WorldWideScience

Sample records for crystal projection displays

  1. Projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, George L.; Yang, Kei H.

    1998-08-01

    Projection display in today's market is dominated by cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Further progress in this mature CRT projector technology will be slow and evolutionary. Liquid crystal based projection displays have gained rapid acceptance in the business market. New technologies are being developed on several fronts: (1) active matrix built from polysilicon or single crystal silicon; (2) electro- optic materials using ferroelectric liquid crystal, polymer dispersed liquid crystals or other liquid crystal modes, (3) micromechanical-based transducers such as digital micromirror devices, and grating light valves, (4) high resolution displays to SXGA and beyond, and (5) high brightness. This article reviews the projection displays from a transducer technology perspective along with a discussion of markets and trends.

  2. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    81/2X 11- 10 -9 .8 display using a large advertising alphanimeric ( TCI ) has been added to the front of the optical box used in the F-4 aircraft for HUD...properties over a wide range of tempera - tures, including normal room temperature. What are Liquid Crystals? Liquid crystals have been classified in three...natic fanctions and to present data needed for the semi- automatic and manual control of system functions. Existing aircraft using CRT display

  3. Crystal ball single event display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Allgower, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.; Alyea, J. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.

    1997-10-15

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about {pi}{sup o}`s and {eta}`s formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer.

  4. Compact Holographic Projection Display Using Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon Spatial Light Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Feng Hsu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a holographic projection display in which a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM performs three functions: beam shaping, image display, and speckle reduction. The functions of beam shaping and image display are performed by dividing the SLM window into four sub-windows loaded with different diffractive phase elements (DPEs. The DPEs are calculated using a modified iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA. The function of speckle reduction is performed using temporal integration of display images containing speckles. The speckle contrast ratio of the display image is 0.39 due to the integration of eight speckled images. The system can be extended to display full-color images also by using temporal addition of elementary color images. Because the system configuration needs only an SLM, a Fourier transform lens, and two mirrors, the system volume is very small, becoming a potential candidate for micro projectors.

  5. Panoramic projection avionics displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmanash, Michael H.

    2003-09-01

    Avionics projection displays are entering production in advanced tactical aircraft. Early adopters of this technology in the avionics community used projection displays to replace or upgrade earlier units incorporating direct-view CRT or AMLCD devices. Typical motivation for these upgrades were the alleviation of performance, cost and display device availability concerns. In these systems, the upgraded (projection) displays were one-for-one form / fit replacements for the earlier units. As projection technology has matured, this situation has begun to evolve. The Lockheed-Martin F-35 is the first program in which the cockpit has been specifically designed to take advantage of one of the more unique capabilities of rear projection display technology, namely the ability to replace multiple small screens with a single large conformal viewing surface in the form of a panoramic display. Other programs are expected to follow, since the panoramic formats enable increased mission effectiveness, reduced cost and greater information transfer to the pilot. Some of the advantages and technical challenges associated with panoramic projection displays for avionics applications are described below.

  6. Displaying gray shades in liquid crystal displays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Ruckmongathan

    2003-08-01

    Quality of image in a display depends on the contrast, colour, resolution and the number of gray shades. A large number of gray shades is necessary to display images without any contour lines. These contours are due to limited number of gray shades in the display causing abrupt changes in grayness of the image, while the original image has a gradual change in brightness. Amplitude modulation has the capability to display a large number of gray shades with minimum number of time intervals [1,2]. This paper will cover the underlying principle of amplitude modulation, some variants and its extension to multi-line addressing. Other techniques for displaying gray shades in passive matrix displays are reviewed for the sake of comparison.

  7. Liquid crystal displays for aircraft engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko L. F.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Operating conditions for liquid-crystal displays of aircraft instruments have been examined. Requirements to engineering of a liquid-crystal display for operation in severe environment have been formulated. The implementation options for liquid-crystal matrix illumination have been analyzed in order to ensure the sufficient brightness depending on external illumination of a display screen.

  8. Unique interactive projection display screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  9. Emerging Technologies of Liquid Crystal Displays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sin-Doo Lee; Chang-Jae Yu; Jae-Hong Park; Min-Sik Jung

    2003-01-01

    The general features and the emerging technologies of liquid crystal displays are described from the viewpoints of wide viewing and fast response technologies. The device applications of liquid crystals for optical communications are also described.

  10. Computational multi-projection display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seokil; Park, Soon-Gi; Lee, Chang-Kun; Cho, Jaebum; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-04-18

    A computational multi-projection display is proposed by employing a multi-projection system combining with compressive light field displays. By modulating the intensity of light rays from a spatial light modulator inside a single projector, the proposed system can offer several compact views to observer. Since light rays are spread to all directions, the system can provide flexible positioning of viewpoints without stacking projectors in vertical direction. Also, if the system is constructed properly, it is possible to generate view images with inter-pupillary gap and satisfy the super multi-view condition. We explain the principle of the proposed system and verify its feasibility with simulations and experimental results.

  11. Market trends in the projection display industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sweta

    2001-03-01

    The projection display industry represents a multibillion- dollar market that includes four distinct technologies. High-volume consumer products and high-value business products drive the market, with different technologies being used in different application markets. The consumer market is dominated by rear CRT technology, especially in the projection TV segment. Rear LCD (liquid crystal display), MEMS/DLP (or Digital Light Processing TM) and LCOS (Liquid-crystal-on-silicon) TVs are slowly emerging as future competitors to rear CRT projectors. Front CRT projectors are also facing challenges from LCD and DLP technology for the home theater market while the business market is completely dominated by front LCD and DLP technology. Three-chip DLP projectors have replaced liquid crystal light valves in large venue applications where projectors have higher light output requirements. In recent years front LCD and LCOS projectors have been increasingly competing with 3-chip DLP projectors especially at the low end of the large venue application market. Within the next five years the projection market will experience very fast growth. Sales and presentation applications, which are the fastest growing applications in the business market, will continue to be the major driving force for the growth for front projectors, and the shift in the consumer market to digital and HDTV products will drive the rear projection market.

  12. High Performance Negative Dielectric Anisotropy Liquid Crystals for Display Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Song

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in the development of high birefringence (Δn ≥ 0.12 negative dielectric anisotropy (Δε < 0 liquid crystals (LCs for direct-view and projection displays. For mobile displays, our UCF-N2 (low viscosity, negative Δε, high Δn based homogeneous alignment fringe-field switching (called n-FFS mode exhibits superior performance to p-FFS in transmittance, single gamma curve, cell gap insensitivity, and negligible flexoelectric effect. For projection displays using a vertical alignment liquid-crystal-on-silicon (VA LCOS, our high birefringence UCF-N3 mixture enables a submillisecond gray-to-gray response time, which is essential for color sequential displays without noticeable color breakup. Our low viscosity UCF-N2 also enables multi-domain VA displays to use a thinner cell gap for achieving faster response time.

  13. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Angela; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    We show how one can determine the various properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information stored in optical fields carrying orbital angular momentum, by performing a modal decomposition. Although the modal decomposition of light has been known for a long time, applied mostly to pattern recognition, we illustrate how this technique can be implemented with the use of liquid-crystal displays. We show experimentally how liquid crystal displays can be used to infer the intensity, phase, wavefront, Poynting vector, and orbital angular momentum density of unknown optical fields. This measurement technique makes use of a single spatial light modulator (liquid crystal display), a Fourier transforming lens and detector (CCD or photo-diode). Such a diagnostic tool is extremely relevant to the real-time analysis of solid-state and fibre laser systems as well as mode division multiplexing as an emerging technology in optical communication.

  14. Supramolecular liquid crystal displays : construction and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogboom, Joannes Theodorus Valentinus

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes chemical methodologies, which can be ued to construct alignment layers for liquid crystal display purposes in a non-clean room environment, by making use of supramolecular chemistry. These techniques are subsequently used to attain control over LCD-properties, both pre- and pos

  15. Liquid Crystal Microlenses for Autostereoscopic Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Algorri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional vision has acquired great importance in the audiovisual industry in the past ten years. Despite this, the first generation of autostereoscopic displays failed to generate enough consumer excitement. Some reasons are little 3D content and performance issues. For this reason, an exponential increase in three-dimensional vision research has occurred in the last few years. In this review, a study of the historical impact of the most important technologies has been performed. This study is carried out in terms of research manuscripts per year. The results reveal that research on spatial multiplexing technique is increasing considerably and today is the most studied. For this reason, the state of the art of this technique is presented. The use of microlenses seems to be the most successful method to obtain autostereoscopic vision. When they are fabricated with liquid crystal materials, extended capabilities are produced. Among the numerous techniques for manufacturing liquid crystal microlenses, this review covers the most viable designs for its use in autostereoscopic displays. For this reason, some of the most important topologies and their relation with autostereoscopic displays are presented. Finally, the challenges in some recent applications, such as portable devices, and the future of three-dimensional displays based on liquid crystal microlenses are outlined.

  16. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an EVA information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display...

  17. OZ: An Innovative Primary Flight Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will develop OZ, an innovative primary flight display for aircraft. The OZ display, designed from "first principles" of vision science,...

  18. Ultraminiature, Micropower Multipurpose Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High information content electronic displays remain the most difficult element of the human-machine interface to effectively miniaturize. Mobile applications need a...

  19. Latest Developments In Liquid Crystal Television Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozumi, Shinji; Oguchi, Kouichi; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    1984-06-01

    This paper will discuss developments in liquid crystal (LC) television displays, mainly for pocket-size TV sets. There are two types of LC television displays. One is a simple multiplexing type, and the other is an active matrix type. The former type is an easier way to fabricate large and low-cost LC panels than the latter. However, it has serious drawbacks. The contrast gets lower as the duty ratio gets higher. Therefore the TV image of this type inevitably has rather low contrast and resolution. On the other hand, the active matrix type, which consists of active elements in each pixel, has several advantages in overcoming such problems. The metal oxide semiconductor transistors and the amorphous or polycrystalline Si thin-film transistors (TFTs) have possibilities in this application. A full-color LC display, which can be realized by the combina-tion of color filters and poly Si TFT arrays on a transparent substrate, was proven to have excellent color image, close to that of conventional CRTs. Here, several examples of LC television displays, including color, are shown. Some of them are already on the market, and others will be soon.

  20. LCD Projection Display System with High Brightness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new compact XGA projection is designed with three 0.99" liquid crystal panels. By using 275W UHP lamp, above 3000 ANSI lumens could be achieved with the uniformity of 85%. The color temperature is 6742K.

  1. Projection display technologies for the new millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Frederic J.

    2000-04-01

    Although analog CRTs continue to enable most of the world's electronic projection displays such as US consumer rear projection televisions, discrete pixel (digital) active matrix LCD and DLP reflective mirror array projectors have rapidly created large nonconsumer markets--primarily for business. Recent advances in image quality, compactness and cost effectiveness of digital projectors have the potential to revolutionize major consumer and entertainment markets as well. Digital penetration of the mainstream consumer projection TV market will begin in the hear 2000. By 2005 digital projection HDTVs could take the major share of the consumer HDTV projection market. Digital projection is expected to dominate both the consumer HDTV and the cinema market by 2010, resulting in potential shipments for all projection markets exceeding 10 M units per year. Digital projection is improving at a rate 10X faster than analog CRT projectors and 5X faster than PDP flat panels. Continued rapid improvement of digital projection is expected due to its relative immaturity and due to the wide diversity of technological improvements being pursued. Key technology enablers are the imaging panels, light sources and micro-optics. Market shares of single panel projectors, MEMs panels, LCOS panels and low T p-Si TFT LCD panel variants are expected to increase.

  2. Grating light modulator for projection display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiyong Sun; Shanglian Huang; Jie Zhang; Zhihai Zhang; Yong Zhu

    2009-01-01

    A novel grating light modulator for projection display is introduced. It consists of an upper moveable grat-ing, a bottom mirror, and four supporting posts between them. The moveable grating and the bottom mir-ror compose a phase grating whose phase difference is controlled by the actuating voltage. When the phase difference is 2kπ, the grating light modulator will switch the incident light to zero-order diffraction; when the phase difference is (2k - 1)π, the grating light modulator will diffract light to first-order diffraction. A 16 × 16 modulator array is fabricated by the surface micromachining technology. The device works well when it is actuated by a voltage with 1-kHz frequency and 10-V amplitude. The fabricated grating light modulator can show blackness and brightness when controlled by the voltage. This modulator has potential applications in projection display system.

  3. 30-view projection 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junejei; Wang, Yuchang

    2015-03-01

    A 30-view auto-stereoscopic display using angle-magnifying screen is proposed. Small incident angle of Lamp-scanning from exit pupil of projection lens is magnified into large field of view on the observing side. The lamp-scanning is realized by the vibration of Galvano-mirror that synchronizing with the frame rate of the DMD and reflecting the laser illuminator to the scanning angles. To achieve 15-view, a 3-chip DLP projector with frame rate of 720 Hz is used. For one cycle of vibration of Galvano-mirror, steps of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 10, 12, 14 are reflected on going-path and steps of 13, 11, 9, 7, 5, 3, 1 are reflected on returning path. A frame is divided into two half parts of odd lines and even lines for two views. For each view, 48 half frames per second are provided. A projection lens with aperture-relay module is used to double the lens aperture and separating the frame into two half parts of even and odd lines. After going through the Philips prism, three panels, the scanning 15 spots are doubled to 30 spots and emerge from the exit pupil of the projection lens. The exit 30 light spots from the projection lens are projected to 30 viewing zones by the anglemagnifying screen. A cabinet of rear projection with two folded mirrors is used because a projection lens of long throw distance is required.

  4. Liquid crystals beyond displays chemistry, physics, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan

    2012-01-01

    The chemistry, physics, and applications of liquid crystals beyond LCDs Liquid Crystals (LCs) combine order and mobility on a molecular and supramolecular level. But while these remarkable states of matter are most commonly associated with visual display technologies, they have important applications for a variety of other fields as well. Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications considers these, bringing together cutting-edge research from some of the most promising areas of LC science. Featuring contributions from respected researchers from around the globe, th

  5. Micropatterning with a liquid crystal display (LCD) projector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoga, Kazuyoshi; Kobayashi, Jun; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    Photolithography has been applied to biological applications such as cell and protein micropatterning and the fabrication of microfluidic channels. However, the preparation of photomasks for projecting micropattern lighting images is often time consuming and costly. Therefore, we have developed maskless photolithography devices by modifying the optics of commercially available liquid crystal display (LCD) projectors from extended to reduced projection. The developed second and third devices produce practically a centimeter-scale micropattern by dividing an original large mask pattern into several patterns, which are individually and synchronously exposed to substrates with a motorized XY-stage, applying them to cell micropatterning and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device production. The first part of this chapter describes the developments of the maskless photolithography devices. The second part describes the exposure control system with a motorized XY-stage. The third part describes the applications of devices to cell micropatterning. The last part describes the application of the devices to the fabrication of the PDMS microfluidic channel. Maskless photolithography with an LCD projector has a large advantage with no requirement for a photomask. In particular, the maskless photolithography devices show a greater power by optimizing the conditions of pattern size and shape.

  6. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N

    2014-01-01

    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap

  7. Super high precision 200 ppi liquid crystal display series; Chokoseido 200 ppi ekisho display series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In mobile equipment, in demand is a high precision liquid crystal display (LCD) having the power of expression equivalent to printed materials like magazines because of the necessity of displaying a large amount of information on a easily potable small screen. In addition, with the spread and high-quality image of digital still cameras, it is strongly desired to display photographed digital image data in high quality. Toshiba Corp., by low temperature polysilicone (p-Si) technology, commercialized the liquid crystal display series of 200 ppi (pixels per inch) precision dealing with the rise of the high-precision high-image quality LCD market. The super high precision of 200 ppi enables the display of smooth beautiful animation comparable to printed sheets of magazines and photographs. The display series are suitable for the display of various information services such as electronic books and electronic photo-viewers including internet. The screen sizes lined up are No. 4 type VGA (640x480 pixels) of a small pocket notebook size and No. 6.3 type XGA (1,024x768 pixels) of a paperback size, with a larger screen to be furthered. (translated by NEDO)

  8. Liquid crystal displays with high brightness of visualization versus active displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olifierczuk, Marek; Zieliński, Jerzy

    2007-05-01

    Nowadays Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) takes the very important place among different visualization devices. It's are used in many standard applications such as computer or video screens. In May 2006, 100" LCD TV monitor had been shown by LG. But beside of this main direction of display development, very interesting - because of insignificant electro-magnetic disturbances - is the possibility of it's applications in motorization and aviation. An example of it can be a glass cockpit of U2 , Boeing 777 or many different car dashboards. On this field beside LCD we have now many another display technologies, but interesting for us are 3 of them: FEDs (Field Emission Displays), OLEDs (Organic Light Emitting Diode), PLEDs (Polymer Light Emitting Diode). The leading position of LCD is a result of LCD unique advantages of flat form, weight, power consumption, and reliability, higher (than CRT) luminance, luminance uniformity, sunlight readability, wide dimming range, fault tolerance and a large active display area with a small border. The basis of starting our investigation was the comparison of passive LCD and the other technology, which can be theoretically used on motorization and aviation field. The following parameters are compared: contrast ratio, luminance level, temperature stability, life-time, operating temperature range, color performance, and depth, viewing cone, technology maturity, availability and cost. In our work an analysis of Liquid Crystal Displays used in specific applications is done. The possibilities of the applications such a display under high lighting level are presented. The presented results of this analysis are obtained from computer program worked by authors, which makes it possible to calculate the optical parameters of transmissive and reflective LCD working in quasi-real conditions. The base assumption of this program are shown. This program calculate the transmission and reflection coefficient of a display taking into account the

  9. Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for lightweight, space suit-mounted displays, Luminit proposes a novel Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display. Our proposed Holographic...

  10. Thermal modeling of laser-addressed liquid-crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K. E.; Nkansah, M. A.

    1990-06-01

    Optical-absorption calculations and finite-element methods are used to calculate time-dependent temperature profiles in two contrasting laser-addressed liquid-crystal displays. It is shown that the presence of conducting electrode layers has a significant effect on the temperature profiles both by affecting the optical-absorption characteristics of the cell and the resulting thermal conductivity. It is shown that efficient optical absorption does not necessarily result in the best cell-addressing performance.

  11. High Resolution Autostereoscopic Cockpit Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase II program Dimension Technologies Inc. (DTI) proposes to design and build an autostereoscopic (glasses-free 3D) LCD based aircraft cockpit display...

  12. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an extravehicular activity (EVA) information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to advance development of a new...

  13. Identifying Suitable Projection Parameters and Display Configurations for Mobile True-3D Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Marcos; Hildebrandt, Dale; Subramanian, Sriram; Irani, Pourang

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We present a two-part exploration on mobile true-3D displays, i.e. displaying volumetric 3D content in mid-air. We first identify and study the parameters of a mobile true-3D projection, in terms of the projection's distance to the phone, angle to the phone, display volume and position within the display. We identify suitable parameters and constraints, which we propose as requirements for developing mobile true-3D systems. We build on the first outcomes to explore met...

  14. Green backlighting for TV liquid crystal display using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepierre, Gabriel; Mahfouz, Rami; Cadete Santos Aires, Francisco J.; Dijon, Jean

    2010-08-01

    A methodology to evaluate the emission characteristics of carbon nanotube layers in the context of liquid crystal display backlighting has been elaborated. Carbon nanotube layers with emission characteristics compatible with backlighting have been demonstrated for growth temperature as low as 400 °C, thanks to the use of plasma pretreatment before growth. This very low growth temperature allows to use soda lime glass for the backlight unit and thus to expect very low cost and very low power consumption devices with this technology.

  15. Fast-response liquid crystal display by the VA-IPS display mode with nematic liquid crystal and polymer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tien-Jung; Lin, Guan-Jhong; Chen, Bo-Yu; Wu, Jin-Jei; Yang, Ying-Jay

    2012-10-01

    To improve electrooptical characteristics of the vertical aligned (VA) liquid crystal displays (LCDs), the monomer material and in-plane switching (IPS) field produced by interdigital electrodes are employed in LC cells. The fast switching response and well optical transmittance of the VA-IPS display mode are successfully achieved by mixing the nematic LC with polymer networks, attributed to the surface anchoring, and the molecular orientation of the LC cell will be further governed, especially under the greater applied voltage. Furthermore, the high concentration doping of the monomer can effectively improve the response behavior, but it also results in the transmittance sacrificed due to the light scattering, and the threshold voltage (Vth) increased.

  16. Digital Display Integration Project Project Online 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Bardsley, J N

    1999-01-01

    The electronic display industry is changing in three important ways. First, the dominance of the cathode ray tube (CRT) is being challenged by the development of flat panel displays (FPDs). This will lead to the availability of displays of higher performance, albeit at greater cost. Secondly, the analog interfaces between displays that show data and the computers that generate the data are being replaced by digital connections. Finally, a high-resolution display is becoming the most expensive component in computer system for homes and small offices. It is therefore desirable that the useful lifetime of the display extend over several years and that the electronics allows the display to be used with many different image sources. Hopefully, the necessity of having three or four large CRTs in one office to accommodate different computer operating systems or communication protocols will soon disappear. Instead, we hope to see a set of flat panels that can be switched to show several independent images from multip...

  17. Recovery of valuable materials from waste liquid crystal display panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Gao, Song; Duan, Huabo; Liu, Lili

    2009-07-01

    Associated with the rapid development of the information and electronic industry, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been increasingly sold as displays. However, during the discarding at their end-of-life stage, significant environmental hazards, impacts on health and a loss of resources may occur, if the scraps are not managed in an appropriate way. In order to improve the efficiency of the recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs panel in an environmentally sound manner, this study presents a combined recycling technology process on the basis of manual dismantling and chemical treatment of LCDs. Three key processes of this technology have been studied, including the separation of LCD polarizing film by thermal shock method the removal of liquid crystals between the glass substrates by the ultrasonic cleaning, and the recovery of indium metal from glass by dissolution. The results show that valuable materials (e.g. indium) and harmful substances (e.g. liquid crystals) could be efficiently recovered or separated through above-mentioned combined technology. The optimal conditions are: (1) the peak temperature of thermal shock to separate polarizing film, ranges from 230 to 240 degrees C, where pyrolysis could be avoided; (2) the ultrasonic-assisted cleaning was most efficient at a frequency of 40 KHz (P = 40 W) and the exposure of the substrate to industrial detergents for 10 min; and (3) indium separation from glass in a mix of concentrated hydrochloric acid at 38% and nitric acid at 69% (HCl:HNO(3):H(2)O = 45:5:50, volume ratio). The indium separation process was conducted with an exposure time of 30 min at a constant temperature of 60 degrees C.

  18. Vacuum pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic analysis of liquid crystal from scrap liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya; Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-04-05

    Recycling of waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels is an urgent task with the rapid expanding LCD market. However, as important composition of LCD panels, the treatment of liquid crystal is seldom concerned for its low concentration. In present study, a stripping product enriched liquid crystal and indium is gained by mechanical stripping process, in which liquid crystal is enriched from 0.3wt.% to 53wt.% and indium is enriched from 0.02wt.% to 7.95wt.%. For the stripping product, liquid crystal should be removed before indium recovery because (a) liquid crystal will hinder indium recycling; (b) liquid crystal is hazardous waste. Hence, an effective and green approach by vacuum pyrolysis is proposed to treat liquid crystal in the stripping product. The results are summarized as: (i) From the perspective of apparent activation energy, the advantages of vacuum pyrolysis is expounded according to kinetic analysis. (ii) 89.10wt.% of liquid crystal is converted and the content of indium in residue reaches 14.18wt.% under 773K, 15min and system pressure of 20Pa. This study provides reliable information for further industrial application and an essential pretreatment for the next step of indium recycling.

  19. An Adaptive Algorithm of Local dimming for Liquid Crystal Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxia Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The local dimming backlight technique enables liquid crystal display to present images with high contrast ratio and low power consumption. Considering that it is more important to make sure a high quality of the displayed image when reducing the power consumption, therefore, in this paper the new algorithm chooses RPSNR (the peak signal-to-noise ratio =30 as the lowest standard to guarantee the quality of image. RPSNR =30 could provide a value that the maximum distortion of the image can be accepted, then, we substitute the maximum gray level of each region into the formula to judge whether satisfy the flow chart. If the value do not meet the condition, we decrease it one by one until find the right value. Finally, we take the luminance of the right value as backlight luminance.   Meanwhile, a method is also proposed in this paper to simplify the calculation time. Successive searches will be made on the basis of the n (ranging from 0.1 to 1 times of the maximum luminance, and stop when RPSNR>=30. However, in order to guarantee the quality of the image, the 0.7 times of the maximum luminance is used as the minimum backlight luminance. In the end, we only choose 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 times of the maximum luminance as backlight luminance.

  20. Autostereoscopic 3D projection display based on two lenticular sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Qi; Qionghua Wang; Jiangyong Luo; Aihong Wang; Dong Liang

    2012-01-01

    We propose an autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) projection display.The display consists of four projectors,a projection screen,and two lenticular sheets.The operation principle and calculation equations are described in detail and the parallax images are corrected by means of homography.A 50-inch autostereoscopic 3D projection display prototype is developed.The normalized luminance distributions of viewing zones from the simulation and the measurement are given.Results agree well with the designed values.The proposed prototype presents full-resolution 3D images similar to the conventional prototype based on two parallax barriers.Moreover,the proposed prototype shows considerably higher brightness and efficiency of light utilization.

  1. Study on Birefringent Color Generation for a Reflective Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyukh, Sergiy; Valyukh, Iryna; Xu, Peizhi; Chigrinov, Vladimir

    2006-10-01

    We study the possibility of a layer of a surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal coupled with several retardation plates for birefringent color generation. Double and single polarizer reflective bistable dichromatic ferroelectric liquid crystal displays are considered. We demonstrate that one or two retardation plates are sufficient for a display having good color characteristics and high brightness. Optimal parameters for green/red and blue/yellow ferroelectric liquid crystal displays are found.

  2. Projection displays and MEMS: timely convergence for a bright future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbeck, Larry J.

    1995-09-01

    Projection displays and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have evolved independently, occasionally crossing paths as early as the 1950s. But the commercially viable use of MEMS for projection displays has been illusive until the recent invention of Texas Instruments Digital Light Processing TM (DLP) technology. DLP technology is based on the Digital Micromirror DeviceTM (DMD) microchip, a MEMS technology that is a semiconductor digital light switch that precisely controls a light source for projection display and hardcopy applications. DLP technology provides a unique business opportunity because of the timely convergence of market needs and technology advances. The world is rapidly moving to an all- digital communications and entertainment infrastructure. In the near future, most of the technologies necessary for this infrastrucutre will be available at the right performance and price levels. This will make commercially viable an all-digital chain (capture, compression, transmission, reception decompression, hearing, and viewing). Unfortunately, the digital images received today must be translated into analog signals for viewing on today's televisions. Digital video is the final link in the all-digital infrastructure and DLP technoogy provides that link. DLP technology is an enabler for digital, high-resolution, color projection displays that have high contrast, are bright, seamless, and have the accuracy of color and grayscale that can be achieved only by digital control. This paper contains an introduction to DMD and DLP technology, including the historical context from which to view their developemnt. The architecture, projection operation, and fabrication are presented. Finally, the paper includes an update about current DMD business opportunities in projection displays and hardcopy.

  3. Low voltage transflective blue-phase liquid crystal display with a non-uniform etching substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Mao, Jiang-Lin; Fan, Hao-Xiang; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-09-01

    A transflective polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal display (BP-LCD) with a non-uniform etching substrate is proposed. In-plane switching (IPS) electrodes on the bottom substrate are put on the different gaps, and the bottom substrate between the electrodes is etched into different depths in transmissive (T) and reflective (R) regions. This structure can balance the optical phase retardation in the two regions and is helpful to achieve well-matched voltag-dependent transmittance and reflectance curves. This transflective display has high optical efficiency, a wide viewing angle, and low operating voltage (approximately 6 V). Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61535007 and 61320106015) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB328802).

  4. Displaying perfusion MRI images as color intensity projections

    CERN Document Server

    Hoefnagels, Friso; Sanchez, Ester; Lagerwaard, Frank J

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI or perfusion-MRI plays an important role in the non-invasive assessment of tumor vascularity. However, the large number of images provided by the method makes display and interpretation of the results challenging. Current practice is to display the perfusion information as relative cerebral blood volume maps (rCBV). Color intensity projections (CIPs) provides a simple, intuitive display of the perfusion-MRI data so that regional perfusion characteristics are intrinsically integrated into the anatomy structure the T2 images. The ease of use and quick calculation time of CIPs should allow it to be easily integrated into current analysis and interpretation pipelines.

  5. Head-mounted projective displays for creating distributed collaborative environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Jannick P.; Davis, Larry; Ha, Yonggang; Hamza-Lup, Felix G.; Del Vento, Benjamin; Gao, Chunyu; Hua, Hong; Biocca, Frank

    2002-08-01

    In this paper, we shall present an overview of research in augmented reality technology and applications conducted in collaboration with the 3DVIS Lab and the MIND Lab. We present research in the technology of head-mounted projective displays and tracking probes. We then review mathematical methods developed for augmented reality. Finally we discuss applications in medical augmented reality and point to current developments in distributed 3d collaborative environments.

  6. Volumetric 3D display using a DLP projection engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2012-03-01

    In this article, we describe a volumetric 3D display system based on the high speed DLPTM (Digital Light Processing) projection engine. Existing two-dimensional (2D) flat screen displays often lead to ambiguity and confusion in high-dimensional data/graphics presentation due to lack of true depth cues. Even with the help of powerful 3D rendering software, three-dimensional (3D) objects displayed on a 2D flat screen may still fail to provide spatial relationship or depth information correctly and effectively. Essentially, 2D displays have to rely upon capability of human brain to piece together a 3D representation from 2D images. Despite the impressive mental capability of human visual system, its visual perception is not reliable if certain depth cues are missing. In contrast, volumetric 3D display technologies to be discussed in this article are capable of displaying 3D volumetric images in true 3D space. Each "voxel" on a 3D image (analogous to a pixel in 2D image) locates physically at the spatial position where it is supposed to be, and emits light from that position toward omni-directions to form a real 3D image in 3D space. Such a volumetric 3D display provides both physiological depth cues and psychological depth cues to human visual system to truthfully perceive 3D objects. It yields a realistic spatial representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them.

  7. An electrochemical study of a liquid crystal used in information displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, D. M.; Kern, J. B.; Robertson, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    The operational lifetime of liquid crystal displays were investigated. Electrochemical reaction at the electrodes of the display can cause failure after 2000 to 3000 hours of operation. Studies using cyclic voltametry of electrochemical reactions of N (p-methoxybenzilidene p-butylaniline (MBBA), a nematic liquid crystal were made. These studies indicate the presence of a reversible reduction of MBBA at the cathode, and that the reduction product undergoes a further reaction leading to products which are not reversibly oxidized. It is concluded that the degradation of the liquid crystal in displays can be reduced with a suitable frequency of alternating voltage.

  8. Multi-view autostereoscopic projection display using rotating screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldes, Osman; Akşit, Kaan; Urey, Hakan

    2013-11-18

    A new technique for multi-view autostereoscopic projection display is proposed, and demonstrated. The technique uses two mobile projectors, a rotating retro-reflective diffuser screen, and a head-tracking camera. As two dynamic viewing slits are created at the viewer's position, the slits can track the position of the eyes by rotating the screen. The display allows a viewer to move approximately 700 mm along the horizontal axis, and 500 mm along the vertical axis with an average crosstalk below 5 %. Two screen prototypes with different diffusers have been tried, and they provide luminance levels of 60 Cd/m2, and 160 Cd/m2 within the viewing field.

  9. Controllable liquid crystal gratings for an adaptive 2D/3D auto-stereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. A.; Jin, T.; He, L. C.; Chu, Z. H.; Guo, T. L.; Zhou, X. T.; Lin, Z. X.

    2017-02-01

    2D/3D switchable, viewpoint controllable and 2D/3D localizable auto-stereoscopic displays based on controllable liquid crystal gratings are proposed in this work. Using the dual-layer staggered structure on the top substrate and bottom substrate as driven electrodes within a liquid crystal cell, the ratio between transmitting region and shielding region can be selectively controlled by the corresponding driving circuit, which indicates that 2D/3D switch and 3D video sources with different disparity images can reveal in the same auto-stereoscopic display system. Furthermore, the controlled region in the liquid crystal gratings presents 3D model while other regions maintain 2D model in the same auto-stereoscopic display by the corresponding driving circuit. This work demonstrates that the controllable liquid crystal gratings have potential applications in the field of auto-stereoscopic display.

  10. 77 FR 3793 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and Components Thereof; Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission...

  11. 77 FR 5055 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Determination Not To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Determination Not To Review Initial Determination Granting Joint Motion To Terminate Based on Settlement Agreement...

  12. 77 FR 45375 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Terminating the Investigation as...

  13. Ocular vergence measurement in projected and collimated simulator displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morahan, P; Meehan, J W; Patterson, J; Hughes, P K

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate electrooculography (EOG) as a measurement of ocular vergence in both collimated and projected simulator environments. The task required participants to shift their gaze between a central fixation point and a target appearing at one of three eccentricities. EOG was effective in recording ocular vergence. The EOG results were similar between collimated and projected displays, except for differences in vergence changes during lateral movement of the eyes, and ocular excursions downward elicited a greater EOG response than the reverse upward movement. The computer-based technique of recording vergence was found to produce measurable traces from a majority of participants. The technique has potential for further development as a tool for measuring ocular vergence in virtual environments where methods that require the wearing of head-mounted apparatus to track ocular structures (e.g., the pupil), which cannot be worn at the same time as a flight or flight-simulator helmet, are unsuitable.

  14. Modeling the Color Image and Video Quality on Liquid Crystal Displays with Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Objective image and video quality metrics focus mostly on the digital representation of the signal. However, the display characteristics are also essential for the overall Quality of Experience (QoE). In this paper, we use a model of a backlight dimming system for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD...

  15. Single-substrate liquid-crystal displays by photo-enforced stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penterman, Roel; Klink, Stephen I.; de Koning, Henk; Nisato, Giovanni; Broer, Dirk J.

    2002-05-01

    Data visualization plays a crucial role in our society, as illustrated by the many displays that surround us. In the future, displays may become even more pervasive, ranging from individually addressable image-rendering wall hangings to data displays integrated in clothes. Liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) provide most of the flat-panel displays currently used. To keep pace with the ever-increasing possibilities afforded by developments in information technology, we need to develop manufacturing processes that will make LCDs cheaper and larger, with more freedom in design. Existing batch processes for making and filling LCD cells are relatively expensive, with size and shape limitations. Here we report a cost-effective, single-substrate technique in which a coated film is transformed into a polymer-covered liquid-crystal layer. This approach is based on photo-enforced stratification: a two-step photopolymerization-induced phase separation of a liquid-crystal blend and a polymer precursor. The process leads to the formation of micrometre-sized containers filled with a switchable liquid-crystal phase. In this way, displays can be produced on a variety of substrates using current coating technology. The developed process may be an important step towards new technologies such as `display-on-anything' and `paintable displays'.

  16. Polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal for flexible displays using plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Murashige, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroto; Iino, Yoshiki; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Kawakita, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Yuzuru

    2001-12-01

    We have developed a ferroelectric liquid crystal device with a novel structure containing a polymer fiber network for flexible lightweight displays using thin plastic substrates. The aligned polymer fibers of sub-micrometers -diameter were formed under ultraviolet light irradiation in a heated nematic- phase solution consisting of liquid crystal and monofunctional acrylate monomer. The rigid polymer network was found to adhere to the two plastic substrates, and the uniform liquid crystal alignment provided a contrast ratio of 100:1 for a monomer concentration of 20 wt%. This device achieves a continuous grayscale capability as a result of change in the spatial distribution of small liquid crystal domains, and also exhibits a fast response time of 80 microsecond(s) due to high-purity separation of polymer and liquid crystal materials. It therefore has attractive features for flexible moving-image display applications.

  17. Charge retention of twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, K. H.

    1990-01-01

    A simulated thin-film transistor (TFT) circuit has been built to drive the twisted nematic (TN) cell for the measurements of charge retention and the transmission versus peak voltage applied to the drain electrode of the simulated TFT using the gate pulse width as a parameter. The established rule that the transmission of the TN cell depends only on the rms voltage applied to the cell has been confirmed by calculating the rms voltage of the charge retention curves in correlation with the measured transmissions. The deviation of the decaying charge retention curves from the exponential behavior has been observed and can be qualitatively explained by a combination of the dielectric and transport properties of nematic liquid-crystal medium.

  18. Liquid crystal cell design of VGA field sequential color LCoS display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Geng, Weidong; Dai, Yongping

    2009-07-01

    The design of liquid crystal cell is an important factor to determine the display quality of LCoS display device. The goal of this paper is to gain VGA field sequential color (FSC) LCoS device used for near-to-eye system. The characteristics of optics and electrooptics for the twist nematic liquid crystal material and the material requirements of the FSC LCoS were studied. The LCOS liquid crystal cell optimized by dynamic parameter space method had an uniform reflectivity (about 90%) for the light with wave length from 450nm to 650nm. Both considering the electrooptic response curve of liquid crystal and the relationship between the contrast ratio and pixel size, we determined to use high speed twist nematic liquid crystal working in normally white mode. The liquid crystal cell gap and the pixel size were determined as 2.5um and 12um, respectively. The VGA FSC LCoS device was fabricated with SMIC 0.35um CMOS process and filled with LC-A liquid crystal of Merck in Varitronix. The measurement showed that the response time of liquid crystal from light to dark was 1.8ms and from dark to light was 4.4ms. The contrast ratio is bigger than 50:1. The LCoS displays well.

  19. Time-multiplexed three-dimensional displays based on directional backlights with fast-switching liquid-crystal displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Ko-Wei; Shieh, Han-Ping D

    2006-05-01

    An autostereoscopic display using a directional backlight with a fast-switching liquid-crystal (LC) display was designed and fabricated to obtain a better perception of 3D images by enhanced resolution and brightness. A grooved light guide in combination with an asymmetric focusing foil was utilized to redirect the emitting cones of light to the left and right eyes, respectively. By designing the groove structures of the focusing foil with rotation from -1.5 degrees to 1.5 degrees in the gradient and having the pitch ratio of the grooved light guide to the focusing foil of less than 3, the boundary angle then shifts from normal viewing and the moiré phenomenon can be suppressed. Cross talk of less than 6% and a LC response time of faster than 7.1 ms further improve the stereoscopic image perception. Additionally, 2D-3D compatibility is provided.

  20. A NEW METHOD TO ALIGN LIQUID CRYSTAL MOLECULES BY LINEAR PHOTO-POLYMERIZATION FOR LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG ZHAO-YAN; FANG KUN; XUAN LI; HUANG XI-MIN; DING BAO-QUAN; LU RAN; ZHAO YING-YING

    2000-01-01

    A new technique to uniformly align liquid crystal molecules is presented.The technique is based on producing an anisotropic surface on the glass substrate coated with photo-polymers by photo-polymerization of linear polarized UVlight.The orientation of liquid crystal molecules is governed by the direction of the polarized vector of UV-light.Using this method,we have studied the photo-polymer PSi-CM aligning LC 6710A molecules.The liquid crystal microscopic texture between crossed polarizers,optical retardation from liquid crystal layers and electro-optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal display cell are obtained,which was prepared with one side -photo-alignment and the other siderebbed substrate.

  1. Electro-holography display using computer generated hologram of 3D objects based on projection spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sujuan; Wang, Duocheng; He, Chao

    2012-11-01

    A new method of synthesizing computer-generated hologram of three-dimensional (3D) objects is proposed from their projection images. A series of projection images of 3D objects are recorded with one-dimensional azimuth scanning. According to the principles of paraboloid of revolution in 3D Fourier space and 3D central slice theorem, spectra information of 3D objects can be gathered from their projection images. Considering quantization error of horizontal and vertical directions, the spectrum information from each projection image is efficiently extracted in double circle and four circles shape, to enhance the utilization of projection spectra. Then spectra information of 3D objects from all projection images is encoded into computer-generated hologram based on Fourier transform using conjugate-symmetric extension. The hologram includes 3D information of objects. Experimental results for numerical reconstruction of the CGH at different distance validate the proposed methods and show its good performance. Electro-holographic reconstruction can be realized by using an electronic addressing reflective liquid-crystal display (LCD) spatial light modulator. The CGH from the computer is loaded onto the LCD. By illuminating a reference light from a laser source to the LCD, the amplitude and phase information included in the CGH will be reconstructed due to the diffraction of the light modulated by the LCD.

  2. Reduction of image blurring in an autostereoscopic multilayer liquid crystal display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hironobu

    2011-03-01

    A multilayer liquid crystal display (LCD) is a display device constructed by stacking multiple liquid crystal layers on top of a light source. As shown in a previous study, a multilayer LCD can deliver varying images depending on the viewers'eye positions, and can be used for auto-stereoscopic 3D viewing. However, undesirable blurring is sometimes observed in the images that a viewer receives from the display. Such blurring is notable especially around objects in the scene that are far away from the viewer. To address this problem, we propose to put a convex lens in front of the layers of liquid crystal. The lens refracts the beams of light, thus bringing the effects of moving the objects to nearer positions. Through a simulation-based study, we show that an optimal choice exists for the focal length of the lens, which reduces the local image blurring while not compromising the overall image quality.

  3. Liquid crystal panel for high efficiency barrier type autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Huan; Huang, Yi-Pai; Chuang, Shang-Chih; Wu, Chi-Lin; Shieh, Han-Ping D; Mphepö, Wallen; Hsieh, Chiu-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Chia

    2009-06-20

    An autostereoscopic display with parallax barrier attached onto a liquid crystal panel suffers from the trade-off between brightness and crosstalk. One approach for making improvement by modifying the layout of light blocking components, such as thin film transistor, storage capacitor, and protrusion, in the liquid crystal pixel has been proposed. Ray tracing simulation shows that the aperture of the slanted barrier can be significantly increased, hence increasing efficiency, while keeping the same crosstalk level if those light blocking components can be shifted to the corner of the pixel. A six-view 2.83 in. (7.19 cm) prototype has shown improvement on both brightness and crosstalk compared to its counterpart using a traditional liquid crystal panel, which demonstrates an effective approach for a high-efficiency barrier-type autostereoscopic 3D display with a liquid crystal panel.

  4. Phase separation of monomer in liquid crystal mixtures and surface morphology in polymer-stabilized vertical alignment liquid crystal displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jae Jin; Lee, Jun Hyup; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon [Development Center, LCD Business, SAMSUNG Electronics Co. LTD., Tangjeong-Myeon, Asan, Chungnam 336-741 (Korea, Republic of); Kikuchi, Hirotsuku; Higuchi, Hiroki [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Kim, Dae Hyun; Lee, Seung Hee, E-mail: jsquare.lyu@samsung.com, E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of BIN Fusion Technology and Department of Polymer-Nano Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-17

    The polymer-stabilized vertically aligned (PS-VA) liquid crystal display (LCD) driving mode has high potential for manufacturing low power consuming displays due to the higher transmittance and fast response as compared with the existing patterned vertically aligned and multi-domain vertically aligned modes. In this paper we have investigated the reaction mechanisms of monomer-liquid crystal blends to form a surface pre-tilt angle of liquid crystal in vertical alignment LCD associated with a fishbone electrode structure. The observed sizes of polymer bumps formed on the substrates were found to be dependent on the exposed UV wavelength and were almost equal in both top and bottom substrates. When a large UV wavelength was used, the phase separation mechanism of monomer in PS-VA mode was found nearly isotropic rather than anisotropic in contrast to the previous studies.

  5. Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Yong-Ho; Wang, Renjie; Woo, Steffi Y; Djavid, Mehrdad; Sadaf, Sharif Md; Lee, Jaesoong; Botton, Gianluigi A; Mi, Zetian

    2016-07-13

    Multicolor single InGaN/GaN dot-in-nanowire light emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated on the same substrate using selective area epitaxy. It is observed that the structural and optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum dots depend critically on nanowire diameters. Photoluminescence emission of single InGaN/GaN dot-in-nanowire structures exhibits a consistent blueshift with increasing nanowire diameter. This is explained by the significantly enhanced indium (In) incorporation for nanowires with small diameters, due to the more dominant contribution for In incorporation from the lateral diffusion of In adatoms. Single InGaN/GaN nanowire LEDs with emission wavelengths across nearly the entire visible spectral were demonstrated on a single chip by varying the nanowire diameters. Such nanowire LEDs also exhibit superior electrical performance, with a turn-on voltage ∼2 V and negligible leakage current under reverse bias. The monolithic integration of full-color LEDs on a single chip, coupled with the capacity to tune light emission characteristics at the single nanowire level, provides an unprecedented approach to realize ultrasmall and efficient projection display, smart lighting, and on-chip spectrometer.

  6. Large-screen display industry: market and technology trends for direct view and projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Joseph A.; Mentley, David E.

