WorldWideScience

Sample records for crystal display panels

  1. Recovery of valuable materials from waste liquid crystal display panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Gao, Song; Duan, Huabo; Liu, Lili

    2009-07-01

    Associated with the rapid development of the information and electronic industry, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been increasingly sold as displays. However, during the discarding at their end-of-life stage, significant environmental hazards, impacts on health and a loss of resources may occur, if the scraps are not managed in an appropriate way. In order to improve the efficiency of the recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs panel in an environmentally sound manner, this study presents a combined recycling technology process on the basis of manual dismantling and chemical treatment of LCDs. Three key processes of this technology have been studied, including the separation of LCD polarizing film by thermal shock method the removal of liquid crystals between the glass substrates by the ultrasonic cleaning, and the recovery of indium metal from glass by dissolution. The results show that valuable materials (e.g. indium) and harmful substances (e.g. liquid crystals) could be efficiently recovered or separated through above-mentioned combined technology. The optimal conditions are: (1) the peak temperature of thermal shock to separate polarizing film, ranges from 230 to 240 degrees C, where pyrolysis could be avoided; (2) the ultrasonic-assisted cleaning was most efficient at a frequency of 40 KHz (P = 40 W) and the exposure of the substrate to industrial detergents for 10 min; and (3) indium separation from glass in a mix of concentrated hydrochloric acid at 38% and nitric acid at 69% (HCl:HNO(3):H(2)O = 45:5:50, volume ratio). The indium separation process was conducted with an exposure time of 30 min at a constant temperature of 60 degrees C.

  2. Vacuum pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic analysis of liquid crystal from scrap liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya; Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-04-05

    Recycling of waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels is an urgent task with the rapid expanding LCD market. However, as important composition of LCD panels, the treatment of liquid crystal is seldom concerned for its low concentration. In present study, a stripping product enriched liquid crystal and indium is gained by mechanical stripping process, in which liquid crystal is enriched from 0.3wt.% to 53wt.% and indium is enriched from 0.02wt.% to 7.95wt.%. For the stripping product, liquid crystal should be removed before indium recovery because (a) liquid crystal will hinder indium recycling; (b) liquid crystal is hazardous waste. Hence, an effective and green approach by vacuum pyrolysis is proposed to treat liquid crystal in the stripping product. The results are summarized as: (i) From the perspective of apparent activation energy, the advantages of vacuum pyrolysis is expounded according to kinetic analysis. (ii) 89.10wt.% of liquid crystal is converted and the content of indium in residue reaches 14.18wt.% under 773K, 15min and system pressure of 20Pa. This study provides reliable information for further industrial application and an essential pretreatment for the next step of indium recycling.

  3. Liquid crystal panel for high efficiency barrier type autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Huan; Huang, Yi-Pai; Chuang, Shang-Chih; Wu, Chi-Lin; Shieh, Han-Ping D; Mphepö, Wallen; Hsieh, Chiu-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Chia

    2009-06-20

    An autostereoscopic display with parallax barrier attached onto a liquid crystal panel suffers from the trade-off between brightness and crosstalk. One approach for making improvement by modifying the layout of light blocking components, such as thin film transistor, storage capacitor, and protrusion, in the liquid crystal pixel has been proposed. Ray tracing simulation shows that the aperture of the slanted barrier can be significantly increased, hence increasing efficiency, while keeping the same crosstalk level if those light blocking components can be shifted to the corner of the pixel. A six-view 2.83 in. (7.19 cm) prototype has shown improvement on both brightness and crosstalk compared to its counterpart using a traditional liquid crystal panel, which demonstrates an effective approach for a high-efficiency barrier-type autostereoscopic 3D display with a liquid crystal panel.

  4. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  5. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pyrolysis mechanism for recycle renewable resource from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-15

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly consist of polarizing film, liquid crystal and glass substrates. In this study, a novel pyrolysis model and a pyrolysis mechanism to recover the reusable resource from polarizing film of waste LCD panels was proposed. Polarizing film and its major components, such as cellulose triacetate (TAC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were pyrolyzed, respectively, to model the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis process mainly generated a large ratio of oil, a few gases and a little residue. Acetic acid was the main oil product and could be easily recycled. The pyrolysis mechanism could be summarized as follows: (i) TAC, the main component of polarizing film, was heated and generated active TAC with a low polymerization, and then decomposed into triacetyl-d-glucose. (ii) Some triacetyl-d-glucose generated triacetyl-d-mannosan and its isomers through an intramolecular dehydration, while most triacetyl-d-glucose generated the main oil product, namely acetic acid, through a six-member cyclic transition state. (iii) Meanwhile, other products formed through a series of bond cleavage, dehydration, dehydrogenation, interesterification and Diels-Alder cycloaddition. This study could contribute significantly to understanding the polarizing film pyrolysis performance and serve as guidance for the future technological parameters control of the pyrolysis process.

  7. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Indium from Flat-Panel Displays of Spent Liquid Crystal Televisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq

    2015-02-01

    A recovery process for indium from waste liquid crystal display panels was developed on the basis of hydrometallurgical technology. The powdered sample was leached with 3 M HCl to extract its various metal constituents (indium, aluminum, tin, etc.). The mutual separation and subsequent recovery of the dissolved metals was achieved using two column adsorption tests: The first column was packed with a porous resin impregnated with Aliquat 336, a commercially available solvent extraction reagent based on a quaternary ammonium compound, and the resin contained in the second column was impregnated with Cyanex 923, also a commercially available solvent extraction reagent based on trialkylphosphine oxide. In the first column, tin, iron, and zinc were removed from the leach liquor. In the second column, only indium was selectively recovered. The metal ions trapped in these columns were eluted with 0.1 M H2SO4, yielding a solution purified indium solution with a concentration 10 times that of the feed solution.

  8. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  9. Technological process and optimum design of organic materials vacuum pyrolysis and indium chlorinated separation from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-12-15

    In this study, a technology process including vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum chlorinated separation was proposed to convert waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels into useful resources using self-design apparatuses. The suitable pyrolysis temperature and pressure are determined as 300°C and 50 Pa at first. The organic parts of the panels were converted to oil (79.10 wt%) and gas (2.93 wt%). Then the technology of separating indium was optimized by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicated the indium recovery ratio was 99.97% when the particle size is less than 0.16 mm, the weight percentage of NH4Cl to glass powder is 50 wt% and temperature is 450°C. The research results show that the organic materials, indium and glass of LCD panel can be recovered during the recovery process efficiently and eco-friendly.

  10. Recycling acetic acid from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels by sub/supercritical water treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Chen, Ya; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-05-19

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate) and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed first since containing polarizing film and liquid crystal is to the disadvantage of the indium recycling process. In the present study, an efficient and environmentally friendly process to obtain acetic acid from waste LCD panels by sub/supercritical water treatments is investigated. Furthermore, a well-founded reaction mechanism is proposed. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) 99.77% of organic matters are removed, which means the present technology is quite efficient to recycle the organic matters; (ii) a yield of 78.23% acetic acid, a quite important fossil energy based chemical product is obtained, which can reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid; (iii) supercritical water acts as an ideal solvent, a requisite reactant as well as an efficient acid-base catalyst, and this is quite significant in accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry". In a word, the organic matters of waste LCD panels are recycled without environmental pollution. Meanwhile, this study provides new opportunities for alternating fossil-based chemical products for sustainable development, converting "waste" into "fossil-based chemicals".

