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Sample records for crystal units filter

  1. Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maigyte, Lina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona 08010 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.

  2. Single Crystal Filters for Neutron Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, N.

    2008-01-01

    A study of neutron transmission properties trough a large single crystals specimens of Si, Ge, Pb, Bi and sapphire at 300 K and 80 K have been made for a wide range of neutron energies. The effectiveness of such filters is given by the ratio of the total cross-section of unwanted epithermal neutrons to that the desired thermal neutron beam and by the optimum choice of the crystal orientation, its mosaic spread, thickness and temperature.Our study indicates that sapphire is significantly more effective than the others for a wide range of neutron energies

  3. Spatial filters on demand based on aperiodic Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gailevicius, Darius; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Gadonas, Roaldas [Laser Research Center, Department of Quantum Electronics, Vilnius University (Lithuania); Staliunas, Kestutis [DONLL, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Terrassa (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-08-15

    Photonic Crystal spatial filters, apart from stand-alone spatial filtering function, can also suppress multi-transverse-mode operation in laser resonators. Here it is shown that such photonic crystals can be designed by solving the inverse problem: for a given spatial filtering profile. Optimized Photonic Crystal filters were fabricated in photosensitive glass. Experiments have shown that such filters provide a more pronounced filtering effect for total and partial transmissivity conditions. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Tunable bandpass filter based on photonic crystal fiber filled with multiple liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scolari, Lara; Tartarini, G.; Borelli, E.

    2007-01-01

    A tunable bandpass filter based on a photonic crystal fiber filled with two different liquid crystals is demonstrated. 130 nm bandwidth tunability is achieved by tuning the temperature from 30degC to 90degC.......A tunable bandpass filter based on a photonic crystal fiber filled with two different liquid crystals is demonstrated. 130 nm bandwidth tunability is achieved by tuning the temperature from 30degC to 90degC....

  5. A Microwave Tunable Bandpass Filter for Liquid Crystal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weiping; Jiang, Di; Liu, Yupeng; Yang, Yuanwang; Gan, Baichuan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a novel microwave continuously tunable band-pass filter, based on nematic liquid crystals (LCs), is proposed. It uses liquid crystal (LC) as the electro-optic material to mainly realize frequency shift at microwave band by changing the dielectric anisotropy, when applying the bias voltage. According to simulation results, it achieves 840 MHz offset. Comparing to the existing tunable filter, it has many advantages, such as continuously tunable, miniaturization, low processing costs, low tuning voltage, etc. Thus, it has shown great potentials in frequency domain and practical applications in modern communication.

  6. Tunable multichannel filter in photonic crystal heterostructure containing permeability-negative materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaoyong; Liu Zheng; Gong Qihuang

    2008-01-01

    A tunable multichannel filter is demonstrated theoretically based on a one-dimensional photonic crystal heterostructure containing permeability-negative material. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter, including the channel number and frequency, can be tuned by adjusting the structure parameters or by a pump laser. The angular response of the photonic crystal filter and the influences of the losses on the filtering properties are also analyzed

  7. Tunable multichannel filter in photonic crystal heterostructure containing permeability-negative materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Xiaoyong [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: xiaoyonghu@pku.edu.cn; Liu Zheng [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gong Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2008-01-14

    A tunable multichannel filter is demonstrated theoretically based on a one-dimensional photonic crystal heterostructure containing permeability-negative material. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter, including the channel number and frequency, can be tuned by adjusting the structure parameters or by a pump laser. The angular response of the photonic crystal filter and the influences of the losses on the filtering properties are also analyzed.

  8. Spatial filtering of light by chirped photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staliunas, Kestutis; Sanchez-Morcillo, Victor J.

    2009-01-01

    We propose an efficient method for spatial filtering of light beams by propagating them through two-dimensional (also three dimensional) chirped photonic crystals, i.e., through the photonic structures with fixed transverse lattice period and with the longitudinal lattice period varying along the direction of the beam propagation. We prove the proposed idea by numerically solving the paraxial propagation equation in refraction-index-modulated media and we evaluate the efficiency of the process by harmonic-expansion analysis. The technique can be also applied for filtering (for cleaning) of the packages of atomic waves (Bose condensates), also to improve the directionality of acoustic and mechanical waves.

  9. Imaging spectrometer using a liquid crystal tunable filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrien, Thomas G.; Chovit, Christopher; Miller, Peter J.

    1993-09-01

    A demonstration imaging spectrometer using a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) was built and tested on a hot air balloon platform. The LCTF is a tunable polarization interference or Lyot filter. The LCTF enables a small, light weight, low power, band sequential imaging spectrometer design. An overview of the prototype system is given along with a description of balloon experiment results. System model performance predictions are given for a future LCTF based imaging spectrometer design. System design considerations of LCTF imaging spectrometers are discussed.

  10. Neutron transmission of single-crystal sapphire filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Kilany, M.; Habib, N.; Fathallah, M.

    2005-01-01

    An additive formula is given that permits the calculation of the nuclear capture, thermal diffuse and Bragg scattering cross-sections as a function of sapphire temperature and crystal parameters. We have developed a computer program that allows calculations of the thermal neutron transmission for the sapphire rhombohedral structure and its equivalent trigonal structure. The calculated total cross-section values and effective attenuation coefficient for single-crystalline sapphire at different temperatures are compared with measured values. Overall agreement is indicated between the formula fits and experimental data. We discuss the use of sapphire single crystal as a thermal neutron filter in terms of the optimum crystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature, cutting plane and tuning for efficient transmission of thermal-reactor neutrons. (author)

  11. Neutron transmission of single-crystal sapphire filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Kilany, M.; Habib, N.; Fathallah, M.

    2004-01-01

    A simple additive formula is given that permits the calculation of the nuclear capture, thermal diffuse and Bragg scattering cross-sections as a function of sapphire temperature and crystal parameters. We have developed a computer program that allows calculations of the thermal neutron transmission for the sapphire rhombohedral structure and its equivalent trigonal structure. The calculated total cross-section values and effective attenuation coefficient for mono-crystalline sapphire at different temperatures are compared with measured values. Overall agreement is indicated between the formula fits and experimental data. We discuss the use of sapphire single-crystal as a thermal neutron filter in terms of the optimum crystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature, cutting plane and tuning for efficient transmission of thermal-reactor neutrons

  12. The neutron transmission of single crystal MgO filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.; Hilleke, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    We have measured and analyzed the wavelength dependence of the transmission probability of a beam of neutrons passing through a single crystal MgO filter at 77 K. The 12.7 cm filter transmits 70% or more of the incident beam at wavelengths greater than about 1.8 A. At shorter wavelengths the transmission probability drops sharply, with 50% transmission occurring at about 1.2 A, and 1% transmission for the range 0.1-0.4 A. We have determined that cooling the filter to 77 K improves the transmission of >1 A neutrons, while further cooling to 25 K shows little additional improvement, and no improvement for short wavelengths. We have identified the wavelengths of the sharp dips in the transmission found in this region caused by Bragg scattering in MgO. We also show how these peaks may be used to calibrate the wavelength scale of time-of-flight measurements taken on instruments using similar filters. (orig.)

  13. Acoustic frequency filter based on anisotropic topological phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo

    2017-11-02

    We present a design of acoustic frequency filter based on a two-dimensional anisotropic phononic crystal. The anisotropic band structure exhibits either a directional or a combined (global + directional) bandgap at certain frequency regions, depending on the geometry. When the time-reversal symmetry is broken, it may introduce a topologically nontrivial bandgap. The induced nontrivial bandgap and the original directional bandgap result in various interesting wave propagation behaviors, such as frequency filter. We develop a tight-binding model to characterize the effective Hamiltonian of the system, from which the contribution of anisotropy is explicitly shown. Different from the isotropic cases, the Zeeman-type splitting is not linear and the anisotropic bandgap makes it possible to achieve anisotropic propagation characteristics along different directions and at different frequencies.

  14. Acoustic frequency filter based on anisotropic topological phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo; Zhao, Jiajun; Mei, Jun; Wu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    We present a design of acoustic frequency filter based on a two-dimensional anisotropic phononic crystal. The anisotropic band structure exhibits either a directional or a combined (global + directional) bandgap at certain frequency regions, depending on the geometry. When the time-reversal symmetry is broken, it may introduce a topologically nontrivial bandgap. The induced nontrivial bandgap and the original directional bandgap result in various interesting wave propagation behaviors, such as frequency filter. We develop a tight-binding model to characterize the effective Hamiltonian of the system, from which the contribution of anisotropy is explicitly shown. Different from the isotropic cases, the Zeeman-type splitting is not linear and the anisotropic bandgap makes it possible to achieve anisotropic propagation characteristics along different directions and at different frequencies.

  15. Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Juan; Bourderionnet, Jerome; Lloret, Juan; Combrié, Sylvain; Gasulla, Ivana; Xavier, Stephane; Sales, Salvador; Colman, Pierre; Lehoucq, Gaelle; Dolfi, Daniel; Capmany, José; De Rossi, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a tunable delay line with a chip-size footprint is a crucial step towards the full implementation of integrated microwave photonic signal processors. Achieving a large and tunable group delay on a millimetre-sized chip is not trivial. Slow light concepts are an appropriate solution, if propagation losses are kept acceptable. Here we use a low-loss 1.5 mm-long photonic crystal waveguide to demonstrate both notch and band-pass microwave filters that can be tuned over the 0-50-GHz spectral band. The waveguide is capable of generating a controllable delay with limited signal attenuation (total insertion loss below 10 dB when the delay is below 70 ps) and degradation. Owing to the very small footprint of the delay line, a fully integrated device is feasible, also featuring more complex and elaborate filter functions.

  16. Neutron Transmission of Single-crystal Sapphire Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M.; Kilany, M.; Habib, N.; Fathallah, M.

    2005-05-01

    An additive formula is given that permits the calculation of the nuclear capture, thermal diffuse and Bragg scattering cross-sections as a function of sapphire temperature and crystal parameters. We have developed a computer program that allows calculations of the thermal neutron transmission for the sapphire rhombohedral structure and its equivalent trigonal structure. The calculated total cross-section values and effective attenuation coefficient for single-crystalline sapphire at different temperatures are compared with measured values. Overall agreement is indicated between the formula and experimental data. We discuss the use of sapphire single crystal as a thermal neutron filter in terms of the optimum cystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature, cutting plane and tuning for efficient transmission of thermal-reactor neutrons.

  17. A bag adapted for the handling of a filtering element or filter unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a transparent, flexible, synthetic plastics bag adapted to contain a filter element or filter unit so that the latter can be inserted into or removed from a filter casing or duct while being contained in the bag. The bag has a neck portion which is capable of being removably secured in an air-tight manner on to a part of the casing, and gloves or glove portions are provided in, or are formed in, the wall of the bag to permit handles on the filter element or unit to be grasped. (author)

  18. Tunable double-channel filter based on two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Ping; Ding, Chengyuan; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang

    2007-01-01

    A tunable double-channel filter is presented, which is based on a two-dimensional nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystal made of cerium doped barium titanate. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter can be tuned by adjusting the defect structure or by a pump light. The influences of the structure disorders caused by the perturbations in the radius or the position of air holes on the filtering properties are also analyzed

  19. Tunable double-channel filter based on two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ping [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ding, Chengyuan [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hu, Xiaoyong [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: xiaoyonghu@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2007-04-02

    A tunable double-channel filter is presented, which is based on a two-dimensional nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystal made of cerium doped barium titanate. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter can be tuned by adjusting the defect structure or by a pump light. The influences of the structure disorders caused by the perturbations in the radius or the position of air holes on the filtering properties are also analyzed.

  20. Self-collimation-based photonic crystal notch filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun-Goo; Kim, Seong-Han; Kee, Chul-Sik; Kim, Kap-Joong

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a design concept of an optical notch filter (NF) utilizing two perfectly reflecting mirrors and a beam splitter. Based on the new design concept, a photonic crystal (PC)-NF based on the self-collimation phenomenon in a two-dimensional PC is proposed and studied through finite-difference time-domain simulations and experimental measurements in a microwave region. The transmission properties of the self-collimation-based PC-NF were demonstrated to be controlled by adjusting the values of parameters such as the radius of rods in the line-defect beam splitter, distance between the two perfectly reflecting mirrors, and radius of rods on the outermost surface of the perfectly reflecting mirrors. Our results indicate that the proposed design concept could provide a new approach to manipulate light propagation, and the PC-NF could increase the applicability of the self-collimation phenomenon in a PC. (paper)

  1. Experience with HEPA filters at United States nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    Part 50 of Title 10 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations requires that a number of atmosphere cleanup systems be included in the design of commercial nuclear power plants to be licensed in the United States. These filtering systems are to contain high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters for removal of radioactive particulate matter generated during normal and accident conditions. Recommendations for the design, testing and maintenance of the filtering systems and HEPA filter components are contained in a number of United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission documents and industry standards. This paper will discuss this published guidance available to designers of filtering systems and the plant operators of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The paper will also present a survey of published reports of experience with HEPA filters, failures and possible causes for the failures, and other abnormal occurrences pertaining to HEPA filters installed in U.S. nuclear power installations. A discussion will be included of U.S. practices for qualification of HEPA filters before installation, and verification of continued performance capability at scheduled intervals during operation

  2. Ultra-high tunable liquid crystal-plasmonic photonic crystal fiber polarization filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Mohamed Farhat O; Heikal, A M; Younis, B M; Abdelrazzak, Maher; Obayya, S S A

    2015-03-23

    A novel ultra-high tunable photonic crystal fiber (PCF) polarization filter is proposed and analyzed using finite element method. The suggested design has a central hole infiltrated with a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) that offers high tunability with temperature and external electric field. Moreover, the PCF is selectively filled with metal wires into cladding air holes. Results show that the resonance losses and wavelengths are different in x and y polarized directions depending on the rotation angle φ of the NLC. The reported filter of compact device length 0.5 mm can achieve 600 dB / cm resonance losses at φ = 90° for x-polarized mode at communication wavelength of 1300 mm with low losses of 0.00751 dB / cm for y-polarized mode. However, resonance losses of 157.71 dB / cm at φ = 0° can be achieved for y-polarized mode at the same wavelength with low losses of 0.092 dB / cm for x-polarized mode.

  3. Electro-optic tunable multi-channel filter in two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yulan; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang

    2010-01-01

    An electro-optic tunable multi-channel filter is presented, which is based on a two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystal made of barium titanate. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter can be tuned by an applied voltage or by adjusting the structural parameters. The channel shifts about 30 nm under excitation of an applied voltage of 54.8 V. The influences of the structural disorders caused by the perturbations in the radius or the position of air holes on the filtering properties are also analyzed

  4. One-Dimensional Tunable Photonic-Crystal IR Filter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MetroLaser proposes to design and develop an innovative narrowband tunable IR filter based on the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a...

  5. One-Dimensional Tunable Photonic-Crystal IR Filter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MetroLaser proposes to design and develop an innovative narrowband tunable IR filter based on the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a...

  6. Tunable Channel Drop Filter in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Modulated by a Nematic Liquid Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Photonic crystals (PCs have many potential applications because of their ability to control light-wave propagation and because PC-based waveguides may be integrated into optical circuits. We propose a novel tunable PC channel drop filter based on nematic liquid crystals and investigate its properties numerically by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method. The refractive indices of liquid crystals can be actively modulated after infiltrating nematic liquid crystals into the microcavity in PC waveguides with square lattices. Then we can control light propagation in a PC waveguide. We analyze the Q -factors and resonance frequencies of a tunable PC channel drop filter by considering various indices modulation of liquid crystals. The novel component can be used as wavelength division multiplexing in photonic integrated circuits.

  7. A Polarization Maintaining Filter based on a Liquid-Crystal-Photonic-Bandgap-Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scolari, Lara; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    A polarization maintaining filter based on a liquid-crystal-photonic-bandgap-fiber is demonstrated. Its polarization extinction ratio is 14 dB at 1550 nm. Its tunability is 150 nm.......A polarization maintaining filter based on a liquid-crystal-photonic-bandgap-fiber is demonstrated. Its polarization extinction ratio is 14 dB at 1550 nm. Its tunability is 150 nm....

  8. Polymeric THz 2D Photonic Crystal Filters Fabricated by Fiber Drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Matthias; Jansen, Christian; Ahmadi-Boroujeni, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a new form of polymeric 2D photonic crystal filters for THz frequencies fabricated using a standard fiber drawing technique. The band stop filters were modeled and designed using the generalized multipole technique. The frequency and angle-dependent transmission...

  9. Single-crystal filters for attenuating epithermal neutrons and gamma rays in reactor beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rustad, B.M.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Bahnsen, A.

    1965-01-01

    Cross section of representative samples of bismuth and quartz were measured at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures over neutron energy range of 0.0007 to 2.0 ev to obtain data for design of single-crystal 32-cm bismuth filters for attenuating fast neutrons and γ-rays in reactor beams; filters may...

  10. Noise filtering in a multi-channel system using a tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Nordal; Scolari, Lara; Tokle, Torger

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the first application of a liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fiber used as a tunable filter in an optical transmission system. The device allows low-cost amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise filtering and gain equalization with low insertion loss and broad...... tunability. System experiments show that the use of this filter increases for times the distance over which the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is sufficient for error-free transmission with respect to the case in which no filtering is used....

  11. [Decontamination of dental unit waterlines using disinfectants and filters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monarca, S; Garusi, G; Gigola, P; Spampinato, L; Zani, C; Sapelli, P L

    2002-10-01

    Bacterial contamination of the dental unit water system can become a health problem for patients, particularly if they are immunodepressed. The present study has had the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of methods of chemical decontamination using different disinfectants (peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, silver salts, chloramine T, glutaraldehyde T4) and methods of physical decontamination using synthetic membranes for the filtration of water. A preliminary removal procedure of the biofilm present in the waterline has been followed in a dental unit prepared on purpose for the research; subsequently different 2-week long maintenance procedures were applied using disinfectants injected by a pump and finally the bacterial contamination of the water flowing from the waterline was evaluated. The physical decontamination was performed using 0.22 mm membrane filters, which have been installed also in another dental unit, and the filtered water was analyzed to detect bacterial contamination. The preliminary procedure of biofilm removal succeeded obtaining germ-free water. Among the disinfectants used for the maintenance of the water quality only glutaraldehyde T4 was able to reduce the bacterial contamination under the limit suggested by the ADA. The membrane filter system was not able to purify the water, but when a disinfectant (peracetic acid) was used in the last part of the waterline good results were obtained. At present no decontamination system of dental waterline is available, and glutaraldehyde T4 seems to be the best disinfectant only if integrated with periodic biofilm removal for the maintenance of the water quality.

  12. Filtering of elastic waves by opal-based hypersonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salasyuk, Alexey S; Scherbakov, Alexey V; Yakovlev, Dmitri R; Akimov, Andrey V; Kaplyanskii, Alexander A; Kaplan, Saveliy F; Grudinkin, Sergey A; Nashchekin, Alexey V; Pevtsov, Alexander B; Golubev, Valery G; Berstermann, Thorsten; Brüggemann, Christian; Bombeck, Michael; Bayer, Manfred

    2010-04-14

    We report experiments in which high quality silica opal films are used as three-dimensional hypersonic crystals in the 10 GHz range. Controlled sintering of these structures leads to well-defined elastic bonding between the submicrometer-sized silica spheres, due to which a band structure for elastic waves is formed. The sonic crystal properties are studied by injection of a broadband elastic wave packet with a femtosecond laser. Depending on the elastic bonding strength, the band structure separates long-living surface acoustic waves with frequencies in the complete band gap from bulk waves with band frequencies that propagate into the crystal leading to a fast decay.

  13. Photonic crystal ring resonator based optical filters for photonic integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a two Dimensional (2D) Photonic Crystal Ring Resonator (PCRR) based optical Filters namely Add Drop Filter, Bandpass Filter, and Bandstop Filter are designed for Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs). The normalized output response of the filters is obtained using 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and the band diagram of periodic and non-periodic structure is attained by Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method. The size of the device is minimized from a scale of few tens of millimeters to the order of micrometers. The overall size of the filters is around 11.4 μm × 11.4 μm which is highly suitable of photonic integrated circuits

  14. Characterization of the bistable wideband optical filter on the basis of nonlinear 2D photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guryev, I. V., E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Sukhoivanov, I. A., E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Andrade Lucio, J. A., E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Manzano, O. Ibarra, E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Rodriguez, E. Vargaz, E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Gonzales, D. Claudio, E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Chavez, R. I. Mata, E-mail: guryev@ieee.org; Gurieva, N. S., E-mail: guryev@ieee.org [University of Guanajuato, Engineering division (Mexico)

    2014-05-15

    In our work, we investigated the wideband optical filter on the basis of nonlinear photonic crystal. The all-optical flip-flop using ultra-short pulses with duration lower than 200 fs is obtained in such filters. Here we pay special attention to the stability problem of the nonlinear element. To investigate this problem, the temporal response demonstrating the flip-flop have been computed within the certain range of the wavelengths as well as at different input power.

  15. Iridescence and spectral filtering of the gyroid-type photonic crystals in Parides sesostris wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The cover scales on the wing of the Emerald-patched Cattleheart butterfly, Parides sesostris, contain gyroid-type biological photonic crystals that brightly reflect green light. A pigment, which absorbs maximally at approximately 395 nm, is immersed predominantly throughout the elaborate upper lamina. This pigment acts as a long-pass filter shaping the reflectance spectrum of the underlying photonic crystals. The additional effect of the filtering is that the spatial distribution of the scale reflectance is approximately angle-independent, leading to a stable wing pattern contrast. The spectral tuning of the original reflectance is verified by photonic band structure modelling. PMID:24098853

  16. Experimental demonstration of a ferroelectric liquid crystal tunable filter for fast demodulation of FBG sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Sunish; Semenova, Yuliya; Rajan, Ginu; Farrell, Gerald

    2009-05-01

    A discretely tunable Surface-Stabilized Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal based Lyot Filter, with tuning speeds in the order of microseconds, is demonstrated experimentally as a channel dropper for the demodulation of multiple Fibre Bragg Grating sensors. The 3-stage Lyot Filter designed and experimentally verified can be used together with the high-speed ratiometric wavelength measurement system employing a fibre bend loss edge filter. Such systems can be used for the demodulation of distributed Fibre Bragg Grating sensors employed in applications such as structural monitoring, industrial sensing and haptic telerobotic surgical systems.

  17. Cross-section of single-crystal materials used as thermal neutron filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2005-01-01

    Transmission properties of several single crystal materials important for neutron scattering instrumentation are presented. A computer codes are developed which permit the calculation of thermal diffuse and Bragg-scattering cross-sections of silicon., and sapphire as a function of material's constants, temperature and neutron energy, E, in the range 0.1 MeV .A discussion of the use of their single-crystal as a thermal neutron filter in terms of the optimum crystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature, cutting plane and tuning for efficient transmission of thermal-reactor neutrons is given

  18. Tunable polarisation-maintaining filter based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scolari, Lara; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Weirich, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A tunable and polarisation-maintaining all-in-fibre filter based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre is demonstrated. Its polarisation extinction ratio reaches 14 dB at 1550 nm wavelength. Its spectral tunability range spans over 250 nm in the temperature range 30–70°C. The measured...

  19. Dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator based channel drop filter using two-dimensional photonic crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar, E-mail: mayurchhipa1@gmail.com [Deptt. of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Government Engineering College Ajmer Rajasthan INDIA (India); Dusad, Lalit Kumar [Rajasthan Technical University Kota, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this paper channel drop filter (CDF) is designed using dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR). The photonic band gap (PBG) is calculated by plane wave expansion (PWE) method and the photonic crystal (PhC) based on two dimensional (2D) square lattice periodic arrays of silicon (Si) rods in air structure have been investigated using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The number of rods in Z and X directions is 21 and 20 respectively with lattice constant 0.540 nm and rod radius r = 0.1 µm. The channel drop filter has been optimized for telecommunication wavelengths λ = 1.591 µm with refractive indices 3.533. In the designed structure further analysis is also done by changing whole rods refractive index and it has been observed that this filter may be used for filtering several other channels also. The designed structure is useful for CWDM systems. This device may serve as a key component in photonic integrated circuits. The device is ultra compact with the overall size around 123 µm{sup 2}.

  20. Design of a micromachined terahertz electromagnetic crystals (EMXT) channel-drop filter on silicon-substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai; Liu, Yong; Si, Liming; Lv, Xin

    2013-08-01

    An integrated 0.5 THz electromagnetic crystals(EMXT) channel-drop filter based on PBG structure is presented in this paper. A channel-drop filter is a device in which a narrow bandwidth is redirected to another "drop" waveguide while other frequencies are unaffected. It's capable of extracting a certain frequency from a continuous spectrum in the bus channel and passing it to the test channel. It has potential applications in photonic integrated circuits, radio astronomy, THz spectroscopy, THz communication and remote sensing radar receiver. PBG structures(or photonic crystals) are periodic structures which possess band gaps, where the electromagnetic wave of certain ranges of frequencies cannot pass through and is reflected. The proposed channel-drop filter consists of input waveguide,output waveguide and PBG structure. The proposed filter is simulated using the finite element method and can be fabricated by micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology,due to its low cost, high performance and high processing precision.The filter operation principle and fabrication process are discussed.The simulation results show its ability to filter the frequency of 496GHz with a linewidth of approximately 4GHz and transmission of 27.2 dB above background.The loss at resonant frequency is less than 1dB considering the thickness and roughness of gold layer required by the MEMS process.The channel drop efficiency is 84%.

  1. Pressure-controlled terahertz filter based on 1D photonic crystal with a defective semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinwen, XUE; Xiaohua, WANG; Chenglin, LIU; Youwen, LIU

    2018-03-01

    The tunable terahertz (THz) filter has been designed and studied, which is composed of 1D photonic crystal (PC) containing a defect layer of semiconductor GaAs. The analytical solution of 1D defective PC (1DDPC) is deduced based on the transfer matrix method, and the electromagnetic plane wave numerical simulation of this 1DDPC is performed by using the finite element method. The calculated and simulated results have confirmed that the filtering transmittance of this 1DDPC in symmetric structure of air/(Si/SiO2) N /GaAs/(SiO2/Si) N /air is far higher than in asymmetric structure of air/(Si/SiO2) N /GaAs/(Si/SiO2) N /air, where the filtering frequency can be tuned by the external pressure. It can provide a feasible route to design the external pressure-controlled THz filter based on 1DPC with a defective semiconductor.

  2. Thin film polarizer and color filter based on photo-polymerizable nematic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadimasoudi, Mohammad; Neyts, Kristiaan; Beeckman, Jeroen

    2015-03-01

    We present a method to fabricate a thin film color filter based on a mixture of photo-polymerizable liquid crystal and chiral dopant. A chiral nematic liquid crystal layer reflects light for a certain wavelength interval Δλ (= Δn.P) with the period and Δn the birefringence of the liquid crystal. The reflection band is determined by the chiral dopant concentration. The bandwidth is limited to 80nm and the reflectance is at most 50% for unpolarized incident light. The thin color filter is interesting for innovative applications like polarizer-free reflective displays, polarization-independent devices, stealth technologies, or smart switchable reflective windows to control solar light and heat. The reflected light has strong color saturation without absorption because of the sharp band edges. A thin film polarizer is developed by using a mixture of photo-polymerizable liquid crystal and color-neutral dye. The fabricated thin film absorbs light that is polarized parallel to the c axis of the LC. The obtained polarization ratio is 80% for a film of only 12 μm. The thin film polarizer and the color filter feature excellent film characteristics without domains and can be detached from the substrate which is useful for e.g. flexible substrates.

  3. Realisation and optical engineering of linear variable bandpass filters in nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarno; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Santos, Abel

    2017-06-08

    We present the first realisation of linear variable bandpass filters in nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA-LVBPFs) photonic crystal structures. NAA gradient-index filters (NAA-GIFs) are produced by sinusoidal pulse anodisation and used as photonic crystal platforms to generate NAA-LVBPFs. The anodisation period of NAA-GIFs is modified from 650 to 850 s to systematically tune the characteristic photonic stopband of these photonic crystals across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum. Then, the nanoporous structure of NAA-GIFs is gradually widened along the surface under controlled conditions by wet chemical etching using a dip coating approach aiming to create NAA-LVBPFs with finely engineered optical properties. We demonstrate that the characteristic photonic stopband and the iridescent interferometric colour displayed by these photonic crystals can be tuned with precision across the surface of NAA-LVBPFs by adjusting the fabrication and etching conditions. Here, we envisage for the first time the combination of the anodisation period and etching conditions as a cost-competitive, facile, and versatile nanofabrication approach that enables the generation of a broad range of unique LVBPFs covering the spectral regions. These photonic crystal structures open new opportunities for multiple applications, including adaptive optics, hyperspectral imaging, fluorescence diagnostics, spectroscopy, and sensing.

  4. Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Hai; Zou, Yi; Yang, Chun-Ju; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Wang, Zheng; Tang, Naimei; Chen, Ray T.; Fan, Donglei

    2015-01-01

    A method for the dense integration of high sensitivity photonic crystal (PC) waveguide based biosensors is proposed and experimentally demonstrated on a silicon platform. By connecting an additional PC waveguide filter to a PC microcavity sensor in series, a transmission passband is created, containing the resonances of the PC microcavity for sensing purpose. With proper engineering of the passband, multiple high sensitivity PC microcavity sensors can be integrated into microarrays and be interrogated simultaneously between a single input and a single output port. The concept was demonstrated with a 2-channel L55 PC biosensor array containing PC waveguide filters. The experiment showed that the sensors on both channels can be monitored simultaneously from a single output spectrum. Less than 3 dB extra loss for the additional PC waveguide filter is observed

  5. Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Hai, E-mail: hai.yan@utexas.edu; Zou, Yi; Yang, Chun-Ju [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Rd., Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Chakravarty, Swapnajit, E-mail: swapnajit.chakravarty@omegaoptics.com [Omega Optics, Inc., 8500 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States); Wang, Zheng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Rd., Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Tang, Naimei; Chen, Ray T., E-mail: raychen@uts.cc.utexas.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Rd., Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Omega Optics, Inc., 8500 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States); Fan, Donglei [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-03-23

    A method for the dense integration of high sensitivity photonic crystal (PC) waveguide based biosensors is proposed and experimentally demonstrated on a silicon platform. By connecting an additional PC waveguide filter to a PC microcavity sensor in series, a transmission passband is created, containing the resonances of the PC microcavity for sensing purpose. With proper engineering of the passband, multiple high sensitivity PC microcavity sensors can be integrated into microarrays and be interrogated simultaneously between a single input and a single output port. The concept was demonstrated with a 2-channel L55 PC biosensor array containing PC waveguide filters. The experiment showed that the sensors on both channels can be monitored simultaneously from a single output spectrum. Less than 3 dB extra loss for the additional PC waveguide filter is observed.

  6. Feasibility for the medium efficiency filter as a postfilter in the air cleaning unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H. S.; Jung, D. Y.; Byun, S. C.; Kim, S. H.

    2002-01-01

    The Air Cleaning Unit (ACU) is provided in a nuclear facility to filter the radioactive materials in gaseous effluents released from the facility during normal operation and during a postulated accident. The Air Cleaning Unit (ACU) consists of pre-HEPA filters, charcoal adsorber, post HEPA filters, fans, etc. The charcoal filters keep on-site dose and off-site effluents ALARA, consistent with regulatory requirements. The function of HEPA filter downstream of charcoal(carbon) adsorber in ACU is to catch potential radioactive carbon dust and to be a backup in the event of failure of upstream HEPA. Previous Regulatory Guide use only post HEPA filter of charcoal adsorber downstream but the Regulatory Guide of current revisions allows use of 95% dust spot efficiency filters in lieu of HEPA at the downstream of the carbon adsorber. In this paper is described that the background information of filters, Current Regulatory Guide of revised by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the feasibility for the medium efficiency filter as a carbon adsorber post filter in the Air Cleaning Unit

  7. International Space Station (ISS) Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs): Filter Efficiency and Pressure Testing of Returned Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    The air revitalization system aboard the International Space Station (ISS) provides the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation due to the microgravity environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) media filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Segment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. These filters see a replacement interval, as part of maintenance, of 2-5 years dependent on location in the ISS. In this work, we present particulate removal efficiency, pressure drop, and leak test results for a sample set of 8 BFEs returned from the ISS after filter replacement. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS beyond 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  8. Tunable dual-channel filter based on the photonic crystal with air defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaodan; Yang, Yibiao; Wen, Jianhua; Chen, Zhihui; Zhang, Mingda; Fei, Hongming; Hao, Yuying

    2017-07-01

    We propose a tuning filter containing two channels by inserting a defect layer (Air/Si/Air/Si/Air) into a one-dimensional photonic crystal of Si/SiO 2 , which is on the symmetry of the defect. Two transmission peaks (1528.98 and 1564.74 nm) appear in the optical communication S-band and C-band, and the transmittance of these two channels is up to 100%. In addition, this design realizes multi-channel filtering to process large dynamic range or multiple independent signals in the near-infrared band by changing the structure. The tuning range will be enlarged, and the channels can be moved in this range through the easy control of air thickness and incident angle.

  9. Cross-correlated imaging of single-mode photonic crystal rod fiber with distributed mode filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Barankov, Roman; Jørgensen, Mette Marie

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystal bandgap fibers employing distributed mode filtering design provide near diffraction-limited light outputs, a critical property of fiber-based high-power lasers. Microstructure of the fibers is tailored to achieve single-mode operation at specific wavelength by resonant mode...... identify regimes of resonant coupling between higher-order core modes and cladding band. We demonstrate a passive fiber design in which the higher-order modal content inside the single-mode guiding regime is suppressed by at least 20 dB even for significantly misaligned input-coupling configurations....

  10. Flexible photonic-crystal Fano filters based on transferred semiconductor nanomembranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Weidong; Yang Hongjun; Qiang Zexuan; Chen Li; Yang Weiquan; Chuwongin, Santhad; Zhao Deyin [Department of Electrical Engineering, NanoFAB Center, University of Texas at Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ma Zhenqiang; Qin Guoxuan; Pang Huiqing, E-mail: wzhou@uta.ed, E-mail: mazq@engr.wisc.ed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2009-12-07

    Crystalline semiconductor nanomembranes (NMs), which are transferable, stackable, bondable and manufacturable, offer unprecedented opportunities for unique and novel device applications. We report and review here nanophotonic devices based on stacked semiconductor NMs that were built on Si, glass and flexible PET substrates. Photonic-crystal Fano resonance based surface-normal optical filters and broadband reflectors have been demonstrated with unique angle and polarization properties. Such a low temperature NM stacking process can lead to a paradigm shift on silicon photonic integration and inorganic flexible photonics.

  11. Ultra-compact air-mode photonic crystal nanobeam cavity integrated with bandstop filter for refractive index sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fujun; Fu, Zhongyuan; Wang, Chunhong; Ding, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Chao; Tian, Huiping

    2017-05-20

    We propose and investigate an ultra-compact air-mode photonic crystal nanobeam cavity (PCNC) with an ultra-high quality factor-to-mode volume ratio (Q/V) by quadratically tapering the lattice space of the rectangular holes from the center to both ends while other parameters remain unchanged. By using the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method, an optimized geometry yields a Q of 7.2×10 6 and a V∼1.095(λ/n Si ) 3 in simulations, resulting in an ultra-high Q/V ratio of about 6.5×10 6 (λ/n Si ) -3 . When the number of holes on either side is 8, the cavity possesses a high sensitivity of 252 nm/RIU (refractive index unit), a high calculated Q-factor of 1.27×10 5 , and an ultra-small effective V of ∼0.758(λ/n Si ) 3 at the fundamental resonant wavelength of 1521.74 nm. Particularly, the footprint is only about 8×0.7  μm 2 . However, inevitably our proposed PCNC has several higher-order resonant modes in the transmission spectrum, which makes the PCNC difficult to be used for multiplexed sensing. Thus, a well-designed bandstop filter with weak sidelobes and broad bandwidth based on a photonic crystal nanobeam waveguide is created to connect with the PCNC to filter out the high-order modes. Therefore, the integrated structure presented in this work is promising for building ultra-compact lab-on-chip sensor arrays with high density and parallel-multiplexing capability.

  12. Junction-type photonic crystal waveguides for notch- and pass-band filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Naeem

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of the mode gap and the associated transmission mini stop-band (MSB) as a function of photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide width is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The change of line-defect width is identified to be the most appropriate way since it offers a wide MSB wavelength tuning range. A high transmission narrow-band filter is experimentally demonstrated in a junction-type waveguide composed of two PhC waveguides with slightly different widths. The full width at half maximum is 5.6 nm; the peak transmission is attenuated by only ∼5 dB and is ∼20 dB above the MSBs. Additionally, temperature tuning of the filter were also performed. The results show red-shift of the transmission peak and the MSB edges with a gradient of dλ/dT = 0.1 nm/°C. It is proposed that the transmission MSBs in such junction-type cascaded PhC waveguides can be used to obtain different types of filters. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

  13. Design of an optomechanical filter based on solid/solid phoxonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Pedram; Bahrami, Ali

    2018-03-01

    We simulate a phoxonic crystal which shows complete phononic and TM-polarized photonic bandgaps. The constituent materials are tungsten and polymethyl methacrylate, and we obtained these bandgaps with a filling factor of only 28%, which is very compatible with the fabrication method. A cavity was then defined that selects narrow passbands of optical and elastic waves. In order to maximize the quality factor, a defect rod is added in the output waveguide. The final structure filters an optical wavelength of 840 nm (with corresponding frequency of 357 THz) and an elastic frequency of 3.6703 GHz. Simulations are done by using finite element, plane wave expansion, and finite difference time domain methods.

  14. Tunable all-optical photonic crystal channel drop filter for DWDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibiyan, H.; Ghafoori-Fard, H.; Rostami, A.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we propose a tunable channel drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, based on coupled-cavity waveguides with alternating small and large defects and an electromagnetically induced transparency phenomenon. By utilizing this phenomenon a narrower linewidth is obtained and also the frequency of the dropped signal becomes tunable. Simulation results show that the proposed filter is suitable for dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) systems with 0.8 nm channel spacing. Using this novel component, two ultrasmall eight-channel double-sided and single-sided demultiplexers are introduced. The properties of these devices are investigated using the finite-difference time-domain method. For the single-sided device, transmission loss is 1.5 ± 0.5 dB, the cross-talk level between adjacent channels is better than -18 dB and the average 3 dB optical passband is 0.36 nm. Using planar silicon-on-insulator technology, the physical area for the single-sided component is 700 µm2 and for the double-sided component is 575 µm2. To the best of our knowledge, these are the smallest all-optical demultiplexers with this spectral resolution reported to date. Malfunction of the proposed device due to fabrication errors is modeled and its tunable characteristic is demonstrated.

  15. Filtering properties of Thue-Morse nano-photonic crystals containing high-temperature superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebzadeh, Robabeh; Bavaghar, Mehrdad

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we introduced new design of quasi-periodic layered structures by choosing order two of ternary Thue-Morse structure. We considered Superconductor-dielectric photonic crystal with mirror symmetric as (ABSSAB)N(BASSBA)N composed of two kinds of nano-scale dielectric layers (A and B) and high-temperature superconductor layers where N is the number of period. This structure is assumed to be the free space. By using the transfer matrix method and the two fluid model, we theoretically study the transmission spectrum of ternary Thue-Morse superconducting photonic crystals with mirror symmetry and introduce this structure as a narrow optical filter. We showed that transmission peak so-called defect mode appears itself inside the transmission spectrum of suggested structure as same as defective layered structure. Also, we analyzed the influence of various related parameters such as the operating temperature of superconductor layer on position of defect mode. The redshift of defect mode with increasing the operating temperature was observed.

  16. Unit Root Properties of Seasonal Adjustment and Related Filters: Special Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell William.R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bell (2012 catalogued unit root factors contained in linear filters used in seasonal adjustment (model-based or from the X-11 method but noted that, for model-based seasonal adjustment, special cases could arise where filters could contain more unit root factors than was indicated by the general results. This article reviews some special cases that occur with canonical ARIMA model based adjustment in which, with some commonly used ARIMA models, the symmetric seasonal filters contain two extra nonseasonal differences (i.e., they include an extra (1 - B(1 - F. This increases by two the degree of polynomials in time that are annihilated by the seasonal filter and reproduced by the seasonal adjustment filter. Other results for canonical ARIMA adjustment that are reported in Bell (2012, including properties of the trend and irregular filters, and properties of the asymmetric and finite filters, are unaltered in these special cases. Special cases for seasonal adjustment with structural ARIMA component models are also briefly discussed.

  17. An automatic control unit for A neutron diffraction crystal spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abbas, Y.; Mostafa, M.; Hamouda, I.

    1982-01-01

    An automatic transistorized unit has been designed and constructed to control the operation of the double axis crystal spectrometer installed in front of one of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The function of the automatic unit is to store the diffracted neutrons at a certain angle with respect to the direction of the incident neutron beam in a selected channel of a 1024-multichannel analyzer for a certain preadjusted time period. AT the end of this time period the unit rotates the spectrometer's arm to another angle, selects the next channel of the MCA and provides the measurement of the diffracted neutron for the same time period. Such a sequence is repeated automatically over all angles required for the neutron diffraction pattern of the sample under investigation. As a result, the stored information at the MCA provides the neutron diffraction pattern as a function of channel number, where each channel corresponds to a certain scattering angle. The stored distribution at MCA can be obtained through the analyzer read out unit. The designed automatic unit has the possibility of providing the neutron diffraction pattern using a 6-digit scaler and a printer

  18. Automatic control unit for A neutron diffraction crystal spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Abbas, Y.; Mostafa, M.; Hamouda, I.

    1982-01-01

    An automatic transistorized unit has been designed and constructed to control the operation of the double axis crystal spectrometer installed in front of one of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The function of the automatic unit is to store the diffracted neutrons at a certain angle with respect to the direction of the incident neutron beam in a selected channel of a 1024-multichannel analyzer for a certain preadjusted time period. AT the end of this time period the unit rotates the spectrometer's arm to another angle, selects the next channel of the MCA and provides the measurement of the diffracted neutron for the same time period. Such a sequence is repeated automatically over all angles required for the neutron diffraction pattern of the sample under investigation. As a result, the stored information at the MCA provides the neutron diffraction pattern as a function of channel number, where each channel corresponds to a certain scattering angle. The stored distribution at MCA can be obtained through the analyzer read out unit. The designed automatic unit has the possibility of providing the neutron diffraction pattern using a 6-digit scaler and a printer.