    1996-03-01

    Large screen information displays are defined as dynamic electronic displays that can be viewed by more than one person and are at least 2-feet wide. These large area displays for public viewing provide convenience, entertainment, security, and efficiency to the viewers. There are numerous uses for large screen information displays including those in advertising, transportation, traffic control, conference room presentations, computer aided design, banking, and military command/control. A noticeable characteristic of the large screen display market is the interchangeability of display types. For any given application, the user can usually choose from at least three alternative technologies, and sometimes from many more. Some display types have features that make them suitable for specific applications due to temperature, brightness, power consumption, or other such characteristic. The overall worldwide unit consumption of large screen information displays of all types and for all applications (excluding consumer TV) will increase from 401,109 units in 1995 to 655,797 units in 2002. On a unit consumption basis, applications in business and education represent the largest share of unit consumption over this time period; in 1995, this application represented 69.7% of the total. The market (value of shipments) will grow from DOL3.1 billion in 1995 to DOL3.9 billion in 2002. The market will be dominated by front LCD projectors and LCD overhead projector plates.

  7. Fast-response liquid-crystal lens for 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifan; Ren, Hongwen; Xu, Su; Li, Yan; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2014-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) display has become an increasingly important technology trend for information display applications. Dozens of different 3D display solutions have been proposed. The autostereoscopic 3D display based on lenticular microlens array is a promising approach, and fast-switching microlens array enables this system to display both 3D and conventional 2D images. Here we report two different fast-response microlens array designs. The first one is a blue phase liquid crystal lens driven by the Pedot: PSS resistive film electrodes. This BPLC lens exhibits several attractive features, such as polarization insensitivity, fast response time, simple driving scheme, and relatively low driving voltage, as compared to other BPLC lens designs. The second lens design has a double-layered structure. The first layer is a polarization dependent polymer microlens array, and the second layer is a thin twisted-nematic (TN) liquid crystal cell. When the TN cell is switched on/off, the traversing light through the polymeric lens array is either focused or defocused, so that 2D/3D images are displayed correspondingly. This lens design has low driving voltage, fast response time, and simple driving scheme. Simulation and experiment demonstrate that the performance of both switchable lenses meet the requirement of 3D display system design.

  8. Bistable light shutter using dye-doped liquid crystals for a see-through display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jae-Won; Heo, Joon; Yu, Byeong-Huh; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2016-03-01

    See-through displays have got high attention as one of the next generation display devices. Especially, see-through displays that use organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been actively studied. However, a see-through display using OLEDs cannot provide black color because of their see-through area. Although a see-through display using LCDs can provide black color with crossed polarizers, it cannot block the background. This inevitable problem can be solved by placing a light shutter at the back of a see-through display. To maintain the transparent or opaque state, an electric field must be applied to a light shutter. To achieve low power consumption, a bistable light shutter using polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) has been proposed. It is switchable between the translucent and transparent states only. Therefore, it cannot provide black color. Moreover, it cannot block the background perfectly because of poor performance in the translucent state. In this work we will introduce a bistable light shutter using dye-doped CLCs. To improve the electro-optic characteristics in the opaque state, we employed a crossed electrode structure instead of a parallel one. We will demonstrate that the light shutter can exhibit stable bistable operation between the transparent homeotropic and opaque focal-conic states thanks to polymer stabilization.

  9. Fourier series analysis of fractal lenses: theory and experiments with a liquid-crystal display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey A; Sigarlaki, Sean P; Craven, Julia M; Calvo, María Luisa

    2006-02-20

    We report on a Fourier series approach that predicts the focal points and intensities produced by fractal zone plate lenses. This approach allows us to separate the effects of the fractal order from those of the lens aperture. We implement these fractal lenses onto a liquid-crystal display and show experimental verification of our theory.

  10. Searching for the preferred backlight intensity in liquid crystal displays with local backlight dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Local backlight dimming is one of the most promising techniques for reducing power consumption and improving contrast characteristics of liquid crystal displays (LCD). In practice, due to light diffusion and a smaller number of backlight sources than pixels, local backlight dimming must often trade...

  11. The development of self-assembled liquid crystal display alignment layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogboom, J.; Elemans, J.A.A.W.; Rowan, A.E.; Rasing, T.H.M.; Nolte, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    From simple pocket calculators to mobile telephones and liquid crystal display (LCD)-TV, over the past few decades, devices based on LCD technology have proliferated and can now be found in all conceivable aspects of everyday life. Although used in cutting-edge technology, it is surprising that a vi

  12. 77 FR 37067 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 119 (Wednesday, June 20, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 37067-37068] [FR Doc No: 2012-15005] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-741/749] Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components Thereof; Final...

  13. Technical and radiological image quality comparison of different liquid crystal displays for radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dams FE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francina EM Dams,2 KY Esther Leung,1 Pieter HM van der Valk,2 Marc CJM Kock,2 Jeroen Bosman,1 Sjoerd P Niehof1 1Medical Physics and Technology, 2Department of Radiology, Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Dordrecht, The Netherlands Background: To inform cost-effective decisions in purchasing new medical liquid crystal displays, we compared the image quality in displays made by three manufacturers. Methods: We recruited 19 radiologists and residents to compare the image quality of four liquid crystal displays, including 3-megapixel Barco®, Eizo®, and NEC® displays and a 6-megapixel Barco display. The evaluators were blinded to the manufacturers' names. Technical assessments were based on acceptance criteria and test patterns proposed by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Radiological assessments were performed on images from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 18. They included X-ray images of the thorax, knee, and breast, a computed tomographic image of the thorax, and a magnetic resonance image of the brain. Image quality was scored on an analog scale (range 0–10. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: The Barco 3-megapixel display passed all acceptance criteria. The Eizo and NEC displays passed the acceptance criteria, except for the darkest pixel value in the grayscale display function. The Barco 6-megapixel display failed criteria for the maximum luminance response and the veiling glare. Mean radiological assessment scores were 7.8±1.1 (Barco 3-megapixel, 7.8±1.2 (Eizo, 8.1±1.0 (NEC, and 8.1±1.0 (Barco 6-megapixel. No significant differences were found between displays. Conclusion: According to the tested criteria, all the displays had comparable image quality; however, there was a three-fold difference in price between the most and least expensive displays. Keywords: data display, humans, radiographic image enhancement, user-computer interface

  14. Fundamental display properties of flexible devices containing polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal between plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Murashige, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroto; Iino, Yoshiki; Kawakita, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Hiroshi

    2002-09-01

    We describe several fundamental display properties of a flexible ferroelectric liquid crystal device containing polymer fibers between thin plastic substrates. The composite film of liquid crystal and polymer was created from a solution of liquid crystal and monomer materials between the plastic substrates under ultraviolet light irradiation. The dynamic electrooptic response to analog voltage pulses was examined with an incidence of laser beam light, and its light modulation property exhibited good linearity in continuous gray-scale capability. The excellent spatial uniformity of liquid crystal alignment formed between the flexible substrates resulted in high-contrast light modulation, although slight spontaneous bending of liquid crystal alignment in the device plane was recognized. When the laser light beam was obliquely incident on the flexible display device, the measured transmittance revealed that the device has a wide viewing angle of more than 100 deg without contrast reversal. This is considered to be caused by the molecular switching in the device plane and the thin electrooptic layer in the display device.

  15. A Polarizer-free Liquid Crystal Display Using Dye-doped Liquid Crystal Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Yang, Jhih-Ming; Lin, Hung-Chun; Wu, Jing-Nuo

    2009-01-01

    In conclusion, we have introduced and demonstrated polarizer-free LCDs using dye-doped LC gels. These polarizer-free dye-doped LC gels exhibit high reflectance, high contrast ratio, wide viewing angle, and fast response time. Especially the low temperature process is favorable for flexible displays. The gel-like materials assist stabilizing the flexible display under trimming. Our dye-doped LC gels provide a stable LC mode and open a new window in paper-like flexible displays. A polarizer-fre...

  16. Introduction to grayscale calibration and related aspects of medical imaging grade liquid crystal displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterly, Kenneth A; Blume, Hartwig R; Flynn, Michael J; Samei, Ehsan

    2008-06-01

    Consistent presentation of digital radiographic images at all locations within a medical center can help ensure a high level of patient care. Currently, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are the electronic display technology of choice for viewing medical images. As the inherent luminance (and thereby perceived contrast) properties of different LCDs can vary substantially, calibration of the luminance response of these displays is required to ensure that observer perception of an image is consistent on all displays. The digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) grayscale standard display function (GSDF) defines the luminance response of a display such that an observer's perception of image contrast is consistent throughout the pixel value range of a displayed image. The main purpose of this work is to review the theoretical and practical aspects of calibration of LCDs to the GSDF. Included herein is a review of LCD technology, principles of calibration, and other practical aspects related to calibration and observer perception of images presented on LCDs. Both grayscale and color displays are considered, and the influence of ambient light on calibration and perception is discussed.

  17. Conformal Light Augmented Single Substrate Head-Mounted Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) need for space suit displays and processing cores, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to...

  18. Earth Virtual-Environment Immersive Scene Display System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to the NASA need for a free-standing immersive virtual scene display system interfaced with an exercise treadmill to mimic terrestrial exercise...

  19. Interactive Rendering For Projection-Based Augmented Reality Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Bimber, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    The rapid advances in computing and communications are dramatically changing all aspects of our lives. In particular, sophisticated 3D visualization, display, and interaction technologies are being used to complement our familiar physical world with computer-generated augmentations. These new interaction and display techniques are expected to make our work, learning, and leisure environments vastly more efficient and appealing. Within different application areas, variants of these technologie...

  20. Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display with slanted wall-shaped electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhou; Qionghua Wang; Di Wu; Jianpeng Cui

    2012-01-01

    A polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display (BPLCD) with slanted wall-shaped electrodes is proposed. Compared with the traditional BPLCD with wall-shaped electrodes, the electrodes of the proposed BPLCD are slightly angled to obtain phase retardation in the entire cell even at the position of electrodes. The proposed BPLCD demonstrates a relatively higher average transmittance and overall brightness than the traditional BPLCD.%A polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display (BPLCD) with slanted wall-shaped electrodes is proposed.Compared with the traditional BPLCD with wall-shaped electrodes,the electrodes of the proposed BPLCD are slightly angled to obtain phase retardation in the entire cell even at the position of electrodes.The proposed BPLCD demonstrates a relatively higher average transmittance and overall brightness than the traditional BPLCD.Owing to the continuous improvement in image quality of liquid crystal displays (LCDs),they have been widely employed in desktop monitors,TVs,and mobile displays at present[1-5].With the development of LCDs the polymer-stabilized blue phase LCDs (BPLCDs)[6-11]can replace the conventional LCDs and become the nextgeneration display technology.The polymer-stabilized BPLCDs have numerous attractive features,such as submillisecond gray-to-gray response time,alignmentlayer-free process optically isotropic dark state and cell gap insensitivity[12-14].Because of these advantages,the fabrication processes of the BPLCDs are simplified,motion-image blurs are reduced,and color-sequential displays using RGB LEDs are enabled.

  1. Implementation and analysis of an autostereoscopic display using multiple liquid crystal layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hironobu

    2012-03-01

    Multilayer displays are constructed by stacking multiple liquid crystal panels along with a pair of polarizers and a light source. Previous theoretical analyses have shown that such a display could exhibit the light field of a 3D scene if the panels in the display are properly controlled. In this study, we present an implementation of a monochromatic multilayer display using IPS-LCD panels, and report that a reasonable approximation of the light field is actually observed from the display. A major obstacle to constructing a multilayer display is the complexity of optical properties of LCD panels. Since an accurate analytic representation of panels' behavior is difficult to obtain, we have developed an approximate model specific to IPS-LCD cells, using which our implementation is built. We then evaluate the quality of the light field observed from the prototype implementation by examining the images photographed at several camera positions. The results show geometrically correct views are observable from the display within the viewing angle of 30 degrees.

  2. Liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) devices and their application to scene projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Teresa; Buck, Joseph; Serati, Steve; Linnenberger, Anna; Masterson, Hugh; Stockley, Jay

    2012-06-01

    Liquid Crystal on Silicon micro-displays are the enabling components on a variety of commercial consumer products including high-definition projection televisions, office projectors, camera view-finders, head-mounted displays and picoprojectors. The use and potential application of LCOS technology in calibrated scene projectors is just beginning to be explored. Calibrated LCOS displays and projectors have been built and demonstrated not only in the visible regime, but also in the SWIR, MWIR and LWIR. However, LCOS devices are not only capable of modulating the intensity of a broadband illumination source, but can also manipulate the polarization and/or phase of a laser source. This opens the possibility of both calibrated polarization displays and holographic projection displays.

  3. COMPENSATION EFFECT OF POLYIMIDE THIN FILMS ON NORMALLY WHITE TWISTED NEMATIC LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Baozhong; HE Tianbai; DING Mengxian

    1997-01-01

    The disadvantages of Normally White Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Display (NW-TN-LCD) were discussed. The reason that the negative birefringent polyimide thin films were used to compensate NW-TN-LCD to decrease off-axis leakage, improve contrast ratios and enlarge viewing angles' was explained in this paper. A certain polyimide thin film was taken as an example to show compensation effect on NW-TN-LCD.

  4. Averaged Stokes polarimetry applied to characterize parallel-aligned liquid crystal on silicon displays

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Ruiz, Andrés; Martínez Guardiola, Francisco Javier; Gallego Rico, Sergi; Ortuño Sánchez, Manuel; Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto; Pascual Villalobos, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Parallel-aligned liquid crystal on silicon (PA-LCoS) displays have become the most attractive spatial light modulator device for a wide range of applications, due to their superior resolution and light efficiency, added to their phase-only capability. Proper characterization of their linear retardance and phase flicker instabilities is a must to obtain an enhanced application of PA-LCoS. We present a novel polarimetric method, based on Stokes polarimetry, we have recently proposed for the mea...

  5. Milestone in the History of Field-Effect Liquid Crystal Displays and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadt, Martin

    2009-03-01

    The history of digital electronics would have been very different without the invention of field-effect liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in 1970 and their sophisticated development and implementation into numerous products. Transmissive and reflective LCDs have become a key interface between man and machine. After almost 40 years of interdisciplinary R+D and engineering, today's LCDs enable virtually all display applications, including high definition television. Field-effect LCDs are characterized by flat design, low weight, low driving voltage, design flexibility, compatibility with silicon-on-glass and very low power consumption, especially in reflection. Their polarization-sensitive layer concept is the basis for sandwiching and integration of optical and electronic thin-film functions. The liquid crystal technology has become a fast growing industry over the past 38 years, today surpassing 100 billion, with many spin-offs into new areas. Prerequisite for field-effect LCDs and their large diversification potential is the unique self-organization of liquid crystals. New applications beyond displays based on self-organisation, smart boundary alignment, dedicated liquid crystalline materials and the ability of LCs to respond to electromagnetic fields, including light, are being developed. Examples for new applications are LC polymer thin-film optics, or synergies between LCDs and solid state back-lighting, such as inorganic and organic light emitting diodes (LEDs/OLEDs).

  6. Computer Software for Displaying Map Projections and Comparing Distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikle, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Discusses software that educators can use to teach about distortions associated with alternative map projections. Examines the Projection, MicroCAM, World, and Atlas-GIS software programs. Suggests using the software in either introductory or more advanced courses dealing with map design or thematic cartography. Explains how to obtain the…

  7. The study of LED uniform lightguide for liquid crystal display backlight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chao-Heng; Chen, Zhi-Peng

    2008-08-01

    A conventional backlight unit (BLU) is used to as the light module to present uniform light of liquid crystal display (LCD). In general, cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) is utilized to be the light source of BLU. The light emitting diode (LED) is now considered well known as a promising device for solid state lighting. It has the advantages of long durability, no mercury substance and good endurance of heavy impact. To satisfy the market demands of the thin-film liquid crystal display (LCD) and the green product, the LED is applied to as the light source to make display thinner, lighter, no Hg containing. In this research, the LED uniform lightguide is demonstrated because it enables the point-like light to distribute propagating-light line pattern successfully. By optimizing the size and the radian of the device, the designed LED uniform lightguide can achieve the output efficiency more than 85%, and its illuminative uniformity is improved about 85%. Thus, the LED uniform lightguide not only can decrease the number of LED to save the space, but also enhance the optical efficiency. In the future, a novel LED uniform module could make displays thinner and lighter for backlight system applications.

  8. Precise prediction of optical responses of liquid-crystal display products using a behavioral model of liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chansoo; Cho, Youngmin; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Jongbin; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2012-01-01

    We propose a precise circuit model to estimate transient optical responses of an active-matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD). Liquid crystal (LC) molecules in the pixel is behaviorally modeled by using the first-order system that is described by Verilog-A. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a pixel determine the accuracy of the dynamic responses. Measuring C-V characteristics is impossible because pixels are driven by switching transistors in the AMLCD. We propose a method to obtain the C-V data from natural optical responses. Estimated optical responses based on the C-V data extracted by our proposal show more accurate results than those based on C-V data obtained by using transmittance-voltage data. It is demonstrated that our behavioral model enables us to predict very accurate transient responses, which makes it possible to design LCD products with lower costs.

  9. Application of pyrolysis process to remove and recover liquid crystal and films from waste liquid crystal display glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rixin; Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-12-01

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) glass mainly consists of polarizing film, liquid crystal and glass substrate. Removing and recovering the liquid crystal and films from the LCD glass effectively has important significance for recovering the other parts. This study proposed a pyrolysis process to recover the organic parts from LCD glass. Through thermal gravimetric analysis, the pyrolysis temperature of the LCD glass could be chosen at 850 K. The removal rate of organic parts from LCD glass reached 87.87 wt%. Pyrolysis products consisted of 66.82 wt% oils, 21.01 wt% gaseous and 12.13 wt% residues. In addition, the oils contained 46.27 wt% acetic acid and 32.94 wt% triphenyl phosphate. Then, the pyrolysis mechanisms and products sources of the liquid crystal glass have been analyzed based on the information of bonds energy. The pyrolysis mechanism analysis proved that the products mainly consisted of acetic acid, triphenyl phosphate and C, which is consistent to the results of GC-MS analysis. A reasonable way has been put forward to recycle the pyrolysis products: acetic acid and triphenyl phosphate can be collected by distillation, the rest oils and gases can be used as fuel and the remained glass can be used to extract indium and to produce building materials.

  10. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, Yu V.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Mokrushin, Yu M.; Shakin, O. V.

    2015-04-01

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation.

  11. Apparatus and method for remotely monitoring a utility meter by use of a liquid crystal display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombrich, P.P.; Case, S.K.; Konicek, L.R.

    1986-12-09

    An apparatus is described for optically sensing the angular position of a pointer member fixedly mounted on a rotatable shaft for rotational movement therewith as the shaft rotates about an axis of rotation, the apparatus comprising: (a) a follower member fixedly interconnected into the rotatable shaft for rotation about the axis of rotation with the pointer member, the follower member and the pointer having a circumferential path of travel. The follower member has first and second opposite sides facing in opposite axial directions, a first portion of the first side being generally reflective for reflecting light in a forward direction and a second portion being generally absorptive; (b) light emitting means positioned forward of the following member for emitting light in a backward direction towards the first side of the follower member; (c) light detecting means positioned forward of the follower member for detecting light reflected off of the follower member in a forward direction; and (d) liquid crystal display means positioned forward of the follower member, between the follower member and the light detecting means. The liquid crystal display means defines six distinct areas disposed about the circumferential path of the follower member and a background area encompassing the remaining area of the liquid crystal shutter means.

  12. Projection-type see-through holographic three-dimensional display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakunami, Koki; Hsieh, Po-Yuan; Oi, Ryutaro; Senoh, Takanori; Sasaki, Hisayuki; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Okui, Makoto; Huang, Yi-Pai; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    Owing to the limited spatio-temporal resolution of display devices, dynamic holographic three-dimensional displays suffer from a critical trade-off between the display size and the visual angle. Here we show a projection-type holographic three-dimensional display, in which a digitally designed holographic optical element and a digital holographic projection technique are combined to increase both factors at the same time. In the experiment, the enlarged holographic image, which is twice as large as the original display device, projected on the screen of the digitally designed holographic optical element was concentrated at the target observation area so as to increase the visual angle, which is six times as large as that for a general holographic display. Because the display size and the visual angle can be designed independently, the proposed system will accelerate the adoption of holographic three-dimensional displays in industrial applications, such as digital signage, in-car head-up displays, smart-glasses and head-mounted displays.

  13. Optical simulation of in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal display using the finite-difference time-domain method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hu; Ma, Hongmei; Sun, Yu-Bao

    2016-09-01

    The finite-difference time-domain method is used to simulate the optical characteristics of an in-plane switching blue phase liquid crystal display. Compared with the matrix optic methods and the refractive method, the finite-difference time-domain method, which is used to directly solve Maxwell’s equations, can consider the lateral variation of the refractive index and obtain an accurate convergence effect. The simulation results show that e-rays and o-rays bend in different directions when the in-plane switching blue phase liquid crystal display is driven by the operating voltage. The finite-difference time-domain method should be used when the distribution of the liquid crystal in the liquid crystal display has a large lateral change. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304074, 61475042, and 11274088), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. A2015202320 and GCC2014048), and the Key Subject Construction Project of Hebei Province University, China.

  14. Cylindrical liquid crystal lenses system for autostereoscopic 2D/3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Huang, Yi-Pai; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Po-Hao; Chen, Po-Chuan; Tsai, Chao-Hsu

    2012-06-01

    The liquid crystal lenses system, which could be electrically controlled easily for autostereoscopic 2D/3D switchable display was proposed. The High-Resistance liquid crystal (HRLC) lens utilized less controlled electrodes and coated a high-resistance layer between the controlled-electrodes was proposed and was used in this paper. Compare with the traditional LC lens, the HR-LC Lens could provide smooth electric-potential distribution within the LC layer under driving status. Hence, the proposed HR-LC Lens had less circuit complexity, low driving voltage, and good optical performance also could be obtained. In addition, combining with the proposed driving method called dual-directional overdriving method, the above method could reduce the switching time by applying large voltage onto cell. Consequently, the total switching time could be further reduced to around 2second. It is believed that the LC lens system has high potential in the future.

  15. Effect of wavelength on the laser patterning of a cholesteric liquid crystal display electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.H., E-mail: chunhanli@itri.org.tw [Laser Application Technology Center / Industrial Technology Research Institute South (ITRI South),8 Gongyan Rd., Liujia Dist., Tainan City 734, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Lin, H.K. [Laser Application Technology Center / Industrial Technology Research Institute South (ITRI South),8 Gongyan Rd., Liujia Dist., Tainan City 734, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Graduate Institute of Materials Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China)

    2013-02-01

    A 1064 nm fiber laser and a 355 nm ultraviolet solid-state laser with galvanometer scanners and F-theta lenses are used to rapidly etch the silver electrode pattern of a cholesteric liquid crystal display. These results of the two laser processes are that the 1064 nm laser effectively reduces the damage to the liquid crystal layer and underlying indium tin oxide layer, and reduces the heat-affected zone of the ablated silver electrode. - Highlights: ► Laser patterning reduces the process time and costs lower than screen printing process. ► Etching of silver electrodes using 355-nm and 1064-nm lasers is compared. ► 1064-nm fiber laser can improve throughput, lower cost, and increase pattern quality.

  16. In-Plane Switching Mode for Liquid Crystal Displays Using a DNA Alignment Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yun Jeong; Gim, Min-Jun; Oh, Kyunghwan; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2015-06-24

    We successfully fabricated the in-plane switching mode (IPS) LC display (LCD) based on a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) alignment layer. As widely known, the DNA has the right-handed double helical structure that has naturally grown grooves with a very regular period, which can be used as an alignment layer to control the orientation of liquid crystal (LC) molecules. The LC molecules on this topographical layer of DNA material align obliquely at a specific angle with respect to the direction of DNA chains, providing an instant and convenient tool for the fabrication of the IPS display compared to the conventional ways such as rubbing and mechanical shearing methods. The electro-optical performance and response time of this device were also investigated. Our result will be of great use in further exploration of the electro-optical properties of the other biomaterials.

  17. Towards an optimal model for a bistable nematic liquid crystal display device

    KAUST Repository

    Cummings, L. J.

    2013-03-13

    Bistable liquid crystal displays offer the potential for considerable power savings compared with conventional (monostable) LCDs. The existence of two stable field-free states that are optically distinct means that contrast can be maintained in a display without an externally applied electric field. An applied field is required only to switch the device from one state to the other, as needed. In this paper we examine a theoretical model of a possible bistable device, originally proposed by Cummings and Richardson (Euro J Appl Math 17:435-463 2006), and explore means by which it may be optimized, in terms of optical contrast, manufacturing considerations, switching field strength, and switching times. The compromises inherent in these conflicting design criteria are discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  18. Holographic three-dimensional display and hologram calculation based on liquid crystal on silicon device [invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junchang; Tu, Han-Yen; Yeh, Wei-Chieh; Gui, Jinbin; Cheng, Chau-Jern

    2014-09-20

    Based on scalar diffraction theory and the geometric structure of liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS), we study the impulse responses and image depth of focus in a holographic three-dimensional (3D) display system. Theoretical expressions of the impulse response and the depth of focus of reconstructed 3D images are obtained, and experimental verifications of the imaging properties are performed. The results indicated that the images formed by holographic display based on the LCoS device were periodic image fields surrounding optical axes. The widths of the image fields were directly proportional to the wavelength and diffraction distance, and inversely proportional to the pixel size of the LCoS device. Based on the features of holographic 3D imaging and focal depth, we enhance currently popular hologram calculation methods of 3D objects to improve the computing speed of hologram calculation.

  19. Liquid-crystal displays for medical imaging: a discussion of monochrome versus color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven L.; Samei, Ehsan

    2004-05-01

    A common view is that color displays cannot match the performance of monochrome displays, normally used for diagnostic x-ray imaging. This view is based largely on historical experience with cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays, and does not apply in the same way to liquid-crystal displays (LCDs). Recent advances in color LCD technology have considerably narrowed performance differences with monochrome LCDs for medical applications. The most significant performance advantage of monochrome LCDs is higher luminance, a concern for use under bright ambient conditions. LCD luminance is limited primarily by backlight design, yet to be optimized for color LCDs for medical applications. Monochrome LCDs have inherently higher contrast than color LCDs, but this is not a major advantage under most conditions. There is no practical difference in luminance precision between color and monochrome LCDs, with a slight theoretical advantage for color. Color LCDs can provide visualization and productivity enhancement for medical applications, using digital drive from standard commercial graphics cards. The desktop computer market for color LCDs far exceeds the medical monitor market, with an economy of scale. The performance-to-price ratio for color LCDs is much higher than monochrome, and warrants re-evaluation for medical applications.

  20. Temporal properties of liquid crystal displays: implications for vision science experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Elze

    Full Text Available Liquid crystal displays (LCD are currently replacing the previously dominant cathode ray tubes (CRT in most vision science applications. While the properties of the CRT technology are widely known among vision scientists, the photometric and temporal properties of LCDs are unfamiliar to many practitioners. We provide the essential theory, present measurements to assess the temporal properties of different LCD panel types, and identify the main determinants of the photometric output. Our measurements demonstrate that the specifications of the manufacturers are insufficient for proper display selection and control for most purposes. Furthermore, we show how several novel display technologies developed to improve fast transitions or the appearance of moving objects may be accompanied by side-effects in some areas of vision research. Finally, we unveil a number of surprising technical deficiencies. The use of LCDs may cause problems in several areas in vision science. Aside from the well-known issue of motion blur, the main problems are the lack of reliable and precise onsets and offsets of displayed stimuli, several undesirable and uncontrolled components of the photometric output, and input lags which make LCDs problematic for real-time applications. As a result, LCDs require extensive individual measurements prior to applications in vision science.

  1. Pixel-level tunable liquid crystal lenses for auto-stereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Robertson, Brian; Pivnenko, Mike; Chu, Daping; Zhou, Jiong; Yao, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Mobile video and gaming are now widely used, and delivery of a glass-free 3D experience is of both research and development interest. The key drawbacks of a conventional 3D display based on a static lenticular lenslet array and parallax barriers are low resolution, limited viewing angle and reduced brightness, mainly because of the need of multiple-pixels for each object point. This study describes the concept and performance of pixel-level cylindrical liquid crystal (LC) lenses, which are designed to steer light to the left and right eye sequentially to form stereo parallax. The width of the LC lenses can be as small as 20-30 μm, so that the associated auto-stereoscopic display will have the same resolution as the 2D display panel in use. Such a thin sheet of tunable LC lens array can be applied directly on existing mobile displays, and can deliver 3D viewing experience while maintaining 2D viewing capability. Transparent electrodes were laser patterned to achieve the single pixel lens resolution, and a high birefringent LC material was used to realise a large diffraction angle for a wide field of view. Simulation was carried out to model the intensity profile at the viewing plane and optimise the lens array based on the measured LC phase profile. The measured viewing angle and intensity profile were compared with the simulation results.

  2. Temporal properties of liquid crystal displays: implications for vision science experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Tobias; Tanner, Thomas G

    2012-01-01

    Liquid crystal displays (LCD) are currently replacing the previously dominant cathode ray tubes (CRT) in most vision science applications. While the properties of the CRT technology are widely known among vision scientists, the photometric and temporal properties of LCDs are unfamiliar to many practitioners. We provide the essential theory, present measurements to assess the temporal properties of different LCD panel types, and identify the main determinants of the photometric output. Our measurements demonstrate that the specifications of the manufacturers are insufficient for proper display selection and control for most purposes. Furthermore, we show how several novel display technologies developed to improve fast transitions or the appearance of moving objects may be accompanied by side-effects in some areas of vision research. Finally, we unveil a number of surprising technical deficiencies. The use of LCDs may cause problems in several areas in vision science. Aside from the well-known issue of motion blur, the main problems are the lack of reliable and precise onsets and offsets of displayed stimuli, several undesirable and uncontrolled components of the photometric output, and input lags which make LCDs problematic for real-time applications. As a result, LCDs require extensive individual measurements prior to applications in vision science.

  3. The (unsuitability of modern liquid crystal displays (LCDs for vision research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud eGhodrati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychophysical and physiological studies of vision have traditionally used cathode ray tube (CRT monitors to present stimuli. These monitors are no longer easily available, and liquid crystal display (LCD technology is continually improving; therefore, we characterised a number of LCD monitors to determine if newer models are suitable replacements for CRTs in the laboratory. We compared the spatial and temporal characteristics of a CRT with five LCDs, including monitors designed with vision science in mind (ViewPixx and Display++, prosumer gaming monitors, and a consumer-grade LCD. All monitors had sufficient contrast, luminance range and reliability to support basic vision experiments with static images. However, the luminance of all LCDs depended strongly on viewing angle, which in combination with the poor spatial uniformity of all monitors except the VPixx, caused up to 80% drops in effective luminance in the periphery during central fixation. Further, all monitors showed significant spatial dependence, as the luminance of one area was modulated by the luminance of other areas. These spatial imperfections are most pronounced for experiments that use large or peripheral visual stimuli. In the temporal domain, the gaming LCDs were unable to generate reliable luminance patterns; one was unable to reach the requested luminance within a single frame whereas in the other the luminance of one frame affected the luminance of the next frame. The VPixx and Display++ were less affected by these problems, and had good temporal properties provided stimuli were presented for 2 or more frames. Of the consumer-grade and gaming displays tested, and if problems with spatial uniformity are taken into account, the Eizo FG2421 is the most suitable alternative to CRTs. The specialized ViewPixx performed best among all the tested LCDs, followed closely by the Display++; both are good replacements for a CRT, provided their spatial imperfections are considered.

  4. Electrically modulated transparent liquid crystal-optical grating projection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Smith, Cameron; Kristensen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A transparent, fully integrated electrically modulated projection technique is presented based on light guiding through a thin liquid crystal layer covering sub-wavelength gratings. The reported device operates at 10 V with response times of 4.5 ms. Analysis of the liquid crystal alignment shows ...

  5. Numerical modeling in photonic crystals integrated technology: the COPERNICUS Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguti, Stefania; Armaroli, Andrea; Bellanca, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project.......Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project....

  6. Numerical modeling in photonic crystals integrated technology: the COPERNICUS Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguti, Stefania; Armaroli, Andrea; Bellanca, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project.......Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project....

  7. Front and rear projection autostereoscopic 3D displays based on lenticular sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong-Hua; Zang, Shang-Fei; Qi, Lin

    2015-03-01

    A front projection autostereoscopic display is proposed. The display is composed of eight projectors and a 3D-imageguided screen which having a lenticular sheet and a retro-reflective diffusion screen. Based on the optical multiplexing and de-multiplexing, the optical functions of the 3D-image-guided screen are parallax image interlacing and viewseparating, which is capable of reconstructing 3D images without quality degradation from the front direction. The operating principle, optical design calculation equations and correction method of parallax images are given. A prototype of the front projection autostereoscopic display is developed, which enhances the brightness and 3D perceptions, and improves space efficiency. The performance of this prototype is evaluated by measuring the luminance and crosstalk distribution along the horizontal direction at the optimum viewing distance. We also propose a rear projection autostereoscopic display. The display consists of eight projectors, a projection screen, and two lenticular sheets. The operation principle and calculation equations are described in detail and the parallax images are corrected by means of homography. A prototype of the rear projection autostereoscopic display is developed. The normalized luminance distributions of viewing zones from the measurement are given. Results agree well with the designed values. The prototype presents high resolution and high brightness 3D images. The research has potential applications in some commercial entertainments and movies for the realistic 3D perceptions.

  8. Rigorous analysis of an electric-field-driven liquid crystal lens for 3D displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong-Sik; Lee, Seung-Chul; Park, Woo-Sang [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    We numerically analyzed the optical performance of an electric field driven liquid crystal (ELC) lens adopted for 3-dimensional liquid crystal displays (3D-LCDs) through rigorous ray tracing. For the calculation, we first obtain the director distribution profile of the liquid crystals by using the Erickson-Leslie motional equation; then, we calculate the transmission of light through the ELC lens by using the extended Jones matrix method. The simulation was carried out for a 9 view 3D-LCD with a diagonal of 17.1 inches, where the ELC lens was slanted to achieve natural stereoscopic images. The results show that each view exists separately according to the viewing position at an optimum viewing distance of 80 cm. In addition, our simulation results provide a quantitative explanation for the ghost or blurred images between views observed from a 3D-LCD with an ELC lens. The numerical simulations are also shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The present simulation method is expected to provide optimum design conditions for obtaining natural 3D images by rigorously analyzing the optical functionalities of an ELC lens.

  9. Rhombohedrel Hybrid Crystal Semiconductor Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Langley has succeeded in growing a rhombohedrally oriented single crystal SiGe on sapphire substrate. This opens up new challenges in micro-electronics. Since...

  10. Using channelized Hotelling observers to quantify temporal effects of medical liquid crystal displays on detection performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platiša, Ljiljana; Goossens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Badano, Aldo; Philips, Wilfried

    2010-02-01

    Clinical practice is rapidly moving in the direction of volumetric imaging. Often, radiologists interpret these images in liquid crystal displays at browsing rates of 30 frames per second or higher. However, recent studies suggest that the slow response of the display can compromise image quality. In order to quantify the temporal effect of medical displays on detection performance, we investigate two designs of a multi-slice channelized Hotelling observer (msCHO) model in the task of detecting a single-slice signal in multi-slice simulated images. The design of msCHO models is inspired by simplifying assumptions about how humans observe while viewing in the stack-browsing mode. For comparison, we consider a standard CHO applied only on the slice where the signal is located, recently used in a similar study. We refer to it as a single-slice CHO (ssCHO). Overall, our results confirm previous findings that the slow response of displays degrades the detection performance of the observers. More specifically, the observed performance range of msCHO designs is higher compared to the ssCHO suggesting that the extent and rate of degradation, though significant, may be less drastic than previously estimated by the ssCHO. Especially, the difference between msCHO and ssCHO is more significant for higher browsing speeds than for slow image sequences or static images. This, together with their design criteria driven by the assumptions about humans, makes the msCHO models promising candidates for further studies aimed at building anthropomorphic observer models for the stack-mode image presentation.

  11. Characterization of the anamorphic and frequency dependent phenomenon in Liquid Crystal on Silicon displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, L.; Lizana, A.; Márquez, A.; Moreno, I.; Iemmi, C.; Campos, J.; Yzuel, M. J.

    2011-04-01

    The diffractive efficiency of Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) displays can be greatly diminished by the appearance of temporal phase fluctuations in the reflected beam, depolarization effects and also because of phase modulation depths smaller than 2π. In order to maximize the efficiency of the Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) implemented in the LCoS device, the Minimum Euclidean Distance principle can be applied. However, not all the diffractive elements can be corrected in the same way due to the anamorphic and frequency dependent phenomenon, which is related to the LCoS response, largely dependending on the period and the spatial orientation of the generated DOE. Experimental evidence for the anamorphic and frequency dependent phenomenon is provided in this paper, as well as a comparative study between the efficiency obtained for binary gratings of different periods

  12. Enhanced contrast ratio of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal displays by controlling the surface-anchoring strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Young Jin; Woo, Chang Woo; Oh, Sang Hoon; Mukherjee, Amrita; Lee, Seung Hee [Department of BIN Fusion Technology and Department of Polymer Nano-Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Ji Ho; Kim, Kyeong Jin; Yang, Myung Su, E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.kr [Panel Performance Department, LG Display Co., Ltd., Paju, Gyeonggi-do 413-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-17

    The dark state of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal displays (LCDs) associated with the in-plane switching of a LC director depends on their molecular ordering. We propose a new approach to reduce the light leakage in the dark state of homogeneously aligned LCDs. A very small amount of reactive mesogen (RM) is mixed with the LC material and polymerized at room temperature and also at a low temperature (-20 {sup 0}C) to strengthen the surface-anchoring energy. The contrast ratio of the low-temperature cured cell is improved by about 50% over that of the pure LC cell and the room temperature cured RM-mixed LC cell due to an enhanced order parameter.

  13. A liquid crystal display with consistent moving image quality regardless of viewing angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Seung-Ryul; Kim, Jongbin; Kim, Minkoo; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes a new overdrive (OD) technology to precisely compensate for the viewing angle dependent characteristics of LCDs. This paper reports that optical response of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) is considerably dependent on viewing angles for the first time. The new OD technology applies different OD look-up tables (LUTs) depending on the viewing angles. In addition, we combine a new OD technology with an eye tracker that is usually adopted for autostereoscopic 3D LCD systems. The application results show that a new OD technology improves the motion image quality perfectly regardless of viewing angles. We expect that our proposed method will definitely enable the LCD products to have consistent motion image quality regardless of viewing angles.

  14. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Indium from Flat-Panel Displays of Spent Liquid Crystal Televisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq

    2015-02-01

    A recovery process for indium from waste liquid crystal display panels was developed on the basis of hydrometallurgical technology. The powdered sample was leached with 3 M HCl to extract its various metal constituents (indium, aluminum, tin, etc.). The mutual separation and subsequent recovery of the dissolved metals was achieved using two column adsorption tests: The first column was packed with a porous resin impregnated with Aliquat 336, a commercially available solvent extraction reagent based on a quaternary ammonium compound, and the resin contained in the second column was impregnated with Cyanex 923, also a commercially available solvent extraction reagent based on trialkylphosphine oxide. In the first column, tin, iron, and zinc were removed from the leach liquor. In the second column, only indium was selectively recovered. The metal ions trapped in these columns were eluted with 0.1 M H2SO4, yielding a solution purified indium solution with a concentration 10 times that of the feed solution.

  15. Graphene oxide liquid crystals: synthesis, phase transition, rheological property, and applications in optoelectronics and display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Tong, Xin; Wang, Yanan; Bao, Jiming; Wang, Zhiming M.

    2015-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) liquid crystals (LCs) are macroscopically ordered GO flakes dispersed in water or polar organic solvents. Since the first report in 2011, GO LCs have attracted considerable attention for their basic properties and potential device applications. In this review, we summarize recent developments and present a comprehensive understanding of GO LCs via many aspects ranging from the exfoliation of GO flakes from graphite, to phases and phase transitions under various conditions, the orientational responses of GO under external magnetic and electric fields, and finally Kerr effect and display applications. The emphasis is placed on the unique and basic properties of GO and their ordered assembly. We will also discuss challenges and issues that need to be overcome in order to gain a more fundamental understanding and exploit full device potentials of GO LCs.

  16. Novel cell parameter determination of a twisted-nematic liquid crystal display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xia; Jing Hai; Fu Guo-Zhu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a novel method is proposed to determine the cell parameters including the twist angle, optic retardation and rubbing direction of twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays (TNLCD) by rotating the TNLCD. It is a single-wavelength method. Because using subtraction equation of transmittance as curve fitting equation, the influence of the light from environment and the absorption by polarizer, the sample of TNLCD and analyser on the transmittance is eliminated. Accurate results can also be obtained in imperfect darkness. By large numbers of experiments, we found that not only the experimental setup is quite simple and can be easily adopted to be carried out, but also the results are accurate.

  17. Colorimetric characterization of liquid crystal display using an improved two-stage model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wang; Haisong Xu

    2006-01-01

    @@ An improved two-stage model of colorimetric characterization for liquid crystal display (LCD) was proposed. The model included an S-shape nonlinear function with four coefficients for each channel to fit the Tone reproduction curve (TRC), and a linear transfer matrix with black-level correction. To compare with the simple model (SM), gain-offset-gain (GOG), S-curve and three-one-dimensional look-up tables (3-1D LUTs) models, an identical LCD was characterized and the color differences were calculated and summarized using the set of 7 × 7 × 7 digital-to-analog converter (DAC) triplets as test data. The experimental results showed that the model was outperformed in comparison with the GOG and SM ones, and near to that of the S-curve model and 3-1D LUTs method.

  18. Vision and Displays for Military and Security Applications The Advanced Deployable Day/Night Simulation Project

    CERN Document Server

    Niall, Keith K

    2010-01-01

    Vision and Displays for Military and Security Applications presents recent advances in projection technologies and associated simulation technologies for military and security applications. Specifically, this book covers night vision simulation, semi-automated methods in photogrammetry, and the development and evaluation of high-resolution laser projection technologies for simulation. Topics covered include: advances in high-resolution projection, advances in image generation, geographic modeling, and LIDAR imaging, as well as human factors research for daylight simulation and for night vision devices. This title is ideal for optical engineers, simulator users and manufacturers, geomatics specialists, human factors researchers, and for engineers working with high-resolution display systems. It describes leading-edge methods for human factors research, and it describes the manufacture and evaluation of ultra-high resolution displays to provide unprecedented pixel density in visual simulation.

  19. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  20. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pyrolysis mechanism for recycle renewable resource from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-15

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly consist of polarizing film, liquid crystal and glass substrates. In this study, a novel pyrolysis model and a pyrolysis mechanism to recover the reusable resource from polarizing film of waste LCD panels was proposed. Polarizing film and its major components, such as cellulose triacetate (TAC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were pyrolyzed, respectively, to model the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis process mainly generated a large ratio of oil, a few gases and a little residue. Acetic acid was the main oil product and could be easily recycled. The pyrolysis mechanism could be summarized as follows: (i) TAC, the main component of polarizing film, was heated and generated active TAC with a low polymerization, and then decomposed into triacetyl-d-glucose. (ii) Some triacetyl-d-glucose generated triacetyl-d-mannosan and its isomers through an intramolecular dehydration, while most triacetyl-d-glucose generated the main oil product, namely acetic acid, through a six-member cyclic transition state. (iii) Meanwhile, other products formed through a series of bond cleavage, dehydration, dehydrogenation, interesterification and Diels-Alder cycloaddition. This study could contribute significantly to understanding the polarizing film pyrolysis performance and serve as guidance for the future technological parameters control of the pyrolysis process.

  2. Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Young Jin; Kim, Jin Ho; Her, Jung Hwa; Lee, Seung Hee [Polymer BIN Fusion Research Center, Department of Polymer Nano-Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonju, Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Joun Ho; Kim, Byeong Koo [Mobile Product Development Department, LG Display Company, Ltd, Gumi, Gyungbuk 730-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Wan-Seok; Lee, Gi-Dong, E-mail: gdlee@dau.ac.k, E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.k [Department of Electronics Engineering, Dong-A University, Pusan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-03

    A viewing angle switchable liquid crystal display associated with fringe-field switching mode is proposed. In the device, one pixel is composed of a main pixel and a sub-pixel, in which both pixels are formed to generate a fringe electric field. However, the field directions are different from each other so that in the main pixel, the fringe field rotates the liquid crystal for displaying the main image, whereas it controls only the tilt angle of the liquid crystal without rotating in the sub-pixel region. In this way, phase retardation to cause leakage of light at the off-normal axis can be generated in the sub-pixel, and by utilizing the light, the main displayed image in the normal direction can be blocked in the oblique viewing direction.