  11. EVALUATION OF CHROMATICITY COORDINATES SHIFT FOR IMAGE DISPLAYED ON LIQUID CRYSTAL PANELS WITH VARIOUS PROPERTIES ON COLOR REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We consider the problem of evaluation of chromaticity coordinates shift for image displayed on liquid crystal panels with various properties on color reproduction. A mathematical model represents the color reproduction characteristics. The spread of the color characteristics of the screens has a statistical nature. Differences of color reproduction for screens are perceived by the observer in the form of different colors and shades that are displayed on the same type of commercially available screens. Color differences are characterized by numerical measure of the difference of colors and can be mathematically compensated. The solution of accounting problem of the statistical nature of the color characteristics spread for the screens has a particular relevance to aviation instrumentation. Method. Evaluation of chromaticity coordinates shift of the image is based on the application of the Grassmann laws of color mixing.Basic data for quantitative calculation of shift are the profiles of two different liquid crystal panels defined by matrixes of scales for components of primary colors (red, green, blue. The calculation is based on solving the system of equations and calculating the color difference in the XY-plane. In general, the calculation can be performed in other color spaces: UV, Lab. The statistical nature of the spread of the color characteristics for the screens is accounted for in the proposed mathematical model based on the interval setting of coordinate values of the color gamut triangle vertices on the set of commercially available samples. Main Results. Carried outresearches result in the mathematical expressions allowing to recalculate values of chromaticity coordinates of the image displayed on various samples of liquid crystal screens. It is shown that the spread of the color characteristics of the screens follows bivariate normal distribution law with the accuracy sufficient for practice. The results of

  12. Chelant-induced reclamation of indium from the spent liquid crystal display panels with the aid of microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi, E-mail: hhiroshi@t.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Rahman, Ismail M.M., E-mail: I.M.M.Rahman@gmail.com [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Egawa, Yuji; Sawai, Hikaru; Begum, Zinnat A. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Maki, Teruya [Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Mizutani, Satoshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Sugimoto 3-3-138, Sumiyoshi-Ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • A new process for indium recovery from end-of-life LCD panels. • Chelants are used for the dissolution of indium from the waste LCD panels. • Indium extraction with chelant is enhanced with the aid of microwave irradiation. • Extraction rate is quantitative in the hyperbaric high-temperature environment. -- Abstract: Indium is a rare metal that is mostly consumed as indium tin oxide (ITO) in the fabrication process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The spent LCD panels, termed as LCD-waste hereafter, is an increasing contributor of electronic waste burden worldwide and can be an impending secondary source of indium. The present work reports a new technique for the reclamation of indium from the unground LCD-waste using aminopolycarboxylate chelants (APCs) as the solvent in a hyperbaric environment and at a high-temperature. Microwave irradiation was used to create the desired system conditions, and a substantial abstraction of indium (≥80%) from the LCD-waste with the APCs (EDTA or NTA) was attained in the acidic pH region (up to pH 5) at the temperature of ≥120 °C and the pressure of ∼50 bar. The unique point of the reported process is the almost quantitative recovery of indium from the LCD-waste that ensured via the combination of the reaction facilitatory effect of microwave exposure and the metal extraction capability of APCs. A method for the selective isolation of indium from the extractant solution and recycle of the chelant in solution is also described.

  13. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  14. Striations in Plasma Display Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Ji-Ting; CAO Jing; MIAO Jin-Song

    2005-01-01

    @@ The phenomenon of striation has been investigated experimentally in a macroscopic ac-plasma display panel (PDP). The relationship between the characteristics of striation and the operation conditions including voltage, frequency, rib, and electrode configuration, etc is obtained experimentally. The origin of the striations is considered to be the ionization waves in the transient positive column near the dielectric surface in the anode area during the discharge, and the perturbation is caused by resonance kinetic effects in inert gas.

  15. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    81/2X 11- 10 -9 .8 display using a large advertising alphanimeric ( TCI ) has been added to the front of the optical box used in the F-4 aircraft for HUD...properties over a wide range of tempera - tures, including normal room temperature. What are Liquid Crystals? Liquid crystals have been classified in three...natic fanctions and to present data needed for the semi- automatic and manual control of system functions. Existing aircraft using CRT display

  16. Phosphors for flat panel emissive displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.T.; Walko, R.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of emissive display technologies is presented. Display types briefly described include: cathode ray tubes (CRTs), field emission displays (FEDs), electroluminescent displays (ELDs), and plasma display panels (PDPs). The critical role of phosphors in further development of the latter three flat panel emissive display technologies is outlined. The need for stable, efficient red, green, and blue phosphors for RGB fall color displays is emphasized.

  17. The influence of liquid crystal display monitors on observer performance for the detection of interstitial lung markings on both storage phosphor and flat-panel-detector chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Yon Mi [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Hospital, 1198, Guwol-dong, Namdong-gu, Incheon 405-760 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung Jin [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mj1.chung@samsung.com; Lee, Kyung Soo [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong-Keun [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To compare observer performance with a flat-panel liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor and with a high-resolution gray-scale cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor in the detection of interstitial lung markings using a silicon flat-panel-detector direct radiography (DR) and storage phosphor computed radiography (CR) in a clinical setting. Materials and methods: We displayed 39 sets of posteroanterior chest radiographs from the patients who were suspected of interstitial lung disease. Each sets consisted of DR, CR and thin-section CT as the reference standard. Image identities were masked, randomly sorted, and displayed on both five mega pixel (2048 x 2560 x 8 bits) LCD and CRT monitors. Ten radiologists independently rated their confidence in detection for the presence of linear opacities in the four fields of the lungs; right upper, left upper, right lower, and left lower quadrant. Performance of a total 6240 (39 sets x 2 detector systems x 2 monitor system x 4 fields x 10 observers) observations was analyzed by multi-reader multi-case receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Differences between monitor systems in combinations of detector systems were compared using ANOVA and paired-samples t-test. Results: Area under curves (AUC) for the presence of linear opacities measured by ROC analysis was higher on the LCDs than CRTs without statistical significance (p = 0.082). AUC was significantly higher on the DR systems than CR systems (p = 0.006). AUC was significantly higher on the LCDs than CRTs for DR systems (p = 0.039) but not different for CR systems (p = 0.301). Conclusion: In clinical conditions, performance of the LCD monitor appears to be better for detecting interstitial lung markings when interfaced with DR systems.