  19. Optical properties of the two-port resonant tunneling filters in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Cheng; Cheng Li-Feng; Kang Feng; Gan Lin; Zhang Dao-Zhong; Li Zhi-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated two types of two-port resonant tunneling filters with a triangular air-hole lattice in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs. In order to improve the filtering efficiency, a feedback method is introduced by closing the waveguide. It is found that the relative position between the closed waveguide boundary and the resonator has an important impact on the dropping efficiency. Based on our analyses, two different types of filters are designed. The transmission spectra and scattering-light far-field patterns are measured, which agree well with theoretical prediction. In addition, the resonant filters are highly sensitive to the size of the resonant cavities, which are useful for practical applications

  20. Advancements in the Interferometric Measurements of Real Time Finishing Birefringent Filter's Crystal Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Ma; Kushtal, Gi; Skomorovsky, Vi; Domyshev, Gn; Sadokhin, Vp

    2006-01-01

    The finishing of birefringent plates consists of two processes: polishing and evaluation of a surface, which have been performed separately till now. The purpose of this work is achieving of high accuracy of the evaluation and machining of the plane-parallel plates from birefringent crystals, in particular of crystal plates of birefringent filters during their finishing. The developed process combines evaluation and polishing in an interactive way. We have found modes of treatment, shape of polisher, have designed interferometer, with a mirror arranged in polisher. Visual checking of optical thickness comparatively with reference plate was carried out using the interference fringes of equal birefringence, and checking of an optical wedge - by interference rings of an equal inclination. The automated processing of TV camera interference fringes was impossible, because of gaps of interference fringes on polishing cells above the mirror. Therefore a special software was developed for processing of a complex fringe pattern interferogram. Software FastInterf uses furrier analysis technique which allows to process an interferogram with multiply gaps. Interferograms are registered by a high resolution TV camera (1280 x1024). Automatic processing of a fringe interferogram using FastInterf software takes less then one second. The influence of gaps is excluded, and the flat field is taken into account. Software provides full 3D surface and wavefront maps. Aberration analysis of a wavefront gives information on thickness of a plate comparatively with a reference one, optical wedge of plate and azimuth of an inclination of wave front. Moreover, software provides a control of surface quality. The measuring device, features of the software are described and process of interferometric evaluation during polishing is illustrated

  1. Advancements in the Interferometric Measurements of Real Time Finishing Birefringent Filter's Crystal Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Ma [State Optical Institute, Birzhevaya linia, 12 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kushtal, Gi; Skomorovsky, Vi; Domyshev, Gn; Sadokhin, Vp [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 126 Lermontova Str., PO 4026, 664033, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-15

    The finishing of birefringent plates consists of two processes: polishing and evaluation of a surface, which have been performed separately till now. The purpose of this work is achieving of high accuracy of the evaluation and machining of the plane-parallel plates from birefringent crystals, in particular of crystal plates of birefringent filters during their finishing. The developed process combines evaluation and polishing in an interactive way. We have found modes of treatment, shape of polisher, have designed interferometer, with a mirror arranged in polisher. Visual checking of optical thickness comparatively with reference plate was carried out using the interference fringes of equal birefringence, and checking of an optical wedge - by interference rings of an equal inclination. The automated processing of TV camera interference fringes was impossible, because of gaps of interference fringes on polishing cells above the mirror. Therefore a special software was developed for processing of a complex fringe pattern interferogram. Software FastInterf uses furrier analysis technique which allows to process an interferogram with multiply gaps. Interferograms are registered by a high resolution TV camera (1280 x1024). Automatic processing of a fringe interferogram using FastInterf software takes less then one second. The influence of gaps is excluded, and the flat field is taken into account. Software provides full 3D surface and wavefront maps. Aberration analysis of a wavefront gives information on thickness of a plate comparatively with a reference one, optical wedge of plate and azimuth of an inclination of wave front. Moreover, software provides a control of surface quality. The measuring device, features of the software are described and process of interferometric evaluation during polishing is illustrated.

  2. Three-dimensional photonic crystals as intermediate filter for thin-film tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawny, Andreas; Miclea, Paul T.; Wehrspohn, Ralf B.; Lee, Seung-Mo; Knez, Mato; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lisca, Marian; Lederer, Falk L.; Carius, Reinhard

    2008-04-01

    The concept of a 3D photonic crystal structure as diffractive and spectrally selective intermediate filter within 'micromorphous' (a-Si/μc-Si) tandem solar cells has been investigated numerically and experimentally. Our device aims for the enhancement of the optical pathway of incident light within the amorphous silicon top cell in its spectral region of low absorption. From our previous simulations, we expect a significant improvement of the tandem cell efficiency of about absolutely 1.3%. This increases the efficiency for a typical a-Si / μc-Si tandem cell from 11.1% to 12.4%, as a result of the optical current-matching of the two junctions. We suggest as wavelength-selective optical element a 3D-structured optical thin-film, prepared by self-organized artificial opal templates and replicated with atomic layer deposition. The resulting samples are highly periodic thin-film inverted opals made of conducting and transparent zinc-oxide. We describe the fabrication processes and compare experimental data on the optical properties in reflection and transmission with our simulations and photonic band structure calculations.

  3. An inkjet printed stripe-type color filter of liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chin-Tai; Wu, Kuo-Hua; Shieh, Fanny; Lu, Chun-Fu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a comprehensive concept and new design of a drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printing process for fabricating color filter (CF) layers of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) onto the structured surfaces of flat substrates, composed of 'physical sidewalls' for aligning and controlling the liquid morphology. Several fundamental guidelines of the design have been addressed in current inkjet-printing techniques. Using a droplet generator (printhead) of the deposition system, the color-ink drops can be jetted and placed over the specific domains, where the sidewalls align the flow merged from a stream of droplets and fulfill the coverage of the defined areas, in which the geometrical relations correlating the droplets and sidewalls are explicitly expressed in the study. According to the results of the simulation and analysis, the proposed sidewalls, acting as the physical barriers, can control the liquid morphology through the simple geometric factors such as sidewall widths, heights and contact angles. The experimental results showed that the solid RGB color layers were self-assembled from the liquid droplets and formed with the uniform thickness, except for the neighborhood of the sidewalls. It indicated that the sidewalls serving as 'physical barriers' had a remarkable effect in confining and self-aligning the droplet flow within the desirable regions. This inkjet-printing method would alternatively offer one cost-effective and high-flexibility method for the production of the versatile LCD CF, thus being particularly beneficial for large-area printing and flexible substrates.

  4. Improved reproducibility of unit-cell parameters in macromolecular cryocrystallography by limiting dehydration during crystal mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Christopher; Burks, Geoffry; Siegert, Thomas; Juers, Douglas H

    2014-08-01

    In macromolecular cryocrystallography unit-cell parameters can have low reproducibility, limiting the effectiveness of combining data sets from multiple crystals and inhibiting the development of defined repeatable cooling protocols. Here, potential sources of unit-cell variation are investigated and crystal dehydration during loop-mounting is found to be an important factor. The amount of water lost by the unit cell depends on the crystal size, the loop size, the ambient relative humidity and the transfer distance to the cooling medium. To limit water loss during crystal mounting, a threefold strategy has been implemented. Firstly, crystal manipulations are performed in a humid environment similar to the humidity of the crystal-growth or soaking solution. Secondly, the looped crystal is transferred to a vial containing a small amount of the crystal soaking solution. Upon loop transfer, the vial is sealed, which allows transport of the crystal at its equilibrated humidity. Thirdly, the crystal loop is directly mounted from the vial into the cold gas stream. This strategy minimizes the exposure of the crystal to relatively low humidity ambient air, improves the reproducibility of low-temperature unit-cell parameters and offers some new approaches to crystal handling and cryoprotection.

  5. Investigation of 2D photonic crystal structure based channel drop filter using quad shaped photonic crystal ring resonator for CWDM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar, E-mail: mayurchhipa1@gmail.com; Dusad, Lalit Kumar [Government Engineering College Ajmer, Rajasthan (India); Rajasthan Technical University, Kota, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, the design & performance of two dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal structure based channel drop filter is investigated using quad shaped photonic crystal ring resonator. In this paper, Photonic Crystal (PhC) based on square lattice periodic arrays of Gallium Indium Phosphide (GaInP) rods in air structure have been investigated using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and photonic band gap is being calculated using Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method. The PhC designs have been optimized for telecommunication wavelength λ= 1571 nm by varying the rods lattice constant. The number of rods in Z and X directions is 21 and 20, with lattice constant 0.540 nm it illustrates that the arrangement of Gallium Indium Phosphide (GaInP) rods in the structure which gives the overall size of the device around 11.4 µm × 10.8 µm. The designed filter gives good dropping efficiency using 3.298, refractive index. The designed structure is useful for CWDM systems. This device may serve as a key component in photonic integrated circuits. The device is ultra compact with the overall size around 123 µm{sup 2}.

  6. A high-transmission liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot infrared filter for electrically tunable spectral imaging detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhonglun; Xin, Zhaowei; Long, Huabao; Wei, Dong; Dai, Wanwan; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Changsheng

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have presented the usefulness of typical liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot (LC-FP) infrared filters for spectral imaging detection. Yet, their infrared transmission performances still remain to improve or even rise. In this paper, we propose a new type of electrically tunable LC-FP infrared filter to solve the problem above. The key component of the device is a FP resonant cavity composed of two parallel plane mirrors, in which the zinc selenide (ZnSe) materials with a very high transmittance in the mid-long-wavelength infrared regions are used as the electrode substrates and a layer of nano-aluminum (Al) film, which is directly contacted with liquid-crystal materials, is chosen to make high reflective mirrors as well as the electrodes. Particularly, it should be noted that the directional layer made up of ployimide (PI) used previously is removed. The experiment results indicate that the filter can reduce the absorption of infrared wave remarkably, and thus highlight a road to effectively improve the infrared transmittance ability.

  7. Learning about the Unit Cell and Crystal Lattice with Computerized Simulations and Games: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luealamai, Sutha; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2012-01-01

    The authors have developed a computer-based learning module on the unit cell of various types of crystal. The module has two components: the virtual unit cell (VUC) part and the subsequent unit cell hunter part. The VUC is a virtual reality simulation for students to actively arrive at the unit cell from exploring, from a broad view, the crystal…

  8. Polarization-Insensitive Tunable Optical Filters based on Liquid Crystal Polarization Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolescu, Elena

    Tunable optical filters are widely used for a variety of applications including spectroscopy, optical communication networks, remote sensing, and biomedical imaging and diagnostics. All of these application areas can greatly benefit from improvements in the key characteristics of the tunable optical filters embedded in them. Some of these key parameters include peak transmittance, bandwidth, tuning range, and transition width. In recent years research efforts have also focused on miniaturizing tunable optical filters into physically small packages for compact portable spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging applications such as real-time medical diagnostics and defense applications. However, it is important that miniaturization not have a detrimental effect on filter performance. The overarching theme of this dissertation is to explore novel configurations of Polarization Gratings (PGs) as simple, low-cost, polarization-insensitive alternatives to conventional optical filtering technologies for applications including hyperspectral imaging and telecommunications. We approach this goal from several directions with a combination of theory and experimental demonstration leading to, in our opinion, a significant contribution to the field. We present three classes of tunable optical filters, the first of which is an angle-filtering scheme where the stop-band wavelengths are redirected off axis and the passband is transmitted on-axis. This is achieved using a stacked configuration of polarization gratings of various thicknesses. To improve this class of filter, we also introduce a novel optical element, the Bilayer Polarization Grating, exhibiting unique optical properties and demonstrating complex anchoring conditions with high quality. The second class of optical filter is analogous to a Lyot filter, utilizing stacks of static or tunable waveplates sandwiched with polarizing elements. However, we introduce a new configuration using PGs and static waveplates to replace

  9. The Fate of Mengovirus on Fiberglass Filter of Air Handling Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaly, Victor; Joubert, Aurélie; Le Cann, Pierre; Andres, Yves

    2017-12-01

    One of the most important topics that occupy public health problems is the air quality. That is the reason why mechanical ventilation and air handling units (AHU) were imposed by the different governments in the collective or individual buildings. Many buildings create an artificial climate using heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems. Among the existing aerosols in the indoor air, we can distinguish the bioaerosol with biological nature such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Respiratory viral infections are a major public health issue because they are usually highly infective. We spend about 90% of our time in closed environments such as homes, workplaces, or transport. Some studies have shown that AHU contribute to the spread and transport of viral particles within buildings. The aim of this work is to study the characterization of viral bioaerosols in indoor environments and to understand the fate of mengovirus eukaryote RNA virus on glass fiber filter F7 used in AHU. In this study, a set-up close to reality of AHU system was used. The mengovirus aerosolized was characterized and measured with the electrical low pressure impact and the scanner mobility particle size and detected with RT-qPCR. The results about quantification and the level of infectivity of mengovirus on the filter and in the biosampler showed that mengovirus can pass through the filter and remain infectious upstream and downstream the system. Regarding the virus infectivity on the filter under a constant air flow, mengovirus was remained infectious during 10 h after aerosolization.

  10. Real-time optical correlator using computer-generated holographic filter on a liquid crystal light valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Yu, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    Limitations associated with the binary phase-only filter often used in optical correlators are presently circumvented in the writing of complex-valued data on a gray-scale spatial light modulator through the use of a computer-generated hologram (CGH) algorithm. The CGH encodes complex-valued data into nonnegative real CGH data in such a way that it may be encoded in any of the available gray-scale spatial light modulators. A CdS liquid-crystal light valve is used for the complex-valued CGH encoding; computer simulations and experimental results are compared, and the use of such a CGH filter as the synapse hologram in a holographic optical neural net is discussed.

  11. Demonstration of a single-crystal reflector-filter for enhancing slow neutron beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhrer, G.; Schonfeldt, T.; Iverson, E. B.

    2016-01-01

    The cold polycrystalline beryllium reflector-filter concept has been used to enhance the cold neutron emission of cryogenic hydrogen moderators, while suppressing the intermediate wavelength and fast neutron emission at the same time. While suppressing the fast neutron emission is often desired, ......-filter benefits arise from its interaction with fast (background) neutrons, not with intermediate wavelength neutrons of potential interest in many types of neutron scattering. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  12. Flood protection of Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.M.; Simpson, B.

    1975-01-01

    To satisfy U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) safety criteria, a required evaluation of the worst site-related flood is performed for the Crystal River Plant, located on the Gulf Coast of Florida, the probable maximum stillwater flood levels are likely to be a result of the probable maximum hurricane. Flood protection requirements for the Crystal River Plant are determined by considering the most severe combination of probable maximum hurricane parameters for the Gulf Coast Region. These parameters are used as input to a model of hurricane surge generation and attendant wave activity in order to determine the maximum flood levels at the Crystal River Plant. 4 refs

  13. Tunable ultra-wideband terahertz filter based on three-dimensional arrays of H-shaped plasmonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Cai; Xu Shi-Lin; Yao Jian-Quan; Zhao Xiao-Lei; Cao Xiao-Long; Wu Liang

    2014-01-01

    A face-to-face system of double-layer three-dimensional arrays of H-shaped plasmonic crystals is proposed, and its transmission and filtering properties are investigated in the terahertz regime. Simulation results show that our design has excellent filtering properties. It has an ultra-wide bandgap and passband with steep band-edges, and the transmittance of the passband and the forbidden band are very close to 1 and 0, respectively. As the distance between the two face-to-face plates increases, the resonance frequency exhibits a gradual blueshift from 0.88 THz to 1.30 THz. Therefore, we can dynamically control the bandwidths of bandgap and passband by adding a piezoelectric ceramic plate between the two crystal plates. Furthermore, the dispersion relations of modes and electric field distributions are presented to analyze the generation mechanisms of bandgaps and to explain the location of bandgaps and the frequency shift phenomenon. Due to the fact that our design can provide many resonant modes, the bandwidth of the bandgaps can be greatly broadened. This paper can serve as a valuable reference for the design of terahertz functional devices and three-dimensional terahertz metamaterials. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  14. Broad bandwidth and 600 μm length photonic crystal fiber polarization filter at the communication window of 1.55 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Shuguang; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Shuhuan; Wang, Yujun; Wu, Junjun

    2018-02-01

    A broad bandwidth and 600-μm length photonic crystal fiber polarization filter at the communication window of 1.55 μm is proposed. The physical parameters are analyzed by the finite element method. In the structure, the loss is 705.81 dB/cm for y-polarized mode and 24.06 dB/cm for x-polarized mode at the wavelength of 1.55 μm; the y-polarized mode will be filtered out because of this property. The bandwidth of an extinction ratio (ER) better than -20 dB is 65 nm when the filter length is 600 μm, and the ER is -41 dB at the communication wavelength of 1.55 μm. The filter structure is simple and easy to produce, and it can be used to produce a single-polarization filter.

  15. Ultra-wide tuning single channel filter based on one-dimensional photonic crystal with an air cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaodan; Yang, Yibiao; Chen, Zhihui; Wang, Yuncai; Fei, Hongming; Deng, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    By inserting an air cavity into a one-dimensional photonic crystal of LiF/GaSb, a tunable filter covering the whole visible range is proposed. Following consideration of the dispersion of the materials, through modulating the thickness of the air cavity, we demonstrate that a single resonant peak can shift from 416.1 to 667.3 nm in the band gap at normal incidence by means of the transfer matrix method. The research also shows that the transmittance of the channel can be maximized when the number of periodic LiF/GaSb layers on one side of the air defect layer is equal to that of the other side. When adding a period to both sides respectively, the full width at half maximum of the defect mode is reduced by one order of magnitude. This structure will provide a promising approach to fabricate practical tunable filters in the visible region with ultra-wide tuning range. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61575138, 61307069, 51205273), and the Top Young Academic Leaders and the Outstanding Innovative Teams of Higher Learning Institutions of Shanxi.

  16. Compact Liquid Crystal Based Tunable Band-Stop Filter with an Ultra-Wide Stopband by Using Wave Interference Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longzhu Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A wave interference filtering section that consists of three stubs of different lengths, each with an individual stopband of its own central frequency, is reported here for the design of band-stop filters (BSFs with ultra-wide and sharp stopbands as well as large attenuation characteristics. The superposition of the individual stopbands provides the coverage over an ultra-wide frequency range. Equations and guidelines are presented for the application of a new wave interference technique to adjust the rejection level and width of its stopband. Based on that, an electrically tunable ultra-wide stopband BSF using a liquid crystal (LC material for ultra-wideband (UWB applications is designed. Careful treatment of the bent stubs, including impedance matching of the main microstrip line and bent stubs together with that of the SMA connectors and impedance adaptors, was carried out for the compactness and minimum insertion and reflection losses. The experimental results of the fabricated device agree very well with that of the simulation. The centre rejection frequency as measured can be tuned between 4.434 and 4.814 GHz when a biased voltage of 0–20 Vrms is used. The 3 dB and 25 dB stopband bandwidths were 4.86 GHz and 2.51 GHz, respectively, which are larger than that of other recently reported LC based tunable BSFs.

  17. Development of a neutron irradiation device with a cooled crystal filter: Radiation physical properties and applications in in vivo irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braetter, P.; Galinke, E.; Gatschke, W.; Gawlik, D.; Roesick, U.

    1979-01-01

    The radiation-physical and geometrical properties of a neutron-beam, collimated with a Bi-crystal filter were investigated at the reactor BER II. The influence of the crystal temperature as well as the actions of a reflector and a collimator on neutron flux-density and neutron field of the thermal neutrons were investigated. The dose contributions of the thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons as well as γ-radiation was determined by activation of the sample respective with TLD-measurements. The influence of irradiation and measurement geometry on the sensitivity and detection probability was investigated by means of phantom irradiations. The method prooved to be suitable, to detect changes of the Ca-content in a rat hind leg by about 10%. In investigations on animal groups of about 10 animals a threshold of detectability for changes of the ca-content is to be expected by about 4%. In a further group experiment it was found, that even in the case of multiple radiation the procedure of irradiation and measurement was not followed by a significant change in the Ca-content of the hind legs of the testing animals. (orig.) [de

  18. Analysis of Depressurization Performance in Containment of Wolsong NPP Unit 1 through Containment Filtered Venting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sunghan; Kim, Jinhyuck; Suh, Nam Duk; Cho, Songwon

    2014-01-01

    Containment filtered venting system (CFVS) is designed to open and to close isolation valves passively by an operator. CFVS is operated when the containment pressure exceeds the design pressure (225 kPa(a)) and is closed when the containment pressure decreases below 151 kPa(a). The aim of this study is to analyze the depressurization performance of Wolsong unit 1 through CFVS during SBO. The thermal-hydraulic behavior in containment of Wolsong unit 1 was evaluated using the MELCOR 1.8.6 code developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In addition, in order to evaluate the effects of the CFVS according to the venting area, a sensitivity study depending on different venting area of the CFVS was conducted. Finally, an analysis of the effects of filtering and scrubbing of radioactive material for CFVS is important but not treated in this paper. The SBO accident is chosen to analyze the thermal-hydraulic behavior of Wolsong unit 1. During SBO, the analysis of CFVS affecting on the depressurization of the containment was conducted using MELCOR 1.8.6 code. Also, a sensitivity study was carried out to evaluate the depressurization performance according to the venting area of CFVS. The results show that the containment pressure is considerably decreased and the integrity of the containment could be maintained in case of CFVS operating. Therefore, CFVS has the capacity to keep the containment pressure below the design pressure during SBO. In addition, there are large differences in the containment pressure depending on venting area. We found that the decreasing rate of the pressure in the containment and water level in CFVS depends on the venting area. In the future, a proper requirement for CFVS sizing criteria according to accident scenarios such as LBLOCA, SBLOCA and SGTR, etc. should be evaluated in order to review the licensing for CFVS. Finally, analyses of aerosols, fission product, and radioactive material

  19. Autonomous control of inverter-interfaced Distributed Generation units for harmonic current filtering and resonance damping in an islanded microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Harmonic current filtering and resonance damping have become important concerns on the control of an islanded microgrids. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a control method of inverter-interfaced Distributed Generation (DG) units, which can autonomously share harmonic currents and ...

  20. New chiral liquid crystal with unconventional dioxane terminal unit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perkowski, P.; Bubnov, Alexej; Mrukiewicz, M.; Pociecha, D.; Piecek, W.; Hamplová, Věra; Kašpar, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, 10-11 (2014), s. 1024-1037 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13PL041; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14PL035; GA ČR GA13-14133S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100101211; AVČR(CZ) M100101204; EU - ICT (XE) COST Action IC1208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chiral liquid crysta * pentaglyform unit * structural properties * smectic phase * hexagonal ordering * self-assembling Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2014

  1. Protein crystal growth results from the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucas, Lawrence J.; Moore, K. M.; Vanderwoerd, M.; Bray, T. L.; Smith, C.; Carson, M.; Narayana, S. V. L.; Rosenblum, W. M.; Carter, D.; Clark, A. D, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Protein crystal growth experiments have been performed by this laboratory on 18 Space Shuttle missions since April, 1985. In addition, a number of microgravity experiments also have been performed and reported by other investigators. These Space Shuttle missions have been used to grow crystals of a variety of proteins using vapor diffusion, liquid diffusion, and temperature-induced crystallization techniques. The United States Microgravity Laboratory - 1 mission (USML-1, June 25 - July 9, 1992) was a Spacelab mission dedicated to experiments involved in materials processing. New protein crystal growth hardware was developed to allow in orbit examination of initial crystal growth results, the knowledge from which was used on subsequent days to prepare new crystal growth experiments. In addition, new seeding hardware and techniques were tested as well as techniques that would prepare crystals for analysis by x-ray diffraction, a capability projected for the planned Space Station. Hardware that was specifically developed for the USML-1 mission will be discussed along with the experimental results from this mission.

  2. Amplifying and compressing optical filter based on one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal structure containing gain medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamshidi-Ghaleh, Kazem, E-mail: k-jamshidi@azaruinv.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimpour, Zeinab [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moslemi, Fatemeh [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    The transmission spectrum properties of the one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal (1DTPC) structure, composed of dielectric (D), metal (M) and gain (G) materials, with three different arrangements of (DGM){sup N}, (GDM){sup N} and (DMG){sup N}, where N is the number of periodicity, were investigated. Two full photonic band gaps and N−1 resonant peaks, localized between them, were observed on transmittance spectra on near-UV spectrum region. When the gained layer was placed in front of the metal, the peaks appeared with higher resolution. There is a peak, localized on the higher band-edge of the first gap, which shows very interesting property than the other peaks. Thus, it amplifies and compresses faster with increase in the N and strength of the gain coefficient. The effects of the gain coefficient and periodicity number are graphically illustrated. This communication presents a PC structure that can be a good candidate to design an amplifying and compressing single or multi-channel optical filter in the UV region.

  3. Amplifying and compressing optical filter based on one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal structure containing gain medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi-Ghaleh, Kazem; Ebrahimpour, Zeinab; Moslemi, Fatemeh

    2015-07-01

    The transmission spectrum properties of the one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal (1DTPC) structure, composed of dielectric (D), metal (M) and gain (G) materials, with three different arrangements of (DGM)N, (GDM)N and (DMG)N, where N is the number of periodicity, were investigated. Two full photonic band gaps and N-1 resonant peaks, localized between them, were observed on transmittance spectra on near-UV spectrum region. When the gained layer was placed in front of the metal, the peaks appeared with higher resolution. There is a peak, localized on the higher band-edge of the first gap, which shows very interesting property than the other peaks. Thus, it amplifies and compresses faster with increase in the N and strength of the gain coefficient. The effects of the gain coefficient and periodicity number are graphically illustrated. This communication presents a PC structure that can be a good candidate to design an amplifying and compressing single or multi-channel optical filter in the UV region.

  4. Polarization filtering in the visible wavelength range using surface plasmon resonance and a sunflower-type photonic quasi-crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bei; Wang, Anran; Liu, Exian; Tan, Wei; Xie, Jianlan; Ge, Rui; Liu, Jianjun

    2018-04-01

    A novel polarization filter based on a sunflower-type photonic quasi-crystal fiber (PQF) is proposed in this paper. We also discuss different methods to tune the filter wavelength. The proposed filter can efficiently produce polarized light with visible wavelengths by using the resonance between the second-order surface plasmon polariton mode and the core mode of the PQF. The filtered wavelength can be tuned between 0.55 µm and 0.68 µm by adjusting the thickness of the gold film. When the thickness of the gold film is 25.3 nm, the resonance loss in the y-polarized direction reaches 11707 dB m‑1 for a wavelength of 0.6326 µm, and the full width at half maximum is only 5 nm. Due to the flexible design and absence of both polarization coupling and polarization dispersion, this polarization filter can be used in devices that require narrow-band filtering.

  5. An Innovative Strategy for Accurate Thermal Compensation of Gyro Bias in Inertial Units by Exploiting a Novel Augmented Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Fontanella

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative model for integrating thermal compensation of gyro bias error into an augmented state Kalman filter. The developed model is applied in the Zero Velocity Update filter for inertial units manufactured by exploiting Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS gyros. It is used to remove residual bias at startup. It is a more effective alternative to traditional approach that is realized by cascading bias thermal correction by calibration and traditional Kalman filtering for bias tracking. This function is very useful when adopted gyros are manufactured using MEMS technology. These systems have significant limitations in terms of sensitivity to environmental conditions. They are characterized by a strong correlation of the systematic error with temperature variations. The traditional process is divided into two separated algorithms, i.e., calibration and filtering, and this aspect reduces system accuracy, reliability, and maintainability. This paper proposes an innovative Zero Velocity Update filter that just requires raw uncalibrated gyro data as input. It unifies in a single algorithm the two steps from the traditional approach. Therefore, it saves time and economic resources, simplifying the management of thermal correction process. In the paper, traditional and innovative Zero Velocity Update filters are described in detail, as well as the experimental data set used to test both methods. The performance of the two filters is compared both in nominal conditions and in the typical case of a residual initial alignment bias. In this last condition, the innovative solution shows significant improvements with respect to the traditional approach. This is the typical case of an aircraft or a car in parking conditions under solar input.

  6. An Innovative Strategy for Accurate Thermal Compensation of Gyro Bias in Inertial Units by Exploiting a Novel Augmented Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Rita; Accardo, Domenico; Moriello, Rosario Schiano Lo; Angrisani, Leopoldo; Simone, Domenico De

    2018-05-07

    This paper presents an innovative model for integrating thermal compensation of gyro bias error into an augmented state Kalman filter. The developed model is applied in the Zero Velocity Update filter for inertial units manufactured by exploiting Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) gyros. It is used to remove residual bias at startup. It is a more effective alternative to traditional approach that is realized by cascading bias thermal correction by calibration and traditional Kalman filtering for bias tracking. This function is very useful when adopted gyros are manufactured using MEMS technology. These systems have significant limitations in terms of sensitivity to environmental conditions. They are characterized by a strong correlation of the systematic error with temperature variations. The traditional process is divided into two separated algorithms, i.e., calibration and filtering, and this aspect reduces system accuracy, reliability, and maintainability. This paper proposes an innovative Zero Velocity Update filter that just requires raw uncalibrated gyro data as input. It unifies in a single algorithm the two steps from the traditional approach. Therefore, it saves time and economic resources, simplifying the management of thermal correction process. In the paper, traditional and innovative Zero Velocity Update filters are described in detail, as well as the experimental data set used to test both methods. The performance of the two filters is compared both in nominal conditions and in the typical case of a residual initial alignment bias. In this last condition, the innovative solution shows significant improvements with respect to the traditional approach. This is the typical case of an aircraft or a car in parking conditions under solar input.

  7. Penggunaan Unit Slow Sand Filter, Ozon Generator dan Rapid Sand Filter Skala Rumah Tangga Untuk Meningkatkan Kualitas Air Sumur Dangkal Menjadi Air Layak Minum (Parameter Zat Organik dan Deterjen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Prawita Sari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Air sumur merupakan air tanah yang sering kali digunakan masyarakat untuk aktivitas sehari-hari. Air sumur dengan kadar organik dan deterjen tinggi tidak layak dikonsumsi masyarakat karena dapat menyebabkan berbagai macam penyakit. Selain itu, adanya zat organik dan deterjen mempengaruhi warna dan bau air sumur sehingga tidak layak konsumsi. Slow sand filter merupakan unit pengolahan yang mampu meremoval zat organik pada air. Slow sand filter dan rapid sand filter tidak menggunakan bahan kimia dalam proses pengolahan sehingga lebih ekonomis dan efektif. Sedangkan ozon, efektif digunakan untuk meremoval zat organik yang ada dalam air dengan mengubah rantai zat organik menjadi lebih sederhana. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keefektifan penggunaan slow sand filter, ozon generator dan rapid sand filter dalam menyisihkan beban deterjen dan zat organik pada air sumur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi removal pada unit slow sand filter untuk beban organik dan deterjen sebesar 57,6% dan 60,5 %, pada unit ozonasi sebesar 47,4% dan 17,5%, dan pada unit rapid sand filter sebesar 50,0% dan 50,9 %.

  8. Inulin isoforms differ by repeated additions of one crystal unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter D.; Barclay, Thomas G.; Ginic-Markovic, Milena; Gerson, Andrea R.; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    Inulin isoforms, especially delta inulin, are important biologically as immune activators and clinically as vaccine adjuvants. In exploring action mechanisms, we previously found regular increments in thermal properties of the seven-member inulin isoform series that suggested regular additions of some energetic structural unit. Because the previous isolates carried additional longer chains that masked defining ranges, these were contrasted with new isoform isolates comprising only inulin chain lengths defining that isoform. The new series began with 19 fructose units per chain (alpha-1 inulin), increasing regularly by 6 fructose units per isoform. Thus the ‘energetic unit’ equates to 6 fructose residues per chain. All isoforms showed indistinguishable X-ray diffraction patterns that were also identical with known inulin crystals. We conclude that an ‘energetic unit’ equates to one helix turn of 6 fructose units per chain as found in one unit cell of the inulin crystal. Each isoform chain comprised progressively more helix turns plus one additional fructose and glucose residues per chain. PMID:24528745

  9. Iron turbidity removal from the active process water system of the Kaiga Generating Station Unit 1 using an electrochemical filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, G.; Gokhale, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Iron turbidity is observed in the intermediate cooling circuit of the active process water system (APWS) of Kaiga Generating Station (KGS). Deposition of hydrous/hydrated oxides of iron on the plate type heat exchanger, which is employed to transfer heat from the APWS to the active process cooling water system (APCWS), can in turn result in higher moderator D 2 O temperatures due to reduced heat transfer. Characterization of turbidity showed that the major component is γ-FeOOH. An in-house designed and fabricated electrochemical filter (ECF) containing an alternate array of 33 pairs of cathode and anode graphite felts was successfully tested for the removal of iron turbidity from the APWS of Kaiga Generating Station Unit No. 1 (KGS No. 1). A total volume of 52.5 m 3 water was processed using the filter. At an average inlet turbidity of 5.6 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), the outlet turbidity observed from the ECF was 1.6 NTU. A maximum flow rate (10 L . min -1 ) and applied potential of 18.0-20.0 V was found to yield an average turbidity-removal efficiency of ∝ 75 %. When the experiment was terminated, a throughput of > 2.08 . 10 5 NTU-liters was realized without any reduction in the removal efficiency. Removal of the internals of the filter showed that only the bottom 11 pairs of felts had brownish deposits, while the remaining felts looked clean and unused. (orig.)

  10. crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu

    2014-07-01

    A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ϕ 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for π-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for σ-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.

  11. Tunable ultra-broadband polarization filter based on three-core resonance of the fluid-infiltrated and gold-coated photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingchao; Chen, Hailiang; Ma, Mingjian; Zhang, Wenxun; Wang, Yujun; Li, Shuguang

    2018-03-01

    We propose a tunable ultra-broadband polarization filter based on three-core resonance of the fluid-infiltrated and gold-coated high birefringent photonic crystal fiber (HB-PCF). Gold film was applied to the inner walls of two cladding air holes and surface plasmon polaritons were generated on its surface. The two gold-coated cladding air holes acted as two defective cores. As the phase matching condition was satisfied, light transmitted in the fiber core and coupled to the two defective cores. The three-core PCF supported three super modes in two orthogonal polarization directions. The coupling characteristics among these modes were investigated using the finite-element method. We found that the coupling wavelengths and strength between these guided modes can be tuned by altering the structural parameters of the designed HB-PCF, such as the size of the voids, thickness of the gold-films and liquid infilling pattern. Under the optimized structural parameters, a tunable broadband polarization filter was realized. For one liquid infilling pattern, we obtained a broadband polarization filter which filtered out the light in y-polarization direction at the wavelength of 1550 nm. For another liquid infilling pattern, we filtered out light in the x-polarization direction at the wavelength of 1310 nm. Our studies on the designed HB-PCF made contributions to the further devising of tunable broadband polarization filters, which are extensively used in telecommunication and sensor systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61505175 and 61475134) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province (Grant Nos. F2017203110 and F2017203193).

  12. Characteristics of flattening filter free beams at low monitor unit settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akino, Yuichi [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan and Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ota, Seiichi; Inoue, Shinichi; Mizuno, Hirokazu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sumida, Iori; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Isohashi, Fumiaki [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Newer linear accelerators (linacs) have been equipped to deliver flattening filter free (FFF) beams. When FFF beams are used for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the stability of delivery of small numbers of monitor units (MU) is important. The authors developed automatic measurement techniques to evaluate the stability of the dose profile, dose linearity, and consistency. Here, the authors report the performance of the Artiste™ accelerator (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) in delivering low-MU FFF beams.Methods: A 6 MV flattened beam (6X) with 300 MU/min dose rate and FFF beams of 7 (7XU) and 11 MV (11XU), each with a 500 MU/min dose rate, were measured at 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 20 MU settings. For the 2000 MU/min dose rate, the 7 (7XUH) and 11 MV (11XUH) beams were set at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 MU because of the limits of the minimum MU settings. Beams with 20 × 20 and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field sizes were alternately measured ten times in intensity modulated (IM) mode, with which Siemens linacs regulate beam delivery for step-and-shoot IMRT. The in- and crossplane beam profiles were measured using a Profiler™ Model 1170 (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) in multiframe mode. The frames of 20 × 20 cm{sup 2} beams were identified at the off-axis profile. The 6X beam profile was normalized at the central axis. The 7 and 11 MV FFF beam profiles were rescaled to set the dose at the central axis at 145% and 170%, respectively. Point doses were also measured using a Farmer-type ionization chamber and water-equivalent solid phantom to evaluate the linearity and consistency of low-MU beam delivery. The values displayed on the electrometer were recognized with a USB-type camera and read with open-source optical character recognition software.Results: The symmetry measurements of the 6X, 7XU, and 11XU beam profiles were better than 2% for beams ≥2 MU and improved with increasing MU. The variations in flatness of FFF beams ≥2 MU were

  13. Characteristics of flattening filter free beams at low monitor unit settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akino, Yuichi; Ota, Seiichi; Inoue, Shinichi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Sumida, Iori; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Isohashi, Fumiaki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Newer linear accelerators (linacs) have been equipped to deliver flattening filter free (FFF) beams. When FFF beams are used for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the stability of delivery of small numbers of monitor units (MU) is important. The authors developed automatic measurement techniques to evaluate the stability of the dose profile, dose linearity, and consistency. Here, the authors report the performance of the Artiste™ accelerator (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) in delivering low-MU FFF beams.Methods: A 6 MV flattened beam (6X) with 300 MU/min dose rate and FFF beams of 7 (7XU) and 11 MV (11XU), each with a 500 MU/min dose rate, were measured at 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 20 MU settings. For the 2000 MU/min dose rate, the 7 (7XUH) and 11 MV (11XUH) beams were set at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 MU because of the limits of the minimum MU settings. Beams with 20 × 20 and 10 × 10 cm 2 field sizes were alternately measured ten times in intensity modulated (IM) mode, with which Siemens linacs regulate beam delivery for step-and-shoot IMRT. The in- and crossplane beam profiles were measured using a Profiler™ Model 1170 (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) in multiframe mode. The frames of 20 × 20 cm 2 beams were identified at the off-axis profile. The 6X beam profile was normalized at the central axis. The 7 and 11 MV FFF beam profiles were rescaled to set the dose at the central axis at 145% and 170%, respectively. Point doses were also measured using a Farmer-type ionization chamber and water-equivalent solid phantom to evaluate the linearity and consistency of low-MU beam delivery. The values displayed on the electrometer were recognized with a USB-type camera and read with open-source optical character recognition software.Results: The symmetry measurements of the 6X, 7XU, and 11XU beam profiles were better than 2% for beams ≥2 MU and improved with increasing MU. The variations in flatness of FFF beams ≥2 MU were ±5%. The

  14. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) Input Coal Analyses and Off-Gass Filter (OGF) Content Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, David M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Guenther, Chris P. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Shekhawat, Dushyant [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); VanEssendelft, Dirk T. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Means, Nicholas C. [AECOM Technology Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-23

    A full engineering scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) system is being used at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) to stabilize acidic Low Activity Waste (LAW) known as Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW). The INTEC facility, known as the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), underwent an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) in March 2014. The IWTU began non-radioactive simulant processing in late 2014 and by January, 2015 ; the IWTU had processed 62,000 gallons of simulant. The facility is currently in a planned outage for inspection of the equipment and will resume processing simulated waste feed before commencing to process 900,000 gallons of radioactive SBW. The SBW acidic waste will be made into a granular FBSR product (carbonate based) for disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In the FBSR process calcined coal is used to create a CO2 fugacity to force the waste species to convert to carbonate species. The quality of the coal, which is a feed input, is important because the reactivity, moisture, and volatiles (C,H,N,O, and S) in the coal impact the reactions and control of the mineralizing process in the primary steam reforming vessel, the Denitration and Mineralizing Reformer (DMR). Too much moisture in the coal can require that additional coal be used. However since moisture in the coal is only a small fraction of the moisture from the fluidizing steam this can be self-correcting. If the coal reactivity or heating value is too low then the coal feedrate needs to be adjusted to achieve the desired heat generation. Too little coal and autothermal heat generation in the DMR cannot be sustained and/or the carbon dioxide fugacity will be too low to create the desired carbonate mineral species. Too much coal and excess S and hydroxide species can form. Excess sulfur from coal that (1) is too rich in sulfur or (2) from overfeeding coal can promote wall scale and contribute to corrosion

  15. Quasi-periodic photonic crystal Fabry–Perot optical filter based on Si/SiO2 for visible-laser spectral selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dong; Wang, Xian; Cheng, Yongzhi; Chen, Fu; Liu, Lei; Gong, Rongzhou

    2018-06-01

    We report on a 1D quasi-periodic photonic crystal Fabry–Perot optical filter Cs(Si/SiO2)3(SiO2/Si)3 for spectral selectivity of visible light and 1.55 µm laser. A material transparency interval of 1.03–2.06 µm makes Si a unique choice of high refractive index material. Owing to the CIE 1931 standard and equal inclination interference, the designed structure can be successfully fabricated with a certain color (brown, khaki, or blue) corresponding to the different Cs physical thickness d and response R(λ). In addition, the peak transmittance T max of the proposed structure can reach as high as 92.56% (Cs  =  20 nm), 90.83% (Cs  =  40 nm), and 88.85% (Cs  =  60 nm) with a relatively narrow full width at half maximum of 4.4, 4.6, and 4.8 nm at 1.55 µm. The as-prepared structure indicates that it is feasible for a photonic crystal Fabry–Perot optical filter to achieve visible-laser (1.55 µm) spectral selectivity.

  16. Hyper-spectral modulation fluorescent imaging using double acousto-optical tunable filter based on TeO2-crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaytsev, Kirill I; Perchik, Alexey V; Chernomyrdin, Nikita V; Yurchenko, Stanislav O; Kudrin, Konstantin G; Reshetov, Igor V

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed a method for hyper-spectral fluorescent imaging based on acousto-optical filtering. The object of interest was pumped using ultraviolet radiation of mercury lamp equipped with monochromatic excitation filter with the window of transparency centered at 365 nm. Double TeO 2 -based acousto-optical filter, tunable in range from 430 to 780 nm and having 2 nm bandwidth of spectral transparency, was used in order to detect quasimonochromatic images of object fluorescence. Modulating of ultraviolet pump intensity was used in order to reduce an impact of non-fluorescent background on the sample fluorescent imaging. The technique for signal-to-noise ratio improvement, based on fluorescence intensity estimation via digital processing of modulated video sequence of fluorescent object, was introduced. We have implemented the proposed technique for the test sample studying and we have discussed its possible applications

  17. Hygienic safety of reusable tap water filters (Germlyser® with an operating time of 4 or 8 weeks in a haematological oncology transplantation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochow Markus

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial safe tap water is crucial for the safety of immunosuppressed patients. Methods To evaluate the suitability of new, reusable point-of-use filters (Germlyser®, Aquafree GmbH, Hamburg, Germany, three variations of a reusable filter with the same filter principle but with different outlets (with and without silver and inner surface coating of the filter encasements (with and without nano-crystalline silver were tested. The filter efficacy was monitored over 1, 4 and 8 weeks operating time in a haematological oncology transplantation unit equipped with 18 water outlets (12 taps, 6 showers. Results The filtered water fulfilled the requirements of absence of pathogens over time. From 348 samples, 8 samples (2.3% exceeded 100 cfu/ml (no sample ≥ 500 cfu/ml. As no reprocessed filter exhibited 100% filter efficacy in the final quality control after each reprocessing, these contaminations could be explained by retrograde contamination during use. Conclusion As a consequence of the study, the manufacturer recommends changing filters after 4 weeks in high risk areas and after 8 weeks in moderate infectious risk areas, together with routine weekly alcohol-based surface disinfection and additionally in case of visible contamination. The filter efficacy of the 3 filters types did not differ significantly regarding total bacterial counts. Manual reprocessing proved to be insufficient. Using a validated reprocessing in a washer/disinfector with alkaline, acid treatment and thermic disinfection, the filters were effectively reprocessable and now provide tap water meeting the German drinking water regulations as well as the WHO guidelines, including absence of pathogens.