  3. The Conditional Sink: Counterfactual Display in the Valuation of a Carbon Offsetting Reforestation Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véra Ehrenstein

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines counterfactual display in the valuation of carbon offsetting projects. Considered a legitimate way to encourage climate change mitigation, such projects rely on the establishment of procedures for the prospective assessment of their capacity to become carbon sinks. This requires imagining possible worlds and assessing their plausibility. The world inhabited by the project is articulated through conditional formulation and subjected to what we call "counterfactual display": the production and circulation of documents that demonstrate and configure the counterfactual valuation. We present a case study on one carbon offsetting reforestation project in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We analyse the construction of the scene that allows the "What would have happened" question to make sense and become actionable. We highlight the operations of calculative framing that this requires, the reality constraints it relies upon, and the entrepreneurial conduct it stimulates.

  4. Spatial optical modulator (SOM): high-density diffractive laser projection display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, SangKyeong; Song, JongHyeong; Yeo, InJae; Choi, YoonJoon; Yurlov, Victor; An, SeungDo; Park, HeungWoo; Yang, HaengSeok; Lee, YeongGyu; Han, KyuBum; Shyshkin, Ihar; Lapchuk, Anatoliy; Oh, KwanYoung; Ryu, SeungWon; Jang, JaeWook; Park, ChangSu; Kim, ChunGi; Kim, SunKi; Kim, EungJu; Woo, KiSuk; Yang, JeongSuong; Kim, EuiJoong; Kim, JooHong; Byun, SungHo; Lee, SeungWoo; Lim, OhkKun; Cheong, JongPil; Hwang, YoungNam; Byun, GiYoung; Kyoung, JeHong; Yoon, SangKee; Lee, JaeKwang; Lee, TaeWon; Hong, SeokKee; Hong, YoonShik; Park, DongHyun; Kang, JungChul; Shin, WooChul; Lee, SungIl; Oh, SungKyung; Song, ByungKi; Kim, HeeYeoun; Koh, ChongMann; Ryu, YungHo; Lee, HyunKee; Baek, YoungKi

    2007-02-01

    A new type of diffractive spatial optical modulators, named SOM, has been developed by Samsung Electro-Mechanics for laser projection display. It exhibit inherent advantages of fast response time and high-performance light modulation, suitable for high quality embedded laser projection displays. The calculated efficiency and contrast ratio are 75 % and 800:1 respectively in case of 0 th order, 67 % and 1000:1 respectively in case of +/-1st order. The response time is as fast as 0.7 μs. Also we get the displacement of 400 nm enough to display full color with single panel in VGA format, as being 10 V driven. Optical module with VGA was successfully demonstrated for its potential applications in mobile laser projection display such as cellular phone, digital still camera and note PC product. Electrical power consumption is less than 2 W, volume is less than 13 cc. Brightness is enough to watch TV and movie in the open air, being variable up to 6 lm. Even if it's optimal diagonal image size is 10 inch, image quality does not deteriorate in the range of 5 to 50 inch because of the merit of focus-free. Due to 100 % fill factor, the image is seamless so as to be unpleasant to see the every pixel's partition. High speed of response time can make full color display with 24-bit gray scale and cause no scan line artifact, better than any other devices.

  5. Need for liquid-crystal display monitors having the capability of rendering higher than 8 bits in display-bit depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwasa, Takeshi; Morishita, Junji; Hatanaka, Shiro; Ohki, Masafumi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose in this study was to examine the potential usefulness of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors having the capability of rendering higher than 8 bits in display-bit depth. An LCD monitor having the capability of rendering 8, 10, and 12 bits was used. It was calibrated to the grayscale standard display function with a maximum luminance of 450 cd/m(2) and a minimum of 0.75 cd/m(2). For examining the grayscale resolution reported by ten observers, various simple test patterns having two different combinations of luminance in 8, 10, and 12 bits were randomly displayed on the LCD monitor. These patterns were placed on different uniform background luminance levels, such as 0, 50, and 100%, for maximum luminance. All observers participating in this study distinguished a smaller difference in luminance than one gray level in 8 bits irrespective of background luminance levels. As a result of the adaptation processes of the human visual system, observers distinguished a smaller difference in luminance as the luminance level of the test pattern was closer to the background. The smallest difference in luminance that observers distinguished was four gray levels in 12 bits, i.e., one gray level in 10 bits. Considering the results obtained by use of simple test patterns, medical images should ideally be displayed on LCD monitors having 10 bits or greater so that low-contrast objects with small differences in luminance can be detected and for providing a smooth gradation of grayscale.

  6. A novel stereoscopic projection display system for CT images of fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiujuan; Jiang, Hong; Lang, Yuedong; Wang, Hongbo; Sun, Na

    2013-06-01

    The present study proposed a novel projection display system based on a virtual reality enhancement environment. The proposed system displays stereoscopic images of fractures and enhances the computed tomography (CT) images. The diagnosis and treatment of fractures primarily depend on the post-processing of CT images. However, two-dimensional (2D) images do not show overlapping structures in fractures since they are displayed without visual depth and these structures are too small to be simultaneously observed by a group of clinicians. Stereoscopic displays may solve this problem and allow clinicians to obtain more information from CT images. Hardware with which to generate stereoscopic images was designed. This system utilized the conventional equipment found in meeting rooms. The off-axis algorithm was adopted to convert the CT images into stereo image pairs, which were used as the input for a stereo generator. The final stereoscopic images were displayed using a projection system. Several CT fracture images were imported into the system for comparison with traditional 2D CT images. The results showed that the proposed system aids clinicians in group discussions by producing large stereoscopic images. The results demonstrated that the enhanced stereoscopic CT images generated by the system appear clearer and smoother, such that the sizes, displacement and shapes of bone fragments are easier to assess. Certain fractures that were previously not visible on 2D CT images due to vision overlap became vividly evident in the stereo images. The proposed projection display system efficiently, economically and accurately displayed three-dimensional (3D) CT images. The system may help clinicians improve the diagnosis and treatment of fractures.

  7. Controllable 3D Display System Based on Frontal Projection Lenticular Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Q.; Sang, X.; Yu, X.; Gao, X.; Wang, P.; Li, C.; Zhao, T.

    2014-08-01

    A novel auto-stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) projection display system based on the frontal projection lenticular screen is demonstrated. It can provide high real 3D experiences and the freedom of interaction. In the demonstrated system, the content can be changed and the dense of viewing points can be freely adjusted according to the viewers' demand. The high dense viewing points can provide smooth motion parallax and larger image depth without blurry. The basic principle of stereoscopic display is described firstly. Then, design architectures including hardware and software are demonstrated. The system consists of a frontal projection lenticular screen, an optimally designed projector-array and a set of multi-channel image processors. The parameters of the frontal projection lenticular screen are based on the demand of viewing such as the viewing distance and the width of view zones. Each projector is arranged on an adjustable platform. The set of multi-channel image processors are made up of six PCs. One of them is used as the main controller, the other five client PCs can process 30 channel signals and transmit them to the projector-array. Then a natural 3D scene will be perceived based on the frontal projection lenticular screen with more than 1.5 m image depth in real time. The control section is presented in detail, including parallax adjustment, system synchronization, distortion correction, etc. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this novel controllable 3D display system.

  8. Applying Ant Colony Algorithm and Neural Network Model to Color Deviation Defect Detection in Liquid Crystal Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Dar Lin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display (TFT-LCD has excellent properties such as lower voltage to start and less occupied space if comparing with traditional Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT. But screen flaw points and display color deviation defects on image display exist in TFT-LCD products. This research proposes a new automated visual inspection method to solve the problems. We first use multivariate Hotelling T2 statistic for integrating coordinates of color models to construct a T2 energy diagram for inspecting defects and controlling patterns in TFT-LCD display images. An Ant Colony based approach that integrates computer vision techniques is developed to detect the flaw point defects. Then, Back Propagation Network (BPN model is proposed to inspect small deviation defects of the LCD display colors. Experimental results show the proposed system can provide good effects and practicality.

  9. Ray-tracing simulations of liquid-crystal gradient-index lenses for three-dimensional displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijter, M.; Herzog, A.; De Boer, D.K.G.; Krijn, M.P.C.M.; Urbach, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, to our knowledge, we report ray-tracing simulations of an advanced liquid-crystal gradientindex lens structure for application in switchable two-dimensional/three-dimensional (3D) autostereoscopic displays. We present ray-tracing simulations of the angular-dependent lens action.

  10. Study on the waste liquid crystal display treatment: focus on the resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinying; Lu, Xuebin; Zhang, Shuting

    2013-01-15

    A process combined pyrolysis and acid immersion was proposed in this study to dispose the hazardous liquid crystal display (LCD) waste for recovering valuable resources. The thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and fixed bed pyrolysis were investigated for the polarizing film that was separated from LCD. The results suggested the liquid product mainly contained acids, esters and aromatics should be upgraded such as hydrotreating process before used as industrial feedstock or fuel source. The gaseous product mainly consisted of H(2), CO, CO(2) and CH(4) can be used as a valuable fuel. The sulfuric acid immersion experiments were studied for recovering indium from the LCD glass after stripping the polarizing film. Central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the acid immersion process and the results indicated the indium recovery can be fitted based on the actual value to a polynomial quadratic equation and the temperature was more essential factor than time and acid concentration in the studied ranges. The optimum processing condition was obtained with time 42.2 min, temperature 65.6 °C and acid concentration 0.6 mol/L. Under the optimal conditions, the indium recovery was close to 100%.

  11. Automated optical inspection of liquid crystal display anisotropic conductive film bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Guangming; Du, Xiaohui; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Juanxiu; Liu, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Anisotropic conductive film (ACF) bonding is widely used in the liquid crystal display (LCD) industry. It implements circuit connection between screens and flexible printed circuits or integrated circuits. Conductive microspheres in ACF are key factors that influence LCD quality, because the conductive microspheres' quantity and shape deformation rate affect the interconnection resistance. Although this issue has been studied extensively by prior work, quick and accurate methods to inspect the quality of ACF bonding are still missing in the actual production process. We propose a method to inspect ACF bonding effectively by using automated optical inspection. The method has three steps. The first step is that it acquires images of the detection zones using a differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging system. The second step is that it identifies the conductive microspheres and their shape deformation rate using quantitative analysis of the characteristics of the DIC images. The final step is that it inspects ACF bonding using a back propagation trained neural network. The result shows that the miss rate is lower than 0.1%, and the false inspection rate is lower than 0.05%.

  12. Comparison of viewing angle and observer performances in different types of liquid-crystal display monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Shiro; Morishita, Junji; Hiwasa, Takeshi; Dogomori, Kiyoshi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Ohki, Masafumi; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2009-07-01

    It is known that the performance of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, such as the luminance and contrast ratio, is dependent on the viewing angle. Our purpose in this study was to compare the angular performance and the effect on observer performance of different types of LCD monitors. The luminance performance and contrast ratio as a function of viewing angle (-60 degrees to 60 degrees) in each direction for two types of LCD monitors, namely, a general-purpose LCD monitor and one especially designed for medical use, were measured in this study. Furthermore, the observer performance at various viewing angles in the horizontal direction for a medical-grade LCD monitor was investigated by eight observers based on a contrast-detail diagram. The two types of LCD monitors showed notable variations in luminance and contrast ratio as a function of the viewing angle. Acceptable viewing angles in terms of the contrast ratio were much smaller in each direction than those for nominal viewing angles in the specifications provided by the manufacturers, and those for the medical-grade LCD monitor in the horizontal and vertical directions were broader than those of the general-purpose LCD monitor. There was no significant difference in observer performance between 0 degrees and 40 degrees. On the other hand, our results showed a statistically significant difference in observer performance between 0 degrees and 60 degrees.

  13. Curved Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Matrix Displays Driven by Field-Sequential-Color and Active-Matrix Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Sato, Hiroto; Murashige, Takeshi; Fujisaki, Yoshihide; Kurita, Taiichiro; Furukawa, Tadahiro; Sato, Fumio

    This paper describes a curved field-sequential-color matrix display using fast-response ferroelectric liquid crystal. Black matrix and transparent electrode patterns were formed on a thin plastic substrate by a transfer method from a glass substrate. While a composite film of liquid crystal and micro-polymers of walls and fibers was formed between the flexible substrates by printing, laminating and curing processes of a solution of monomers and liquid crystal, the mechanical stability was enhanced by use of multi-functional monomers to form large display panels. The image pixels of the matrix panel were driven by an active matrix scheme using an external switch transistor array at a frequency of 180 Hz for intermittent three-primary-color backlight illumination. The flexible A4-paper-sized color display with 24 × 16 pixels and 60 Hz field frequency was demonstrated by illuminating it with sequential three-primary-color lights from light-emitting diodes of the backlight. Our display system is useful in various information displays because of its freedom of setting and location.

  14. Design and fabrication of the thin-film micromirror array-actuated for large projection displays

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, K H; Kim, S G

    1998-01-01

    The Thin-film Micromirror Array-actuated (TMA) is a new reflective type light modulator that uses micromachined thin film piezoelectric actuators in conjunction with over 300,000 micromirrors. A working prototype of TMA display system with three TMA modules shows the world best light efficiency at the present time, which is more than 7 lumen per watt light efficiency. Projectors and projection TVs with TMAs will be the most promising device which will provide clear display of electronic image at normal room light condition.

  15. Compact multi-projection 3D display using a wedge prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soon-gi; Lee, Chang-Kun; Lee, Byoungho

    2015-03-01

    We propose a compact multi-projection system based on integral floating method with waveguide projection. Waveguide projection can reduce the projection distance by multiple folding of optical path inside the waveguide. The proposed system is composed of a wedge prism, which is used as a waveguide, multiple projection-units, and an anisotropic screen made of floating lens combined with a vertical diffuser. As the projected image propagates through the wedge prism, it is reflected at the surfaces of prism by total internal reflections, and the final view image is created by the floating lens at the viewpoints. The position of view point is decided by the lens equation, and the interval of view point is calculated by the magnification of collimating lens and interval of projection-units. We believe that the proposed method can be useful for implementing a large-scale autostereoscopic 3D system with high quality of 3D images using projection optics. In addition, the reduced volume of the system will alleviate the restriction of installment condition, and will widen the applications of a multi-projection 3D display.

  16. Assessment of Anisotropic Semiconductor Nanorod and Nanoplatelet Heterostructures with Polarized Emission for Liquid Crystal Display Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Patrick D.; Souza, João B.; Fedin, Igor; She, Chunxing; Lee, Byeongdu; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2016-06-28

    Semiconductor nanorods can emit linear-polarized light at efficiencies over 80%. Polarization of light in these systems, confirmed through single-rod spectroscopy, can be explained on the basis of the anisotropy of the transition dipole moment and dielectric confinement effects. Here we report emission polarization in macroscopic semiconductor polymer composite films containing CdSe/CdS nanorods and colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets. Anisotropic nanocrystals dispersed in polymer films of poly butyl-co-isobutyl methacrylate (PBiBMA) can be stretched mechanically in order to obtain unidirectionally aligned arrays. A high degree of alignment, corresponding to an orientation factor of 0.87, was achieved and large areas demonstrated polarized emission, with the contrast ratio I-parallel to/I-perpendicular to= 5.6, making these films viable candidates for use in liquid crystal display (LCD) devices. To some surprise, we observed significant optical anisotropy and emission polarization for 2D CdSe nanoplatelets with the electronic structure of quantum wells. The aligned nanorod arrays serve as optical funnels, absorbing unpolarized light and re-emitting light from deep-green to red with quantum efficiencies over 90% and high degree of linear polarization. Our results conclusively demonstrate the benefits of anisotropic nanostructures for LCD backlighting. The polymer films with aligned CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod and rod-in-rod nanostructures show more than 2-fold enhancement of brightness compared to the emitter layers with randomly oriented nanostructures. This effect can be explained as the combination of linearly polarized luminescence and directional emission from individual nanostructures.

  17. Cultivating the social skills of students through the project of developing display robot

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The medium-term plans of national college of technology JAPAN for 2nd period says it is very important to educateour students to ensure technology and knowledge as the foundation in order to become a creative engineer in various fieldsincluding the manufacturing industry. We propose a display robot project which aims to improve student's social skills in the process of developing the robot. The skill includes technical skills, communication skills and business etiquette and manners. ...

  18. Ice crystal characterization in cirrus clouds: a sun-tracking camera system and automated detection algorithm for halo displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Linda; Seefeldner, Meinhard; Wiegner, Matthias; Mayer, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    Halo displays in the sky contain valuable information about ice crystal shape and orientation: e.g., the 22° halo is produced by randomly oriented hexagonal prisms while parhelia (sundogs) indicate oriented plates. HaloCam, a novel sun-tracking camera system for the automated observation of halo displays is presented. An initial visual evaluation of the frequency of halo displays for the ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques) field campaign from October to mid-November 2014 showed that sundogs were observed more often than 22° halos. Thus, the majority of halo displays was produced by oriented ice crystals. During the campaign about 27 % of the cirrus clouds produced 22° halos, sundogs or upper tangent arcs. To evaluate the HaloCam observations collected from regular measurements in Munich between January 2014 and June 2016, an automated detection algorithm for 22° halos was developed, which can be extended to other halo types as well. This algorithm detected 22° halos about 2 % of the time for this dataset. The frequency of cirrus clouds during this time period was estimated by co-located ceilometer measurements using temperature thresholds of the cloud base. About 25 % of the detected cirrus clouds occurred together with a 22° halo, which implies that these clouds contained a certain fraction of smooth, hexagonal ice crystals. HaloCam observations complemented by radiative transfer simulations and measurements of aerosol and cirrus cloud optical thickness (AOT and COT) provide a possibility to retrieve more detailed information about ice crystal roughness. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a completely automated method to collect and evaluate a long-term database of halo observations and shows the potential to characterize ice crystal properties.

  19. Ice crystal characterization in cirrus clouds: a sun-tracking camera system and automated detection algorithm for halo displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Forster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Halo displays in the sky contain valuable information about ice crystal shape and orientation: e.g., the 22° halo is produced by randomly oriented hexagonal prisms while parhelia (sundogs indicate oriented plates. HaloCam, a novel sun-tracking camera system for the automated observation of halo displays is presented. An initial visual evaluation of the frequency of halo displays for the ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques field campaign from October to mid-November 2014 showed that sundogs were observed more often than 22° halos. Thus, the majority of halo displays was produced by oriented ice crystals. During the campaign about 27 % of the cirrus clouds produced 22° halos, sundogs or upper tangent arcs. To evaluate the HaloCam observations collected from regular measurements in Munich between January 2014 and June 2016, an automated detection algorithm for 22° halos was developed, which can be extended to other halo types as well. This algorithm detected 22° halos about 2 % of the time for this dataset. The frequency of cirrus clouds during this time period was estimated by co-located ceilometer measurements using temperature thresholds of the cloud base. About 25 % of the detected cirrus clouds occurred together with a 22° halo, which implies that these clouds contained a certain fraction of smooth, hexagonal ice crystals. HaloCam observations complemented by radiative transfer simulations and measurements of aerosol and cirrus cloud optical thickness (AOT and COT provide a possibility to retrieve more detailed information about ice crystal roughness. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a completely automated method to collect and evaluate a long-term database of halo observations and shows the potential to characterize ice crystal properties.

  20. Realization of Field Sequential Color in Simple Matrix Antiferroelectric Liquid Crystal Displays by Utilizing Fast Pretransitional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasushi; Chen, Guo-Ping; Manna, Uttam; Vij, Jagdish K.; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2009-07-01

    Simple matrix antiferroelectric liquid crystal displays (SM-AFLCDs) are prototyped to realize field sequential color (FSC) by utilizing the fast pretransitional response. The developed FSC-SM-AFLCDs will lead to the replacement of existing static driven FSC-SM-nematic-LCDs. Bright and clear color can be given to already market-acquired, black-and-white SM-LCDs of up to 1/64-duty and 3-in. diagonal size. To optimize the display performance, we analyze two important factors, the large pretransitional effect and the appropriate reset pulse, in terms of the interlayer interaction potential used in describing the field-induced transition of the antiferroelectric smectic phase.

  1. Horizontally-aligned carbon nanotubes arrays and their interactions with liquid crystal molecules: Physical characteristics and display applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérick Roussel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the physical characteristics of horizonthally-grown Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (h-al-SWNT arrays and their potential use as transparent and conducting alignment layer for liquid crystals display devices. Microscopy (SEM and AFM, spectroscopic (Raman and electrical investigations demonstrate the strong anisotropy of h-al-SWNT arrays. Optical measurements show that h-al-SWNTs are efficient alignment layers for Liquid Crystal (LC molecules allowing the fabrication of optical wave plates. Interactions between h-al-SWNT arrays and LC molecules are also investigated evidencing the weak azimuthal anchoring energy at the interface, which, in turn, leads to LC devices with a high pretilt angle. The electro-optical reponses of h-al-SWNT/LC cells demonstrate that h-al-SWNT arrays are efficient nanostructured electrodes with potential use for the combined replacement of Indium Tin Oxyde and polymeric alignment layers in conventional displays.

  2. Biological treatment of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, C N; Whang, L M; Lin, H L

    2008-01-01

    The amount of pollutants produced during manufacturing processes of TFT-LCD (thin-film transistor liquid crystal display) substantially increases due to an increasing production of the opto-electronic industry in Taiwan. The total amount of wastewater from TFT-LCD manufacturing plants is expected to exceed 200,000 CMD in the near future. Typically, organic solvents used in TFT-LCD manufacturing processes account for more than 33% of the total TFT-LCD wastewater. The main components of these organic solvents are composed of the stripper (dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and monoethanolamine (MEA)), developer (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH)) and chelating agents. These compounds are recognized as non-or slow-biodegradable organic compounds and little information is available regarding their biological treatability. In this study, the performance of an A/O SBR (anoxic/oxic sequencing batch reactor) treating synthetic TFT-LCD wastewater was evaluated. The long-term experimental results indicated that the A/O SBR was able to achieve stable and satisfactory removal performance for DMSO, MEA and TMAH at influent concentrations of 430, 800, and 190 mg/L, respectively. The removal efficiencies for all three compounds examined were more than 99%. In addition, batch tests were conducted to study the degradation kinetics of DMSO, MEA, and TMAH under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The organic substrate of batch tests conducted included 400 mg/L of DMSO, 250 mg/L of MEA, and 120 mg/L of TMAH. For DMSO, specific DMSO degradation rates under aerobic and anoxic conditions were both lower than 4 mg DMSO/g VSS-hr. Under anaerobic conditions, the specific DMSO degradation rate was estimated to be 14 mg DMSO/g VSS-hr, which was much higher than those obtained under aerobic and anoxic conditions. The optimum specific MEA and TMAH degradation rates were obtained under aerobic conditions with values of 26.5 mg MEA/g VSS-hr and 17.3 mg TMAH/g VSS

  3. Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Su; Bos, Philip J.; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yang, Deng-Ke; Lee, Joong Hee; Lee, Seung Hee

    2016-10-01

    Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but linear flexoelectric effect. Despite of the urgent requirement of solving the issue, understanding of such a phenomenon is yet vague. Here, we thoroughly analyze and firstly report the flexoelectric effect in in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell. The effect takes place on the area above electrodes due to splay and bend deformations of nematic liquid crystal along oblique electric fields, so that the obvious spatial shift of the optical transmittance is experimentally observed and is clearly demonstrated based on the relation between direction of flexoelectric polarization and electric field polarity. In addition, we report that the IPS mode has inherent characteristics to solve the image-flickering issue in the low-power consumption display in terms of the physical property of liquid crystal material and the electrode structure.

  4. Directional backlight liquid crystal autostereoscopic display: technical challenges, research progress, and prospect (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hang; Li, Kunyang; Zhou, Yangui; Liang, Haowen; Wang, Jiahui; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-09-01

    Recent upsurge on virtual and augmented realities (VR and AR) has re-ignited the interest to the immerse display technology. The VR/AR technology based on stereoscopic display is believed in its early stage as glasses-free, or autostereoscopic display, will be ultimately adopted for the viewing convenience, visual comfort and for the multi-viewer purposes. On the other hand, autostereoscopic display has not yet received positive market response for the past years neither with stereoscopic displays using shutter or polarized glasses. We shall present the analysis on the real-world applications, rigid user demand, the drawbacks to the existing barrier- and lenticular lens-based LCD autostereoscopy. We shall emphasize the emerging autostereoscopic display, and notably on directional backlight LCD technology using a hybrid spatial- and temporal-control scenario. We report the numerical simulation of a display system using Monte-Carlo ray-tracing method with the human retina as the real image receiver. The system performance is optimized using newly developed figure of merit for system design. The reduced crosstalk in an autostereoscopic system, the enhanced display quality, including the high resolution received by the retina, the display homogeneity without Moiré- and defect-pattern, will be highlighted. Recent research progress including a novel scheme for diffraction-free backlight illumination, the expanded viewing zone for autostereoscopic display, and the novel Fresnel lens array to achieve a near perfect display in 2D/3D mode will be introduced. The experimental demonstration will be presented to the autostereoscopic display with the highest resolution, low crosstalk, Moiré- and defect- pattern free.

  5. Profiling of liquid crystal displays with Raman spectroscopy: Preprocessing of spectra.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Stanimirovic; H.F.M. Boelens; A.J.G. Mank; H.C.J. Hoefsloot; A.K. Smilde

    2005-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is applied for characterizing paintable displays. Few other options than Raman spectroscopy exist for doing so because of the liquid nature of functional materials. The challenge is to develop a method that can be used for estimating the composition of a single display cell on the

  6. Embedding perspective cue in holographic projection display by virtual variable-focal-length lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohui; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Xiaorui; Zhao, Fuliang

    2014-10-01

    To make a view perspective cue emerging in reconstructed images, a new approach is proposed by incorporating virtual variable-focal-length lenses into computer generated Fourier hologram (CGFH). This approach is based on a combination of monocular vision principle and digital hologram display, thus it owns properties coming from the two display models simultaneously. Therefore, it can overcome the drawback of the unsatisfied visual depth perception of the reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) images in holographic projection display (HPD). Firstly, an analysis on characteristics of conventional CGFH reconstruction is made, which indicates that a finite depthof- focus and a non-adjustable lateral magnification are reasons of the depth information lack on a fixed image plane. Secondly, the principle of controlling lateral magnification in wave-front reconstructions by virtual lenses is demonstrated. And the relation model is deduced, involving the depth of object, the parameters of virtual lenses, and the lateral magnification. Next, the focal-lengths of virtual lenses are determined by considering perspective distortion of human vision. After employing virtual lenses in the CGFH, the reconstructed image on focal-plane can deliver the same depth cues as that of the monocular stereoscopic image. Finally, the depthof- focus enhancement produced by a virtual lens and the effect on the reconstruction quality from the virtual lens are described. Numerical simulation and electro-optical reconstruction experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm can improve the depth perception of the reconstructed 3D image in HPD. The proposed method provides a possibility of uniting multiple display models to enhance 3D display performance and viewer experience.

  7. Proposal for a project agreement with ISTC - Crystal Clear Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns a project agreement with the ISTC entitled "Development of the Detector Production Technology for a New Generation of Positron Emission Tomographs to be used in Medecine and Pharmacology" to be executed in co-operation with the Crystal Clear Collaboration. For the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a project agreement with ISTC for a total amount of 775 000 US dollars. The European Union party in ISTC will co-fund the project up to a total of 525 000 US dollars. CERN's contribution will not exceed 250 000 US dollars. At the present rate of exchange this is equivalent to approximately 430 000 Swiss francs

  8. Laser speckle reduction by phase range limited computer generated hologram in laser projection display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan-Shuo; Lin, Chia-Hsin; Hsu, Ku-Hui; Hsu, Wei-Feng; Hsiao, Li-Jen; Lin, Hoang Yan

    2014-09-20

    The speckle phenomenon is an annoyance in laser projection display systems. We propose a novel speckle suppression method that utilizes the interference concept on a pixel point, which reduces the speckle contrast (SC) of the project image by limiting the phase distribution range in the optical field. The SC formula is derived in the uniform interval phase range for partially developed speckle conditions, showing that the SC can be lowered by lessening the phase range limitation. In the ideal simulation model, the SC can be reduced from 98.77% to 0% as the phase range limitation varies from 2π to 0. The phase range limitation model is a novel method using a computer generated hologram to provide beam shaping and phase limitation. In a more realistic simulation model, the SC is reduced from 99.18% to 16.68%.

  9. UV durable colour pigment doped SmA liquid crystal composites for outdoor trans-reflective bi-stable displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Davey, A. B.; Crossland, W. A.; Chu, D. P.

    2012-10-01

    High brightness trans-reflective bi-stable displays based on smectic A (SmA) liquid crystals (LCs) can have nearly perfect transparency in the clear state and very high reflection in the scattered state. Because the LC material in use is stable under UV radiation, this kind of displays can stand for strong day-light and therefore be ideal for outdoor applications from e-books to public signage and advertisement. However, the colour application has been limited because the traditional colourants in use are conventional dyes which are lack of UV stability and that their colours are easily photo bleached. Here we present a colour SmA display demonstrator using pigments as colourant. Mixing pigments with SmA LCs and maintain the desirable optical switching performance is not straightforward. We show here how it can be done, including how to obtain fine sized pigment nano-particles, the effects of particle size and size distribution on the display performance. Our optimized pigments/SmA compositions can be driven by a low frequency waveform (~101Hz) to a scattered state to exhibit colour while by a high frequency waveform (~103Hz) to a cleared state showing no colour. Finally, we will present its excellent UV life-time (at least dye composition (~2.4 years). The complex interaction of pigment nano-particles with LC molecules and the resulting effects on the LC electro-optical performances are still to be fully understood. We hope this work will not only demonstrate a new and practical approach for outdoor reflective colour displays but also provide a new material system for fundamental liquid crystal colloid research work.

  10. Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Min Su; Kang, Byeong Gyun; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Yoon, Sukin; Lee, Seung Hee [Polymer BIN Fusion Research Center, Department of Polymer Nano-Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonju, Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ge Zhibing; Rao Linghui; Gauza, Sebastian; Wu, Shin-Tson, E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.k, E-mail: swu@creol.ucf.ed [College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2009-12-07

    Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect are emerging due to their submillisecond response time, wide view and simple fabrication process. However, the conventional in-plane switching device exhibits a relatively high operating voltage because the electric fields are restricted in the vicinity of the electrode surface. To overcome this technical barrier, we propose a partitioned wall-shaped electrode configuration so that the induced birefringence is uniform between electrodes throughout the entire cell gap. Consequently, the operating voltage is reduced by {approx} 2.8x with two transistors. The responsible physical mechanisms are explained.

  11. Development of High-Thrust and Double-Sided Linear Synchronous Motor Module For Liquid Crystal Display Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myung-jin; CHUNG; Sang-yeon; HWANG

    2010-01-01

    <正>Recently,there is an increasing requirement for controlling linear motion up to a few hundred of millimeter strokes in the area of the liquid crystal display(LCD) production equipment.The requirements of the motion system for LCD production equipment are high acceleration and high velocity with positioning accuracy.To satisfy these requirements,it has to be designed with the high-thrust force and low velocity ripple.In this work, high-thrust and double-sided linear synchronous motor (LSM)module is proposed and the developed high-thrust and double-sided LSM module is verified by performance test.

  12. Parallel aligned liquid crystal on silicon display based optical set-up for the generation of polarization spatial distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Irene; Lizana, Angel; Zheng, Xuejie; Peinado, Alba; Ramírez, Claudio; Martínez, Jose Luis; Márquez, Andrés.; Moreno, Ignacio; Campos, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Liquid Crystals on Silicon (LCOS) displays are a type of LCDs that work in reflection. Such devices, due to the double pass that the light beam performs through the LC cells, lead to larger phase modulation than transmissive LCDs with the same thickness. By taking advantage of this modulation capability exhibited by LCOS displays, we propose a new experimental set-up which is able to provide customized state of polarization spatial distributions just by means of a single LCOS display. To this aim, a double reflection on different halves of the display is properly performed. This fact is achieved by including a compact optical system that steers the light and performs a proper polarization plane rotation. The set-up has been experimentally implemented and some experimental concerns are discussed. The suitability of the system is provided by generating different experimental spatial distributions of polarization. In this regard, well-known polarization distributions, as axial, azimuthal or spiral linear polarization patterns are here provided. Based on the excellent results obtained, the suitability of the system to generate different spatially variant distributions of polarization is validated.

  13. Spatial uniformity inspection apparatus for solar cells using a projection display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae-Keun; Kim, Seung Kwan; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Park, Seung-Nam

    2012-07-10

    We demonstrate a measurement apparatus to inspect spatial uniformity of quantum efficiency of solar cells using a beam projector. Deviation of irradiance from the used beam projector over the area of 1.5×0.8 m on the cell plane was flattened within ±2.6% through gray scale adjustment, which was originally about 200%. Scanning a small square image with an area of 3×3 mm over a square-shaped photovoltaic cell with an area of 15.6×15.6 cm, we could identify the locations according to efficiency level and showed that the cell had quantum efficiency deviation of more than 10%. Utilizing the advantageous feature of a projection display, we also demonstrated that this apparatus can inspect the spatial uniformity of solar modules and panels consisting of multiple solar cells.

  14. EVALUATION OF CHROMATICITY COORDINATES SHIFT FOR IMAGE DISPLAYED ON LIQUID CRYSTAL PANELS WITH VARIOUS PROPERTIES ON COLOR REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We consider the problem of evaluation of chromaticity coordinates shift for image displayed on liquid crystal panels with various properties on color reproduction. A mathematical model represents the color reproduction characteristics. The spread of the color characteristics of the screens has a statistical nature. Differences of color reproduction for screens are perceived by the observer in the form of different colors and shades that are displayed on the same type of commercially available screens. Color differences are characterized by numerical measure of the difference of colors and can be mathematically compensated. The solution of accounting problem of the statistical nature of the color characteristics spread for the screens has a particular relevance to aviation instrumentation. Method. Evaluation of chromaticity coordinates shift of the image is based on the application of the Grassmann laws of color mixing.Basic data for quantitative calculation of shift are the profiles of two different liquid crystal panels defined by matrixes of scales for components of primary colors (red, green, blue. The calculation is based on solving the system of equations and calculating the color difference in the XY-plane. In general, the calculation can be performed in other color spaces: UV, Lab. The statistical nature of the spread of the color characteristics for the screens is accounted for in the proposed mathematical model based on the interval setting of coordinate values of the color gamut triangle vertices on the set of commercially available samples. Main Results. Carried outresearches result in the mathematical expressions allowing to recalculate values of chromaticity coordinates of the image displayed on various samples of liquid crystal screens. It is shown that the spread of the color characteristics of the screens follows bivariate normal distribution law with the accuracy sufficient for practice. The results of

  15. The ADAM project: a generic web interface for retrieval and display of ATLAS TDAQ information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, A.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Magnoni, L.; Vandelli, W.; Savu, D.

    2012-06-01

    interface. The Level 2 is designed to present the data in a similar style and aesthetic, despite the different data sources. Pages can be constructed, edited and personalized by users to suit the specific data being shown. Pages can show a collection of graphs displaying data potentially coming from multiple sources. The project as a whole has a great amount of scope thanks to the uniform approach chosen for exposing data, and the flexibility of the Level 2 in presenting results. The paper will describe in detail the design and implementation of this new tool. In particular we will go through the project architecture, the implementation choices and the examples of usage of the system in place within the ATLAS TDAQ infrastructure.

  16. Microlens array-based high-gain screen design for direct projection head-up displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedili, M Kivanc; Freeman, Mark O; Urey, Hakan

    2013-02-20

    Head-up display (HUD) systems have been used in recent car models to provide essential information to the drivers while keeping their eyes on the road. Virtual image HUD systems have been the preferred method, but they have the drawback of requiring a large volume of space in order to accommodate the relay optics that creates the virtual image. This is especially significant as the desired field of view increases. Direct projection HUD systems have been developed with a separate stand-alone microlens array (MLA)-based transparent screen on the dashboard, offering a compact solution. In this paper, we propose a direct projection HUD system based on a unique, windshield-embedded see-through screen that uses minimal space under the dashboard, offering an elegant and compact solution to the HUD problem. The screen is based on MLAs with varying surface normal angles such that the light from the projector is directed to the viewer's eyes from all positions across the field of view. Varying tilts provide an efficient relay and high brightness even with a low-lumen output projector. The calculated screen gain is about 69 and the eyebox area is about 30 cm×30 cm.

  17. Dual paraboloid reflector technology development and the commercialization for projection display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kenneth

    2007-02-01

    One major issue in microdisplay-based projection television has always been the need for more light. Without sufficient amount of light, the screen gain is usually the final parameter that is adjusted to produce acceptable on-axis brightness. As a result, one major disadvantage of rear projection television (RPTV) is narrow viewing angle when compared with other display technologies. Traditional reflector systems, including elliptical and parabolic reflectors, perform well in most cases, but are inefficient for smaller etendue values corresponding to smaller image panels. The common remedy is to make lamps with shorter and shorter arcs to increase the coupling efficiency, but the corresponding lifetime of the lamps are reduced and most of the time, these short arc lamps can only operate at low power, thus limiting the total output of the illuminating system. The Dual Paraboloid reflector (DPR) technology allows the use of higher power lamps while maintaining long life, thus allows wider viewing angles to be achieved. In addition, low power lamps when used with the DPR system allows such a long life operation that lamp replacement is not needed, allowing the RPTV to compete effectively with LCDTV and PDP systems. These advantages are also applicable to front projectors with long life lamps that lower ownership costs.

  18. Analysis and design of wedge projection display system based on ray retracing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kun; Lee, Taewon; Sung, Hyunsik; Min, Sung-Wook

    2013-06-10

    A design method for the wedge projection display system based on the ray retracing method is proposed. To analyze the principle of image formation on the inclined surface of the wedge-shaped waveguide, the bundle of rays is retraced from an imaging point on the inclined surface to the aperture of the waveguide. In consequence of ray retracing, we obtain the incident conditions of the ray, such as the position and the angle at the aperture, which provide clues for image formation. To illuminate the image formation, the concept of the equivalent imaging point is proposed, which is the intersection where the incident rays are extended over the space regardless of the refraction and reflection in the waveguide. Since the initial value of the rays arriving at the equivalent imaging point corresponds to that of the rays converging into the imaging point on the inclined surface, the image formation can be visualized by calculating the equivalent imaging point over the entire inclined surface. Then, we can find image characteristics, such as their size and position, and their degree of blur--by analyzing the distribution of the equivalent imaging point--and design the optimized wedge projection system by attaching the prism structure at the aperture. The simulation results show the feasibility of the ray retracing analysis and characterize the numerical relation between the waveguide parameters and the aperture structure for on-axis configuration. The experimental results verify the designed system based on the proposed method.

  19. Aberration analyses for improving the frontal projection three-dimensional display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Wang, Peng; Cao, Xuemei; Sun, Lei; Yan, Binbin; Yuan, Jinhui; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Dou, Wenhua

    2014-09-22

    The crosstalk severely affects the viewing experience for the auto-stereoscopic 3D displays based on frontal projection lenticular sheet. To suppress unclear stereo vision and ghosts are observed in marginal viewing zones(MVZs), aberration of the lenticular sheet combining with the frontal projector is analyzed and designed. Theoretical and experimental results show that increasing radius of curvature (ROC) or decreasing aperture of the lenticular sheet can suppress the aberration and reduce the crosstalk. A projector array with 20 micro-projectors is used to frontally project 20 parallax images one lenticular sheet with the ROC of 10 mm and the size of 1.9 m × 1.2 m. The 3D image with the high quality is experimentally demonstrated in both the mid-viewing zone and MVZs in the optimal viewing plane. The 3D clear depth of 1.2m can be perceived. To provide an excellent 3D image and enlarge the field of view at the same time, a novel structure of lenticular sheet is presented to reduce aberration, and the crosstalk is well suppressed.

  20. Recycling acetic acid from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels by sub/supercritical water treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Chen, Ya; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-05-19

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate) and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed first since containing polarizing film and liquid crystal is to the disadvantage of the indium recycling process. In the present study, an efficient and environmentally friendly process to obtain acetic acid from waste LCD panels by sub/supercritical water treatments is investigated. Furthermore, a well-founded reaction mechanism is proposed. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) 99.77% of organic matters are removed, which means the present technology is quite efficient to recycle the organic matters; (ii) a yield of 78.23% acetic acid, a quite important fossil energy based chemical product is obtained, which can reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid; (iii) supercritical water acts as an ideal solvent, a requisite reactant as well as an efficient acid-base catalyst, and this is quite significant in accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry". In a word, the organic matters of waste LCD panels are recycled without environmental pollution. Meanwhile, this study provides new opportunities for alternating fossil-based chemical products for sustainable development, converting "waste" into "fossil-based chemicals".

  1. Optical design of ultrashort throw liquid crystal on silicon projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiun-Woei

    2017-05-01

    An ultrashort throw liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) projector for home cinema, virtual reality, and automobile heads-up display has been designed and fabricated. To achieve the best performance and highest-quality image, this study aimed to design wide-angle projection optics and optimize the illumination for LCoS. Based on the telecentric lens projection system and optimized Koehler illumination, the optical parameters were calculated. The projector's optical system consisted of a conic aspheric mirror and image optics using either symmetric double Gauss or a large-angle eyepiece to achieve a full projection angle larger than 155 deg. By applying Koehler illumination, image resolution was enhanced and the modulation transfer function of the image in high spatial frequency was increased to form a high-quality illuminated image. The partial coherence analysis verified that the design was capable of 2.5 lps/mm within a 2 m×1.5 m projected image. The throw ratio was less than 0.25 in HD format.

  2. Power generating reflective-type liquid crystal displays using a reflective polariser and a polymer solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Huh, Yoon; Park, Byoungchoo

    2015-06-01

    We herein report the results of a study of a power generating reflective-type liquid crystal display (LCD), composed of a 90° twisted nematic (TN) LC cell attached to the top of a light-absorbing polymer solar cell (PSC), i.e., a Solar-LCD. The PSC consisted of a polymer bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic (PV) layer of poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PCBM70), and showed a high power conversion efficiency of about 5%. In order to improve the visibility of the Solar-LCD, between the TN-LC and the PV cells we inserted a reflective polariser of a giant birefringent optical (GBO) film. The reflectivity from the Solar-LCD was observed to be considerably increased by more than 13-15% under illumination by visible light. The Solar-LCD also exhibited a significantly improved contrast ratio of more than 17-19. We believe there is a clear case for using such Solar-LCDs in new power-generating reflective-type displays; taken as a whole these results also demonstrate the possibility of their application in a number of energy-harvesting opto-electrical display devices.

  3. Integrated light-guide plates that can control the illumination angle for liquid crystal display backlight system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Di; Yang, Xingpeng; Jin, Guofan; Yan, Yingbai; Fan, Shoushan

    2006-01-01

    Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with edge-lit backlight systems offer several advantages, such as low energy consuming, low weight, and high uniformity of intensity, over traditional cathode-ray tube displays, and make them ideal for many applications including monitors in notebook personal computers, screens for TV, and many portable information terminals, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, etc. To satisfy market requirements for mobile and personal display panels, it is more and more necessary to modify the backlight system and make it thinner, lighter, and brighter all at once. In this paper, we have proposed a new integrated LGP based on periodic and aperiodic microprism structures by using polymethyl methacrylate material, which can be designed to control the illumination angle, and to get high uniformity of intensity. So the backlight system will be simplified to use only light sources and one LGP without using other optical sheets, such as reflection sheet, diffusion sheet and prism sheets. By using optimizing program and ray tracing method, the designed LGPs can achieve a uniformity of intensity better than 86%, and get a peak illumination angle from +400 to -200, without requiring other optical sheets. We have designed a backlight system with only one LED light source and one LGP, and other LGP design examples with different sizes (1.8 inches and 14.1 inches) and different light source (LED or CCFL), are performed also.

  4. Image quality performance of liquid crystal display systems: influence of display resolution, magnification and window settings on contrast-detail detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Klaus; Smeets, Peter; De Hauwere, An; Voet, Tony; Duyck, Philippe; Verstraete, Koenraad; Thierens, Hubert

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of liquid crystal display (LCD) resolution, image magnification and window/level adjustment on the low-contrast performance in soft-copy image interpretation in digital radiography and digital mammography. In addition, the effect of a new LCD noise reduction mechanism on the low-contrast detectability was studied. Digital radiographs and mammograms of two dedicated contrast-detail phantoms (CDRAD 2.0 and CDMAM 3.4) were scored on five LCD devices with varying resolutions (1-3- and 5-megapixel) and one dedicated 5-megapixel cathode ray tube monitor. Two 5-megapixel LCDs were included. The first one was a standard 5-megapixel LCD and the second had a new (Per Pixel Uniformity) noise reduction mechanism. A multi-variate analysis of variance revealed a significant influence of LCD resolution, image magnification and window/level adjustment on the image quality performance assessed with both the CDRAD 2.0 and the CDMAM 3.4 phantoms. The interactive adjustment of brightness and contrast of digital images did not affect the reading time, whereas magnification to full resolution resulted in a significantly slower soft-copy interpretation. For digital radiography applications, a 3-megapixel LCD is comparable with a 5-megapixel CRT monitor in terms of low-contrast performance as well as in reading time. The use of a 2-megapixel LCD is only warranted when radiographs are analysed in full resolution and when using the interactive window/level adjustment. In digital mammography, a 5-megapixel monitor should be the first choice. In addition, the new PPU noise reduction system in the 5-megapixel LCD devices provides significantly better results for mammography reading as compared to a standard 5-magapixel LCD or CRT. If a 3-megapixel LCD is used in mammography setting, a very time-consuming magnification of the digital mammograms would be necessary.