  18. Microspheres in Plasma Display Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Filling small bubbles of molten glass with gases is just as difficult as it sounds, but the technical staff at NASA is not known to shy away from a difficult task. When Microsphere Systems, Inc. (MSI), of Ypsilanti, Michigan, and Imaging Systems Technology, Inc. (IST), of Toledo, Ohio, were trying to push the limits of plasma displays but were having difficulty with the designs, NASA s Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) assembled key personnel at Glenn Research Center and Ohio State University for a brainstorming session to come up with a solution for the companies. They needed a system that could produce hollow, glass micro-sized spheres (microspheres) that could be filled with a variety of gasses. But the extremely high temperature required to force the micro-sized glass bubbles to form at the tip of a metal nozzle resulted in severe discoloration of the microspheres. After countless experiments on various glass-metal combinations, they had turned to the GMCI for help. NASA experts in advanced metals, ceramics, and glass concluded that a new design approach was necessary. The team determined that what was needed was a phosphate glass composition that would remain transparent, and they went to work on a solution. Six weeks later, using the design tips from the NASA team, Tim Henderson, president of MSI, had designed a new system in which all surfaces in contact with the molten glass would be ceramic instead of metal. Meanwhile, IST was able to complete a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and supply a potential customer with samples of the microspheres for evaluation as filler materials for high-performance insulations.

  19. Military market for flat panel displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1997-07-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of primary military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, color capability and night vision imaging system capability. A select grouping of funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted cockpit kits, and form-fit-function upgrades are taken into account. It is the intent of this paper to provide an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a timely reference to insure meeting DoD requirements for flat-panel displays on schedule and in a cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct view displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 157,000. Helmet/head mounted displays will add substantially to this total. The vanishing vendor syndrome for older display technologies is becoming a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently just leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil-commercial markets.

  20. Crystal ball single event display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Allgower, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.; Alyea, J. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.

    1997-10-15

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about {pi}{sup o}`s and {eta}`s formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer.

  1. Displaying gray shades in liquid crystal displays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Ruckmongathan

    2003-08-01

    Quality of image in a display depends on the contrast, colour, resolution and the number of gray shades. A large number of gray shades is necessary to display images without any contour lines. These contours are due to limited number of gray shades in the display causing abrupt changes in grayness of the image, while the original image has a gradual change in brightness. Amplitude modulation has the capability to display a large number of gray shades with minimum number of time intervals [1,2]. This paper will cover the underlying principle of amplitude modulation, some variants and its extension to multi-line addressing. Other techniques for displaying gray shades in passive matrix displays are reviewed for the sake of comparison.

  2. Liquid crystal displays for aircraft engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko L. F.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Operating conditions for liquid-crystal displays of aircraft instruments have been examined. Requirements to engineering of a liquid-crystal display for operation in severe environment have been formulated. The implementation options for liquid-crystal matrix illumination have been analyzed in order to ensure the sufficient brightness depending on external illumination of a display screen.

  3. Latest Developments In Liquid Crystal Television Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozumi, Shinji; Oguchi, Kouichi; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    1984-06-01

    This paper will discuss developments in liquid crystal (LC) television displays, mainly for pocket-size TV sets. There are two types of LC television displays. One is a simple multiplexing type, and the other is an active matrix type. The former type is an easier way to fabricate large and low-cost LC panels than the latter. However, it has serious drawbacks. The contrast gets lower as the duty ratio gets higher. Therefore the TV image of this type inevitably has rather low contrast and resolution. On the other hand, the active matrix type, which consists of active elements in each pixel, has several advantages in overcoming such problems. The metal oxide semiconductor transistors and the amorphous or polycrystalline Si thin-film transistors (TFTs) have possibilities in this application. A full-color LC display, which can be realized by the combina-tion of color filters and poly Si TFT arrays on a transparent substrate, was proven to have excellent color image, close to that of conventional CRTs. Here, several examples of LC television displays, including color, are shown. Some of them are already on the market, and others will be soon.

  4. Multipurpose Panel Display Device Investigation. [technology assessment and product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, R.

    1977-01-01

    A multipurpose panel was developed to provide a flexible control and a LED display panel with easily changeable nomenclature for use in applications where panel space is limited, but where a number of similar subsystems must be controlled, or where basic panel nomenclature and functions must be changed rapidly, as in the case of between mission changes of space shuttle payloads. In the first application, panel area limitations are overcome by time sharing a central control panel among several subsystems. In the latter case, entire control panel changes are effected by simply replacing a memory module, thereby reducing the extent of installation and checkout procedures between missions. Several types of control technologies (other than LED's) which show potential in meeting criteria for overcoming limitations of the panel are assessed.

  5. Emerging Technologies of Liquid Crystal Displays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sin-Doo Lee; Chang-Jae Yu; Jae-Hong Park; Min-Sik Jung

    2003-01-01

    The general features and the emerging technologies of liquid crystal displays are described from the viewpoints of wide viewing and fast response technologies. The device applications of liquid crystals for optical communications are also described.

  6. Real-time synchronized rendering of multi-view video for 8Kx4K three-dimensional display with spliced four liquid crystal panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huilong; Sang, Xinzhu; Xing, Shujun; Ning, Jiwei; Yan, Binbin; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    A high speed synchronized rendering of multi-view video for 8K×4K multi-LCD-spliced three-dimensional (3D) display system based on CUDA is demonstrated. Because the conventional image processing calculation method is no longer applicable to this 3D display system, the CUDA technology is used for 3D image processing to address the problem of low efficiency.The 8K×4K screen is composed of four LCD screens, and accurate segmentation of the scene is carried out to ensure the correct display of 3D contents and a set of controlling and the host software are optimally implemented to make all of the connected processors render 3D videos simultaneously. The system which is based on the master-slave synchronization communication mode and DIBR-CUDA accelerated algorithm is used to realize the high resolution, high frame rate, large size, and wide view angle video rendering for the real-time 3D display. Experimental result shows a stable frame-rate at 30 frame-per-second and the friendly interactive interface can be achieved.

  7. Electroluminescent Polymers and Carbon Nanotubes for Flat Panel Displays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liming Dai; Limin Dong; Mei Gao; Shaoming Huang; Oddvar Johansen; Albert W.H.Mau,Zoran Vasic; Berthold Winkler; Yongyuang Yang

    2000-01-01

    polymeric light-emitting diodes(LEDs) with sufficient brightness. efficiencies, low driving voltages, and various interesting features have been reported. The relatively short device lifetime, however, still remains as a major problem to be solved before any commercial applications will be realized. In this regard,carbon nanotubes have recently been proposed as more robust electron field emitters for flat panel displays. We have synthesised large arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, from which micropatterns of the aligned nanotubes suitable for flat panel displays were fabricated on various substrates. In this paper, we summarise our work on the synthesis and microfabrication of electroluminescent polymers and carbon nanotubes for flat panel displays with reference to other complementary work as appropriate.