  18. Status Report and Research Plan for Cables Harvested from Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Harvested cables from operating or decommissioned nuclear power plants present an important opportunity to validate models, understanding material aging behavior, and validate characterization techniques. Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant is a pressurized water reactor that was licensed to operate from 1976 to 2013. Cable segments were harvested and made available to the Light Water Reactor Sustainability research program through the Electric Power Research Institute. Information on the locations and circuits within the reactor from whence the cable segments came, cable construction, sourcing and installation information, and photographs of the cable locations prior to harvesting were provided. The cable variations provided represent six of the ten most common cable insulations in the nuclear industry and experienced service usage for periods from 15 to 42 years. Subsequently, these cables constitute a valuable asset for research to understand aging behavior and measurement of nuclear cables. Received cables harvested from Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant consist of low voltage, insulated conductor surrounded by jackets in lengths from 24 to 100 feet each. Cable materials will primarily be used to investigate aging under simultaneous thermal and gamma radiation exposure. Each cable insulation and jacket material will be characterized in its as-received condition, including determination of the temperatures associated with endothermic transitions in the material using differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis. Temperatures for additional thermal exposure aging will be selected following the thermal analysis to avoid transitions in accelerated laboratory aging that do not occur in field conditions. Aging temperatures above thermal transitions may also be targeted to investigate the potential for artifacts in lifetime prediction from rapid accelerated aging. Total gamma doses and dose rates targeted for each material

  19. Development of filtered containment venting system and application for Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit 6, 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Soutarou; Hiranuma, Naoki; Kimura, Takeo; Omori, Shuichi; Watanabe, Fumitoshi; Sasa, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) had experienced severe radio-active release to the environment in the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake (alias: the Great East Japan Earthquake) in 2011. Under the Station Black-Out (SBO) conditions caused by tsunami with the earthquake, the 1F operators had tried to vent the gasses in the Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) of the unit 1, 2 and 3 to the environment through the water pools in the suppression chambers of the PCVs. Its venting, however, was imperfect and, as a result, major direct radio-active release to the environment was caused. After this disaster, TEPCO launched a project to develop the Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS), in which our very bitter experiences in the 1F accident as described above are reflected. One of the main purposes of the development of the FCVS is to enhance operability of venting under the severe plant conditions such as the SBO during progressing of severe core damage, and another is to enhance removal performance of radio-nuclides with the newly added filtering equipment, which is installed in the venting line from the PCV to the outer. The Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS unit 6 and 7 will be the first reactors applied the FCVSs. In this paper, we show the design concept of the TEPCO's FCVS, the brief overview of the system design and the summary of experiment which has been performed for getting the performance data of the FCVS such as decontamination factor in various conditions. (author)

  20. Luminescent unit computerization to research spectral characteristics of fine film alkali halide crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhalimbetov, T.; Zhabetov, A.; Moldagaliev, A.; Sarmukhanov, E.; Shunkeev, K.; Shunkeev, S.; Abdullin, K.; Tokmoldin, C.

    2002-01-01

    The fundamental optical absorption of ion crystals characterizes the creation of different free low energetic electronic excitation (the excitons and electron-hole pairs), but their straight registration is not possible because of incommensurable big absorption factor of alkali halide monocrystals. So to registration the spectrums of alkali halide monocrystal very fine layers are necessary. We have received fine films of Nal and KCl in system of KCl-Nal-KCl, KCl-KI-KCl on the base of universal vacuum post VUP-4, VUP-5 by thermal evaporation. A unique spectral unit has been created For this on the basic the SDL-2 complex. Complex consists of radiator, systems of condensers, monochromators MDR-12 and MDR-23, receivers of radiation, controller by unit. Connect and control of monochromators by means of IBM-compatible computer has been created. Kinematics schemes of monochromators provide consequent removing on output slot of monochromatic radiation in operating range of each diffraction lattice and indication its wavelength. The tumbling diffraction lattices is done the crossbar engines SHDR-711. For this special plate of control and block of reinforcement for crossbar engines in monochromators MDR-12 and MDR-23 are designed and constructed. Created controller of monochromators consists of double cascade preamplifier on transistors n-p-n type (815G) and logical scheme, constructed on summers and K555 series triggers. The preamplifier is used for reinforcement of signal to available amplifier on transistors KT837D. The logical scheme reduces the number of used categories of bidirectional port and enables unhooking the feeding to the windings of crossbar engine at conservation of previous combination of signals. The connection controller of monochromators is done through controller of port of computer with use the parallel interface. For installing computerized system of collection and data processing is provided marketed by means of modern object-oriented programming

  1. Flattening filter free beams from TrueBeam and Versa HD units: Evaluation of the parameters for quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogliata, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.fogliata@humanitas.it; Reggiori, Giacomo; Stravato, Antonella; Scorsetti, Marta; Cozzi, Luca [Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Department, Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan-Rozzano I-20098 (Italy); Fleckenstein, Jens; Schneider, Frank; Lohr, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim D-68167 (Germany); Pachoud, Marc; Ghandour, Sarah [Radiation Oncology Department, Hôpital Riviera Chablais, Vevey CH-1800 (Switzerland); Krauss, Harald [Radio-Oncology Department, Kaiser Franz Josef Spital, Vienna A-1100 (Austria)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Flattening filter free (FFF) beams generated by medical linear accelerators are today clinically used for stereotactical and non-stereotactical radiotherapy treatments. Such beams differ from the standard flattened beams (FF) in the high dose rate and the profile shape peaked on the beam central axis. Definition of new parameters as unflatness and slope for FFF beams has been proposed based on a renormalization factor for FFF profiles. The present study aims to assess the dosimetric differences between FFF beams generated by linear accelerators from different vendors, and to provide renormalization and parameter data of the two kinds of units. Methods: Dosimetric data from two Varian TrueBeam and two Elekta Versa HD linear accelerators, all with 6 and 10 MV nominal accelerating potentials, FF and FFF modes have been collected. Renormalization factors and related fit parameters according to Fogliata et al. [“Definition of parameters for quality assurance of flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams in radiation therapy,” Med. Phys. 39, 6455–6464 (2012)] have been evaluated for FFF beams of both units and energies. Unflatness and slope parameters from profile curves were evaluated. Dosimetric differences in terms of beam penetration and near-the-surface dose were also assessed. Results: FFF profile parameters have been updated; renormalization factors and unflatness from the Varian units are consistent with the published data. Elekta FFF beam qualities, different from the Varian generated beams, tend to express similar behaviour as the FF beam of the corresponding nominal energy. TPR{sub 20,10} for 6 and 10 MV FF and FFF TrueBeam beams are 0.665, 0.629 (6 MV) and 0.738, 0.703 (10 MV). The same figures for Versa HD units are 0.684, 0.678 (6 MV) and 0.734, 0.721 (10 MV). Conclusions: Renormalization factor and unflatness parameters evaluated from Varian and Elekta FFF beams are provided, in particular renormalization factors table and fit parameters.

  2. The influence of typical ways of operating and air-handling unit on the sensory pollution load from used bag filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysen, M.; Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether the sensory pollution emitted from a bag filter that had been used for 3 months in a suburban area in Denmark was influenced by different ways of operating the air-handling unit (AHU). Samples of the used filter were pre-conditioned to simulate thr...... the airflow outside working hours would significantly increase the sensory pollution emitted by a used bag filter immediately after the AHU is turned on, in comparison with continuous airflow through the AHU (P...... operating conditions: 1) switched off overnight; 2) airflow reduced to 10% overnight; and 3) continuous 100% operation. Outside air passed through the samples and the acceptability of the air after the filter was assessed by a panel of subjects. The results indicate that turning off the AHU or reducing...

  3. 78 FR 79709 - Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-302; NRC-2013-0283] Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION: Notice of receipt; availability; public meeting; and request...

  4. A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit for grey water treatment at household level in an urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2014-01-15

    Decentralised grey water treatment in urban slums using low-cost and robust technologies offers opportunities to minimise public health risks and to reduce environmental pollution caused by the highly polluted grey water i.e. with a COD and N concentration of 3000-6000 mg L(-1) and 30-40 mg L(-1), respectively. However, there has been very limited action research to reduce the pollution load from uncontrolled grey water discharge by households in urban slums. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the potential of a two-step filtration process to reduce the grey water pollution load in an urban slum using a crushed lava rock filter, to determine the main filter design and operation parameters and the effect of intermittent flow on the grey water effluent quality. A two-step crushed lava rock filter unit was designed and implemented for use by a household in the Bwaise III slum in Kampala city (Uganda). It was monitored at a varying hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 0.5-1.1 m d(-1) as well as at a constant HLR of 0.39 m d(-1). The removal efficiencies of COD, TP and TKN were, respectively, 85.9%, 58% and 65.5% under a varying HLR and 90.5%, 59.5% and 69%, when operating at a constant HLR regime. In addition, the log removal of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and total coliforms was, respectively, 3.8, 3.2 and 3.9 under the varying HLR and 3.9, 3.5 and 3.9 at a constant HLR. The results show that the use of a two-step filtration process as well as a lower constant HLR increased the pollutant removal efficiencies. Further research is needed to investigate the feasibility of adding a tertiary treatment step to increase the nutrients and microorganisms removal from grey water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermoluminescence dosimeters with narrow bandpass filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Scottie W.

    2004-07-20

    A dosimetry method exposes more than one thermoluminescence crystals to radiation without using conventional filters, and reads the energy stored in the crystals by converting the energy to light in a conventional manner, and then filters each crystal output in a different portion of the spectrum generated by the crystals.

  6. Development of Filter-Blower Unit for use in the Advanced Nuclear Biological Chemical Protection System (ANBCPS) Helicopter/Transport-aircraft version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, R.; Reffeltrath, P.A.; Jonkman, A.; Post, T.

    2006-01-01

    As a participant in the three-nation partnership for development of the ANBCP-S for use in Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Fast Jet, the Royal Netherlands Airforce (RNLAF) picked up the challenge to design a Filter- Blower-Unit (FBU). Major Command (MajCom) of the RNLAF set priority to develop a

  7. Changing ventilation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1980-01-01

    A filter changing unit has a door which interlocks with the door of a filter chamber so as to prevent contamination of the outer surfaces of the doors by radioactive material collected on the filter element and a movable support which enables a filter chamber thereonto to be stored within the unit in such a way that the doors of the unit and the filter chamber can be replaced. The door pivots and interlocks with another door by means of a bolt, a seal around the periphery lip of the first door engages the periphery of the second door to seal the gap. A support pivots into a lower filter element storage position. Inspection windows and glove ports are provided. The unit is releasably connected to the filter chamber by bolts engaging in a flange provided around an opening. (author)

  8. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Crystal River Unit 3 case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.A.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Crystal River Unit 3 nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  9. Combined UMC- DFT prediction of electron-hole coupling in unit cells of pentacene crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Luciano Almeida; de Souza Júnior, Rafael Timóteo; de Almeida Fonseca, Antonio Luciano; Ribeiro Junior, Luiz Antonio; Blawid, Stefan; da Silva Filho, Demetrio Antonio; da Cunha, Wiliam Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Pentacene is an organic semiconductor that draws special attention from the scientific community due to the high mobility of its charge carriers. As electron-hole interactions are important aspects in the regard of such property, a computationally inexpensive method to predict the coupling between these quasi-particles is highly desired. In this work, we propose a hybrid methodology of combining Uncoupled Monte Carlo Simulations (UMC) and Density functional Theory (DFT) methodologies to obtain a good compromise between computational feasibility and accuracy. As a first step in considering a Pentacene crystal, we describe its unit cell: the Pentacene Dimer. Because many conformations can be encountered for the dimer and considering the complexity of the system, we make use of UMC in order to find the most probable structures and relative orientations for the Pentacene-Pentacene complex. Following, we carry out electronic structure calculations in the scope of DFT with the goal of describing the electron-hole coupling on the most probable configurations obtained by UMC. The comparison of our results with previously reported data on the literature suggests that the methodology is well suited for describing transfer integrals of organic semiconductors. The observed accuracy together with the smaller computational cost required by our approach allows us to conclude that such methodology might be an important tool towards the description of systems with higher complexity.

  10. Modified septic tank-anaerobic filter unit as a two-stage onsite domestic wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meena Kumari; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the performance evaluation of a uniquely designed two-stage system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater. The system consisted of two upflow anaerobic bioreactors, a modified septic tank followed by an upflow anaerobic filter, accommodated within a single cylindrical unit. The system was started up without inoculation at 24 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). It achieved a steady-state condition after 120 days. The system was observed to be remarkably efficient in removing pollutants during steady-state condition with the average removal efficiency of 88.6 +/- 3.7% for chemical oxygen demand, 86.3 +/- 4.9% for biochemical oxygen demand and 91.2 +/- 9.7% for total suspended solids. The microbial analysis revealed a high reduction (>90%) capacity of the system for indicator organism and pathogens. It also showed a very good endurance against imposed hydraulic shock load. Tracer study showed that the flow pattern was close to plug flow reactor. Mean HRT was also found to be close to the designed value.

  11. Item 01: Peculiarities during installation of forced filtered venting system, units 3 and 4 of Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    2005-01-01

    The Forced Filtered Venting System (FFV) is designated to minimize the uncontrolled and unfiltered release of activity to the environment due to untightness of the confinement in case of a severe accident. In this paper the flow diagram of FFV, Units 3 and 4 is shown and the main components of the system which are installed in RB, in Rooms A 031/2, A032/3, A031/4, at elevation 2.10 m are described. Calculation models of the pipelines of FFV were developed based on the requirements to the design and the input data, which were collected and analyzed. The graphic part of the model is presented at calculation schemes. The pipelines are checked according to the requirements of the ASME Code and the equations for calculation of the connected pipelines are stipulated in ASME NC-3650. The enclosed photos illustrate the most relevant positions of the modifications. In conclusion the positive aspects of the mounting experience for this unique installation are analyzed and the weak points are stated aiming at the improvement of the quality of preparation, organization and complete performance for similar facilities

  12. Laboratory for filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, W.

    1987-07-01

    Filters used for mine draining in brown coal surface mines are tested by the Mine Draining Department of Poltegor. Laboratory tests of new types of filters developed by Poltegor are analyzed. Two types of tests are used: tests of scale filter models and tests of experimental units of new filters. Design and operation of the test stands used for testing mechanical properties and hydraulic properties of filters for coal mines are described: dimensions, pressure fluctuations, hydraulic equipment. Examples of testing large-diameter filters for brown coal mines are discussed.

  13. Summary of failed reactor coolant pump rotating assembly experience at Crystal River Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayner, G.O.; Clary, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Four reactor coolant pump (RCP) rotating assemblies (shafts) have failed or have severely cracked during operation at the Crystal River Unit 3 (CR-3) Nuclear Power Plant. The two failed shafts removed from RCP-1A have been extensively examined. All of the RCP shafts (except the D shaft) were fabricated from UNS S66286 superalloy (Alloy A-286). The D shaft was fabricated from UNS S20910 (Alloy XM-19/Nitronic 50). Torsional strain gauge analysis was performed on the RCP-1A shaft during the 1990 refueling outage. This type of analysis has not been performed previously on an operating RCP. Several results were found including: (1) the primary components of alternating torsional stress during normal RCP operation are impeller vane pass and a sub-2X torsional resonance with maximum components of ∼±0.8 ksi; (2) a typical vane pass cycle is initiated by an abrupt unloading of the shaft followed by a reload past equilibrium and a damped return to equilibrium; (3) a higher (compared to normal four pump operation) alternating torsional stress range resulted from solo operation of RCP-1A at low temperature and pressure (normal startup conditions); (4) the 2/0 combination produced the highest mean torsional stresses and the lowest alternating stresses and (5) a startup of a secured RCP with three operating pumps results in significantly higher alternating stress than a cold startup. The root cause RCP failure mechanism appears to involve RCP startup sequence at CR-3, peculiarities that necessitate this sequence and complex shaft stresses just above or under the journal bearing. The 1986 impeller bolt failure is not considered to be a root cause effect. It was also determined that fatigue cracking has always been responsible for both shaft initiation and propagation mechanisms and cracking can occur independent of shaft material

  14. Examination of a failed reactor coolant pump rotating assembly from Crystal River Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayner, G.O.; Lubnow, T.; Clary, M.

    1990-01-01

    On January 18, 1989, the A reactor coolant pump rotating assembly at the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Power Plant failed during operation. A rotating assembly from this pump had previously failed in 1986. The reactor coolant pump was fabricated by Byron Jackson Pump Division of Borg-Warner Ind. Products, Inc. from UNS S66286 superalloy (Alloy A286). A root cause failure analysis examination was performed on the pump shaft and other components. The failure analysis included shaft vibrational mode and stress analyses, pump clearance and alignment analyses, and detailed destructive examination of the shaft and hydrostatic bearing assemblies. Based on the detailed physical examination of the shaft it was concluded that cracks initiated in the pump shaft at two sites approximately 180 0 apart in a band of shallow, thermally induced fatigue cracks. The cracks initiated at the bottom edge of the motor end shrink fit pad under the shrink fit sleeve supporting the hydrostatic bearing journal. The band of thermally induced fatigue cracks was apparently caused by mixing of cold seal injection water and hot reactor coolant in gaps between the pump shaft and sleeve. The motor end shrink fit was apparently not effective in preventing introduction of the seal injection water to this area. Initial crack propagation occurred by fatigue due to lateral vibration; however, the majority of crack propagation occurred by abnormal torsional fatigue loading induced by contact and sticking between the rotating and stationary portions of the hydrostatic bearing. Final fracture of the shaft occurred by torsional overload. Metallurgical characteristics and mechanical properties of the shaft were within design specification and probably did not significantly influence the cracking process

  15. Design of an elliptic spot illumination system in LED-based color filter-liquid-crystal-on-silicon pico projectors for mobile embedded projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Enguo; Yu, Feihong

    2012-06-01

    We present an elliptic spot illumination system for a color filter-liquid-crystal-on-silicon (CF-LCoS) pico projector employing a specifically designed free-form lens and a cylindrical lens to improve on previous designs in terms of optical efficiency while yielding an ultracompact and low-cost optical architecture. The detailed design description of the optical system is thoroughly investigated. Simulation results coincide well with the theoretical calculation. The single 1  mm×1  mm LED chip-powered optical engine, which employs a CF-LCoS panel with a diagonal of 0.28 in and an aspect ratio of 4:3, has an estimated output efficiency over 9.8% (11.8 lm@1 W) and an ANSI 9-point uniformity over 88.5%, with the ultrasmall volume 24  mm×19  mm×7  mm. Compared to the circular spot-illuminated projection system, a total increment of about 23% of system efficiency is available with this improved optical engine. It is believed that there would be a huge market potential to commercialize our design.

  16. Side loading filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    A side loading filter chamber for use with radioactive gases is described. The equipment incorporates an inexpensive, manually operated, mechanism for aligning filter units with a number of laterally spaced wall openings and for removing the units from the chamber. (U.K.)

  17. Social and Demographic Factors Influencing Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval at a Single Institution in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S. Christian, E-mail: csmith@aemrc.arizona.edu; Shanks, Candace, E-mail: Candace.Shanks@osumc.edu; Guy, Gregory, E-mail: Gregory.Guy@osumc.edu; Yang, Xiangyu, E-mail: Xiangyu.Yang@osumc.edu; Dowell, Joshua D., E-mail: Joshua.Dowell@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeRetrievable inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) are associated with long-term adverse events that have increased interest in improving filter retrieval rates. Determining the influential patient social and demographic factors affecting IVCF retrieval is important to personalize patient management strategies and attain optimal patient care.Materials and MethodsSeven-hundred and sixty-two patients were retrospectively studied who had a filter placed at our institution between January 2011 and November 2013. Age, gender, race, cancer history, distance to residence from retrieval institution, and insurance status were identified for each patient, and those receiving retrievable IVCFs were further evaluated for retrieval rate and time to retrieval.ResultsOf the 762 filters placed, 133 were permanent filters. Of the 629 retrievable filters placed, 406 met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for retrieval. Results revealed patients with Medicare were less likely to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.031). Older age was also associated with a lower likelihood of retrieval (p < 0.001) as was living further from the medical center (p = 0.027). Patients who were white and had Medicare were more likely than similarly insured black patients to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.024).ConclusionsThe retrieval rate of IVCFs was most influenced by insurance status, distance from the medical center, and age. Race was statistically significant only when combined with insurance status. The results of this study suggest that these patient groups may need closer follow-up in order to obtain optimal IVCF retrieval rates.

  18. Social and Demographic Factors Influencing Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval at a Single Institution in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S. Christian; Shanks, Candace; Guy, Gregory; Yang, Xiangyu; Dowell, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeRetrievable inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) are associated with long-term adverse events that have increased interest in improving filter retrieval rates. Determining the influential patient social and demographic factors affecting IVCF retrieval is important to personalize patient management strategies and attain optimal patient care.Materials and MethodsSeven-hundred and sixty-two patients were retrospectively studied who had a filter placed at our institution between January 2011 and November 2013. Age, gender, race, cancer history, distance to residence from retrieval institution, and insurance status were identified for each patient, and those receiving retrievable IVCFs were further evaluated for retrieval rate and time to retrieval.ResultsOf the 762 filters placed, 133 were permanent filters. Of the 629 retrievable filters placed, 406 met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for retrieval. Results revealed patients with Medicare were less likely to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.031). Older age was also associated with a lower likelihood of retrieval (p < 0.001) as was living further from the medical center (p = 0.027). Patients who were white and had Medicare were more likely than similarly insured black patients to have their filters retrieved (p = 0.024).ConclusionsThe retrieval rate of IVCFs was most influenced by insurance status, distance from the medical center, and age. Race was statistically significant only when combined with insurance status. The results of this study suggest that these patient groups may need closer follow-up in order to obtain optimal IVCF retrieval rates

  19. Frequency shift of a crystal quartz resonator in thickness-shear modes induced by an array of hemispherical material units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuantai Hu; Huiliang Hu; Bin Luo; Huan Xue; Jiemin Xie; Ji Wang

    2013-08-01

    A two-dimensional model was established to study the dynamic characteristics of a quartz crystal resonator with the upper surface covered by an array of hemispherical material units. A frequency-dependent equivalent mass ratio was proposed to simulate the effect of the covered units on frequency shift of the resonator system. It was found that the equivalent mass ratio alternately becomes positive or negative with change of shear modulus and radius of each material unit, which indicates that the equivalent mass ratio is strongly related to the vibration mode of the covered loadings. The further numerical results show the cyclical feature in the relationship of frequency shift and shear modulus/radius as expected. The solutions are useful in the analysis of frequency stability of quartz resonators and acoustic wave sensors.

  20. The ''Gent'' stacked filter unit (SFU) sampler for the collection of atmospheric aerosols in two size fractions: Description and instructions for installation and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Francois, F.; Cafmeyer, J.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a description and general instructions for the installation and use of the ''Gent'' Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) PM10 sampler. The sampler operates at a flow rate of 16 litres per min. It collects particulates which have an equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD) of less than 10 μm in separate ''coarse'' (2-10 μm EAD) and ''fine'' ( 10 μm EAD particles is accomplished by a PM10 pre-impaction stage upstream of the stacked filter cassette. The air is drawn through the sampler by means of a diaphragm vacuum pump, which is enclosed in a special housing together with a needle valve, vacuum gauge, flow meter, volume meter, time switch (for interrupted sampling) and hour meter. A list of manufacturers of the various components of the sampler is also given. (author). 4 figs, 1 tab

  1. A program for the derivation of crystal unit cell parameters from X-ray powder diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, I.F.; Rogerson, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    The program, FIRESTAR, determines the dimensions of a crystallographic unit cell from a set of X-ray powder diffraction measurements corresponding to a set of Bragg reflections, provided that the crystal system applicable is known and the Bragg reflections have been indexed. The program includes a range of possible extrapolation functions, and the data may be weighted. Provision is made for detecting and rejecting a single 'bad' measurement, and then rejecting measurements which lie outside an error limit set in the input data. (orig.)

  2. Gravity driven and in situ fractional crystallization processes in the Centre Hill complex, Abitibi Subprovince, Canada: Evidence from bilaterally-paired cyclic units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, R. D.; Fowler, A. D.

    1996-12-01

    The formation of layers in mafic intrusions has been explained by various processes, making it the subject of much controversy. The concept that layering originates from gravitational settling of crystals has been superseded in recent years by models involving in situ fractional crystallization. Here we present evidence from the Centre Hill complex that both processes may be operative simultaneously within the same intrusion. The Centre Hill complex is part of the Munro Lake sill, an Archean layered mafic intrusion emplaced in volcanic rocks of the Abitibi Subprovince. The Centre Hill complex comprises the following lithostratigraphic units: six lower cyclic units of peridotite and clinopyroxenite; a middle unit of leucogabbro; six upper cyclic units of branching-textured gabbro (BTG) and clotted-textured gabbro (CTG), the uppermost of these units being overlain by a marginal zone of fine-grained gabbro. The cyclic units of peridotite/clinopyroxenite and BTG/CTG are interpreted to have formed concurrently through fractional crystallization, associated with periodic replenishment of magma to the chamber. The units of peridotite and clinopyroxenite formed by gravitational accumulation of crystals that grew under the roof. The cyclic units of BTG and CTG formed along the upper margin of the sill by two different mechanisms: (1) layers of BTG crystallized in situ along an inward-growing roof and (2) layers of CTG formed by accumulation of buoyant plagioclase crystals. The layers of BTG are characterized by branching pseudomorphs after fayalite up to 50 cm in length that extend away from the upper margin. The original branching crystals are interpreted to have grown from stagnant intercumulus melt in a high thermal gradient resulting from the injection of new magma to the chamber.

  3. Zero Calcium Score as a Filter for Further Testing in Patients Admitted to the Coronary Care Unit with Chest Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Luis Cláudio Lemos; Esteves, Fábio P; Carvalhal, Manuela; Souza, Thiago Menezes Barbosa de; Sá, Nicole de; Correia, Vitor Calixto de Almeida; Alexandre, Felipe Kalil Beirão; Lopes, Fernanda; Ferreira, Felipe; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia

    2017-06-12

    The accuracy of zero coronary calcium score as a filter in patients with chest pain has been demonstrated at the emergency room and outpatient clinics, populations with low prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). To test the gatekeeping role of zero calcium score in patients with chest pain admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU), where the pretest probability of CAD is higher than that of other populations. Patients underwent computed tomography for calcium scoring, and obstructive CAD was defined by a minimum 70% stenosis on invasive angiography. In 146 patients studied, the prevalence of CAD was 41%. A zero calcium score was present in 35% of the patients. The sensitivity and specificity of zero calcium score yielded a negative likelihood ratio of 0.16. After logistic regression adjustment for pretest probability, zero calcium score was independently associated with lower odds of CAD (OR = 0.12, 95%CI = 0.04-0.36), increasing the area under the ROC curve of the clinical model from 0.76 to 0.82 (p = 0.006). Zero calcium score provided a net reclassification improvement of 0.20 (p = 0.0018) over the clinical model when using a pretest probability threshold of 10% for discharging without further testing. In patients with pretest probability zero calcium score had a negative predictive value of 95% (95%CI = 83%-99%), with a number needed to test of 2.1 for obtaining one additional discharge. Zero calcium score substantially reduces the pretest probability of obstructive CAD in patients admitted to the CCU with acute chest pain. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0). A acurácia do escore de cálcio coronário zero como um filtro nos pacientes com dor torácica aguda tem sido demonstrada na sala de emergência e nos ambulatórios, populações com baixa prevalência de doença arterial coronariana (DAC). Testar o papel do escore de cálcio zero como filtro nos pacientes com dor torácica admitidos numa unidade coronariana intensiva (UCI), na

  4. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  5. Evaluation Of Open, Wedge Filtered And Half Block Profile For Single And Plan Parallel Field For 60Co Teletherapy Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heru-Prasetio; Nasukha; Soejoko, Djarwani S

    2003-01-01

    TPS shall be evaluated with experimental data before it is used for patient treatment. This experiment was performed using small water phantom, at the depth of 10 cm, SSD technique for single beam and 16 cm, SAD technique for plan parallel beam. Measuring device used in this experiment is Farmer 2571 detector. It was found differences between experiment and TPS iSis are not significant. Single field experiment and TPS differences of 0.6%, 3.6% and 0.1% for open, wedge filter and half-blocked field, for plan parallel experiment and TPS differences are 2.1%, 2% and 2.4% for open, wedge filter and half-blocked field. (author)

  6. The history of ceramic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishima, S

    2000-01-01

    The history of ceramic filters is surveyed. Included is the history of piezoelectric ceramics. Ceramic filters were developed using technology similar to that of quartz crystal and electro-mechanical filters. However, the key to this development involved the theoretical analysis of vibration modes and material improvements of piezoelectric ceramics. The primary application of ceramic filters has been for consumer-market use. Accordingly, a major emphasis has involved mass production technology, leading to low-priced devices. A typical ceramic filter includes monolithic resonators and capacitors packaged in unique configurations.

  7. Optimization of phononic filters via genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, M I [University of Colorado, Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0429 (United States); El-Beltagy, M A [Cairo University, Faculty of Computers and Information, 5 Dr. Ahmed Zewail Street, 12613 Giza (Egypt)

    2007-12-15

    A phononic crystal is commonly characterized by its dispersive frequency spectrum. With appropriate spatial distribution of the constituent material phases, spectral stop bands could be generated. Moreover, it is possible to control the number, the width, and the location of these bands within a frequency range of interest. This study aims at exploring the relationship between unit cell configuration and frequency spectrum characteristics. Focusing on 1D layered phononic crystals, and longitudinal wave propagation in the direction normal to the layering, the unit cell features of interest are the number of layers and the material phase and relative thickness of each layer. An evolutionary search for binary- and ternary-phase cell designs exhibiting a series of stop bands at predetermined frequencies is conducted. A specially formulated representation and set of genetic operators that break the symmetries in the problem are developed for this purpose. An array of optimal designs for a range of ratios in Young's modulus and density are obtained and the corresponding objective values (the degrees to which the resulting bands match the predetermined targets) are examined as a function of these ratios. It is shown that a rather complex filtering objective could be met with a high degree of success. Structures composed of the designed phononic crystals are excellent candidates for use in a wide range of applications including sound and vibration filtering.

  8. Optimization of phononic filters via genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M I; El-Beltagy, M A

    2007-01-01

    A phononic crystal is commonly characterized by its dispersive frequency spectrum. With appropriate spatial distribution of the constituent material phases, spectral stop bands could be generated. Moreover, it is possible to control the number, the width, and the location of these bands within a frequency range of interest. This study aims at exploring the relationship between unit cell configuration and frequency spectrum characteristics. Focusing on 1D layered phononic crystals, and longitudinal wave propagation in the direction normal to the layering, the unit cell features of interest are the number of layers and the material phase and relative thickness of each layer. An evolutionary search for binary- and ternary-phase cell designs exhibiting a series of stop bands at predetermined frequencies is conducted. A specially formulated representation and set of genetic operators that break the symmetries in the problem are developed for this purpose. An array of optimal designs for a range of ratios in Young's modulus and density are obtained and the corresponding objective values (the degrees to which the resulting bands match the predetermined targets) are examined as a function of these ratios. It is shown that a rather complex filtering objective could be met with a high degree of success. Structures composed of the designed phononic crystals are excellent candidates for use in a wide range of applications including sound and vibration filtering

  9. Mesomorphic and structural properties of liquid crystal possessing a chiral lactate unit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Das, B.; Pramanik, A.; Das, M.K.; Bubnov, Alexej; Hamplová, Věra; Kašpar, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1013, APR (2012), s. 119-125 ISSN 0022-2860 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100911; GA AV ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0047; GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0723 Grant - others:RFASI(RU) 02.740.11.5166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : liquid crystals * phase transition * N*-TGB A * x-ray diffraction * differential scanning calorimetry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.404, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022286012000440

  10. Unit-cell design for two-dimensional phase-field simulation of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjia Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase-field simulation serves as an effective tool for quantitative characterization of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification nowadays. The classic unit cell is either limited to γ dendrites along crystal orientation or too ideal to cover complex morphologies for γ dendrites. An attempt to design the unit cell for two-dimensional (2-D phase-field simulations of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification was thus performed by using the MICRESS (MICRostructure Evolution Simulation Software in the framework of the multi-phase-field (MPF model, and demonstrated in a commercial TMS-113 superalloy. The coupling to CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram thermodynamic database was realized via the TQ interface and the experimental diffusion coefficients were utilized in the simulation. Firstly, the classic unit cell with a single γ dendrite along crystal orientation was employed for the phase-field simulation in order to reproduce the microstructure features. Then, such simple unit cell was extended into the cases with two other different crystal orientations, i.e., and . Thirdly, for crystal orientations, the effect of γ dendritic orientations and unit cell sizes on microstructure and microsegregation was comprehensively studied, from which a new unit cell with multiple γ dendrites was proposed. The phase-field simulation with the newly proposed unit cell was further performed in the TMS-113 superalloy, and the microstructure features including the competitive growth of γ dendrites, microsegregation of different solutes and distribution of γ′ grains, can be nicely reproduced.

  11. Failure of action potential propagation in sensory neurons: mechanisms and loss of afferent filtering in C-type units after painful nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemes, Geza; Koopmeiners, Andrew; Rigaud, Marcel; Lirk, Philipp; Sapunar, Damir; Bangaru, Madhavi Latha; Vilceanu, Daniel; Garrison, Sheldon R; Ljubkovic, Marko; Mueller, Samantha J; Stucky, Cheryl L; Hogan, Quinn H

    2013-02-15

    The T-junction of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a potential impediment to action potential (AP) propagation towards the CNS. Using intracellular recordings from rat DRG neuronal somata during stimulation of the dorsal root, we determined that the maximal rate at which all of 20 APs in a train could successfully transit the T-junction (following frequency) was lowest in C-type units, followed by A-type units with inflected descending limbs of the AP, and highest in A-type units without inflections. In C-type units, following frequency was slower than the rate at which AP trains could be produced in either dorsal root axonal segments or in the soma alone, indicating that the T-junction is a site that acts as a low-pass filter for AP propagation. Following frequency was slower for a train of 20 APs than for two, indicating that a cumulative process leads to propagation failure. Propagation failure was accompanied by diminished somatic membrane input resistance, and was enhanced when Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) currents were augmented or when Ca(2+)-sensitive Cl(-) currents were blocked. After peripheral nerve injury, following frequencies were increased in axotomized C-type neurons and decreased in axotomized non-inflected A-type neurons. These findings reveal that the T-junction in sensory neurons is a regulator of afferent impulse traffic. Diminished filtering of AP trains at the T-junction of C-type neurons with axotomized peripheral processes could enhance the transmission of activity that is ectopically triggered in a neuroma or the neuronal soma, possibly contributing to pain generation.

  12. Electro-optical tunable birefringent filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinton, Fred M [Princeton, NJ

    2012-01-31

    An electrically tunable Lyot type filter is a Lyot that include one or more filter elements. Each filter element may have a planar, solid crystal comprised of a material that exhibits birefringence and is electro-optically active. Transparent electrodes may be coated on each face of the crystal. An input linear light polarizer may be located on one side of the crystal and oriented at 45 degrees to the optical axis of the birefringent crystal. An output linear light polarizer may be located on the other side of the crystal and oriented at -45 degrees with respect to the optical axis of the birefringent crystal. When an electric voltage is applied between the electrodes, the retardation of the crystal changes and so does the spectral transmission of the optical filter.

  13. Neutron Beam Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of filters is to transmit neutrons with selected energy, while remove unwanted ones from the incident neutron beam. This reduces the background, and the number of spurious. The types of commonly used now-a-day neutron filters and their properties are discussed in the present work. There are three major types of neutron filters. The first type is filter of selective thermal neutron. It transmits the main reflected neutrons from a crystal monochromate, while reject the higher order contaminations accompanying the main one. Beams coming from the moderator always contain unwanted radiation like fast neutrons and gamma-rays which contribute to experimental background and to the biological hazard potential. Such filter type is called filter of whole thermal neutron spectrum. The third filter type is it transmits neutrons with energies in the resonance energy range (En . 1 KeV). The main idea of such neutron filter technique is the use of large quantities of a certain material which have the deep interference minima in its total neutron cross-section. By transmitting reactor neutrons through bulk layer of such material, one can obtain the quasimonochromatic neutron lines instead of white reactor spectrum.

  14. TRAC analysis of the Crystal River Unit-3 Plant transient of February 26, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coddington, P.; Willcutt, G.J.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the TRAC-PD2 and TRAC-PF1 codes to analyze the Crystal River transient. The PD2 and PF1 analyses used the three-dimensional and one-dimensional vessel models, respectively. Both calculations predicted the plant depressurization caused by the open PORV and the subsequent repressurization caused by closing the PORV and continuing high-pressure injection flow. Also, natural circulation was calculated in loop B following reestablishment of feedwater to the loop-B steam generator. After system repressurization, the codes calculated that pressure was relieved through the safety valves, and an intermittent flow occurred in loop A because of high-pressure-injection-driven density variations

  15. Fourier transform imaging of impurities in the unit cells of crystals: Mn in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.-L.; Bihler, C.; Schoch, W.; Limmer, W.; Daeubler, J.; Thieß, S.; Brandt, M. S.; Zegenhagen, J.

    2010-06-01

    The lattice sites of Mn in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As thin films were imaged using the x-ray standing wave technique. The model-free images, obtained straightforwardly by Fourier inversion, disclose immediately that the Mn mostly substitutes the Ga with a small fraction residing on minority sites. The images further reveal variations in the Mn concentrations of the different sites upon post-growth treatments. Subsequent model refinement based on the directly reconstructed images resolves with high precision the complete Mn site distributions. It is found that post-growth annealing increases the fraction of substitutional Mn at the expense of interstitial Mn whereas hydrogenation has little influence on the Mn site distribution. Our study offers an element-specific high-resolution imaging approach for accurately determining the detailed site distributions of dilute concentrations of atoms in crystals.

  16. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  17. Crystal structures of titanium–aluminium and –gallium complexes bearing two μ2-CH3 units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Oswald

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The isotypic crystal structures of two titanocene complexes containing an EMe3 unit (E = Al, Ga; Me = methyl with two μ2-coordinating methyl groups, namely [μ-1(η5-(adamantan-1-yl-2κC1cycylopentadienyl]di-μ2-methyl-methyl-2κC-[1(η5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]aluminiumtitanium(III, [AlTi(CH33(C10H15(C15H18], and [μ-1(η5-(adamantan-1-yl-2κC1cycylopentadienyl]di-μ2-methyl-methyl-2κC-[1(η5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]galliumtitanium(III, [GaTi(CH33(C10H15(C15H18], are reported. Reacting a dinuclear nitrogen-bridged low-valent titanium(III complex with the Lewis acids AlMe3 or GaMe3 results in the loss of molecular dinitrogen and the formation of two monomeric titanocene(III fragments bearing two μ2-bridging methyl groups. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals the formation of a new E—C bond involving the pentafulvene ligand while the bridging and terminal methyl groups remain intact.

  18. Quasi bound states in the continuum with few unit cells of photonic crystal slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Chung, Il-Sug

    2017-01-01

    cell structures. They are explained by a viewpoint of BICs originating from the tight-binding of individual resonances of each unit cell as in semiconductors. Combined with a reciprocal-space matching technique, the microcavities based on quasi-BICs can achieve a Q-factor as high as defect-based Ph...

  19. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-07-30

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  20. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-09-03

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies.

  1. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Kenneth D.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies

  2. Technical evaluation of RETS-required reports for Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3, for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magleby, E.H.; Young, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    A review was performed on the reports required by Federal regulations and the plant-specific Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for operations conducted at Florida Power Corporation's Crystal River Nuclear Plant, Unit 3, during 1983. The three periodic reports reviewed were (1) the Effluent and Waste Disposal Semiannual Report, January 1-June 30, 1983, (2) the Effluent and Waste Disposal Semiannual Report, July 1-December 31, 1983, and (3) the Annual Environmental Operating Report, Radiological, 1983. The principal review guidelines were the plant's specific RETS and NRC guidance given in NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The Licensee's submitted reports were found to be reasonably complete and consistent with the review guidelines

  3. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 8 AND 9 CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 8 and 9 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  4. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Kenneth D.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  5. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Kenneth D.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  6. Enhancement of loss detection capability using a combination of the Kalman Filter/Linear Smoother and controllable unit accounting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, D.H.; Morrison, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    An approach to loss detection is presented which combines the optimal loss detection capability of state estimation techniques with a controllable unit accounting approach. The state estimation theory makes use of a linear system model which is capable of modeling the interaction of various controllable unit areas within a given facility. An example is presented which illustrates the increase in loss detection probability which is realizable with state estimation techniques. Comparisons are made with a Shewhart Control Chart and the CUSUM statistic

  7. Rectifier Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Bladyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains definition of a smoothing factor which is suitable for any rectifier filter. The formulae of complex smoothing factors have been developed for simple and complex passive filters. The paper shows conditions for application of calculation formulae and filters

  8. Condensate treatment in BWR circuits by filter demineralizer units using powdered ion exchange resin at medium and high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Martino, R.

    1983-01-01

    Considering the radiation build-up in some BWR reactors, we make a correlation between this phenomenon and the condensate purification system applied and the point of its utilization into the circuits. The application temperature of such a plant seems to have a very important role on the equilibria of metals contained in the reactor water and on the oxide composition. The efficiency of the condensate polishing system and the corrosion control are the most interesting objectives to achieve and to maintain, to control and regulate the physical and chemical process in the feedwater and in the reactor water. Up to date the technology owns major knowledge and a consistent know-how on using chemical products in order to increase the condensate polishing system efficiency. It is also considered a typical parallel case of a conventional power station and a secondary system of BWR units. (author)

  9. Real-time mass measurement of dust particles deposited on vessel wall in a divertor simulator using quartz crystal microbalances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateishi, Mizuki; Koga, Kazunori; Katayama, Ryu; Yamashita, Daisuke; Kamataki, Kunihiro; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Shiratani, Masaharu; Ashikawa, Naoko; Masuzaki, Suguru; Nishimura, Kiyohiko; Sagara, Akio

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a dust monitoring method using quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) equipped with a dust eliminating filter. Here we report a dust eliminating ratio of the filter and first measurement results of the QCMs in a divertor simulator. The volume of spherical dust in unit area on the filter and QCM under the filter were 2.09 × 10 −9 and 1.22 × 10 −10 m 3 m −2 , respectively. Thus, the dust eliminating ratio of the filter is 94.2%. The QCM without the filter gives deposition rate due to radicals and dust particles, whereas the QCM with the filter gives deposition rate predominantly due to radicals. From the results, we deduce information of mass fraction of dust particles in deposits

  10. Filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to liquid filters, precoated by replaceable powders, which are used in the production of ultra pure water required for steam generation of electricity. The filter elements are capable of being installed and removed by remote control so that they can be used in nuclear power reactors. (UK)

  11. Progress towards the use of disposable filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macphail, I.

    1979-08-01

    Thermally degradable materials have been evaluated for service in HEPA filter units used to filter gases from active plants. The motivation was to reduce the bulk storage problems of contaminated filters by thermal decomposition to gaseous products and a solid residue substantially comprised of the filtered particulates. It is shown that while there are no commercially available alternatives to the glass fibre used in the filter medium, it would be feasible to manufacture the filter case and spacers from materials which could be incinerated. Operating temperatures, costs and the type of residues for disposal are discussed for filter case materials. (U.K.)

  12. Tunable electro-optic filter stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa

    2017-09-05

    A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.

  13. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  14. Replacement of fluid-filter elements without interruption of flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, R. A.; Ward, J. B.

    1969-01-01

    Gatling-type filter assembly, preloaded with several filter elements enables filter replacement without breaking into the operative fluid system. When the filter element becomes contaminated, a unit inner subassembly is rotated 60 degrees to position a clean filter in the line.

  15. Move towards bag filter units in kiln dedusting; Vers l'utilisation de filtres a manches en four a ciment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobesberger, M.

    2000-02-01

    Dedusting of kiln gases has become a major concern for cement companies worldwide due to the more and more stringent environmental standards. This short paper draws out an overview of the recent trends in dedusting techniques using bag filters. A comparison is made between different factories and their experience in the use of bag filters made of different materials or used in different operating conditions. The lifetime of these filters is the main problem to deal with and depends on various factors such as the the material used, the air to cloth ratio, the flow rate, temperature, and moisture of the flue gases. (J.S.)