  5. Image quality performance of liquid crystal display systems: Influence of display resolution, magnification and window settings on contrast-detail detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, Klaus [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)]. E-mail: klaus.bacher@ugent.be; Smeets, Peter [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); De Hauwere, An [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Voet, Tony [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Duyck, Philippe [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Verstraete, Koenraad [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Thierens, Hubert [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2006-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of liquid crystal display (LCD) resolution, image magnification and window/level adjustment on the low-contrast performance in soft-copy image interpretation in digital radiography and digital mammography. In addition, the effect of a new LCD noise reduction mechanism on the low-contrast detectability was studied. Digital radiographs and mammograms of two dedicated contrast-detail phantoms (CDRAD 2.0 and CDMAM 3.4) were scored on five LCD devices with varying resolutions (1-3- and 5-megapixel) and one dedicated 5-megapixel cathode ray tube monitor. Two 5-megapixel LCDs were included. The first one was a standard 5-megapixel LCD and the second had a new (Per Pixel Uniformity) noise reduction mechanism. A multi-variate analysis of variance revealed a significant influence of LCD resolution, image magnification and window/level adjustment on the image quality performance assessed with both the CDRAD 2.0 and the CDMAM 3.4 phantoms. The interactive adjustment of brightness and contrast of digital images did not affect the reading time, whereas magnification to full resolution resulted in a significantly slower soft-copy interpretation. For digital radiography applications, a 3-megapixel LCD is comparable with a 5-megapixel CRT monitor in terms of low-contrast performance as well as in reading time. The use of a 2-megapixel LCD is only warranted when radiographs are analysed in full resolution and when using the interactive window/level adjustment. In digital mammography, a 5-megapixel monitor should be the first choice. In addition, the new PPU noise reduction system in the 5-megapixel LCD devices provides significantly better results for mammography reading as compared to a standard 5-magapixel LCD or CRT. If a 3-megapixel LCD is used in mammography setting, a very time-consuming magnification of the digital mammograms would be necessary.

  6. Direct current electric field assembly of colloidal crystals displaying reversible structural color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aayush A; Ganesan, Mahesh; Jocz, Jennifer; Solomon, Michael J

    2014-08-26

    We report the application of low-voltage direct current (dc) electric fields to self-assemble close-packed colloidal crystals in nonaqueous solvents from colloidal spheres that vary in size from as large as 1.2 μm to as small as 0.1 μm. The assemblies are created rapidly (∼2 min) from an initially low volume fraction colloidal particle suspension using a simple capacitor-like electric field device that applies a steady dc electric voltage. Confocal microscopy is used to observe the ordering that is produced by the assembly method. This spatial evidence for ordering is consistent with the 6-fold diffraction patterns identified by light scattering. Red, green, and blue structural color is observed for the ordered assemblies of colloids with diameters of 0.50, 0.40, and 0.29 μm, respectively, consistent with spectroscopic measurements of reflectance. The diffraction and spectrophotometry results were found to be consistent with the theoretical Bragg's scattering expected for closed-packed crystals. By switching the dc electric field from on to off, we demonstrate reversibility of the structural color response on times scales ∼60 s. The dc electric field assembly method therefore represents a simple method to produce reversible structural color in colloidal soft matter.

  7. Liquid Crystal Motion Picture Projector①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIYongji

    1997-01-01

    A liquid crystal moving picture projector and method are described.Light incident on a liquid crystal display-type device is selectively scattered or transmitted by respective portions of liquid crystal display,and a projection mechanism projects an image formed by either such scattered light or such transmitted light.A liquid cystal moving picture projector includes a liquid crystal display for creating characteristics of an image,and projecttion optics for projecting images sequentially created by the display.The display includes a liquid crystal material capable of temporary storing information at respective areas.The temporary storage may be a function of charge storing directly on liquid crystal material.A method of projecting plural images in sequence includes:creating an image or characteristics of an image in a liquid crystal material,storing such image in such liquid crystal material,directing light at such liquid crystal material,projecting such image as a function of light transmitted through or scattered by such liquid crystal material,and creating a further image in such liquid crystal material for subsequent projection.

  8. Brightness property of micro-capsules diffuser screen in laser projection display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Jun; Okagaki, Satoru; Kojima, Kuniko; Nakano, Yuzo; Miyata, Akihisa

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, the development of displays, projectors, and the like which use laser light sources have been advanced. As a laser light source is used, it provide wide color gamut and compact an optical system; on the other hand, the speckle noise is generated. We make a proposal about the microcapsule diffuser screen with the purpose of reducing the speckle noise on a laser rear projection display. This microcapsule diffuser screen has a screen surface in which microcapsules (~100um) containing charged diffuser particles are applied; where an electric field is charged from the outside and, thus, the diffuser particles in the capsule are randomly agitated to reduce the speckle noise. We have separately reported the effect of reducing speckle in relation to the driving parameters. The previous report, however, did not discuss how the configuration parameters within the microcapsule would affect the brightness, diffusion characteristics and other particulars. In this report, the authors used the Monte Carlo ray tracing method to study the diffusion characteristics of the microcapsule diffuser sheet with reference to the refractive index and diameters of the diffuser particles. The study confirmed that while the diffusion characteristics lowered with the diffuser particle diameter being 3.0μm or smaller the optical loss of the transmitting light significantly increased. Where designing the capsule profile based on the simulation model, a simple spherical profile failed to see that the actual measurement and calculated values did not agree with the other. The optical simulation model created based on a microscopic image confirmed that both values agreed. Thus, the authors confirmed that the latter was suitable for an optical simulation model.

  9. Brightness-Luminance Ratio of a Liquid Crystal Display in a Transmission Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Teruo

    1981-08-01

    A psychological experiment was executed binocularly for a bipartite or a separated field. The viewing subtence was 2° in both fields and the spatial separation in a separated field was 1°. Seven observers adjusted the luminance of a white comparison stimulus to appear equally as bright as a test stimulus of a liquid crystal cell. Red-, green-, blue-color under the tunable birefringence mode were shown as a test stimulus. The ratios of the mean observer in a bipartite field were 1.35± 0.23 for red, 1.20± 0.13 for green, 1.06± 0.13 for blue, and lower than those in a separated field.

  10. Generalized nematohydrodynamic boundary conditions with application to bistable twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Angbo

    2008-12-08

    Parallel to the highly successful Ericksen-Leslie hydrodynamic theory for the bulk behavior of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs), we derive a set of coupled hydrodynamic boundary conditions to describe the NLC dynamics near NLC-solid interfaces. In our boundary conditions, translational flux (flow slippage) and rotational flux (surface director relaxation) are coupled according to the Onsager variational principle of least energy dissipation. The application of our boundary conditions to the truly bistable π -twist NLC cell reveals a complete picture of the dynamic switching processes. It is found that the thus far overlooked translation-rotation dissipative coupling at solid surfaces can accelerate surface director relaxation and enhance the flow rate. This can be utilized to improve the performance of electro-optical nematic devices by lowering the required switching voltages and reducing the switching times. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  11. Display of Dynamic, Volume Graphic Images by Holographic Voxel Projection. Initial Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-29

    REFERENCE S 1. Veron, H., D. Southard, J. Leger, and J. Conway, " 3D Displays for Battle Management," The MITRE Corporation, Bedford, MA, 01730...published as RADC-TR-90-46 (April 1990). 2. Wilson, A., "At SID, Lasers Put New Spin on 3D Displays," ESD: The Electronic System Design Magazine, August...34Electronic Display System for Computational Holography," SPIE, Vol 1212, pp. 325-333, (January 1990). 5. Meacham, G., " Autostereoscopic Displays - Past

  12. Technological process and optimum design of organic materials vacuum pyrolysis and indium chlorinated separation from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-12-15

    In this study, a technology process including vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum chlorinated separation was proposed to convert waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels into useful resources using self-design apparatuses. The suitable pyrolysis temperature and pressure are determined as 300°C and 50 Pa at first. The organic parts of the panels were converted to oil (79.10 wt%) and gas (2.93 wt%). Then the technology of separating indium was optimized by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicated the indium recovery ratio was 99.97% when the particle size is less than 0.16 mm, the weight percentage of NH4Cl to glass powder is 50 wt% and temperature is 450°C. The research results show that the organic materials, indium and glass of LCD panel can be recovered during the recovery process efficiently and eco-friendly.

  13. Crystal Structures of Human SIRT[subscript 3] Displaying Substrate-induced Conformational Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Lei; Wei, Wentao; Jiang, Yaobin; Peng, Hao; Cai, Jianhua; Mao, Chen; Dai, Han; Choy, Wendy; Bemis, Jean E.; Jirousek, Michael R.; Milne, Jill C.; Westphal, Christoph H.; Perni, Robert B.; (Viva Biotech); (Medicilon); (GSK)

    2009-11-04

    SIRT3 is a major mitochondrial NAD{sup +}-dependent protein deacetylase playing important roles in regulating mitochondrial metabolism and energy production and has been linked to the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction. SIRT3 is emerging as a potential therapeutic target to treat metabolic and neurological diseases. We report the first sets of crystal structures of human SIRT3, an apo-structure with no substrate, a structure with a peptide containing acetyl lysine of its natural substrate acetyl-CoA synthetase 2, a reaction intermediate structure trapped by a thioacetyl peptide, and a structure with the dethioacetylated peptide bound. These structures provide insights into the conformational changes induced by the two substrates required for the reaction, the acetylated substrate peptide and NAD+. In addition, the binding study by isothermal titration calorimetry suggests that the acetylated peptide is the first substrate to bind to SIRT3, before NAD{sup +}. These structures and biophysical studies provide key insight into the structural and functional relationship of the SIRT3 deacetylation activity.

  14. Multi-wavelength sensitive holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating applied within image splitter for autostereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jihong; Wang, Kangni; Gao, Hui; Lu, Feiyue; Sun, Lijia; Zhuang, Songlin

    2016-09-01

    Multi-wavelength sensitive holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) grating and its application within image splitter for autostereoscopic display are reported in this paper. Two initiator systems consisting of photoinitiator, Methylene Blue and coinitiator, p-toluenesulfonic acid as well as photoinitiator, Rose Bengal and coinitiator, Nphenylglycine are employed. We demonstrate that Bragg gratings can be formed in this syrup polymerized under three lasers simultaneously including 632.8nm from He-Ne laser, 532nm from Verdi solid state laser, and 441.6nm from He- Cd laser. The diffraction efficiency of three kinds of gratings with different exposure wavelength are 57%, 75% and 33%, respectively. The threshold driving voltages of those gratings are 2.8, 3.05, and 2.85 V/μm, respectively. We also present the results for the feasibility of this proposed H-PDLC grating applied into image splitter without color dispersion for autostereoscopic display according to experimental splitting effect.

  15. 基于视网膜投影显示的头盔显示器设计%Helmet-mounted displays based on retinal projection display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏娜; 郭忠达; 阳志强

    2012-01-01

    传统的透射型头盔显示器虽然可以显示虚拟图像,但当眼睛调节焦距时无法清晰显示虚拟图像,研究一种新型的透射型头盔显示技术,其特点是既可以看到外部景物,也可以同时看到微型显示芯片上所显示的虚拟图像,并且虚拟图像独立于人眼的调节.介绍显示技术的原理,用光学设计软件Zemax完成整体光学系统设计,优化后系统达到衍射极限,滤波投影系统中MTF在60 lp/mm处达到了0.7;用Autocad软件设计了头盔显示器结构.光路成像实验结果表明:设计的系统可以看到外界图像和虚拟图像,当眼睛对外界景物聚焦时,外界景物与虚拟图像都保持清晰,眼睛对外界景物离焦时,外界景物变得模糊而虚拟图像仍然保持清晰.%Conventional see-through head-mounted displays can display virtual image; however, virtual image can not keep clear on the retina from beginning to end when the eyes adjusts the focus length. So a new technology of see-through head-mounted displays which can catch sight of external features and see the virtual image on the micro-display chip has been introduced. It is an advantage of virtual image, which can always keep clear, no matter how to adiust the focus of eyes. The principle of display technology was discussed. The overall optical system was designed by using Zemax and reached the diffraction limit after optimization. The MTF of filtering projection system was 0. 7 at 60 lp/mm. The structure of head-mounted displays was designed by Autocad. The imaging experiment result shows that both the external features and the virtual image could be seen clearly in the presence of eyes focusing on external features. Though the external features would be fuzzy when eyes defocus on external features, the virtual image could still be seen as clearly as before.

  16. Effect of spatial noise of medical grade Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) on the detection of micro-calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, Hans; Fan, Jiahua; Dallas, William J.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    This presentation describes work in progress that is the result of an NIH SBIR Phase 1 project that addresses the wide- spread concern for the large number of breast-cancers and cancer victims [1,2]. The primary goal of the project is to increase the detection rate of microcalcifications as a result of the decrease of spatial noise of the LCDs used to display the mammograms [3,4]. Noise reduction is to be accomplished with the aid of a high performance CCD camera and subsequent application of local-mean equalization and error diffusion [5,6]. A second goal of the project is the actual detection of breast cancer. Contrary to the approach to mammography, where the mammograms typically have a pixel matrix of approximately 1900 x 2300 pixels, otherwise known as FFDM or Full-Field Digital Mammograms, we will only use sections of mammograms with a pixel matrix of 256 x 256 pixels. This is because at this time, reduction of spatial noise on an LCD can only be done on relatively small areas like 256 x 256 pixels. In addition, judging the efficacy for detection of breast cancer will be done using two methods: One is a conventional ROC study [7], the other is a vision model developed over several years starting at the Sarnoff Research Center and continuing at the Siemens Corporate Research in Princeton NJ [8].

  17. Composite single crystal silicon scan mirror substrates Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Single crystal silicon is a desirable mirror substrate for scan mirrors in space telescopes. As diameters of mirrors become larger, existing manufacturing...

  18. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer Components Using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic fluid transfer components using single crystal piezoelectric actuators are proposed to enable low thermal mass, minimal heat leak, low power consumption...

  19. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer Components Using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic fluid transfer components using single crystal piezoelectric actuators are proposed to enable low thermal mass, minimal heat leak, low power consumption...

  20. Electrophoresis Gel Quantification with a Flatbed Scanner and Versatile Lighting from a Screen Scavenged from a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Brendan; Ng, Tuck Wah; Tan, Han Yen; Liew, Oi Wah

    2012-01-01

    The use of different types of stains in the quantification of proteins separated on gels using electrophoresis offers the capability of deriving good outcomes in terms of linear dynamic range, sensitivity, and compatibility with specific proteins. An inexpensive, simple, and versatile lighting system based on liquid crystal display backlighting is…

  1. Electrophoresis Gel Quantification with a Flatbed Scanner and Versatile Lighting from a Screen Scavenged from a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Brendan; Ng, Tuck Wah; Tan, Han Yen; Liew, Oi Wah

    2012-01-01

    The use of different types of stains in the quantification of proteins separated on gels using electrophoresis offers the capability of deriving good outcomes in terms of linear dynamic range, sensitivity, and compatibility with specific proteins. An inexpensive, simple, and versatile lighting system based on liquid crystal display backlighting is…

  2. Three-Dimensional Cockpit Display System for Improved Situational Awareness Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a 3D cockpit display (3D-COD) system for improved pilot situational awareness and safety in 3D airspace by...

  3. Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Shiraki, Atsushi; Naruse, Makoto; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a method to construct a full-colour volumetric display is presented using a commercially available inkjet printer. Photoreactive luminescence materials are minutely and automatically printed as the volume elements, and volumetric displays are constructed with high resolution using easy-to-fabricate means that exploit inkjet printing technologies. The results experimentally demonstrate the first prototype of an inkjet printing-based volumetric display composed of multiple layers of transparent films that yield a full-colour three-dimensional (3D) image. Moreover, we propose a design algorithm with 3D structures that provide multiple different 2D full-colour patterns when viewed from different directions and experimentally demonstrate prototypes. It is considered that these types of 3D volumetric structures and their fabrication methods based on widely deployed existing printing technologies can be utilised as novel information display devices and systems, including digital signage, media art, entertainment and security.

  4. A Novel Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet most existing display systems with flat screens can handle only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that...

  5. The influence of the conical incidence on the waveguide-type colour-separating backlight for liquid crystal display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ji; Wang, Wenfeng

    2011-02-01

    The lightguide assisted by diffraction gratings is used to implement colour-separating backlight for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). In the configuration, the light incidence angle is required to be a precise designed one. However, the light incidence is conical always. In this paper, by rigorous coupled wave theory, the influence of conical input on the colour-separating backlight is investigated. It shows that, when the azimuthal angle of the light increases, the diffraction efficiency could be enhanced by a factor of 2, which means that the conical input will benefit the diffraction efficiency of the lightguide. However, it also leads to a larger output spot area at the same time, which could result in the mixing of RGB pix. When the azimuthal angle is smaller than 12°, the maximum diffraction angles of RGB light can be completely separated, which means that, with a designed distance or with an assisted micro-lens layer between the grating and the pix layer, the RGB light can reach their corresponding pix. The influence of the conical input on the polarized light is also investigated. The conical input will result in the output with composite polarization, which, in principle, disables the use of polarized light source in LCD.

  6. Exposure to volatile organic compounds and kidney dysfunction in thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Huang, Kuei-Hung; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chao, Keh-Ping; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Bao, Bo-Ying

    2010-06-15

    Many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted during the manufacturing of thin film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs), exposure to some of which has been reported to be associated with kidney dysfunction, but whether such an effect exists in TFT-LCD industry workers is unknown. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between exposure to VOCs and kidney dysfunction among TFT-LCD workers. The results showed that ethanol (1811.0+/-1740.4 ppb), acetone (669.0+/-561.0 ppb), isopropyl alcohol (187.0+/-205.3 ppb) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) (102.9+/-102.0 ppb) were the four dominant VOCs present in the workplace. The 63 array workers studied had a risk of kidney dysfunction 3.21-fold and 3.84-fold that of 61 cell workers and 18 module workers, respectively. Workers cumulatively exposed to a total level of isopropyl alcohol, PGMEA and propylene glycol monomethyl ether> or =324 ppb-year had a significantly higher risk of kidney dysfunction (adjusted OR=3.41, 95% CI=1.14-10.17) compared with those exposed to LCD industry, and cumulative exposure to specific VOCs might be associated with kidney dysfunction.

  7. Use of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass in the production of ceramic tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long

    2007-09-05

    In this study, we employ the following operating conditions: varied pressure (25 kgf/cm(2)), sintering temperature (900-1200 degrees C), sintering time (6h), percentage of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass by weight (0-50%) and temperature rising at a rate of 5 degrees C/min, to fabricate clay tiles. The sintering characteristics of the clay blended with TFT-LCD waste glass tiles are examined to evaluate the feasibility of the reuse of TFT-LCD waste glass. TFT-LCD waste glass contains large amounts of glass. The TCLP leaching concentrations all met the ROC EPAs current regulatory thresholds. The addition of TFT-LCD waste glass to the mixture, increased the apparent weight loss. The incorporation of 50% TFT-LCD waste glass resulted in a significant increase in the porosity ratio of the specimens compared to the porosity ratio of the ceramic tile containing TFT-LCD waste glass. The main constituent in both the clay tile and the clay with TFT-LCD waste glass samples is quartz. Increasing the temperature resulted in an increase in the flexural strength and resistance to abrasion in the tiles. The porosity ratio decreases as shrinkage increases. The relation between the porosity ratio and the hardness of the tiles used in the study is also shown.

  8. Dendronized Polyimides Bearing Long-Chain Alkyl Groups and Their Application for Vertically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tsuda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyimides having dendritic side chains were investigated. The terphenylene diamine monomer having a first-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris(n-dodecyloxy-benzoate and the monomer having a second-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris[-3’,4’,5’-tri(n-dodecyloxybenzyloxy]benzoate were successfully synthesized and the corresponding soluble dendritic polyimides were obtained by polycondensation with conventional tetracarboxylic dianhydride monomers such as benzophenone tertracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA. The two-step polymerizations in NMP that is a general method for the synthesis of soluble polyimides is difficult; however, the expected dendritic polyimides can be obtained in aromatic polar solvents such as m-cresol and pyridine. The solubility of these dendoronized polyimides is characteristic; soluble in common organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform, toluene and THF. These dendronized polyimides exhibited high glass transition temperatures and good thermal stability in both air and under nitrogen. Their application as alignment layers for LCDs was investigated, and it was found that these polyimides having dendritic side chains were applicable for the vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal displays (VAN-LCDs.

  9. Fluorescence depolarization and contact angle investigation of dynamic and static interfacial tension of liquid crystal display materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintella, Cristina M; Lima, Angelo M V; Gonçalves, Cristiane C; Watanabe, Yuji N; Mammana, Alaide P; Schreiner, Marcos A; Pepe, Iuri; Pizzo, Angela A

    2003-06-01

    Interfacial interactions control two processes empirically known to be critical for molecular anchoring in twisted nematic liquid crystal displays technology (TN-LCDs): surface treatment and filling procedure. Static and dynamical interfacial tensions (Gamma(SL)) between liquids and several substrates with similar roughness were observed respectively by contact angle (theta(c)) of sessile drops and by fluorescence depolarization of thin liquid films flowing at high velocity. Gamma(SL) decreased when glass was coated with tin dioxide and increased with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) deposition. Drops were circular for all substrates except rubbed PVA, where they flowed spontaneously along the rubbing direction, reaching an oblong form that had theta(c) parallel and perpendicular to the rubbing direction respectively greater and smaller than theta(c) for non-rubbed PVA. This is attributed to polar group alignment generating an asymmetric Gamma(SL) distribution with nanometric preferential direction, inducing a capillary-like flow. Polarization and anisotropy maps for high-velocity flow parallel to the PVA rubbing direction showed an increase in the net alignment of molecular domains and a widening of the region where it occurred. This is attributed to preferential anchoring in the downstream direction, instead of in several directions, as for non-rubbed PVA. This explains why filling direction is crucial for TN-LCDs homogeneous behavior.

  10. Pixel-Wise-Inter/Intra-Channel Color and Luminance Uniformity Corrections for Multi-Channel Projection Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Jan 2015 – Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PIXEL-WISE INTER /INTRA-CHANNEL COLOR & LUMINANCE UNIFORMITY...Conference Dayton, Ohio – 28-29 June 2016 14. ABSTRACT Inter - and intra-channel color and luminance are generally non-uniform in multi-channel...projection display systems. Several methods have been proposed to correct for both inter - and intra-channel color and luminance variation in multi-channel

  11. One-Dimensional Tunable Photonic-Crystal IR Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MetroLaser proposes to design and develop an innovative narrowband tunable IR filter based on the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a...

  12. One-Dimensional Tunable Photonic-Crystal IR Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MetroLaser proposes to design and develop an innovative narrowband tunable IR filter based on the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a...

  13. Chelant-induced reclamation of indium from the spent liquid crystal display panels with the aid of microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi, E-mail: hhiroshi@t.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Rahman, Ismail M.M., E-mail: I.M.M.Rahman@gmail.com [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Egawa, Yuji; Sawai, Hikaru; Begum, Zinnat A. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Maki, Teruya [Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Mizutani, Satoshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Sugimoto 3-3-138, Sumiyoshi-Ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • A new process for indium recovery from end-of-life LCD panels. • Chelants are used for the dissolution of indium from the waste LCD panels. • Indium extraction with chelant is enhanced with the aid of microwave irradiation. • Extraction rate is quantitative in the hyperbaric high-temperature environment. -- Abstract: Indium is a rare metal that is mostly consumed as indium tin oxide (ITO) in the fabrication process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The spent LCD panels, termed as LCD-waste hereafter, is an increasing contributor of electronic waste burden worldwide and can be an impending secondary source of indium. The present work reports a new technique for the reclamation of indium from the unground LCD-waste using aminopolycarboxylate chelants (APCs) as the solvent in a hyperbaric environment and at a high-temperature. Microwave irradiation was used to create the desired system conditions, and a substantial abstraction of indium (≥80%) from the LCD-waste with the APCs (EDTA or NTA) was attained in the acidic pH region (up to pH 5) at the temperature of ≥120 °C and the pressure of ∼50 bar. The unique point of the reported process is the almost quantitative recovery of indium from the LCD-waste that ensured via the combination of the reaction facilitatory effect of microwave exposure and the metal extraction capability of APCs. A method for the selective isolation of indium from the extractant solution and recycle of the chelant in solution is also described.

  14. Leaching of indium from obsolete liquid crystal displays: Comparing grinding with electrical disintegration in context of LCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodbiba, Gjergj, E-mail: dodbiba@sys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan); Nagai, Hiroki; Wang Lipang; Okaya, Katsunori; Fujita, Toyohisa [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two pre-treatment methods, prior to leaching of indium from obsolete LCD modules, were described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional grinding and electrical disintegration have been evaluated and compared in the context of LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data on the leaching capacity for indium and the electricity consumption of equipment were inputted into the LCA model in order to compare the environmental performance of each method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An estimate for the environmental performance was calculated as the sum of six impact categories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical disintegration method outperforms conventional grinding in all impact categories. - Abstract: In order to develop an effective recycling system for obsolete Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs), which would enable both the leaching of indium (In) and the recovery of a pure glass fraction for recycling, an effective liberation or size-reduction method would be an important pre-treatment step. Therefore, in this study, two different types of liberation methods: (1) conventional grinding, and (2) electrical disintegration have been tested and evaluated in the context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In other words, the above-mentioned methods were compared in order to find out the one that ensures the highest leaching capacity for indium, as well as the lowest environmental burden. One of the main findings of this study was that the electrical disintegration was the most effective liberation method, since it fully liberated the indium containing-layer, ensuring a leaching capacity of 968.5 mg-In/kg-LCD. In turn, the estimate for the environmental burden was approximately five times smaller when compared with the conventional grinding.

  15. Fast and effective occlusion culling for 3D holographic displays by inverse orthographic projection with low angular sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jia; Liu, Juan; Jin, Guofan; Wang, Yongtian

    2014-09-20

    Occlusion culling is an important process that produces correct depth cues for observers in holographic displays, whereas current methods suffer from occlusion errors or high computational loads. We propose a fast and effective method for occlusion culling based on multiple light-point sampling planes and an inverse orthographic projection technique. Multiple light-point sampling planes are employed to remove the hidden surfaces for each direction of the view of the three-dimensional (3D) scene by forward orthographic projection, and the inverse orthographic projection technique is used to determine the effective sampling points of the 3D scene. A numerical simulation and an optical experiment are performed. The results show that this approach can realize accurate occlusion effects, smooth motion parallax, and continuous depth using low angular sampling without any extra computation costs.

  16. Design of 1-μm-pitch liquid crystal spatial light modulators having dielectric shield wall structure for holographic display with wide field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomae, Yoshitomo; Shibata, Yosei; Ishinabe, Takahiro; Fujikake, Hideo

    2017-03-01

    In the development of electronic holographic displays with a wide field of view, one issue is the realization of 1-μm-pitch spatial light modulators (SLMs) using liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) techniques. We clarified that it is necessary to suppress not only the leakage of fringe electric fields from adjacent pixels but also the effect of elastic forces in the liquid crystal to achieve full-phase modulation (2π) in individual pixels. We proposed a novel LCOS-SLM with a dielectric shield wall structure, and achieved driving of individual 1-μm-pitch pixels. We also investigated the optimum values for width and dielectric constant of the wall structure when enlarging the area that can modulate light in the pixels. These results contribute to the design of 1-μm-pitch LCOS-SLM devices for wide-viewing-angle holographic displays.

  17. In-Home Display – a Review of Experiences from Research Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Billewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies on smart metering. The aim of smart metering is not only automated billing and two-way communication with a smart meter. The measure of success of the implementation of smart metering is the level of customer engagement and their cooperation with energy companies, as well as the consequences of such involvement changing electricity-using habits. This article focuses on one device for smart metering – in-home display (IHD. The paper characterizes an IHD’s functions and describes international experiences of research and conclusions of studies.

  18. Optimize the modulation response of twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays as pure phase spatial light modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baiheng; Peng, Fei; Kang, Mingwu; Zhou, Jiawu

    2014-11-01

    Twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays (TN-LCD) are widely used in numerous research fields of optics working as spatial light modulators. Approaches to obtaining desired intensity or phase modulation by TN-LCD have been extensively studied based on the knowledge of TN-LCD's internal structure parameters, e.g., the orientation of LC molecules at the surfaces, the twist angle, the thickness of the LC layer, and the birefringence of the material. Generally TN-LCD placed between two linear polarizers (P) produces coupled intensity and phase modulation. To obtain the commonly used pure phase modulation, quarter wave plates (QWP) are often used in front of and/or behind the LCD. In this paper, we present a method to optimize the optical modulation properties of the TN-LCD to obtain pure phase modulation in the configuration of P-QWP-LCD-QWP-P each with proper orientation. Firstly an improved method for determining the Jones matrix of the TN-LCD without knowing its internal parameters is presented, which is based on the macroscopical Jones matrix descriptions for TN-LCD, linear polarizer and QWP. Only three sets of intensity measurements are needed for the complete determination of the TN-LCD's Jones matrix for a single wavelength. Then Jones matrix calculations are carried out to determine the orientations of the polarizers and QWPs for pure phase modulation response. In addition, we prove that the phase modulation depth (PMD) of the TN-LCD can be further increased provided that the mean intensity transmission is decreased to a lower level, which is very useful when the TN-LCD is used as a phase modulator and the ratio between the intensities of the desired diffracted order relative to the other diffracted orders is required higher. Experimental results coincide well with the optical modulation properties of the TN-LCD predicted by our determined Jones matrix. In contrast to the traditional method which requires knowledge of the TN-LCD's internal structure parameters

  19. Final Report of Project Nanometer Structures for Fuel Cells and Displays, etc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Qing

    2011-12-15

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment induced self-assembly has been used to form various periodic nano-size wave-ordered structures (WOS). Such WOS can be used as hard etching masks to produce nanowire arrays, trenches etc., on other materials by means of traditional etching or ion sputtering. These periodic nano-size structures have a wide range of applications, including flat panel displays, optical electronics, and clean energy technologies (solar and fuel cells, lithium batteries). In order to achieve high throughput of the above processes, a large area RF-driven multicusp nitrogen ion source has been developed for the application of nitrogen ion beam induced surface modification. An integrated ion beam system, which can house either a large area RF-driven multicusp ion source or a commercially available microwave ion source (Roth & Rau AG Tamiris 400-f) have been designed, manufactured, assembled, and tested.

  20. Single Crystal Bimorph Array (SCBA) Driven Deformable Mirror (DM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II project will research a novel deformable mirror design for NASA adaptive optics telescope applications. The...

  1. Single Crystal Bimorph Array Driven Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I project will research a novel deformable mirror design for NASA adaptive optics telescope applications . The...

  2. Dual paraboloid reflector and light pipe based systems for projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kenneth; Sillyman, Sheldon; Inatsugu, Seiji

    2005-04-01

    With the pressure to reduce cost for mass-market introduction of microdisplay-based rear projection television (MD-RPTV), the image panel and the related optical components have to be reduced in size and novel optical arrangements have to be created to achieve the target price. One major issue always had been the need for more light. Traditional reflector systems, including elliptical and parabolic reflectors, perform well in most cases, but are inefficient for smaller etendue values corresponding to smaller image panels. The common remedy is to make lamps with shorter and shorter arcs to increase the coupling efficiency, but the corresponding lifetime of the lamps are reduced and most of the time, these short arc lamps can only operate at low power, thus limiting the total output of the illuminating system. This paper summarizes the progress in the last few years related to the dual Paraboloid reflector (DPR) system and the associated components including polarization recovery systems and light pipe based projection engines.

  3. ADAM Project – A generic web interface for retrieval and display of ATLAS TDAQ information.

    CERN Document Server

    Harwood, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Lehmann Miotto, G

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to the visualization of stored information about the operation of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition system. ATLAS is one of the two general purpose detectors positioned along the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Its data acquisition system consists of several thousand computers interconnected via multiple gigabit Ethernet networks, that are constantly monitored via different tools. Operational parameters ranging from the temperature of the computers, to the network utilization are stored in several databases for a posterior analysis. Although the ability to view these data-sets individually is already in place, there currently is no way to view this data together, in a uniform format, from one location. The ADAM project has been launched in order to overcome this limitation. It defines a uniform web interface to collect data from multiple diversely structured providers. It is capable of aggregating and correlating the data according to user defined criteria. Finally it v...

  4. Identification of Text and Symbols on a Liquid Crystal Display Part I: Characterisation of the Luminance, Temporal and Spectral Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Association of Physicists in Medicine set up the AAPM Task Group 18 to establish standards for medical displays, and this group recommended that luminance...Using CRT-Generated Stimuli. Color Research and Application, 24(3), 164-176. TG18, A. (2005). AAPM On-Line Report No. 03. Assessment of Display...for Medical Imaging Systems: Executive Summary of AAPM TG18 Report. Medical Physics, 32(4), 1205-1225. 29 DSTO-TN-0770 30 Appendix A

  5. Speckle reduction in laser projection displays through angle and wavelength diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trinh-Thi-Kim; Svensen, Øyvind; Chen, Xuyuan; Akram, Muhammad Nadeem

    2016-02-20

    Speckle is the main obstacle for the use of laser light sources in projection technology. This paper focuses on speckle suppression by the reduction of temporal coherence which is provided by the broadband laser light. The investigation of the effect of laser spectrum width and multiple lasers on speckle contrast is discussed. A broader spectrum width of the laser light is attained by the use of multiple semiconductor laser diodes of the broad area type. Measurements of speckle contrast with and without angle diversity are performed for two and four laser diodes. The measurement of speckle contrast for a single laser diode is also presented for comparison. The experimental results show that multiple laser diodes provide lower speckle contrast as compared to a single laser diode. In addition, it is also shown in this paper that the wavelength distribution of independent laser diodes has an effect on speckle contrast. Two different types of blue laser diodes, Nichia NUB802T and Nichia NUB801E, which have slightly different central wavelengths, were used for the measurements. Four laser diodes with a combination of two types of laser diodes offer better speckle contrast reduction than four laser diodes of the same type due to an effective broader spectrum. Additional speckle contrast reduction is achieved through the angle diversity by using a dynamic deformable mirror.

  6. Reduced operating voltage and grey-to-grey response time in a vertically aligned liquid crystal display using a mixture of two polyimide alignment materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Young Eun; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Byeong Hoon; Song, Won Il; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Lee, Gi-Dong; Lee, Seung Hee

    2013-12-01

    We proposed a method to reduce the operating voltage and the grey-to-grey switching time of a vertically aligned liquid crystal display using a mixture of planar and vertical polyimide alignment materials. The surface anchoring energy of the two-polyimide mixture was smaller than that of the pure vertical polyimide and consequently, liquid crystal molecules were easily switched to a planar state with an electric field, resulting in a greater maximum retardation than that of the pure polyimide at the same applied voltage. Rising time was also significantly reduced due to the suppressed optical bouncing effect in the mixed planar polyimide, and the decaying time showed negligible change. With the proposed approach, we can reduce the cell gap to obtain half-wave retardation allowing for faster response time while keeping a low operating voltage.

  7. 基于液晶空间光调制器的全息显示∗%Holographic display based on liquid crystal spatial light mo dulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏军; 常琛亮; 雷威

    2015-01-01

    In conventional phase-only holographic display, the phase-only computer generated hologram is usually calculated based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm, in which the Nyquist theory should be satisfied. However, due to the pixel structure of the liquid crystal spatial light modulator and a fixed spatial sampling rate, the size of the reconstructed image is limited by the space-bandwidth product of the liquid crystal phase modulator. The traditional solution is to use convolution algorithm or double-step Fresnel diffraction algorithm to calculate the Fresnel hologram, but FFT has to be calculated many times in both of the methods, thereby increasing the burden of hologram computation. Therefore, in this paper we propose a method to calculate the phase-only hologram based on setting a virtual hologram plane. This virtual hologram plane is set based on the principle of lens imaging. So the calculation of the hologram can be divided into two steps: the first step is to calculate the Fresnel diffraction from the object plane to the virtual hologram plane, and the second step is to calculate the hologram from the virtual hologram plane by being multiplied with a quadratic phase term. In this way, the hologram can be calculated from the original object with any sampling rate we need by adjusting the corresponding parameters of distance. By this method one can calculate the Fresnel diffraction between hologram plane and object plane with variable sampling rates, without considering the space-bandwidth product of the liquid crystal phase modulator, and this algorithm uses only one FFT calculation, which can speed up the calculation of hologram compared with the convolution based method (using three FFTs in calculation) and the double-step Fresnel method (using two FFTs in calculation). Both the computer simulation and the optical experiments demonstrate that the object can be reconstructed with different sizes in the holographic display system. In the optical

  8. WE-D-204-02: Novel Method for Correcting Degradation of Sharpness of Liquid-Crystal Display Based On Modulation Transfer Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokurei, S [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan); Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Hospital, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Morishita, J; Yabuuchi, H [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu Universi, Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiotsuki, K [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan); Bamba, Y; Ogaki, M; Kita, M [Eizo Corporation, Hakusan, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a method for improving sharpness of images reproduced on liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) by compensating for the degradation of modulation transfer function (MTF) of the LCD. Methods: The inherent MTF of a color LCD (display MTF) was measured using a commercially available color digital camera. The frequency responses necessary to compensate for the resolution property of the LCD were calculated from the inverses of the display MTFs in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In addition, the inverses of the display MTFs were combined with the response of the human eye. The finite impulse response (FIR) filters were computed by taking the inverse Fourier transform of the frequency responses, and the effects of the FIR filtering on both the resolution and noise properties of the displayed images were verified by measuring the MTF and Wiener spectrum (WS), respectively. The FIR filtering was then applied to the representation of digital bone and chest radiographs. Results: The FIR filtering improved the MTF values by up to almost 1.0 or greater over the frequency range of interest, while it minimally increased the WS values. Combining the inverses of the display MTFs with the response of the human eye led to further refinement of the MTF. Our method was successfully and beneficially applied to the image interpretation of bone radiographs. The resolution enhancement of chest radiographs, which include larger scattered radiation than bone radiographs, was easily perceived by incorporating the response of the human eye. In addition, no artifacts were observed on the processed images. Conclusion: Our proposed method to compensate for the degradation of the resolution properties of LCDs has the potential to improve the observer performance of radiologists when reading digital radiographs. This work was supported in part by grant from EIZO Corporation.

  9. Handbook of display technology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Joseph A

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  10. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project: Detect and Avoid Display Evaluations in Support of SC-228 Minimum Operational Performance Standards Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Lisa Carolynn

    2017-01-01

    The primary activity for the UAS-NAS Human Systems Integration (HSI) sub-project in Phase 1 was support of RTCA Special Committee 228 Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS). We provide data on the effect of various Detect and Avoid (DAA) display features with respect to pilot performance of the remain well clear function in order to determine the minimum requirements for DAA displays.

  11. A comparison of the suitability of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as visual stimulators in mfERG diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Christoph; Horn, Folkert K; Kremers, Jan; Juenemann, Anselm

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine up to which extent the specific characteristics of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors influence the retinal biosignal when used as stimulators in ocular electrophysiology. In a conventional CRT monitor, each pixel lights up only for a duration of a few milliseconds during each frame. In contrast, liquid crystal displays are quasi-static, i.e. each pixel has a constant luminance during the whole length of the frame, but lights up only with a certain delay after the trigger. These different display characteristics may affect the mfERG signal. The temporal and spatial luminance distributions of a CRT and an LCD monitor were measured in white flashes. The total amount of emitted light was calculated by integration of the intensity versus time curves. By means of an mfERG recording system (RETIsystem, Roland Consult, Brandenburg, Germany) first-order kernel (FOK) mfERG signals were computed and then analysed using customized MATLAB (TheMathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) software. With the two stimulator monitors, differences in the mfERG signal were observed. The latencies of mfERG responses recorded with the LCD monitor were significantly increased by 7.1 ms for N1 and 9.5 ms for P1 compared to the CRT. Due to a higher luminance, the N1 amplitude was significantly higher by approx. 2 dB in measurements with the LCD monitor while no significant difference could be detected with regard to the more contrast sensitive P1 amplitude. When using LCD monitors as stimulators the increase in latencies and differences in the luminance versus time profile must be taken into account. Prior to clinical application, the establishment of guidelines for the use of LCD monitors is recommended.

  12. [Evaluation of image quality using the normalized-rank approach for primary class liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors with different colors and resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Hidefumi; Katayama, Reiji; Sakaguchi, Taro; Maeda, Takashi; Morishita, Junji; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2010-11-20

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the image quality of five types of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors by utilizing the normalized-rank approach and to investigate the effect of LCD monitor specifications, such as display colors, luminance, and resolution, on the evaluators' ranking. The LCD monitors used in this study were 2, 3 and 5 mega-pixel monochrome LCD monitors, and 2 and 3 mega-pixel color LCD monitors (Eizo Nanao Corporation). All LCD monitors were calibrated to the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) with different maximum luminance (recommended luminance) settings. Also, four kinds of radiographs were used for observer study based on the normalized-rank approach: three adult chest radiographs, three pediatric chest radiographs, three ankle joint radiographs, and four double-contrasted upper gastrointestinal radiographs. Ten radiological technologists participated in the observer study. Monochrome LCD monitors exhibited superior ranking with statistically significant differences (pLCD monitors in all kinds of radiographs. The major difference between monochrome and color monitors was luminance. Therefore, it is considered that the luminance of LCD monitors affects observers' evaluations based on image quality. Moreover, in the case of radiographs that include high frequency image components, the monitor resolution also affects the evaluation. In clinical practice, it is necessary to optimize the luminance and choose appropriate LCD monitors for diagnostic images.

  13. Solar cell process development in the European integrated project CrystalClear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaucarne, G.; John, J.; Choulat, P.; Ma, Y. [IMEC vzw, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Russel, R. [BP Solar Espana, Madrid (Spain); Romijn, I.; Weeber, A. [ECN Solar Energy, PO Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hofmann, M.; Preu, R. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Slaoui, A. [InESS, Strassbourg (France); Le Quang, N.; Nichiporuk, O. [Photowatt Technologies, Bourgoin-Jallieu (France); Del Caoizo, C; Pan, A. [Polytechnical University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Solheim, H.; Evju, J. [REC Scancell, Sandvika (Norway); Nagel, H.; Horzel, J. [SCHOTT Solar, Alzenau (Germany); Bitnar, B.; Heemeier, M.; Weber, T. [SolarWorld, Freiberg/Sachsen (Germany); Raabe, B.; Haverkamp, H.; Struempel, C.; Junge, J.; Riegel, S.; Seren, S.; Hahn, G. [University of Konstanz, Department of Physics, P.O.Box X916, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    CrystalClear is a large integrated project funded by the European Commission that aims to drastically reduce the cost of crystalline Si PV modules, down to 1 Euro/Wp. Among the different subprojects, the one dealing with the development of advanced solar cells is relatively large (with 11 partners out of the 15 Crystal Clear partners taking part) and has a crucial role. The goal of the subproject is to develop cell design concepts and manufacturing processes that would enable a reduction in the order of 40% of the cell processing costs per Wp. In this paper, we give an overview of all the development work that has taken place in the CrystalClear solar cells subproject so far. World class results have been achieved, particularly on high efficiency cells on Si ribbons, and on industrial-type solar cells on very thin (120 {mu}m thick) substrates.