  8. High-bandwidth remote flat panel display interconnect system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    High performance electronic displays (CRT, AMLCD, TFEL, plasma, etc.) require wide bandwidth electrical drive signals to produce the desired display images. When the image generation and/or image processing circuitry is located within the same line replaceable unit (LRU) as the display media, the transmission of the display drive signals to the display media presents no unusual design problems. However, many aircraft cockpits are severely constrained for available space behind the instrument panel. This often forces the system designer to specify that only the display media and its immediate support circuitry are to be mounted in the instrument panel. A wide bandwidth interconnect system is then required to transfer image data from the display generation circuitry to the display unit. Image data transfer rates of nearly 1.5 Gbits/second may be required when displaying full motion video at a 60 Hz field rate. In addition to wide bandwidth, this interconnect system must exhibit several additional key characteristics: (1) Lossless transmission of image data; (2) High reliability and high integrity; (3) Ease of installation and field maintenance; (4) High immunity to HIRF and electrical noise; (5) Low EMI emissions; (6) Long term supportability; and (7) Low acquisition and maintenance cost. Rockwell Collins has developed an avionics grade remote display interconnect system based on the American National Standards Institute Fibre Channel standard which meets these requirements. Readily available low cost commercial off the shelf (COTS) components are utilized, and qualification tests have confirmed system performance.

  9. Calculated characteristics of an ac plasma display panel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeuf, J.P.; Pitchford, L.C. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)

    1996-02-01

    Equipotential contours and contours of constant power deposition into excitation of xenon, calculated from a two-dimensional (2-D) fluid model, are presented at times during the evolution of a single discharge event in an ac plasma display panel cell with a dielectric barrier rib geometry.

  10. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Angela; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    We show how one can determine the various properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information stored in optical fields carrying orbital angular momentum, by performing a modal decomposition. Although the modal decomposition of light has been known for a long time, applied mostly to pattern recognition, we illustrate how this technique can be implemented with the use of liquid-crystal displays. We show experimentally how liquid crystal displays can be used to infer the intensity, phase, wavefront, Poynting vector, and orbital angular momentum density of unknown optical fields. This measurement technique makes use of a single spatial light modulator (liquid crystal display), a Fourier transforming lens and detector (CCD or photo-diode). Such a diagnostic tool is extremely relevant to the real-time analysis of solid-state and fibre laser systems as well as mode division multiplexing as an emerging technology in optical communication.

  11. Supramolecular liquid crystal displays : construction and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogboom, Joannes Theodorus Valentinus

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes chemical methodologies, which can be ued to construct alignment layers for liquid crystal display purposes in a non-clean room environment, by making use of supramolecular chemistry. These techniques are subsequently used to attain control over LCD-properties, both pre- and pos

  12. Liquid Crystal Microlenses for Autostereoscopic Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Algorri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional vision has acquired great importance in the audiovisual industry in the past ten years. Despite this, the first generation of autostereoscopic displays failed to generate enough consumer excitement. Some reasons are little 3D content and performance issues. For this reason, an exponential increase in three-dimensional vision research has occurred in the last few years. In this review, a study of the historical impact of the most important technologies has been performed. This study is carried out in terms of research manuscripts per year. The results reveal that research on spatial multiplexing technique is increasing considerably and today is the most studied. For this reason, the state of the art of this technique is presented. The use of microlenses seems to be the most successful method to obtain autostereoscopic vision. When they are fabricated with liquid crystal materials, extended capabilities are produced. Among the numerous techniques for manufacturing liquid crystal microlenses, this review covers the most viable designs for its use in autostereoscopic displays. For this reason, some of the most important topologies and their relation with autostereoscopic displays are presented. Finally, the challenges in some recent applications, such as portable devices, and the future of three-dimensional displays based on liquid crystal microlenses are outlined.

  13. Flat-panel electronic displays: a triumph of physics, chemistry and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsum, Cyril

    2010-03-13

    This paper describes the history and science behind the development of modern flat-panel displays, and assesses future trends. Electronic displays are an important feature of modern life. For many years the cathode ray tube, an engineering marvel, was universal, but its shape was cumbersome and its operating voltage too high. The need for a flat-panel display, working at a low voltage, became imperative, and much research has been applied to this need. Any versatile flat-panel display will exploit an electro-optical effect, a transparent conductor and an addressing system to deliver data locally. The first need is to convert an electrical signal into a visible change. Two methods are available, the first giving emission of light, the second modulating ambient illumination. The most useful light-emitting media are semiconductors, historically exploiting III-V or II-VI compounds, but more recently organic or polymer semiconductors. Another possible effect uses gas plasma discharges. The modulating, or subtractive, effects that have been studied include liquid crystals, electrophoresis, electrowetting and electrochromism. A transparent conductor makes it possible to apply a voltage to an extended area while observing the results. The design is a compromise, since the free electrons that carry current also absorb light. The first materials used were metals, but some semiconductors, when heavily doped, give a better balance, with high transmission for a low resistance. Delivering data unambiguously to a million or so picture elements across the display area is no easy task. The preferred solution is an amorphous silicon thin-film transistor deposited at each cross-point in an X-Y matrix. Success in these endeavours has led to many applications for flat-panel displays, including television, flexible displays, electronic paper, electronic books and advertising signs.

  14. Preparation of Panel and Charged Particles for Electrophoretic Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung Suk; Park, Jin Woo; Park, Lee Soon; Lee, Jung Kyung; Han, Yoon Soo; Kwon, Younghwan

    Studies on the formulation of photosensitive paste for transparent soft mold press (TSMP) method have been performed. With the optimum formulation of the photosensitive paste the box-type barrier rib with good flexibility and high solvent resistance was fabricated, suitable for the panel material of the electrophoretic display. Cationically-charged white particles were prepared by using TiO2 nanoparticles, silane coupling agent with amino groups, dispersant and acetic acid. The cationically charged TiO2 particles exhibited 74.09 mV of zeta potential and 3.11 × 10-5 cm2/Vs of mobility. Electrophoretic display fabricated with the charged TiO2 particles exhibited 10 V of low driving voltage and maximum contrast ratio (5.3/1) at 30 V.

  15. Do LCDs have a chance to keep a leading position on flat panel display market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Jerzy; Olifierczuk, Marek

    2004-09-01

    A lot of significant discoveries and inventions in the field of technology of displays were made in the latter part of the twentieth century. Apart from well-known CRT, the plasma-, luminescence- and liquid crystal-displays are commercially available. One can notice that a leading position on that flat panel displays market belong to LCD. But the progress in Organic LED materials and devices is impressive. Threshold voltage for light emission have fallen from several thousands V to just 2 - 3 V for today's OLEDs (polymer and small molecule). Luminous efficiency has increased from 0,01 to more than 10 lm/W. These improvements have brought PLED technology to the point where serious consideration is being given to OLED graphic and video display product. The question given some years ago by Dr. M. E. Becker, [Display Metrology and Systems]: "...is the current OLED enthusiasm justified because OLED displays feature significant improvements in visual and ergonomic performance, and because they are much cheaper to manufacture; Or it is just another hope for those who missed the LCD train?...," is trite. During SID Conference in Baltimore in 2003 two companies claiming to have built the largest organic LED. International Display Technology demonstrated a 20 inch display driven by "super amorphous silicon" technology; Sony showed off its 24 inch screen, which consists of a 2x2 tiled array of OLED displays. The presented work will be oriented towards specifying the characteristic features of liquid crystal and electro luminescence organic compounds which make these groups of displays so attractive and prospective among other imagery systems devices existing nowadays.