  16. A high-speed data-collection system for large-unit-cell crystals using an imaging plate as a detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Masaki; Imada, Katsumi; Katsube, Yukiteru; Tanaka, Nobuo; Higashi, Tsuneyuki

    1992-01-01

    A high-speed data-collection system for large-unit-cell crystals is presented, using the Fuji Imaging Plate as an X-ray detector and a rotating-anode generator as the X-ray source. It is an automatic data-acquisition system that requires almost no manual intervention. The quality of data collected on the system is discussed. Merging R values ranged from 0.04 to 0.05. Compared with a four-circle diffractometer, data reproducibility was better, isomorphous/anomalous Patterson maps were almost identical in quality and data from a small-molecule crystal, cytidine, were of almost the same quality. Protein structures were refinable using the data measured on the system, the final crystallographic R value of the 2.2 A 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase structure being 0.185 and that of the 1.88 A Flammulina veltipes agglutinin structure being 0.199. (orig.)

  17. Band structures of two dimensional solid/air hierarchical phononic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.L.; Tian, X.G.; Chen, C.Q.

    2012-01-01

    The hierarchical phononic crystals to be considered show a two-order “hierarchical” feature, which consists of square array arranged macroscopic periodic unit cells with each unit cell itself including four sub-units. Propagation of acoustic wave in such two dimensional solid/air phononic crystals is investigated by the finite element method (FEM) with the Bloch theory. Their band structure, wave filtering property, and the physical mechanism responsible for the broadened band gap are explored. The corresponding ordinary phononic crystal without hierarchical feature is used for comparison. Obtained results show that the solid/air hierarchical phononic crystals possess tunable outstanding band gap features, which are favorable for applications such as sound insulation and vibration attenuation.

  18. Band structures of two dimensional solid/air hierarchical phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.L.; Tian, X.G. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Structure Strength and Vibration, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, C.Q., E-mail: chencq@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics, AML and CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-06-15

    The hierarchical phononic crystals to be considered show a two-order 'hierarchical' feature, which consists of square array arranged macroscopic periodic unit cells with each unit cell itself including four sub-units. Propagation of acoustic wave in such two dimensional solid/air phononic crystals is investigated by the finite element method (FEM) with the Bloch theory. Their band structure, wave filtering property, and the physical mechanism responsible for the broadened band gap are explored. The corresponding ordinary phononic crystal without hierarchical feature is used for comparison. Obtained results show that the solid/air hierarchical phononic crystals possess tunable outstanding band gap features, which are favorable for applications such as sound insulation and vibration attenuation.

  19. B Plant exhaust filter inventory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, J.S.; Wootan, D.W.; Carter, L.L.; Bunch, W.L.; Covey, L.I.; Greenborg, J.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes a method for determining radionuclide inventories in filters using measurements of radiation fields that determine photon dose rates and photon-plus-electron dose rates between filter banks. The mathematical approach quantifies the curie inventories of filter banks by using the measured dose rates and the calculated Green's functions involving detector responses per unit source

  20. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  1. Filter This

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Barbakoff

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes Audrey Barbakoff, a librarian at the Milwaukee Public Library, and Ahniwa Ferrari, Virtual Experience Manager at the Pierce County Library System in Washington, for a point-counterpoint piece on filtering in libraries. The opinions expressed here are those of the authors, and are not endorsed by their employers. [...

  2. First-Principles Studies of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN) Single Crystal Unit Cell Volumes and Vibrational Frequencies under Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Warren F.; Zhao, Jijun; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2006-07-01

    The vibrational frequencies of the PETN molecular crystal were calculated using the first-principles CRYSTAL03 program which employs an all-electron LCAO approach and calculates analytic first derivatives of the total energy with respect to atomic displacements. Numerical second derivatives were used to enable calculation of the vibrational frequencies at ambient pressure and under various states of compression. Three different density functionals, B3LYP, PW91, and X3LYP were used to examine the effect of the exchange-correlation functional on the vibrational frequencies. The average deviation with experimental results is shown to be on the order of 2-3%, depending on the functional used. The pressure-induced shift of the vibrational frequencies is presented.

  3. Gaussian Filtering with Tapered Oil-Filled Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara; Scolari, Lara; Weirich, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A tunable Gaussian filter based on a tapered oil-filled photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated. The filter is centered at X=1364nm with a bandwidth (FWHM) of 237nm. Tunability is achieved by changing the temperature of the filter. A shift of 210nm of the central wavelength has been observed...

  4. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic Properties of Giant Unit Cell Intermetallics R117Co52+δSn112+γ (R = Y, La, Pr, Nd, Ho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallics R117Co52+δSn112+γ (R = Y, La, Pr, Nd, and Ho have been prepared by arc-melting followed by annealing at 800 °C. All the compounds belong to the Tb117Fe52Ge112 structure type (space group Fm 3 ¯ m characterized by a complex giant cubic unit cell with a ~ 30 Å. The single-crystal structure determination of Y- and La-containing compounds reveals a significant structural disorder. A comparison of these and earlier reported crystal structures of R117Co52+δSn112+γ suggests that more extensive disorder occurs for structures that contain larger lanthanide atoms. This observation can be explained by the need to maintain optimal bonding interactions as the size of the unit cell increases. Y117Co56Sn115 exhibits weak paramagnetism due to the Co sublattice and does not show magnetic ordering in the 1.8–300 K range. Ho117Co55Sn108 shows ferromagnetic ordering at 10.6 K. Both Pr117Co54Sn112 and Nd117Co54Sn111 exhibit antiferromagnetic ordering at 17 K and 24.7 K, respectively, followed by a spin reorientation transition at lower temperature.

  5. Remote aerosol testing of large size HEPA filter banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, B.; Pasha, M.; Bronger, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Different methods of testing HEPA filter banks are described. Difficulties in remote testing of large banks of HEPA filters in series with minimum distances between banks, and with no available access upstream and downstream of the filter house, are discussed. Modifications incorporated to make the filter system suitable for remote testing without personnel re-entry into the filter house are described for a 51,000 m/sup 3//hr filter unit at the WIPP site

  6. New multicell model for describing the atomic structure of La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}SiO{sub 14} piezoelectric crystal: Unit cells of different compositions in the same single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudka, A. P., E-mail: dudka@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Accurate X-ray diffraction study of langasite (La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}SiO{sub 14}) single crystal has been performed using the data obtained on a diffractometer equipped with a CCD area detector at 295 and 90.5 K. Within the known La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}SiO{sub 14} model, Ga and Si cations jointly occupy the 2d site. A new model of a “multicell” consisting of two different unit cells is proposed. Gallium atoms occupy the 2d site in one of these cells, and silicon atoms occupy this site in the other cell; all other atoms correspondingly coordinate these cations. This structure implements various physical properties exhibited by langasite family crystals. The conclusions are based on processing four data sets obtained with a high resolution (sin θ/λ ≤ 1.35 Å{sup –1}), the results reproduced in repeated experiments, and the high relative precision of the study (sp. gr. P321, Z = 1; at 295 K, a = 8.1652(6) Å, c = 5.0958(5) Å, R/wR = 0.68/0.68%, 3927 independent reflections; at 90.5 K, a = 8.1559(4) Å, c = 5.0913(6) Å, R/wR = 0.92/0.93%, 3928 reflections).

  7. Graphene-based photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Oleg L.; Boyko, Vladimir S.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Kolesnikov, Anton A.; Lozovik, Yurii E.

    2010-01-01

    A novel type of photonic crystal formed by embedding a periodic array of constituent stacks of alternating graphene and dielectric discs into a background dielectric medium is proposed. The photonic band structure and transmittance of such photonic crystal are calculated. The graphene-based photonic crystals can be used effectively as the frequency filters and waveguides for the far infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum. Due to substantial suppression of absorption of low-frequency radiation in doped graphene the damping and skin effect in the photonic crystal are also suppressed. The advantages of the graphene-based photonic crystal are discussed.

  8. Bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M; Komeda, I; Takizaki, K

    1982-01-01

    Bag filters are widely used throughout the cement industry for recovering raw materials and products and for improving the environment. Their general mechanism, performance and advantages are shown in a classification table, and there are comparisons and explanations. The outer and inner sectional construction of the Shinto ultra-jet collector for pulverized coal is illustrated and there are detailed descriptions of dust cloud prevention, of measures used against possible sources of ignition, of oxygen supply and of other topics. Finally, explanations are given of matters that require careful and comprehensive study when selecting equipment.

  9. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  10. Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit a Spray Dryer and Fabric Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon; Amrhein, Jerry

    2009-04-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The purpose of this test program was to evaluate the long-term mercury removal capability, long-term mercury emissions variability, and operating and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with sorbent injection on a configuration being considered for many new plants. Testing was conducted by ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) at Rocky Mountain Power’s (RMP) Hardin Station through funding provided by DOE/NETL, RMP, and other industry partners. The Hardin Station is a new plant rated at 121 MW gross that was first brought online in April of 2006. Hardin fires a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and is configured with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx control, a spray dryer absorber (SDA) for SO2 control, and a fabric filter (FF) for particulate control. Based upon previous testing at PRB sites with SCRs, very little additional mercury oxidation from the SCR was expected at Hardin. In addition, based upon results from DOE/NETL Phase II Round I testing at Holcomb Station and results from similarly configured sites, low native mercury removal was expected across the SDA and FF. The main goal of this project was met—sorbent injection was used to economically and effectively achieve 90% mercury control as measured from the air heater (AH) outlet to the stack for a period of ten months. This goal was achieved with DARCO® Hg-LH, Calgon FLUEPAC®-MC PLUS and ADA Power PAC PREMIUM brominated activated carbons at nominal loadings of 1.5–2.5 lb/MMacf. An economic analysis determined the twenty-year levelized cost to be 0.87 mills/kW-hr, or $15,000/lb Hg removed. No detrimental effects on other equipment or plant operations were observed. The

  11. Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, M.S.; Waggoner, Ch.A.

    2009-01-01

    Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size

  12. Hydrologic Response Unit Routing in SWAT to Simulate Effects of Vegetated Filter Strip for South-Korean Conditions Based on VFSMOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Jae Lim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model has been used worldwide for many hydrologic and Non-Point Source (NPS Pollution analyses on a watershed scale. However, it has many limitations in simulating the Vegetative Filter Strip (VFS because it considers only ‘filter strip width’ when the model estimates sediment trapping efficiency and does not consider the routing of sediment with overland flow which is expected to maximize the sediment trapping efficiency from upper agricultural subwatersheds to lower spatially-explicit filter strips. Therefore, the SWAT overland flow option between landuse-subwatersheds with sediment routing capability was enhanced by modifying the SWAT watershed configuration and SWAT engine based on the numerical model VFSMOD applied to South-Korean conditions. The enhanced SWAT can simulate the VFS sediment trapping efficiency for South-Korean conditions in a manner similar to the desktop VFSMOD-w system. Due to this enhancement, SWAT is applicable to simulate the effects of overland flow from upper subwatersheds to reflect increased runoff volume at the lower subwatershed, which occurs in the field if no diversion channel is installed. In this study, the enhanced SWAT model was applied to small watersheds located at Jaun-ri in South-Korea to simulate a diversion channel and spatially-explicit VFS. Sediment can be reduced by 31%, 65%, and 68%, with a diversion channel, the VFS, and the VFS with diversion channel, respectively. The enhanced SWAT should be used in estimating site-specific effects on sediment reduction with diversion channels and VFS, instead of the currently available SWAT, which does not simulate sediment routing in overland flow and does not consider other sensitive factors affecting sediment reduction with VFS.

  13. Tourmalines from the siderite-quartz-sulphide hydrothermal veins, Gemeric unit, western Carpathians, Slovakia: crystal chemistry and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačík, P.; Uher, P.; Dikej, J.; Puškelová, Ľ.

    2018-02-01

    Tourmaline is an important gangue mineral in a large number of Cretaceous siderite-quartz-sulphide hydrothermal veins in the Gemeric Unit, Slovak Ore Mountains, Slovakia, such as Dobšiná, Vlachovo, Rožňavské Bystré, Hnilčík, Rakovnica, Novoveská Huta, Gretla, Rudňany, and Bindt. In this study we combine by electron microprobe analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer and optical emission spectroscopy to determine the range of tourmaline compositions in the deposits and constrain the mechanisms of its precipitation. Selected samples from the mentioned deposits belong mostly to the alkali group, schorl to dravite series, rarely dominant X-site vacant foititic tourmaline (Vlachovo and Bindt) and oxy-dravite compositions (Hnilčík) were detected. Rim zones of some schorlitic tourmalines show high concentrations of Ti (up to 2.35 wt.% TiO2, 0.30 apfu; Rožňavské Bystré). The chemical composition is mostly controlled by alkali-deficient X □AlNa-1(Mg,Fe2+)-1 and proton-deficient AlO(Mg,Fe2+)-1(OH)-1 substitutions. Titanium is incorporated into the structure by Y Ti Y (Mg,Fe) Y Al-2, Y Ti Z Mg Y Al-1 Z Al-1, Y TiO( Y AlOH), and X Ca Y Ti Z MgO2 X □-1 Y,Z Al-2(OH)-2 substitutions. Along trace elements, Sr and V attain concentrations of 80-450 and 70-320 ppm, respectively. The unit-cell parameter a varies between 15.960 and 15.985 Å; variations in c are larger, between 7.177 and 7.236 Å indicating the presence of Fe3+ and Mg2+ at Z site. Mössbauer spectroscopy has shown variable Fe3+ proportions (0.17 -0.55 apfu) in all samples. The gathered dataset suggests some qualitative considerations on the mechanisms controlling tourmaline compositions at the regional scale. The highest Fe3+ concentrations occur in samples from Rudňany and Gretla in the external part of Gemeric unit, suggesting higher oxidation during longer transport of fluids. We propose that the determined XFe in the samples are correlated with the compositions of the host rocks, as

  14. Two new Co(II)-MOFs based on polymeric chain building units: Crystal structures, and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Min-Le [College of Materials & Chemical Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center for Microgrid of New Energy of Hubei Province, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Wu, Ya-Pan; Zhao, Jun [College of Materials & Chemical Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center for Microgrid of New Energy of Hubei Province, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Li, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: lidongsheng1@126.com [College of Materials & Chemical Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center for Microgrid of New Energy of Hubei Province, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Wang, Yao-Yu [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Two new Co(II) metal-organic frameworks, namely [Co{sub 2}(bpm)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}(L)]{sub n} (1) and ([Co(bpe)(H{sub 2}O)(H{sub 2}L)]·(bpe){sub 0.5}·(H{sub 2}O)){sub n} (2), (H{sub 4}L=1,1′:2′,1″-terphenyl-3,3″,4′,5′-tetracarboxylic acid, bpm=bis(4-pyridyl)amine, bpe=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene), have been obtained under hydrothermal conditions. Both complexes 1 and 2 have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Complexes 1 and 2 consist of 1D Co(II) chains bridging by carboxylate groups in syn-anti fashion. 1 shows a novel 3D tri-nodal (4,6,10)-connected net with a (3.4{sup 3}.5{sup 2}){sub 2}(3{sup 2}.4{sup 14}.5{sup 12}.6{sup 12}.7{sup 4}.8)(3{sup 2}.4{sup 2}.5{sup 5}.6{sup 4}.7{sup 2}) topology. While 2 exhibits a 2D sql layer. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that both 1 and 2 show weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent Co(II) ions in 300–8 K for 1 and 300–16 K for 2, respectively, and then 2 also displays ferromagnetic coupling at lower temperatures. - Graphical abstract: Two Co(II) coordination polymers with similar metal chain bridging by carboxylates in syn-anti fashion have been synthesized. Both 1 and 2 show weak antiferromagnetic interactions in high temperature, and then 2 also displays ferromagnetic coupling at lower temperatures. - Highlights: • Two Co(II) coordination polymers with similar metal chain bridging by carboxylates. • A novel 3D (4,6,10)-connected net and a 2D sql layers. • A antiferromagnetic coupling at high temperature for 1 and 2. • A ferromagnetic coupling at lower temperature for 2.

  15. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  16. Particle Filtering Methods for Incorporating Intelligence Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    past time steps. 3.2.1 Particle Filtering through Bayesian Bootstrap Sampling Although SIS helps resolve the computational and complexity issues...variables. This insight was called the Bayesian bootstrap filter, or more commonly called the particle filter. Multiple particles are sampled from an...2012) 16 maps of drug flow into the United States. Business Insider Online, (July 8), http://www.businessinsider.com/16-maps-of-drug-flow-into-the

  17. Filters for radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiba, Yukihiko; Kawashima, Akio

    1980-01-01

    In the crud generated in the reactor cooling water for nuclear power plants, iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) are contained as the main components, and also Co, Mn, Fe, Cr exist as radioactive nuclides. A new filter to separate these cruds, nuclepore membrane filter (NPMF), was investigated for its adaptability, and has been adopted as a practical filter for radioactive liquid wastes. The NPMF has such features as the possibility of complete automation of operation, no generation of secondary wastes, and easy maintenance, because the NPMF has uniform circular holes in poly-carbonate thin films, and shows the properties of stable filtering of particulates, capability of back washing, and others. The elements mounted in a practical system have such construction that the membrane is cut in the form of doughnut, and sandwiched with 100 mesh polyester nets (spacer); the obtained unit filter (cassette) is mounted on the stackable plate of the same size; and 80 pieces of this cassette are formed in a filter of 4 m 2 filtering area. The performance varies with the properties of suspended matters and the turbidity of wastes. For example, the filtered liquid of 0.1 ppm or less can be obtained when the 1 μm filter material is used to treat the liquid waste containing 1 to 100 ppm suspended matters. Usually back washed water is produced by about 1/100 of treated liquid wastes. The lifetime of the membrane is expected to be 1 or 2 years if crud is the main component. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, MY; Hunter, IC

    2016-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  19. Sampled data CT system including analog filter and compensating digital filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, G. H.; DallaPiazza, D. G.; Pelc, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    A CT scanner in which the amount of x-ray information acquired per unit time is substantially increased by using a continuous-on x-ray source and a sampled data system with the detector. An analog filter is used in the sampling system for band limiting the detector signal below the highest frequency of interest, but is a practically realizable filter and is therefore non-ideal. A digital filter is applied to the detector data after digitization to compensate for the characteristics of the analog filter, and to provide an overall filter characteristic more nearly like the ideal

  20. Atmospheric aerosol studies using the 'Gent' stacked filter unit and other aerosol collectors, with multi-elemental analysis of the samples by nuclear-related analytical techniques. Appendix 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Francois, Filip; Cafmeyer, Jan; Okunade, Olusola

    1995-01-01

    Our research within the core programme of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Air Pollution is described. This included the analysis of the analytical quality control Nuclepore filter samples, work on the calibration of the PM10 inlet of the 'Gent' stacked filter unit (SFU) sampler, and an aerosol study with this SFU sampler at an urban residential site in Gent. The calibration of the Gent PM10 inlet was done through intercomparisons with commercially available PM10 samplers, and quite reasonable agreement was obtained. For the study at the urban residential site, a total of 118 SFU samples were collected. The samples were analyzed for the particulate mass, black carbon and up to 29 elements. The elements were measured by PIXE and short-irradiation INAA. Median atmospheric concentrations and enrichment factors were calculated for the fine and coarse size fractions, and average FINE/COARSE ratios were derived. The median concentrations were compared with those from a study, done at the same site in the fall of 1986. The levels of the automotive elements Pb and Br had decreased by a factor of about three relative to 1986, but most other elements exhibited very similar concentrations. A brief overview is given of the status in our various regional and global scale aerosol studies. Finally, our plans for future work are given. (author)

  1. Variations of radiation intensity as a function of position in radiation field of a mammographic unit of 760 mm SID with Mo anode and 20 μm Mo added filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal

    2001-01-01

    There are many effects that contribute to radiation field nonuniformity in mammography, including the heel effect and shorter source to image distance (SID), inverse square law and different photon path lengths through various attenuating media (the x-ray tube beryllium window, the added filter, the mirror, and the compression paddle) throughout the field. Variations of radiation intensity was investigated as a function of position in the radiation field (with compression paddle in place)of a mammographic unit in 760 mm SID with Mo anode and 20 μm Mo added filter. Reduction in radiation intensity along central axis of up to 19.40%, 19.13% and 19.34% were noted at 24, 26 and 28 kVp respectively. Radiation intensity also drops off to the left and right of the central axis. As a function of position in the field, we also found that the variations of optical density correlate well with the measured radiation intensity changes. (Author)

  2. The statistical bandwidth of Butterworth filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, J. L.; Dunn, I. P.

    1987-06-01

    The precision of standard architectural acoustic measurements is a function of the statistical bandwidth of the band pass filters used in the measurements. The International and United States Standards on octave and fractional octave-band filters which specify the band pass filters used in architectural acoustics measurements give the effective bandwidth, but unfortunately not the statistical bandwidth of the filters. Both these Standards are currently being revised and both revisions require the use of Butterworth filter characteristics. In this paper it is shown theoretically that the ratio of statistical bandwidth to effective bandwidth for an nth order Butterworth band pass filter is {2n}/{(2n-1)}. This is verified experimentally for third-octave third-order Butterworth band pass filters. It is also shown experimentally that this formula is approximately correct for some non-Butterworth third-octave third-order band pass filters. Because of the importance of Butterworth filters in the revised Standards, the theory of Butterworth filters is reviewed and the formulae for Butterworth filters given in both revised Standards are derived.

  3. Ligand design for alkali-metal-templated self-assembly of unique high-nuclearity CuII aggregates with diverse coordination cage units: crystal structures and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Miao; Bu, Xian-He; Guo, Ya-Mei; Ribas, Joan

    2004-03-19

    The construction of two unique, high-nuclearity Cu(II) supramolecular aggregates with tetrahedral or octahedral cage units, [(mu(3)-Cl)[Li subset Cu(4)(mu-L(1))(3)](3)](ClO(4))(8)(H(2)O)(4.5) (1) and [[Na(2) subset Cu(12)(mu-L(2))(8)(mu-Cl)(4)](ClO(4))(8)(H(2)O)(10)(H(3)O(+))(2)](infinity) (2) by alkali-metal-templated (Li(+) or Na(+)) self-assembly, was achieved by the use of two newly designed carboxylic-functionalized diazamesocyclic ligands, N,N'-bis(3-propionyloxy)-1,4-diazacycloheptane (H(2)L(1)) or 1,5-diazacyclooctane-N,N'-diacetate acid (H(2)L(2)). Complex 1 crystallizes in the trigonal R3c space group (a = b = 20.866(3), c = 126.26(4) A and Z = 12), and 2 in the triclinic P1 space group (a = 13.632(4), b = 14.754(4), c = 19.517(6) A, alpha = 99.836(6), beta = 95.793(5), gamma = 116.124(5) degrees and Z = 1). By subtle variation of the ligand structures and the alkali-metal templates, different polymeric motifs were obtained: a dodecanuclear architecture 1 consisting of three Cu(4) tetrahedral cage units with a Li(+) template, and a supramolecular chain 2 consisting of two crystallographically nonequivalent octahedral Cu(6) polyhedra with a Na(+) template. The effects of ligand functionality and alkali metal template ions on the self-assembly processes of both coordination supramolecular aggregates, and their magnetic behaviors are discussed in detail.

  4. Multistage parallel-serial time averaging filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodosiou, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Here, a new time averaging circuit design, the 'parallel filter' is presented, which can reduce the time jitter, introduced in time measurements using counters of large dimensions. This parallel filter could be considered as a single stage unit circuit which can be repeated an arbitrary number of times in series, thus providing a parallel-serial filter type as a result. The main advantages of such a filter over a serial one are much less electronic gate jitter and time delay for the same amount of total time uncertainty reduction. (orig.)

  5. N-donor co-ligands driven two new Co(II)- coordination polymers with bi- and trinuclear units: Crystal structures, and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Hang; Han, Min-Le; Wu, Ya-Pan; Dong, Wen-Wen; Li, Dong-Sheng; Lu, Jack Y.

    2016-10-01

    Two new Co(II) coordination polymers(CPs), namely [Co2(bpe)2(Hbppc)]n (1) and [Co3(μ3-OH)(bppc)(bpm)(H2O)]·3H2O (2) (H5bppc=biphenyl-2,4,6,3‧,5‧-pentacarboxylic acid, bpe=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene, bpm=bis(4-pyridyl)amine), have been obtained and characterized by elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). 1 shows a binodal (4,6)-connected fsc net with a (44·610·8)(44·62) topology, while 2 shows a binodal (5,7)-connected 3D network based on trinuclear [Co3(μ3-OH)]5+ units with unusual (3.46.52.6)(32.46.57.65.7) topology. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements reveals that complex 1 shows ferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent Co(II) ions, whereas 2 is a antiferromagnetic system.

  6. Socioeconomic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Crystal River Unit 3 case study. Technical report 1 Oct 78-4 Jan 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.A.

    1982-07-01

    The report documents a case study of the socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of the Crystal River Unit 3 nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socioeconomic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-81. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socioeconomic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  7. Selection vector filter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.

  8. Graphic filter library implemented in CUDA language

    OpenAIRE

    Peroutková, Hedvika

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the problem of reducing computation time of raster image processing by parallel computing on graphics processing unit. Raster image processing thereby refers to the application of graphic filters, which can be applied in sequence with different settings. This thesis evaluates the suitability of using parallelization on graphic card for raster image adjustments based on multicriterial choice. Filters are implemented for graphics processing unit in CUDA language. Opacity ...

  9. Formation and evaluation of convex-curved crystals of lithium fluoride for use in analyzing x-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellick, B.O.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium fluoride as received from the vendor in boule form is 38 x 38 x 13 mm thick. This block is cleaved to wafers of the desired thickness, x-ray-evaluated for ''d'' spacing and greatest intensity, bent to the required radius, and then acid-etched to remove foreign material. The diffraction and dispersion characteristics of a wafer are analyzed using well-collimated tungsten x rays that strike the crystal and are diffracted onto no-screen x-ray film. If the crystal is satisfactory, it is mounted in a spectrogoniometer and rotated through an x-ray beam while a detector is set at the optimized angle for the diffracted x rays. The average intensity across the length of the crystal is recorded by multichannel scaling. Any imperfections appear as peaks or dips compared to the average intensity. The crystal next goes to a 10-channel, filter-fluorescer x-ray unit that compares zero-order intensity to diffracted Kα and Kβ intensity. Counts for 100-s intervals are taken in groups of three and averaged. Correction factors for instrument geometry, air, pinhole diameter at zero order, Kα-Kβ, barometric pressure, temperature, etc., are added to the efficiency calculations to obtain the crystal efficiency (epsilon) vs keV data. The crystal is mounted in the spectrograph or spectrometer and calibrated to either the detector or film plane by using direct radiation with proper x-ray filters or absorbers. The crystal is then ready for use

  10. FLOWING BILATERAL FILTER: DEFINITION AND IMPLEMENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Moreaud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bilateral filter plays a key role in image processing applications due to its intuitive parameterization and its high quality filter result, smoothing homogeneous regions while preserving the edges of the objects. Considering the image as a topological relief, seeing pixel intensities as peaks and valleys, we introduce a way to control the tonal weighting coefficients, the flowing bilateral filter, reducing "halo" artifacts typically produced by the regular bilateral filter around a large peak surrounded by two valleys of lower values. In this paper we propose to investigate exact and approximated versions of CPU and parallel GPU (Graphical Processing Unit based implementations of the regular and flowing bilateral filter using the NVidia CUDA API. Fast implementations of these filters are important for the processing of large 3D volumes up to several GB acquired by x-ray or electron tomography.

  11. Recirculating electric air filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  12. N-donor co-ligands driven two new Co(II)- coordination polymers with bi- and trinuclear units: Crystal structures, and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhi-Hang [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for New Energy Microgrid, Key Laboratory of Inorganic Non-metallic Crystalline and Energy Conversion Materials, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Han, Min-Le [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Key Laboratory of Function-Oriented Porous Materials, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China); Wu, Ya-Pan; Dong, Wen-Wen [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for New Energy Microgrid, Key Laboratory of Inorganic Non-metallic Crystalline and Energy Conversion Materials, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Li, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: lidongsheng1@126.com [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for New Energy Microgrid, Key Laboratory of Inorganic Non-metallic Crystalline and Energy Conversion Materials, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Lu, Jack Y., E-mail: lu@uhcl.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Houstons-Clear Lake, Houston, TX 77058 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Two new Co(II) coordination polymers(CPs), namely [Co{sub 2}(bpe){sub 2}(Hbppc)]{sub n} (1) and [Co{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-OH)(bppc)(bpm)(H{sub 2}O)]·3H{sub 2}O (2) (H{sub 5}bppc=biphenyl-2,4,6,3′,5′-pentacarboxylic acid, bpe=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene, bpm=bis(4-pyridyl)amine), have been obtained and characterized by elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). 1 shows a binodal (4,6)-connected fsc net with a (4{sup 4}·6{sup 10}·8)(4{sup 4}·6{sup 2}) topology, while 2 shows a binodal (5,7)-connected 3D network based on trinuclear [Co{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-OH)]{sup 5+} units with unusual (3.4{sup 6}.5{sup 2}.6)(3{sup 2}.4{sup 6}.5{sup 7}.6{sup 5}.7) topology. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements reveals that complex 1 shows ferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent Co(II) ions, whereas 2 is a antiferromagnetic system. - Graphical abstract: Two new Co(II) coordination polymers with bi- and trinuclear units have been obtained. 1 shows a binodal (4,6)-connected fsc net with a (4{sup 4}·6{sup 10}·8)(4{sup 4}·6{sup 2}) topology and antiferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent Co(II) ions, while 2 is a binodal (5,7)-connected 3D network with unusual (3.4{sup 6}.5{sup 2}.6)(3{sup 2}.4{sup 6}.5{sup 7}.6{sup 5}.7) topology and a ferromagnetic system. - Highlights: • Two Co(II) coordination polymers with different multimetallic clusters as building units. • A (4,6)-connected fsc net and a (5,7)-connected 3D network. • A antiferromagnetic coupling for 1 and A ferromagnetic coupling for 2.

  13. Effectiveness of heating, ventilation and air conditioning system with HEPA filter unit on indoor air quality and asthmatic children's health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ying; Raja, Suresh; Ferro, Andrea R.; Jaques, Peter A.; Hopke, Philip K. [Clarkson University, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States); Gressani, Cheryl; Wetzel, Larry E. [Air Innovations, Inc, 7000 Performance Drive, North Syracuse, NY 13212 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Poor indoor air quality has been linked to the exacerbation of asthma symptoms in children. Because people spend most of their time indoors, improving indoor air quality may provide some relief to asthma sufferers. A study was conducted to assess whether operating an air cleaning/ventilating unit (HEPAiRx {sup registered}) in a child's bedroom can improve his/her respiratory health. Thirty children diagnosed with asthma were randomly split into two groups. For the first six weeks, group A had the air cleaning/ventilating unit (HEPAiRx {sup registered}) running in the bedrooms of the participants and group B did not; for the second six weeks, both groups had the cleaners running in the bedrooms; and, for the final six weeks, group A turned the cleaners off and group B kept theirs running. Indoor air quality parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, particulate matter (PM 0.5-10 {mu}m), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations, were monitored in each bedroom using an AirAdvice indoor air quality multi-meter. As a measure of pulmonary inflammation, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected every sixth day and analyzed for nitrate and pH. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was also measured. PM and TVOC concentrations decreased with operation of the HEPAiRx an average of 72% and 59%, respectively. The EBC nitrate concentrations decreased significantly and the EBC pH and PEF values increased significantly with operation of the unit (p < 0.001 when comparing on/off sample means). These results indicate that air cleaning in combination with ventilation can effectively reduce symptoms for asthma sufferers. (author)

  14. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  15. Filter replacement lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2017-10-25

    Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.

  16. Projects on filter testing in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, B.; Wiktorsson, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Swedish nuclear power program comprises twelve light water reactors. Nine are boiling water reactors of ASEA-ATOM design and three are pressurized water reactors of Westinghouse design. Of these, ten are in operation and two are under construction and planned to go into operation during late 1984 and early 1985, respectively. Frequent tests on the penetration of particles through HEPA filters, regular tests on the adsorption of methyl iodide in the stand-by carbon filter units by laboratory testing are discussed. The proposed new regulations are based on many years of experience of filter system operation and of tests in-situ and in the laboratory. Moisture and water are factors that affect the functioning of filters. In addition, high loading of dust can give rise to increased penetration through HEPA filters, however pinholes could have less influence on the total penetration. Laboratory tests show that DOP particles retain 30-40% in 90 mm carbon filters (8-12 mesh). However no effect on the ability of carbon to adsorb methyl iodide after DOP contamination in combined carbon/HEPA filters has been observed. Leakage from ventilation ducts can cause radioactive contamination problems during filter testing with radioiodine. In-situ testing of control-room filters has been performed using inactive methyl iodide. A type of carbon bed not previously used in Sweden has been introduced. Testing of this filter type is discussed

  17. Filtered containment venting in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindau, L.; Ellisson, K.

    1989-01-01

    After the TMI accident, Swedish authorities decided that all Swedish nuclear power plants should be upgraded with respect to mitigation of the consequences of severe accidents. One contribution to meet these ends is filtered containment venting, i.e. means to relieve containment overpressure and to clean the relief gas from radioactive components. The first system in operation was built at the Barsebaeck site (2 BWR's) where a gravel bed filter was installed. For the remaining Swedish units (7 BWR's and 3 PWR's) a passive, self-controlling wet scrubber system, FILTRA-MVSS, is now under installation. The principle of the FILTRA-MVSS is a self-controlling, self-pumping venturi collector submerged in a pool, and it is used to filter out emissions of solid and gaseous radioactive components

  18. HEPA filter concerns - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J.F. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated a complete review of the DOE High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Program to identify areas for improvement. Although this process is currently ongoing, various issues and problems have already been identified for action that not only impacts the DOE HEPA filter program, but potentially the national and international air cleaning community as well. This paper briefly reviews a few of those concerns that may be of interest, and discusses actions initiated by the DOE to address the associated issues and problems. Issues discussed include: guidance standards, in-place testing, specifications, Test Facilities, portable units, vacuum cleaners, substitute aerosols, filter efficiencies, aging/shelf life/service life, fire suppression, handbook, Quality Products List (QPL), QA testing, and evaluations.

  19. Optimization of filter loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, J.H.; Gardiner, D.E.; Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Herald, CA)

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of 10 CFR Part 61 has created potential difficulties in the disposal of spent cartridge filters. When this report was prepared, Rancho Seco had no method of packaging and disposing of class B or C filters. This work examined methods to minimize the total operating cost of cartridge filters while maintaining them below the class A limit. It was found that by encapsulating filters in cement the filter operating costs could be minimized

  20. Filter-adsorber aging assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winegardner, W.K. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    An aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This evaluation of the general process in which characteristics of these two components gradually change with time or use included the compilation of information concerning failure experience, stressors, aging mechanisms and effects, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM). Stressors, the agents or stimuli that can produce aging degradation, include heat, radiation, volatile contaminants, and even normal concentrations of aerosol particles and gasses. In an experimental evaluation of degradation in terms of the tensile breaking strength of aged filter media specimens, over forty percent of the samples did not meet specifications for new material. Chemical and physical reactions can gradually embrittle sealants and gaskets as well as filter media. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance are associated with the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the exposure of the carbon to airborne moisture or volatile organic compounds. Inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods have been established to observe filter pressure drop buildup, check HEPA filters and adsorbers for bypass, and determine the retention effectiveness of aged carbon. These evaluations of installed filters do not reveal degradation in terms of reduced media strength but that under normal conditions aged media can continue to effectively retain particles. However, this degradation may be important when considering the likelihood of moisture, steam, and higher particle loadings during severe accidents and the fact it is probable that the filters have been in use for an extended period.

  1. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  2. Behavior of HEPA filters under high humidity airflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricketts, C.I.

    1992-10-01

    To help determine and improve the safety margins of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter units in nuclear facilities under possible accident conditions, the structural limits and failure mechanisms of filter in high-humidity airflows were established and the fundamental physical phenomena underlying filter failure or malfunction in humid air were identified. Empirical models for increases in filter pressure drop with time in terms of the relevant airstream parameters were also developed. The weaknesses of currently employed humidity countermeasures used in filter protection are discussed and fundamental explanations for reported filter failures in normal service are given. (orig./DG) [de

  3. Pyrolytic Graphite as a Selective Neutron Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N.; Fathalla, M.

    2006-01-01

    The transmission of neutrons through pyrolytic graphite (PG) crystals, set at different angles with respect to incident beam, were calculated using an additive formula. A computer program HOPG was developed to provide the required calculation. An overall agreement between the calculated neutron transmissions through a slab of 1,85 mm thick PG crystal with an angular spread of c-axes of 0,4 degree, set at different angles to the incident beam, and the available experimental ones in the wavelength range from (0,02 to 1,4) nm were obtained. A feasibility study for use of PG crystal as an efficient second-order neutron filter is detailed in terms of crystal thickness, angular spread of c-axes and its operation with respect to the neutron beam. It was shown that a PG crystal with an angular spread of c-axes and its orientation with respect to the neutron beam. It was shown that a PG crystal with an angular spread of 0,8 degree is sufficient for optimum scattering of second-order neutrons in the wavelength band (0,384-0,183) nm, by adjusting the filter in an appropriate orientation

  4. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...

  5. Nonlinear Filtering and Approximation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    filtering. UNIT8 Q RECERCE**No 1223 Programme 5 A utomatique, Productique, Traitement dui Signal et des Donnc~es CONSISTENT PARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR...ue’e[71 E C 2.’(Rm x [0,7]; R) is the unique solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation 9u,’[7](x, t) - EAu "’[ 7](x,t) + He,’[ 7](x,t,Du,[ 7](x,t

  6. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  7. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state....... The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Simon-nitinol filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Kim, D.; Porter, D.H.; Kleshinski, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a filter that exploits the thermal shape-memory properties of the nitinol alloy to achieve an optimized filter shape and a fine-bore introducer. Experimental methods and materials are given and results are analyzed

  9. Higher-order chaotic oscillator using active bessel filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Mykolaitis, Gytis; Bumelien, Skaidra

    2010-01-01

    A higher-order oscillator, including a nonlinear unit and an 8th-order low-pass active Bessel filter is described. The Bessel unit plays the role of "three-in-one": a delay line, an amplifier and a filter. Results of hardware experiments and numerical simulation are presented. Depending...

  10. Electrically tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Scolari, Lara; Wei, Lei

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate electrical tunability of a fiber laser by using a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber. Tuning of the laser is achieved by combining the wavelength filtering effect of a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device with an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. We fabricate an al...

  11. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion....... As representative examples, a metal (Pt), an alloy (PtSn), and a metal carbide (beta-Mo2C) were supported on conventional and mesoporous zeolite carriers, respectively, and the degree of particle dispersion was compared by TEM imaging. On conventional zeolites, the supported material aggregated on the outer surface...

  12. Regional and global atmospheric aerosol studies using the ''Gent'' stacked filter unit sampler and other aerosol collectors, with multi-elemental analysis of the samples by nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Francois, F.; Salma, I.; Cafmeyer, J.; Gilot, C.

    1994-01-01

    The ''Gent'' staked filter unit sampler and other collection devices are used in regional and global scale studies on the tropospheric atmospheric aerosols, its composition, sources and fate. The aerosol samples are analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis, ion chromatography, a light reflectance technique (for determining black carbon), and gravimetry (for measuring the particular mass). In evaluating the data, use is made of receptor modelling techniques, transport models and wind sector analysis, and also of air mass trajectories and other meteorological information. Preliminary results from a long-term study in southern Norway are presented. It is suggested that the anthropogenic and soil dust aerosol components are mainly adverted to southern Norway by long-range transport and that the major fraction of the submicrometer particle mass is from anthropogenic origin. Preliminary results are also presented for an intensive study in southern Africa. On the basis of the data for two sites (about 40 km apart) in the Kruger National Park it was concluded that regionally representative aerosol samples were collected and that the biomass burning products account for more than 50% of the fine particle mass. Finally, our plans for future work are given. (author). 70 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  13. Virtual Crystallizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T A; Dylla-Spears, R; Thorsness, C B

    2006-08-29

    Large dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are grown in large crystallizers to provide raw material for the manufacture of optical components for large laser systems. It is a challenge to grow crystal with sufficient mass and geometric properties to allow large optical plates to be cut from them. In addition, KDP has long been the canonical solution crystal for study of growth processes. To assist in the production of the crystals and the understanding of crystal growth phenomena, analysis of growth habits of large KDP crystals has been studied, small scale kinetic experiments have been performed, mass transfer rates in model systems have been measured, and computational-fluid-mechanics tools have been used to develop an engineering model of the crystal growth process. The model has been tested by looking at its ability to simulate the growth of nine KDP boules that all weighed more than 200 kg.

  14. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  15. Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  16. Design of Double PG Crystal Neutron Diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N.; El-Mesiry, M.S.; Fathallah, M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a diffractometer containing two pyrolytic graphite (PG) crystals to select monochromatic neutrons in the range of wavelengths longer than 0.26 nm is given. The first crystal is high oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) set at glancing angle to reflect monochromatic neutrons with a selected wavelength. The second is a low quality PG crystal filter, set at take-off-angle such that, it transmits the selected monochromatic neutrons and rejects the higher order contaminations accompanying the first order reflection. It was shown that, 2 mm thick of PG crystal having 0.30 FWHM on mosaic spread are the optimum parameters of monochromator PG crystal. While the optimum thickness and mosaic spread of the PG crystal filter were selected to have low contamination factor of higher order reflections. The optimum parameters of the PG filter crystal were calculated using the computer package Graphite recently developed in our laboratory. Calculation shows that, 3 cm thick PG filter (20 on mosaic spread) is sufficient to almost eliminate the higher order contaminations accompanying the main monochromatic neutrons with

  17. AER image filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, F.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Paz, R.; Miró-Amarante, L.; Jiménez, G.; Civit, A.

    2007-05-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows real-time virtual massive connectivity among huge number of neurons located on different chips.[1] By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timing), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Neurons generate "events" according to their activity levels. That is, more active neurons generate more events per unit time and access the interchip communication channel more frequently than neurons with low activity. In Neuromorphic system development, AER brings some advantages to develop real-time image processing system: (1) AER represents the information like time continuous stream not like a frame; (2) AER sends the most important information first (although this depends on the sender); (3) AER allows to process information as soon as it is received. When AER is used in artificial vision field, each pixel is considered like a neuron, so pixel's intensity is represented like a sequence of events; modifying the number and the frequency of these events, it is possible to make some image filtering. In this paper we present four image filters using AER: (a) Noise addition and suppression, (b) brightness modification, (c) single moving object tracking and (d) geometrical transformations (rotation, translation, reduction and magnification). For testing and debugging, we use USB-AER board developed by Robotic and Technology of Computers Applied to Rehabilitation (RTCAR) research group. This board is based on an FPGA, devoted to manage the AER functionality. This board also includes a micro-controlled for USB communication, 2 Mbytes RAM and 2 AER ports (one for input and one for output).

  18. Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiveshwari, Laxmi; Awasthi, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter

  19. Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiveshwari, Laxmi [Department of Physics, K. B. Womens' s College, Hazaribagh 825 301 (India); Awasthi, S. K. [Department of Physics and Material Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida 201 304 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter.

