-item SF) and long form (45-item LF) version. The CFA analyses determined that both the SF and LF versions possess positive psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity. The EMT-TEAMWORK-SF has positive internal consistency properties with a mean Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ≥0.70 across all 9-factors (mean=0.84; min=0.78, max=0.94). The mean Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the EMT-TEAMWORK-LF version was 0.87 (min=0.79, max=0.94). There was wide variation in weighted scores across all 9 factors and the global score for the SF and LF versions. Mean scores were lowest for the Team Orientation factor (48.1, SD 21.5 SF; 49.3 SD 19.8 LF) and highest (more positive) for the Interpersonal Conflict factor (87.7 SD 18.1 for both SF and LF). Conclusions We developed a reliable and valid survey to evaluate teamwork between EMT partners. PMID:22128909

  14. Hypothetical conflict situations with friends and peers

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    Petrović Danijela S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with age and sex differences in preferred strategies of conflict resolution in friendship and peer relationships. The study was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. Conflict resolution strategies have been investigated by the method of hypothetical conflict situations. For the purposes of this research, we have created an instrument consisting of 20 hypothetical situations, with the following subjects of conflict: breaking the agreement, non-compliance with opinion differences, provocations, dishonesty and stubbornness. Conflict resolution strategies we examined were giving in, withdrawal, competition and problem solving. The results have shown that problem solving is the dominant strategy of adolescents in conflict with friends, while in peer conflicts they more often opt for competition. Age differences are reflected in the fact that older adolescents are more likely to choose problem solving than younger, whereas younger adolescents are more likely to choose a retreat (withdrawal strategy than older. Girls are more prone to choosing problem solving than boys, who, on the other hand, tend to withdraw more than girls. Also, gender of the other person in the conflict is proved to be important - in conflict with male peers, adolescents choose competition to a greater extent and withdraw to a minor extent, compared to when they are in conflict with female peers. The results have practical implications as well. In programs for teaching constructive conflict resolution that are designed for younger adolescents there should be more emphasis on empowerment and training for assertive behaviour. In addition, when teaching about constructive conflict resolution strategies, it is important to consider the gender of adolescents as well as the gender of the person with whom they are in conflict.

  15. CONFLICTS PREVENTION IN TEAM- WORK

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    Jean de PERSON

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Building a trust atmosphere and mobilization in a team or an organizationremains the dream of every manager. This article analyses the internalmechanism of a conflict through life positions diagram in which direction anddominance diagrams appear. The first diagonal, the dominance one, revealsan animal behavior, the latter including both positive aspirations (++ quarter,and also deceptions (-- quarter.Passing over crisis situations requires from managers to outrun, through theirstyle and actions the dominance diagonal and pass to a game with reciprocalgaining (++ quarter, based on trust, that color relations between people andrelease their energy.

  16. Models of conflict and cooperation

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    Gillman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Models of Conflict and Cooperation is a comprehensive, introductory, game theory text for general undergraduate students. As a textbook, it provides a new and distinctive experience for students working to become quantitatively literate. Each chapter begins with a "dialogue" that models quantitative discourse while previewing the topics presented in the rest of the chapter. Subsequent sections develop the key ideas starting with basic models and ending with deep concepts and results. Throughout all of the sections, attention is given to promoting student engagement with the material through re

  17. Early Life Family Conflict, Social Interactions, and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean intima-media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean [standard deviation] age = 42.8 [7.3] years). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β = 0.08, t(447) = 2.13, p = .034, R = 0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and ecological momentary assessment reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0001-0.0014] and β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0002-0.0015], respectively). These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions.

  18. Forgiveness and Conflict Resolution in Close Relationships: Within and Cross Partner Effects

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    FRANK D. FINCHAM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Do forgiveness and conflict tactics (compromise, aggression, and avoidancein response to conflicts instigated by a romantic partner's offence uniquely predict effective arguing and relationship quality? Using 92 Italian couples we tested a mediational model in which each partner's responses to conflict predicted bothe partners' perceived effective arguing that, in turn, predict their own relationship quality. For both men and women, negative responses to conflict (unforgiveness, aggression, and avoidance overlapped and jointly predicted self-reported and partner-reported relationship quality, directly and indirectly via effective arguing. Positive responses investigated (benevolence and compromise did not overlap for either men or women. Men's positive positive responses to conflict uniquely predicted self-reported and partner-reported relationship quality via effective arguing, whereas women's positive responses did not predict them independently of their male partner's tactics.

  19. Conflict between nursing home staff and residents' families: does it increase burnout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Kathleen; Jill Suitor, J; Pillemer, Karl

    2009-09-01

    In this study, the authors examine the influence of conflict between nursing home staff and family members of residents on staff burnout. Data were collected from interviews with a representative sample of 655 nursing home nurses and nursing assistants. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Results indicate that conflict with family members increases staff burnout and decreases staff satisfaction. Staff and family conflict increases when staff members feel they do not have enough time to complete required tasks. Level of conflict decreases when staff perceive that family members have care expectations that are similar to their own. Interestingly, staff who have personal experience as family caregivers are more likely to report conflict with family members of residents, a result that necessitates further study. Staff burnout and dissatisfaction affects both individuals and organizations. Policy that addresses staff and family interaction can have an important place in the design and delivery of long-term care.

  20. IMPACT OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT ON EMPLOYEES' PERFORMANCE IN A PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANISATION IN NIGERIA

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    Olu, OJO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of conflict management on employees’ performance in a public sector organisation, a case of Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN. This study adopted the survey research design. A total of 100 respondents were selected for the study using stratified sampling technique. Questionnaire was used to collect primary data. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. Hypotheses were tested through regression analysis and correlation coefficient. The findings revealed that effective conflict management enhance employee’s performance in an organisation and that organisation’s conflict management system influences employee performance in the organisation. It was recommended that organisation should embark on training and retraining of its employees in area of conflict management so as to create a conductive working environment for the employees and that there should be efficient and effective communication between and among all categories of the employees the organisation. This will reduce conflicting situations in the organisation.