  16. Electroholographic display unit for three-dimensional display by use of special-purpose computational chip for holography and reflective LCD panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Shiraki, Atsushi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2005-05-30

    We developed an electroholography unit, which consists of a special-purpose computational chip for holography and a reflective liquid-crystal display (LCD) panel, for a three-dimensional (3D) display. The special-purpose chip can compute a computer-generated hologram of 800x600 grids in size from a 3D object consisting of approximately 400 points in approximately 0.15 seconds. The pixel pitch and resolution of the LCD panel are 12 mum and 800x600 grids, respectively. We implemented the special purpose chip and LCD panel on a printed circuit board of approximately 28cmx13cm in size. After the calculation, the computer-generated hologram produced by the special-purpose chip is displayed on the LCD panel. When we illuminate a reference light to the LCD panel, we can observe a 3D animation of approximately 3cmx3cmx3cm in size. In the present paper, we report the electroholographic display unit together with a simple 3D display system.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Thin Film Transistors for Flat Panel Display Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuelei; Xia, Jiye; Dong, Guodong; Tian, Boyuan; Peng, Lianmao

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising materials for both high performance transistors for high speed computing and thin film transistors for macroelectronics, which can provide more functions at low cost. Among macroelectronics applications, carbon nanotube thin film transistors (CNT-TFT) are expected to be used soon for backplanes in flat panel displays (FPDs) due to their superior performance. In this paper, we review the challenges of CNT-TFT technology for FPD applications. The device performance of state-of-the-art CNT-TFTs are compared with the requirements of TFTs for FPDs. Compatibility of the fabrication processes of CNT-TFTs and current TFT technologies are critically examined. Though CNT-TFT technology is not yet ready for backplane production line of FPDs, the challenges can be overcome by close collaboration between research institutes and FPD manufacturers in the short term.

  18. Implementation and analysis of an autostereoscopic display using multiple liquid crystal layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hironobu

    2012-03-01

    Multilayer displays are constructed by stacking multiple liquid crystal panels along with a pair of polarizers and a light source. Previous theoretical analyses have shown that such a display could exhibit the light field of a 3D scene if the panels in the display are properly controlled. In this study, we present an implementation of a monochromatic multilayer display using IPS-LCD panels, and report that a reasonable approximation of the light field is actually observed from the display. A major obstacle to constructing a multilayer display is the complexity of optical properties of LCD panels. Since an accurate analytic representation of panels' behavior is difficult to obtain, we have developed an approximate model specific to IPS-LCD cells, using which our implementation is built. We then evaluate the quality of the light field observed from the prototype implementation by examining the images photographed at several camera positions. The results show geometrically correct views are observable from the display within the viewing angle of 30 degrees.

  19. Single-substrate liquid-crystal displays by photo-enforced stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penterman, Roel; Klink, Stephen I.; de Koning, Henk; Nisato, Giovanni; Broer, Dirk J.

    2002-05-01

    Data visualization plays a crucial role in our society, as illustrated by the many displays that surround us. In the future, displays may become even more pervasive, ranging from individually addressable image-rendering wall hangings to data displays integrated in clothes. Liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) provide most of the flat-panel displays currently used. To keep pace with the ever-increasing possibilities afforded by developments in information technology, we need to develop manufacturing processes that will make LCDs cheaper and larger, with more freedom in design. Existing batch processes for making and filling LCD cells are relatively expensive, with size and shape limitations. Here we report a cost-effective, single-substrate technique in which a coated film is transformed into a polymer-covered liquid-crystal layer. This approach is based on photo-enforced stratification: a two-step photopolymerization-induced phase separation of a liquid-crystal blend and a polymer precursor. The process leads to the formation of micrometre-sized containers filled with a switchable liquid-crystal phase. In this way, displays can be produced on a variety of substrates using current coating technology. The developed process may be an important step towards new technologies such as `display-on-anything' and `paintable displays'.

  20. An Output Channel Nonuniformity Compensation Driving Method in Flat Panel Display Driving Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Ho; Ahn, Soon-Sung; Kwon, Christine H.; Kim, Seon-Yung; Lee, Jae-Sic; Choi, Byong-Deok

    2006-12-01

    Modern flat panel displays, including thin-film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), pursue more and more natural color expression. This requires the data driving system should produce very fine and accurate signal voltages or currents. Especially, the uniformity among channels of a driving system is critically important because the color or luminance differences among columns are easily noticeable. We propose a simple and efficient driving method for solving the artifacts caused by the existing nonuniformity among channels of a driving system, and confirms its impact by simulations using C-programming. The nonuniformity among channels mostly stem from the random offset of the output circuits of a driving system, which in turn is caused by the process variations. The proposed driving method shares N-output circuits between N-output channels such that the existing offsets of the channels are averaged out. Thus, the output signal error due to the offsets spreads out among the channels, improving the uniformity between the channels.

  1. 21 CFR 701.10 - Principal display panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cylindrical container, 40 percent of the product of the height of the container times the circumference; and... cans, and shoulders and necks of bottles or jars. In the case of cylindrical or nearly cylindrical... that 40 percent of the circumference which is most likely to be displayed, presented, shown,...

  2. Human Visual Performance and Flat Panel Display Image Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    In0.42Ga0.58 amber 617 SiC yellow 590 GaN blue 440 GaN green 515 GaAs:Si with green 550 YF3YbEr GaAs:Si with blue 470 YF3:Yb:Tn InSe yellow 590 3.0...nm, from a neon gas. Other gases , and their discharge colors, which have been used in gas dis- charge displays incude argon (blue), cadmium (red

  3. A Successive Scans Method of Adjusting Scan-Time for Injection Electroluminescent Display Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Peng; YANG Gang; JIANG Quan; WANG Jun; HU Jian-Hua; WU Qi-Peng; LUO Kai-Jun

    2011-01-01

    @@ Aiming at the problem of luminance uniformity for injection electroluminescent display panels, we present a new scan method for display panels according to successive scans theory.First, on the basis of the number of pixels requiring light emitting in one frame period, we adjust the scan time for each row.Secondly, for ensuring image transmission synchronization, the frame period must to be a constant.We adopt a 64 × 32 LED display panel as an example to expound the new scan method and we obtain the good result that the reduce amplitude of luminance non-uniformity is 31.34% and the increase amplitude of the average luminance value is 7.8258%.%Aiming at the problem of luminance uniformity for injection electroluminescent display panels,we present a new scan method for display panets according to successive scans theory.First,on the basis of the number of pixels requiring light emitting in one frame period,we adjust the scan time for each row.Secondly,for ensuring image transmission synchronization,the frame period must to be a constant.We adopt a 64×32 LED display panel as an example to expound the new scan method and we odtain the good result that the reduce amplitude of luminance non-uniformity is 31.34% and the increase amplitude of the average luminance value is 7.8258%.