  20. Evaluation of self-contained HEPA filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, T.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of a self-contained high-efficiency particulate air filter (SHEPA) used in nuclear applications. A SCHEPA consists of filter medium encapsulated in a casing that is part of the system boundary. The SCHEPA filter serves as a combination of filter housing and filter. The filter medium is attached directly to the casing using adhesive as a bonding agent. A cylindrical connection in the middle of the end caps connects the filter assembly to adjoining ductwork. The SCHEPA must perform the functions of a filter housing, filter frame, and filter. It was recognized that the codes and standards do not address the SCHEPA specifically. Therefore, the investigation evaluated the SCHEPA against current codes and standards related to the functional requirements of an air-cleaning system. The specific standards used are required by DOE Order 6430.1A{sup 1} and include ASME N509{sup 3}, ASME N510{sup 4}, ERDA 76-21{sup 5}, MIL-F-51068F{sup 6}, NFPA 90A, {sup 7} and NFPA 91{sup 8}. The evaluation does not address whether the SCHEPA as a standard (off-the-shelf) filter could be upgraded to meet the current code requirements for an air-cleaning unit. The evaluation also did not consider how the SCHEPA was used in a system (e.g., whether it was under positive or negative pressure or whether it served as an air inlet filter to prevent contamination releases under system pressurization). The results of the evaluation show that, the SCHEPA filter does not meet design, fabrication, testing, and documentation requirements of ASME N509{sup 3} and ASME N510{sup 4}. The paper will identify these deficiencies. Specific exhaust system requirements and application should be considered when an evaluation of the SCHEPA filter is being performed in existing systems. When new designs are being comtemplated, other types of HEPA filter housings can be used in lieu of the SCHEPA filter.

  1. Rotationally invariant correlation filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing and designing optical correlation filters that have tailored rotational invariance properties. The concept of a correlation of an image with a rotation of itself is introduced. A unified theory of rotation-invariant filtering is then formulated. The unified approach describes matched filters (with no rotation invariance) and circular-harmonic filters (with full rotation invariance) as special cases. The continuum of intermediate cases is described in terms of a cyclic convolution operation over angle. The angular filtering approach allows an exact choice for the continuous trade-off between loss of the correlation energy (or specificity regarding the image) and the amount of rotational invariance desired

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure and luminescent properties of lanthanide extended structure with asymmetrical dinuclear units based on 2-(methylthio)benzoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cristiane K.; Souza, Viviane P. de; Luz, Leonis L. da [Departamento de Química Fundamental, UFPE, 50.740-560 Recife, PE (Brazil); Menezes Vicenti, Juliano R. de [Escola de Química e Alimento, FURG, 96203-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Burrow, Robert A. [Departamento de Química, UFSM, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Severino Alves; Longo, Ricardo L. [Departamento de Química Fundamental, UFPE, 50.740-560 Recife, PE (Brazil); Malvestiti, Ivani, E-mail: ivani@ufpe.br [Departamento de Química Fundamental, UFPE, 50.740-560 Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    The extended structures [Ln{sub 2}(L){sub 6}(OH{sub 2}){sub 4}] with L=2-(methylthio)benzoato (2-CH{sub 3}S–C{sub 6}H{sub 4}COO{sup −}) and Ln=Tb (1), Eu (2) and Gd (3) were successfully synthesized and characterized. The single crystal structure of compound 1 was determined and showed an extended structure made up of asymmetrical dinuclear units with the formula catena-poly[{Tb(H_2O)_4}-(μ-L-1κO:2κO'){sub 2}-{Tb(L-κO,O')_2}-(μ-L-1κO:2κO'){sub 2}]. In the molecule of 1, there are two distinct metal sites. The Tb atom in site 1 is bound to four coordinated water molecules and four oxygen atoms from four different benzoate ligands, two of which bridge to site 2 Tb atoms on one side and two to site 2 Tb atoms on the other side. The site 2 Tb atom is bound to four oxygen atoms from two chelating benzoate ligands and four oxygen atoms from four different benzoate ligands, two of which bridge to site 1 Tb atoms on one side and two to site 1 Tb atoms on the other side. The bridging benzoate ligands extend the framework in one-dimension with alternating site 1/site 2 Tb atoms. The luminescent properties of these asymmetric dinuclear extended structures are quite peculiar and showed a single emitting lanthanide center. The quantum yields of 1 (ca. 50–55%) is practically independent of the excitation energy, whereas those of 2 are vanishing small (<1%) when excited at the ligand states and become sizable (ca. 10–20%) upon excitation at the intra-4f manifold. To reconcile these experimental observations in conjunction with the spectral data for compounds 1 and 3, a strong interaction between the lanthanide emitting states at sites 1 and 2 was proposed. For compound 1, the numerical solutions of the rate equations provided evidences that when the transition rates between the emitting states at both sites are larger than the highest decaying rate of these states, the system becomes an effective single emitter. This establishes, for the first time

  3. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  4. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  5. Principles of crystallization, and methods of single crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacra, T.

    2010-01-01

    Most of single crystals (monocrystals), have distinguished optical, electrical, or magnetic properties, which make from single crystals, key elements in most of technical modern devices, as they may be used as lenses, Prisms, or grating sin optical devises, or Filters in X-Ray and spectrographic devices, or conductors and semiconductors in electronic, and computer industries. Furthermore, Single crystals are used in transducer devices. Moreover, they are indispensable elements in Laser and Maser emission technology.Crystal Growth Technology (CGT), has started, and developed in the international Universities and scientific institutions, aiming at some of single crystals, which may have significant properties and industrial applications, that can attract the attention of international crystal growth centers, to adopt the industrial production and marketing of such crystals. Unfortunately, Arab universities generally, and Syrian universities specifically, do not give even the minimum interest, to this field of Science.The purpose of this work is to attract the attention of Crystallographers, Physicists and Chemists in the Arab universities and research centers to the importance of crystal growth, and to work on, in the first stage to establish simple, uncomplicated laboratories for the growth of single crystal. Such laboratories can be supplied with equipment, which are partly available or can be manufactured in the local market. Many references (Articles, Papers, Diagrams, etc..) has been studied, to conclude the most important theoretical principles of Phase transitions,especially of crystallization. The conclusions of this study, are summarized in three Principles; Thermodynamic-, Morphologic-, and Kinetic-Principles. The study is completed by a brief description of the main single crystal growth methods with sketches, of equipment used in each method, which can be considered as primary designs for the equipment, of a new crystal growth laboratory. (author)

  6. Retina-Inspired Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutsi, Effrosyni; Fillatre, Lionel; Antonini, Marc; Gaulmin, Julien

    2018-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel filter, which is inspired by the human retina. The human retina consists of three different layers: the Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL), the inner plexiform layer, and the ganglionic layer. Our inspiration is the linear transform which takes place in the OPL and has been mathematically described by the neuroscientific model "virtual retina." This model is the cornerstone to derive the non-separable spatio-temporal OPL retina-inspired filter, briefly renamed retina-inspired filter, studied in this paper. This filter is connected to the dynamic behavior of the retina, which enables the retina to increase the sharpness of the visual stimulus during filtering before its transmission to the brain. We establish that this retina-inspired transform forms a group of spatio-temporal Weighted Difference of Gaussian (WDoG) filters when it is applied to a still image visible for a given time. We analyze the spatial frequency bandwidth of the retina-inspired filter with respect to time. It is shown that the WDoG spectrum varies from a lowpass filter to a bandpass filter. Therefore, while time increases, the retina-inspired filter enables to extract different kinds of information from the input image. Finally, we discuss the benefits of using the retina-inspired filter in image processing applications such as edge detection and compression.

  7. Study of different filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochinal, R.; Rouby, R.

    1959-01-01

    This note first contains a terminology related to filters and to their operation, and then proposes an overview of general characteristics of filters such as load loss with respect to gas rate, efficiency, and clogging with respect to filter pollution. It also indicates standard aerosols which are generally used, how they are dosed, and how efficiency is determined with a standard aerosol. Then, after a presentation of the filtration principle, this note reports the study of several filters: glass wool, filter papers provided by different companies, Teflon foam, English filters, Teflon wool, sintered Teflonite, quartz wool, polyvinyl chloride foam, synthetic filter, sintered bronze. The third part reports the study of some aerosol and dust separators

  8. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  9. Physical characteristics of the paper filter and low cafestol content filter coffee brews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón, Mery Yovana; Dos Santos Scholz, Maria Brígida; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2018-06-01

    The results found in the literature concerning the effect of consuming filter coffee brews on increasing the blood cholesterol levels due to the presence of diterpenes, are divergent. Thus the present research evaluated the diterpene (cafestol and kahweol) concentrations in filter coffee brews prepared with paper filters of different sizes, colors and origins (Brazil, Japan, The United States of America, Germany, France and the Netherlands), with and without micro perforations. This is the first study that reports the physical characteristics of paper filter and its importance to obtain filter coffee brew with low cafestol content. Thus, a sample of Catuai cultivar coffee with high cafestol content was roasted to a medium-light degree and used to prepare the brews in a 1:10 ratio (coffee powder to water). The diterpenes were extracted by direct saponification and quantified and identified by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The paper filters were physically characterized by measuring their grammage, and the fat permeation rate calculated in order to better understand the differences between the filters which allow one to obtain higher or lower diterpene contents. The cafestol and kahweol concentrations in the brews varied from 1.62 to 2.98 mg/L and from 0.73 to 1.96 mg/L, respectively. The highest cafestol and kahweol concentrations were obtained using paper filters with micro perforations, considering similar sized paper filters. The paper filters showed high fat permeability and grammages between 50.46 and 67.48 g/m 2 . The diterpene retention capacities of the filters produced in the different countries were similar. The results showed that the porosity of the paper filter and the particle size of the ground roasted coffee were determinant factors in obtaining filter coffee brews with lower cafestol contents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Monomial Crystals and Partition Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingley, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Recently Fayers introduced a large family of combinatorial realizations of the fundamental crystal B(Λ0) for ^sln, where the vertices are indexed by certain partitions. He showed that special cases of this construction agree with the Misra-Miwa realization and with Berg's ladder crystal. Here we show that another special case is naturally isomorphic to a realization using Nakajima's monomial crystal.

  11. Filter material charging apparatus for filter assembly for radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.M.; O'Nan, A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A filter charging apparatus for a filter assembly is described. The filter assembly includes a housing with at least one filter bed therein and the filter charging apparatus for adding filter material to the filter assembly includes a tank with an opening therein, the tank opening being disposed in flow communication with opposed first and second conduit means, the first conduit means being in flow communication with the filter assembly housing and the second conduit means being in flow communication with a blower means. Upon activation of the blower means, the blower means pneumatically conveys the filter material from the tank to the filter housing

  12. BESSEL FILTER AND CHAOS: THREE-IN-ONE ACTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaševicius, Arunas; Mykolaitis, Gytis; Bumeliene, Skaidra

    2006-01-01

    Low-pass active Bessel filters are proposed to be used in a chaotic oscillator. The Bessel unit plays the role of three-in-one: the delay line, the amplifier, and the filter. Results of Spice simulations and hardware experiments are presented.......Low-pass active Bessel filters are proposed to be used in a chaotic oscillator. The Bessel unit plays the role of three-in-one: the delay line, the amplifier, and the filter. Results of Spice simulations and hardware experiments are presented....

  13. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  14. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  15. Testing Of The Dual Rotary Filter System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek rotary microfilter (RMF) units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system. Both units were successfully controlled by a control scheme written in DELTA-V architecture by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The installation configuration originally proposed by the Small Colum Ion Exchange (SCIX) project of independent filter and motor mountings may be susceptible to vibration. Significant stiffening of the filter and motor mounts was required to minimize the vibration. Alignment of the motor to the filter was a challenge in this test configuration. The deployment configuration must be easy to manipulate and allow for fine adjustment. An analysis of the vibration signature of the test system identified critical speeds. Whether it corresponds to the resonance frequency of a rotor radial vibration mode that was excited by rotor unbalance is uncertain based upon the measurements. A relative motion series should be completed on the filter with the final shaft configuration to determine if the resonances exist in the final filter design. The instrumentation selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual RMF system. The one area of concern with the instrumentation was the condition resulting when the filtrate flow meter operated with less than three gpm. This low flow was at the lower range of performance for the flow meter. This should not be

  16. TESTING OF THE DUAL ROTARY FILTER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-08-29

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek rotary microfilter (RMF) units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system. Both units were successfully controlled by a control scheme written in DELTA-V architecture by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The installation configuration originally proposed by the Small Colum Ion Exchange (SCIX) project of independent filter and motor mountings may be susceptible to vibration. Significant stiffening of the filter and motor mounts was required to minimize the vibration. Alignment of the motor to the filter was a challenge in this test configuration. The deployment configuration must be easy to manipulate and allow for fine adjustment. An analysis of the vibration signature of the test system identified critical speeds. Whether it corresponds to the resonance frequency of a rotor radial vibration mode that was excited by rotor unbalance is uncertain based upon the measurements. A relative motion series should be completed on the filter with the final shaft configuration to determine if the resonances exist in the final filter design. The instrumentation selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual RMF system. The one area of concern with the instrumentation was the condition resulting when the filtrate flow meter operated with less than three gpm. This low flow was at the lower range of performance for the flow meter. This should not be

  17. Backflushable filter insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, R.C.; Vandenberg, T.; Randolph, M.C.; Lewis, T.B.; Gillis, P.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Filter elements are mounted on a tube plate beneath an accumulator chamber whose wall is extended by skirt and flange to form a closure for the top of pressure vessel. The accumulator chamber is annular around a central pipe which serves as the outlet for filtered water passing from the filter elements. The chamber contains filtered compressed air from supply. Periodically the filtration of water is stopped and vessel is drained. Then a valve is opened, allowing the accumulated air to flow from chamber up a pipe and down pipe, pushing the filtered water from pipe back through the filter elements to clean them. The accumulator chamber is so proportioned, relative to the volume of the system communicating therewith during backflushing, that the equilibrium pressure during backflushing cannot exceed the pressure rating of the vessel. However a line monitors the pressure at the top of the vessel, and if it rises too far a bleed valve is automatically opened to depressurise the system. The chamber is intended to replace the lid of an existing vessel to convert a filter using filter aid to one using permanent filter elements. (author)

  18. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs......, and interpretability of the question(s) included in the instrument. Both the Discrimination and Reliability parts of the filter have been helpful but were agreed on primarily by consensus of OMERACT participants rather than through explicit evidence-based guidelines. In Filter 2.0 we wanted to improve this definition...

  19. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  20. Filters in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, K.H.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The topics of the nine papers given include the behavior of HEPA filters during exposure to air flows of high humidity as well as of high differential pressure, the development of steel-fiber filters suitable for extreme operating conditions, and the occurrence of various radioactive iodine species in the exhaust air from boiling water reactors. In an introductory presentation the German view of the performance requirements to be met by filters in nuclear facilities as well as the present status of filter quality assurance are discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. Washing method of filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumidani, Masakiyo; Tanno, Kazuo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic filter operation and facilitate back-washing operation by back-washing filters used in a bwr nuclear power plant utilizing an exhaust gas from a ventilator or air conditioner. Method: Exhaust gas from an exhaust pipe of an ventilator or air conditioner is pressurized in a compressor and then introduced in a back-washing gas tank. Then, the exhaust gas pressurized to a predetermined pressure is blown from the inside to the outside of a filter to thereby separate impurities collected on the filter elements and introduce them to a waste tank. (Furukawa, Y.)

  2. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  3. Structural testing of salt loaded HEPA filters for WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.; Leslie, I.H.; Hensel, E.C.; Shultheis, T.M.; Walls, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The ventilation studies of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant described in this paper were performed by personnel from New Mexico State Univ. in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Westinghouse Corporation. High efficiency particulate air filters (0.61m by 0.61m by 0.3m) of the type in use at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant were loaded with salt aerosol provided from that site. The structural strength of salt-loaded, high-efficiency filters was investigated at two humidity levels, high (75%RH) and low (13-14% RH), by subjecting the filters to pressure transients of the types expected from tornadoes. Filters loaded under the high humidity condition proved to have a greater structural strength than did the filters loaded under the low humidity conditions, when both types were subjected to tornado-like pressure pulses. This unexpected results was apparently due to the crystallization of salt upon the wire face guard of the HEPA filter loaded under the high humidity condition which kept salt from penetrating the filter medium while still providing a substantial pressure drop at the standard flow rate. Results are also presented for HEPA filters pre-conditioned at 100% RH before structural testing and for HEPA filters in series with pre-filters

  4. Field evaluation of prototype electrofibrous filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, W.D.; Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.H.; Lum, B.Y.

    1982-01-01

    New prototype electrofibrous filters were designed, built and evaluated in laboratory tests and in field installations. Two prototypes were designed for use in nuclear ventilation ducts as prefilters to HEPA filters. One prototype is designed to be a permanent component of the ventilation system while the other is a disposable unit. The disposable electrofibrous prefilter was installed in the exhaust stream of a glove box in which barrels of uranium turnings are burned. Preliminary tests show the disposal prefilter is effectively prolonging the HEPA filter life. An earlier prototype of the rolling prefilter was upgraded to meet the increased requirements for installation in a nuclear facility. This upgraded prototype was evaluated in the fire test facility at LLNL and shown to be effective in protecting HEPA filters from plugging under the most severe smoke conditions. The last prototype described in this report is a recirculating air filter. After demonstrating a high performance in laboratory tests the unit was shipped to Savannah River where it is awaiting installation in a Pu fuel fabrication facility. An analysis of the particulate problem in Savannah River indicates that four recirculating air filter will save $172,000 per year in maintenance costs

  5. Crystallization mechanisms of acicular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puel, François; Verdurand, Elodie; Taulelle, Pascal; Bebon, Christine; Colson, Didier; Klein, Jean-Paul; Veesler, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution, we present an experimental investigation of the growth of four different organic molecules produced at industrial scale with a view to understand the crystallization mechanism of acicular or needle-like crystals. For all organic crystals studied in this article, layer-by-layer growth of the lateral faces is very slow and clear, as soon as the supersaturation is high enough, there is competition between growth and surface-activated secondary nucleation. This gives rise to pseudo-twinned crystals composed of several needle individuals aligned along a crystallographic axis; this is explained by regular over- and inter-growths as in the case of twinning. And when supersaturation is even higher, nucleation is fast and random. In an industrial continuous crystallization, the rapid growth of needle-like crystals is to be avoided as it leads to fragile crystals or needles, which can be partly broken or totally detached from the parent crystals especially along structural anisotropic axis corresponding to weaker chemical bonds, thus leading to slower growing faces. When an activated mechanism is involved such as a secondary surface nucleation, it is no longer possible to obtain a steady state. Therefore, the crystal number, size and habit vary significantly with time, leading to troubles in the downstream processing operations and to modifications of the final solid-specific properties. These results provide valuable information on the unique crystallization mechanisms of acicular crystals, and show that it is important to know these threshold and critical values when running a crystallizer in order to obtain easy-to-handle crystals.

  6. Laboratory-scale integrated ARP filter test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. There is a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. This task attempted to simulate the entire ARP process, including multiple batches (5), washing, chemical cleaning, and blending the feed with heels and recycle streams. The objective of the tests was to determine whether one of these processes is causing excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter. The authors conducted the tests with feed solutions containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 simulant supernate with no MST.

  7. Optimal design of active EMC filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, B.; Kut, T.; Dickmann, S.

    2013-07-01

    A recent trend in automotive industry is adding electrical drive systems to conventional drives. The electrification allows an expansion of energy sources and provides great opportunities for environmental friendly mobility. The electrical powertrain and its components can also cause disturbances which couple into nearby electronic control units and communication cables. Therefore the communication can be degraded or even permanently disrupted. To minimize these interferences, different approaches are possible. One possibility is to use EMC filters. However, the diversity of filters is very large and the determination of an appropriate filter for each application is time-consuming. Therefore, the filter design is determined by using a simulation tool including an effective optimization algorithm. This method leads to improvements in terms of weight, volume and cost.

  8. Precise and versatile formula for birefringent filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhongxing

    1996-07-01

    In an investigation of extraordinary-(E-) ray behavior and the index of refraction for E waves in a uniaxial crystal, a precise and versatile formula for birefringent filters, based on the exact construction of the optical path difference, is set up with neither the approximation Delta n = no - ne less than or equals no (or n e), nor the ambiguity sin( theta )/sin(rw) = ne. The exact construction gives the correct variation of the position and the dimension in each path, yielding the path difference while the filter is tuning. The formula is applicable not only to a filter with its optical axis parallel to the entrance surface (FAPS) but also to a filter with its axis inclined to the surface (FAIS). Also, the formula indicates that a FAIS allows laser wavelengths to be tuned over a wider range than does a FAPS. The origin of the wider range is interpreted to be the greater variation in the index for the FAIS while the filter is tuning. With the help of the formula we design a FAIS for tuning a cw 42.25.Lc.

  9. Recirculating electric air filter for use in confined spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.; Kuhl, W.

    1985-01-01

    We have developed recirculating electric air filters for use in confined spaces where the existing ventilation system is not adequate for removing suspended particles. Two experimental filters were built and evaluated, both of which consisted of a cylindrical cartridge filter fitted over an air blower. In one design the cylindrical cartridge is a disposable unit with the electrodes and filter medium built as an integrated unit. The second design has a cylindrical cartridge that can be easily disassembled to allow replacement of the filter medium. Both designs were evaluated in a 354-ft 3 test cell using NaCl aerosols. The second design was installed and evaluated in a chamber where highly radioactive 238 PuO 2 powder is formed into pellets. We have derived equations that describe the theory of recirculating air filters. The predicted performance compares well with experimental measurements under controlled conditions. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab. (DT)

  10. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey; Hoel, Haakon; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  11. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  12. Filtering and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Fristedt, B; Krylov, N

    2007-01-01

    Filtering and prediction is about observing moving objects when the observations are corrupted by random errors. The main focus is then on filtering out the errors and extracting from the observations the most precise information about the object, which itself may or may not be moving in a somewhat random fashion. Next comes the prediction step where, using information about the past behavior of the object, one tries to predict its future path. The first three chapters of the book deal with discrete probability spaces, random variables, conditioning, Markov chains, and filtering of discrete Markov chains. The next three chapters deal with the more sophisticated notions of conditioning in nondiscrete situations, filtering of continuous-space Markov chains, and of Wiener process. Filtering and prediction of stationary sequences is discussed in the last two chapters. The authors believe that they have succeeded in presenting necessary ideas in an elementary manner without sacrificing the rigor too much. Such rig...

  13. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  14. Sub-micron filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Frederick [Sanford, FL; Kaledin, Leonid [Port Orange, FL

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  15. Physichal parameters for wedge filters used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strunga, Emil

    1995-01-01

    Wedge filters using in radiotherapy up two important problems: attenuation of gamma rays introduced by the presence of wedge filters and spinning of isodoses curves plate. Depending of irradiation geometry, characterised by D w , - source filter distance, D c - source dose's estimate point distance, a - side of irradiation field; nature and size filter: α - wedge angle, μ - linear adsorption coefficient, ε - filter cover attenuation w - filter side, and nature of target volume characterised by μ' - linear absorption coefficient of medium has been estimated absorption factor of wedge filter (k w ) for two irradiation geometry: and spinning angle of isodose plate (Θ): 3) tg θ (μD w (μ'D c - 2 Calculated values has been compared with the experimental measured values, for a cobaltotherapy unit Rokus-M, and the result was that between the two series of dates it is a good concordance

  16. Development and evaluation of a cleanable high efficiency steel filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Weber, F.; Wilson, P.; Lopez, R.; Valha, G.; Conner, J.; Garr, J.; Williams, K.; Biermann, A.; Wilson, K.; Moore, P.; Gellner, C.; Rapchun, D.; Simon, K.; Turley, J.; Frye, L.; Monroe, D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a high efficiency steel filter that can be cleaned in-situ by reverse air pulses. The filter consists of 64 pleated cylindrical filter elements packaged into a 6l0 x 6l0 x 292 mm aluminum frame and has 13.5 m 2 of filter area. The filter media consists of a sintered steel fiber mat using 2 μm diameter fibers. We conducted an optimization study for filter efficiency and pressure drop to determine the filter design parameters of pleat width, pleat depth, outside diameter of the cylinder, and the total number of cylinders. Several prototype cylinders were then built and evaluated in terms of filter cleaning by reverse air pulses. The results of these studies were used to build the high efficiency steel filter. We evaluated the prototype filter for efficiency and cleanability. The DOP filter certification test showed the filter has a passing efficiency of 99.99% but a failing pressure drop of 0.80 kPa at 1,700 m 3 /hr. Since we were not able to achieve a pressure drop less than 0.25 kPa, the steel filter does not meet all the criteria for a HEPA filter. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned by reverse air pulses. The next phase of the prototype evaluation consisted of installing the unit and support housing in the exhaust duct work of a uranium grit blaster for a field evaluation at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. The grit blaster is used to clean the surface of uranium parts and generates a cloud of UO 2 aerosols. We used a 1,700 m 3 /hr slip stream from the 10,200 m 3 /hr exhaust system

  17. Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY

    2014-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  18. An Application of Filtered Renewal Processes in Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lefebvre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filtered renewal processes are used to forecast daily river flows. For these processes, contrary to filtered Poisson processes, the time between consecutive events is not necessarily exponentially distributed, which is more realistic. The model is applied to obtain one- and two-day-ahead forecasts of the flows of the Delaware and Hudson Rivers, both located in the United States. Better results are obtained than with filtered Poisson processes, which are often used to model river flows.

  19. Experimental use of iteratively designed rotation invariant correlation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, D.W.; Ochoa, E.; Schils, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    Iteratively designed filters are incorporated into an optical correlator for position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognition of target images. The filters exhibit excellent discrimination because they are designed to contain full information about the target image. Numerical simulations and experiments demonstrate detection of targets that are corrupted with random noise (SNR≅0.5) and also partially obscured by other objects. The complex valued filters are encoded in a computer generated hologram and fabricated directly using an electron-beam system. Experimental results using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator for real-time input show excellent agreement with analytical and numerical computations

  20. Rotation speed measurement for turbine governor: torsion filtering by using Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houry, M.P.; Bourles, H.

    1995-11-01

    The rotation speed of a turbogenerator is disturbed by its shaft torsion. Obtaining a filtered measure of this sped a problem of a great practical importance for turbine governor. A good filtering of this speed must meet two requirements: it must cut frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation and it must not reduce or delay the signal in the pass-band. i.e. at lower frequencies. At Electricite de France, the speed measure is used to set in motion the fast valving system as quickly as possible, after a short circuit close to the unit (to contribute to the stability) or after an islanding (to quickly reach a balance with the house load). It is difficult to satisfy these two requirements by using conventional filtering methods. The standard solution consists in a first order filter: at Electricite de France, its time constant is equal to 80 ms; We have decided to improve this filtering by designing a new filter which cuts the frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation without reducing the bandwidth of the speed measure. If one uses conventional methods to obtain a band-stop filter (for instance a Butterworth, a Chebyshev or an elliptic band-stop filter),it is easy to obtain the desired magnitude but not a phase near zero in the whole pass-band. Therefore, we have chosen to design the filter by using Kalman's theory. The measurement noise is modeled as a colored one, generated by a very lightly damped system driven by a white noise. The resulting Kalman filter is an effective band-stop filter, whose phase nicely remains near zero in the whole pass-band. (authors). 13 refs., 12 figs

  1. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  2. Bragg reflection transmission filters for variable resolution monochromators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, D.

    1989-01-01

    There are various methods for improving the angular and spectral resolution of monochromator and analyzer systems. The novel system described here, though limited to higher x-ray energies (>20keV), is based on a dynamical effect occurring on the transmitted beam with a thin perfect crystal plate set in the Bragg reflection case. In the case of Bragg reflection from a perfect crystal, the incident beam is rapidly attenuated as it penetrates the crystal in the range of reflection. This extinction length is of the order of microns. The attenuation length, which determines the amount of normal transmission through the plate is generally much longer. Thus, in the range of the Bragg reflection the attenuation of the transmitted beam can change by several orders of magnitude with a small change in energy or angle. This thin crystal plate cuts a notch in the transmitted beam with a width equal to its Darwin width, thus acting as a transmission filter. When used in a non-dispersive mode with other monochromator crystals, the filter when set at the Bragg angle will reflect the entire Darwin width of the incident beam and transmit the wings of the incident beam distribution. When the element is offset in angle by some fraction of the Darwin width, the filter becomes useful in adjusting the angular width of the transmitted beam and removing a wing. Used in pairs with a symmetric offset, the filters can be used to continuously adjust the intrinsic angular divergence of the beam with good wing reduction. Instances where such filters may be useful are in improving the angular resolution of a small angle scattering camera. These filters may be added to a Bonse-Hart camera with one pair on the incident beam to reduce the intrinsic beam divergence and a second pair on the analyzer arm to improve the analyzer resolution. 2 refs., 3 Figs

  3. Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexei; Pagnoux, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as cages for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale paves the way to the realization of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This will contribute towards meeting the demands for greater miniaturization imposed by the processing of an ever increasing number of data. Photonic Crystals will provide students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background required for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, ranging from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found application. As such, it aims at building bridges between...

  4. Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid-state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as a cage for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale thus paves the way to the realisation of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This should contribute toward meeting the demands for a greater miniaturisation that the processing of an ever increasing number of data requires. Photonic Crystals intends at providing students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background needed for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found applications. As such, it aims at building brid...

  5. Exposure to space radiation of high-performance infrared multilayer filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, J. S.; Hawkins, G. J.; Hunneman, R.

    1991-01-01

    The University of Reading experiment exposed IR interference filters and crystal substrates on identical earth facing and leading-edge sites of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Filters mostly comprised multilayer coatings of lead telluride (PbTe)/II-IV on germanium (Ge) and other substrates: crystals comprised CdTe, MgF2, sapphire, quartz, silicon, and some softer materials. Identical control samples were maintained in the laboratory throughout the experiment. The filters were novel in their design, construction and manufacture, and categorized high-performance because of their ability to resolve emission spectra of the important atmospheric gases for various purposes in remote sensing. No significant changes were found in the spectra of the hard-coated filters or in the harder crystals (the softer materials were degraded to an extent). By virtue of this well-documented and long exposure in LDEF, the qualification of the filter type is significantly improved for its future requirements.

  6. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  7. EMI filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee

    2011-01-01

    With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised

  8. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed...... in the expected sense. The second scheme is a Las Vegas algorithm using filtering triggers: Its effectiveness is the same as enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while in the expected case it is faster by a factor of m/n, where n and m are, respectively, the number of nodes and edges...

  9. Multiple order reflections in crystal neutron monochromators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulfaro, R.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the higher order reflections in neutron crystal monochromators was made in order to obtain, for the IEA single crystal spectrometer, the operation range of 1,0eV to 0,01eV. Two crystals were studied, an Al(III) near 1,0eV and a Ge(III) in lower energies. For the Ge(III) case the higher order contaminations in the reflected beam were determined using as standard the gold total neutron cross section and performing the crystal reflectivity calculation for several orders of reflection. The knowledge of the contamination for each order as a function of neutron wavelength allows the optimization of the filter thickness in order to avoid higher order neutrons. The Ge(III) crystal was used because its second order reflections are theoretically forbidden, giving an advantage on other crystals, since measurements can be made until 0.02eV directly without filters. In the energy range 0.02 to 0.01eV, order contaminations higher than the second are present, therefore, either quartz filters are employed or calculated corrections are applied to the experimental data. The Al(III) crystal was used in order to estimate the second order contamination effect, in the iridium resonance measurements, at E 0 = 0.654eV. In that region, approximations can be made and it was not necessary to make the crystal reflectivity calculation for the filters thickness optimization. Since only the second order affects the results in that region, tellurium was used for the filtration, because this element has a resonance in the range of neutrons with energy 4E [pt

  10. Fresnel Lenses fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining on Polymer 1D Photonic Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guduru Surya S.K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of micro Fresnel lenses by femtosecond laser surface ablation on polymer 1D photonic crystals. This device is designed to focus the transmitted wavelength of the photonic crystal and filter the wavelengths corresponding to the photonic band gap region. Integration of such devices in a wavelength selective light harvesting and filtering microchip can be achieved.

  11. Design considerations for a suboptimal Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difilippo, D. J.

    1995-06-01

    In designing a suboptimal Kalman filter, the designer must decide how to simplify the system error model without causing the filter estimation errors to increase to unacceptable levels. Deletion of certain error states and decoupling of error state dynamics are the two principal model simplifications that are commonly used in suboptimal filter design. For the most part, the decisions as to which error states can be deleted or decoupled are based on the designer's understanding of the physics of the particular system. Consequently, the details of a suboptimal design are usually unique to the specific application. In this paper, the process of designing a suboptimal Kalman filter is illustrated for the case of an airborne transfer-of-alignment (TOA) system used for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) motion compensation. In this application, the filter must continuously transfer the alignment of an onboard Doppler-damped master inertial navigation system (INS) to a strapdown navigator that processes information from a less accurate inertial measurement unit (IMU) mounted on the radar antenna. The IMU is used to measure spurious antenna motion during the SAR imaging interval, so that compensating phase corrections can be computed and applied to the radar returns, thereby presenting image degradation that would otherwise result from such motions. The principles of SAR are described in many references, for instance. The primary function of the TOA Kalman filter in a SAR motion compensation system is to control strapdown navigator attitude errors, and to a less degree, velocity and heading errors. Unlike a classical navigation application, absolute positional accuracy is not important. The motion compensation requirements for SAR imaging are discussed in some detail. This TOA application is particularly appropriate as a vehicle for discussing suboptimal filter design, because the system contains features that can be exploited to allow both deletion and decoupling of error

  12. Laser Rate Equation Based Filtering for Carrier Recovery in Characterization and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Xue, Weiqi

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a semiconductor laser rate equationbased approach to carrier recovery in a Bayesian filtering framework. Filter stability and the effect of model inaccuracies (unknown or un-useable rate equation coefficients) are discussed. Two potential application areas are explored: laser...... characterization and carrier recovery in coherent communication. Two rate equation based Bayesian filters, the particle filter and extended Kalman filter, are used in conjunction with a coherent receiver to measure frequency noise spectrum of a photonic crystal cavity laser with less than 20 nW of fiber...

  13. Analysis of an MCU HEPA filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    A series of direct analyses on three portions (inlet, center, and outlet) of the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter material from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) have been performed; this includes x-ray methods such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Contained Scanning Electron Microscopy (CSEM) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), as well as Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (FTIR). Additionally, two leaching studies (one with water, one with dichloromethane) have been performed on three portions (inlet, center, and outlet) of the HEPA filter material, with the leachates being analyzed by Inductively-coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICPES), Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA) and gammascan. From the results of the analyses, SRNL feels that cesium-depleted solvent is being introduced into the HEPA filter. The most likely avenue for this is mechanical aerosolization of solvent, where the aerosol is then carried along an airstream into the HEPA filter. Once introduced into the HEPA filter media, the solvent wicks throughout the material, and migrates towards the outlet end. Once on the outlet end, continual drying could cause particulate flakes to exit the filter and travel farther down the airstream path.

  14. Metalcasting: Filtering Molten Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauren Poole; Lee Recca

    1999-01-01

    A more efficient method has been created to filter cast molten metal for impurities. Read about the resulting energy and money savings that can accrue to many different industries from the use of this exciting new technology

  15. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-01

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  16. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  17. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter requires that criteria be met to demonstrate that the outcome instrument meets...... the criteria for content, face, and construct validity. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed a variety of ways in which case studies of current OMERACT Working Groups complied with the Truth component of the Filter and what issues remained to be resolved. RESULTS: The case studies showed...... that there is broad agreement on criteria for meeting the Truth criteria through demonstration of content, face, and construct validity; however, several issues were identified that the Filter Working Group will need to address. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on how Truth...

  18. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John R; Boers, Maarten; Hewlett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes...... for defining core areas of measurement ("Filter 2.0 Core Areas of Measurement") was presented at OMERACT 11 to explore areas of consensus and to consider whether already endorsed core outcome sets fit into this newly proposed framework. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed the extent to which case......, presentation, and clarity of the framework were questioned. The discussion groups and subsequent feedback highlighted 20 such issues. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on accepting the proposed Filter 2.0 framework of Core Areas as the basis for the selection of Core Outcome...

  19. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  20. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-07

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  1. Imaging transport phenomena during lysozyme protein crystal growth by the hanging drop technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethia Gupta, Anamika; Gupta, Rajive; Panigrahi, P. K.; Muralidhar, K.

    2013-06-01

    The present study reports the transport process that occurs during the growth of lysozyme protein crystals by the hanging drop technique. A rainbow schlieren technique has been employed for imaging changes in salt concentration. A one dimensional color filter is used to record the deflection of the light beam. An optical microscope and an X-ray crystallography unit are used to characterize the size, tetragonal shape and Bravais lattice constants of the grown crystals. A parametric study on the effect of drop composition, drop size, reservoir height and number of drops on the crystal size and quality is reported. Changes in refractive index are not large enough to create a meaningful schlieren image in the air gap between the drop and the reservoir. However, condensation of fresh water over the reservoir solution creates large changes in the concentration of NaCl, giving rise to clear color patterns in the schlieren images. These have been analyzed to obtain salt concentration profiles near the free surface of the reservoir solution as a function of time. The diffusion of fresh water into the reservoir solution at the early stages of crystal growth followed by the mass flux of salt from the bulk solution towards the free surface has been recorded. The overall crystal growth process can be classified into two regimes, as demarcated by the changes in slope of salt concentration within the reservoir. The salt concentration in the reservoir equilibrates at long times when the crystallization process is complete. Thus, transport processes in the reservoir emerge as the route to monitor protein crystal growth in the hanging drop configuration. Results show that crystal growth rate is faster for a higher lysozyme concentration, smaller drops, and larger reservoir heights.

  2. Spatial filter issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.E.; Estabrook, K.G.; Milam, D.; Sell, W.D.; Van Wonterghem, R.M.; Feil, M.D.; Rubenchick, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments and calculations indicate that the threshold pressure in spatial filters for distortion of a transmitted pulse scales approximately as I O.2 and (F number-sign) 2 over the intensity range from 10 14 to 2xlO 15 W/CM 2 . We also demonstrated an interferometric diagnostic that will be used to measure the scaling relationships governing pinhole closure in spatial filters

  3. Microwave Resonators and Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    1 Microwave Resonators and Filters Daniel E. Oates MIT Lincoln Laboratory 244 Wood St. Lexington, MA 02478 USA Email: oates@ll.mit.edu...explained in other chapters, the surface resistance of superconductors at microwave frequencies can be as much as three orders of magnitude lower than the...resonators and filters in the first edition of this handbook (Z.-Y. Shen 2003) discussed the then state of the art of microwave frequency applications

  4. Staging with spatial filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.

    1974-01-01

    It is known that small scale beam instabilities limit the focusable energy that can be achieved from a terawatt laser chain. Spatial filters are currently being used on CYCLOPS to ameliorate this problem. Realizing the full advantage of such a filter, however, may require certain staging modifications. A staging methodology is discussed that should be applicable to the CYCLOPS, 381, and SHIVA systems. Experiments are in progress on CYCLOPS that will address directly the utility of the proposed approach

  5. Impact of a silver layer on the membrane of tap water filters on the microbiological quality of filtered water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruderek Juliane

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria in the hospital's drinking water system represent a risk for the acquisition of a nosocomial infection in the severely immunocompromised host. Terminal tap water filters may be used to prevent nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. We present data from water samples using an improved kind of tap water filters. Methods In a blinded study on an intermediate care unit of the thoracic surgery department, a modified type of the Germlyser water filter (Aqua-Free Membrane Technology with a newly-introduced silver layer on the filtration membrane was compared to its preceding type without such a layer on 15 water outlets. We determined growth of Legionella, other pathogenic bacteria, and the total heterotrophic plate count in unfiltered water and filtered water samples after filter usage intervals of 1 through 4 weeks. Results A total of 299 water samples were tested. Twenty-nine of the 60 unfiltered water samples contained Legionella of various serogroups (baseline value. In contrast, all samples filtered by the original water filter and all but one of the water samples filtered by the modified filter type remained Legionella-free. No other pathogenic bacteria were detected in any filtered sample. The total plate count in water samples increased during use of both kinds of filters over time. However, for the first 7 days of use, there were significantly fewer water samples containing >100 CFU per mL when using the new filter device compared with the older filters or taps with no filter. No advantage was seen thereafter. Conclusion The use of this type of terminal water filter is an appropriate method to protect immunocompromised patients from water-borne pathogens such as Legionella.

  6. Liquid crystal dimers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar Pal, Santanu

    2017-01-01

    This book covers in-depth discussion of design principles, synthesis and thermal behavior of all types of liquid crystal (LC) dimers. The text presents recent advances in the field of LC dimers consisting of different mesogenic units such as calamitic, discotic and bent-core molecules. It starts with a chapter on the introduction of liquid crystal dimers, including their odd-even behavior, basic classification of dimers and common mesophases in dimers. The text shows how the molecular architectures are being used to develop new materials to study a range of interesting phenomena such as the biaxial nematic phase containing rod-like and disc-like mesogenic units. Finally, the text presents perspectives related to technological relevance of these dimers such as dopants in LC display mixtures exhibiting faster relaxation time, strong flexoelectric coupling and others to effect control over the properties of these materials.

  7. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  8. Interim report on the TMI-2 purification filter examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.E.; Hobbins, R.R.; Cook, B.A.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1983-02-01

    Filters from the purification/makeup system of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor were examined after the March 28, 1979, accident to determine the character of the debris transported to the filters. The general condition of the filters is presented. Material was removed from the filters and examined. The elemental and radionuclide makeup of the debris is discussed. Distribution of particle size and shape is presentd for some of the material examined. This is an interim report. When the investigation is completed, another report summarizing all of the data will be issued

  9. PIXE analysis of atmospheric particulate matter in glas fibre filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabacniks, M.H.; Orsini, C.Q.; Maenhaut, W.

    1993-01-01

    A 3-step extraction procedure was developed to allow particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of particulate matter in normal glass fibre filter samples. The detection limits, expressed in ng/m 3 of air, for the filter extracts were 5 to 30 times lower than those achieved by PIXE analysis or ordinary Nuclepore polycarbonate filter samples. The concentration results were compared with those obtained from routine atomic absorption spectrometry measurements and with the PIXE data from Nuclepore stacked filter unit samples taken in parallel. (orig.)

  10. Systematic Procedure for Generating Operational Policies to Achieve Target Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) in Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    Batch cooling crystallization is one of the important unit operations involving separation of solid-liquid phases. Usually the most common crystal product qualities are directly related to the crystal size distribution (CSD). However the main difficulty in batch crystallization is to obtain a uni...

  11. Protein-crystal growth experiment (planned)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, S.; Asano, K.; Hashitani, T.; Kitakohji, T.; Nemoto, H.; Kitamura, S.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a microgravity environment on protein crystal growth, a system was developed using 5 cubic feet Get Away Special payload canister. In the experiment, protein (myoglobin) will be simultaneously crystallized from an aqueous solution in 16 crystallization units using three types of crystallization methods, i.e., batch, vapor diffusion, and free interface diffusion. Each unit has two compartments: one for the protein solution and the other for the ammonium sulfate solution. Compartments are separated by thick acrylic or thin stainless steel plates. Crystallization will be started by sliding out the plates, then will be periodically recorded up to 120 hours by a still camera. The temperature will be passively controlled by a phase transition thermal storage component and recorded in IC memory throughout the experiment. Microgravity environment can then be evaluated for protein crystal growth by comparing crystallization in space with that on Earth.

  12. Quartz crystal fabrication facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, R. J.

    1980-05-01

    The report describes the design and operation of a five chamber, interconnected vacuum system, which is capable of cleaning, plating, and sealing precision quartz crystal units in ceramic flatpack enclosures continuously in a high vacuum environment. The production rate design goal was 200 units per eight hour day. A unique nozzle beam gold deposition source was developed to operate for extended periods of time without reloading. The source puts out a narrow beam of gold typically in the order of 2 1/2 deg included cone angle. Maximum deposition rates are in the order of 400 a/min at 5.5 in. 'throw' distance used. Entrance and exit air lock chambers expedite the material throughput, so that the processing chambers are at high vacuum for extended periods of time. A stainless steel conveyor belt, in conjunction with three vacuum manipulators, transport the resonator components to the various work stations. Individual chambers are normally separated from each other by gate valves. The crystal resonators, mounted in flatpack frames but unplated, are loaded into transport trays in a lid-frame-lid sequency for insertion into the system and exit as completed crystal units. The system utilizes molybdenum coated ball bearings at essentially all friction surfaces. The gold sources and plating mask heads are equipped with elevators and gate valves, so that they can be removed from the system for maintenance without exposing the chambers to atmosphere.