  14. A FPGA-Based Integrated Controller for Liquid Crystal Display%基于FPGA的液晶控制器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪金辉; 张健; 宫娜; 吴武臣; 董利民

    2008-01-01

    介绍了一种基于 FPGA 的集成液晶控制器.系统由显示模块和控制模块组成,显示模块(LEM101)为10 bit 多功能通用型器件,内含看门狗(WDT)/时钟发生器,2 种频率的蜂鸣驱动电路,内置显示RAM,及3-4线串行接口.控制器基于1.5万门 FPGA 芯片(Xilinx XC3S1500),易于扩展和升级.利用 Verilog 语言,在 FPGA 芯片中实现了控制模块的设计,通过 GR-XC3S-1500 开发板验证,本设计完全满足对液晶模块的控制要求,并成功应用于光栅测量显示控制系统中.控制模块由四部分组成:存储、译码、串并转换器、输出控制.文章讨论了设计方法和设计过程,给出了部分 Verilog 代码.此外,本设计还创造性地在电源和 FPGA 芯片间插入低成本元件,满足了液晶上电后,初始化命令的延迟要求,从而节约了 FPGA 的硬件资源.%This paper presents a FPGA-based integrated controller for liquid crystal display system. The system consists of a display module and a controlling module. The former (LCM101 chip) is 10 bit multi-functional device with a WDT(watch dog timer), a dual frequency driving circuit, a display RAM and seri-al interface. The later is an integrated display controller using a FPGA chip of 1. 5million gate (Xilinx XC3S1500), so being easy to extend and upgrade. Integrated controller design in FPGA chip has been im-plemented by using Verilog language coding and verified in Xilinx Development Board. The design fits the requirements to control liquid crystal display entirely, and is successfully applied in a grating measurement system. The controller module includes four parts: storage, decoding, serial-parallel interface translation,and output controlling. This paper discusses the design method and the design process of each part above,providing Verilog codes partly. What's more a low-cost accessory is originally located between FPGA chip and power supply in hardware design to satisfy delay after liquid crystal electrify

  15. Micro-display Projection Optical System’s Emulation and Implementation%微显示投影光学系统的仿真与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天挺

    2016-01-01

    Micro-display projection display technology is a branch of display technology. As the market develops, displaying equipment requires a smaller area, lighter weight, lower power products to replace the old micro display projection devices, which Google glasses for such equipment in the most successful example. The main content of this paper is taking Google glasses as a reference to carry on research of micro-display projection optical system, according to Google glasses patent report, this paper analyz the principles to imitate and make improvements, using ZEMAX optical design software to design and simulate multiple reflection eyepiece of near-eye display, and finally using actual optics to build the optical system to achieve this design.%微显示投影技术是显示技术领域的一个分支。随着市场的发展,显示设备要求用面积更小、重量更轻、功耗更低的产品来代替老式微显示投影设备,其中谷歌眼镜为此类设备中最为成功的一例。本文主要是以谷歌眼镜为参照,对微显示投影光学系统进行研究。根据谷歌眼镜的专利报告,分析其中的原理并进行仿真与实验。利用ZEMAX光学设计软件对用以近人眼显示的多重反射目镜进行设计和仿真,最后用实际光学器件来搭建光学系统实现该设计。

  16. Vortex beam generation and other advanced optics experiments reproduced with a twisted-nematic liquid-crystal display with limited phase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofré, Aaron; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Vargas, Asticio; Moreno, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    In this work we propose the use of twisted-nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulators (TN-LC-SLM) as a useful tool for training students in the manipulation of light beams with phase-only masks. In particular, we focus the work on the realization of phase-only gratings and phase-only spiral phases for the generation of vortex beams, beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). Despite the extensive activity in this field, its experimental implementation for educational purposes is limited because it requires the use of very expensive high-resolution liquid-crystal on silicon (LCOS) SLMs. Here, we show that a low-cost experimental implementation can be done with older TNLC technology. However, these devices, intended for display applications, exhibit rather limited optical phase modulation properties in comparison with modern LCOS devices, such as a very low range of phase modulation and a general coupled intensity modulation. However, we show that a precise characterization of their retardance parameters permits their operation in useful modulation configurations. As examples, we include one continuous phase-only configuration useful for reproducing the optimal triplicator phase grating, and a binary π-phase modulation. We include experiments with the realization of different phase diffraction gratings, and their combination with spiral phase patterns and lens functions to generate a variety of vortex beams.

  17. Type 1 cannabinoid receptor ligands display functional selectivity in a cell culture model of striatal medium spiny projection neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprairie, Robert B; Bagher, Amina M; Kelly, Melanie E M; Dupré, Denis J; Denovan-Wright, Eileen M

    2014-09-05

    Modulation of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) activity has been touted as a potential means of treating addiction, anxiety, depression, and neurodegeneration. Different agonists of CB1 are known to evoke varied responses in vivo. Functional selectivity is the ligand-specific activation of certain signal transduction pathways at a receptor that can signal through multiple pathways. To understand cannabinoid-specific functional selectivity, different groups have examined the effect of individual cannabinoids on various signaling pathways in heterologous expression systems. In the current study, we compared the functional selectivity of six cannabinoids, including two endocannabinoids (2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA)), two synthetic cannabinoids (WIN55,212-2 and CP55,940), and two phytocannabinoids (cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) on arrestin2-, Gα(i/o)-, Gβγ-, Gα(s)-, and Gα(q)-mediated intracellular signaling in the mouse STHdh(Q7/Q7) cell culture model of striatal medium spiny projection neurons that endogenously express CB1. In this system, 2-AG, THC, and CP55,940 were more potent mediators of arrestin2 recruitment than other cannabinoids tested. 2-AG, AEA, and WIN55,212-2, enhanced Gα(i/o) and Gβγ signaling, with 2-AG and AEA treatment leading to increased total CB1 levels. 2-AG, AEA, THC, and WIN55,212-2 also activated Gα(q)-dependent pathways. CP55,940 and CBD both signaled through Gα(s). CP55,940, but not CBD, activated downstream Gα(s) pathways via CB1 targets. THC and CP55,940 promoted CB1 internalization and decreased CB1 protein levels over an 18-h period. These data demonstrate that individual cannabinoids display functional selectivity at CB1 leading to activation of distinct signaling pathways. To effectively match cannabinoids with therapeutic goals, these compounds must be screened for their signaling bias.

  18. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  19. The influence of liquid crystal display monitors on observer performance for the detection of interstitial lung markings on both storage phosphor and flat-panel-detector chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Yon Mi [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Hospital, 1198, Guwol-dong, Namdong-gu, Incheon 405-760 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung Jin [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mj1.chung@samsung.com; Lee, Kyung Soo [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong-Keun [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To compare observer performance with a flat-panel liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor and with a high-resolution gray-scale cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor in the detection of interstitial lung markings using a silicon flat-panel-detector direct radiography (DR) and storage phosphor computed radiography (CR) in a clinical setting. Materials and methods: We displayed 39 sets of posteroanterior chest radiographs from the patients who were suspected of interstitial lung disease. Each sets consisted of DR, CR and thin-section CT as the reference standard. Image identities were masked, randomly sorted, and displayed on both five mega pixel (2048 x 2560 x 8 bits) LCD and CRT monitors. Ten radiologists independently rated their confidence in detection for the presence of linear opacities in the four fields of the lungs; right upper, left upper, right lower, and left lower quadrant. Performance of a total 6240 (39 sets x 2 detector systems x 2 monitor system x 4 fields x 10 observers) observations was analyzed by multi-reader multi-case receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Differences between monitor systems in combinations of detector systems were compared using ANOVA and paired-samples t-test. Results: Area under curves (AUC) for the presence of linear opacities measured by ROC analysis was higher on the LCDs than CRTs without statistical significance (p = 0.082). AUC was significantly higher on the DR systems than CR systems (p = 0.006). AUC was significantly higher on the LCDs than CRTs for DR systems (p = 0.039) but not different for CR systems (p = 0.301). Conclusion: In clinical conditions, performance of the LCD monitor appears to be better for detecting interstitial lung markings when interfaced with DR systems.

  20. Biological treatment of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater using aerobic and anoxic/oxic sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chin-Nan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chen, Po-Chun

    2010-09-01

    The amount of pollutants produced during manufacturing processes of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) substantially increases due to an increasing production of the opto-electronic industry in Taiwan. This study presents the treatment performance of one aerobic and one anoxic/oxic (A/O) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating synthetic TFT-LCD wastewater containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), monoethanolamine (MEA), and tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The long-term monitoring results for the aerobic and A/O SBRs demonstrate that stable biodegradation of DMSO, MEA, and TMAH can be achieved without any considerably adverse impacts. The ammonium released during MEA and TMAH degradation can also be completely oxidized to nitrate through nitrification in both SBRs. Batch studies on biodegradation rates for DMSO, MEA, and TMAH under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions indicate that effective MEA degradation can be easily achieved under all three conditions examined, while efficient DMSO and TMAH degradation can be attained only under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The potential odor problem caused by the formation of malodorous dimethyl sulfide from DMSO degradation under anaerobic conditions, however, requires insightful consideration in treating DMSO-containing wastewater.

  1. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles synthesized from liquid crystal display manufacturing extracts as a potential candidate for a drug delivery carrier: evaluation of their safety and biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin YC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Chih Lin,1 Liang-Yi Lin,2 Ming-Yi Gao,3 Yi-Ping Fang31Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University, 2Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 3Department of Biotechnology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, TaiwanAbstract: Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs were synthesized as a promising drug delivery carrier due to the large surface area and porous characteristics. Our previous study successfully recycled wastes from the liquid crystal display (LCD industry as the silica precursor. In this study, we substantiated the possibility of applying this material as a drug carrier. MSNs synthesized from the extraction of wastes from the manufacture of LCD panels were characterized as having an average diameter of 100 nm, a surface area of 788 m2/g, a uniform pore size distribution of 3.8 nm, and a pore volume of up to 1.04 cm3/g. Methotrexate and camptothecin were entrapped in MSNs at about 33.88% and 75.12%, respectively. The cell viability assay demonstrated that MSNs at 1 µg/mL had no significant influence on human lung fibroblast (WI-38 cells or ovarian cancer (ES-2 cells. A lactate dehydrogenase assay also indicated no inflammation occurred. Moreover, a hemolytic erythrocyte test indicated that the dose range of <100 µg/mL showed that 5% of erythrocytes were affected. After exposure to biofluids, the ordered structure was slightly degraded. The results revealed that MSNs synthesized from extraction of wastes from the manufacture of LCD panels had a good entrapment capacity for hydrophobic drugs and controllable safety conditions; they may be applied as a drug delivery carrier.Keywords: mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs, waste recycle, drug delivery carrier, safety, biocompatibility

  2. Crosstalk in stereoscopic displays: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andrew J.

    2012-10-01

    Crosstalk, also known as ghosting or leakage, is a primary factor in determining the image quality of stereoscopic three dimensional (3D) displays. In a stereoscopic display, a separate perspective view is presented to each of the observer's two eyes in order to experience a 3D image with depth sensation. When crosstalk is present in a stereoscopic display, each eye will see a combination of the image intended for that eye, and some of the image intended for the other eye-making the image look doubled or ghosted. High levels of crosstalk can make stereoscopic images hard to fuse and lack fidelity, so it is important to achieve low levels of crosstalk in the development of high-quality stereoscopic displays. Descriptive and mathematical definitions of these terms are formalized and summarized. The mechanisms by which crosstalk occurs in different stereoscopic display technologies are also reviewed, including micropol 3D liquid crystal displays (LCDs), autostereoscopic (lenticular and parallax barrier), polarized projection, anaglyph, and time-sequential 3D on LCDs, plasma display panels and cathode ray tubes. Crosstalk reduction and crosstalk cancellation are also discussed along with methods of measuring and simulating crosstalk.

  3. Displaying power, but altering identity : how Danish unions managed to organize the transnationalised Copenhagen Metro construction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke; Arnholtz, Jens

    Experiences from large-scale European construction projects with highly transnational labour forces have shown that national institutions and unions often are unsuccessful in including the transnational workers and companies in national IR systems. However, this article shows how Danish unions have...... been rather successful in organising the transnational construction project of a city metro ring in Copenhagen. This has happened despite a highly fragmented, transnational workforce and several of the sub-contracting firms initially trying actively to avoid the unionisation of their transnational...

  4. Inferring elastic properties of an fcc crystal from displacement correlations: subspace projection and statistical artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A; Maloney, C E

    2014-12-01

    We compute the effective dispersion and vibrational density of states (DOS) of two-dimensional subregions of three-dimensional face-centered-cubic crystals using both a direct projection-inversion technique and a Monte Carlo simulation based on a common underlying Hamiltonian. We study both a (111) and (100) plane. We show that for any given direction of wave vector, both (111) and (100) show an anomalous ω(2)∼q regime at low q where ω(2) is the energy associated with the given mode and q is its wave number. The ω(2)∼q scaling should be expected to give rise to an anomalous DOS, D(ω), at low ω: D(ω)∼ω(3) rather than the conventional Debye result: D(ω)∼ω(2). The DOS for (100) looks to be consistent with D(ω)∼ω(3), while (111) shows something closer to the conventional Debye result at the smallest frequencies. In addition to the direct projection-inversion calculation, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to study the effects of finite sampling statistics. We show that finite sampling artifacts act as an effective disorder and bias D(ω), giving a behavior closer to D(ω)∼ω(2) than D(ω)∼ω(3). These results should have an important impact on the interpretation of recent studies of colloidal solids where the two-point displacement correlations can be obtained directly in real-space via microscopy.

  5. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  6. Polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  7. Position algorithm for monolithic scintillation crystals based on charge projection readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, R.; Bettiol, M.; Preziosi, E.; Cinti, M. N.; Borrazzo, C.; Pellegrini, R.; Di Castro, E.; Fabbri, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging devices commonly use multi-element photo detection systems, composed of an array of N × N elements, each one providing an individual signal. Many strategies have been developed to reduce the number of readout channels, one of the main approaches is the Rows and Columns (R/C) projection logic. In this paper we proposed a modified version of Raised To the Power (RTP) algorithm adapted to R/C logic. In order to validate its efficiency a linear scanning irradiation on two 49× 49 mm2 LaBr3:Ce (0.5%) crystals with different thickness (4 mm and 10 mm) was carried out. Imaging performance analysis was made in terms of position linearity, Field-of-View (FoV) enlargement and spatial resolution. Imaging results from Anger Logic, RTP algorithm based on single element readout and RTP algorithm based on R/C readout were compared. A notable advantage of using RTP algorithms instead of Anger Logic was found: the FoV widens from about 30% to more than 70% of the detector area whereas the spatial resolution is highly improved, especially for off-center interactions, both for 4 mm-thick and 10 mm-thick crystals. Furthermore, imaging performance with the R/C readout is just slightly different from the single element one (FoV reduction less than 7% and SR worsening less than 10%). The R/C adapted RTP algorithm opens doors to high imaging performance with a substantial reduction of complexity and cost in the readout electronics.

  8. Pacific CRYSTAL Project: Explicit Literacy Instruction Embedded in Middle School Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Robert J.; Tippett, Christine D.; Yore, Larry D.

    2010-01-01

    Science literacy leading to fuller and informed participation in the public debate about science, technology, society, and environmental (STSE) issues that produce justified decisions and sustainable actions is the shared and central goal of the Pacific CRYSTAL Project. There is broad agreement by science education researchers that learners need to be able to construct and interpret specific scientific discourses and texts to be literate in science. We view these capabilities as components in the fundamental sense of science literacy and as interactive and synergetic to the derived sense of science literacy, which refers to having general knowledge about concepts, principles, and methods of science. This article reports on preliminary findings from Years 1, 2, and 3 of the 5-year Pacific CRYSTAL project that aims to identify, develop, and embed explicit literacy instruction in science programs to achieve both senses of science literacy. A community-based, opportunistic, engineering research and development approach has been utilized to identify problems and concerns and to design instructional solutions for teaching middle school (Grades 6, 7, and 8) science. Initial data indicate (a) opportunities in programs for embedding literacy instruction and tasks; (b) difficulties generalist teachers have with new science curricula; (c) difficulties specialist science teachers have with literacy activities, strategies, genre, and writing-to-learn science tasks; and (d) potential literacy activities (vocabulary, reading comprehension, visual literacy, genre, and writing tasks) for middle school science. Preinstruction student assessments indicate a range of challenges in achieving effective learning in science and the need for extensive teacher support to achieve the project’s goals. Postinstructional assessments indicate positive changes in students’ ability to perform target reading and writing tasks. Qualitative data indicate teachers’ desire for external direction

  9. Latest development of display technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Yue; Yao, Qiu-Xiang; Liu, Pan; Zheng, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ji-Cheng; Zheng, Hua-Dong; Zeng, Chao; Yu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Tao; Zeng, Zhen-Xiang

    2016-09-01

    In this review we will focus on recent progress in the field of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) display technologies. We present the current display materials and their applications, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), flexible OLEDs quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs), active-matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), electronic paper (E-paper), curved displays, stereoscopic 3D displays, volumetric 3D displays, light field 3D displays, and holographic 3D displays. Conventional 2D display devices, such as liquid crystal devices (LCDs) often result in ambiguity in high-dimensional data images because of lacking true depth information. This review thus provides a detailed description of 3D display technologies.

  10. 基于柱面光栅的液晶三维自由立体显示%3D Autostereoscopic Liquid Crystal Display Based on Lenticular Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琼华; 陶宇虹; 李大海; 赵仁亮; 赵悟翔

    2008-01-01

    根据双目视差原理和柱面光栅的分光特性研制了液晶三维自由立体显示器.该立体显示器由二维平板液晶显示器和柱面光栅有机耦合而成.采用九个视差图实现了三维静态、动态和视频的显示效果.一个19英寸的立体显示器具有相对应的平面显示器相同的亮度、对比度和色彩,其分辨率在垂直和水平方向都有合理的下降.该立体显示器的观看距离是(1000±500)mm,视角为 90°,可供多人不戴立体眼镜就能自由观看立体图像.%According to binocular parallax and the optical property of lenticular lens, a three-dimension (3D) au-tostereoscopic liquid crystal display was developed. The display is composed of a two-dimension (2D) fiat liquid crystal display and a lenticular lens sheet. Nine views are used to realize the display of 3D static, animation and video images. A 19-inch 3D monitor prototype presents the same brightness, contrast ratio and color as those of the corresponding 2D display. Only the resolution reduces on both the horizontal and vertical direction of the screen reasonably. The viewing distance is (1000±500)mm and viewing angle is 90°. Several viewers without wearing eyeglass can see 3D stereo images on the prototype of the display.

  11. HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING DL

    2008-09-16

    The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.

  12. Amorphous silicon crystallization by laser. Report of the experiments at Frascati (Project Foto); Cristallizzazione di silicio amorfo via laser. Rapporto degli esperimenti a frascati (Progetto Foto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Murra, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Div. Fisica Applicata; Imparato, A.; Privato, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Portici, Naples (Italy). Div. Fonti Rinnovabili; Carluccio, R.; Fortunato, G.; Mariucci, L.; Pecora, A. [CNR Istituto di Elettronica dello Stato Solido, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The final goal of the Project FOTO is the construction of a laboratory in a clean room for the production of active matrix which can be used to obtain Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays (AMLCD). The AMLCD are based on Thin Film Transistors (TFT), which can be obtained by poly-silicon (poly-Si) thin films, achieved, e.g., by irradiating films of amorphous silicon (a-Si) by ultraviolet laser radiation. In this report, are presented the results of the a-Si irradiation by using the laser-facility Hercules (excimer XeCl, l=0,308 mm) done at the ENEA Frascati Centre. The transformation of a-Si into poly-Si is commented upon the variation of the space-time characteristics of the laser pulses, of the irradiation conditions and of the characteristics of the irradiated a-Si films. [Italian] Il macro-obiettivo del Progetto FOTO e' la realizzazione di un laboratorio in camera pulita per lo sviluppo di processi atti a fabbricare matrici attive utilizzabili per ottenere schermi piatti a cristalli liquidi (AMLCD, Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display). Uno dei primi passi del processo consiste nel creare transistori a film sottile (TFT, Thin Film Transistor). A tal fine, e' necessario ottenere strati sottili di Silicio policristallino irragiando films di silicio amorfo con luce laser ultravioletta. In questo rapporto, sono presentati i risultati degli irraggiamenti di film sottili di silicio amorfo tramite la laser-facility Hercules (eccimero XeCl, l=0,308 mm) effettuati presso il C.R. ENEA di Frascati. La trasformazione di silicio amorfo in silicio policristallino cosi' ottenuta e' commentata al variare delle caratteristiche spazio-temporali dell'impulso laser, delle condizioni di irraggiamento e delle caratteristiche del film di silicio amorfo irraggiato.

  13. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  14. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  15. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  16. A very simple, robust and fast method for estimating and displaying average time constants of T2 decays from multiecho MRI images using color intensity projections

    CERN Document Server

    Cover, Keith S

    2008-01-01

    While the multiexponential nature of T2 decays measured in vivo is well known, characterizing T2 decays by a single time constant is still very useful when differentiating among structures and pathologies in MRI images. A novel, robust, fast and very simple method is presented for both estimating and displaying the average time constant for the T2 decay of each pixel from a multiecho MRI sequence. The average time constant is calculated from the average of the values measured from the T2 decay over many echoes. For a monoexponential decay, the normalized decay average varies monotonically with the time constant. Therefore, it is simple to map any normalized decay average to an average time constant. This method takes advantage of the robustness of the normalized decay average to both artifacts and multiexponential decays. Color intensity projections (CIPs) were used to display 32 echoes acquired at a 10ms spacing as a single color image. The brightness of each pixel in each color image was determined by the i...

  17. Advanced Electroactive Single Crystal and Polymer Actuator Concepts for Passive Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes large stroke and high precision piezoelectric single crystal and electroactive polymer actuator concepts?HYBrid Actuation System (HYBAS)...

  18. Ultra-high-resolution time projection chambers with liquid crystal backplanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monreal, Benjamin

    2014-10-15

    We investigated the possibility of incorporating a liquid-crystal device into a gas ionization detector. After extensive R&D on several candidate liquid-crystal technologies, we developed some novel materials allowing twisted nematic liquid-crystal layers to be coupled directly to gas ionization counters. However, the resulting structures were unsuitable for large-scale or practical use. We tested several technologies known to result in mechanically-robust liquid crystal electrooptic layers, but found poor behavior in the detector context.

  19. Cryogenic Clamp-on Ultrasonic Flowmeters using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Transducers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clamp-on ultrasound cryogenic flowmeters using single crystal piezoelectric transducers are proposed to enable reliable, accurate cryogenic instrumentation needs in...

  20. Three-dimensional display of peripheral nerves in the wrist region based on MR diffusion tensor imaging and maximum intensity projection post-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Wen Quan, E-mail: dingwenquan1982@163.com [Department of Hand Surgery, Hand Surgery Research Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu (China); Zhou, Xue Jun, E-mail: zxj0925101@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu (China); Tang, Jin Bo, E-mail: jinbotang@yahoo.com [Department of Hand Surgery, Hand Surgery Research Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu (China); Gu, Jian Hui, E-mail: gujianhuint@163.com [Department of Hand Surgery, Hand Surgery Research Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu (China); Jin, Dong Sheng, E-mail: jindongshengnj@aliyun.com [Department of Radiology, Jiangsu Province Official Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • 3D displays of peripheral nerves can be achieved by 2 MIP post-processing methods. • The median nerves’ FA and ADC values can be accurately measured by using DTI6 data. • Adopting 6-direction DTI scan and MIP can evaluate peripheral nerves efficiently. - Abstract: Objectives: To achieve 3-dimensional (3D) display of peripheral nerves in the wrist region by using maximum intensity projection (MIP) post-processing methods to reconstruct raw images acquired by a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scan, and to explore its clinical applications. Methods: We performed DTI scans in 6 (DTI6) and 25 (DTI25) diffusion directions on 20 wrists of 10 healthy young volunteers, 6 wrists of 5 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, 6 wrists of 6 patients with nerve lacerations, and one patient with neurofibroma. The MIP post-processing methods employed 2 types of DTI raw images: (1) single-direction and (2) T{sub 2}-weighted trace. The fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the median and ulnar nerves were measured at multiple testing sites. Two radiologists used custom evaluation scales to assess the 3D nerve imaging quality independently. Results: In both DTI6 and DTI25, nerves in the wrist region could be displayed clearly by the 2 MIP post-processing methods. The FA and ADC values were not significantly different between DTI6 and DTI25, except for the FA values of the ulnar nerves at the level of pisiform bone (p = 0.03). As to the imaging quality of each MIP post-processing method, there were no significant differences between DTI6 and DTI25 (p > 0.05). The imaging quality of single-direction MIP post-processing was better than that from T{sub 2}-weighted traces (p < 0.05) because of the higher nerve signal intensity. Conclusions: Three-dimensional displays of peripheral nerves in the wrist region can be achieved by MIP post-processing for single-direction images and T{sub 2}-weighted trace images for both DTI6 and DTI25

  1. Real-time synchronized rendering of multi-view video for 8Kx4K three-dimensional display with spliced four liquid crystal panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huilong; Sang, Xinzhu; Xing, Shujun; Ning, Jiwei; Yan, Binbin; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    A high speed synchronized rendering of multi-view video for 8K×4K multi-LCD-spliced three-dimensional (3D) display system based on CUDA is demonstrated. Because the conventional image processing calculation method is no longer applicable to this 3D display system, the CUDA technology is used for 3D image processing to address the problem of low efficiency.The 8K×4K screen is composed of four LCD screens, and accurate segmentation of the scene is carried out to ensure the correct display of 3D contents and a set of controlling and the host software are optimally implemented to make all of the connected processors render 3D videos simultaneously. The system which is based on the master-slave synchronization communication mode and DIBR-CUDA accelerated algorithm is used to realize the high resolution, high frame rate, large size, and wide view angle video rendering for the real-time 3D display. Experimental result shows a stable frame-rate at 30 frame-per-second and the friendly interactive interface can be achieved.

  2. Photonic crystal-adaptive optical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas

    -doped liquid crystal gain medium for the realization of cheap and compact optically pumped, electrically tunable lasers. Finally, a transparent projection display is presented which uses sub-wavelength gratings for redirection of light guided inside a waveguide and facilitates electro-optic switching by means...

  3. Miniature information displays: primary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-04-01

    Positioned to replace current liquid crystal display technology in many applications, miniature information displays have evolved to provide several truly portable platforms for the world's growing personal computing and communication needs. The technology and functionality of handheld computer and communicator systems has finally surpassed many of the standards that were originally established for desktop systems. In these new consumer electronics, performance, display size, packaging, power consumption, and cost have always been limiting factors for fabricating genuinely portable devices. The rapidly growing miniature information display manufacturing industry is making it possible to bring a wide range of highly anticipated new products to new markets.

  4. Single Crystal Piezoelectric Deformable Mirrors with High Actuator Density and Large Stroke Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Single crystal piezoelectric deformable mirrors with high actuator density, fine pitch, large stroke and no floating wires will be developed for future NASA science...

  5. Single Crystal Piezomotor for Large Stroke, High Precision and Cryogenic Actuations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes a novel single crystal piezomotor for large stroke, high precision, and cryogenic actuations with capability of position set-hold with...

  6. Advanced Electroactive Single Crystal and Polymer Actuators for Passive Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large stroke and high precision electroactive single crystal and polymer actuators are desired for cryogenic passive optics such as Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI)...

  7. Carbon/Liquid Crystal Polymer Prepreg for Cryogenic and High-Temp Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — KaZaK Composites proposes to develop a pultrusion process to produce carbon fiber / liquid crystal polymer (LCP) prepreg, a first for this category of materials and...

  8. Performance Characteristics of Pixelated CZT Crystals used on the GammaTracker Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Eric M.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Erikson, Luke E.; Morris, Scott J.; Balvage, Duane R.; Lundy, Richard P.

    2011-08-21

    GammaTracker is a handheld radioisotope identification device in development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that uses eighteen pixelated Cadmium-Zinc Telluride (CZT) crystals to provide energy resolution approaching that of high-purity germanium without the need for cryogenic cooling. Additionally, these crystals can be used to provide directional and imaging capabilities that cannot be found in other handheld detectors. A significant number of CZT crystals have been procured during the development of the GammaTracker system; the majority of these were procured with the same set of specifications. Each of these detectors has been characterized in terms of key parameters, including current-voltage response and pixel-by-pixel energy resolution. The results of this testing indicate that the overall quality of CZT crystals is improving over time.

  9. Research on Color Temperature and Color Reproduction Performance Based on Four Primary Colors Liquid Crystal Display%四元色液晶显示器色温与色重显性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦; 王静; 李娜; 李桂苓

    2013-01-01

    Based on the data of the test by choosing seven color temperatures and testing the colorimetric parameters of the four primary colors liquid crystal display, the relations of the color temperature and the brightness, chroma, tone, color gamut coverage of the liquid crystal display are analyzed. The result shows that while the color temperature rises up, the brightness of the LCD increases, and the color gamut coverage decreases with the distortion of some color tones and chromas.%选择7种色温,分别测试了四元色液晶显示器的色度参数,并基于测试数据,分析了色温与液晶显示器亮度、彩度、色调和色域覆盖率的关系.结果表明,色温升高时,液晶显示器的亮度加大,色域覆盖率减小,还引起某些颜色色调和彩度失真.

  10. Cooling and crystallization of rhyolite-obsidian lava: Insights from micron-scale projections on plagioclase microlites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kyohei; Toramaru, Atsushi

    2017-07-01

    To reveal the cooling process of a rhyolite-obsidian flow, we studied the morphology of plagioclase microlites in the Tokachi-Ishizawa lava of Shirataki, northern Hokkaido, Japan, where the structure of the lava can be observed from obsidian at the base of the flow to the innermost rhyolite. Needle-like micron-scale textures, known as ;projections;, occur on the short side surfaces of the plagioclase microlites. Using FE-SEM we discovered a positive correlation between the lengths and spacings of these projections. On the basis of the instability theory of an interface between melt and crystal, and to understand the length and spacing data, we developed a model that explains the positive correlation and allows us to simultaneously estimate growth rates and growth times. Applying the model to our morphological data and the estimated growth rates and growth times, we suggest that the characteristics of the projections reflect the degree of undercooling, which in turn correlates with lava structure (the obsidian at the margin of the flow experienced a higher degree of undercooling than the interior rhyolite). The newly developed method provides insights into the degree of undercooling during the final stages of crystallization of a rhyolitic lava flow.

  11. A mammalian conserved element derived from SINE displays enhancer properties recapitulating Satb2 expression in early-born callosal projection neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Tashiro

    Full Text Available Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs are highly repeated sequences that account for a significant proportion of many eukaryotic genomes and are usually considered "junk DNA". However, we previously discovered that many AmnSINE1 loci are evolutionarily conserved across mammalian genomes, suggesting that they may have acquired significant functions involved in controlling mammalian-specific traits. Notably, we identified the AS021 SINE locus, located 390 kbp upstream of Satb2. Using transgenic mice, we showed that this SINE displays specific enhancer activity in the developing cerebral cortex. The transcription factor Satb2 is expressed by cortical neurons extending axons through the corpus callosum and is a determinant of callosal versus subcortical projection. Mouse mutants reveal a crucial function for Sabt2 in corpus callosum formation. In this study, we compared the enhancer activity of the AS021 locus with Satb2 expression during telencephalic development in the mouse. First, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is specifically activated in early-born Satb2(+ neurons. Second, we demonstrated that the activity of the AS021 enhancer recapitulates the expression of Satb2 at later embryonic and postnatal stages in deep-layer but not superficial-layer neurons, suggesting the possibility that the expression of Satb2 in these two subpopulations of cortical neurons is under genetically distinct transcriptional control. Third, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is activated in neurons projecting through the corpus callosum, as described for Satb2(+ neurons. Notably, AS021 drives specific expression in axons crossing through the ventral (TAG1(-/NPY(+ portion of the corpus callosum, confirming that it is active in a subpopulation of callosal neurons. These data suggest that exaptation of the AS021 SINE locus might be involved in enhancement of Satb2 expression, leading to the establishment of interhemispheric communication via the corpus callosum

  12. Design of large dimension and rear projecting lens in laser display system%大屏背投激光显示广角镜头的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭; 冯玉涛; 刘伟奇; 魏忠伦; 康玉思

    2011-01-01

    研究了背投激光显示广角投影镜头的设计,并给出了1个162.6 cm(64 in)背投激光显示广角镜头的设计实例.投影镜头前的光学引擎采用数字光处理显示方式,并应用数字微镜晶片(DMD)进行数字光学处理.系统焦距为7.38mm;设计波长为F,d,C;F数为2.46;全视场达到100°;在空间调制器DMD的Nyquist频率处,90%以上视场的MTF>0.6.系统渐晕系数为负,提高了投影显示像面边缘的光照度;全视场畸变<1.4%,1个像元尺寸内集中了点目标能量的90%以上.系统中使用了1个直角棱镜对光路进行折叠,减小了镜头长度,使棱镜展开后系统全长为259 mm.此外,该镜头只使用了1个二次项为0的非球面(高次项至8次),保证了镜头加工的可行性.设计结果显示,本文提出的设计方法有利于降低投影系统成本,实现产业化生产.%After comparing different structures of wide-angle projecting lenses, a wide-angle lens for 162.6 cm(64 in) rear projection laser display is designed. The focal length of the system is 7.38 mm,the wavelength used in the design is F, d, C and the full field of view reaches 100°. The technical indii of the projection lens are summarized as follows: DMD (Digital Micromirror Device) is used in the light digital processing, 90% MTF is greater than 0. 6 at the Nyquist frequency; the barrel distortion of the system is smaller than 1.4% ,and 90% of the energy in the point target is focused in a pixel dimension. Furthermore,a right angle prism is used to fold the optical path to decrease the length of the lens,so that the whole optical length of the system is 259 mm after outspreading the right angle prism. The vignetting factor of the wide angle is negative, which enhances the image illumination after projection. Moreover, an aspheric surface with the small size, zero conic constant and the maximum eight order coefficient is used to promise the feasibility of the mounting. Analytical results show that the

  13. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field/R and D high performance flat panel display technology (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium energy bun`ya / koseino flat panel display gijutsu no sogo kaihatsu kenkyu (daiichi nendo ) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    One of the subjects in technology supporting the highly information-oriented society which will develop and diversify toward the 21st century is the construction of high grade man/machine interface. For it, high precision/high luminance/energy saving/thin plane displays are strongly requested. This R and D is to indicate models of systematical development in the region of element technology individually existing in the Shikoku area by forming a regional consortium in the industry/universities/government. Creation of new industries by gathering display related enterprises is a first step in a plan to realize `Display Island Shikoku.` As a concrete target, with the use of high-tech diamond semiconducting technology, a development is conducted of the high performance flat panel display using the negative electron affinity (NEA) electron emitter which drastically solves the problems such as luminance, visibility angle and response speed, the subjects on the commercialized liquid crystal flat panel display. 16 refs., 45 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Crystal structure of a human rhinovirus that displays part of the HIV-1 V3 loop and induces neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianping; Smith, Allen D; Geisler, Sheila C; Ma, Xuejun; Arnold, Gail Ferstandig; Arnold, Eddy

    2002-07-01

    We report the 2.7 A resolution structure of a chimeric rhinovirus, MN-III-2, that displays part of the HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop and elicits HIV-neutralizing antibodies. The V3 loop insert is dominated by two type I beta turns. The structures of two adjacent tripeptides resemble those of analogous segments in three Fab/V3 loop peptide complexes. Although two of the three corresponding antibodies bind and neutralize MN-III-2 well, only one of the three can bind without significant rearrangement. These results suggest that the V3 loop insert: (1) can share some local conformational similarity to V3 loop sequences presented on different structural frameworks; (2) must be able to adopt multiple conformations, even in a relatively constrained environment; and (3) may mimic the conformational variability of the epitope on HIV-1, increasing the likelihood of eliciting appropriate neutralizing immune responses.

  15. Gestures to Intuitively Control Large Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; Vet, van der P.E.; Rauwerda, H.; Breit, T.; Nijholt, A.; Sales Dias, M.; Gibet, S.; Wanderley, M.W.; Bastos, R.

    2009-01-01

    Large displays are highly suited to support discussions in empirical science. Such displays can display project results on a large digital surface to feed the discussion. This paper describes our approach to closely involve multidisciplinary omics scientists in the design of an intuitive display con

  16. Research of 3D display using anamorphic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Honda, Toshio

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes the auto-stereoscopic display which can reconstruct more reality and viewer friendly 3-D image by increasing the number of parallaxes and giving motion parallax horizontally. It is difficult to increase number of parallaxes to give motion parallax to the 3-D image without reducing the resolution, because the resolution of display device is insufficient. The magnification and the image formation position can be selected independently in horizontal direction and the vertical direction by projecting between the display device and the 3-D image with the anamorphic optics. The anamorphic optics is an optics system with different magnification in horizontal direction and the vertical direction. It consists of the combination of cylindrical lenses with different focal length. By using this optics, even if we use a dynamic display such as liquid crystal display (LCD), it is possible to display the realistic 3-D image having motion parallax. Motion parallax is obtained by assuming width of the single parallax at the viewing position to be about the same size as the pupil diameter of viewer. In addition, because the focus depth of the 3-D image is deep in this method, conflict of accommodation and convergence is small, and natural 3-D image can be displayed.

  17. Chirality versus dichroism: Competition and role in conical diffraction displayed from the Nd:Bi2ZnOB2O6 acentric biaxial laser crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenier, A.; Majchrowski, A.; Michalski, E.

    2017-10-01

    We have grown acentric chiral Nd-doped BZBO single crystals by the Kyropoulos method, cut perpendicular to the optical axis. With a focused beam at wavelengths in the spectral domain of transparency with various polarizations, the conoscopy patterns revealed the specific role of chirality: disappearance of the optical axis replaced by two C-directions, linear polarization rotation and spiral patterns. The specific rotatory power was measured. The output near field exhibits the influence of chirality on the conical diffraction. Going to wavelengths in the spectral domain of absorption corresponding to the 4I9/2 → 4F5/2 Nd3+ transition, we first studied the chirality/dichroism competition from propagation along the C-directions, characterizing the circular and elliptic eigen-modes. We exhibited the wavelengths at which the ellipse degenerates linearly, signature of the chirality/dichroism balancing. The second aspect is the existence of the optical axis which can be restored if the dichroism is high enough. In this case a singular Voigt wave can propagate. From the experimental determination of the optical parameters, a theoretical description has been proposed, leading to quite well agreement in the far field (conoscopy) and in the near field (conical diffraction).

  18. Paring Down HIV Env: Design and Crystal Structure of a Stabilized Inner Domain of HIV-1 gp120 Displaying a Major ADCC Target of the A32 Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, William D; Gohain, Neelakshi; Veillette, Maxime; Chapleau, Jean-Philippe; Orlandi, Chiara; Visciano, Maria L; Ebadi, Maryam; DeVico, Anthony L; Fouts, Timothy R; Finzi, Andrés; Lewis, George K; Pazgier, Marzena

    2016-05-03

    Evidence supports a role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) toward transitional epitopes in the first and second constant (C1-C2) regions of gp120 (A32-like epitopes) in preventing HIV-1 infection and in vaccine-induced protection. Here, we describe the first successful attempt at isolating the inner domain (ID) of gp120 as an independent molecule that encapsulates the A32-like region within a minimal structural unit of the HIV-1 Env. Through structure-based design, we developed ID2, which consists of the ID expressed independently of the outer domain and stabilized in the CD4-bound conformation by an inter-layer disulfide bond. ID2 expresses C1-C2 epitopes in the context of CD4-triggered full-length gp120 but without any known neutralizing epitope present. Thus, ID2 represents a novel probe for the analysis and/or selective induction of antibody responses to the A32 epitope region. We also present the crystal structure of ID2 complexed with mAb A32, which defines its epitope.

  19. Colorimetric evaluation of display performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Bogdan B.

    2001-08-01

    The development of information techniques, using new technologies, physical phenomena and coding schemes, enables new application areas to be benefited form the introduction of displays. The full utilization of the visual perception of a human operator, requires the color coding process to be implemented. The evolution of displays, from achromatic (B&W) and monochromatic, to multicolor and full-color, enhances the possibilities of information coding, creating however a need for the quantitative methods of display parameter assessment. Quantitative assessment of color displays, restricted to photometric measurements of their parameters, is an estimate leading to considerable errors. Therefore, the measurements of a display's color properties have to be based on spectral measurements of the display and its elements. The quantitative assessment of the display system parameters should be made using colorimetric systems like CIE1931, CIE1976 LAB or LUV. In the paper, the constraints on the measurement method selection for the color display evaluation are discussed and the relations between their qualitative assessment and the ergonomic conditions of their application are also presented. The paper presents the examples of using LUV colorimetric system and color difference (Delta) E in the optimization of color liquid crystal displays.

  20. Universal Numeric Segmented Display

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, Md Abul kalam; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation display plays a vital role to display numerals. But in today's world matrix display is also used in displaying numerals. Because numerals has lots of curve edges which is better supported by matrix display. But as matrix display is costly and complex to implement and also needs more memory, segment display is generally used to display numerals. But as there is yet no proposed compact display architecture to display multiple language numerals at a time, this paper proposes uniform display architecture to display multiple language digits and general mathematical expressions with higher accuracy and simplicity by using a 18-segment display, which is an improvement over the 16 segment display.

  1. Development of photonic crystal based large format IR scene projection technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. A.; Burckel, B.; Caulfield, J.; Cogan, S.; Massie, M.; Rapp, R.; Rose, R.; Snyder, D.

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes recent results from the Extremely High Temperature Photonic Crystal System Technology (XTEMPS) technology program. The XTEMPS program has developed a Photonic Crystal (PhC) based high efficiency IR emitter array for use in the emerging generation of wide field of view high performance scene projectors. Cyan's approach provides high dynamic range, multispectral emission from SWIR to LWIR and is uniquely capable of accurately simulating very realistic system spectral signatures. The PhC array is fabricated from refractory materials to provide high radiance and long service lifetime. Cyan is teamed with Sandia National Laboratories for design and fabrication of the emitter and with Nova sensors to utilize their advanced Read In Integrated Circuit (RIIC). PhC based emitters show improved inband output power efficiency when compared to broad band "graybody" emitters due to the absence of out-of-band emission. Less electrical power is required to achieve high operating temperature, and non-Lambertian emission pattern puts a large fraction of the emitted energy into a straight ahead beam. Both effects significantly boost effective radiance output. Cyan has demonstrated pixel designs compatible with Nova's medium format RIIC, which ensures high apparent output temperatures with modest drive currents and low operating voltages of less than five volts. Unit cell pixel structures for high radiative efficiency have been demonstrated and arrays using PhC optimized for up to four spectral bands have been successfully patterned and fabricated into high yield wafers.

  2. European MEDEA+ CRYSTAL project: DFM photomasks inputs for EDA workflow task force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisser, Eric; Tissier, Michel; Au, David; Bonniol, Stéphane; Garcia, Patrick; Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Sadran, Dominique; Servin, Isabelle; Tabusse, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The cost of production of a photomask set has been soaring over the last few years, and now reaches 1 million to 2 million, almost 10% of the overall cost of a new project development. And new projects have seen their profitability lifetime reduced over time to 3 to 6 months. Any uncontrolled increase in cost or delay can make the difference between a profitable or non profitable project, and can even lead to the cancellation of the entire project. For the last few years, silicon manufacturability issues have been taken into account in the design process through a widespread use of Design For Manufacturing tools, but so far the impact of design on mask manufacturability has not been thoroughly studied. This article presents a novel Design For Mask Manufacturing approach, which defines a robust process encompassing design rules and constraints, validation procedures, exchange mechanisms between all actors in the flow (designers, mask shops, and foundry) in order to minimize the number and impact of mask design issues, to trace their root causes and severity, and automation of the handoff of design and administrative data to the mask shop. A demonstrator for the DFMM flow is being shown.

  3. [Review of visual display system in flight simulator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guang-hui; Wei, Shao-ning

    2003-06-01

    Visual display system is the key part and plays a very important role in flight simulators and flight training devices. The developing history of visual display system is recalled and the principle and characters of some visual display systems including collimated display systems and back-projected collimated display systems are described. The future directions of visual display systems are analyzed.

  4. Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Films for Electronic Paper Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Karl

    2003-03-01

    Despite the dominance of liquid crystal displays, they do not perform some functions very well. While backlit liquid crystal displays can offer excellent color performance, they wash out in bright lighting and suffer from high power consumption. Reflective liquid crystal displays have limited brightness, making these devices challenging to read for long periods of time. Flexible liquid crystal displays are difficult to manufacture and keep stable. All of these attributes (long battery lifetime, bright reflective appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates) are traits that would be found in an ideal electronic paper display - an updateable substitute for paper that could be employed in electronic books, newspapers, and other applications. I will discuss technologies that are being developed for electronic-paper-like displays, and especially on particle-based technologies. A microencapsulated electrophoretic display technology is being developed at the E Ink corporation. This display film offers offer high brightness and an ink-on-paper appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates, and image stability that can lead to very low power consumption. I will present some of the physical and chemical challenges associated with making display films with high performance.

  5. Proposal for the Extension of a Project Agreement with ISTC - Crystal Clear Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the extension of the scope of work covered by a project agreement with the ISTC, entitled "Development of the Detector Production Technology for a New Generation of Positron Emission Tomographs to be used in Medicine and Pharmacology" which was approved by Finance Committee on 19 September 2001 (CERN/FC/4478). For the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve the extension of the scope of work covered by the above project agreement for the optimisation of the technology for a total amount of 160 000 US dollars. This extension will be partially funded by two external sponsors (RAYTEST - DE and the UNIVERSITY OF LAUSANNE - CH) at the level of 90 000 US dollars. CERN's contribution, which will be funded by revenue generated by its technology transfer activities, will not exceed 70 000 US dollars. This extension will bring the total amount of the Project Agreement to 935 000 US dollars, of which CERN's total contribution will not exceed 320 000 US dollars...