  4. Liquid crystals beyond displays chemistry, physics, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan

    2012-01-01

    The chemistry, physics, and applications of liquid crystals beyond LCDs Liquid Crystals (LCs) combine order and mobility on a molecular and supramolecular level. But while these remarkable states of matter are most commonly associated with visual display technologies, they have important applications for a variety of other fields as well. Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications considers these, bringing together cutting-edge research from some of the most promising areas of LC science. Featuring contributions from respected researchers from around the globe, th

  5. High Performance Negative Dielectric Anisotropy Liquid Crystals for Display Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Song

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in the development of high birefringence (Δn ≥ 0.12 negative dielectric anisotropy (Δε < 0 liquid crystals (LCs for direct-view and projection displays. For mobile displays, our UCF-N2 (low viscosity, negative Δε, high Δn based homogeneous alignment fringe-field switching (called n-FFS mode exhibits superior performance to p-FFS in transmittance, single gamma curve, cell gap insensitivity, and negligible flexoelectric effect. For projection displays using a vertical alignment liquid-crystal-on-silicon (VA LCOS, our high birefringence UCF-N3 mixture enables a submillisecond gray-to-gray response time, which is essential for color sequential displays without noticeable color breakup. Our low viscosity UCF-N2 also enables multi-domain VA displays to use a thinner cell gap for achieving faster response time.

  6. Double sided roll-to-roll manufacture of flexible display panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.Williamson; H.-L.Liang; Stuart; Speakman; D.Chu

    2015-01-01

    A double sided roll-to-roll(R2R) system has been developed by the authors to automate the continuous manufacturing of flexible display panels.Here we report an overview of the system operation and the fabrication process.The system framework features a timer initiated slot-die coating followed by wet lamination to form a thin,active layer in between flexible conductive substrates.A rotary screen-printing unit is installed for adhesive deposition providing an edge seal for the panel.The system enables production of 15-cm~2 laminated panels.

  7. Autostereoscopic 3D flat panel display using an LCD-pixel-associated parallax barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, En-guo; Guo, Tai-liang

    2014-05-01

    This letter reports an autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) flat panel display system employing a newly designed LCD-pixel-associated parallax barrier (LPB). The barrier's parameters can be conveniently determined by the LCD pixels and can help to greatly simplify the conventional design. The optical system of the proposed 3D display is built and simulated to verify the design. For further experimental demonstration, a 508-mm autostereoscopic 3D display prototype is developed and it presents good stereoscopic images. Experimental results agree well with the simulation, which reveals a strong potential for 3D display applications.

  8. Full dynamic resolution low lower DA-Converters for flat panel displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Saas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that stepwise charging can reduce the power dissipated in the source drivers of a flat panel display. However the solution presented only provided a dynamic resolution of 3 bits which is not sufficient for obtaining a full color resolution display. In this work a further development of the basic idea is presented. The stepwise charging is increased to 4 bits and supplemented by a current source to provide an output signal which represents an 8 bit value with sufficient accuracy. Within this work the application is an AM-OLED flat panel display, but the concept can easily be applied to other display technologies like TFT-LCD as well.

  9. Super high precision 200 ppi liquid crystal display series; Chokoseido 200 ppi ekisho display series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In mobile equipment, in demand is a high precision liquid crystal display (LCD) having the power of expression equivalent to printed materials like magazines because of the necessity of displaying a large amount of information on a easily potable small screen. In addition, with the spread and high-quality image of digital still cameras, it is strongly desired to display photographed digital image data in high quality. Toshiba Corp., by low temperature polysilicone (p-Si) technology, commercialized the liquid crystal display series of 200 ppi (pixels per inch) precision dealing with the rise of the high-precision high-image quality LCD market. The super high precision of 200 ppi enables the display of smooth beautiful animation comparable to printed sheets of magazines and photographs. The display series are suitable for the display of various information services such as electronic books and electronic photo-viewers including internet. The screen sizes lined up are No. 4 type VGA (640x480 pixels) of a small pocket notebook size and No. 6.3 type XGA (1,024x768 pixels) of a paperback size, with a larger screen to be furthered. (translated by NEDO)

  10. 21 CFR 101.1 - Principal display panel of package form food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the container times the circumference; (c) In the case of any otherwise shaped container, 40... tops, bottoms, flanges at tops and bottoms of cans, and shoulders and necks of bottles or jars. In the... the principal display panel shall appear within that 40 percent of the circumference which is...

  11. Liquid crystal displays with high brightness of visualization versus active displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olifierczuk, Marek; Zieliński, Jerzy

    2007-05-01

    Nowadays Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) takes the very important place among different visualization devices. It's are used in many standard applications such as computer or video screens. In May 2006, 100" LCD TV monitor had been shown by LG. But beside of this main direction of display development, very interesting - because of insignificant electro-magnetic disturbances - is the possibility of it's applications in motorization and aviation. An example of it can be a glass cockpit of U2 , Boeing 777 or many different car dashboards. On this field beside LCD we have now many another display technologies, but interesting for us are 3 of them: FEDs (Field Emission Displays), OLEDs (Organic Light Emitting Diode), PLEDs (Polymer Light Emitting Diode). The leading position of LCD is a result of LCD unique advantages of flat form, weight, power consumption, and reliability, higher (than CRT) luminance, luminance uniformity, sunlight readability, wide dimming range, fault tolerance and a large active display area with a small border. The basis of starting our investigation was the comparison of passive LCD and the other technology, which can be theoretically used on motorization and aviation field. The following parameters are compared: contrast ratio, luminance level, temperature stability, life-time, operating temperature range, color performance, and depth, viewing cone, technology maturity, availability and cost. In our work an analysis of Liquid Crystal Displays used in specific applications is done. The possibilities of the applications such a display under high lighting level are presented. The presented results of this analysis are obtained from computer program worked by authors, which makes it possible to calculate the optical parameters of transmissive and reflective LCD working in quasi-real conditions. The base assumption of this program are shown. This program calculate the transmission and reflection coefficient of a display taking into account the

  12. Liquid crystal alignment in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer for LCD panel applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chitsung; Tang, Tsung-Ta; Hung, Chi-Yu; Pan, Ru-Pin; Fang, Weileun

    2010-07-16

    This paper reports the implementation and integration of a self-assembled nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (np-AAO) film and liquid crystal (LC) on an ITO-glass substrate for liquid crystal display (LCD) panel applications. An np-AAO layer with a nanopore array acts as the vertical alignment layer to easily and uniformly align the LC molecules. Moreover, the np-AAO nanoalignment layer provides outstanding material properties, such as being inorganic with good transmittance, and colorless on ITO-glass substrates. In this application, an LCD panel, with the LC on the np-AAO nanoalignment layer, is successfully implemented on an ITO-glass substrate, and its performance is demonstrated. The measurements show that the LCD panel, consisting of an ITO-glass substrate and an np-AAO layer, has a transmittance of 60-80%. In addition, the LCD panel switches from a black state to a bright state at 3 V(rms), with a response time of 62.5 ms. In summary, this paper demonstrates the alignment of LC on an np-AAO layer for LCD applications.