  13. Tunable Microwave Filter Design Using Thin-Film Ferroelectric Varactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridasan, Vrinda

    Military, space, and consumer-based communication markets alike are moving towards multi-functional, multi-mode, and portable transceiver units. Ferroelectric-based tunable filter designs in RF front-ends are a relatively new area of research that provides a potential solution to support wideband and compact transceiver units. This work presents design methodologies developed to optimize a tunable filter design for system-level integration, and to improve the performance of a ferroelectric-based tunable bandpass filter. An investigative approach to find the origins of high insertion loss exhibited by these filters is also undertaken. A system-aware design guideline and figure of merit for ferroelectric-based tunable band- pass filters is developed. The guideline does not constrain the filter bandwidth as long as it falls within the range of the analog bandwidth of a system's analog to digital converter. A figure of merit (FOM) that optimizes filter design for a specific application is presented. It considers the worst-case filter performance parameters and a tuning sensitivity term that captures the relation between frequency tunability and the underlying material tunability. A non-tunable parasitic fringe capacitance associated with ferroelectric-based planar capacitors is confirmed by simulated and measured results. The fringe capacitance is an appreciable proportion of the tunable capacitance at frequencies of X-band and higher. As ferroelectric-based tunable capac- itors form tunable resonators in the filter design, a proportionally higher fringe capacitance reduces the capacitance tunability which in turn reduces the frequency tunability of the filter. Methods to reduce the fringe capacitance can thus increase frequency tunability or indirectly reduce the filter insertion-loss by trading off the increased tunability achieved to lower loss. A new two-pole tunable filter topology with high frequency tunability (> 30%), steep filter skirts, wide stopband

  14. Crystal structure determination of Efavirenz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popeneciu, Horea; Dumitru, Ristoiu; Tripon, Carmen; Borodi, Gheorghe; Pop, Mihaela Maria

    2015-01-01

    Needle-shaped single crystals of the title compound, C 14 H 9 ClF 3 NO 2 , were obtained from a co-crystallization experiment of Efavirenz with maleic acid in a (1:1) ratio, using methanol as solvent. Crystal structure determination at room temperature revealed a significant anisotropy of the lattice expansion compared to the previously reported low-temperature structure. In both low- and room temperature structures the cyclopropylethynyl fragment in one of the asymmetric unit molecules is disordered. While at low-temperature only one C atom exhibits positional disorder, at room temperature the disorder is present for two C atoms of the cyclopropane ring

  15. Choosing and using astronomical filters

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2014-01-01

    As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take

  16. Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorfner, D.; Zabel, T.; Hürlimann, T.

    2009-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and optical investigation of photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity drop filters for use as optical biosensors. The resonant cavity mode wavelength and Q-factor are studied as a function of the ambient refractive index and as a function of adsorbed proteins (bovine...

  17. Anti-clogging filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Erik P.

    2015-05-19

    An anti-clogging filter system for filtering a fluid containing large particles and small particles includes an enclosure with at least one individual elongated tubular filter element in the enclosure. The individual elongated tubular filter element has an internal passage, a closed end, an open end, and a filtering material in or on the individual elongated tubular filter element. The fluid travels through the open end of the elongated tubular element and through the internal passage and through the filtering material. An anti-clogging element is positioned on or adjacent the individual elongated tubular filter element and provides a fluid curtain that preferentially directs the larger particulates to one area of the filter material allowing the remainder of the filter material to remain more efficient.

  18. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon

    2016-01-08

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  19. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon; Chernov, Alexey; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  20. Rotation speed measurement for turbine governor: torsion filtering by using Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houry, M.P.; Bourles, H.

    1996-01-01

    The rotation speed of a turbogenerator is disturbed by its shaft torsion. Obtaining a filtered measure of this speed is a problem of a great practical importance for turbine governor. A good filtering of this speed must meet two requirements: it must cut frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation and it must not reduce or delay the signal in the pass-band, i.e. at lower frequencies. At Electricite de France, the speed measure is used to set in motion the fast valving system as quickly as possible, after a short circuit close to the unit or rather an islanding. It is difficult to satisfy these two requirements by using conventional filtering methods. The standard solution consists in a first order filter: at Electricite de France, its time constant is equal to 80 ms. We have decided to improve this filtering by designing a new filter which cuts the frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation without reducing the bandwidth to the speed measure. If one uses conventional methods to obtain a band stop filter, it is easy to obtain the desired magnitude but not a phase near zero in the whole pass-band. Therefore, we have chosen to design the filter by using Kalman'a theory. The measurement noise is modeled as a colored one, generated by a very lightly damped system driven by a while noise. The resulting Kalman filter is an effective band stop filter, whose phase nicely remains near zero in the whole pass-band. The digital simulations we made and the tests we carried out with the Electricite de France Micro Network laboratory show the advantages of the rotation speed filter we designed using Kalman's theory. With the proposed filter, the speed measure filtering is better in terms of reduction and phase shift. the result is that there are less untimely solicitations of the fast valving system. Consequently, this device improves the power systems stability by minimizing the risks of deep perturbations due to a temporary lack of generation and the risks of under-speed loss

  1. Hemispherical-field-of-view, nonimaging narrow-band spectral filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R. B.; Webb, S. G.; Griffith, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    Two compound parabolic concentrators are used to create a 180-deg-field-of-view spectral filter. The collection optics are reflective and are designed to collimate the light through a multilayer interference filter and then to refocus it onto an optical detector. Assuming unit reflectance and no loss through the optical filter, this device operates at the thermodynamic collection limit.

  2. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    “Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  3. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides a framework for the validation of outcome measures for use in rheumatology clinical research. However, imaging and biochemical measures may face additional validation challenges because of their technical nature. The Imaging...... using the original OMERACT Filter and the newly proposed structure. Breakout groups critically reviewed the extent to which the candidate biomarkers complied with the proposed stepwise approach, as a way of examining the utility of the proposed 3-dimensional structure. RESULTS: Although...... was obtained for a proposed tri-axis structure to assess validation of imaging and soluble biomarkers; nevertheless, additional work is required to better evaluate its place within the OMERACT Filter 2.0....

  4. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  5. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  6. Quantum reality filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudder, Stan

    2010-01-01

    An anhomomorphic logic A* is the set of all possible realities for a quantum system. Our main goal is to find the 'actual reality' Φ a element of A* for the system. Reality filters are employed to eliminate unwanted potential realities until only φ a remains. In this paper, we consider three reality filters that are constructed by means of quantum integrals. A quantum measure μ can generate or actualize a Φ element of A* if μ(A) is a quantum integral with respect to φ for a density function f over events A. In this sense, μ is an 'average' of the truth values of φ with weights given by f. We mainly discuss relations between these filters and their existence and uniqueness properties. For example, we show that a quadratic reality generated by a quantum measure is unique. In this case we obtain the unique actual quadratic reality.

  7. Helium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed helium crystals in equilibrium with superfluid have been found to be one of the few systems in which an anisotropic solid comes into true thermodynamic equilibrium with its melt. The discovery of roughening transitions at the liquid-solid interface have shown this system to be ideal for the study of the statistical mechanics of interface structures. We describe the effect of roughening on the shape and growth of macroscopic crystals from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. (author)

  8. Ultra-compact broadband higher order-mode pass filter fabricated in a silicon waveguide for multimode photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Ding, Yunhong; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2015-01-01

    An ultra-compact and broadband higher order-mode pass filter in a 1D photonic crystal silicon waveguide is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The photonic crystal is designed for the lower order mode to work in the photonic band gap, while the higher order mode is located in the air band....... Consequently, light on the lower order mode is prohibited to pass through the filter, while light on a higher order mode can be converted to a Bloch mode in the photonic crystal and pass through the filter with low insertion loss. As an example, we fabricate a similar to 15-mu m-long first-order-mode pass...

  9. Study on control of defect mode in hybrid mirror chirped porous silicon photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Luo, Pei; Han, Yangyang; Cui, Xingning; He, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Based on the optical resonance principle and the tight-binding theory, a hybrid mirror chirped porous silicon photonic crystal is proposed. The control of the defect mode in hybrid mirror chirped porous silicon photonic crystal is studied. Through the numerical simulation, the control regulations of the defect modes resulted by the number of the periodical layers for the fundamental unit and the cascading number of the chirped structures are analyzed, and the split and the degeneration of the defect modes resulted by the change of the relative location between the mirror structures and the quasi-mirror structures are discussed. The simulation results show that the band gap would be broadened with the increase of the chirp quantity and the layer number of unilateral chirp. Adjusting the structural parameters of the hybrid mirror structure, the multimode characteristics will occur in the band gap. The more the cascading number of the chirped units, the more the number of the filtering channels will be. In addition, with the increase of the relative location between the mirror structures and the quasi-mirror structures, the degeneration of the defect modes will occur and can obtain high Q value. The structure can provide effective theoretical references for the design the multi-channel filters and high Q value sensors.

  10. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  11. Alarm filtering and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses alarm filtering and presentation in the control room of nuclear and other process control plants. Alarm generation and presentation is widely recognized as a general process control problem. Alarm systems often fail to provide meaningful alarms to operators. Alarm generation and presentation is an area in which computer aiding is feasible and provides clear benefits. Therefore, researchers have developed several computerized alarm filtering and presentation approaches. This paper discusses problems associated with alarm generation and presentation. Approaches to improving the alarm situation and installation issues of alarm system improvements are discussed. The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technology on alarm system improvements is assessed. (orig.)

  12. Frequency tunability of solid-core photonic crystal fibers filled with nanoparticle-doped liquid crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Scolari, Lara; Gauza, Sebastian; Xianyu, Haiqing; Zhai, Lei; Eskildsen, Lars; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Wu, Shin-Tson; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2009-01-01

    We infiltrate liquid crystals doped with BaTiO3 nanoparticles in a photonic crystal fiber and compare the measured transmission spectrum with the one achieved without dopant. New interesting features, such as frequency modulation response of the device and a transmission spectrum with tunable attenuation on the short wavelength side of the widest bandgap, suggest a potential application of this device as a tunable all-in-fiber gain equalization filter with an adjustable slope. The tunability ...

  13. The United States’ Engagement with International Law: An Analysis of the Social Complexities that Crystallized its Stance on Racial and Gender Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malia Lee Womack

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The United States ratified the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD but has yet to sanction the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW. This article investigates what social costs drove the state to pass only one of the two anti-discrimination treaties. It finds that the state perceives the race convention to be less socially costly than the gender statute’s objective mandates in regards to content about social and cultural patterns, family planning resources, and in tensions about the proposed reservations, understandings, and declarations.

  14. Hydrothermally grown zeolite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.K.; Qureshi, A.H.; Hussain, M.A.; Qazi, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    The aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type materials were synthesized by hydrothermal process at 150-170 degree C for various periods of time from the mixtures containing colloidal reactive silica, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, iron nitrate and organic templates. Organic polycation templates were used as zeolite crystal shape modifiers to enhance relative growth rates. The template was almost completely removed from the zeolite specimens by calcination at 550 degree C for 8h in air. Simultaneous thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed to study the removal of water molecules and the amount of organic template cations occluded inside the crystal pore of zeolite framework. The 12-13% weight loss in the range of (140-560 degree C) was associated with removal of the (C/sub 3/H/sub 7/)/sub 4/ N+ cation and water molecules. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to study the structure, morphology and surface features of hydrothermally grown aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type crystals. In order to elucidate the mode of zeolite crystallization the crystallinity and unit cell parameters of the materials were determined by XRD, which are the function of Al and Fe contents of zeolites. (author)

  15. A triclinic crystal structure of the carboxy-terminal domain of HIV-1 capsid protein with four molecules in the asymmetric unit reveals a novel packing interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampel, Ayala; Yaniv, Oren; Berger, Or; Bacharach, Eran; Gazit, Ehud; Frolow, Felix

    2013-01-01

    The triclinic structure of the HIV-1 capsid protein contains four molecules in the asymmetric unit that form a novel packing interface that could conceivably resemble an intermediate structure that is involved in the early steps of HIV-1 assembly. The Gag precursor is the major structural protein of the virion of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Capsid protein (CA), a cleavage product of Gag, plays an essential role in virus assembly both in Gag-precursor multimerization and in capsid core formation. The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of CA contains 20 residues that are highly conserved across retroviruses and constitute the major homology region (MHR). Genetic evidence implies a role for the MHR in interactions between Gag precursors during the assembly of the virus, but the structural basis for this role remains elusive. This paper describes a novel triclinic structure of the HIV-1 CA CTD at 1.6 Å resolution with two canonical dimers of CA CTD in the asymmetric unit. The canonical dimers form a newly identified packing interface where interactions of four conserved MHR residues take place. This is the first structural indication that these MHR residues participate in the putative CTD–CTD interactions. These findings suggest that the molecules forming this novel interface resemble an intermediate structure that participates in the early steps of HIV-1 assembly. This interface may therefore provide a novel target for antiviral drugs

  16. Statistically-Efficient Filtering in Impulsive Environments: Weighted Myriad Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G. Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear filtering theory has been largely motivated by the characteristics of Gaussian signals. In the same manner, the proposed Myriad Filtering methods are motivated by the need for a flexible filter class with high statistical efficiency in non-Gaussian impulsive environments that can appear in practice. Myriad filters have a solid theoretical basis, are inherently more powerful than median filters, and are very general, subsuming traditional linear FIR filters. The foundation of the proposed filtering algorithms lies in the definition of the myriad as a tunable estimator of location derived from the theory of robust statistics. We prove several fundamental properties of this estimator and show its optimality in practical impulsive models such as the α-stable and generalized-t. We then extend the myriad estimation framework to allow the use of weights. In the same way as linear FIR filters become a powerful generalization of the mean filter, filters based on running myriads reach all of their potential when a weighting scheme is utilized. We derive the “normal” equations for the optimal myriad filter, and introduce a suboptimal methodology for filter tuning and design. The strong potential of myriad filtering and estimation in impulsive environments is illustrated with several examples.

  17. The ATLAS event filter

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Boissat, C; Davis, R; Duval, P Y; Etienne, F; Fede, E; Francis, D; Green, P; Hemmer, F; Jones, R; MacKinnon, J; Mapelli, Livio P; Meessen, C; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nacasch, R; Negri, A; Pinfold, James L; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rafflin, C; Scannicchio, D A; Stanescu, C; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the studies for the ATLAS Event Filter is given. The architecture and the high level design of the DAQ-1 prototype is presented. The current status if the prototypes is briefly given. Finally, future plans and milestones are given. (11 refs).

  18. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  19. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  20. Filter assembly for metallic and intermetallic tube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Lippert, Thomas E.; Bruck, Gerald J.; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    2001-01-01

    A filter assembly (60) for holding a filter element (28) within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel is provided, containing: a filter housing (62), said filter housing having a certain axial length and having a peripheral sidewall, said sidewall defining an interior chamber (66); a one piece, all metal, fail-safe/regenerator device (68) within the interior chamber (66) of the filter housing (62) and/or extending beyond the axial length of the filter housing, said device containing an outward extending radial flange (71) within the filter housing for seating an essential seal (70), the device also having heat transfer media (72) disposed inside and screens (80) for particulate removal; one compliant gasket (70) positioned next to and above the outward extending radial flange of the fail-safe/regenerator device; and a porous metallic corrosion resistant superalloy type filter element body welded at the bottom of the metal fail-safe/regenerator device.

  1. Digital Simulation of a Hybrid Active Filter - An Active Filter in Series with a Shunt Passive Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Sitaram, Mahesh I; Padiyar, KR; Ramanarayanan, V

    1998-01-01

    Active filters have long been in use for the filtering of power system load harmonics. In this paper, the digital simulation results of a hybrid active power filter system for a rectifier load are presented. The active filter is used for filtering higher order harmonics as the dominant harmonics are filtered by the passive filter. This reduces the rating of the active filter significantly. The DC capacitor voltage of the active filter is controlled using a PI controller.

  2. Specific filters applied in nuclear medicine services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Vitor S.; Crispim, Verginia R., E-mail: verginia@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Brandao, Luis E.B. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ) Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In Nuclear Medicine, radioiodine, in various chemical forms, is a key tracer used in diagnostic practices and/or therapy. Due to its high volatility, medical professionals may incorporate radioactive iodine during the preparation of the dose to be administered to the patient. In radioactive iodine therapy doses ranging from 3.7 to 7.4 GBq per patient are employed. Thus, aiming at reducing the risk of occupational contamination, we developed a low cost filter to be installed at the exit of the exhaust system where doses of radioactive iodine are fractionated, using domestic technology. The effectiveness of radioactive iodine retention by silver impregnated silica [10%] crystals and natural activated carbon was verified using radiotracer techniques. The results showed that natural activated carbon is effective for I{sub 2} capture for a large or small amount of substrate but its use is restricted due to its low flash point (150 deg C). Besides, when poisoned by organic solvents, this flash point may become lower, causing explosions if absorbing large amounts of nitrates. To hold the CH{sub 3}I gas, it was necessary to increase the volume of natural activated carbon since it was not absorbed by SiO{sub 2} + Ag crystals. We concluded that, for an exhaust flow range of (306 {+-} 4) m{sup 3}/h, a double stage filter using SiO{sub 2} + Ag in the first stage and natural activated carbon in the second is sufficient to meet radiological safety requirements. (author)

  3. Experimental study of filter cake formation on different filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.

    2009-01-01

    Removal of particulate matter from gases generated in the process industry is important for product recovery as well as emission control. Dynamics of filtration plant depend on operating conditions. The models, that predict filter plant behaviour, involve empirical resistance parameters which are usually derived from limited experimental data and are characteristics of the filter media and filter cake (dust deposited on filter medium). Filter cake characteristics are affected by the nature of filter media, process parameters and mode of filter regeneration. Removal of dust particles from air is studied in a pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter facility resembling closely to the industrial filters. Limestone dust and ambient air are used in this study with two widely different filter media. All important parameters like pressure drop, gas flow rate, dust settling, are recorded continuously at 1s interval. The data is processed for estimation of the resistance parameters. The pressure drop rise on test filter media is compared. Results reveal that the surface of filter media has an influence on pressure drop rise (concave pressure drop rise). Similar effect is produced by partially jet pulsed filter surface. Filter behaviour is also simulated using estimated parameters and a simplified model and compared with the experimental results. Distribution of cake area load is therefore an important aspect of jet pulse cleaned bag filter modeling. Mean specific cake resistance remains nearly constant on thoroughly jet pulse cleaned membrane coated filter bags. However, the trend can not be confirmed without independent cake height and density measurements. Thus the results reveal the importance of independent measurements of cake resistance. (author)

  4. Numerical study of canister filters with alternatives filter cap configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A. N.; Daud, A. R.; Abdullah, K.; Seri, S. M.; Razali, M. A.; Hushim, M. F.; Khalid, A.

    2017-09-01

    Air filtration system and filter play an important role in getting a good quality air into turbo machinery such as gas turbine. The filtration system and filter has improved the quality of air and protect the gas turbine part from contaminants which could bring damage. During separation of contaminants from the air, pressure drop cannot be avoided but it can be minimized thus helps to reduce the intake losses of the engine [1]. This study is focused on the configuration of the filter in order to obtain the minimal pressure drop along the filter. The configuration used is the basic filter geometry provided by Salutary Avenue Manufacturing Sdn Bhd. and two modified canister filter cap which is designed based on the basic filter model. The geometries of the filter are generated by using SOLIDWORKS software and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to analyse and simulates the flow through the filter. In this study, the parameters of the inlet velocity are 0.032 m/s, 0.063 m/s, 0.094 m/s and 0.126 m/s. The total pressure drop produce by basic, modified filter 1 and 2 is 292.3 Pa, 251.11 Pa and 274.7 Pa. The pressure drop reduction for the modified filter 1 is 41.19 Pa and 14.1% lower compared to basic filter and the pressure drop reduction for modified filter 2 is 17.6 Pa and 6.02% lower compared to the basic filter. The pressure drops for the basic filter are slightly different with the Salutary Avenue filter due to limited data and experiment details. CFD software are very reliable in running a simulation rather than produces the prototypes and conduct the experiment thus reducing overall time and cost in this study.

  5. Unit for air decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano H, E.

    1991-02-01

    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  6. Butterfly wing color: A photonic crystal demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti Zaccaria, Remo

    2016-01-01

    We have theoretically modeled the optical behavior of a natural occurring photonic crystal, as defined by the geometrical characteristics of the Teinopalpus Imperialis butterfly. In particular, following a genetic algorithm approach, we demonstrate how its wings follow a triclinic crystal geometry with a tetrahedron unit base. By performing both photonic band analysis and transmission/reflection simulations, we are able to explain the characteristic colors emerging by the butterfly wings, thus confirming their crystal form.

  7. Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Lukac

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.

  8. The case for improved HEPA-filter mechanical performance standards revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Under benign operating conditions, High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter units serve as reliable and relatively economical components in the air cleaning systems of nuclear facilities worldwide. Despite more than four decades of filter-unit evaluation and improvements, however, the material strength characteristics of the glass fiber filter medium continue to ultimately limit filter functional reliability. In worst-case scenarios involving fire suppression, loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA`s), or exposure to shock waves or tornado induced flows, rupture of the filter medium of units meeting current qualification standards cannot be entirely ruled out. Even under so-called normal conditions of operation, instances of filter failure reported in the literature leave open questions of filter-unit reliability. Though developments of filter units with improved burst strengths have been pursued outside the United States, support for efforts in this country has been comparatively minimal. This despite user requests for filters with greater moisture resistance, for example. Or the fact that conventional filter designs result in not only the least robust component to be found in a nuclear air cleaning system, but also the one most sensitive to the adverse effects of conditions deviating from those of normal operation. Filter qualification-test specifications of current codes, standards, and regulatory guidelines in the United States are based primarily upon research performed in a 30-year period beginning in the 1950`s. They do not seem to reflect the benefits of the more significant developments and understanding of filter failure modes and mechanisms achieved since that time. One overseas design, based on such knowledge, has proven reliability under adverse operating conditions involving combined and serial challenges. Its widespread use, however, has faltered on a lack of consensus in upgrading filter performance standards. 34 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. A Differential Geometric Approach to Nonlinear Filtering: The Projection Filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, D.; Hanzon, B.; LeGland, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new and systematic method of approximating exact nonlinear filters with finite dimensional filters, using the differential geometric approach to statistics. The projection filter is defined rigorously in the case of exponential families. A convenient exponential family is

  10. Photorefractive Tungsten Bronze Crystals for Optical Limiters and Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    vector , X is the laser light wavelength, 0 is the half- angle between the two crossing laser beams, and k0 is the Debye screening wave vector given by...between the grating and the dielectric constant E’ = 950) such that the grating’ vector is interference pattern, the intensities of the output beams from...substituting Io, I, and Id into expression 0 ple d 2o0o 25i00 (8), we can calculate the phase shift between the grating and Applied Electric Feild in V

  11. Magnetophotonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, M [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fujikawa, R [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Baryshev, A [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Khanikaev, A [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Lim, P B [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan (Japan); Uchida, H [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Aktsipetrov, O [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Fedyanin, A [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Murzina, T [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Granovsky, A [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2006-04-21

    When the constitutive materials of photonic crystals (PCs) are magnetic, or even only a defect introduced in PCs is magnetic, the resultant PCs exhibit very unique optical and magneto-optical properties. The strong photon confinement in the vicinity of magnetic defects results in large enhancement in linear and nonlinear magneto-optical responses of the media. Novel functions, such as band Faraday effect, magnetic super-prism effect and non-reciprocal or magnetically controllable photonic band structure, are predicted to occur theoretically. All the unique features of the media arise from the existence of magnetization in media, and hence they are called magnetophotonic crystals providing the spin-dependent nature in PCs. (topical review)

  12. Magnetophotonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M; Fujikawa, R; Baryshev, A; Khanikaev, A; Lim, P B; Uchida, H; Aktsipetrov, O; Fedyanin, A; Murzina, T; Granovsky, A

    2006-01-01

    When the constitutive materials of photonic crystals (PCs) are magnetic, or even only a defect introduced in PCs is magnetic, the resultant PCs exhibit very unique optical and magneto-optical properties. The strong photon confinement in the vicinity of magnetic defects results in large enhancement in linear and nonlinear magneto-optical responses of the media. Novel functions, such as band Faraday effect, magnetic super-prism effect and non-reciprocal or magnetically controllable photonic band structure, are predicted to occur theoretically. All the unique features of the media arise from the existence of magnetization in media, and hence they are called magnetophotonic crystals providing the spin-dependent nature in PCs. (topical review)

  13. Molecular mechanisms of crystal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, C. M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I present an example of the research that the Mineral Surface Group of the Munster University is conducting in the field of Crystal Growth. Atomic Force Microscopy (Am) in situ observations of different barite (BaSO4) faces growing from aqueous solutions, in combination with computer simulations of the surface attachment of growth units allows us to test crystal growth models. Our results demonstrate the strong structural control that a crystal can exert on its own growth, revealing also the limitation of the classical crystal growth theories (two dimensional nucleation and spiral growth models) in providing a complete explanation for the growth behaviour at a molecular scale. (Author) 6 refs

  14. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  15. Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENGÜL, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...

  16. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  17. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  18. Utilizations of filtered neutron beams at Dalat nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, P.D.; Chau, L.N.; Tan, V.H.; Hiep, N.T.; Phuong, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron beam utilizations in basic and applied researches have been important activities at the Dalat nuclear reactor. The neutron filters with single crystal of silicon are used to produce thermal neutrons at the tangential horizontal channel and quasi-monoenergetic 144 KeV and 54 KeV neutrons at the piercing beam tube. The paper presents some relevant characteristics of the filtered neutron beams at the two horizontal channels. Applications of neutron beams in prompt gamma-ray activation analysis and in nuclear data measurements are briefly described. (author)

  19. Crystallization of carbohydrate oxidase from Microdochium nivale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dušková, Jarmila; Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Østergaard, Lars Henrik; Fuglsang, Claus Crone; Kolenko, Petr; Štěpánková, Andrea; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Industrially used carbohydrate oxidase was successfully crystallized in several forms, diffraction data suitable for structural analysis were collected. Microdochium nivale carbohydrate oxidase was produced by heterologous recombinant expression in Aspergillus oryzae, purified and crystallized. The enzyme crystallizes with varying crystal morphologies depending on the crystallization conditions. Several different crystal forms were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method, two of which were used for diffraction measurements. Hexagon-shaped crystals (form I) diffracted to 2.66 Å resolution, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.7, c = 610.4 Å and apparent space group P6 2 22. Analysis of the data quality showed almost perfect twinning of the crystals. Attempts to solve the structure by molecular replacement did not give satisfactory results. Recently, clusters of rod-shaped crystals (form II) were grown in a solution containing PEG MME 550. These crystals belonged to the monoclinic system C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 132.9, b = 56.6, c = 86.5 Å, β = 95.7°. Data sets were collected to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method. Model refinement is currently in progress

  20. Stochastic stacking without filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Marriner, J.

    1982-12-01

    The rate of accumulation of antiprotons is a critical factor in the design of p anti p colliders. A design of a system to accumulate higher anti p fluxes is presented here which is an alternative to the schemes used at the CERN AA and in the Fermilab Tevatron I design. Contrary to these stacking schemes, which use a system of notch filters to protect the dense core of antiprotons from the high power of the stack tail stochastic cooling, an eddy current shutter is used to protect the core in the region of the stack tail cooling kicker. Without filters one can have larger cooling bandwidths, better mixing for stochastic cooling, and easier operational criteria for the power amplifiers. In the case considered here a flux of 1.4 x 10 8 per sec is achieved with a 4 to 8 GHz bandwidth

  1. Multilevel particle filter

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2016-01-06

    This talk will pertain to the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by l. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. The work associated to O( 2) mean-square error between the multilevel estimator and average with respect to the filtering distribution is shown to scale optimally, for example as O( 2) for optimal rates of convergence of the underlying diffusion approximation. The method is illustrated on some toy examples as well as estimation of interest rate based on real S&P 500 stock price data.

  2. Filtered cathodic arc source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45 degree to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures

  3. The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.

  4. Linear filtering applied to Monte Carlo criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, G.W.; Pike, D.H.; Petrie, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    A significant improvement in the acceleration of the convergence of the eigenvalue computed by Monte Carlo techniques has been developed by applying linear filtering theory to Monte Carlo calculations for multiplying systems. A Kalman filter was applied to a KENO Monte Carlo calculation of an experimental critical system consisting of eight interacting units of fissile material. A comparison of the filter estimate and the Monte Carlo realization was made. The Kalman filter converged in five iterations to 0.9977. After 95 iterations, the average k-eff from the Monte Carlo calculation was 0.9981. This demonstrates that the Kalman filter has the potential of reducing the calculational effort of multiplying systems. Other examples and results are discussed

  5. Unified Digital Periodic Signal Filters for Power Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Xin, Zhen; Zhou, Keliang

    2017-01-01

    Periodic signal controllers like repetitive and resonant controllers have demonstrated much potential in the control of power electronic converters, where periodic signals (e.g., ac voltages and currents) can be precisely regulated to follow references. Beyond the control of periodic signals, ac...... signal processing (e.g., in synchronization and pre-filtering) is also very important for power converter systems. Hence, this paper serves to unify digital periodic signal filters so as to maximize their roles in power converter systems (e.g., enhance the control of ac signals). The unified digital...... periodic signal filters behave like a comb filter, but it can also be configured to selectively filter out the harmonics of interest (e.g., the odd-order harmonics in single-phase power converter systems). Moreover, a virtual variable-sampling-frequency unit delay that enables frequency adaptive periodic...

  6. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.

  7. Quick-change filter cartridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Ortiz, Carlos A.

    1995-01-01

    A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.

  8. Filter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), as well as Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) treated with mono-olein to simulate the effects of biodiesel . Results...fuel. Sufficient analysis and qualification of filter products is becoming increasingly crucial in ground transportation vehicles to promote the...well as a simulated biodiesel composed of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and mono-olein. As written in the scope of work, the alternative aviation

  9. Matched-Filter Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Tabatabaei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional infrared thermography techniques, including pulsed and lock-in thermography, have shown great potential for non-destructive evaluation of broad spectrum of materials, spanning from metals to polymers to biological tissues. However, performance of these techniques is often limited due to the diffuse nature of thermal wave fields, resulting in an inherent compromise between inspection depth and depth resolution. Recently, matched-filter thermography has been introduced as a means for overcoming this classic limitation to enable depth-resolved subsurface thermal imaging and improving axial/depth resolution. This paper reviews the basic principles and experimental results of matched-filter thermography: first, mathematical and signal processing concepts related to matched-fileting and pulse compression are discussed. Next, theoretical modeling of thermal-wave responses to matched-filter thermography using two categories of pulse compression techniques (linear frequency modulation and binary phase coding are reviewed. Key experimental results from literature demonstrating the maintenance of axial resolution while inspecting deep into opaque and turbid media are also presented and discussed. Finally, the concept of thermal coherence tomography for deconvolution of thermal responses of axially superposed sources and creation of depth-selective images in a diffusion-wave field is reviewed.

  10. Carbon nanotube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Talapatra, S.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.

    2004-09-01

    Over the past decade of nanotube research, a variety of organized nanotube architectures have been fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. The idea of using nanotube structures in separation technology has been proposed, but building macroscopic structures that have controlled geometric shapes, density and dimensions for specific applications still remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of freestanding monolithic uniform macroscopic hollow cylinders having radially aligned carbon nanotube walls, with diameters and lengths up to several centimetres. These cylindrical membranes are used as filters to demonstrate their utility in two important settings: the elimination of multiple components of heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum-a crucial step in post-distillation of crude oil-with a single-step filtering process, and the filtration of bacterial contaminants such as Escherichia coli or the nanometre-sized poliovirus (~25 nm) from water. These macro filters can be cleaned for repeated filtration through ultrasonication and autoclaving. The exceptional thermal and mechanical stability of nanotubes, and the high surface area, ease and cost-effective fabrication of the nanotube membranes may allow them to compete with ceramic- and polymer-based separation membranes used commercially.

  11. Controlling flow conditions of test filters in iodine filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.; Laine, J.

    1979-03-01

    Several different iodine filter and test filter designs and experience gained from their operation are presented. For the flow experiments, an iodine filter system equipped with flow regulating and measuring devices was built. In the experiments the influence of the packing method of the iodine sorption material and the influence of the flow regulating and measuring divices upon the flow conditions in the test filters was studied. On the basis of the experiments it has been shown that the flows through the test filters always can be adjusted to a correct value if there only is a high enough pressure difference available across the test filter ducting. As a result of the research, several different methods are presented with which the flows through the test filters in both operating and future iodine sorption system can easily be measured and adjusted to their correct values. (author)

  12. Testing of a Rotary Micro-filter for Hanford Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.; Herman, D.T.; Stefanko, D.B.; Fink, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers are investigating and developing a rotary micro-filter for solid-liquid separation applications with emphasis on deployment in radioactive services. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Waste Processing employed the SRNL team to evaluate the use of this rotary micro-filter for the Hanford Supplemental Pretreatment process. The authors tested a full-scale, 25-disk filter unit containing 0.5 μ filter media using a Hanford Tank AN-105 simulant at solids loadings of 0.06, 0.29, and 1.29 wt %. Based on recommendations from prior tests, the authors modified the filter unit by replacing the primary mechanical seal with an air seal. They also replaced the bushing with alternate materials of construction aimed at extended mean time between maintenance events. The testing provides the following conclusions. - The rotary filter produces a higher flux than the crossflow filter for the Hanford simulant. The gain in performance is less than previously seen for Savannah River Site simulants. - Filtrate clarity proved excellent with turbidity of <4 NTU (nephelometric turbidity units) in all samples. - Inspection of the primary mechanical seal faces after ∼140 hours of operation showed an expected minimal amount of initial wear, no passing of process fluid through the seal faces, and very little change in the air channeling grooves on the stationary face. - Some polishing of surfaces occurred at the bottom of the shaft bushing. The authors recommend improving the shaft bushing by holding it in place with a locking ring and incorporating grooves to provide additional cooling. - The authors recommend that Hanford test other pore size media to determine the optimum pore size for Hanford waste. - During final facility operation, the filter should be rinsed with filtrate or dilute caustic and drained prior to an extended shutdown to prevent the formation of a layer of settled solids on top of the filter disks. (authors)

  13. Dust collected in air filters - Possible source of volatile organic compounds and particles; Ger smutsiga luftfilter foersaemrad tilluft ? En studie av emissioner med ursprung i filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, J.H.P.; Rosell, Lars

    1998-06-01

    Emissions from dust collected in air filters have been investigated using in situ measurements. Two air filters of different classes (F6 and F8/9) have been exposed to outdoor air for a preconditioning period of six months. After this period measurements have been carried out using two operating conditions, continuous and intermittent. Air samples were taken both up- and downstream of the filters. The air samples were analysed regarding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and microbial VOCs (mVOC) and the samples of airborne dust were examined regarding the contents of colony forming units, ergosterol (marker of fungi), and endotoxin (marker of gram negative bacteria). Furthermore, a visual inspection of the airborne dust was conducted using SEM. Particles released when the fan was turned on and a short period after, were monitored using an optical particle counter, slitsamplers (fungus spores) and membrane filters for SEM analysis. After finishing the in situ measurements, the filters were placed in climate chambers for emission sampling. Finally, samples were cut out for analysis of microbial contents in the filter material, both on the dusty and `clean` side of the filters. No consistent change of VOC, aldehyde or mVOC concentrations across the filters could be measured. A significant ozone reduction was seen in one of the in situ measurements. The chamber experiments showed that the filters were a source of various VOCs, e.g. aldehydes and mVOCs. The emission of mVOCs in the chambers was significantly higher for the F8/9 filter, probably due to more and finer dust in that filter. Only a few colonization units (fungi) penetrate filters when running continuously but an increase was noted at the moment the fans were started. The same phenomenon was observed with the optical particle counter, but both the intensity and length of the increase, for colonization units and other particles, were moderate. Mycological examination of the filter

  14. Crystal growth and properties of novel organic nonlinear optical crystals of 4-Nitrophenol urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, M. Krishna, E-mail: krishnamohan.m@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.

    2017-07-01

    Single crystals of 4-Nitrophenol urea have been grown from water using slow evaporation technique at constant temperature, with the vision to improve the properties of the crystals. The unit cell parameters of the grown crystals were determined by single crystal and powder X-Ray diffraction. FTIR studies reveals the presence of different vibrational bands. The Optical studies confirmed that the crystal is transparent up to 360 nm .TGA and DSC studies were carried out to understand the thermal behavior of crystals. The SHG studies show the suitability of the crystals for NLO applications. The etching studies were carried out to study the behavior of the crystals under different conditions.These studies reveal that the crystals of 4-Nitrophenol urea are suitable for device applications. - Highlights: • 4-Nitrophenol urea crystals of dimensions 14 mm × 1 mm were grown. • UV–Visible studies indicate the crystal is transparent in the region of 370–800 nm. • Thermal studies show the crystal starts decomposing at 170 °C. • SHG studies indicate that the crystals have NLO efficiency 3.5 times that of KDP.

  15. Reflectivity and filtering characteristics of pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Abbas, Y.; Wahba, W.

    1988-01-01

    The neutron transmission measurements through oriented pyrolytic graphite (P.G. crystal) were carried out in the wavelength band from 0.15 nm to 6.5 nm at different orientations of the (002) plane of the crystal w.r.t. the neutron beam direction. It was found that the P.G. crystal may be tuned for optimum scattering of second-order neutrons in the wavelength ranging between 0.112 nm and 0.425 nm, by adjusting the filter in an appropriate orientation. The reflectivity of (002), (004) and (006) planes of P.G. were measured and the following results are obtained: the reflectivity of (002) plane was found to be 99% by (transmission method). The ratio of the integrated intensity of the reflected neutrons from (004) and (006) is 3.14+-0.25 and is found to be in agreement with the calculated ratio. The measurements were performed using the fixed scattering angle spectrometer installed in front of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channel

  16. Hardware Implementation of a Bilateral Subtraction Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Watson, Robert; Villalpando, Carlos; Goldberg, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A bilateral subtraction filter has been implemented as a hardware module in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). In general, a bilateral subtraction filter is a key subsystem of a high-quality stereoscopic machine vision system that utilizes images that are large and/or dense. Bilateral subtraction filters have been implemented in software on general-purpose computers, but the processing speeds attainable in this way even on computers containing the fastest processors are insufficient for real-time applications. The present FPGA bilateral subtraction filter is intended to accelerate processing to real-time speed and to be a prototype of a link in a stereoscopic-machine- vision processing chain, now under development, that would process large and/or dense images in real time and would be implemented in an FPGA. In terms that are necessarily oversimplified for the sake of brevity, a bilateral subtraction filter is a smoothing, edge-preserving filter for suppressing low-frequency noise. The filter operation amounts to replacing the value for each pixel with a weighted average of the values of that pixel and the neighboring pixels in a predefined neighborhood or window (e.g., a 9 9 window). The filter weights depend partly on pixel values and partly on the window size. The present FPGA implementation of a bilateral subtraction filter utilizes a 9 9 window. This implementation was designed to take advantage of the ability to do many of the component computations in parallel pipelines to enable processing of image data at the rate at which they are generated. The filter can be considered to be divided into the following parts (see figure): a) An image pixel pipeline with a 9 9- pixel window generator, b) An array of processing elements; c) An adder tree; d) A smoothing-and-delaying unit; and e) A subtraction unit. After each 9 9 window is created, the affected pixel data are fed to the processing elements. Each processing element is fed the pixel value for

  17. Rotating Ceramic Water Filter Discs System for Water Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh Z. Al Zubaidy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to design, construct and operate a new laboratory scale water filtration system. This system was used to examine the efficiency of two ceramic filter discs as a medium for water filtration. These filters were made from two different ceramic mixtures of local red clay, sawdust, and water. The filtration system was designed with two rotating interfered modules of these filters. Rotating these modules generates shear force between water and the surfaces of filter discs of the filtration modules that works to reduce thickness of layer of rejected materials on the filters surfaces. Each module consists of seven filtration units and each unit consists of two ceramic filter discs. The average measured hydraulic conductivity of the first module was 13.7mm/day and that for the second module was 50mm/day. Results showed that the water filtration system can be operated continuously with a constant flow rate and the filtration process was controlled by a skin thin layer of rejected materials. The ceramic water filters of both filtration modules have high removal efficiency of total suspended solids up to 100% and of turbidity up to 99.94%.

  18. Electrically Tuned Microwave Devices Using Liquid Crystal Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Yaghmaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of liquid crystal technology for microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies is presented. The potential of liquid crystals as reconfigurable materials arises from their ability for continuous tuning with low power consumption, transparency, and possible integration with printed and flexible circuit technologies. This paper describes physical theory and fundamental electrical properties arising from the anisotropy of liquid crystals and overviews selected realized liquid crystal devices, throughout four main categories: resonators and filters, phase shifters and delay lines, antennas, and, finally, frequency-selective surfaces and metamaterials.

  19. Evaluation of prototype electrofibrous filters for nuclear ventilation ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Kuhl, W.D.; Biermann, A.H.; Johnson, J.S.; Lum, B.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Two prototype electrofibrous filters were designed, built and evaluated in laboratory tests and in field installations. These prototypes were designed for use in nuclear ventilation ducts as prefilters to HEPA filters. One prototype is designed to be a permanent component of the ventilation system while the other is a disposable unit. The disposable electrofibrous prefilter was installed in the exhaust stream of a glove box in which barrels of uranium turnings are burned. Preliminary tests show the disposable prefilter is effectively prolonging the HEPA filter life

  20. Evaluation of prototype electrofibrous filters for nuclear-ventilation ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Kuhl, W.D.; Biermann, A.H.; Johnson, J.S.; Lum, B.Y.