  6. Bragg-case limited projection topography study of surface damage in diamond-crystal plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Y; Krasnicki, S; Macrander, A T; Chu, Y S; Maj, J [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (United States)

    2005-05-21

    To characterize diamond monochromators for synchrotron radiation beamlines, images for a region 25 {mu}m below the surface were obtained. Topographical images of a Bragg-diffracted beam having a scattering angle (twice the Bragg angle) of 90 deg. were obtained from asymmetric reflections with a CCD area detector. A 25 {mu}m incident slit was used to section the sample topographically. Patchwork images for the full surface area, but limited in depth to the slit size, were assembled from microbeam images. The small extinction depths provided by the asymmetric reflection geometry, namely, 2.8 {mu}m and 3.5 {mu}m for ideal diamond crystals set for the (224) and (044) reflections, respectively, permitted data analyses for a region near the surface. The diamonds were synthetic type Ib (yellowish due to nitrogen impurities). They were in the shape of plates sized 6 x 5 mm and were 0.5 mm thick. Measurements were made using monochromatic bending magnet radiation at the Advanced Photon Source at 12.04 keV and 13.90 keV. Data obtained before and after chemical etching demonstrate that damage visible as contrast from saw grooves is largely removed by etching. Dislocation etch pits were observed after etching for the (111) surface but not for the (100) surface.

  7. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiser, L. [Beiser (Leo) Inc., Flushing, NY (United States); Veligdan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  8. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  9. Wearable and augmented reality displays using MEMS and SLMs

    OpenAIRE

    Ürey, Hakan; Ulusoy, Erdem; Akşit, Kaan; Hossein, Amir; Niaki, Ghanbari

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, we present the various types of 3D displays, head-mounted projection displays and wearable displays developed in our group using MEMS scanners, compact RGB laser light sources, and spatial light modulators.

  10. Wearable and augmented reality displays using MEMS and SLMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urey, Hakan; Ulusoy, Erdem; Kazempourradi, Seyedmahdi M. K.; Mengu, Deniz; Olcer, Selim; Holmstrom, Sven T.

    2016-03-01

    In this talk, we present the various types of 3D displays, head-mounted projection displays and wearable displays developed in our group using MEMS scanners, compact RGB laser light sources, and spatial light modulators.

  11. Crystal Ball Replica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajamian, John

    2016-09-01

    The A2 collaboration of the Institute for Nuclear Physics of Johannes Gutenberg University performs research on (multiple) meson photoproduction and nucleon structure and dynamics using a high energy polarized photon beam at specific targets. Particles scattered from the target are detected in the Crystal Ball, or CB. The CB is composed of 672 NaI crystals that surround the target and can analyze particle type and energy of ejected particles. Our project was to create a replica of the CB that could display what was happening in real time on a 3 Dimensional scale replica. Our replica was constructed to help explain the physics to the general public, be used as a tool when calibrating each of the 672 NaI crystals, and to better analyze the electron showering of particles coming from the target. This poster will focus on the hardware steps necessary to construct the replica and wire the 672 programmable LEDS in such a way that they can be mapped to correspond to the Crystal Ball elements. George Washington NSF Grant.

  12. Diagnostic performance of detecting breast cancer on computed radiographic (CR) mammograms: comparison of hard copy film, 3-megapixel liquid-crystal-display (LCD) monitor and 5-megapixel LCD monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takayuki; Suzuki, Akihiko; Uchiyama, Nachiko; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Takahashi, Shoki

    2008-11-01

    The purpose was to compare observer performance in the detection of breast cancer using hard-copy film, and 3-megapixel (3-MP) and 5-megapixel (5-MP) liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors in a simulated screening setting. We amassed 100 sample sets, including 32 patients with surgically proven breast cancer (masses present, N = 12; microcalcifications, N = 10; other types, N = 10) and 68 normal controls. All the mammograms were obtained using computed radiography (CR; sampling pitch of 50 mum). Twelve mammographers independently assessed CR mammograms presented in random order for hard-copy and soft-copy reading at minimal 4-week intervals. Observers rated the images on seven-point (1 to 7) and continuous (0 to 100) malignancy scales. Receiver-operating-characteristics analysis was performed, and the average area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each modality. The jackknife method with the Bonferroni correction was applied to multireader/multicase analysis. The average AUC values for the 3-MP LCD, 5-MP LCD, and hard-copy film were 0.954, 0.947, and 0.956 on the seven-point scale and 0.943, 0.923, and 0.944 on the continuous scale, respectively. There were no significant differences among the three modalities on either scale. Soft-copy reading using 3-MP and 5-MP LCDs is comparable to hard-copy reading for detecting breast cancer.

  13. Influence of MTN-LCD Parameters to Liquid Crystal on Silicon Display Device%混合扭曲向列相模式的液晶盒参数对硅基液晶显示器的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽; 范伟; 代永平; 张志东

    2011-01-01

    Mixed mode twisted nematic (MTN) characterized by excellent color dispersion effect and low driving voltage is used in liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS).Based on MTN mode, the influence of LCD parameters on LCOS display were simulated in this paper, such as the elastic constants, dielectric constant, pretilt angle and cell gap, et al.The simulation results can provide scientific basis for the research of LCOS.%90°混合扭曲向列相液晶(MTN)模式因其良好的关态色散特性、低驱动电压而被应用于小型或者微型硅基液晶显示器(LCOS).针对MTN模式,模拟研究了液晶弹性常数、介电各向异性、预倾角以及盒厚变化对显示效果的影响,研究结果为硅基液晶显示器的开发提供了一定的理论依据.

  14. Liquid Crystal Materials for Matrix Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    TBATPB-doped MBBA, which is shown as a reference curve in Figure 1. More complete data on the scattering angles of HRL-26N3 -26N4, and - 25N2 are shown...D/T is more favorable at 20 V than at 15 V dc,Don since at higher voltage TD increases, and T decreases. For example,on at 20 V and 64*C the TD /Ton...Figure 9) changes with temperature. In the lower temperature range the TD and TON decrease with increasing temperature in the same manner as n

  15. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We show how one can determine the various properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information stored in optical fields carrying orbital angular momentum, by performing a modal decomposition. Although the modal...

  16. 1.5-NM PROJECTION STRUCTURE OF HELA-CELL PROSOME-MCP (PROTEASOME) PROVIDED BY 2-DIMENSIONAL CRYSTALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PERKINS, GA; BERGSMASCHUTTER, W; KEEGSTRA, W; ARNBERG, AC; COUX, O; SCHERRER, K

    1994-01-01

    We grew two-dimensional crystals of HeLa cell prosomes, also called multicatalytic proteinases (MCP) and proteasomes, for a structure determination by electron microscopy. The molecules were arranged in side views in these crystals. The crystals have p21 plane group symmetry with one particle per

  17. 1.5-NM PROJECTION STRUCTURE OF HELA-CELL PROSOME-MCP (PROTEASOME) PROVIDED BY 2-DIMENSIONAL CRYSTALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PERKINS, GA; BERGSMASCHUTTER, W; KEEGSTRA, W; ARNBERG, AC; COUX, O; SCHERRER, K

    1994-01-01

    We grew two-dimensional crystals of HeLa cell prosomes, also called multicatalytic proteinases (MCP) and proteasomes, for a structure determination by electron microscopy. The molecules were arranged in side views in these crystals. The crystals have p21 plane group symmetry with one particle per un

  18. Graphics Display of Foreign Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Graphics Project for Foreign Language Learning at the University of Pennsylvania, which has developed ways of displaying foreign scripts on microcomputers. Character design on computer screens is explained; software for graphics, printing, and language instruction is discussed; and a text editor is described that corrects optically…

  19. Detection of masses and microcalcifications of breast cancer on digital mammograms: comparison among hard-copy film, 3-megapixel liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors and 5-megapixel LCD monitors: an observer performance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitani, Takeshi; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Soeda, Hiroyasu; Matsuo, Yoshio; Okafuji, Takashi; Sakai, Shuji; Furuya, Akio; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Ishii, Nobuhide; Honda, Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare observer performance in the detection of masses and microcalcifications of breast cancer among hard-copy reading and soft-copy readings using 3-megapixel (3M) and 5-megapixel (5M) liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors. For the microcalcification detection test, we prepared 100 mammograms: 40 surgically verified cancer cases and 60 normal cases. For the mass detection test, we prepared 100 mammograms: 50 cancer cases and 50 normal cases. After six readers assessed both microcalcifications and masses set for each modality, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The average A(z)s for mass detection using a hard copy and 3M and 5M LCD monitors were 0.923, 0.927 and 0.920, respectively; there were no significant differences. The average A(z) for microcalcification detection using hard copy, 3M and 5M LCD monitors was 0.977, 0.954 and 0.972, respectively. There were no significant differences, but the P-values between the hard copy and 3M LCD monitor and that between the 3M and 5M LCD monitor were 0.08 and 0.09, respectively. In conclusion, the observer performances for detecting masses of breast cancers were comparable among the hard copy and two LCD monitors; however, soft-copy reading with a 3M LCD monitor showed slightly lower observer performance for detecting microcalcifications of breast cancers than hard-copy or 5M LCD monitor reading.

  20. Heath monitoring of a glass transfer robot in the mass production line of liquid crystal display using abnormal operating sounds based on wavelet packet transform and artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eui-Youl; Lee, Young-Joon; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the fault detect method of a moving transfer robot in the mass production line of liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturers based on the wavelet packet transform (WPT) for feature extraction and the artificial neural network (ANN) for fault classification. Most of fault detection methods in a mechanical system have been researched based on the vibration signal. Unlike the existing methodologies, this study aims to minimize the uncertainty of a field engineer's decision making process for determining whether a fault is present or not based on the human auditory perception by developing a fault diagnosis system that uses the abnormal operating sound radiated from a moving transfer robot as a source signal. Abnormal operating sound radiated from a moving transfer robot has been used for this work instead of other source signals such as vibration, acoustic emission, electrical signal, etc. Its advantage as a source signal makes it possible to monitor the status of multiple faults by using only a microphone despite a relatively low sensitivity. In the application of ANN, since it is important to minimize the error of trained ANN in terms of the accuracy of fault diagnosis logic, in the paper, the number of input and target data samples was increased through a regeneration process based on statistical properties, and then the uncorrelated nodes in the input vector were also removed to improve the orthogonality of the input vector based on the entropy based feature selection method. Consequently, it can be concluded that the abnormal operating sound is sufficiently useful as a source signal for the fault diagnosis of mechanical components as well as other source signals.

  1. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  2. MyCrystals - a simple visual data management program for laboratory-scale crystallization experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvgreen, Monika Nøhr; Løvgreen, Mikkel; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2009-01-01

    MyCrystals is designed as a user-friendly program to display crystal images and list crystallization conditions. The crystallization conditions entry fields can be customized to suit the experiments. MyCrystals is also able to sort the images by the entered crystallization conditions, which...

  3. Low driving voltage and fast-response in-plane switching liquid crystal display%低驱动电压和快速响应的共面转换液晶显示器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王森; 孙玉宝

    2016-01-01

    In-plane switching liquid crystal displays (IPS-LCDs)are widely applied in TFT-LCD for its excellent viewing angle and outstanding ability of color reproduction.However,its development in high-end LCDs is limited by its slow response.A fast response IPS-LCD with protrusion electrode is proposed in this paper,and its optical characteristics is simulated by TechWiz software.With the pro-trusion electrode,the driving voltage of IPS-LCD is reduced by 2.3 V.Although the driving voltage is reduced,the electric field in the liquid crystal layer is changed due to the electrode on protrusion,so the rise response speed is improved.In addition,the protrusion structure reduces the effective cell gap of the LC layer,and the decay time is proportional to the square of the cell thickness,so the decay re-sponse speed is also obviously improved.The whole response speed is improved by approximately 38% in contrast with the conventional IPS-LCD.%共面转换液晶显示器(IPS-LCD)由于其优异的视角特性和色彩还原能力在 TFT-LCD 中得到了广泛应用,然而响应速度慢的缺点始终限制着其在高端液晶显示器中的发展.本文中提出一种凸起电极结构的共面转换液晶显示器,并采用 TechWiz 软件模拟了该结构的电光特性.与传统 IPS-LCD 相比,我们提出的新结构 IPS-LCD 的驱动电压降低了2.3 V.在响应时间方面,尽管驱动电压降低了,但是由于凸起电极改变液晶层中的电场状况,因此上升响应速度得到了一定提高.此外,凸起结构减小了液晶层的等效盒厚,因为下降时间正比于液晶盒厚的平方,所以下降响应速度也得到了明显提高,该结构的整体响应速度相比传统结构提高了大约38%.

  4. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  5. Designing a high accuracy 3D auto stereoscopic eye tracking display, using a common LCD monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Reza; Kia, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the design and building of a low cost and practical stereoscopic display that does not need to wear special glasses, and uses eye tracking to give a large degree of freedom to viewer (or viewer's) movement while displaying the minimum amount of information. The parallax barrier technique is employed to turn a LCD into an auto-stereoscopic display. The stereo image pair is screened on the usual liquid crystal display simultaneously but in different columns of pixels. Controlling of the display in red-green-blue sub pixels increases the accuracy of light projecting direction to less than 2 degrees without losing too much LCD's resolution and an eye-tracking system determines the correct angle to project the images along the viewer's eye pupils and an image processing system puts the 3D images data in correct R-G-B sub pixels. 1.6 degree of light direction controlling achieved in practice. The 3D monitor is just made by applying some simple optical materials on a usual LCD display with normal resolution. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. A Compact, Radiation Hardened, Stable, Low Power, Programmable Crystal Oscillator for Extreme Temperature and High Reliability Space Application Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a feasibility study of a fully intgrated radiation hardened (>1Mrad/si), programmable crystal oscilator (RPXO) in a miniature package that will deliver...

  7. Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Eric

    2000-03-01

    In the "Future Directions for Astronomical Image Displav" project, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) evolved our existing image display program into fully extensible. cross-platform image display software. We also devised messaging software to support integration of image display into astronomical analysis systems. Finally, we migrated our software from reliance on Unix and the X Window System to a platform-independent architecture that utilizes the cross-platform Tcl/Tk technology.

  8. Threshold property of a nematic liquid crystal cell with two grating surface substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Wen-Jiang; Xing Hong-Yu; Yang Guo-Chen; Yuan Meng-Yao

    2009-01-01

    A grating surface can drive the liquid crystal molecules to orientate along the direction parallel or vertical to the projected plane of the grating surface. The nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell manufactured with two pre-treated grating surface substrates may realize the vertical display, parallel display and twist display. In this paper, the threshold property of this NLC cell is investigated systematically. With the Frank elastic theory and the equivalent anchoring energy formula of grating surface substrate, the analytic expressions of the threshold voltage related to three displays are obtained, which are dependent on their geometrical parameters such as amplitude δ and pitch λ of the grating surface substrate. For a certain anchoring strength, the threshold voltage increases or decreases with the increase of the value δ/λ of the different displays.

  9. BES Monitoring & Displaying System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MengWANG; BingyunZHANG; 等

    2001-01-01

    BES1 Monitoring & Displaying System(BESMDS)is projected to monitor and display the running status of DAQ and Slow Control systems of BES through the Web for worldwide accessing.It provides a real-time remote means of monitoring as well as an approach to study the environmental influence upon physical data taking.The system collects real-time data separately from BES online subsystems by network sockets and stores the data into a database.People can access the system through its web site.which retrieves data on request from the database and can display results in dynamically created images.Its web address in http:// besmds,ihep.ac.cn/

  10. Game engines and immersive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  11. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  12. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  13. Review of Display Technologies Focusing on Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rodríguez Fernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the main manufacturing technologies of displays, focusing on those with low and ultra-low levels of power consumption, which make them suitable for current societal needs. Considering the typified value obtained from the manufacturer’s specifications, four technologies—Liquid Crystal Displays, electronic paper, Organic Light-Emitting Display and Electroluminescent Displays—were selected in a first iteration. For each of them, several features, including size and brightness, were assessed in order to ascertain possible proportional relationships with the rate of consumption. To normalize the comparison between different display types, relative units such as the surface power density and the display frontal intensity efficiency were proposed. Organic light-emitting display had the best results in terms of power density for small display sizes. For larger sizes, it performs less satisfactorily than Liquid Crystal Displays in terms of energy efficiency.

  14. The FARCOS project. First characterization of CsI(Tl crystals of the FARCOS array using charged particle beams at LNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quattrocchi L.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a new array to study femtoscopy and multi-particle correlations in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies (E=20-1000 AMeV has been started at the INFN. The project, named FARCOS (Femtoscope ARray for COrrelations and Spectroscopy is aimed at developing of a detection system with high pixelation capabilities in order to perform precision measurements of particle correlations for nuclear dynamics and spectroscopy. We present first detection simulations for FARCOS and first results related to the commissioning of CsI(T1 crystals, an important detection stage of each telescope.

  15. The FARCOS project. First characterization of CsI(Tl) crystals of the FARCOS array using charged particle beams at LNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchi, L.; Acosta, L.; De Filippo, E.; Minniti, T.; Pagano, E. V.; Russotto, P.; Trifirò, A.; Verde, G.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Auditore, L.; Boiano, C.; Cardella, G.; Castoldi, A.; Francalanza, L.; Gianì, R.; Guazzoni, C.; Lanzalone, G.; Lombardo, I.; Morgana, E.; Norella, S.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Riccio, F.; Rizzo, F.; Trimarchi, M.; Zambon, P.

    2014-03-01

    The construction of a new array to study femtoscopy and multi-particle correlations in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies (E=20-1000 AMeV) has been started at the INFN. The project, named FARCOS (Femtoscope ARray for COrrelations and Spectroscopy) is aimed at developing of a detection system with high pixelation capabilities in order to perform precision measurements of particle correlations for nuclear dynamics and spectroscopy. We present first detection simulations for FARCOS and first results related to the commissioning of CsI(T1) crystals, an important detection stage of each telescope.

  16. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  17. New ultraportable display technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-08-01

    MicroDisplay devices are based on a combination of technologies rooted in the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS active-matrix liquid crystal display substrates. Customized diffraction grating and optical distortion correction technology for lens-system compensation allow the elimination of many lenses and systems-level components. The MicroDisplay Corporation's miniature integrated information display technology is rapidly leading to many new defense and commercial applications. There are no moving parts in MicroDisplay substrates, and the fabrication of the color generating gratings, already part of the CMOS circuit fabrication process, is effectively cost and manufacturing process-free. The entire suite of the MicroDisplay Corporation's technologies was devised to create a line of application- specific integrated circuit single-chip display systems with integrated computing, memory, and communication circuitry. Next-generation portable communication, computer, and consumer electronic devices such as truly portable monitor and TV projectors, eyeglass and head mounted displays, pagers and Personal Communication Services hand-sets, and wristwatch-mounted video phones are among the may target commercial markets for MicroDisplay technology. Defense applications range from Maintenance and Repair support, to night-vision systems, to portable projectors for mobile command and control centers.

  18. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ...... be obtained by shining light from the backside of the workpiece. When there is no light from the backside, the front surface seems totally untouched. This was achieved by laser ablation with ultra-short pulses.......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  19. Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2014-01-01

    Revised throughout to cover the latest developments in the fast moving area of display technology, this 2nd edition of Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices, will continue to be a valuable resource for those wishing to understand the operation of liquid crystal displays. Significant updates include new material on display components, 3D LCDs and blue-phase displays which is one of the most promising new technologies within the field of displays and it is expected that this new LC-technology will reduce the response time and the number of optical components of LC-modules. Prof. Yang is a pion

  20. Laser-driven polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte-black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 200 milliwatt green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the DLP chip, the optomechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  1. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  2. High Resolution Autostereoscopic Cockpit Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The utility of stereoscopic 3D image representation in many applications is now well established. It is not just a matter of stereo being better than 2D, but of...

  3. Autostereoscopic display with eye tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomono, Takao; Hoon, Kyung; Ha, Yong Soo; Kim, Sung-Sik; Son, Jung-Young

    2002-05-01

    Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking having wide viewing zone and bright image was fabricated. The image of display is projected to retinal through several optical components. We calculated optical system for wider viewing zone by using Inverse-Ray Trace Method. The viewing zone of first model is 155mm (theoretical value: 161mm). We could widen viewing zone by controlling paraxial radius of curvature of spherical mirror, the distance between lenses and so on. The viewing zone of second model is 208mm. We used two spherical mirrors to obtain twice brightness. We applied eye-tracking system to the display system. Eye recognition is based on neural network card based on ZICS technology. We fabricated Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking. We measured viewing zone based on illumination area. The viewing zone was 206mm, which was close to theoretical value. We could get twice brightness also. We could see 3D image according to position without headgear.

  4. Single DMD time-multiplexed 64-views autostereoscopic 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreti, Luigi

    2013-03-01

    Based on previous prototype of the Real time 3D holographic display developed last year, we developed a new concept of auto-stereoscopic multiview display (64 views), wide angle (90°) 3D full color display. The display is based on a RGB laser light source illuminating a DMD (Discovery 4100 0,7") at 24.000 fps, an image deflection system made with an AOD (Acoustic Optic Deflector) driven by a piezo-electric transducer generating a variable standing acoustic wave on the crystal that acts as a phase grating. The DMD projects in fast sequence 64 point of view of the image on the crystal cube. Depending on the frequency of the standing wave, the input picture sent by the DMD is deflected in different angle of view. An holographic screen at a proper distance diffuse the rays in vertical direction (60°) and horizontally select (1°) only the rays directed to the observer. A telescope optical system will enlarge the image to the right dimension. A VHDL firmware to render in real-time (16 ms) 64 views (16 bit 4:2:2) of a CAD model (obj, dxf or 3Ds) and depth-map encoded video images was developed into the resident Virtex5 FPGA of the Discovery 4100 SDK, thus eliminating the needs of image transfer and high speed links

  5. Standardizing visual display quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besuijen, Ko; Spenkelink, Gerd P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The current ISO 9241–3 standard for visual display quality and the proposed user performance tests are reviewed. The standard is found to be more engineering than ergonomic and problems with system configuration, software applications, display settings, user behaviour, wear and physical environment

  6. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  7. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  8. Fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Daniel Aaron; Melikov, Rustamzhon; Conkar, Deniz; Nur Firat-Karalar, Elif; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2016-11-01

    The usage time of displays (e.g., TVs, mobile phones, etc) is in general shorter than their functional life time, which worsens the electronic waste (e-waste) problem around the world. The integration of biomaterials into electronics can help to reduce the e-waste problem. In this study, we demonstrate fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs to use as a backlight source for liquid crystal (LC) displays for the first time. We express and purify enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and monomeric Cherry protein (mCherry), and afterward we integrate these proteins as a wavelength-converter on a blue LED chip. The protein-integrated backlight exhibits a high luminous efficacy of 248 lm/Wopt and the area of the gamut covers 80% of the NTSC color gamut. The resultant colors and objects in the image on the display can be well observed and distinguished. Therefore, fluorescent proteins show promise for display applications.

  9. Defense display market assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 242,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within Service weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil- commercial markets.

  10. Tiled large-screen three-dimensional display consisting of frameless multi-view display modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Yasuhiro; Tokoro, Masayuki; Hirabayashi, Kenji

    2014-03-24

    To realize large-screen three-dimensional (3D) displays, frameless multi-view display modules are arranged two-dimensionally. This paper proposes a multi-view display module in which a multi-view flat-panel display is projected onto a screen of the module to provide a frameless screen. The display module consists of a multi-view flat-panel display, an imaging lens, an aperture, a screen lens, and a vertical diffuser. Prototype display modules were constructed having a screen size of 27.3 in., a 3D resolution of 320 × 200, and 144 viewpoints. Four modules were tiled vertically to provide a screen size of 62.4 in. Distortions in the screen imaging and viewpoint generation were corrected.

  11. Crystallisation and crystal forms of carbohydrate derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Lorna

    This thesis is focused on the synthesis and solid state analysis of carbohydrate derivatives, including many novel compounds. Although the synthetic chemistry surrounding carbohydrates is well established in the literature, the crystal chemistry of carbohydrates is less well studied. Therefore this research aims to improve understanding of the solid state properties of carbohydrate derivatives through gaining more information on their supramolecular bonding. Chapter One focuses on an introduction to the solid state of organic compounds, with a background to crystallisation, including issues that can arise during crystal growth. Chapter Two is based on glucopyranuronate derivatives which are understudied in terms of their solid state forms. This chapter reports on the formation of novel glucuronamides and utilising the functionality of the amide bond for crystallisation. TEMPO oxidation was completed to form glucopyranuronates by oxidation of the primary alcohol groups of glucosides to the carboxylic acid derivatives, to increase functionality for enhanced crystal growth. Chapter Three reports on the synthesis of glucopyranoside derivatives by O-glycosylation reactions and displays crystal structures, including a number of previously unsolved acetate protected and deprotected crystal structures. More complex glycoside derivatives were also researched in an aim to study the resultant supramolecular motifs. Chapter Four contains the synthesis of aryl cellobioside derivatives including the novel crystal structures that were solved for the acetate protected and deprotected compounds. Research was carried out to determine if 1-deoxycellodextrins could act as putative isostructures for cellulose. Our research displays the presence of isostructural references with 1-deoxycellotriose shown to be similar to cellulose III11, 1-deoxycellotetraose correlates with cellulose IV11 and 1-deoxycellopentose shows isostructurality similar to that of cellulose II. Chapter Five contains

  12. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, B; Samuel, A M

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Disp...

  13. IV measurements of mc-Si solar cells. Comparison of results from institute and industry partners within the EU CrystalClear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, G.; Herguth, A.; Helfricht, A. [University of Konstanz, Department of Physics, Jacob-Burckhardt-Str. 29, 78464 Konstanz (Germany); Hofmann, M; Warta, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Van der Borg, N.J.C.M.; Weeber, A.W. [ECN Solar Energy, PO Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); John, J.; Beaucarne, G. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Bagus, S.; Nagel, H. [SCHOTT Solar GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany); Le Quang, N.; Nichiporuk, O. [Photowatt International S.A.S. 33, Rue St. Honore 38300 Bourgoin Jallieu (France); Vincueria, I. [BP Solar Espana SAU, P.I. Tres Cantos Zona Oeste, s/n 28760, Madrid (Spain); Brochs, M. [REC Scancell, 8512 Narvik (Norway)

    2008-10-15

    Determination of solar cell parameters by illuminated IV measurement is a standard characterisation technique used by many partners active in photovoltaics. The aim of this work is to carry out a cross check of different measurement set-ups used by different research partners of the EU CrystalClear project using industrial type multicrystalline Si solar cells. In a first round robin a significant spread of all cell parameters (Voc, jsc, FF and efficiency) could be observed. After distribution of sister cells to selected cells calibrated at ISE CalLab, a second round robin was carried out. The spread in FF and jsc could be significantly reduced. Repeatability tests showed that by using a photo diode fluctuations of light intensity can be minimised and variations in jsc can be decreased down to 0.2 mA/cm{sup 2}. Remaining systematic errors are control of cell temperature, contacting geometry, and use of appropriate reference cells.

  14. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...... the research taking place in the biology laboratory. This should promote contribu-tions to the grid, and thereby mediate the appropriation of the grid technology. GridOrbit visualizes the activity in the grid, shows information about the different active projects, and supports a messaging functionality where...... people comment on projects. Our work explores the usage of interactive technologies as enablers for the appropriation of an otherwise invisible infrastructure....

  15. A Liquid Crystal Displayed Method of I/O Bus Driving Based on CPLD%一种基于CPLD的I/O总线驱动液晶显示的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓东; 郑为民; 唐志敏

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses a new kind of driving the LCD via I/O bus using CPLD and realizing the precise I/Ocontrol timing sequence by establishing the corresponding Verilog-HDL model. The results of application show thatthis solution can not only solve the matching of low-speed device with high-speed bus but also provide the display in-terface during the motherboard debugging process, and also prove that the whole system is reliable and stable.

  16. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo

    2012-11-01

    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  17. Potential improvements for dual directional view displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Jonathan; Parry Jones, Lesley; Gass, Paul; Imai, Akira; Takatani, Tomoo; Yabuta, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Dual directional view (DDV) displays show different images to different viewers. For example, the driver of a car looking at a central DDV display could view navigation information, while the passenger, looking from a different angle, could be watching a movie. This technology, which has now established itself on the dashboards of high-end Jaguar, Mercedes, and Range Rover cars, is manufactured by Sharp Corporation using a well-known parallax barrier technique. Unfortunately parallax barriers are associated with an inevitable drop in brightness compared with a single view display. A parallax barrier-based DDV display typically has less than half the transmission of a single view display. Here we present a solution to these problems via the use of a combined microlens and parallax barrier system, which can not only boost the brightness by 55% from a parallax barrier-only system but increase the head freedom by 25% and reduce crosstalk also. However, the use of microlenses (which must be positioned between the polarizers of the LCD) can adversely affect the contrast ratio of the display. Careful choice of the LCD mode is therefore required in order to create a DDV display that is both high in brightness and contrast ratio. The use of a single-domain vertically aligned nematic (VAN) liquid crystal (LC) mode, together with a microlens plus parallax barrier system can achieve this with a contrast ratio of 1700∶1 measured at 30° to normal incidence.

  18. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together...... with the rapidly evolving positioning techniques, a new category of position-dependent, map-based services to be introduced. The report consists of the following parts: Part I: Categorization of handheld devices, Part II: Cartographic design for small-display devices, Part III: Study on the GiMoDig Client ? Portal...... Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  19. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  20. Monocular display unit for 3D display with correct depth perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Hosomi, Takashi

    2009-11-01

    A study of virtual-reality system has been popular and its technology has been applied to medical engineering, educational engineering, a CAD/CAM system and so on. The 3D imaging display system has two types in the presentation method; one is a 3-D display system using a special glasses and the other is the monitor system requiring no special glasses. A liquid crystal display (LCD) recently comes into common use. It is possible for this display unit to provide the same size of displaying area as the image screen on the panel. A display system requiring no special glasses is useful for a 3D TV monitor, but this system has demerit such that the size of a monitor restricts the visual field for displaying images. Thus the conventional display can show only one screen, but it is impossible to enlarge the size of a screen, for example twice. To enlarge the display area, the authors have developed an enlarging method of display area using a mirror. Our extension method enables the observers to show the virtual image plane and to enlarge a screen area twice. In the developed display unit, we made use of an image separating technique using polarized glasses, a parallax barrier or a lenticular lens screen for 3D imaging. The mirror can generate the virtual image plane and it enlarges a screen area twice. Meanwhile the 3D display system using special glasses can also display virtual images over a wide area. In this paper, we present a monocular 3D vision system with accommodation mechanism, which is useful function for perceiving depth.

  1. Military display performance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  2. Raster graphics display library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsrud, Anders; Stephenson, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    The Raster Graphics Display Library (RGDL) is a high level subroutine package that give the advanced raster graphics display capabilities needed. The RGDL uses FORTRAN source code routines to build subroutines modular enough to use as stand-alone routines in a black box type of environment. Six examples are presented which will teach the use of RGDL in the fastest, most complete way possible. Routines within the display library that are used to produce raster graphics are presented in alphabetical order, each on a separate page. Each user-callable routine is described by function and calling parameters. All common blocks that are used in the display library are listed and the use of each variable within each common block is discussed. A reference on the include files that are necessary to compile the display library is contained. Each include file and its purpose are listed. The link map for MOVIE.BYU version 6, a general purpose computer graphics display system that uses RGDL software, is also contained.

  3. Student displays of academic competence in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Elisabeth Dalby

    multimodal methods for displaying academic competence, specifically in group projects requiring the students to construct a physical object. In such situations, language, writing and formulating are not oriented to as relevant resources for displaying academic competence. Lastly, the study finds...... competence and the physical object as the main product of the students' project....

  4. Display measuring system СМ-100 for LCD characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sorokin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Creation of new liquid crystal displays and their adaptation for different external environments are impossible without correct diagnosing of wide range of electro-optical effects inherent to nematic, smectic and cholesteric liquid crystal materials. The modern universal display measuring complexes allow to solve this problem. Among different display measuring complexes those are wide used in the world for scientific centers and enterprises in Russia, Belorussia and Ukraine the complex CM-100, which has been developed in Institute of Semiconductor Phisics of NAS of Ukraine, is the most suitable.

  5. Problems about Number of Views and Crosstalk Tolerance in Projective Auto-Stereoscopic Display Based on Lenticular Grating%柱透镜光栅投影3D显示的视点数与串扰容限

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田华; 曾小名; 戴涛涛; 黄子强

    2013-01-01

    This projective autostereoscopic display system based on cylindrical lens grating is composed with orientation-reflecting screen(consists of lenticular grating and diffuse-reflecting screen) and several projectors.It can provide multi-view display and each view has different stereoscopic image.By the analysis of the display principle of this system,the formula of the distance between single projector's primary view port and secondary view port and the formula of the width of primary view port are given.It is given to make sure how many projectors and view ports can be set,how much the crosstalk is,and how much the width of view port under smaller crosstalk is.The accuracy of the formulas confirmed by TracePro.View ports 8~20 are realized in design examples.On the precondition of the crosstalk's each view port is less than 10%,the width of the primary view port is close to the papillary distance and the width of each 3D view port can reach about 40 mm.%柱透镜光栅投影3D显示系统由定向反射屏(包括柱透镜光栅和漫反射屏)和若干个投影仪组成,可实现多视点不同立体图像的显示.为了确定该系统可设置的投影仪个数、可实现的视点个数、串扰以及较小串扰前提下视点的宽度,文中通过分析柱透镜光栅投影式3D的显示原理,给出了单个投影仪主次视区距离的计算公式,同时给出了单个投影仪主视区宽度的计算公式,并利用TracePro光学仿真软件验证了公式的准确性.由主次视区距离进一步得到了该3D显示系统中可设置的投影仪个数及视点个数,并根据主视区宽度及视点个数分析了串扰大小、每个3D观看视点的宽度.文中给出的实际设计参数举例中,都实现了8~20个3D观看视点.当主视区宽度接近人眼瞳孔距离(取65 mm)时,可实现串扰小于10%的前提下,每个视点宽度达到40 mm左右.

  6. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  7. 3D液晶显示模组不均匀分区背光扫描及其设计方法%Shutter glass type of 3D liquid crystal display module non-uniform partition scanning backlight and its design method based on

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琦

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of liquid crystal display technology, 3D display gradually sought after the market and consumers. In the 3D LCD TV, there is a kind of shutter type 3D display technology. This technique also shot the same object's left and right eyes two pictures by two cameras at certain intervals, and synthetic treatment, on the display screen through time-sharing display out, then match the shutter glasses with the same time frequency, the same object images to the left and the right eyes respectively to watch camera captured. As the two pictures there is disparity is different, the human eye can feel the stereo image, realize 3D display effect. In order to achieve better 3D display effect, generally control the scanning backlight system through mode of backlight.%随着液晶显示技术的快速发展,3D液晶显示逐渐受到市场和消费者的追捧。在3D液晶电视中,有一类快门式3D显示技术。这种技术通过一定间隔的两台摄像机同时拍摄同一个物体的左右眼两幅画面,然后合成处理后,在显示屏上通过分时显示的方式显示出来,然后搭配与分时频率相同的快门式眼镜,使人的左右眼分别观看到摄像机拍摄到的同一物体画面。由于两幅画面存在视差的不同,人眼即可感受到了立体的影像,实现3D效果显示。为了实现更好的3D显示效果,一般通过扫描背光的方式来对背光系统进行控制。

  8. Modern Display Technologies for Airborne Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    from the sulphonic acid group and achieved operating life of greater than 10’ cycles with over 3 years shelf-life. The switching speed was rather slow...pitch. In spite of all this ordering, however, liquid crystals are clearly liquid, flowing readily with quite low viscosity . Consequently the...solids and is the basis of most optical effects used in displays. Other physical properties, such as electrical conductivity, elasticity, viscosity

  9. Display Developer for Firing Room Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The firing room at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is responsible for all NASA human spaceflight launch operations, therefore it is vital that all displays within the firing room be properly tested, up-to-date, and user-friendly during a launch. The Ground Main Propulsion System (GMPS) requires a number of remote displays for Vehicle Integration and Launch (VIL) Operations at KSC. My project is to develop remote displays for the GMPS using the Display Services and Framework (DSF) editor. These remote displays will be based on model images provided by GMPS through PowerPoint. Using the DSF editor, the PowerPoint images can be recreated with active buttons associated with the correct Compact Unique Identifiers (CUIs). These displays will be documented in the Software Requirements and Design Specifications (SRDS) at the 90% GMPS Design Review. In the future, these remote displays will be available for other developers to improve, edit, or add on to so that the display may be incorporated into the firing room to be used for launches.

  10. From optical MEMS to photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Jideog; Lee, Hong-Seok; Moon, Il-Kwon; Won, JongHwa; Ku, Janam; Choi, Hyung; Shin, Hyungjae

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents the emergence of photonic crystals as significant optomechatronics components, following optical MEMS. It is predicted that, in the coming years, optical MEMS and photonic crystals may go through dynamic interactions leading to synergy as well as competition. First, we present the Structured Defect Photonic Crystal (SDPCTM) devised by the authors for providing the freedom of designing photonic bandgap structures, such that the application of photonic crystals be greatly extended. Then, we present the applications of optical MEMS and photonic crystals to displays and telecommunications. It is shown that many of the applications that optical MEMS can contribute to telecommunications and displays may be implemented by photonic crystals.

  11. Reduce volume of head-up display by image stitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi-Feng; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2016-09-01

    Head-up Display (HUD) is a safety feature for automobile drivers. Although there have been some HUD systems in commercial product already, their images are too small to show assistance information. Another problem, the volume of HUD is too large. We proposed a HUD including micro-projectors, rear-projection screen, microlens array (MLA) and the light source is 28 mm x 14 mm realized a 200 mm x 100 mm image in 3 meters from drivers. We want to use the MLA to reduce the volume by virtual image stitching. We design the HUD's package dimensions is 12 cm x 12 cm x 9 cm. It is able to show speed, map-navigation and night vision information. We used Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) as our image source due to its brighter image output required and the minimum volume occupancy. The MLA is a multi aperture system. The proposed MLA consists of many optical channels each transmitting a segment of the whole field of view. The design of the system provides the stitching of the partial images, so that we can see the whole virtual image.

  12. Project Explorer: Get Away Special #007. [alloy solidification, seed germination, crystal growth, and radio transmission of payload data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Tentatively scheduled to fly on STS-17 (41G), this get away special aims to demonstrate amateur radio transmissions to global ground stations in the English language. Experiments No. 1, 2, and 3 use the micro-gravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the germination of radish seeds, and the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution. Flight results are to be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 (the Marshall Amateur Radio Club Experiment - MARCE) features radio transmissions and also provides timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor obtains real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements within the GAS canister. These data are to be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they are converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception. The support structure for the G #007 experiments consists of two primary plates and four bumper assemblies.

  13. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications.

  14. The Ultimate Display

    CERN Document Server

    Fluke, C J

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical images and datasets are increasingly high-resolution and multi-dimensional. The vast majority of astronomers perform all of their visualisation and analysis tasks on low-resolution, two-dimensional desktop monitors. If there were no technological barriers to designing the ultimate stereoscopic display for astronomy, what would it look like? What capabilities would we require of our compute hardware to drive it? And are existing technologies even close to providing a true 3D experience that is compatible with the depth resolution of human stereoscopic vision? We consider the CAVE2 (an 80 Megapixel, hybrid 2D and 3D virtual reality environment directly integrated with a 100 Tflop/s GPU-powered supercomputer) and the Oculus Rift (a low- cost, head-mounted display) as examples at opposite financial ends of the immersive display spectrum.

  15. Metal-induced crystallization fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zumin; Mittemeijer, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Metal-Induced CrystallizationAtomic Mechanisms and Interface Thermodynamics of Metal-Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Semiconductors at Low TemperaturesThermodynamics and Kinetics of Layer Exchange upon Low-Temperature Annealing Amorphous Si/Polycrystalline Al Layered StructuresMetal-Induced Crystallization by Homogeneous Insertion of Metallic Species in Amorphous SemiconductorsAluminum-Induced Crystallization: Applications in Photovoltaic TechnologiesApplications of Metal-Induced Crystallization for Advanced Flat-Panel DisplaysLaser-Assisted Meta

  16. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  17. Virtual Auditory Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    timbre , intensity, distance, room modeling, radio communication Virtual Environments Handbook Chapter 4 Virtual Auditory Displays Russell D... musical note “A” as a pure sinusoid, there will be 440 condensations and rarefactions per second. The distance between two adjacent condensations or...and complexity are pitch, loudness, and timbre respectively. This distinction between physical and perceptual measures of sound properties is an

  18. Project Phase Dependent Configuration of Project Management Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziša, S; Grabis, J.

    2012-01-01

    Project management information systems ensure the collection and display of project information. The project information changes depend upon the project environment. According to project environment and requirements, the configuration of project management information system is ensured by means of an approach to configuration of project management information systems. However, topicality of information and access to it change during the project life cycle depending upo...

  19. Virtual acoustic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    A 3D auditory display can potentially enhance information transfer by combining directional and iconic information in a quite naturalistic representation of dynamic objects in the interface. Another aspect of auditory spatial clues is that, in conjunction with other modalities, it can act as a potentiator of information in the display. For example, visual and auditory cues together can reinforce the information content of the display and provide a greater sense of presence or realism in a manner not readily achievable by either modality alone. This phenomenon will be particularly useful in telepresence applications, such as advanced teleconferencing environments, shared electronic workspaces, and monitoring telerobotic activities in remote or hazardous situations. Thus, the combination of direct spatial cues with good principles of iconic design could provide an extremely powerful and information-rich display which is also quite easy to use. An alternative approach, recently developed at ARC, generates externalized, 3D sound cues over headphones in realtime using digital signal processing. Here, the synthesis technique involves the digital generation of stimuli using Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTF's) measured in the two ear-canals of individual subjects. Other similar approaches include an analog system developed by Loomis, et. al., (1990) and digital systems which make use of transforms derived from normative mannikins and simulations of room acoustics. Such an interface also requires the careful psychophysical evaluation of listener's ability to accurately localize the virtual or synthetic sound sources. From an applied standpoint, measurement of each potential listener's HRTF's may not be possible in practice. For experienced listeners, localization performance was only slightly degraded compared to a subject's inherent ability. Alternatively, even inexperienced listeners may be able to adapt to a particular set of HRTF's as long as they provide adequate

  20. Thin aligned organic polymer films for liquid crystal devices

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, K E

    1997-01-01

    This project was designed to investigate the possibility of producing alignment layers for liquid crystal devices by cross-linking thin films containing anisotropic polymer bound chromophores via irradiation with polarised ultraviolet light. Photocross-linkable polymers find use in microelectronics, liquid crystal displays, printing and UV curable lacquers and inks; so there is an increasing incentive for the development of new varieties of photopolymers in general. The synthesis and characterisation of two new photopolymers that are suitable as potential alignment layers for liquid crystal devices are reported in this thesis. The first polymer contains the anthracene chromophore attached via a spacer unit to a methacrylate backbone and the second used a similarly attached aryl azide group. Copolymers of the new monomers with methyl methacrylate were investigated to establish reactivity ratios in order to understand composition drift during polymerisation.

  1. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  2. Tactile Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project has developed a set of tactile display garments that will be used to evaluate various tactile display methodologies. The garments include two sleeves...

  3. Project in determination of crystal structure of nitrogen fixation proteins from azospirilum brasiliense and herbaspirilum seropedicae by synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Valma M.; Leggs, Luciana A.; Delboni, Luis F.; Chubatsu, LedaS.; Souza, Emanuel M.; Machado, Hidevaldo B.; Yates, Geoffrey M.; Pedrosa, Fabio O. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica

    1996-12-31

    Full text. Biological nitrogen fixation is essential for maintaining the nitrogen cycle on earth and of high importance for Brazilian agriculture. The nitrogenase enzyme system, which provides the biochemical machinery for nitrogen fixation, consists of two component metalloproteins, the molybdenumiron (Mo Fe) protein and the iron (Fe) protein. Nitrogen fixation is a very energy-intensive process, requiring around 16 moles of ATP for each mol of N{sub 2} fixed (reduced). As a consequence, synthesis and activity of nitrogenase is tighty regulated at two levels: general and specific. The general level regulation is mediated by the ntr (nitrogen regulation) system. Two gene products are involved: the ntrB gene product (NtrB) is responsible for the activation of the ntrC gene product (NtrC) by phosphorylating a conserved Asp54, which activates the expression of the nifA gene. The nif specific control system is mediated by the NifA protein, which binds to a DNA specific sequence (UAS, Upstream Activator Sequence) and activates nif promoter transcriptions by RNA polymerase-{sup {alpha}54}, following ATP hydrolysis. The aim of this project is to solve the crystal structure of dinitrogenase reductase (iron protein) and dinitrogenase (molybdenum-iron protein) from Azospirilim brasiliense and the regulatory proteins NifA from Herbaspirillum seropedicae and NtrC Azospirillum brasiliense. The three dimensional structure of the proteins involved in this project will allow a better understanding of the mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation. To this end, the data collection will probably be done at the LNLS facilities which will be available in the near future. (author)

  4. Image Descriptors for Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    hypothetical televison display. The viewing distance is 4 picture heights, and the bandwidth limitation has been set by the U.S. Monochrome Standards...significantly influence the power spectrum over most of the video frequency range. A large dc component and a small random component provide another scene... influences . It was Illuminated with natural light to a brightness of over 300 ft-L. The high brightness levels were chosen so as to nearly reproduce the

  5. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  6. Analysis of the 40K contamination in NaI(Tl) crystals from different providers in the frame of the ANAIS project

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, Clara; Cebrián, Susana; García, Eduardo; Ginestra, Carlos; Martínez, María; Oliván, Miguel A; Ortigoza, Ysrael; de Solórzano, Alfonso Ortíz; Pobes, Carlos; Puimedón, Jorge; Sarsa, María Luisa; Villar, José Ángel; Villar, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    NaI(Tl) large crystals are applied in the search for galactic dark matter particles through their elastic scattering off the target nuclei in the detector by measuring the scintillation signal produced. However, energies deposited in the form of nuclear recoils are small, which added to the low efficiency to convert that energy into scintillation, makes that events at or very near the energy threshold, attributed either to radioactive backgrounds or to spurious noise (non-bulk NaI(Tl) scintillation events), can compromise the sensitivity goals of such an experiment. DAMA/LIBRA experiment, using 250 kg NaI(Tl) target, reported first evidence of the presence of an annual modulation in the detection rate compatible with that expected for a dark matter signal just in the region below 6 keVee (electron equivalent energy). In the frame of the ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) dark matter search project a large and long effort has been carried out in order to understand the origin of events at very lo...