  13. LCD Panels: The Electronic Wonder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Glenn

    1994-01-01

    Describes Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) panels and their use in the classroom. Topics discussed include active versus passive matrix panels; the number of pixels; projectors, including transmissive or reflective overhead projectors; costs; and vendors that supply LCDs. (LRW)

  14. Thermal modeling of laser-addressed liquid-crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K. E.; Nkansah, M. A.

    1990-06-01

    Optical-absorption calculations and finite-element methods are used to calculate time-dependent temperature profiles in two contrasting laser-addressed liquid-crystal displays. It is shown that the presence of conducting electrode layers has a significant effect on the temperature profiles both by affecting the optical-absorption characteristics of the cell and the resulting thermal conductivity. It is shown that efficient optical absorption does not necessarily result in the best cell-addressing performance.

  15. Parametric studies of AC plasma display panel cells in complex geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punset, C.; Boeuf, J.P.; Pitchford, L.C. [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). CPAT

    1996-12-31

    The authors have developed a two-dimensional fluid model of AC plasma panel cells. This model was used to study the operation of a plasma panel cell in a barrier rib geometry in single pulse operation. In this communication, they report results from calculations in several different geometries and for a series of applied voltage pulses. The purpose of this work is to study the effect of geometry on the electrical characteristics of AC plasma display panel cells. The calculations reported here are representative of actual device operation. They have also used the model to study the effect of the geometrical parameters of the cell, to optimize the discharge efficiency in producing UV photons and to study cross-talk, i.e., interaction between adjacent cells. The conclusions of these parametric studies will be presented.

  16. Development of high-frame-rate LED panel and its applications for stereoscopic 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H.; Tsutsumi, M.; Yamamoto, R.; Kajimoto, K.; Suyama, S.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we report development of a high-frame-rate LED display. Full-color images are refreshed at 480 frames per second. In order to transmit such a high frame-rate signal via conventional 120-Hz DVI, we have introduced a spatiotemporal mapping of image signal. A processor of LED image signal and FPGAs in LED modules have been reprogrammed so that four adjacent pixels in the input image are converted into successive four fields. The pitch of LED panel is 20 mm. The developed 480-fps LED display is utilized for stereoscopic 3D display by use of parallax barrier. The horizontal resolution of a viewed image decreases to one-half by the parallax barrier. This degradation is critical for LED because the pitch of LED displays is as large as tens of times of other flat panel displays. We have conducted experiments to improve quality of the viewed image through the parallax barrier. The improvement is based on interpolation by afterimages. It is shown that the HFR LED provides detailed afterimages. Furthermore, the HFR LED has been utilized for unconscious imaging, which provide a sensation of discovery of conscious visual information from unconscious images.

  17. Competing Technologies and Industry Evolution: The Benefits of Making Mistakes in the Flat Panel Display Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Eggers, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Managers at firms facing uncertain competing technologies evolving concurrently face a complex decision set, including options to invest in one technology or other, both technologies, or to wait to invest. This study investigates the role that experience, learning and timing play in affecting the firm-level pros and cons of each of these four strategies in a technological competition situation. Using a unique data set on the evolution of the global flat panel display industry, this study offe...

  18. Attenuated phase-shift mask (PSM) blanks for flat panel display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Kagehiro; Mochizuki, Satoru; Yamakawa, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Shigeru

    2015-10-01

    The fine pattern exposure techniques are required for Flat Panel display applications as smart phone, tablet PC recently. The attenuated phase shift masks (PSM) are being used for ArF and KrF photomask lithography technique for high end pattern Semiconductor applications. We developed CrOx based large size PSM blanks that has good uniformity on optical characteristics for FPD applications. We report the basic optical characteristics and uniformity, stability data of large sized CrOx PSM blanks.

  19. Human health and ecological toxicity potentials due to heavy metal content in waste electronic devices with flat panel displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2010-05-15

    Display devices such as cathode-ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer monitors are known to contain toxic substances and have consequently been banned from disposal in landfills in the State of California and elsewhere. New types of flat panel display (FPD) devices, millions of which are now purchased each year, also contain toxic substances, but have not previously been systematically studied and compared to assess the potential impact that could result from their ultimate disposal. In the current work, the focus is on the evaluation of end-of-life toxicity potential from the heavy metal content in select FPD devices with the intent to inform material selection and design-for-environment (DfE) decisions. Specifically, the metals antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc in plasma TVs, LCD (liquid crystal display) TVs, LCD computer monitors and laptop computers are considered. The human health and ecotoxicity potentials are evaluated through a life cycle assessment perspective by combining data on the respective heavy metal contents, the characterization factors in the U.S. EPA Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI), and a pathway and impact model. Principal contributors to the toxicity potentials are lead, arsenic, copper, and mercury. Although the heavy metal content in newer flat panel display devices creates less human health toxicity potential than that in CRTs, for ecological toxicity, the new devices are worse, especially because of the mercury in LCD TVs and the copper in plasma TVs.

  20. Human health and ecological toxicity potentials due to heavy metal content in waste electronic devices with flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seong-Rin [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, 2017 Kemper Hall, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Schoenung, Julie M., E-mail: jmschoenung@ucdavis.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, 2017 Kemper Hall, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Display devices such as cathode-ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer monitors are known to contain toxic substances and have consequently been banned from disposal in landfills in the State of California and elsewhere. New types of flat panel display (FPD) devices, millions of which are now purchased each year, also contain toxic substances, but have not previously been systematically studied and compared to assess the potential impact that could result from their ultimate disposal. In the current work, the focus is on the evaluation of end-of-life toxicity potential from the heavy metal content in select FPD devices with the intent to inform material selection and design-for-environment (DfE) decisions. Specifically, the metals antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc in plasma TVs, LCD (liquid crystal display) TVs, LCD computer monitors and laptop computers are considered. The human health and ecotoxicity potentials are evaluated through a life cycle assessment perspective by combining data on the respective heavy metal contents, the characterization factors in the U.S. EPA Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI), and a pathway and impact model. Principal contributors to the toxicity potentials are lead, arsenic, copper, and mercury. Although the heavy metal content in newer flat panel display devices creates less human health toxicity potential than that in CRTs, for ecological toxicity, the new devices are worse, especially because of the mercury in LCD TVs and the copper in plasma TVs.