    1982-01-01

    Two prototypes electrofibrous filters were designed, built and evaluated in laboratory tests and in field installations. These prototypes were designed for use in nuclear ventilation ducts as prefilters to HEPA filters. One prototype is designed to be a permanent component of the ventilation system while the other is a disposable unit. The disposable electrofibrous prefilter was installed in the exhaust stream of a glove box in which barrels of uranium turnings are burned. Preliminary tests show the disposable prefilter is effectively prolonging the HEPA filter life

  1. Kaon Filtering For CLAS Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNabb, J.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of data from CLAS is a multi-step process. After the detectors for a given running period have been calibrated, the data is processed in the so called pass-1 cooking. During the pass-1 cooking each event is reconstructed by the program a1c which finds particle tracks and computes momenta from the raw data. The results are then passed on to several data monitoring and filtering utilities. In CLAS software, a filter is a parameterless function which returns an integer indicating whether an event should be kept by that filter or not. There is a main filter program called g1-filter which controls several specific filters and outputs several files, one for each filter. These files may then be analyzed separately, allowing individuals interested in one reaction channel to work from smaller files than using the whole data set would require. There are several constraints on what the filter functions should do. Obviously, the filtered files should be as small as possible, however the filter should also not reject any events that might be used in the later analysis for which the filter was intended

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench

  3. Correction of Bowtie-Filter Normalization and Crescent Artifacts for a Clinical CBCT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Kong, Vic; Huang, Ke; Jin, Jian-Yue

    2017-02-01

    To present our experiences in understanding and minimizing bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts in a clinical cone beam computed tomography system. Bowtie-filter position and profile variations during gantry rotation were studied. Two previously proposed strategies (A and B) were applied to the clinical cone beam computed tomography system to correct bowtie-filter crescent artifacts. Physical calibration and analytical approaches were used to minimize the norm phantom misalignment and to correct for bowtie-filter normalization artifacts. A combined procedure to reduce bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts was proposed and tested on a norm phantom, CatPhan, and a patient and evaluated using standard deviation of Hounsfield unit along a sampling line. The bowtie-filter exhibited not only a translational shift but also an amplitude variation in its projection profile during gantry rotation. Strategy B was better than strategy A slightly in minimizing bowtie-filter crescent artifacts, possibly because it corrected the amplitude variation, suggesting that the amplitude variation plays a role in bowtie-filter crescent artifacts. The physical calibration largely reduced the misalignment-induced bowtie-filter normalization artifacts, and the analytical approach further reduced bowtie-filter normalization artifacts. The combined procedure minimized both bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts, with Hounsfield unit standard deviation being 63.2, 45.0, 35.0, and 18.8 Hounsfield unit for the best correction approaches of none, bowtie-filter crescent artifacts, bowtie-filter normalization artifacts, and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts + bowtie-filter crescent artifacts, respectively. The combined procedure also demonstrated reduction of bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts in a CatPhan and a patient. We have developed a step

  4. Replicating the microbial community and water quality performance of full-scale slow sand filters in laboratory-scale filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Sarah-Jane; Quince, Christopher; Davies, Robert L; Dorea, Caetano C; Collins, Gavin

    2014-09-15

    Previous laboratory-scale studies to characterise the functional microbial ecology of slow sand filters have suffered from methodological limitations that could compromise their relevance to full-scale systems. Therefore, to ascertain if laboratory-scale slow sand filters (L-SSFs) can replicate the microbial community and water quality production of industrially operated full-scale slow sand filters (I-SSFs), eight cylindrical L-SSFs were constructed and were used to treat water from the same source as the I-SSFs. Half of the L-SSFs sand beds were composed of sterilized sand (sterile) from the industrial filters and the other half with sand taken directly from the same industrial filter (non-sterile). All filters were operated for 10 weeks, with the microbial community and water quality parameters sampled and analysed weekly. To characterize the microbial community phyla-specific qPCR assays and 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used in conjunction with an array of statistical techniques. The results demonstrate that it is possible to mimic both the water quality production and the structure of the microbial community of full-scale filters in the laboratory - at all levels of taxonomic classification except OTU - thus allowing comparison of LSSF experiments with full-scale units. Further, it was found that the sand type composing the filter bed (non-sterile or sterile), the water quality produced, the age of the filters and the depth of sand samples were all significant factors in explaining observed differences in the structure of the microbial consortia. This study is the first to the authors' knowledge that demonstrates that scaled-down slow sand filters can accurately reproduce the water quality and microbial consortia of full-scale slow sand filters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Advances in Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Yehuda; Bell, Robert

    The collaborative filtering (CF) approach to recommenders has recently enjoyed much interest and progress. The fact that it played a central role within the recently completed Netflix competition has contributed to its popularity. This chapter surveys the recent progress in the field. Matrix factorization techniques, which became a first choice for implementing CF, are described together with recent innovations. We also describe several extensions that bring competitive accuracy into neighborhood methods, which used to dominate the field. The chapter demonstrates how to utilize temporal models and implicit feedback to extend models accuracy. In passing, we include detailed descriptions of some the central methods developed for tackling the challenge of the Netflix Prize competition.

  6. Adaptive projective filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikusar, N.D.

    1993-01-01

    The new approach to solving of the finding problem is proposed. The method is based on Discrete Projective Transformations (DPT), the List Square Fitting (LSF) and uses the information feedback in tracing for linear or quadratic track segments (TS). The fast and stable with respect to measurement errors and background points recurrent algorithm is suggested. The algorithm realizes the family of digital adaptive projective filters (APF) with known nonlinear weight functions-projective invariants. APF can be used in adequate control systems for collection, processing and compression of data, including tracking problems for the wide class of detectors. 10 refs.; 9 figs

  7. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2016-06-14

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  8. Interdigital filter design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, WP

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available to the general inverter-coupled resonator bandpass filter structure in Figure 2 [6] by using the inverter shown in Figure 3. The admittance of the inverter in Figure 3 is 4 J= Y mn sin(βl) (1) where β is the propagation factor and l is the length... of the resonators (a quarter wavelength in this case). While the series quarter-wave line alone can approximate an inverter, the structure shown in Figure 3 is more accurate over wide bandwidths. At this point the circuits in Figures 1 and 2 still differ because...

  9. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  10. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  11. Digital Filters for Low Frequency Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyril, Marni; Abildgaard, J.; Rubak, Per

    2001-01-01

    Digital filters with high resolution in the low-frequency range are studied. Specifically, for a given computational power, traditional IIR filters are compared with warped FIR filters, warped IIR filters, and modified warped FIR filters termed warped individual z FIR filters (WizFIR). The results...

  12. Photonic time crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Xu, Jin; Wang, Chengen; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Yuting; Zeng, Jing; Song, Runxia

    2017-12-07

    When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal.

  13. High flow ceramic pot filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Halem, D; van der Laan, H; Soppe, A I A; Heijman, S G J

    2017-11-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more water without sacrificing their microbial removal efficacy. High flow pot filters, produced by increasing the rice husk content, had a higher initial flow rate (6-19 L h -1 ), but initial LRVs for E. coli of high flow filters was slightly lower than for regular ceramic pot filters. This disadvantage was, however, only temporarily as the clogging in high flow filters had a positive effect on the LRV for E. coli (from below 1 to 2-3 after clogging). Therefore, it can be carefully concluded that regular ceramic pot filters perform better initially, but after clogging, the high flow filters have a higher flow rate as well as a higher LRV for E. coli. To improve the initial performance of new high flow filters, it is recommended to further utilize residence time of the water in the receptacle, since additional E. coli inactivation was observed during overnight storage. Although a relationship was observed between flow rate and LRV of MS2 bacteriophages, both regular and high flow filters were unable to reach over 2 LRV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofer Afzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.

  16. Photonic Crystal Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristiansen, Rene E

    2005-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Crystal Fibre A/S as follows: Crystal Fibre will conduct research and development of large mode area, dual clad multi-core Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber...

  17. DSP Control of Line Hybrid Active Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Stan George; Benjamin, Doniga Daniel; Magureanu, R.

    2005-01-01

    Active Power Filters have been intensively explored in the past decade. Hybrid active filters inherit the efficiency of passive filters and the improved performance of active filters, and thus constitute a viable improved approach for harmonic compensation. In this paper a parallel hybrid filter...... is studied for current harmonic compensation. The hybrid filter is formed by a single tuned Le filter and a small-rated power active filter, which are directly connected in series without any matching transformer. Thus the required rating of the active filter is much smaller than a conventional standalone...... active filter. Simulation and experimental results obtained in laboratory confirmed the validity and effectiveness of the control....

  18. Multi-filter spectrophotometry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Kim A. S.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    To complement both the multi-filter observations of quasar environments described in these proceedings, as well as the proposed UBC 2.7 m Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT) redshift survey, we have initiated a program of simulated multi-filter spectrophotometry. The goal of this work, still very much in progress, is a better quantitative assessment of the multiband technique as a viable mechanism for obtaining useful redshift and morphological class information from large scale multi-filter surveys.

  19. Digital filtering in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.R.; Sampathkumaran, S.

    1982-01-01

    Digital filtering is a powerful mathematical technique in computer analysis of nuclear medicine studies. The basic concepts of object-domain and frequency-domain filtering are presented in simple, largely nonmathemaical terms. Computational methods are described using both the Fourier transform and convolution techniques. The frequency response is described and used to represent the behavior of several classes of filters. These concepts are illustrated with examples drawn from a variety of important applications in nuclear medicine

  20. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia; Walther, Jens H; Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-08-29

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet), something notoriously difficult to visualize but sporadically observed in the related choanocytes (sponges). A CFD model with a flagellar vane correctly predicts the filtration rate of D. grandis , and using a simple model we can account for the filtration rates of other microbial filter feeders. We finally predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling.

  1. Box-particle intensity filter

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, Marek; Gning, Amadou; Mihaylova, Lyudmila; Cremers, Daniel; Koch, Wofgang; Streit, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a novel approach for multi-target tracking, called box-particle intensity filter (box-iFilter). The approach is able to cope with unknown clutter, false alarms and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic and data association uncertainty. The box-iFilter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The low particle number enables thi...

  2. Autoregressive Moving Average Graph Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Isufi, Elvin; Loukas, Andreas; Simonetto, Andrea; Leus, Geert

    2016-01-01

    One of the cornerstones of the field of signal processing on graphs are graph filters, direct analogues of classical filters, but intended for signals defined on graphs. This work brings forth new insights on the distributed graph filtering problem. We design a family of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) recursions, which (i) are able to approximate any desired graph frequency response, and (ii) give exact solutions for tasks such as graph signal denoising and interpolation. The design phi...

  3. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.

  4. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOP filter test; respirators designed as... filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air...) All single air-purifying respirator filter units will be tested in an atmosphere concentration of 100...

  5. Intelligent medical information filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Y

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent information filtering system to assist users to be notified of updates to new and relevant medical information. Among the major problems users face is the large volume of medical information that is generated each day, and the need to filter and retrieve relevant information. The Internet has dramatically increased the amount of electronically accessible medical information and reduced the cost and time needed to publish. The opportunity of the Internet for the medical profession and consumers is to have more information to make decisions and this could potentially lead to better medical decisions and outcomes. However, without the assistance from professional medical librarians, retrieving new and relevant information from databases and the Internet remains a challenge. Many physicians do not have access to the services of a medical librarian. Most physicians indicate on surveys that they do not prefer to retrieve the literature themselves, or visit libraries because of the lack of recent materials, poor organisation and indexing of materials, lack of appropriate and available material, and lack of time. The information filtering system described in this paper records the online web browsing behaviour of each user and creates a user profile of the index terms found on the web pages visited by the user. A relevance-ranking algorithm then matches the user profiles to the index terms of new health care web pages that are added each day. The system creates customised summaries of new information for each user. A user can then connect to the web site to read the new information. Relevance feedback buttons on each page ask the user to rate the usefulness of the page to their immediate information needs. Errors in relevance ranking are reduced in this system by having both the user profile and medical information represented in the same representation language using a controlled vocabulary. This system also updates the user profiles

  6. Device for filtering gaseous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzel, M.

    1978-01-01

    The air filter system for gaseous radioactive substances consists of a vertical chamber with filter material (charcoal, e.g. impregnated). On one side of the chamber there is an inlet compartment and an outlet compartment. On the other side a guiding compartment turns the gas flow coming from the natural-air side through the lower part of filter chamber to the upper part of the filter. The gas flow leaves the upper part through the outlet conpartment as cleaned-air flow. The filter material may be filled into the chamber from above and drawn off below. For better utilization of the filter material the filter chamber is separated by means of a wall between the inlet and outlet compartment. This partition wall consist of two sheets arranged one above the other provided with slots which may be superposed in alignment. In this case filter material is tickling from the upper part of the chamber into the lower part avoiding to form a crater in the filter bed. (DG) [de

  7. Immobilized Filters for Air Filtration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahle, John J; Zaiee, Saeed

    2002-01-01

    ... (settling performance) and attrition resistance. The fabricated filter samples will be analyzed in order to determine the physical and chemical factors affecting mechanical strength and chemical filtration...

  8. Adaptive filtering and change detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive filtering is a classical branch of digital signal processing (DSP). Industrial interest in adaptive filtering grows continuously with the increase in computer performance that allows ever more conplex algorithms to be run in real-time. Change detection is a type of adaptive filtering for non-stationary signals and is also the basic tool in fault detection and diagnosis. Often considered as separate subjects Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection bridges a gap in the literature with a unified treatment of these areas, emphasizing that change detection is a natural extensi

  9. The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-05-01

    When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the 'filter problem'. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the 'filter problem'. These reveal a period of intense focus on the 'filter problem' that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate

  10. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  11. Economical Implementation of a Filter Engine in an FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, James E.

    2009-01-01

    A logic design has been conceived for a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) that would implement a complex system of multiple digital state-space filters. The main innovative aspect of this design lies in providing for reuse of parts of the FPGA hardware to perform different parts of the filter computations at different times, in such a manner as to enable the timely performance of all required computations in the face of limitations on available FPGA hardware resources. The implementation of the digital state-space filter involves matrix vector multiplications, which, in the absence of the present innovation, would ordinarily necessitate some multiplexing of vector elements and/or routing of data flows along multiple paths. The design concept calls for implementing vector registers as shift registers to simplify operand access to multipliers and accumulators, obviating both multiplexing and routing of data along multiple paths. Each vector register would be reused for different parts of a calculation. Outputs would always be drawn from the same register, and inputs would always be loaded into the same register. A simple state machine would control each filter. The output of a given filter would be passed to the next filter, accompanied by a "valid" signal, which would start the state machine of the next filter. Multiple filter modules would share a multiplication/accumulation arithmetic unit. The filter computations would be timed by use of a clock having a frequency high enough, relative to the input and output data rate, to provide enough cycles for matrix and vector arithmetic operations. This design concept could prove beneficial in numerous applications in which digital filters are used and/or vectors are multiplied by coefficient matrices. Examples of such applications include general signal processing, filtering of signals in control systems, processing of geophysical measurements, and medical imaging. For these and other applications, it could be

  12. New piezoelectric materials for SAW filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelescu, Adrian; Nedelcu, Monica

    2010-11-01

    Scientific research of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices had an early start by the end of 1960s and led to the development of high frequency and small size piezo devices. A sustained effort was dedicated for these components to be transformed into many more interesting applications for telecom market. Recently the employment of new piezo materials and crystallographic orientations open new opportunities for SAW filters. New piezoelectric crystals of gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4) provide higher electromechanical coupling than quartz, while maintaining temperature compensated characteristics similar to quartz. Based on this material phase transition of 970°C, development of new piezo devices to operate at higher temperatures up to 800°C can be done. SAW velocities about 30% lower than ST-X quartz, favors smaller and more compact devices. Other advantages of GaPO4 are: stability with high resistance to stress induced twinning, 3~4 times higher electromechanical coupling than quartz and existence of SAW temperature compensated orientations. Another family of new materials of the trigonal 32 class has received much attention recently because of their temperature behavior similar to quartz and the promise of higher electromechanical coupling coefficients. It is the family of langasite (LGS, La3Ga5SiO14), langatate (LGT, La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14) and langanite (La3Ga5.5Nb0.5O14). Langasite crystals, easier to obtain and with the value of electromechanical coupling coefficient intermediate between quartz and lithium tantalate (k2=0.32% for 0°, 140°, 22.5° orientation and k2=0.38% for 0°, 140°, 25° orientation), enable us to design SAW filters with a relative pass band of 0.3% to 0.85%. Other piezoelectric materials are reviewed for comparison.

  13. From Microwave Filter to Digital Filter and Back Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1989-01-01

    A new very simple state variable flow graph representation for interdigital transmission line bandpass filters is presented, which has led to two important results: 1) A new type of digital filter with properties, that surpass the properties of most other (all pole) digital filtertypes. 2) The st...

  14. Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2010-09-19

    Optimal nonlinear filtering consists of sequentially determining the conditional probability distribution functions (pdf) of the system state, given the information of the dynamical and measurement processes and the previous measurements. Once the pdfs are obtained, one can determine different estimates, for instance, the minimum variance estimate, or the maximum a posteriori estimate, of the system state. It can be shown that, many filters, including the Kalman filter (KF) and the particle filter (PF), can be derived based on this sequential Bayesian estimation framework. In this contribution, we present a Gaussian mixture‐based framework, called the particle Kalman filter (PKF), and discuss how the different EnKF methods can be derived as simplified variants of the PKF. We also discuss approaches to reducing the computational burden of the PKF in order to make it suitable for complex geosciences applications. We use the strongly nonlinear Lorenz‐96 model to illustrate the performance of the PKF.

  15. Efficient Scalable Median Filtering Using Histogram-Based Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Oded

    2018-05-01

    Median filtering is a smoothing technique for noise removal in images. While there are various implementations of median filtering for a single-core CPU, there are few implementations for accelerators and multi-core systems. Many parallel implementations of median filtering use a sorting algorithm for rearranging the values within a filtering window and taking the median of the sorted value. While using sorting algorithms allows for simple parallel implementations, the cost of the sorting becomes prohibitive as the filtering windows grow. This makes such algorithms, sequential and parallel alike, inefficient. In this work, we introduce the first software parallel median filtering that is non-sorting-based. The new algorithm uses efficient histogram-based operations. These reduce the computational requirements of the new algorithm while also accessing the image fewer times. We show an implementation of our algorithm for both the CPU and NVIDIA's CUDA supported graphics processing unit (GPU). The new algorithm is compared with several other leading CPU and GPU implementations. The CPU implementation has near perfect linear scaling with a speedup on a quad-core system. The GPU implementation is several orders of magnitude faster than the other GPU implementations for mid-size median filters. For small kernels, and , comparison-based approaches are preferable as fewer operations are required. Lastly, the new algorithm is open-source and can be found in the OpenCV library.

  16. Application of DFT Filter Banks and Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pei; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    None given. This is a proposal for a paper to be presented at APCCAS '94 in Taipei, Taiwan. (From outline): This work is organized as follows: Sec. II is devoted to the construction of the new 2m channel under-decimated DFT filter bank. Implementation and complexity of this DFT filter bank are discussed therein. IN a similar manner, the new 2m channel cosine modulated filter bank is discussed in Sec. III. Design examples are given in Sec. IV.

  17. Potential of simple filters to improve microbial quality of irrigation water used in urban vegetable farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    . As part of a larger study on possible interventions for health risk reduction, the potential of simple interventions was explored. Column slow sand filters with three levels of sand depths (0.5 m, 0.75 m and 1 m) and fabric filters made of nylon, cotton and netting were assessed. More than 600 water...... samples were analyzed for helminth eggs and thermotolerant coliforms. Flow rates were also measured. From slow sand filters, 71-96% of helminths and 2 log units (from 7 to 5 log units) of thermotolerant coliforms were removed. Sand depths had no significant influence in the removal. Lower removal rates...... were achieved by fabric filters, with an average removal of 12-62% for helminth eggs and 1 log unit for thermotolerant coliforms. Nylon filters had higher removal rates especially for helminth eggs (58%). Average flow rates for sand filters were 3 m per day and fabric filters had steady flows of about...

  18. Enhanced performance of a filter-sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Isao; Josowicz, Mira; Janata, Jirí; Glezer, Ari

    2006-06-01

    In this paper are addressed two important, but seemingly unrelated issues: long term performance of a gas sensing array and performance of an air purification unit. It is shown that when considered together, the system can be regarded as a "smart filter". The enhancement is achieved by periodic differential sampling and measurement of the "upstream" and "downstream" gases of a filter. The correctly functioning filter supplies the "zero gas" from the downstream for the continuous sensor baseline correction. A key element in this scheme is the synthetic jet that delivers well-defined pulses of the two gases. The deterioration of the performance of the "smart filter" can be diagnosed from the response pattern of the sensor. The approach has been demonstrated on removal/sensing of ammonia gas from air.

  19. Aquatic Plant/microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).

  20. Quartz substrate infrared photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri, Khosrow; Rejeb, Jalel; Vitchev, Vladimir N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of a planar photonic crystal (p2c) made of a square array of dielectric rods embedded in air, operating in the infrared spectrum. A quartz substrate is employed instead of the commonly used silicon or column III-V substrate. Our square structure has a normalized cylinder radius-to-pitch ratio of r/a = 0.248 and dielectric material contrast ɛr of 4.5. We choose a Z-cut synthetic quartz for its cut (geometry), and etching properties. Then a particular Z-axis etching process is employed in order to ensure the sharp-edged verticality of the rods and fast etching speed. We also present the computer simulations that allowed the establishment of the photonic band gaps (PBG) of our photonic crystal, as well as the actual measurements. An experimental measurement have been carried out and compared with different simulations. It was found that experimental results are in good agreement with different simulation results. Finally, a frequency selective device for optical communication based on the introduction of impurity sites in the photonic crystal is presented. With our proposed structure Optical System on a Chip (OsoC) with micro-cavity based active devices such as lasers, diodes, modulators, couplers, frequency selective emitters, add-drop filters, detectors, mux/demuxes and polarizers connected by passive waveguide links can be realized.

  1. FULL SCALE REGENERABLE HEPA FILTER DESIGN USING SINTERED METAL FILTER ELEMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Ramos; Kenneth Rubow; Ronald Sekellick

    2002-01-01

    features in its design and operation. The element bundle would be an all welded assembly, which could be removed and replaced as a unit if the elements ever needed replacement. Each element had a spray nozzle mounted above it for cleaning; it could also be cleaned by a soak and backwash technique. The inlet nozzle incorporated a cyclonic separator to initially remove large suspended material and droplets. Tests indicated a significant reduction of dirt load getting to the filter elements, which would extend the operating time between cleanings. A high capacity blower was selected to overcome the higher pressure drop of the metallic elements. The blower, having a 25 horsepower motor, would be capable of operating the system to higher pressure drops than available on the glass fiber HEPA filters. This additional capacity further increases the operating duration of the filter. Upon successful testing and acceptance of the full-scale design, Phase IIB would involve the construction and test of a full-scale prototype system on an actual HLW tank. Phase IIA was completed but for funding and priority reasons the contract was halted; thus Phase IIB would not be pursued at this time. The Mott RHFS has been proven at each stage of the development process to meet the requirements of a suitable replacement system for the glass fiber HEPA filters enabling great cost savings. It remains to test a full-scale operating system on an actual high level waste tank to fully demonstrate the performance and anticipated cost savings of the Mott RHFS. Mott is confident that the performance will be more than acceptable

  2. Filters in Fuzzy Class Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 14 (2008), s. 1773-1787 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR KJB100300502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : filter * prime filter * fuzzy class theory Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2008

  3. Derivative free filtering using Kalmtool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Hansen, Søren; Ravn, Ole

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a toolbox enabling easy evaluation and comparison of different filtering algorithms. The toolbox is called Kalmtool 4 and is a set of MATLAB tools for state estimation of nonlinear systems. The toolbox contains functions for extended Kalman filtering as well as for DD1 fi...

  4. Chopped filter for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, J.

    1980-12-01

    Some of the theoretical and practical factors affecting the energy resolution of a spectrometry system are considered, specially those related to t he signal-to-noise ratio, and a time-variant filter with the transfer function of the theoretical optimum filter, during its active time, is proposed. A prototype has been tested and experimental results are presented. (Author) [pt

  5. Cluster Based Vector Attribute Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiwanuka, Fred N.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological attribute filters operate on images based on properties or attributes of connected components. Until recently, attribute filtering was based on a single global threshold on a scalar property to remove or retain objects. A single threshold struggles in case no single property or

  6. Some arithmetically symmetrical bandpass filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranasi, P.; Roy, S. C. D.

    1981-01-01

    A combination of the conventional and Matthaei lowpass-bandpass transformations is shown to result in some bandpass filters having very good arithmetic symmetry. The technique presented is applicable to the Butterworth and inverse Chebyshev types of magnitude approximations and the Bessel type of delay approximations. It is not valid, however, for the Chebyshev and elliptic varieties of filters.

  7. Properties of auxiliary filtering materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudenko, L.I.; Sklyar, V.T.

    1981-01-01

    The authors have studied the physicochemical and filtering properties of the perlites FP-1 and FP-2, kieselguhr, diatomite, asbestos, wood pulp, and the diatomite powders Spidplace and Saperaid. They propose a classification for filtering materials according to their properties when mechanical impurities are being removed from the additives.

  8. High flow ceramic pot filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Halem, D.; van der Laan, H.; Soppe, A. I.A.; Heijman, S.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more

  9. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon; Ryu, Duchwan; Mallick, Bani K.; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class

  10. Mobile filters in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuter, R.

    1979-01-01

    The need for filters with high efficiencies which may be used at any place originated in nuclear power plants. Filters of this type, called Filtermobil, have been developed by Sulzer. They have been used successfully in nuclear plants for several years. (orig.) [de

  11. Implicit LES using adaptive filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangrui; Domaradzki, Julian A.

    2018-04-01

    In implicit large eddy simulations (ILES) numerical dissipation prevents buildup of small scale energy in a manner similar to the explicit subgrid scale (SGS) models. If spectral methods are used the numerical dissipation is negligible but it can be introduced by applying a low-pass filter in the physical space, resulting in an effective ILES. In the present work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the numerical dissipation produced by different filtering operations in a turbulent channel flow simulated using a non-dissipative, pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solver. The amount of numerical dissipation imparted by filtering can be easily adjusted by changing how often a filter is applied. We show that when the additional numerical dissipation is close to the subgrid-scale (SGS) dissipation of an explicit LES the overall accuracy of ILES is also comparable, indicating that periodic filtering can replace explicit SGS models. A new method is proposed, which does not require any prior knowledge of a flow, to determine the filtering period adaptively. Once an optimal filtering period is found, the accuracy of ILES is significantly improved at low implementation complexity and computational cost. The method is general, performing well for different Reynolds numbers, grid resolutions, and filter shapes.

  12. Tunable Multiband Microwave Photonic Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mable P. Fok

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for multifunctional devices, the use of cognitive wireless technology to solve the frequency resource shortage problem, as well as the capabilities and operational flexibility necessary to meet ever-changing environment result in an urgent need of multiband wireless communications. Spectral filter is an essential part of any communication systems, and in the case of multiband wireless communications, tunable multiband RF filters are required for channel selection, noise/interference removal, and RF signal processing. Unfortunately, it is difficult for RF electronics to achieve both tunable and multiband spectral filtering. Recent advancements of microwave photonics have proven itself to be a promising candidate to solve various challenges in RF electronics including spectral filtering, however, the development of multiband microwave photonic filtering still faces lots of difficulties, due to the limited scalability and tunability of existing microwave photonic schemes. In this review paper, we first discuss the challenges that were facing by multiband microwave photonic filter, then we review recent techniques that have been developed to tackle the challenge and lead to promising developments of tunable microwave photonic multiband filters. The successful design and implementation of tunable microwave photonic multiband filter facilitate the vision of dynamic multiband wireless communications and radio frequency signal processing for commercial, defense, and civilian applications.

  13. CH3SH adsorption properties and mechanism of deodorant filter made of iron hydroxide on porous iron frame; Tetsu takotaisei dasshu filter no methyl mercaptan jokyo seino to jokyo kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-10

    It is suggested that methyl mercaptan is decomposed to methyl sulfide and hydrogen by reaction with the a-iron hydroxide, and then the methyl sulfide combines with sulfur crystal and the hydrogen changes into water by the chemical reaction with the {alpha}-iron hydroxide. A deodorant filter was made by treating porous metallic iron with an aqueous solution of L-ascorbic acid, iron (II) sulfate and calcium hydroxide aqueous solution to deposit the iron ascorbate and the {alpha}-iron hydroxide on it. Then the deodorant filter was exposed to the hydrogen sulfide to yield the sulfur crystals on the surface of the deodorant filter. The methyl mercaptan removal capacity of the deodorant filter was studied with repetition of removal tests. Results show that the methyl mercaptan removal capacity of the deodorant filter is a little smaller than that of conventional granular activated carbon. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Synthesis and Single Crystal X-Ray Structure Determination of 3,3',5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Single crystal structure determination at 100 K revealed needle-like crystals in an orthorhombic crystal system. The asymmetric unit of the cell consists of an isolated chloride ion, one half of a tetrahedral [MnCl4]2- anion, a [H2Me4bpz]2+ dication and one half of a molecule of water. Keywords: Crystal Engineering, Hydrogen ...

  15. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude......; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet...

  16. Apparatus for filtering radioactive fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gischel, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for filtering radioactive particles from the cooling and/or auxiliary process water of a nuclear reactor, or nuclear fuel processing plant, or other installations wherein radioactive fluid systems are known to exist. The apparatus affords disposal of the captured particles in a manner which minimizes the exposure of operating personnel to radioactivity. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to contain a removable filter cartridge assembly, a valve normally closing the lower end of the housing, an upwardly-open shipping cask located below the valve, and an elongated operating rod assembly projecting upwardly from the filter cartridge assembly and through the upper end of the housing to enable a workman to dismount the filter cartridge assembly from its housing and to lower the filter cartridge assembly through the valve and into the cask from a remote location above the housing. (U.S.)

  17. Vectorization of linear discrete filtering algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiess, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Linear filters, including the conventional Kalman filter and versions of square root filters devised by Potter and Carlson, are studied for potential application on streaming computers. The square root filters are known to maintain a positive definite covariance matrix in cases in which the Kalman filter diverges due to ill-conditioning of the matrix. Vectorization of the filters is discussed, and comparisons are made of the number of operations and storage locations required by each filter. The Carlson filter is shown to be the most efficient of the filters on the Control Data STAR-100 computer.

  18. Tracking speckle displacement by double Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ A tracking technique using two sequentially-connected Kalman filter for tracking laser speckle displacement is presented. One Kalman filter tracks temporal speckle displacement, while another Kalman filter tracks spatial speckle displacement. The temporal Kalman filter provides a prior for the spatial Kalman filter, and the spatial Kalman filter provides measurements for the temporal Kalman filter. The contribution of a prior to estimations of the spatial Kalman filter is analyzed. An optical analysis system was set up to verify the double-Kalman-filter tracker's ability of tracking laser speckle's constant displacement.

  19. Conservation of filtering in manufacturing systems with unreliable machines and finished goods buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of reliable satisfaction of customer demand by unreliable production systems. In the framework of a simple production-storage-customer model, we show that this can be accomplished by using an appropriate level of filtering of production randomness. The filtering is ensured by finished goods buffers (filtering in space and shipping periods (filtering in time. The following question is considered: how are filtering in space and filtering in time interrelated? As an answer, we show that there exists a conservation law: in lean manufacturing systems, the amount of filtering in space multiplied by the amount of filteringin time (both measured in appropriate dimensionless units ispractically constant. Along with providing an insight into the nature of manufacturing systems, this law offers a tool for selecting the smallest, that is, lean, finished goods buffering, which is necessary and sufficient to ensure the desired level ofcustomer demand satisfaction.

  20. Fir Filters Compliant with the IEEE Standard for M Class PMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is shown that M class PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit reference model for phasor estimation recommended by the IEEE Standard C37.118.1 with the Amendment 1 is not compliant with the Standard. The reference filter preserves only the limits for TVE (total vector error, and exceeds FE (frequency error and RFE (rate of frequency error limits. As a remedy we propose new filters for phasor estimation for M class PMU that are fully compliant with the Standard requirements. The proposed filters are designed: 1 by the window method; 2 as flat-top windows; or as 3 optimal min-max filters. The results for all Standard compliance tests are presented, confirming good performance of the proposed filters. The proposed filters are fixed at the nominal frequency, i.e. frequency tracking and adaptive filter tuning are not required, therefore they are well suited for application in lowcost popular PMUs.

  1. Error Measurements in an Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    for an ideal AOTF, at 833 and 838 nm using a TeO2 crystal ............................ 33 Figure 3.12. Frequency characteristics of Equation (3.43...multiple channels in an AOTF requires the presence of multiple RF frequencies to establish the complex grating. Since the crystal used in the AOTF ( TeO2 ) is...in germano- silicate glass . This index modulation, Bragg grating, acts as an optical band rejection filter for those wavelengths that meet the Bragg

  2. Development of the code for filter calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritzay, O.O.; Vakulenko, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a calculation method, which commonly used in the Neutron Physics Department to develop a new neutron filter or to improve the existing neutron filter. This calculation is the first step of the traditional filter development procedure. It allows easy selection of the qualitative and quantitative contents of a composite filter in order to receive the filtered neutron beam with given parameters

  3. Crystallization and Characterization of Galdieria sulphuraria RUBISCO in Two Crystal Forms: Structural Phase Transition Observed in P21 Crystal Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguslaw Stec

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCOfrom the red algae Galdieria Sulphuraria. The protein crystallized in two different crystalforms, the I422 crystal form being obtained from high salt and the P21 crystal form beingobtained from lower concentration of salt and PEG. We report here the crystallization,preliminary stages of structure determination and the detection of the structural phasetransition in the P21 crystal form of G. sulphuraria RUBISCO. This red algae enzymebelongs to the hexadecameric class (L8S8 with an approximate molecular weight 0.6MDa.The phase transition in G. sulphuraria RUBISCO leads from two hexadecamers to a singlehexadecamer per asymmetric unit. The preservation of diffraction power in a phasetransition for such a large macromolecule is rare.

  4. Tunable Topological Phononic Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators first observed in electronic systems have inspired many analogues in photonic and phononic crystals in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are supported by topologically nontrivial band gaps. Such band gaps can be achieved by breaking the time-reversal symmetry to lift the degeneracy associated with Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on our construction of a phononic crystal exhibiting a Dirac-like cone in the Brillouin zone center. We demonstrate that simultaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and altering the geometric size of the unit cell result in a topological transition that we verify by the Chern number calculation and edge-mode analysis. We develop a complete model based on the tight binding to uncover the physical mechanisms of the topological transition. Both the model and numerical simulations show that the topology of the band gap is tunable by varying both the velocity field and the geometric size; such tunability may dramatically enrich the design and use of acoustic topological insulators.

  5. Tunable Topological Phononic Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo

    2016-05-27

    Topological insulators first observed in electronic systems have inspired many analogues in photonic and phononic crystals in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are supported by topologically nontrivial band gaps. Such band gaps can be achieved by breaking the time-reversal symmetry to lift the degeneracy associated with Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on our construction of a phononic crystal exhibiting a Dirac-like cone in the Brillouin zone center. We demonstrate that simultaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and altering the geometric size of the unit cell result in a topological transition that we verify by the Chern number calculation and edge-mode analysis. We develop a complete model based on the tight binding to uncover the physical mechanisms of the topological transition. Both the model and numerical simulations show that the topology of the band gap is tunable by varying both the velocity field and the geometric size; such tunability may dramatically enrich the design and use of acoustic topological insulators.

  6. A study on displacement of crystalline diffraction peaks in electron-beam irradiated filter paper cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ruimin; Xiang Qun; Song Jing

    1997-01-01

    It is found that the crystalline diffraction angles of the electron-beam irradiated filter paper cellulose shift regularly when the irradiation dose is increased. The experiments indicate that the molecules between crystalline area and amorphous area in the filter paper cellulose will be degraded by the irradiation and the cellulose molecules in the surface of crystal will come off, thus the microcrystalline dimension will be reduced and the diffraction angle will become smaller. The fact that intensity of the 002 peak for filter paper samples decreases gradually with the increasing storage time can be attributed to the post-irradiation effect

  7. Crystallization of purple nitrous oxide reductase from Pseudomonas stutzeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomowski, Anja; Zumft, Walter G.; Kroneck, Peter M. H.; Einsle, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The physiologically active form of nitrous oxide reductase was isolated and crystallized under strict exclusion of dioxygen and diffraction data were collected from crystals belonging to two different space groups. Nitrous oxide reductase (N 2 OR) from Pseudomonas stutzeri catalyzes the final step in denitrification: the two-electron reduction of nitrous oxide to molecular dinitrogen. Crystals of the enzyme were grown under strict exclusion of dioxygen by sitting-drop vapour diffusion using 2R,3R-butanediol as a cryoprotectant. N 2 OR crystallized in either space group P1 or P6 5 . Interestingly, the key determinant for the resulting space group was the crystallization temperature. Crystals belonging to space group P1 contained four 130 kDa dimers in the asymmetric unit, while crystals belonging to space group P6 5 contained a single dimer in the asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to resolutions better than 2 Å

  8. Proposing Wavelet-Based Low-Pass Filter and Input Filter to Improve Transient Response of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Rahmani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Available photovoltaic (PV systems show a prolonged transient response, when integrated into the power grid via active filters. On one hand, the conventional low-pass filter, employed within the integrated PV system, works with a large delay, particularly in the presence of system’s low-order harmonics. On the other hand, the switching of the DC (direct current–DC converters within PV units also prolongs the transient response of an integrated system, injecting harmonics and distortion through the PV-end current. This paper initially develops a wavelet-based low-pass filter to improve the transient response of the interconnected PV systems to grid lines. Further, a damped input filter is proposed within the PV system to address the raised converter’s switching issue. Finally, Matlab/Simulink simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed wavelet-based low-pass filter and damped input filter within an integrated PV system.

  9. On-line filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day electronic detectors used in high energy physics make it possible to obtain high event rates and it is likely that future experiments will face even higher data rates than at present. The complexity of the apparatus increases very rapidly with time and also the criteria for selecting desired events become more and more complex. So complex in fact that the fast trigger system cannot be designed to fully cope with it. The interesting events become thus contaminated with multitudes of uninteresting ones. To distinguish the 'good' events from the often overwhelming background of other events one has to resort to computing techniques. Normally this selection is made in the first part of the analysis of the events, analysis normally performed on a powerful scientific computer. This implies however that many uninteresting or background events have to be recorded during the experiment for subsequent analysis. A number of undesired consequences result; and these constitute a sufficient reason for trying to perform the selection at an earlier stage, in fact ideally before the events are recorded on magnetic tape. This early selection is called 'on-line filtering' and it is the topic of the present lectures. (Auth.)

  10. TESTING OF THE SECOND GENERATION SPINTEK ROTARY FILTER -11357

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Keefer, M.; Huff, T.

    2011-02-02

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter has been developed under the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) for the purpose of deployment in radioactive service in the DOE complex. The unit that was fabricated and tested is the second generation of the filter that incorporates recommended improvements from previous testing. The completion of this test satisfied a key milestone for the EM technology development program and technology readiness for deployment by Savannah River Remediation in the Small Column Ion Exchange and Sludge Washing processes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) contracted SpinTek Filtration to fabricate a full scale 25 disk rotary filter and perform a 1000 hour endurance test with a simulated SRS sludge. Over 1500 hours of operation have been completed with the filter. SpinTek Filtration fabricated a prototypic 25 disk rotary filter including updates to manufacturing tolerances, an updated design to the rotary joint, improved cooling to the bottom journal, decreases in disk and filter shaft hydraulic resistances. The filter disks were fabricated with 0.5 {micro} pore size, sintered-metal filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation (M050). After fabrication was complete, the filter passed acceptance tests demonstrating rejection of solids and clean water flux with a 50% improvement over the previous filters. Once the acceptance test was complete, a 1000 hour endurance test was initiated simulating a sludge washing process. The test used a simulated SRS Sludge Batch 6 recipe. The insoluble solids started at 5 wt% and were raised to 10 and 15 wt% insoluble solids to simulate the concentration of a large volume tank. The filter system was automated and set up for 24 hour unattended operation. To facilitate this, process control logic was written to operate the filter. During the development it was demonstrated that the method of starting and stopping the filter can affect the build

  11. Report of minutes of government-industry meeting on filters, media, and media testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    This session, following the precedents of earlier meetings, related the operating requirements placed on the high efficiency filter and the capacity of industry to meet them. To this end, the collected talents of the assembled body were unified toward the problems of the particulate filter, its components, and its methods of test. The following seven subjects were discussed: round robin paper test program; DOP (di-octyl phthalate) carcinogenicity; DOP substitute (thermal); DOP substitute (air); filter materials in corrosive environments; fire retardant filter frames; and filter unit leakage. Highlights of the session are: results of the round robin filter exchange test program to ascertain the accuracy and reproducibility of the Q127 filter media tester indicated that the overall agreement between the widely dispersed instruments were much better than expected and previously determined; the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is expected to issue in the near future an intelligence bulletin, pointing out that some carcinogenic effect was noted of DOP from bioassay data; it was recommended that polyethylene glycol 400 be accepted as a substitute for DOP in thermal generators; for the Laskin-type air-operated generators, dioctyl sebacate appeared to give the most promising results; a strong recommendation was made that all polyurethane foams be excluded from specifications and use where the filter unit will be exposed to acid environments; filter unit leakage was attributed to a lack of or insufficient adhasive and/or improper application of adhesie

  12. Crystallization of Ulex europaeus lectin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandonselaar, M; Delbaere, L T

    1994-10-21

    The lectin I from Ulex europaeus (UEAI) has a strong affinity for the H-type 2 human blood group determinant. Single crystals of UEAI have been grown in the monoclinic crystal system. Initial crystals were obtained after 11 months from a solution of 10 mg/ml protein, 40% 2,4-methylpentanediol and 0.1 N acetate buffer at pH 5.2. The technique of washing and reseeding was used to generate large suitable crystals. The space group is C2 with a = 78.84 A, b = 69.85 A, c = 120.62 A, beta = 108.74 degrees and Z = 4; there is one molecular dimer per asymmetric unit and the solvent content is estimated to be 58%. The crystals diffract to at least 2.8 A d spacings and are stable in the X-ray beam for more than three days.

  13. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  14. Flame generation of sodium chloride aerosol for filter testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.; Kinnear, D.I.

    1975-01-01

    A generator for sodium chloride aerosol is described, which when used in conjunction with a sensitive portable sodium flame detector unit, will permit the in-place testing of large filter installations having air throughputs up to about 80,000 m 3 /h, at penetrations down to at least 0.005 percent. (U.S.)

  15. The Military Efficacy of Individual Water Purification Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    criteria. ’t *.;as a.Lso serv ea that the KPF units grew opportunistic Pseudomonas sp . on the oroduct water side of the filters, which could have a...small pathogenic protozoan cysts such as Cryptospor-dium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba coli, from water over the effective use life of the...of heterotrophic bacteria such as Pseudoronas sP , Flavobacterium Sp , and other potentially harmfui organisms inside of the units. Enteric viruses are

  16. Regenerative-filter-incinerator device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosebrock, T.L.

    1977-10-18

    A regenerative-filter-incinerator device, for use in the exhaust system of a diesel engine, includes a drum-like regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly rotatably mounted within a housing that is adapted to be installed directly in the exhaust gas stream discharged from a diesel engine as close to the engine as possible. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly provides an inner chamber which serves as a reaction chamber for the secondary combustion of exhaust gases including particulates discharged from the engine. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly includes separately rotatable heat exchange-filter elements pervious to radial flow of fluid therethrough and adapted to filter out particulates from the exhaust gases and to carry them into the reaction chamber. During engine operation, the reaction chamber is provided with a quantity of heat, as necessary, to effect secondary combustion of the exhaust gases and particulates by means of an auxiliary heat source and the heat generated within the reaction chamber is stored in the individual heat exchange-filter elements during the discharge of exhaust gases therethrough from the reaction chamber and this heat is then transferred to the inflowing volume of the exhaust gases so that, in effect, exhaust gas is discharged from the device at substantially the same temperature as it was during its inlet into the device from the engine.

  17. Cryptosporidium: A Guide to Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap Water Many but not all available home water filters remove Cryptosporidium . Some filter designs are more suitable for removal of Cryptosporidium than others. Filters that have the words "reverse osmosis" on the label protect against Cryptosporidium . Some other ...

  18. Headwater fish population responses to planting grass filter strips adjacent to channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass filter strips are a widely used conservation practice in the Midwestern United States for reducing nutrient, pesticide, and sediment inputs into agricultural streams. Only a limited amount of information is available on the ecological effects of planting grass filter strips adjacent to channe...

  19. Simplified design of filter circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1999-01-01

    Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets

  20. High flow ceramic pot filters

    OpenAIRE

    van Halem, D.; van der Laan, H.; Soppe, A. I.A.; Heijman, S.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more water without sacrificing their microbial removal efficacy. High flow pot filters, produced by increasing the rice husk content, had a higher initial flow rate (6–19 L h−1), but initial LRVs for E. coli o...