  7. Design of an elliptic spot illumination system in LED-based color filter-liquid-crystal-on-silicon pico projectors for mobile embedded projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Enguo; Yu, Feihong

    2012-06-01

    We present an elliptic spot illumination system for a color filter-liquid-crystal-on-silicon (CF-LCoS) pico projector employing a specifically designed free-form lens and a cylindrical lens to improve on previous designs in terms of optical efficiency while yielding an ultracompact and low-cost optical architecture. The detailed design description of the optical system is thoroughly investigated. Simulation results coincide well with the theoretical calculation. The single 1  mm×1  mm LED chip-powered optical engine, which employs a CF-LCoS panel with a diagonal of 0.28 in and an aspect ratio of 4:3, has an estimated output efficiency over 9.8% (11.8 lm@1 W) and an ANSI 9-point uniformity over 88.5%, with the ultrasmall volume 24  mm×19  mm×7  mm. Compared to the circular spot-illuminated projection system, a total increment of about 23% of system efficiency is available with this improved optical engine. It is believed that there would be a huge market potential to commercialize our design.

  8. The Retrieval, Display and Publishing Opportunities for a Visual Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Malcolm; Draycott, Catherine

    1993-01-01

    Describes a project by Media Projects International to create a visual database of 56,000 items from The Wellcome Institute Library for the History of Medicine (United Kingdom). Topics discussed include identifying the users; defining the display system; project management; production processes; designing the photographic capture process; and…

  9. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2017-06-14

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  10. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-05-10

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  11. Book Display as Adult Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Moore

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Book display as an adult service is defined as choosing and positioning adult books from the collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access. The paper considers the library-as-a-whole as a display, examines the right size for an in-library display, and discusses mass displays, end-caps, on-shelf displays, and the Tiffany approach. The author proposes that an effective display depends on an imaginative, unifying theme, and that book displays are part of the joy of libraries.

  12. Handbook of Visual Display Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Wayne; Fihn, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Visual Display Technology is a unique work offering a comprehensive description of the science, technology, economic and human interface factors associated with the displays industry. An invaluable compilation of information, the Handbook will serve as a single reference source with expert contributions from over 150 international display professionals and academic researchers. All classes of display device are covered including LCDs, reflective displays, flexible solutions and emissive devices such as OLEDs and plasma displays, with discussion of established principles, emergent technologies, and particular areas of application. The wide-ranging content also encompasses the fundamental science of light and vision, image manipulation, core materials and processing techniques, display driving and metrology.

  13. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.;

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion...... of the zeolite particles, particularly after thermal treatment. When using mesoporous zeolites, the particles were evenly distributed throughout the mesopore system of the zeolitic support, even after calcination, leading to nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals....

  14. Technologies and solutions for data display in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterman, Noemi

    2006-06-01

    Recent advances in technology have led to the introduction of a variety of innovative devices, each with their own platform for data display, into the operating room (OR). While these innovative applications are expanding the traditional boundaries of the surgical space and enhancing treatment capabilities, the introduction of additional screens and displays is placing an ever-increasing load on the OR team. This review describes the main data display platforms currently available in ORs: computer monitors with CRT (cathode ray tube) or LCD (liquid crystal display) screens, suspended imaging displays, wearable computers (WC), auditory displays and tactile (haptic) displays. The different display platforms are evaluated according to their compatibility with the characteristics of the working environment (OR), the monitoring task, and the users (the surgical team). No single display configuration provides an ultimate solution for presenting patient data in the OR. A multi-sensory data display including visual, acoustic and haptic manipulation is suggested as a promising configuration for data display in the OR.

  15. Visual Display Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    project.. Input to NVDPMAP may be from a formatted input file, or *may be entered interactively when running the program. The NVDPMAP program is an...second metnod uses the intensity output at the projection lens exit pupil , which already includes the effects of the lens system on the light...than unity. The lens exit pupil , dS’, accepts the illumination from dS, and passes the light on to the screen element dS’’ ( less transmission

  16. Navigational Heads-Up Display: Will a Shipboard Augmented Electronic Navigation System Sink or Swim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    76 Table 6. Subject Video Game Practice...Interface GPS Global Positioning System HMD Head-Mounted Display HUD Heads-Up Display IP Internet Protocol IR Infrared LCD Liquid-Crystal Display...Stress Disorder SDK Software Development Kit SOG Speed over Ground SWOS Surface Warfare Officer School USD United States Dollar USNS United States

  17. Uniform LED illuminator for miniature displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Vladimir; Pelka, David G.; Parkyn, William A.

    1998-10-01

    The Total Internally Reflecting (TIR) lens is a faceted structure composed of prismatic elements that collect a source's light over a much larger angular range than a conventional Fresnel lens. It has been successfully applied to the efficient collimation of light from incandescent and fluorescent lamps, and from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A novel LED-powered collimating backlight is presented here, for uniformly illuminating 0.25'-diagonal miniature liquid- crystal displays, which are a burgeoning market for pagers, cellular phones, digital cameras, camcorders, and virtual- reality displays. The backlight lens consists of a central dual-asphere refracting section and an outer TIR section, properly curved with a curved exit face.

  18. High-Resolution Large-Field-of-View Three-Dimensional Hologram Display System and Method Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Mintz, Frederick W. (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A real-time, dynamic, free space-virtual reality, 3-D image display system is enabled by using a unique form of Aerogel as the primary display media. A preferred embodiment of this system comprises a 3-D mosaic topographic map which is displayed by fusing four projected hologram images. In this embodiment, four holographic images are projected from four separate holograms. Each holographic image subtends a quadrant of the 4(pi) solid angle. By fusing these four holographic images, a static 3-D image such as a featured terrain map would be visible for 360 deg in the horizontal plane and 180 deg in the vertical plane. An input, either acquired by 3-D image sensor or generated by computer animation, is first converted into a 2-D computer generated hologram (CGH). This CGH is then downloaded into large liquid crystal (LC) panel. A laser projector illuminates the CGH-filled LC panel and generates and displays a real 3-D image in the Aerogel matrix.

  19. Experimental Evaluation of a Coplanar Airborne Separation Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, J.; Brantegem, K. C. R.; Van Paassen, M. M.; Mulder, M.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments, an active conflict resolution task and a passive situation awareness assessment, were conducted that compared two versions of a constraint-based coplanar airborne separation assistance display. A baseline display showed a maneuver space based on 2-D projections of traffic and perfor

  20. Crystal science fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, V.; Halfpenny, PJ; Roberts, KJ

    2017-01-01

    The fundamentals of crystal science notably crystallography, crystal chemistry, crystal defects, crystal morphology and the surface chemistry of crystals are introduced with particular emphasis on organic crystals.

  1. Optimization of the polyplanar optical display electronics for a monochrome B-52 display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSanto, L.

    1998-04-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten-inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a new 200 mW green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments (TI). In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. In order to achieve increased brightness a monochrome digitizing interface was investigated. The operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with the RS-170 video format specific to the B-52 aircraft will be discussed, including the increased brightness of the monochrome digitizing interface. A brief description of the electronics required to drive the new 200 mW laser is also presented.

  2. Next Generation Flight Displays Using HTML5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The Human Integrated Vehicles and Environments (HIVE) lab at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is focused on bringing together inter-disciplinary talent to design and integrate innovative human interface technologies for next generation manned spacecraft. As part of this objective, my summer internship project centered on an ongoing investigation in to building flight displays using the HTML5 standard. Specifically, the goals of my project were to build and demo "flight-like" crew and wearable displays as well as create a webserver for live systems being developed by the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. In parallel to my project, a LabVIEW application, called a display server, was created by the HIVE that uses an XTCE (XML (Extensible Markup Language) Telemetry and Command Exchange) parser and CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data System) space packet decoder to translate telemetry items sent by the CFS (Core Flight Software) over User Datagram Protocol (UDP). It was the webserver's job to receive these UDP messages and send them to the displays. To accomplish this functionality, I utilized Node.js and the accompanying Express framework. On the display side, I was responsible for creating the power system (AMPS) displays. I did this by using HTML5, CSS and JavaScript to create web pages that could update and change dynamically based on the data they received from the webserver. At this point, I have not started on the commanding, being able to send back to the CFS, portion of the displays but hope to have this functionality working by the completion of my internship. I also created a way to test the webserver's functionality without the display server by making a JavaScript application that read in a comma-separate values (CSV) file and converted it to XML which was then sent over UDP. One of the major requirements of my project was to build everything using as little preexisting code as possible, which I accomplished by only using a handful of Java

  3. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  4. Variations in performance of LCDs are still evident after DICOM gray-scale standard display calibration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lowe, Joanna M

    2010-07-01

    Quality assurance in medical imaging is directly beneficial to image quality. Diagnostic images are frequently displayed on secondary-class displays that have minimal or no regular quality assurance programs, and treatment decisions are being made from these display types. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of calibration on physical and psychophysical performance of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and the extent of potential variance across various types of LCDs.

  5. Colorimetry for CRT displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golz, Jürgen; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the sources of error in specifying color in CRT displays. These include errors inherent in the use of the color matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer when only colorimetric, not radiometric, calibrations are available. We provide transformation coefficients that prove to correct the deficiencies of this observer very well. We consider four different candidate sets of cone sensitivities. Some of these differ substantially; variation among candidate cone sensitivities exceeds the variation among phosphors. Finally, the effects of the recognized forms of observer variation on the visual responses (cone excitations or cone contrasts) generated by CRT stimuli are investigated and quantitatively specified. Cone pigment polymorphism gives rise to variation of a few per cent in relative excitation by the different phosphors--a variation larger than the errors ensuing from the adoption of the CIE standard observer, though smaller than the differences between some candidate cone sensitivities. Macular pigmentation has a larger influence, affecting mainly responses to the blue phosphor. The estimated combined effect of all sources of observer variation is comparable in magnitude with the largest differences between competing cone sensitivity estimates but is not enough to disrupt very seriously the relation between the L and M cone weights and the isoluminance settings of individual observers. It is also comparable with typical instrumental colorimetric errors, but we discuss these only briefly.

  6. Data Display in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Verdinelli PsyD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual displays help in the presentation of inferences and conclusions and represent ways of organizing, summarizing, simplifying, or transforming data. Data displays such as matrices and networks are often utilized to enhance data analysis and are more commonly seen in quantitative than in qualitative studies. This study reviewed the data displays used by three prestigious qualitative research journals within a period of three years. The findings include the types of displays used in these qualitative journals, the frequency of use, and the purposes for using visual displays as opposed to presenting data in text.

  7. Modeling Power-Constrained Optimal Backlight Dimming for Color Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burini, Nino; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Korhonen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for modeling color liquid crystal displays (LCDs) having local light-emitting diode (LED) backlight with dimming capability. The proposed framework includes critical aspects like leakage, clipping, light diffusion and human perception of luminance and allows...

  8. Spatial constraints of stereopsis in video displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Clifton

    1989-01-01

    Recent development in video technology, such as the liquid crystal displays and shutters, have made it feasible to incorporate stereoscopic depth into the 3-D representations on 2-D displays. However, depth has already been vividly portrayed in video displays without stereopsis using the classical artists' depth cues described by Helmholtz (1866) and the dynamic depth cues described in detail by Ittleson (1952). Successful static depth cues include overlap, size, linear perspective, texture gradients, and shading. Effective dynamic cues include looming (Regan and Beverly, 1979) and motion parallax (Rogers and Graham, 1982). Stereoscopic depth is superior to the monocular distance cues under certain circumstances. It is most useful at portraying depth intervals as small as 5 to 10 arc secs. For this reason it is extremely useful in user-video interactions such as telepresence. Objects can be manipulated in 3-D space, for example, while a person who controls the operations views a virtual image of the manipulated object on a remote 2-D video display. Stereopsis also provides structure and form information in camouflaged surfaces such as tree foliage. Motion parallax also reveals form; however, without other monocular cues such as overlap, motion parallax can yield an ambiguous perception. For example, a turning sphere, portrayed as solid by parallax can appear to rotate either leftward or rightward. However, only one direction of rotation is perceived when stereo-depth is included. If the scene is static, then stereopsis is the principal cue for revealing the camouflaged surface structure. Finally, dynamic stereopsis provides information about the direction of motion in depth (Regan and Beverly, 1979). Clearly there are many spatial constraints, including spatial frequency content, retinal eccentricity, exposure duration, target spacing, and disparity gradient, which - when properly adjusted - can greatly enhance stereodepth in video displays.

  9. Dynamic exit pupil trackers for autostereoscopic displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akşit, Kaan; Baghsiahi, Hadi; Surman, Phil; Ölçer, Selim; Willman, Eero; Selviah, David R; Day, Sally; Urey, Hakan

    2013-06-17

    This paper describes the first demonstrations of two dynamic exit pupil (DEP) tracker techniques for autostereoscopic displays. The first DEP tracker forms an exit pupil pair for a single viewer in a defined space with low intraocular crosstalk using a pair of moving shutter glasses located within the optical system. A display prototype using the first DEP tracker is constructed from a pair of laser projectors, pupil-forming optics, moving shutter glasses at an intermediate pupil plane, an image relay lens, and a Gabor superlens based viewing screen. The left and right eye images are presented time-sequentially to a single viewer and seen as a 3D image without wearing glasses and allows the viewer to move within a region of 40 cm × 20 cm in the lateral plane, and 30 cm along the axial axis. The second DEP optics can move the exit pupil location dynamically in a much larger 3D space by using a custom spatial light modulator (SLM) forming an array of shutters. Simultaneous control of multiple exit pupils in both lateral and axial axes is demonstrated for the first time and provides a viewing volume with an axial extent of 0.6-3 m from the screen and within a lateral viewing angle of ± 20° for multiple viewers. This system has acceptable crosstalk (< 5%) between the stereo image pairs. In this novel version of the display the optical system is used as an advanced dynamic backlight for a liquid crystal display (LCD). This has advantages in terms of overall display size as there is no requirement for an intermediate image, and in image quality. This system has acceptable crosstalk (< 5%) between the stereo image pairs.

  10. MicroDisplay technology: from eyeglass-mounted displays to portable projectors to the Dick Tracy video phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip

    1997-06-01

    MicroDisplay devices are based on a combination of technologies ranging from the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS active-matrix liquid crystal display substrates to proprietary tunable color- filter technology, to optical distortion correction technology for lens-system compensation. All of these technologies were devised to create a line of application- specific integrated circuit single-chip display devices with integrated computing, memory, and communication circuitry. Next-generation portable communication, computer, and consumer electronic devices such as truly portable monitor and TV projectors, eyeglass-clip-on virtual displays, pagers and personal communication services hand-sets, and wristwatch-mounted video phones are all target markets for MicroDisplay technology.

  11. Rapid display of radiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Moore, Stephen M.; Whitman, Robert A.; Blaine, G. James; Jost, R. Gilbert; Karlsson, L. M.; Monsees, Thomas L.; Hassen, Gregory L.; David, Timothy C.

    1991-07-01

    The requirements for the rapid display of radiographic images exceed the capabilities of widely available display, computer, and communications technologies. Computed radiography captures data with a resolution of about four megapixels. Large-format displays are available that can present over four megapixels. One megapixel displays are practical for use in combination with large-format displays and in areas where the viewing task does not require primary diagnosis. This paper describes an electronic radiology system that approximates the highest quality systems, but through the use of several interesting techniques allows the possibility of its widespread installation throughout hospitals. The techniques used can be grouped under three major system concepts: a local, high-speed image server, one or more physician's workstations each with one or more high-performance auxiliary displays specialized to the radiology viewing task, and dedicated, high-speed communication links between the server and the displays. This approach is enhanced by the use of a progressive transmission scheme to decrease the latency for viewing four megapixel images. The system includes an image server with storage for over 600 4-megapixel images and a high-speed link. A subsampled megapixel image is fetched from disk and transmitted to the display in about one second followed by the full resolution 4-megapixel image in about 2.5 seconds. Other system components include a megapixel display with a 6-megapixel display memory space and frame-rate update of image roam, zoom, and contrast. Plans for clinical use are presented.

  12. Military display market segment: helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2004-09-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of one of its segments: helicopter displays. Parameters requiring special consideration, to include luminance ranges, contrast ratio, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are examined. Performance requirements for rotary-wing displays relative to several premier applications are summarized. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DoD applications across 10 or more platforms, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area sizes across helicopter platforms, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or greater, is illustrated. Rotary-wing displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus Rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military helicopter programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. The military display market study is summarized with breakouts for the helicopter market segment. Our defense-wide study as of March 2004 has documented 1,015,494 direct view and virtual image displays distributed across 1,181 display sizes and 503 weapon systems. Helicopter displays account for 67,472 displays (just 6.6% of DoD total) and comprise 83 sizes (7.0% of total DoD) in 76 platforms (15.1% of total DoD). Some 47.6% of these rotary-wing applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, as per fixed-wing aircraft, the predominant instantiation involves higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  13. X-1 on display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    A Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1 series aircraft on display at an Open House at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit or High-Speed Flight Research Station hangar on South Base of Edwards Air Force Base, California. (The precise date of the photo is uncertain, but it is probably before 1948.) The instrumentation that was carried aboard the aircraft to gather data is on display. The aircraft data was recorded on oscillograph film that was read, calibrated, and converted into meaningful parameters for the engineers to evaluate from each research flight. In the background of the photo are several early U.S. jets. These include several Lockheed P-80 Shooting Stars, which were used as chase planes on X-1 flights; two Bell P-59 Airacomets, the first U.S. jet pursuit aircraft (fighter in later parlance); and a prototype Republic XP-84 Thunderjet. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for eXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant

  14. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  15. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity--the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice--but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals.

  16. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity—the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice—but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals. PMID:27734829

  17. Maintenance Procedure Display: Head Mounted Display (HMD) Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Milrian; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Solem, Jody A.; Holden, Kritina L.; Hoffman, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing maintenance procedures for head mounted displays is shown. The topics include: 1) Study Goals; 2) Near Eye Displays (HMDs); 3) Design; 4) Phase I-Evaluation Methods; 5) Phase 1 Results; 6) Improved HMD Mounting; 7) Phase 2 -Evaluation Methods; 8) Phase 2 Preliminary Results; and 9) Next Steps.

  18. A multilayer display augmented by alternating layers of lenticular sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hironobu

    2014-03-01

    A multilayer display is an autostereoscopic display constructed by stacking multiple layers of LC (liquid crystal) panels on top of a light source. It is capable of delivering smooth, continuous, and position-dependent images to viewers within a prescribed viewing zone. However, the images thus delivered may contain artifacts, which are inconsistent with real 3D scenes. For example, objects occluding one another may fuse together, or get obscured in the delivered images. To reduce such artifacts, it is often necessary to narrow the viewing zone. Using a directional rather than a uniform light source is one way to mitigate this problem. In this work, we present another solution to the problem. We propose an integrated architecture of multilayer and lenticular displays, where multiple LC panels are sandwiched between pairs of lenticular sheets. By associating a pair of lenticular sheets with a LC panel, each pixel in the panel is transformed into a view-dependent pixel, which is visible only from a particular viewing direction. Since all pixels in the integrated architecture are view-dependent, the display is partitioned into several sub-displays, each of which corresponds to a narrow viewing zone. The partitioning of display will reduce the possibility that the artifacts are noticeable in the delivered images. We will show several simulation results confirming that the proposed extension of multilayer display can deliver more plausible images than conventional multilayer display.

  19. Updated defense display market assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD installed base for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 313,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within future weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern, especially flat panel, display technologies being developed to replace older, especially cathode ray tube, technology for civil-commercial markets. Total DoD display needs (FPD, HMD) are some 427,000.

  20. Analysis of Duration Risk of PERT Network Planning Project Based on Crystal Ball%基于Crystal Ball的PERT网络计划项目工期风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡静静

    2012-01-01

    文章介绍了网络计划技术,对PERT网络计划项目各活动持续时间的确定进行了分析,总结了使用Crystal Ball进行风险分析的步骤,构建了某PERT网络计划项目各活动的时问参数的Excel模型.在此基础上,使用Crystal Ball建立该项目的工期风险分析模型,并对该模型进行风险分析,获得有效的分析结果.

  1. Time management displays for shuttle countdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Arthur E.; Hadaller, H. Greg; Ricci, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Intelligent Launch Decision Support System project is developing a Time Management System (TMS) for the NASA Test Director (NTD) to use for time management during Shuttle terminal countdown. TMS is being developed in three phases: an information phase; a tool phase; and an advisor phase. The information phase is an integrated display (TMID) of firing room clocks, of graphic timelines with Ground Launch Sequencer events, and of constraints. The tool phase is a what-if spreadsheet (TMWI) for devising plans for resuming from unplanned hold situations. It is tied to information in TMID, propagates constraints forward and backward to complete unspecified values, and checks the plan against constraints. The advisor phase is a situation advisor (TMSA), which proactively suggests tactics. A concept prototype for TMSA is under development. The TMID is currently undergoing field testing. Displays for TMID and TMWI are described. Descriptions include organization, rationale for organization, implementation choices and constraints, and use by NTD.

  2. Evaluation of an organic light-emitting diode display for precise visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masaki; Sunaga, Shoji

    2013-06-11

    A new type of visual display for presentation of a visual stimulus with high quality was assessed. The characteristics of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display (Sony PVM-2541, 24.5 in.; Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) were measured in detail from the viewpoint of its applicability to visual psychophysics. We found the new display to be superior to other display types in terms of spatial uniformity, color gamut, and contrast ratio. Changes in the intensity of luminance were sharper on the OLED display than those on a liquid crystal display. Therefore, such OLED displays could replace conventional cathode ray tube displays in vision research for high quality stimulus presentation. Benefits of using OLED displays in vision research were especially apparent in the fields of low-level vision, where precise control and description of the stimulus are needed, e.g., in mesopic or scotopic vision, color vision, and motion perception.

  3. SureTrak Probability of Impact Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John

    2012-01-01

    The SureTrak Probability of Impact Display software was developed for use during rocket launch operations. The software displays probability of impact information for each ship near the hazardous area during the time immediately preceding the launch of an unguided vehicle. Wallops range safety officers need to be sure that the risk to humans is below a certain threshold during each use of the Wallops Flight Facility Launch Range. Under the variable conditions that can exist at launch time, the decision to launch must be made in a timely manner to ensure a successful mission while not exceeding those risk criteria. Range safety officers need a tool that can give them the needed probability of impact information quickly, and in a format that is clearly understandable. This application is meant to fill that need. The software is a reuse of part of software developed for an earlier project: Ship Surveillance Software System (S4). The S4 project was written in C++ using Microsoft Visual Studio 6. The data structures and dialog templates from it were copied into a new application that calls the implementation of the algorithms from S4 and displays the results as needed. In the S4 software, the list of ships in the area was received from one local radar interface and from operators who entered the ship information manually. The SureTrak Probability of Impact Display application receives ship data from two local radars as well as the SureTrak system, eliminating the need for manual data entry.

  4. After-effects of TFT-LCD display polarity and display colour on the detection of low-contrast objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Susanne; Buchner, Axel

    2010-07-01

    Participants performed a word-non-word discrimination task within a car control display emulated on a thin film transistor liquid-crystal display (TFT-LCD). The task simulated an information read-out from a TFT-LCD-based instrument panel. Subsequently, participants performed a low-contrast object detection task that simulated the detection of objects during night-time driving. In experiment 1, words/non-words were presented black-on-white (positive polarity) or white-on-black (negative polarity). In experiments 2 and 3, display colour was additionally manipulated. A positive polarity advantage in the discrimination task was consistently observed. In contrast, positive displays interfered more than negative displays with subsequent detection. The detrimental after-effect of positive polarity displays was strong with white and blue, reduced with amber and absent with red displays. Subjective measures showed a preference for blue over red, but a slight advantage for amber over blue. Implications for TFT-LCD design are derived from the results. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: When using TFT-LCDs as car instrument panels, positive polarity red TFT-LCDs are very likely to lead to good instrument readability while at the same time minimising - relative to other colours - the negative effects of an illuminated display on low-contrast object detection during night-time driving.

  5. Three-dimensional display technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain's power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies.

  6. Proceedings of the Flat-plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the High-speed Growth and Characterization of Crystals for Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, K. A. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental phenomena, applications, and characterization including stress/strain and other problem areas that limit the rate of growth of crystals suitable for processing into efficient, cost-effective solar cells are discussed. Melt spinning, ribbon growth, rapid solidification, laser recrystallization, and ignot growth of silicon and metals are also discussed.

  7. Modeling liquid crystal polymeric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez Pinto, Vianney Karina

    The main focus of this work is the theoretical and numerical study of materials that combine liquid crystal and polymer. Liquid crystal elastomers are polymeric materials that exhibit both the ordered properties of the liquid crystals and the elastic properties of rubbers. Changing the order of the liquid crystal molecules within the polymer network can induce shape change. These materials are very valuable for applications such as actuators, sensors, artificial muscles, haptic displays, etc. In this work we apply finite element elastodynamics simulations to study the temperature induced shape deformation in nematic elastomers with complex director microstructure. In another topic, we propose a novel numerical method to model the director dynamics and microstructural evolution of three dimensional nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals. Numerical studies presented in this work are in agreement with experimental observations and provide insight into the design of application devices.

  8. Jacquard-woven photonic bandgap fiber displays

    CERN Document Server

    Sayed, Imran; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of photonic textile displays woven on a Jacquard loom, using newly discovered polymer photonic bandgap fibers that have the ability to change color and appearance when illuminated with ambient or transmitted light. The photonic fiber can be thin (smaller than 300 microns in diameter) and highly flexible, which makes it possible to weave in the weft on a computerized Jacquard loom and develop intricate double weave structures together with a secondary weft yarn. We demonstrate how photonic crystal fibers enable a variety of color and structural patterns on the textile, and how dynamic imagery can be created by balancing the ambient and emitted radiation. Finally, a possible application in security ware for low visibility conditions is described as an example.

  9. Demonstrations with a Liquid Crystal Shutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    The experiments presented show the response of a liquid crystal shutter to applied electric voltages and the delay of the operations. Both properties are important for liquid crystal displays of computers and television sets. Two characteristics of the shutter are determined: (i) the optical transmittance versus applied voltage of various…

  10. Viewing Ice Crystals Using Polarized Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a method for identifying and examining single ice crystals by photographing a thin sheet of ice placed between two inexpensive polarizing filters. Suggests various natural and prepared sources for ice that promote students' insight into crystal structures, and yield colorful optical displays. Includes directions, precautions, and sample…

  11. Axion Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ozaki, Sho

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy effective theories for gapped insulators are classified by three parameters: permittivity $\\epsilon$, permeability $\\mu$, and theta angle $\\theta$. Crystals with periodic $\\epsilon$ are known as photonic crystals. We here study the band structure of photons in a new type of crystals with periodic $\\theta$ (modulo $2\\pi$) in space, which we call the axion crystals. We find that the axion crystals have a number of new properties that the usual photonic crystals do not possess, such as the helicity-dependent photonic band gaps and the nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation at small momentum. We briefly discuss possible realizations of axion crystals in condensed matter systems as well as high-energy physics.

  12. Crystal Ball Functional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, David

    2016-09-01

    The A2 collaboration of the MAinz MIkrotron is dedicated to studying meson production and nucleon structure and behavior via photon scattering. The photons are made via bremsstrahlung process and energy-tagged using the Glasgow Photon tagger. The photon beam then interacts in a variety of targets: cryogenic, polarized or solid state, and scattered particles deposit their energy within the NaI crystals. Scintillators are able to give results on particles energy and time. Events are reconstructed by combining information from the Tagging spectrometer, the Crystal Ball detector, the TAPS forward wall spectrometer, a Cherenkov detector, and multi-wire proportional chambers. To better understand the detector and experimental events, a live display was built to show energies deposited in crystals in real-time. In order to show a range of energies and particles, addressable LEDs that are individually programmable were used. To best replicate the Crystal Ball, 3D printing technology was employed to build a similar highly segmented icosahedron that can hold each LED, creating a 3D representation of what photons see during experiments. The LEDs were controlled via Arduino microcontroller. Finally, we implemented the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System to grab live event data, and a simple program converts this data in to color and crystal number data that is able to communicate with the Arduino. Using these simple parts, we can better visualize and understand the tools used in nuclear physics. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. IIA-1358175.

  13. Tone compatibility between HDR displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  14. Parallax multi-viewer autostereoscopic three-dimensional display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Lingdao; Schonfeld, Dan; Li, Qun

    2014-03-01

    It is a widely held belief that in the long run, three-dimensional (3D) display should supply stereo to multiple viewers without wearing any viewing aids and free to move. Over the last few decades, great e®orts have been made to approach auto-stereoscopic (AS) display for multiple viewers. Spatial multiplexing technique has ¯rst been employed to accommodate multiple viewers simultaneously in stereoscopic planar display. However, resolution of each view image decreases as the number of viewers increases. Recent development of high-speed liquid crystal display (LCD), which is capable of operating 240-Hz frame rate, makes feasible multi-viewer display via time multiplexing and improving image quality at the same time. In this paper, we propose a display adjustment algorithm that enables high-quality auto-stereoscopic display for multiple viewers. The proposed method relies on spatio-temporal parallax barrier to channel desired stereo pair to corresponding viewers according to their locations. We subsequently conduct simulations that demonstrate the e®ectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Interactive display system having a digital micromirror imaging device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard; Kaull, Lisa; Brewster, Calvin

    2006-04-11

    A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. A projector cooperates with a digital imaging device, e.g. a digital micromirror imaging device, for projecting an image through the panel for display on the outlet face. The imaging device includes an array of mirrors tiltable between opposite display and divert positions. The display positions reflect an image light beam from the projector through the panel for display on the outlet face. The divert positions divert the image light beam away from the panel, and are additionally used for reflecting a probe light beam through the panel toward the outlet face. Covering a spot on the panel, e.g. with a finger, reflects the probe light beam back through the panel toward the inlet face for detection thereat and providing interactive capability.

  16. Scanning laser beam displays based on a 2D MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesten, Maarten; Masood, Taha; Miller, Josh; Tauscher, Jason

    2010-05-01

    The combination of laser light sources and MEMS technology enables a range of display systems such as ultra small projectors for mobile devices, head-up displays for vehicles, wearable near-eye displays and projection systems for 3D imaging. Images are created by scanning red, green and blue lasers horizontally and vertically with a single two-dimensional MEMS. Due to the excellent beam quality of laser beams, the optical designs are efficient and compact. In addition, the laser illumination enables saturated display colors that are desirable for augmented reality applications where a virtual image is used. With this technology, the smallest projector engine for high volume manufacturing to date has been developed. This projector module has a height of 7 mm and a volume of 5 cc. The resolution of this projector is WVGA. No additional projection optics is required, resulting in an infinite focus depth. Unlike with micro-display projection displays, an increase in resolution will not lead to an increase in size or a decrease in efficiency. Therefore future projectors can be developed that combine a higher resolution in an even smaller and thinner form factor with increased efficiencies that will lead to lower power consumption.

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays - Deprecated

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is up-to-date but newer better data can be retrieved at: https://data.energystar.gov/dataset/ENERGY-STAR-Certified-Displays/xsyb-v8gs Certified models...

  18. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  19. Enhancing Mathematical Graphical Displays in Excel through Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deane Arganbright

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing Mathematical Graphical Displays in Excel through AnimationThe use of spreadsheets in teaching mathematics has increased significantly in recent years. One can implement mathematical algorithms, models, visualizations, and applications naturally and effectively through interactive spreadsheet constructions and creative graphical displays. This paper demonstrates techniques that enable educators to design animated graphical displays in their spreadsheet constructions in order to produce powerful classroom demonstrations to enhance mathematical understanding, while also presenting students with new ideas for incorporating attractive visual components in their mathematical assignments and projects.

  20. Building a crystal palace

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The end-caps of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) take shape as the first quadrant was completed on Wednesday 3 October. 1831 crystals, organised into five by five blocks named ‘supercrystals’, make up the first quadrant of Dee 1.With the 61,200-crystal barrel of its electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) complete, CMS is now building the endcaps, on the tenth anniversary of their initial design. Crystals for the endcaps were the last to be made, so the race is now on to have them all in place and ready for the turn-on of the LHC next year. Assembly of the first of eight quadrants began in June and crystal mounting was completed on Wednesday 3 October. Each crystal is transparent, has a volume just larger than a CERN coffee cup yet weighs a huge 1.5kg. 1831 of these lead tungstate crystals went into the first quadrant from a total 14,648 in the endcaps. The lead and tungsten account for 86% of each crystal’s weight, but as project leader Dave Cockerill expl...

  1. Effective color design for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    2002-06-01

    Visual communication is a key aspect of human-computer interaction, which contributes to the satisfaction of user and application needs. For effective design of presentations on computer displays, color should be used in conjunction with the other visual variables. The general needs of graphic user interfaces are discussed, followed by five specific tasks with differing criteria for display color specification - advertising, text, information, visualization and imaging.

  2. EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTION HISTOGRAMS FOR INCREMENT OF CHROMATICITY COORDINATES IN DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider evaluation problem of chromaticity coordinates increment for an image displayed by indicating means (liquid crystal panels and etc.. Display device profile set by the weight matrix for components of primary colors serves as basic data for quantitative calculation. Research results have the form of mathematical expressions allowing calculation of increment values of chromaticity coordinates of the image displayed on indicating means and histograms of increment distribution.

  3. Performance studies of electrochromic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Ciprian; Dobre, Robert Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    The idea of having flexible, very thin, light, low power and even low cost display devices implemented using new materials and technologies is very exciting. Nowadays we can talk about more than just concepts, such devices exist, and they are part of an emerging concept: FOLAE (Flexible Organic and Large Area Electronics). Among the advantages of electrochromic devices are the low power consumption (they are non-emissive, i.e. passive) and the aspect like ink on paper with good viewing angle. Some studies are still necessary for further development, before proper performances are met and the functional behavior can be predicted. This paper presents the results of the research activity conducted to develop electric characterization platform for the organic electronics display devices, especially electrochromic displays, to permit a thorough study. The hardware part of platform permits the measuring of different electric and optical parameters. Charging/discharging a display element presents high interest for optimal driving circuitry. In this sense, the corresponding waveforms are presented. The contrast of the display is also measured for different operation conditions as driving voltage levels and duration. The effect of temperature on electrical and optical parameters (contrast) of the display will be also presented.

  4. Historical halo displays as past weather indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Dagmar; Neuhäuser, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    Certain halo displays like the 22° circle were known to indicate specific weather pattern since millennia - as specified in Babylonian omina, Aristotle's Meteorology, farmers' weather lore, etc. Today, it is known that halo phenomena are due to refraction and reflection of sun and moon light in ice crystals in cirrus and cirrostratus, so that halo observations do indicate atmospheric conditions like temperature, humidity, pressure etc. in a few km height. The Astronomical Diaries of Babylonia have recorded both halo phenomena (circles, parhelia, etc.) and weather conditions (rain, clouds, etc.), so that we can use them to show statistically, whether, which and how fast halo phenomena are related to weather - for the last few centuries BC for Babylonia. We can then also compare the observations of Babylonian priests in the given BC epoch (without air and light pollution) with the last few decades of the modern epoch (with air and light pollution), where amateur halo observers have systematically recorded such phenomena (in Europe). Weather and climate are known to be partly driven by solar activity. Hence, one could also consider whether there is an indirect relation between halo displays as weather proxy and aurorae as solar activity proxy - if low solar activity leads to low pressure systems, one could expect more halos, preliminary studies show such a hint. For the last few decades, we have many halo observations, satellite imaging of the aurora oval, and many data on solar activity. A statistically sufficient amount of aurora and halo observations should be available for the historic time to investigate such a possible connection: halos were recorded very often in antiquity and the medieval times (as found in chronicles etc.), and modern scholarly catalogs of aurorae also often contain unrecognized halo displays.

  5. SOLIDFELIX: a transportable 3D static volume display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Knut; Kreft, Alexander; Wörden, Henrik Tom

    2009-02-01

    Flat 2D screens cannot display complex 3D structures without the usage of different slices of the 3D model. Volumetric displays like the "FELIX 3D-Displays" can solve the problem. They provide space-filling images and are characterized by "multi-viewer" and "all-round view" capabilities without requiring cumbersome goggles. In the past many scientists tried to develop similar 3D displays. Our paper includes an overview from 1912 up to today. During several years of investigations on swept volume displays within the "FELIX 3D-Projekt" we learned about some significant disadvantages of rotating screens, for example hidden zones. For this reason the FELIX-Team started investigations also in the area of static volume displays. Within three years of research on our 3D static volume display at a normal high school in Germany we were able to achieve considerable results despite minor funding resources within this non-commercial group. Core element of our setup is the display volume which consists of a cubic transparent material (crystal, glass, or polymers doped with special ions, mainly from the rare earth group or other fluorescent materials). We focused our investigations on one frequency, two step upconversion (OFTS-UC) and two frequency, two step upconversion (TFTSUC) with IR-Lasers as excitation source. Our main interest was both to find an appropriate material and an appropriate doping for the display volume. Early experiments were carried out with CaF2 and YLiF4 crystals doped with 0.5 mol% Er3+-ions which were excited in order to create a volumetric pixel (voxel). In addition to that the crystals are limited to a very small size which is the reason why we later investigated on heavy metal fluoride glasses which are easier to produce in large sizes. Currently we are using a ZBLAN glass belonging to the mentioned group and making it possible to increase both the display volume and the brightness of the images significantly. Although, our display is currently

  6. University of Nevada Las Vegas LED Display Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-08-31

    The primary objective of this part of the project is to develop and implement a method that compensates for the inefficiency of the green LED. The proposed engineering solution which will be the backbone of this project will be to use RGBW combination in every pixel to save energy. Two different RGBW geometrical pixel configurations will be implemented and compared against traditional LED configurations. These configurations will be analyzed for energy efficiency while keeping the quality of the display the same. Cost of the addition of white LEDs to displays along with energy cost savings will be presented and analyzed.

  7. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  8. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  9. Computational crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H

    2016-07-15

    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed.

  10. Remote Software Application and Display Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Brandon T.

    2014-01-01

    The era of the shuttle program has come to an end, but only to give rise to newer and more exciting projects. Now is the time of the Orion spacecraft, a work of art designed to exceed all previous endeavors of man. NASA is exiting the time of exploration and is entering a new period, a period of pioneering. With this new mission, many of NASAs organizations must undergo a great deal of change and development to support the Orion missions. The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is the new system that will provide NASA the ability to launch rockets into orbit and thus control Orion and other spacecraft as the goal of populating Mars becomes ever increasingly tangible. Since the previous control system, Launch Processing System (LPS), was primarily designed to launch the shuttles, SCCS was needed as Kennedy Space Center (KSC) reorganized to a multiuser spaceport for commercial flights, providing a more versatile control over rockets. Within SCCS, is the Launch Control System (LCS), which is the remote software behind the command and monitoring of flight and ground system hardware. This internship at KSC has involved two main components in LCS, including Remote Software Application and Display development. The display environment provides a graphical user interface for an operator to view and see if any cautions are raised, while the remote applications are the backbone that communicate with hardware, and then relay the data back to the displays. These elements go hand in hand as they provide monitoring and control over hardware and software alike from the safety of the Launch Control Center. The remote software applications are written in Application Control Language (ACL), which must undergo unit testing to ensure data integrity. This paper describes both the implementation and writing of unit tests in ACL code for remote software applications, as well as the building of remote displays to be used in the Launch Control Center (LCC).

  11. The sweet world of liquid crystals : the synthesis of non-amphiphilic carbohydrate-derived liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Elly

    1998-01-01

    The research in carbohydrate-derived liquid crystals was initiated by a review article by Jeffrey in 1986. This is rather late if one considers that the research on liquid crystals underwent a revival already in the 1960s after the discovery of the liquid crystal display (LCD). Carbohydrates were de

  12. The sweet world of liquid crystals : The synthesis of non-amphiphilic carbohydrate-derived liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E

    1998-01-01

    The research in carbohydrate-derived liquid crystals was initiated by a review article by Jeffrey in 1986. This is rather late if one considers that the research on liquid crystals underwent a revival already in the 1960s after the discovery of the liquid crystal display (LCD). Carbohydrates were de

  13. The VLT Real Time Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, T.; Brighton, A.; Biereichel, P.

    The VLT Real-Time Display (RTD) software was developed in order to support image display in real-time, providing a tool for users to display video like images from a camera or detector as fast as possible on an X-Server. The RTD software is implemented as a package providing a Tcl/Tk image widget written in C++ and an independent image handling library and can be used as a building block, adding display capabilities to dedicated VLT control applications. The RTD widget provides basic image display functionality like: panning, zooming, color scaling, colormaps, intensity changes, pixel query, overlaying of line graphics. A large set of assisting widgets, e.g., colorbar, zoom window, spectrum plot are provided to enable the building of image applications. The support for real-time is provided by an RTD image event mechanism used for camera or detector subsystems to pass images to the RTD widget. Image data are passed efficiently via shared memory. This paper describes the architecture of the RTD software and summarizes the features provided by RTD.

  14. Phosphors for flat panel emissive displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.T.; Walko, R.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of emissive display technologies is presented. Display types briefly described include: cathode ray tubes (CRTs), field emission displays (FEDs), electroluminescent displays (ELDs), and plasma display panels (PDPs). The critical role of phosphors in further development of the latter three flat panel emissive display technologies is outlined. The need for stable, efficient red, green, and blue phosphors for RGB fall color displays is emphasized.

  15. Effects of Ice-Crystal Structure on Halo Formation: Cirrus Cloud Experimental and Ray-Tracing Modeling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Knight, Nancy C.; Takano, Yoshihide; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1986 Project FIRE (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment) field campaign, four 22 deg halo-producing cirrus clouds were studied jointly from a ground-based polarization lidar and an instrumented aircraft. The lidar data show the vertical cloud structure and the relative position of the aircraft, which collected a total of 84 slides by impaction, preserving the ice crystals for later microscopic examination. Although many particles were too fragile to survive impaction intact, a large fraction of the identifiable crystals were columns and radial bullet rosettes, with both displaying internal cavitations and radial plate-column combinations. Particles that were solid or displayed only a slight amount of internal structure were relatively rare, which shows that the usual model postulated by halo theorists, i.e., the randomly oriented, solid hexagonal crystal, is inappropriate for typical cirrus clouds. With the aid of new ray-tracing simulations for hexagonal hollow-ended column and bullet-rosette models, we evaluate the effects of more realistic ice-crystal structures on halo formation and lidar depolarization and consider why the common halo is not more common in cirrus clouds.

  16. Liquid crystal dimers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar Pal, Santanu

    2017-01-01

    This book covers in-depth discussion of design principles, synthesis and thermal behavior of all types of liquid crystal (LC) dimers. The text presents recent advances in the field of LC dimers consisting of different mesogenic units such as calamitic, discotic and bent-core molecules. It starts with a chapter on the introduction of liquid crystal dimers, including their odd-even behavior, basic classification of dimers and common mesophases in dimers. The text shows how the molecular architectures are being used to develop new materials to study a range of interesting phenomena such as the biaxial nematic phase containing rod-like and disc-like mesogenic units. Finally, the text presents perspectives related to technological relevance of these dimers such as dopants in LC display mixtures exhibiting faster relaxation time, strong flexoelectric coupling and others to effect control over the properties of these materials.

  17. Crystal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 3 NIST Crystal Data (PC database for purchase)   NIST Crystal Data contains chemical, physical, and crystallographic information useful to characterize more than 237,671 inorganic and organic crystalline materials. The data include the standard cell parameters, cell volume, space group number and symbol, calculated density, chemical formula, chemical name, and classification by chemical type.