  1. Face Recognition using Gabor Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad MOHSIN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An Elastic Bunch Graph Map (EBGM algorithm is being proposed in this research paper that successfully implements face recognition using Gabor filters. The proposed system applies 40 different Gabor filters on an image. As aresult of which 40 images with different angles and orientation are received. Next, maximum intensity points in each filtered image are calculated and mark them as Fiducial points. The system reduces these points in accordance to distance between them. The next step is calculating the distances between the reduced points using distance formula. At last, the distances are compared with database. If match occurs, it means that the image is recognized.

  2. Remotely operated top loading filter housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.J.; Carter, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    A high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter system was developed for the Fuel Processing Facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The system utilizes commercially available HEPA filters and allows in-cell filters to be maintained using operator-controlled remote handling equipment. The remote handling tasks include transport of filters before and after replacement, removal and replacement of the filter from the housing, and filter containment

  3. Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J; Tong, Xin T

    2015-08-25

    The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature.

  4. Tungsten anode tubes with K-edge filters for mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaman, S.; Lillicrap, S.C. (Wessex Regional Medical Physics Service, Bath (UK)); Price, J.L. (Jarvis Screening Centre, Guildford (UK))

    1983-10-01

    Optimum X-ray energies for mammography have previously been calculated using the maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) per unit dose to the breast, or the minimum exposure for constant SNR. Filters having absorption edges at appropriate energy positions have been used to modify the shape of tungsten anode spectra towards the calculated optimum. The suitability of such spectra for practical use has been assessed by comparing the film image quality and the incident breast dose obtained using a K-edge filtered tungsten anode tube with that obtained using a molybdenum anode. Image quality has been assessed by using a 'random' phantom and by comparing mammograms where one breast was radiographed using a filtered tungsten anode tube and the other using a standard molybdenum anode unit. Relative breast doses were estimated from both ionisation chamber measurements with a phantom and thermoluminescent dosimetry measurements on the breast. Film image quality assessment indicated that the filtered tungsten anode tube gave results not significantly different from those obtained with a molybdenum anode tube for a tissue thickness of about 4 cm and which were better for larger breast thicknesses. Doses could be reduced to between one-half and one-third with the filtered tungsten anode tube.

  5. Tungsten anode tubes with K-edge filters for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaman, S.; Lillicrap, S.C.; Price, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Optimum X-ray energies for mammography have previously been calculated using the maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) per unit dose to the breast, or the minimum exposure for constant SNR. Filters having absorption edges at appropriate energy positions have been used to modify the shape of tungsten anode spectra towards the calculated optimum. The suitability of such spectra for practical use has been assessed by comparing the film image quality and the incident breast dose obtained using a K-edge filtered tungsten anode tube with that obtained using a molybdenum anode. Image quality has been assessed by using a 'random' phantom and by comparing mammograms where one breast was radiographed using a filtered tungsten anode tube and the other using a standard molybdenum anode unit. Relative breast doses were estimated from both ionisation chamber measurements with a phantom and thermoluminescent dosimetry measurements on the breast. Film image quality assessment indicated that the filtered tungsten anode tube gave results not significantly different from those obtained with a molybdenum anode tube for a tissue thickness of abut 4 cm and which were better for larger breast thicknesses. Doses could be reduced to between one-half and one-third with the filtered tungsten anode tube. (U.K.)

  6. An approach for fixed coefficient RNS-based FIR filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Reddy, Kotha; Sahoo, Subhendu Kumar

    2017-08-01

    In this work, an efficient new modular multiplication method for {2k-1, 2k, 2k+1-1} moduli set is proposed to implement a residue number system (RNS)-based fixed coefficient finite impulse response filter. The new multiplication approach reduces the number of partial products by using pre-loaded product block. The reduction in partial products with the proposed modular multiplication improves the clock frequency and reduces the area and power as compared with the conventional modular multiplication. Further, the present approach eliminates a binary number to residue number converter circuit, which is usually needed at the front end of RNS-based system. In this work, two fixed coefficient filter architectures with the new modular multiplication approach are proposed. The filters are implemented using Verilog hardware description language. The United Microelectronics Corporation 90 nm technology library has been used for synthesis and the results area, power and delay are obtained with the help of Cadence register transfer level compiler. The power delay product (PDP) is also considered for performance comparison among the proposed filters. One of the proposed architecture is found to improve PDP gain by 60.83% as compared with the filter implemented with conventional modular multiplier. The filters functionality is validated with the help of Altera DSP Builder.

  7. Regenerable Carbon Filter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Regenerable Carbon Filter (RCF) is proposed for the removal of carbonaceous particulate matter produced in Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) processes....

  8. Fremont Tree-Well Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Fremont Tree-Well Filter Spine project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  9. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  10. Thermal neutron detectors based on complex oxide crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhikov, V; Volkov, V; Chernikov, V; Zelenskaya, O

    2002-01-01

    The ways of improvement of spectrometric quality of CWO and GSO crystals have been investigated with the aim of their application in thermal neutron detectors based on radiation capture reactions. The efficiency of the neutron detection by these crystals was measured, and the obtained data were compared with the results for sup 6 LiI(Tl) crystals. It is shown that the use of complex oxide crystals and neutron-absorption filters for spectrometry of thermal and resonance neutrons could be a promising method in combination with computer data processing. Numerical calculations are reported for spectra of gamma-quanta due to radiation capture of the neutrons. To compensate for the gamma-background lines, we used a crystal pair of heavy complex oxides with different sensitivity to neutrons.

  11. Ion trajectories quadrupole mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, D.; Lupsa, N.; Muntean, F.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper aims at bringing some contributions to the understanding of ion motion in quadrupole mass filters. The theoretical treatment of quadrupole mass filter is intended to be a concise derivation of the important physical relationships using Mathieu functions. A simple iterative method of numerical computation has been used to simulate ion trajectories in an ideal quadrupole field. Finally, some examples of calculation are presented with the aid of computer graphics. (Author) 14 Figs., 1 Tab., 20 Refs

  12. Filter indexing for spectrophotometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamran, M.M.; Scott, L.B.; Williams, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    A spectrophotometer system has an optical system for transmitting a beam from a source at select wavelengths onto a detector. A plurality of filters are positioned in a tray. A stepper mechanism indexes the tray along a path. A microcomputer controls the stepper mechanism and the optical system. The wavelength is successively changed over a range, the tray is indexed to move a select filter into the beam at a predetermined wavelength and the changing is discontinued during indexing

  13. New iodine filter pack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackbee, B.A.

    1977-10-01

    To enable Naval Emergency Monitoring Teams to fulfil their role in the field it was necessary to locate or design a replacement filter pack for the collection of radioactive iodine air samples. Collaboration with the Berkeley Laboratories of the Central Electricity Generating Board provided the necessary starting point for a suitable type of package. Further development by NGTE (West Drayton) yielded the improved filter pack which is the subject of this memorandum. (author)

  14. Stochastic processes and filtering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jazwinski, Andrew H

    1970-01-01

    This unified treatment of linear and nonlinear filtering theory presents material previously available only in journals, and in terms accessible to engineering students. Its sole prerequisites are advanced calculus, the theory of ordinary differential equations, and matrix analysis. Although theory is emphasized, the text discusses numerous practical applications as well.Taking the state-space approach to filtering, this text models dynamical systems by finite-dimensional Markov processes, outputs of stochastic difference, and differential equations. Starting with background material on probab

  15. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  16. Crystallization In Multicomponent Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  17. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emzir, Muhammad F; Woolley, Matthew J; Petersen, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements. (paper)

  18. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emzir, Muhammad F.; Woolley, Matthew J.; Petersen, Ian R.

    2017-06-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements.

  19. Recleaning of HEPA filters by reverse flow - evaluation of the underlying processes and the cleaning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibold, H.; Leiber, T.; Doeffert, I.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1993-08-01

    HEPA filter operation at high concentrations of fine dusts requires the periodic recleaning of the filter units in their service locations. Due to the low mechanical stress induced during the recleaning process the regenration via low pressure reverse flow is a very suitable technique. Recleanability of HEPA filter had been attained for particle diameter >0,4 μm at air velocities up to 1 m/s, but filter clogging occurred in case of smaller particles. The recleaning forces are too weak for particles [de

  20. Producing KDP and DKDP crystals for the NIF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, L. J.; Burnham, A. K.; Combs, R. C.; Couture, S. A.; De Yoreo, J. J.; Hawley-Fedder, R. A.; Montesant, R. C.; Robey, H. F.; Runkel, M.; Staggs, M.; Wegner, P. J.; Yan, M.; Zaitseva, N. P.

    1999-01-01

    The cost and physics requirements of the NIF have established two important roles for potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals. 1. To extract more laser energy per unit of flashlamp light and laser glass, the NIF has adopted a multipass architecture as shown in Figure 1. Light is injected in the transport spatial filter, first traverses the power amplifiers, and then is directed to main amplifiers, where it makes four passes before being redirected through the power amplifiers towards the target. To enable the multipass of the main amplifiers, a KDP-containing Pockels cell rotates the polarization of the beam to make it either transmit through or reflect off a polarizer held at Brewster's angle within the main laser cavity. If transmitted, the light reflects off a mirror and makes another pass through the cavity. If reflected, it proceeds through the power amplifier to the target. the original seed crystal as the pyramid faces grow. Unfortunately, this pyramidal growth is very slow, and it takes about two years to grow a crystal to NIF size. To provide more programmatic flexibility and reduce costs in the long run, we have developed an alternative technology commonly called rapid growth. Through a combination of higher temperatures and higher supersaturation of the growth solution, a NIF-size boule can be grown in 1 to 2 months from a small ''point'' seed. However, growing boules of adequate size is not sufficient. Care must be taken to prevent inclusions of growth solution and incorporation of atomically substituted 2. Implosions for ICF work far better at shorter wavelengths due to less generation of hot electrons, which preheat the fuel and make it harder to compress. Compromising between optic lifetime and implosion efficiency, both Nova and the NIF operate at a tripled frequency of the 1053-nm fundamental frequency of a neodymium glass laser. This tripling is accomplished by two crystals, one made of KDP and one made of deuterated KDP (DKDP). The first

  1. Large three-dimensional photonic crystals based on monocrystalline liquid crystal blue phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Wei; Hou, Chien-Tsung; Li, Cheng-Chang; Jau, Hung-Chang; Wang, Chun-Ta; Hong, Ching-Lang; Guo, Duan-Yi; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chiang, Sheng-Ping; Bunning, Timothy J; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2017-09-28

    Although there have been intense efforts to fabricate large three-dimensional photonic crystals in order to realize their full potential, the technologies developed so far are still beset with various material processing and cost issues. Conventional top-down fabrications are costly and time-consuming, whereas natural self-assembly and bottom-up fabrications often result in high defect density and limited dimensions. Here we report the fabrication of extraordinarily large monocrystalline photonic crystals by controlling the self-assembly processes which occur in unique phases of liquid crystals that exhibit three-dimensional photonic-crystalline properties called liquid-crystal blue phases. In particular, we have developed a gradient-temperature technique that enables three-dimensional photonic crystals to grow to lateral dimensions of ~1 cm (~30,000 of unit cells) and thickness of ~100 μm (~ 300 unit cells). These giant single crystals exhibit extraordinarily sharp photonic bandgaps with high reflectivity, long-range periodicity in all dimensions and well-defined lattice orientation.Conventional fabrication approaches for large-size three-dimensional photonic crystals are problematic. By properly controlling the self-assembly processes, the authors report the fabrication of monocrystalline blue phase liquid crystals that exhibit three-dimensional photonic-crystalline properties.

  2. Crystallization and crystal manipulation of a steric chaperone in complex with its lipase substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, Kris; Loris, Remy; Vandenbussche, Guy; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Wyns, Lode; Van Gelder, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Crystals of the lipase of B. glumae in complex with its specific foldase were obtained in two forms. Crystallization, crystal manipulation and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis are described. Bacterial lipases that are secreted via the type II secretion pathway require a lipase-specific foldase in order to obtain their native and biologically active conformation in the periplasmic space. The lipase–foldase complex from Burkholderia glumae (319 and 333 residues, respectively) was crystallized in two crystal forms. One crystal form belongs to space group P3 1 21 (P3 2 21), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 122.3, c = 98.2 Å. A procedure is presented which improved the diffraction of these crystals from ∼5 to 2.95 Å. For the second crystal form, which belonged to space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 183.0, b = 75.7, c = 116.6 Å, X-ray data were collected to 1.85 Å

  3. Planar Superconducting Millimeter-Wave/Terahertz Channelizing Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Negar; U-yen, Kongpop; Brown, Ari; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is a compact, superconducting, channelizing bandpass filter on a single-crystal (0.45 m thick) silicon substrate, which operates from 300 to 600 GHz. This device consists of four channels with center frequencies of 310, 380, 460, and 550 GHz, with approximately 50-GHz bandwidth per channel. The filter concept is inspired by the mammalian cochlea, which is a channelizing filter that covers three decades of bandwidth and 3,000 channels in a very small physical space. By using a simplified physical cochlear model, and its electrical analog of a channelizing filter covering multiple octaves bandwidth, a large number of output channels with high inter-channel isolation and high-order upper stopband response can be designed. A channelizing filter is a critical component used in spectrometer instruments that measure the intensity of light at various frequencies. This embodiment was designed for MicroSpec in order to increase the resolution of the instrument (with four channels, the resolution will be increased by a factor of four). MicroSpec is a revolutionary wafer-scale spectrometer that is intended for the SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) Mission. In addition to being a vital component of MicroSpec, the channelizing filter itself is a low-resolution spectrometer when integrated with only an antenna at its input, and a detector at each channel s output. During the design process for this filter, the available characteristic impedances, possible lumped element ranges, and fabrication tolerances were identified for design on a very thin silicon substrate. Iterations between full-wave and lumped-element circuit simulations were performed. Each channel s circuit was designed based on the availability of characteristic impedances and lumped element ranges. This design was based on a tabular type bandpass filter with no spurious harmonic response. Extensive electromagnetic modeling for each channel was performed. Four channels

  4. Experience with three percutaneous vena cava filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCowan, T.C.; Ferris, E.J.; Harshfield, D.L.; Hassell, D.R.; Baker, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-one Kimray-Greenfield, 33 bird's nest, and 19 Amplatz vena cava filters were placed percutaneously. The Kimray-Greenfield filter was the most difficult to insert. The major problem was the insertion site, which required venipuncture with a 24-F catheter. Minor hemorrhage was frequent, and femoral vein thrombosis occurred in four patients. No migration, caval thrombosis, or pulmonary emboli were seen after Kimray-Greenfield filter placement. The bird's nest filter was relatively easy to insert, although in two cases the filter prongs could not be adequately seated in the wall of the inferior vena cava. Three patients with bird's nest filters had thrombosis below the filter, and three filters migrated to the heart. One migrated filter could not be removed. One patient had multiple small pulmonary emboli at autopsy. No other pulmonary emboli after filter placement were noted. The Amplatz filter was the easiest of the three filters to insert. Only one patient with an Amplatz filter had thrombosis of the vena cava below the filter. No filter migrations were documented, and no recurrent pulmonary emboli were found on clinical or radiologic follow-up. The Amplatz vena cava filter is easier to place than percutaneous Kimray-Greenfield or bird's nest filters, has a low complication rate, and has proven to be clinically effective in preventing pulmonary emboli

  5. Sensory pollution from bag-type fiberglass ventilation filters: Conventional filter compared with filters containing various amounts of activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Fadeyi, M.O.; Clausen, Geo

    2009-01-01

    filter and three modifications of a bag-type fiberglass combination filter: the "Heavy" corresponded to a commercially available filter containing 400 g of carbon per square meter of filter area, the "Medium" contained half as much carbon (200 g/m(2)), and the "Light" contained a quarter as much carbon...

  6. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PERSON, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The literature survey for the fractional crystallization study of material from tank 241-S-112 is completed, fulfilling the requirements of the Test Plan for Tank 241-S-112 Fractional Crystallization Study (Herting 2003). Crystallization involves the formation of one or more solid phases from a fluid phase or an amorphous solid phase. It is applied extensively in the chemical industry, both as a purification process and a separation process. The main advantage of crystallization over distillation is the production of substances with a very high purity, at a low level of energy consumption, and at relatively mild process conditions. Crystallization is one of the older operations in the chemical industry; therefore, practical experience can usually be used for the design and operation of industrial crystallizers. In addition, advances in the understanding of crystallization kinetics can be useful in the control, design, and scale-up of industrial crystallizers. Research work is currently underway; e.g., the CrysCODE (Crystallizer Control and Design) project, littu://www.aui.tudelft.nl/uroiect/Cn/scode/crvscode.htm, at the Delft University of Technology, with the goal of improving the performance and controllability of industrial crystallizers by means of better control and improved design methodologies. Recent developments in fluid dynamics and reactor technology (e.g., compartment approaches) have led to a better understanding of processes and scale-up phenomena. The ultimate aim of such research is to develop a knowledge-based design frame for optimization of industrial crystallization units. Development work is in progress on a rigorous design analysis model for the description of the crystallization process as a function of the reactor geometry, crystallization kinetics, and operating conditions. One modeling effort is aimed at improving the predictive crystallizer model by implementing a population balance equation that depends on two variables: the size and

  7. British Society of Interventional Radiology (BSIR) Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) Filter Registry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uberoi, Raman, E-mail: raman.Uberoi@orh.nhs.uk; Tapping, Charles Ross [Oxford University Hospitals, John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Chalmers, Nicholas [Manchester Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Allgar, Victoria [University of York, Hull and York Medical School (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The British Society of Interventional Radiology (BSIR) Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) Filter Registry was produced to provide an audit of current United Kingdom (UK) practice regarding placement and retrieval of IVC filters to address concerns regarding their safety. Methods: The IVC filter registry is a web-based registry, launched by the BSIR on behalf of its membership in October 2007. This report is based on prospectively collected data from October 2007 to March 2011. This report contains analysis of data on 1,434 IVC filter placements and 400 attempted retrievals performed at 68 UK centers. Data collected included patient demographics, insertion and retrieval data, and patient follow-up. Results: IVC filter use in the majority of patients in the UK follows accepted CIRSE guidelines. Filter placement is usually a low-risk procedure, with a low major complication rate (<0.5 %). Cook Gunther Tulip (560 filters: 39 %) and Celect (359 filters: 25 %) filters constituted the majority of IVC filters inserted, with Bard G2, Recovery filters, Cordis Trapease, and OptEase constituting most of the remainder (445 filters: 31 %). More than 96 % of IVC filters deployed as intended. Operator inexperience (<25 procedure) was significantly associated with complications (p < 0.001). Of the IVC filters initially intended for temporary placement, retrieval was attempted in 78 %. Of these retrieval was technically successful in 83 %. Successful retrieval was significantly reduced for implants left in situ for >9 weeks versus those with a shorter dwell time. New lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or IVC thrombosis was reported in 88 patients following filter placement, there was no significant difference of incidence between filter types. Conclusions: This registry report provides interventional radiologists and clinicians with an improved understanding of the technical aspects of IVC filter placement to help improve practice, and the potential consequences of IVC filter

  8. Impact of axial velocity and transmembrane pressure (TMP) on ARP filter performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. One potential method for increasing filter flux is to adjust the axial velocity and transmembrane pressure (TMP). SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate the effects of axial velocity and transmembrane pressure on crossflow filter flux. The objective of the testing was to determine whether increasing the axial velocity at the ARP could produce a significant increase in filter flux. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate and 2.5 g MST/L, processing the slurry through a bench-scale crossflow filter unit at varying axial velocity and TMP, and measuring filter flux as a function of time.

  9. Photonic crystal pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anscombe, Nadya

    2011-08-01

    Over the past ten years, Crystal Fiber, now part of NKT Photonics, has been busy commercializing photonic crystal fibre. Nadya Anscombe finds out about the evolution of the technology and its applications.

  10. Crystallization Pathways in Biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Steve; Addadi, Lia

    2011-08-01

    A crystallization pathway describes the movement of ions from their source to the final product. Cells are intimately involved in biological crystallization pathways. In many pathways the cells utilize a unique strategy: They temporarily concentrate ions in intracellular membrane-bound vesicles in the form of a highly disordered solid phase. This phase is then transported to the final mineralization site, where it is destabilized and crystallizes. We present four case studies, each of which demonstrates specific aspects of biological crystallization pathways: seawater uptake by foraminifera, calcite spicule formation by sea urchin larvae, goethite formation in the teeth of limpets, and guanine crystal formation in fish skin and spider cuticles. Three representative crystallization pathways are described, and aspects of the different stages of crystallization are discussed. An in-depth understanding of these complex processes can lead to new ideas for synthetic crystallization processes of interest to materials science.

  11. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...

  12. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail: vidya.patil@ruparel.edu; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: mugdha.patki@ruparel.edu [D. G. Ruparel College, Senapati Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  13. Comparison of filtering methods for the modeling and retrospective forecasting of influenza epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A variety of filtering methods enable the recursive estimation of system state variables and inference of model parameters. These methods have found application in a range of disciplines and settings, including engineering design and forecasting, and, over the last two decades, have been applied to infectious disease epidemiology. For any system of interest, the ideal filter depends on the nonlinearity and complexity of the model to which it is applied, the quality and abundance of observations being entrained, and the ultimate application (e.g. forecast, parameter estimation, etc.. Here, we compare the performance of six state-of-the-art filter methods when used to model and forecast influenza activity. Three particle filters--a basic particle filter (PF with resampling and regularization, maximum likelihood estimation via iterated filtering (MIF, and particle Markov chain Monte Carlo (pMCMC--and three ensemble filters--the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF, the ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF, and the rank histogram filter (RHF--were used in conjunction with a humidity-forced susceptible-infectious-recovered-susceptible (SIRS model and weekly estimates of influenza incidence. The modeling frameworks, first validated with synthetic influenza epidemic data, were then applied to fit and retrospectively forecast the historical incidence time series of seven influenza epidemics during 2003-2012, for 115 cities in the United States. Results suggest that when using the SIRS model the ensemble filters and the basic PF are more capable of faithfully recreating historical influenza incidence time series, while the MIF and pMCMC do not perform as well for multimodal outbreaks. For forecast of the week with the highest influenza activity, the accuracies of the six model-filter frameworks are comparable; the three particle filters perform slightly better predicting peaks 1-5 weeks in the future; the ensemble filters are more accurate predicting peaks in

  14. Micron-pore-sized metallic filter tube membranes for filtration of particulates and water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, T J; Palumbo, A V; Bischoff, B L; Miller, C J; Fagan, L A; McNeilly, M S; Judkins, R R

    2008-07-01

    Robust filtering techniques capable of efficiently removing particulates and biological agents from water or air suffer from plugging, poor rejuvenation, low permeance, and high backpressure. Operational characteristics of pressure-driven separations are in part controlled by the membrane pore size, charge of particulates, transmembrane pressure and the requirement for sufficient water flux to overcome fouling. With long term use filters decline in permeance due to filter-cake plugging of pores, fouling, or filter deterioration. Though metallic filter tube development at ORNL has focused almost exclusively on gas separations, a small study examined the applicability of these membranes for tangential filtering of aqueous suspensions of bacterial-sized particles. A mixture of fluorescent polystyrene microspheres ranging in size from 0.5 to 6 microm in diameter simulated microorganisms in filtration studies. Compared to a commercial filter, the ORNL 0.6 microm filter averaged approximately 10-fold greater filtration efficiency of the small particles, several-fold greater permeance after considerable use and it returned to approximately 85% of the initial flow upon backflushing versus 30% for the commercial filter. After filtering several liters of the particle-containing suspension, the ORNL composite filter still exhibited greater than 50% of its initial permeance while the commercial filter had decreased to less than 20%. When considering a greater filtration efficiency, greater permeance per unit mass, greater percentage of rejuvenation upon backflushing (up to 3-fold), and likely greater performance with extended use, the ORNL 0.6 microm filters can potentially outperform the commercial filter by factors of 100-1,000 fold.

  15. Cake filtration modeling: Analytical cake filtration model and filter medium characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Michael

    2008-05-15

    Cake filtration is a unit operation to separate solids from fluids in industrial processes. The build up of a filter cake is usually accompanied with a decrease in overall permeability over the filter leading to an increased pressure drop over the filter. For an incompressible filter cake that builds up on a homogeneous filter cloth, a linear pressure drop profile over time is expected for a constant fluid volume flow. However, experiments show curved pressure drop profiles, which are also attributed to inhomogeneities of the filter (filter medium and/or residual filter cake). In this work, a mathematical filter model is developed to describe the relationship between time and overall permeability. The model considers a filter with an inhomogeneous permeability and accounts for fluid mechanics by a one-dimensional formulation of Darcy's law and for the cake build up by solid continuity. The model can be solved analytically in the time domain. The analytic solution allows for the unambiguous inversion of the model to determine the inhomogeneous permeability from the time resolved overall permeability, e.g. pressure drop measurements. An error estimation of the method is provided by rewriting the model as convolution transformation. This method is applied to simulated and experimental pressure drop data of gas filters with textile filter cloths and various situations with non-uniform flow situations in practical problems are explored. A routine is developed to generate characteristic filter cycles from semi-continuous filter plant operation. The model is modified to investigate the impact of non-uniform dust concentrations. (author). 34 refs., 40 figs., 1 tab

  16. Vertical removable filters in shielded casing for radioactive cells and process gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinz, M.

    1983-01-01

    The installation of shielded filtration casing is necessary for highly contaminated active cells and process gaseous wastes containing active aerosols. SGN and COGEMA have developed two filtration casings (for 500 and 3000 m 3 /h flow rates) equipped with a vertically removable filter element. The filter elements fitted with high efficiency glass fiber media, are cylindrical in shape. The top flange of the filter is equipped with a gasket to ensure sealing between the filter element and its casing. The filter element is blindly installed and removed and its orientation, inside the casing, is immaterial. The shielding casing is made of a cast iron, or steel, shielding slab under which is secured the filtration casing itself. This shielding slab is settled on side shielding walls made of concrete or cast iron. The filter element, integral with a plug, is placed in the horizontal slab. The attachment of the filter element under the plug is necessary so that the plug and filter may be removed as one unit, and to keep the filter on its sealing surfaces, according to sealing and seismic resistance requirements. Filter removal is performed with the help of an intervention cask, centered over a removable trap door provided on the shielding slab of the casing. First, the plug and filter element assembly is raised into the cask. Then, the filtering element may be separated from the plug which is decontaminated and salvaged. The whole plug and filter assembly may also be sent to the conditioning waste storage. The installation of a clean filter element in the casing, is also performed with the help of the intervention cask, proceeding as above, but in reverse order. The same intervention cask may also be used to remove the upstream and downstream dampers from the top of the casing

  17. Modified-hybrid optical neural network filter for multiple object recognition within cluttered scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypraios, Ioannis; Young, Rupert C. D.; Chatwin, Chris R.

    2009-08-01

    Motivated by the non-linear interpolation and generalization abilities of the hybrid optical neural network filter between the reference and non-reference images of the true-class object we designed the modifiedhybrid optical neural network filter. We applied an optical mask to the hybrid optical neural network's filter input. The mask was built with the constant weight connections of a randomly chosen image included in the training set. The resulted design of the modified-hybrid optical neural network filter is optimized for performing best in cluttered scenes of the true-class object. Due to the shift invariance properties inherited by its correlator unit the filter can accommodate multiple objects of the same class to be detected within an input cluttered image. Additionally, the architecture of the neural network unit of the general hybrid optical neural network filter allows the recognition of multiple objects of different classes within the input cluttered image by modifying the output layer of the unit. We test the modified-hybrid optical neural network filter for multiple objects of the same and of different classes' recognition within cluttered input images and video sequences of cluttered scenes. The filter is shown to exhibit with a single pass over the input data simultaneously out-of-plane rotation, shift invariance and good clutter tolerance. It is able to successfully detect and classify correctly the true-class objects within background clutter for which there has been no previous training.

  18. Neutron transmission through pyrolytic graphite crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M. [Reactor Physics Department NRC, Reactor Physics Division, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); Habib, N. [Reactor Physics Department NRC, Reactor Physics Division, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt)]. E-mail: nadiahabib15@yahoo.com; Fathaalla, M. [Reactor Physics Department NRC, Reactor Physics Division, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt)

    2006-05-15

    Calculation of the total cross-section, neutron transmission and removal coefficient of pyrolytic graphite (PG) for thermal neutron energies were carried out using an additive formula. The formula takes into account the variation of thermal diffuse and Bragg scattering cross-sections in terms of PG temperature and mosaic spread for neutron energies in the range 1 meV to 1 eV. A computer code PG has been developed which allow calculations for the graphite in its hexagonal close-packed structure, when its c-direction is parallel with incident neutron beam (parallel orientation). The calculated total neutron cross-sections for PG in parallel orientation at different mosaic spreads were compared with the measured values. An overall agreement is indicated between the formula fits and experimental data at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. A feasibility study for use of PG crystals as second-order neutron filter is detailed in terms of mosaic spread, optimum thickness and temperature. The calculated removal coefficients of PG crystals show that such crystals are high efficiency second-order filter within neutron energy intervals (4-7 meV) and (10-15 meV)

  19. Apparatus for mounting crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longeway, Paul A.

    1985-01-01

    A thickness monitor useful in deposition or etching reactor systems comprising a crystal-controlled oscillator in which the crystal is deposited or etched to change the frequency of the oscillator. The crystal rests within a thermally conductive metallic housing and arranged to be temperature controlled. Electrode contacts are made to the surface primarily by gravity force such that the crystal is substantially free of stress otherwise induced by high temperature.

  20. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  1. Performance test of filtering system for controlling the turbidity of secondary cooling water in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y. C.; Woo, J. S.; Jo, Y. K.; Loo, J. S.; Lim, N. Y.

    2001-01-01

    There is about 80 m 3 /h loss of the secondary cooling water by evaporation, windage and blowdown during the operation of HANARO, 30 MW research reactor. When the secondary cooling water is treated by high Ca-hardness treatment program for minimizing the blowdown loss, only the trubidity exceeds the limit. By adding filtering system it was confirned, through the relation of turbidity and filtering rate of secondary cooling water, that the turbidity is reduced below the limit (5 deg.) by 2 % of filtering rate without blowdown. And it was verified, through the field performace test of filtering system under normal operation condition, that the circulation pumps get proper capacity and that filter units reduce the turbidity below the limit. Therefore, the secondary cooling water can be treated by the high Ca-hardness program and filter system without blowdown

  2. Deep Kalman Filter: Simultaneous Multi-Sensor Integration and Modelling; A GNSS/IMU Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Hosseinyalamdary

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bayes filters, such as the Kalman and particle filters, have been used in sensor fusion to integrate two sources of information and obtain the best estimate of unknowns. The efficient integration of multiple sensors requires deep knowledge of their error sources. Some sensors, such as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU, have complicated error sources. Therefore, IMU error modelling and the efficient integration of IMU and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS observations has remained a challenge. In this paper, we developed deep Kalman filter to model and remove IMU errors and, consequently, improve the accuracy of IMU positioning. To achieve this, we added a modelling step to the prediction and update steps of the Kalman filter, so that the IMU error model is learned during integration. The results showed our deep Kalman filter outperformed the conventional Kalman filter and reached a higher level of accuracy.

  3. Deep Kalman Filter: Simultaneous Multi-Sensor Integration and Modelling; A GNSS/IMU Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinyalamdary, Siavash

    2018-04-24

    Bayes filters, such as the Kalman and particle filters, have been used in sensor fusion to integrate two sources of information and obtain the best estimate of unknowns. The efficient integration of multiple sensors requires deep knowledge of their error sources. Some sensors, such as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), have complicated error sources. Therefore, IMU error modelling and the efficient integration of IMU and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations has remained a challenge. In this paper, we developed deep Kalman filter to model and remove IMU errors and, consequently, improve the accuracy of IMU positioning. To achieve this, we added a modelling step to the prediction and update steps of the Kalman filter, so that the IMU error model is learned during integration. The results showed our deep Kalman filter outperformed the conventional Kalman filter and reached a higher level of accuracy.

  4. Digital timing: sampling frequency, anti-aliasing filter and signal interpolation filter dependence on timing resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sanghee; Grazioso, Ron; Zhang Nan; Aykac, Mehmet; Schmand, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of our study is to investigate how the performance of digital timing methods is affected by sampling rate, anti-aliasing and signal interpolation filters. We used the Nyquist sampling theorem to address some basic questions such as what will be the minimum sampling frequencies? How accurate will the signal interpolation be? How do we validate the timing measurements? The preferred sampling rate would be as low as possible, considering the high cost and power consumption of high-speed analog-to-digital converters. However, when the sampling rate is too low, due to the aliasing effect, some artifacts are produced in the timing resolution estimations; the shape of the timing profile is distorted and the FWHM values of the profile fluctuate as the source location changes. Anti-aliasing filters are required in this case to avoid the artifacts, but the timing is degraded as a result. When the sampling rate is marginally over the Nyquist rate, a proper signal interpolation is important. A sharp roll-off (higher order) filter is required to separate the baseband signal from its replicates to avoid the aliasing, but in return the computation will be higher. We demonstrated the analysis through a digital timing study using fast LSO scintillation crystals as used in time-of-flight PET scanners. From the study, we observed that there is no significant timing resolution degradation down to 1.3 Ghz sampling frequency, and the computation requirement for the signal interpolation is reasonably low. A so-called sliding test is proposed as a validation tool checking constant timing resolution behavior of a given timing pick-off method regardless of the source location change. Lastly, the performance comparison for several digital timing methods is also shown.

  5. 21 CFR 211.72 - Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filters. 211.72 Section 211.72 Food and Drugs FOOD... shall not release fibers into such products. Fiber-releasing filters may be used when it is not possible to manufacture such products without the use of these filters. If use of a fiber-releasing filter is...

  6. Decentralized Social Filtering based on Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a decentralised approach to social filtering based on trust between agents in a multiagent system. The social filtering in the proposed approach is built on the interactions between collaborative software agents performing content-based filtering. This means that it uses a mixture of content-based and social filtering and thereby, it takes advantage of both methods.

  7. A class of orthogonal nonrecursive binomial filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    The time- and frequency-domain properties of the orthogonal binomial sequences are presented. It is shown that these sequences, or digital filters based on them, can be generated using adders and delay elements only. The frequency-domain behavior of these nonrecursive binomial filters suggests a number of applications as low-pass Gaussian filters or as inexpensive bandpass filters.

  8. Digital notch filter based active damping for LCL filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Yang, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    . In contrast, the active damping does not require any dissipation elements, and thus has become of increasing interest. As a result, a vast of active damping solutions have been reported, among which multi-loop control systems and additional sensors are necessary, leading to increased cost and complexity....... In this paper, a notch filter based active damping without the requirement of additional sensors is proposed, where the inverter current is employed as the feedback variable. Firstly, a design method of the notch filter for active damping is presented. The entire system stability has then been investigated...... in the z-domain. Simulations and experiments are carried out to verify the proposed active damping method. Both results have confirmed that the notch filter based active damping can ensure the entire system stability in the case of resonances with a good system performance....

  9. Study of loading/air back-pulse cleaning cycles on the performance of ceramic membrane filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, Charles; Alderman, Steven; Parsons, Michael; Hogoncamp, Kristina; Alderman, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The most commonly identified threats to conventional glass fiber HEPA filter performance are moisture and rapid blinding of filters by smoke. Regenerable filter media composed of ceramics or sintered metal can be utilized as pre-filters to protect the more vulnerable glass fiber HEPA filters in the event of upset conditions. Additionally, used in a pre-filtering application, the use of these regenerable filters can potentially extend the lifetime of conventional units. A series of tests have been conducted using CeraMem ceramic membrane filters in an effort to evaluate their performance after repeated loading and air back pulse cleaning. This was done in an effort to access filter performance after repeated loading/cleaning cycles. The filters were loaded using a solid potassium chloride aerosol challenge. The filters were evaluated for pressure drop and filtering efficiency changes from one cleaning cycle to the next. Additionally, the particle size distribution of the aerosol penetrating the filters was measured. (authors)

  10. Crystal Growth Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Hans J.; Fukuda, Tsuguo

    2004-06-01

    This volume deals with the technologies of crystal fabrication, of crystal machining, and of epilayer production and is the first book on industrial and scientific aspects of crystal and layer production. The major industrial crystals are treated: Si, GaAs, GaP, InP, CdTe, sapphire, oxide and halide scintillator crystals, crystals for optical, piezoelectric and microwave applications and more. Contains 29 contributions from leading crystal technologists covering the following topics: General aspects of crystal growth technology Silicon Compound semiconductors Oxides and halides Crystal machining Epitaxy and layer deposition Scientific and technological problems of production and machining of industrial crystals are discussed by top experts, most of them from the major growth industries and crystal growth centers. In addition, it will be useful for the users of crystals, for teachers and graduate students in materials sciences, in electronic and other functional materials, chemical and metallurgical engineering, micro-and optoelectronics including nanotechnology, mechanical engineering and precision-machining, microtechnology, and in solid-state sciences.

  11. Food crystallization and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egg products can be utilized to control crystallization in a diverse realm of food products. Albumen and egg yolk can aid in the control of sugar crystal formation in candies. Egg yolk can enhance the textural properties and aid in the control of large ice crystal formation in frozen desserts. In...

  12. Risk Sensitive Filtering with Poisson Process Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, W. P.; James, M. R.; Elliott, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we consider risk sensitive filtering for Poisson process observations. Risk sensitive filtering is a type of robust filtering which offers performance benefits in the presence of uncertainties. We derive a risk sensitive filter for a stochastic system where the signal variable has dynamics described by a diffusion equation and determines the rate function for an observation process. The filtering equations are stochastic integral equations. Computer simulations are presented to demonstrate the performance gain for the risk sensitive filter compared with the risk neutral filter

  13. Novel Simplex Unscented Transform and Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Chun Li; Ping Wei; Xian-Ci Xiao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new simplex unscented transform (UT) based Schmidt orthogonal algorithm and a new filter method based on this transform are proposed. This filter has less computation consumption than UKF (unscented Kalman filter), SUKF (simplex unscented Kalman filter) and EKF (extended Kalman filter). Computer simulation shows that this filter has the same performance as UKF and SUKF, and according to the analysis of the computational requirements of EKF, UKF and SUKF, this filter has preferable practicality value. Finally, the appendix shows the efficiency for this UT.

  14. The 2D Hotelling filter - a quantitative noise-reducing principal-component filter for dynamic PET data, with applications in patient dose reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, Jan; Sörensen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we apply the principal-component analysis filter (Hotelling filter) to reduce noise from dynamic positron-emission tomography (PET) patient data, for a number of different radio-tracer molecules. We furthermore show how preprocessing images with this filter improves parametric images created from such dynamic sequence. We use zero-mean unit variance normalization, prior to performing a Hotelling filter on the slices of a dynamic time-series. The Scree-plot technique was used to determine which principal components to be rejected in the filter process. This filter was applied to [ 11 C]-acetate on heart and head-neck tumors, [ 18 F]-FDG on liver tumors and brain, and [ 11 C]-Raclopride on brain. Simulations of blood and tissue regions with noise properties matched to real PET data, was used to analyze how quantitation and resolution is affected by the Hotelling filter. Summing varying parts of a 90-frame [ 18 F]-FDG brain scan, we created 9-frame dynamic scans with image statistics comparable to 20 MBq, 60 MBq and 200 MBq injected activity. Hotelling filter performed on slices (2D) and on volumes (3D) were compared. The 2D Hotelling filter reduces noise in the tissue uptake drastically, so that it becomes simple to manually pick out regions-of-interest from noisy data. 2D Hotelling filter introduces less bias than 3D Hotelling filter in focal Raclopride uptake. Simulations show that the Hotelling filter is sensitive to typical blood peak in PET prior to tissue uptake have commenced, introducing a negative bias in early tissue uptake. Quantitation on real dynamic data is reliable. Two examples clearly show that pre-filtering the dynamic sequence with the Hotelling filter prior to Patlak-slope calculations gives clearly improved parametric image quality. We also show that a dramatic dose reduction can be achieved for Patlak slope images without changing image quality or quantitation. The 2D Hotelling-filtering of dynamic PET data is a computer

  15. A new look at the economic disposal of contaminated aerosol filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinhuber, D.; Stiehl, H.H.; Schroth, W.

    1977-01-01

    HEPA filter elements loaded with radioactive aerosols represent a large percentage of the radioactive waste of nuclear plants. The HEPA filter elements used at present in air filter units are not suitable to an economic disposal and space-saving final storage on account of their construction. New concepts for HEPA filters are necessary from the point of view of waste disposal. The criteria of these new designs are as follows: reduction of space required for HEPA filters used at the same or even increased flow rates and with the same efficiency; essentially smaller dimensions of HEPA filters for storage in waste containers; removal without contamination, volume reduction (without contamination) for disposal of the HEPA filters; smallest possible volume of the HEPA filters after processing for final storage. The construction of HEPA filters as a result of the requirements mentioned above and taking into consideration the present stage of technology is explained. The advantages of such construction with regard to the criteria mentioned before are presented in comparison with the HEPA filters at present in use

  16. Iodine filters in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The present report discusses the significance for environmental exposure of the iodine released with the gaseous effluents of nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants in relation to releases of other airborne radionuclides. Iodine filtration processes are described. The release pathways and the composition of airborne fission product iodine mixtures and their bearing on environmental exposure are discussed on the basis of measured fission product iodine emissions. The sorbents which can be used for iodine filtration, their removal efficiencies and range of applications are dealt with in detail. The particular conditions governing iodine removal, which are determined by the various gaseous iodine species, are illustrated on the basis of experimentally determined retention profiles. Particular attention is given to the limitations imposed by temperature, humidity, radiation and filter poisoning. The types of filter normally used are described, their advantages and drawbacks discussed, the principles underlying their design are outlined and the sources of error indicated. The methods normally applied to test the efficiency of various iodine sorbents are described and assessed. Operating experience with iodine filters, gathered from surveillance periods of many years, is supplemented by a large number of test results and the findings of extensive experiments. Possible ways of prolonging the permissible service lives of iodine filters are discussed and information is given on protective measures. The various iodine removal processes applied in reprocessing plants are described and compared with reference to efficiency and cost. The latest developments in filter technology in reprocessing plants are briefly outlined

  17. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  18. A biological oil adsorption filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasila, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  19. Spectral filtering for plant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.E.; McMahon, M.J.; Rajapakse, N.C.; Becoteau, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Research to date suggests that spectral filtering can be an effective alternative to chemical growth regulators for altering plant development. If properly implemented, it can be nonchemical and environmentally friendly. The aqueous CuSO{sub 4}, and CuCl{sub 2} solutions in channelled plastic panels have been shown to be effective filters, but they can be highly toxic if the solutions contact plants. Some studies suggest that spectral filtration limited to short EOD intervals can also alter plant development. Future research should be directed toward confirmation of the influence of spectral filters and exposure times on a broader range of plant species and cultivars. Efforts should also be made to identify non-noxious alternatives to aqueous copper solutions and/or to incorporate these chemicals permanently into plastic films and panels that can be used in greenhouse construction. It would also be informative to study the impacts of spectral filters on insect and microbal populations in plant growth facilities. The economic impacts of spectral filtering techniques should be assessed for each delivery methodology.

  20. Particle tracking from image sequences of complex plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadziavdic, Vedad; Melandsoe, Frank; Hanssen, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    In order to gather information about the physics of the complex plasma crystals from the experimental data, particles have to be tracked through a sequence of images. An application of the Kalman filter for that purpose is presented, using a one-dimensional approximation of the particle dynamics as a model for the filter. It is shown that Kalman filter is capable of tracking dust particles even with high levels of measurement noise. An inherent part of the Kalman filter, the innovation process, can be used to estimate values of the physical system parameters from the experimental data. The method is shown to be able to estimate the characteristic oscillation frequency from noisy data