  18. Engineering antibodies by yeast display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent

    2012-10-15

    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.

  19. PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  20. Controlling Power Consumption for Displays With Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino; Nadernejad, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Backlight dimming of Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) is a technology which aims at saving power and improving visual quality. The evolution of energy standards and the increasing public expectations regarding power consumption have made it necessary for backlight systems to manage their power....... Such a control is challenging to implement, because for LCD displays quality and power are closely interlinked, and one cannot be modified without affecting the other. To address this issue, we present a framework for power controlled backlight dimming defining some key concepts. Two methods to obtain backlights...... with a predefined power level for images are presented: one method has low complexity and the other achieves high performance in terms of quality/power trade-off. Those methods are evaluated on a modeled Light-Emitting Diode edge-lit backlight display. The high-performance method performs significantly better than...

  1. Development of autostereoscopic display system for remote manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Toshio; Kuboshima, Yauhito; Iwane, Kousuke; Shiina, Tatsuo

    2006-02-01

    When a 3D display system is used for remote manipulation, the special glasses for looking at the 3 D-image disturb the manipulation. So auto-stereoscopic display is preferable for remote manipulation work. However, the eye position area of the auto-stereoscopic display which shows the 3D-image is generally narrow. We constructed a 3D display system which solved these problems. In the system, 1.stereoscopic images displayed on the special LCD are projected on a large concave mirror by a projection lens. 2.The viewing-zone limiting aperture is set between the projection lens and the concave mirror. 3. The real image of the aperture plane is made at a certain position in vacant space by the concave mirror, and the image position is the viewing zone. By putting both eyes at the position and looking at the concave mirror plane, the observer can see the stereoscopic image without glasses. To expand the area at which the observer can observe the 3D-image, we proposed and constructed the system of the eye-position tracking of the viewing zone by detecting the eye-position of the observer. An observer can not only move horizontally and vertically by rotating the concave mirror, but also move to front and back by moving the viewing zone limiting aperture in the system.

  2. Display standards for commercial flight decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, Larry S.; Penn, Cecil W.

    1994-06-01

    SAE display standards are used as guidelines for certifying commercial airborne electronic displays. The SAE document generation structure and approval process is described. The SAE committees that generate display standards are described. Three SAE documents covering flat panel displays (AS-8034, ARP-4256, and ARP-4260) are discussed with their current status. Head-Up Display documents are also in work.

  3. Origin and use of crystallization phase diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Crystallization phase diagrams are frequently used to conceptualize the phase relations and also the processes taking place during the crystallization of macromolecules. While a great deal of freedom is given in crystallization phase diagrams owing to a lack of specific knowledge about the actual phase boundaries and phase equilibria, crucial fundamental features of phase diagrams can be derived from thermodynamic first principles. Consequently, there are limits to what can be reasonably displayed in a phase diagram, and imagination may start to conflict with thermodynamic realities. Here, the commonly used `crystallization phase diagrams' are derived from thermodynamic excess properties and their limitations and appropriate use is discussed.

  4. Macromolecular crystallization and crystal perfection

    CERN Document Server

    Chayen, Naomi E; Snell, Edward H

    2010-01-01

    Structural biology is key to our understanding of the mechanisms of biological processes. This text describes current methods and future frontiers in crystal growth and use of X-ray and neutron crystallography, in the context of automation of crystallization and generation of synchrotron X-ray and neutron beams.

  5. Orchard Display Nursery evaluation summary (2005-2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek J. Tilley; Loren St. John

    2006-01-01

    The Orchard Display Nursery was planted on November 16, 2004 in cooperation with the Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project. The nursery includes 82 accessions of 27 native and introduced grass, forb and shrub species. Each accession was planted in 7 X 60 foot plots. See Tilley et al (2005) for descriptions of the species and accessions planted. The...

  6. Support for Multitasking and background Awareness Using Interactive Peripheral Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacIntyre, Blair; Voida, Stephen; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    n this paper, we describe Kimura, an augmented office environment to support common multitasking practices. Previous systems, such as Rooms, limit users by constraining the interaction to the desktop monitor. In Kimura, we leverage interactive projected peripheral displays to support the perusal...

  7. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  8. Book Display as Adult Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew S.

    1997-01-01

    Defines book display as an adult service as choosing and positioning adult books from the library collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access, including contrasting missions, genre grouping, weeding, problems, and dimensions. (Author/LRW)

  9. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  10. Verbal Modification via Visual Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Edmun B.; Wallace-Childers, La Donna

    1977-01-01

    The inability of foreign language students to produce acceptable approximations of new vowel sounds initiated a study to devise a real-time visual display system whereby the students could match vowel production to a visual pedagogical model. The system used amateur radio equipment and a standard oscilloscope. (CHK)

  11. Colour displays for categorical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbey, C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Toh, V.F.K.; Gray, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a method for identifying a set of colours for displaying 2D and 3D categorical images when the categories are unordered labels. The principle is to find maximally distinct sets of colours. We either generate colours sequentially, to maximize the dissimilarity or distance between a new col

  12. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...

  13. Information retrieval and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groover, J. L.; King, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Versatile command-driven data management system offers users, through simplified command language, a means of storing and searching data files, sorting data files into specified orders, performing simple or complex computations, effecting file updates, and printing or displaying output data. Commands are simple to use and flexible enough to meet most data management requirements.

  14. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  15. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  16. An Evaluation of Performance Characteristics of Primary Display Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpo, Ernest U; McEntee, Mark F

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to complete a full evaluation of the new EIZO RX850 liquid crystal display and compare it to two currently used medical displays in Australia (EIZO GS510 and Barco MDCG 5121). The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 18 Quality Control test pattern was used to assess the performance of three high-resolution primary medical displays: EIZO RX850, EIZO GS510, and Barco MDCG 5121. A Konica Minolta spectroradiometer (CS-2000) was used to assess luminance response, non-uniformity, veiling glare, and color uniformity. Qualitative evaluation of noise was also performed. Seven breast lesions were displayed on each monitor and photographed with a calibrated 5.5-MP Olympus E-1 digital SLR camera. ImageJ software was used to sample pixel information from each lesion and surrounding background to calculate their conspicuity index on each of the displays. All monitor fulfilled all AAPM acceptance criteria. The performance characteristics for EIZO RX850, Barco MDCG 5121, and EIZO GS510 respectively were as follows: maximum luminance (490, 500.5, and 413 cd/m(2)), minimum luminance (0.724, 1.170, and 0.92 cd/m(2)), contrast ratio (675:1, 428:1, 449:1), just-noticeable difference index (635, 622, 609), non-uniformity (20, 5.92, and 8.5 %), veiling glare (GR = 2465.6, 720.4, 1249.8), and color uniformity (Δu'v' = +0.003, +0.002, +0.002). All monitors demonstrated low noise levels. The conspicuity index (χ) of the lesions was slightly higher in the EIZO RX850 display. All medical displays fulfilled AAPM performance criteria, and performance characteristics of EIZO RX850 are equal to or better than those of the Barco MDCG 5121 and EIZO GS510 displays.

  17. Crystal structure determination as part of an ongoing undergraduate organic laboratory project: 5-[(E-styryl]-1,3,4-oxathiazol-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor R. Nason

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H7NO2S, provides the first structure of an α-alkenyl oxathiazolone ring. The phenyl ring and the oxathiazolone groups make dihedral angles of 0.3 (3 and −2.8 (3°, respectively, with the plane of the central alkene group; the dihedral angle between the rings is 2.68 (8°. A careful consideration of bond lengths provides insight into the electronic structure and reactivity of the title compound. In the crystal, extended π-stacking is observed parallel to the a-axis direction, consisting of cofacial head-to-tail dimeric units [centroid–centroid distance of 3.6191 (11 Å]. These dimeric units are separated by a slightly longer centroid–centroid distance of 3.8383 (12 Å, generating infinite stacks of molecules.

  18. Crystal Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Armstrong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystal dislocations were invisible until the mid-20th century although their presence had been inferred; the atomic and molecular scale dimensions had prevented earlier discovery. Now they are normally known to be just about everywhere, for example, in the softest molecularly-bonded crystals as well as within the hardest covalently-bonded diamonds. The advent of advanced techniques of atomic-scale probing has facilitated modern observations of dislocations in every crystal structure-type, particularly by X-ray diffraction topography and transmission electron microscopy. The present Special Issue provides a flavor of their ubiquitous presences, their characterizations and, especially, their influence on mechanical and electrical properties.

  19. Random lasing from dye-doped negative liquid crystals using ZnO nanoparticles as tunable scatters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long-Wu; Shang, Zhen-Zhen; Deng, Luogen

    2016-09-01

    This work demonstrates the realization of a lasing in scattering media, which contains dispersive solution of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and laser dye 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyle-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran(DCM) in negative liquid crystals (LCs) that was injected into a cell. The lasing intensity of the dye-doped negative LC laser can be tuned from low to high if the NPs concentration is increased. The tunability of the laser is attributable to the clusters-sensitive feature in effective refractive index of the negative LCs. Such a tunable negative liquid crystal laser can be used in the fabrication of new optical sources, optical communication, and liquid crystal laser displays. Project supported by the Doctoral Science Research Start-up Funding of Guizhou Normal University, China (Grant No. 11904-0514162) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474021).

  20. Home Energy Displays. Consumer Adoption and Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMarche, Janelle [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cheney, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Akers, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sachs, O. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. The team hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, Fraunhofer conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. In light of these challenges, the team is pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  1. Home Energy Displays: Consumer Adoption and Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMarche, J.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. We hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, we conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. First, after extensive outreach campaigns to apartment complexes with 760 units, only 8% of building's tenants elected to receive a free HED in their homes as part of the field study. Second, the HED used, a leading market model, had a spectrum of problems, including gateway miscommunications, failure to post to a data-hosting third party, and display malfunctions. In light of these challenges, we are pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  2. IR Sensor Synchronizing Active Shutter Glasses for 3D HDTV with Flexible Liquid Crystal Lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong In Han

    2013-01-01

    IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for three-dimensional high definition television (3D HDTV) were developed using a flexible liquid crystal (FLC) lens. The FLC lens was made on a polycarbonate (PC) substrate using conventional liquid crystal display (LCD) processes. The flexible liquid crystal lens displayed a maximum transmission of 32% and total response time of 2.56 ms. The transmittance, the contrast ratio and the response time of the flexible liquid crystal lens were superio...

  3. UBIQUITOUS PALM DISPLAY AND FINGERTIP TRACKER SYSTEM USING OPENCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Sekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous Computing is the idea of embedding computation onto everyday objects of the environment we live in. It’s the approach towards making technology and computation available everywhere thereby making people interact with abundant information around them in a more natural and friendly manner. Our project, the palm display system is one such approach of using one’s palm as the graphical user interface enabling the user to interact with it using his/her fingertip. We have implemented this project using computer vision techniques. In this study, we describe the details of the palm display system and explain several issues regarding the challenges in implementation and show the result using a sample photo viewer application. The main idea behind the project is to detect the interaction using shadow based techniques without the use of a fingertip marker.

  4. Displays for future intermediate UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel; Metzler, James; Blakesley, David; Rister, Courtney; Nuhu, Abdul-Razak

    2008-04-01

    The Dedicated Autonomous Extended Duration Airborne Long-range Utility System (DAEDALUS) is a prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that won the 2007 AFRL Commander's Challenge. The purpose of the Commander's Challenge was to find an innovative solution to urgent warfighter needs by designing a UAV with increased persistence for tactical employment of sensors and communication systems. DAEDALUS was chosen as a winning prototype by AFRL, AFMC and SECAF. Follow-on units are intended to fill an intermediate role between currently fielded Tier I and Tier II UAV's. The UAV design discussed in this paper, including sensors and displays, will enter Phase II for Rapid Prototype Development with the intent of developing the design for eventual production. This paper will discuss the DAEDALUS UAV prototype system, with particular focus on its communications, to include the infrared sensor and electro-optical camera, but also displays, specifically man-portable.

  5. Characterization of the rotating display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, J W; Fahey, F H; Harkness, B A; Eggli, D F; Balseiro, J; Ziessman, H A

    1988-09-01

    The rotating display is a useful method for reviewing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. This study evaluated the requirements for a subjectively pleasing and useful implementation of this technique. Twelve SPECT data sets were modified and viewed by several observers who recorded the minimum framing rates for apparent smooth rotation, 3D effect, effects of image size, and other parameters. The results showed that a minimum of 16 frames was needed for a useful display. Smaller image sizes and more frames were preferred. The recommended minimal framing rate for a 64-frame study is 16-17 frames per second and for a 32-frame study, 12-13 frames per second. Other enhancements also were useful.

  6. Interactive display of polygonal data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, P.M.

    1977-10-01

    Interactive computer graphics is an excellent approach to many types of applications. It is an exciting method of doing geographic analysis when desiring to rapidly examine existing geographically related data or to display specially prepared data and base maps for publication. One such program is the interactive thematic mapping system called CARTE, which combines polygonal base maps with statistical data to produce shaded maps using a variety of shading symbolisms on a variety of output devices. A polygonal base map is one where geographic entities are described by points, lines, or polygons. It is combined with geocoded data to produce special subject or thematic maps. Shading symbolisms include texture shading for areas, varying widths for lines, and scaled symbols for points. Output devices include refresh and storage CRTs and auxiliary Calcomp or COM hardcopy. The system is designed to aid in the quick display of spatial data and in detailed map design.

  7. Proof nets for display logic

    CERN Document Server

    Moot, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores several extensions of proof nets for the Lambek calculus in order to handle the different connectives of display logic in a natural way. The new proof net calculus handles some recent additions to the Lambek vocabulary such as Galois connections and Grishin interactions. It concludes with an exploration of the generative capacity of the Lambek-Grishin calculus, presenting an embedding of lexicalized tree adjoining grammars into the Lambek-Grishin calculus.

  8. Modern Display Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    conventional tubes, LSI circuitry offers the possibility of correcting some of the deficiencies in electron-optic perform- ance and may lead to acceptable...certain ceramic materials such as PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) can be utilized for display applications. PLZT is transparent in the visible...consuming power (3.8.12). 3.8.4.2 State of development, Magnetic particles have been made of polyethylene with powdered Strontium ferrite as a filler

  9. Striations in Plasma Display Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Ji-Ting; CAO Jing; MIAO Jin-Song

    2005-01-01

    @@ The phenomenon of striation has been investigated experimentally in a macroscopic ac-plasma display panel (PDP). The relationship between the characteristics of striation and the operation conditions including voltage, frequency, rib, and electrode configuration, etc is obtained experimentally. The origin of the striations is considered to be the ionization waves in the transient positive column near the dielectric surface in the anode area during the discharge, and the perturbation is caused by resonance kinetic effects in inert gas.

  10. Multiview synthesis for autostereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Gökçe.; Bhaskaran, Vasudev

    2013-09-01

    Autostereoscopic (AS) displays spatially multiplex multiple views, providing a more immersive experience by enabling users to view the content from different angles without the need of 3D glasses. Multiple views could be captured from multiple cameras at different orientations, however this could be expensive, time consuming and not applicable to some applications. The goal of multiview synthesis in this paper is to generate multiple views from a stereo image pair and disparity map by using various video processing techniques including depth/disparity map processing, initial view interpolation, inpainting and post-processing. We specifically emphasize the need for disparity processing when there is no depth information is available that is associated with the 2D data and we propose a segmentation based disparity processing algorithm to improve disparity map. Furthermore we extend the texture based 2D inpainting algorithm to 3D and further improve the hole-filling performance of view synthesis. The benefit of each step of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated with comparison to state of the art algorithms in terms of visual quality and PSNR metric. Our system is evaluated in an end-to-end multi view synthesis framework where only stereo image pair is provided as input to the system and 8 views are outputted and displayed in 8-view Alioscopy AS display.

  11. Spacesuit Sensing Data Display and Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZIN Technologies, Inc will breadboard an integrated electronic system for space suit application to acquire images, biomedical sensor signals and suit health &...

  12. Observer Compensation for Projective Distortion of Graphic Displays,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-15

    Since viewing was binocular of a planar surface, stereopsis and accommiodative convergence may have resulted in a cue conflict with the perspective...800 North Quincy Street Arlington, VA 22217 (5 cys) Commanding Officer ONR Eastern/Central Regional Office Director ATTN: Dr. J. Lester Aviation

  13. A Real-Time Turbulence Hazard Cockpit Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft encounters with turbulence are the leading cause of injuries in the airline industry and result in significant human, operational, and maintenance costs to...

  14. Holographic Image Plane Projection Integral 3D Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's need for a 3D virtual reality environment providing scientific data visualization without special user devices, Physical Optics Corporation...

  15. Analysis of temporal stability of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    An analysis has been made of the stability of the images generated by electronic autostereoscopic 3D displays, studying the time course of the photometric and colorimetric parameters. The measurements were made on the basis of the procedure recommended in the European guideline EN 61747-6 for the characterization of electronic liquid-crystal displays (LCD). The study uses 3 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and numbers of pixels, taking the measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). For each of the displays, the time course is shown for the tristimulus values and the chromaticity coordinates in the XYZ CIE 1931 system and values from the time periods required to reach stable values of these parameters are presented. For the analysis of how the procedure recommended in the guideline EN 61747-6 for 2D displays influenced the results, and for the adaption of the procedure to the characterization of 3D displays, the experimental conditions of the standard procedure were varied, making the stability analysis in the two ocular channels (RE and LE) of the 3D mode and comparing the results with those corresponding to the 2D. The results of our study show that the stabilization time of a autostereoscopic 3D display with parallax barrier technology depends on the tristimulus value analysed (X, Y, Z) as well as on the presentation mode (2D, 3D); furthermore, it was found that whether the 3D mode is used depends on the ocular channel evaluated (RE, LE).

  16. Volumetric three-dimensional display system with rasterization hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalora, Gregg E.; Dorval, Rick K.; Hall, Deirdre M.; Giovinco, Michael; Napoli, Joshua

    2001-06-01

    An 8-color multiplanar volumetric display is being developed by Actuality Systems, Inc. It will be capable of utilizing an image volume greater than 90 million voxels, which we believe is the greatest utilizable voxel set of any volumetric display constructed to date. The display is designed to be used for molecular visualization, mechanical CAD, e-commerce, entertainment, and medical imaging. As such, it contains a new graphics processing architecture, novel high-performance line- drawing algorithms, and an API similar to a current standard. Three-dimensional imagery is created by projecting a series of 2-D bitmaps ('image slices') onto a diffuse screen that rotates at 600 rpm. Persistence of vision fuses the slices into a volume-filling 3-D image. A modified three-panel Texas Instruments projector provides slices at approximately 4 kHz, resulting in 8-color 3-D imagery comprised of roughly 200 radially-disposed slices which are updated at 20 Hz. Each slice has a resolution of 768 by 768 pixels, subtending 10 inches. An unusual off-axis projection scheme incorporating tilted rotating optics is used to maintain good focus across the projection screen. The display electronics includes a custom rasterization architecture which converts the user's 3- D geometry data into image slices, as well as 6 Gbits of DDR SDRAM graphics memory.

  17. The Ribosomal Database Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G. J.; Overbeek, R.; Larsen, N.; Marsh, T. L.; McCaughey, M. J.; Maciukenas, M. A.; Kuan, W. M.; Macke, T. J.; Xing, Y.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) complies ribosomal sequences and related data, and redistributes them in aligned and phylogenetically ordered form to its user community. It also offers various software packages for handling, analyzing and displaying sequences. In addition, the RDP offers (or will offer) certain analytic services. At present the project is in an intermediate stage of development.

  18. 27 CFR 6.55 - Display service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Distribution Service § 6.55 Display service. Industry member reimbursements to retailers for setting up product or other displays constitutes paying the retailer for rendering a display service within the meaning... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Display service. 6.55...

  19. New Media Display Technology and Exhibition Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Wo Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the inheritor of Chinese civilization, the National Palace Museum (hereafter referred to as the NPM, houses a world-class collection of cultural art and artifacts. Since the NPM began promoting the National Digital Archives Project in 2002, its efforts have expanded to develop a digital museum and various e-learning programs. Extending the use of digital archives to its educational and cultural industrial endeavors, the NPM has maximized the value of its exhibitions, publications, and educational programs.  In 2013, the NPM integrated creative thinking and interdisciplinary technologies, such as floating projection, augmented reality, and other sensory interactive media, to recreate the historical circumstance of 19th century East Asian maritime cultures in “Rebuilding the Tong-an Ships—New Media Art Exhibition," which opened at Huashan 1914 Creative Park and later won the Gold Award at the 2014 Digital Education Innovation Competition. Through a thorough exploration of the factors contributing to the success of "Rebuilding the Tong-an Ships," this study has isolated the two main factors of the exhibition’s popularity, namely, the compactness of the metadata and the atmosphere created by the interactive display technology.

  20. Gold nanoparticle capture within protein crystal scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ann E.; Huber, Thaddaus R.; Ni, Thomas W.; Hartje, Luke F.; Appel, Karina L.; Yost, Jarad W.; Ackerson, Christopher J.; Snow, Christopher D.

    2016-06-01

    DNA assemblies have been used to organize inorganic nanoparticles into 3D arrays, with emergent properties arising as a result of nanoparticle spacing and geometry. We report here the use of engineered protein crystals as an alternative approach to biologically mediated assembly of inorganic nanoparticles. The protein crystal's 13 nm diameter pores result in an 80% solvent content and display hexahistidine sequences on their interior. The hexahistidine sequence captures Au25(glutathione)~17 (nitrilotriacetic acid)~1 nanoclusters throughout a chemically crosslinked crystal via the coordination of Ni(ii) to both the cluster and the protein. Nanoparticle loading was validated by confocal microscopy and elemental analysis. The nanoparticles may be released from the crystal by exposure to EDTA, which chelates the Ni(ii) and breaks the specific protein/nanoparticle interaction. The integrity of the protein crystals after crosslinking and nanoparticle capture was confirmed by single crystal X-ray crystallography.DNA assemblies have been used to organize inorganic nanoparticles into 3D arrays, with emergent properties arising as a result of nanoparticle spacing and geometry. We report here the use of engineered protein crystals as an alternative approach to biologically mediated assembly of inorganic nanoparticles. The protein crystal's 13 nm diameter pores result in an 80% solvent content and display hexahistidine sequences on their interior. The hexahistidine sequence captures Au25(glutathione)~17 (nitrilotriacetic acid)~1 nanoclusters throughout a chemically crosslinked crystal via the coordination of Ni(ii) to both the cluster and the protein. Nanoparticle loading was validated by confocal microscopy and elemental analysis. The nanoparticles may be released from the crystal by exposure to EDTA, which chelates the Ni(ii) and breaks the specific protein/nanoparticle interaction. The integrity of the protein crystals after crosslinking and nanoparticle capture was

  1. Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  2. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  3. The CMS crystal calorimeter for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Seez, Christopher J

    1999-01-01

    The CMS crystal calorimeter, comprising about 80,000 scintillating lead tungstate crystals read out by avalanche photodiodes ( in the barrel) and vacuum phototriodes ( in the endcap) is designed to give excellent energy resolution in the demanding LHC environment. It is now entering the construction phase. A status report on the project is presented, including recent results from test beam verification, crystal production and photodetector development.

  4. Review of Defense Display Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Programs Flat Panel Autostereoscopic N-perspective 3D High Definition DMD Digital Projector Light Piping & Quantum Cavity Displays Solid State Laser...Megapixel Displays • Size Commonality • 67 % Weight Reduction • > 200 sq. in. per Display 20-20 Vision Simulators True 3D , sparse symbols Foldable Display...megapixel 2D and True 3D Display Technology 25M & T3D FY02-FY06 New service thrusts

  5. Recent Trend in Development of Olfactory Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Yasuyuki

    An olfactory display is a device that generates scented air with desired concentration of aroma, and delivers it to the user's olfactory organ. In this article, the nature of olfaction is briefly described from the view point of how to configure olfactory displays. Next, component technologies to compose olfactory displays, i.e., making scents and delivering scents, are categorized. Several existing olfactory display systems are introduced to show the current status of research and development of olfactory displays.

  6. Cirrus Crystal Terminal Velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Iaquinta, Jean

    2000-04-01

    Cirrus crystal terminal velocities are of primary importance in determining the rate of transport of condensate from upper- to middle-tropospheric levels and profoundly influence the earth's radiation balance through their effect on the rate of buildup or decay of cirrus clouds. In this study, laboratory and field-based cirrus crystal drag coefficient data, as well as analytical descriptions of cirrus crystal shapes, are used to derive more physically based expressions for the velocities of cirrus crystals than have been available in the past.Polycrystals-often bullet rosettes-are shown to be the dominant crystal types in synoptically generated cirrus, with columns present in varying but relatively large percentages, depending on the cloud. The two critical parameters needed to calculate terminal velocity are the drag coefficient and the ratio of mass to cross-sectional area normal to their fall direction. Using measurements and calculations, it is shown that drag coefficients from theory and laboratory studies are applicable to crystals of the types found in cirrus. The ratio of the mass to area, which is shown to be relatively independent of the number of bullets in the rosette, is derived from an analytic model that represents bullet rosettes containing one to eight bullets in 19 primary geometric configurations. The ratio is also derived for columns. Using this information, a general set of equations is developed to calculate the terminal velocities and masses in terms of the aspect ratio (width divided by length), ice density, and rosette maximum dimension. Simple expressions for terminal velocity and mass as a function of bullet rosette maximum dimension are developed by incorporating new information on bullet aspect ratios.The general terminal velocity and mass relations are then applied to a case from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Research Experiment (FIRE) 2, when size spectra from a balloon-borne ice crystal

  7. Volumetric display containing multiple two-dimensional color motion pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, R.; Shiraki, A.; Nakayama, H.; Kakue, T.; Shimobaba, T.; Ito, T.

    2014-06-01

    We have developed an algorithm which can record multiple two-dimensional (2-D) gradated projection patterns in a single three-dimensional (3-D) object. Each recorded pattern has the individual projected direction and can only be seen from the direction. The proposed algorithm has two important features: the number of recorded patterns is theoretically infinite and no meaningful pattern can be seen outside of the projected directions. In this paper, we expanded the algorithm to record multiple 2-D projection patterns in color. There are two popular ways of color mixing: additive one and subtractive one. Additive color mixing used to mix light is based on RGB colors and subtractive color mixing used to mix inks is based on CMY colors. We made two coloring methods based on the additive mixing and subtractive mixing. We performed numerical simulations of the coloring methods, and confirmed their effectiveness. We also fabricated two types of volumetric display and applied the proposed algorithm to them. One is a cubic displays constructed by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in 8×8×8 array. Lighting patterns of LEDs are controlled by a microcomputer board. The other one is made of 7×7 array of threads. Each thread is illuminated by a projector connected with PC. As a result of the implementation, we succeeded in recording multiple 2-D color motion pictures in the volumetric displays. Our algorithm can be applied to digital signage, media art and so forth.

  8. Subjective comparison of brightness preservation methods for local backlight dimming displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Local backlight dimming is a popular technology in high quality Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs). In those displays, the backlight is composed of contributions from several individually adjustable backlight segments, set at different backlight luminance levels in different parts of the screen......, according to the luma of the target image displayed on LCD. Typically, transmittance of the liquid crystal cells (pixels) located in the regions with dimmed backlight is increased in order to preserve their relative brightness with respect to the pixels located in the regions with bright backlight....... There are different methods for brightness preservation for local backlight dimming displays, producing images with different visual characteristics. In this study, we have implemented, analyzed and evaluated several different approaches for brightness preservation, and conducted a subjective study based on rank...

  9. Photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Kurt; Wehrspohn, Ralf B; Föll, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the contributions in this topically edited book stems from the priority program SPP 1113 ""Photonische Kristalle"" run by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), resulting in a survey of the current state of photonic crystal research in Germany. The first part of the book describes methods for the theoretical analysis of their optical properties as well as the results. The main part is dedicated to the fabrication, characterization and modeling of two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, while the final section presents a wide spectrum of applications: gas sensors, micr

  10. Optical display for radar sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2015-05-01

    Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.

  11. Simulated monitor display for CCTV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Two computer programs have been developed which generate a two-dimensional graphic perspective of the video output produced by a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) camera. Both programs were primarily written to produce a graphic display simulating the field-of-view (FOV) of a perimeter assessment system as seen on a CCTV monitor. The original program was developed for use on a Tektronix 4054 desktop computer; however, the usefulness of this graphic display program led to the development of a similar program for a Hewlett-Packard 9845B desktop computer. After entry of various input parameters, such as, camera lens and orientation, the programs automatically calculate and graphically plot the locations of various items, e.g., fences, an assessment zone, running men, and intrusion detection sensors. Numerous special effects can be generated to simulate such things as roads, interior walls, or sides of buildings. Other objects can be digitized and entered into permanent memory similar to the running men. With this type of simulated monitor perspective, proposed camera locations with respect to fences and a particular assessment zone can be rapidly evaluated without the costly time delays and expenditures associated with field evaluation.

  12. Lyotropic hexagonal columnar liquid crystals of large colloidal gibbsite platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, M.C.D.; Petukhov, A.V.; Vroege, G.J.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    2010-01-01

    We report the formation of hexagonal columnar liquid crystal phases in suspensions of large (570 nm diameter), sterically stabilized, colloidal gibbsite platelets in organic solvent. In thin cells these systems display strong iridescence originating from hexagonally arranged columns that are

  13. Growing Crystals with a Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, S. J.; Haase, D. G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an open-ended computer simulation project that can be used to illustrate the growth of solid crystals in different forms at any level from high school physics to graduate physics. Discusses a simple computer program in BASIC language on an IBM personal computer. Gives examples of simulations. (CW)

  14. Quantum Dots for Wide Color Gamut Displays from Photoluminescence to Electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongyin; Song, Zhicheng; Jiang, Xiaofang; Yin, Xia; Fang, Long; Gao, Jing; Su, Yehua; Zhao, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Monodisperse quantum dots (QDs) were prepared by low-temperature process. The remarkable narrow emission peak of the QDs helps the liquid crystal displays (LCD) and electroluminescence displays (QD light-emitting diode, QLED) to generate wide color gamut performance. The range of the color gamut for QD light-converting device (QLCD) is controlled by both the QDs and color filters (CFs) in LCD, and for QLED, the optimized color gamut is dominated by QD materials.

  15. Ribbon Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Markvorsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons...

  16. Therapeutic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Some readers might not fully know what the difference is between crystallography, and the "new age" practice of dangling crystals around the body to capitalise on their healing energy. The latter is often considered to be superstition, while ironically, the former has actually resulted in real rationally-based healing of human diseases…

  17. Optimal Backlight Modulation With Crosstalk Control in Stereoscopic Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Liangbao; Shu, Xiao; Cheng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Crosstalk between the left-eye and right-eye images is one of the main artifacts affecting the visual quality of stereoscopic liquid crystal display (LCD) systems. In this paper, a novel technique, called Optimal Backlight Modulation (OBM), is proposed to reduce crosstalk by taking the advantage....... A simple closed-form approximation of the optimization problem can be easily employed and solved in real time on LCD control hardware. Simulation results show that the proposed OBM algorithm provides the same or higher luminance while reducing the crosstalk by 60% compared with the other tested methods....

  18. A faster switching regime for zenithal bistable nematic displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, J

    1997-12-01

    A simpler and faster switching regime for Zenithal Bistable Nematic displays is reported. A cell, based on homeotropic alignment of nematic liquid crystal over a continuous blazed monograting on one surface, can be switched using bipolar pulses an order of magnitude faster than monopolar pulses of the same voltage. We propose that this regime relies on simple dielectric coupling to drive the cell into a higher energy state with a long pulse time, and the relaxation into a lower energy state after the creation of surface defects from a shorter applied pulse. Although flexoelectric effects are observed, they do not form the basis of state selection as was proposed for the monopolar pulses

  19. Lambda-Display: A Powerful Tool for Antigen Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Gargano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in 1985, phage display technology has been successfully used in projects aimed at deciphering biological processes and isolating molecules of practical value in several applications. Bacteriophage lambda, representing a classical molecular cloning and expression system has also been exploited for generating large combinatorial libraries of small peptides and protein domains exposed on its capsid. More recently, lambda display has been consistently and successfully employed for domain mapping, antigen discovery and protein interaction studies or, more generally, in functional genomics. We show here the results obtained by the use of large libraries of cDNA and genomic DNA for the molecular dissection of the human B-cell response against complex pathogens, including protozoan parasites, bacteria and viruses. Moreover, by reviewing the experimental work performed in recent investigations we illustrate the potential of lambda display in the diagnostics field and for identifying antigens useful as targets for vaccine development.

  20. Photonic crystals principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary Properties of Photonic CrystalsFabrication of Photonic CrystalsPhotonic Crystal All-Optical SwitchingTunable Photonic Crystal FilterPhotonic Crystal LaserPhotonic Crystal Logic DevicesPhotonic Crystal Sensors

  1. Simplified Night Sky Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

  2. Enhanced spatial-state feedback for night-vision goggle displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Edward N.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1997-06-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the use of visual flow cues as an aid to ground and vertical drift awareness during helicopter flight and targeting while using night vision goggles (NVGs). Three displays wee compared: (1) NVG display: simulated NVG image of cockpit and external environment. (2) Overlay display: NVG image with an overlay display but with symbology flow cue field and a surrounding wire-frame globe; (3) Cut-out display: same as the overlay display but with symbology removed from the central region. Three levels of contrast were also compared using each display type. The visual scenery was displayed to subjects using a helmet-mounted virtual reality device that had a 40 by 50 degree field-of-view liquid crystal display. The study involved six pilots. Three tasks were given: (1) Search task: designate enemy targets with a helmet-mounted sight; (2) Hover task: null out all transnational and yaw rates while in a hover; (3) Search/Hover task: perform both Search and Hover tasks simultaneously. These tasks were conducted in a fixed-based helicopter simulator which used the dynamics of a small-scale model helicopter. The following performance measures were collected: (1) Pilot ability to detect and recognize targets; (2) Pilots ability to null transnational and yaw rates; (3) Time scanning the instrument panel. Subjects also rated displays for efficacy in completing the three tasks. Target detection scores conducted during the Search and Search/Hover tasks were highest using the NVG display, followed by the cut-out display. Root-mean-square (RMS) drift rate error was comparable for all display types in the Hover and Hover/Search tasks, however RMS control input activity in all the translational axes was significantly higher in both rate-cueing displays than with the NVG display. From the control input and drift rate time histories it appears that the motion cues were more compelling in the overlay and cut- out displays than those perceived

  3. Treating student contributions as displays of understanding in group supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The analyses this paper reports come from ongoing research into the interactive establishment of local social order in an educational setting (Day & Kjærbeck 2008, Day & Kjærbeck, in preparation). In focus for this paper are a particular sort of activity in the setting, 'group supervision', whereby...... students working in 'project groups' are to meet with their 'supervisor' to discuss the group's ongoing project, and a particular set of interactive phenomena, namely students' displays of comprehension directed toward the supervisor following his or evaluation of their work. This work is in line...

  4. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description microprocessor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Sperry Microprocessor Color Display System used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes procedures and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight cathode ray tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  5. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description: MicroVAX system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Display MicroVAX computer used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery of February 27, 1991, known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global references section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  6. Investigating the Importance of Stereo Displays for Helicopter Landing Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-11

    James Gaska, Logan Williams, Elizabeth Shoda, Charles Bullock, and Steve Hadley 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...a helmet mounted display. A unique aspect of this research is that observer stereo acuity, fusion range, and contrast sensitivity were thoroughly...LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 11 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Logan Williams a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS

  7. ProPath Display Process Overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This API displays an overview of the process including the description, goals, associated roles (linked to their detailed information). It also displays all of the...

  8. Nanoscopic Manipulation and Imaging of Liquid Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, Charles S. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-02-04

    This is the final project report. The project’s goals centered on nanoscopic imaging and control of liquid crystals and surfaces. We developed and refined techniques to control liquid crystal orientation at surfaces with resolution as small as 25 nm, we developed an optical imaging technique that we call Optical Nanotomography that allows us to obtain images inside liquid crystal films with resolution of 60 x 60 x 1 nm, and we opened new thrust areas related to chirality and to liquid crystal/colloid composites.

  9. Crystal growth and magnetic property of YFeO3 crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anhua Wu; Hui Shen; Jun Xu; Zhanliang Wang; Linwen Jiang; Liqing Luo; Shujuan Yuan; Shixun Cao; Huaijin Zhang

    2012-04-01

    YFeO3 and other rare earth substituted crystals with distorted orthorhombic pervoskite-like structure (space group, ) have attracted much attention due to their remarkable magnetic properties of primary significance for technological applications. In the present work, the floating zone growth of YFeO3 crystals has been systematically investigated and high quality YFeO3 crystal was obtained by optimized process. The magnetic properties of YFeO3 crystal were investigated, and it indicated the high magneto-optical property in YFeO3 crystals with specific orientation due to its anisotropy. YFeO3 crystals display superior performance in the application magneto-optical current sensors and fast latching optical switches.

  10. Integrated Display and Environmental Awareness System - System Architecture Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doule, Ondrej; Miranda, David; Hochstadt, Jake

    2017-01-01

    The Integrated Display and Environmental Awareness System (IDEAS) is an interdisciplinary team project focusing on the development of a wearable computer and Head Mounted Display (HMD) based on Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components for the specific application and needs of NASA technicians, engineers and astronauts. Wearable computers are on the verge of utilization trials in daily life as well as industrial environments. The first civil and COTS wearable head mounted display systems were introduced just a few years ago and they probed not only technology readiness in terms of performance, endurance, miniaturization, operability and usefulness but also maturity of practice in perspective of a socio-technical context. Although the main technical hurdles such as mass and power were addressed as improvements on the technical side, the usefulness, practicality and social acceptance were often noted on the side of a broad variety of humans' operations. In other words, although the technology made a giant leap, its use and efficiency still looks for the sweet spot. The first IDEAS project started in January 2015 and was concluded in January 2017. The project identified current COTS systems' capability at minimum cost and maximum applicability and brought about important strategic concepts that will serve further IDEAS-like system development.

  11. Computer-Controlled Photometry And Large-Screen Display Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Waldo R.

    1981-10-01

    A new method for measuring the resolution and contrast of calligraphic projection displays has been developed at NOSC (Naval Ocean Systems Center). The technique involves the use of a computer-controlled photometer and an X-Y plotter. The plotter is normally used to give hard copy records of the photometric data obtained from spectral or spatial scans and subsequently stored in the memory of the controlling computer. In this application the photo-metric sensor, a miniature integrating sphere with a slit aperture, is mounted on the X-Y plotter pen holder, which is in turn moved according to programmed instructions from the computer. With the X-Y plotter positioned vertically in front of a projection display, the projected brightness is measured and stored in the computer memory as a function of sensor position. The spatial displacement between measurements is under operator control and can be in increments as small as one-thousandth of an inch. After the data are stored in computer memory, they are made into hard copy with the X-Y plotter in one of several plotting modes. From this hard copy the display performance parameters of resolution and contrast can be extracted. The different plotting modes are used to enhance various differences when more scans than one are recorded on the same chart.

  12. See-through multi-view 3D display with parallax barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jong-Young; Lee, Chang-Kun; Park, Soon-gi; Kim, Jonghyun; Cha, Kyung-Hoon; Kang, Ki Hyung; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose the see-through parallax barrier type multi-view display with transparent liquid crystal display (LCD). The transparency of LCD is realized by detaching the backlight unit. The number of views in the proposed system is minimized to enlarge the aperture size of parallax barrier, which determines the transparency. For compensating the shortness of the number of viewpoints, eye tracking method is applied to provide large number of views and vertical parallax. Through experiments, a prototype of see-through autostereoscopic 3D display with parallax barrier is implemented, and the system parameters of transmittance, crosstalk, and barrier structure perception are analyzed.

  13. Producing EGS4 shower displays with the Unified Graphics System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, R.F. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Lab. for Nuclear Science); Nelson, W.R. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1990-08-16

    The EGS4 Code System has been coupled with the SLAC Unified Graphics System in such a manner as to provide a means for displaying showers on UGS77-supported devices. This is most easily accomplished by attaching an auxiliary subprogram package (SHOWGRAF) to existing EGS4 User Codes and making use of a graphics display or a post-processor code called EGS4PL. SHOWGRAF may be used to create shower displays directly on interactive IBM 5080 color display devices, supporting three-dimensional rotations, translations, and zoom features, and providing illustration of particle types and energies by color and/or intensity. Alternatively, SHOWGRAF may be used to record a two-dimensional projection of the shower in a device-independent graphics file. The EGS4PL post-processor may then be used to convert this file into device-dependent graphics code for any UGS77-supported device. Options exist within EGS4PL that allow for two-dimensional translations and zoom, for creating line structure to indicate particle types and energies, and for optional display of particles by type. All of this is facilitated by means of the command processor EGS4PL EXEC together with new options (5080 and PDEV) with the standard EGS4IN EXEC routine for running EGS4 interactively under VM/SP. 6 refs.

  14. The continuing quest for the 'Holy Braille' of tactile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Noel H.; Blazie, Deane B.

    2011-10-01

    The Boston-based National Braille Press has established a Center for Braille Innovation (CBI), whose mission is to research and develop affordable braille literacy products. The primary focus has been to facilitate the development of dramatically lower cost electronic braille display devices, and the much-sought-after "Holy Braille" of a full-page electronic braille display. Developing affordable new braille technologies is crucial to improving the extremely low braille literacy rate (around 12%) of blind students. Our CBI team is working to aid developers of braille technology by focusing attention and resources on the development of the underlying braille actuator technologies. We are also developing braille-related information resources to aid braille display developers. The CBI braille requirements summary (available through the NBP website (http://www.nbp.org) is one of these resources. The braille specifications include braille dot dimensions, spacing, displacement, lifting force, and response time requirements. In addition, mentoring, helping to evaluate new braille display ideas, and openly sharing braille display technology are all part of the activities of the NBP braille innovation team. NBP has expanded the CBI project with domestic and international partners including the China Braille Press, World Braille Foundation, National Federation of the Blind, American Printing House for the Blind, American Foundation for the Blind, and many university and research partners.

  15. FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Knut; Bahr, Detlef; Bezecny, Daniel; Homann, Dennis; Oltmann, Klaas; Oltmann, Krischan; Guill, Christian; Rieper, Elisabeth; Ardey, Goetz

    2002-05-01

    The FELIX 3D display belongs to the class of volumetric displays using the swept volume technique. It is designed to display images created by standard CAD applications, which can be easily imported and interactively transformed in real-time by the FELIX control software. The images are drawn on a spinning screen by acousto-optic, galvanometric or polygon mirror deflection units with integrated lasers and a color mixer. The modular design of the display enables the user to operate with several equal or different projection units in parallel and to use appropriate screens for the specific purpose. The FELIX 3D display is a compact, light, extensible and easy to transport system. It mainly consists of inexpensive standard, off-the-shelf components for an easy implementation. This setup makes it a powerful and flexible tool to keep track with the rapid technological progress of today. Potential applications include imaging in the fields of entertainment, air traffic control, medical imaging, computer aided design as well as scientific data visualization.

  16. Emerging Large-Screen Display Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    1255, Santa Clara, CA. 25. Williams, R. D., and F. Garcia, 1988, "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System," Society for Information...K. Miyaji, 1989, " 3D Display using Laser and Moving Screen, Japan Display 1989, Paper P3-5. 27. Sterling, R. D., R. D. TeKolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C

  17. Microfluidics for electronic paper-like displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Hayes, Robert A.; Jin, Mingliang; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Xiao; Bai, Pengfei; van den Berg, Albert; Zhou, Guofu

    2014-01-01

    Displays are ubiquitous in modern life, and there is a growing need to develop active, full color, video-rate reflective displays that perform well in high-light conditions. The core of display technology is to generate or manipulate light in the visible wavelength. Colored fluids or fluids with

  18. Data Display Markup Language (DDML) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Moreover, the tendency of T&E is towards a plug-and-play-like data acquisition system that requires standard languages and modules for data displays...Telemetry Group DOCUMENT 127-17 DATA DISPLAY MARKUP LANGUAGE (DDML) HANDBOOK DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR...DOCUMENT 127-17 DATA DISPLAY MARKUP LANGUAGE (DDML) HANDBOOK January 2017 Prepared by Telemetry Group

  19. Reconfigurable Full-Page Braille Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    Electrically actuated braille display cells of proposed type arrayed together to form full-page braille displays. Like other braille display cells, these provide changeable patterns of bumps driven by digitally recorded text stored on magnetic tapes or in solid-state electronic memories. Proposed cells contain electrorheological fluid. Viscosity of such fluid increases in strong electrostatic field.

  20. 27 CFR 6.83 - Product displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... industry member of giving or selling product displays to a retailer does not constitute a means to induce... costs are excluded. (2) All product displays must bear conspicuous and substantial advertising matter on... address of the retailer may appear on the product displays. (3) The giving or selling of such...