  1. Visual and ocular effects from the use of flat-panel displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Porcar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of eye symptoms in a non-presbyopic population of video display unit (VDU users with flat-panel displays. METHODS: One hundred and sixteen VDU users with flat-panel display from an urban population participated in the study; their ages ranging from 20 to 34y. There were 60 females and 56 males. An eye examination to rule out the presence of significant uncorrected refractive errors, general binocular dysfunctions and eye conditions was carried out. In order to determine and quantify the type and nature of eye symptoms, participants were asked to answer written questionnaire and the results were grouped by gender, age and number of hours a day spent using a VDU. RESULTS: Seventy-two percent of participants reported eye symptoms related to VDU use. Eye symptoms from moderate-to-severe were found in 23% of participants. The main symptom was moderate-to-severe tired eyes (14%; followed by sensitivity to bright lights (12%, blurred vision at far distances (10%, eyestrain or dry eye or irritated or burning eyes (9%, difficulty in refocusing from one distance to another or headache (8% and blurred vision at near or intermediate distances (<4%. Eye symptoms were greater among females (P=0.005 and increased with VDU use, markedly above 6h spent using a VDU in a typical day (P=0.01. CONCLUSION: Significant eye symptoms relate to VDU use often occur and should not be underestimated. The increasing use of electronic devices with flat-panel display should prompt users to take appropriate measures to prevent or to relieve the eye symptoms arising from their use.

  2. Visual and ocular effects from the use of flat-panel displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcar, Esteban; Pons, Alvaro M; Lorente, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of eye symptoms in a non-presbyopic population of video display unit (VDU) users with flat-panel displays. One hundred and sixteen VDU users with flat-panel display from an urban population participated in the study; their ages ranging from 20 to 34y. There were 60 females and 56 males. An eye examination to rule out the presence of significant uncorrected refractive errors, general binocular dysfunctions and eye conditions was carried out. In order to determine and quantify the type and nature of eye symptoms, participants were asked to answer written questionnaire and the results were grouped by gender, age and number of hours a day spent using a VDU. Seventy-two percent of participants reported eye symptoms related to VDU use. Eye symptoms from moderate-to-severe were found in 23% of participants. The main symptom was moderate-to-severe tired eyes (14%); followed by sensitivity to bright lights (12%), blurred vision at far distances (10%), eyestrain or dry eye or irritated or burning eyes (9%), difficulty in refocusing from one distance to another or headache (8%) and blurred vision at near or intermediate distances (<4%). Eye symptoms were greater among females (P=0.005) and increased with VDU use, markedly above 6h spent using a VDU in a typical day (P=0.01). Significant eye symptoms relate to VDU use often occur and should not be underestimated. The increasing use of electronic devices with flat-panel display should prompt users to take appropriate measures to prevent or to relieve the eye symptoms arising from their use.

  3. Curved Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Matrix Displays Driven by Field-Sequential-Color and Active-Matrix Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Sato, Hiroto; Murashige, Takeshi; Fujisaki, Yoshihide; Kurita, Taiichiro; Furukawa, Tadahiro; Sato, Fumio

    This paper describes a curved field-sequential-color matrix display using fast-response ferroelectric liquid crystal. Black matrix and transparent electrode patterns were formed on a thin plastic substrate by a transfer method from a glass substrate. While a composite film of liquid crystal and micro-polymers of walls and fibers was formed between the flexible substrates by printing, laminating and curing processes of a solution of monomers and liquid crystal, the mechanical stability was enhanced by use of multi-functional monomers to form large display panels. The image pixels of the matrix panel were driven by an active matrix scheme using an external switch transistor array at a frequency of 180 Hz for intermittent three-primary-color backlight illumination. The flexible A4-paper-sized color display with 24 × 16 pixels and 60 Hz field frequency was demonstrated by illuminating it with sequential three-primary-color lights from light-emitting diodes of the backlight. Our display system is useful in various information displays because of its freedom of setting and location.

  4. Green backlighting for TV liquid crystal display using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepierre, Gabriel; Mahfouz, Rami; Cadete Santos Aires, Francisco J.; Dijon, Jean

    2010-08-01

    A methodology to evaluate the emission characteristics of carbon nanotube layers in the context of liquid crystal display backlighting has been elaborated. Carbon nanotube layers with emission characteristics compatible with backlighting have been demonstrated for growth temperature as low as 400 °C, thanks to the use of plasma pretreatment before growth. This very low growth temperature allows to use soda lime glass for the backlight unit and thus to expect very low cost and very low power consumption devices with this technology.

  5. Electrophoretic Carb on Nanotub e Field Emission Layer for Plasma Display Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qifa Liu; Zhuoqing Yang; Yan Wang; Guifu Ding∗

    2012-01-01

    A carbon-nanotube (CNT) electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process has been developed to pre-pare a field emission layer in plasma display panels (PDP) for discharge voltage reduction. The CNT layer as a source of discharge priming electrons has been fabricated on the PDP front panel. The balling grinding, mix-acid treatment and EPD parameters have been investigated in order to obtain good uniformity and ex-cellent field emission capability of CNT layer, in order to meet the specifications of CNTs in PDP cell. The measured turn-on field was around 1.1 V/µm in the field emission testing while the minimum sustaining voltage was decreased by 30∼40 V with the use of CNT layer in the discharge testing.

  6. Fast-response liquid crystal display by the VA-IPS display mode with nematic liquid crystal and polymer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tien-Jung; Lin, Guan-Jhong; Chen, Bo-Yu; Wu, Jin-Jei; Yang, Ying-Jay

    2012-10-01

    To improve electrooptical characteristics of the vertical aligned (VA) liquid crystal displays (LCDs), the monomer material and in-plane switching (IPS) field produced by interdigital electrodes are employed in LC cells. The fast switching response and well optical transmittance of the VA-IPS display mode are successfully achieved by mixing the nematic LC with polymer networks, attributed to the surface anchoring, and the molecular orientation of the LC cell will be further governed, especially under the greater applied voltage. Furthermore, the high concentration doping of the monomer can effectively improve the response behavior, but it also results in the transmittance sacrificed due to the light scattering, and the threshold voltage (Vth) increased.

  7. Temporal properties of liquid crystal displays: implications for vision science experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Elze

    Full Text Available Liquid crystal displays (LCD are currently replacing the previously dominant cathode ray tubes (CRT in most vision science applications. While the properties of the CRT technology are widely known among vision scientists, the photometric and temporal properties of LCDs are unfamiliar to many practitioners. We provide the essential theory, present measurements to assess the temporal properties of different LCD panel types, and identify the main determinants of the photometric output. Our measurements demonstrate that the specifications of the manufacturers are insufficient for proper display selection and control for most purposes. Furthermore, we show how several novel display technologies developed to improve fast transitions or the appearance of moving objects may be accompanied by side-effects in some areas of vision research. Finally, we unveil a number of surprising technical deficiencies. The use of LCDs may cause problems in several areas in vision science. Aside from the well-known issue of motion blur, the main problems are the lack of reliable and precise onsets and offsets of displayed stimuli, several undesirable and uncontrolled components of the photometric output, and input lags which make LCDs problematic for real-time applications. As a result, LCDs require extensive individual measurements prior to applications in vision science.

  8. Pixel-level tunable liquid crystal lenses for auto-stereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Robertson, Brian; Pivnenko, Mike; Chu, Daping; Zhou, Jiong; Yao, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Mobile video and gaming are now widely used, and delivery of a glass-free 3D experience is of both research and development interest. The key drawbacks of a conventional 3D display based on a static lenticular lenslet array and parallax barriers are low resolution, limited viewing angle and reduced brightness, mainly because of the need of multiple-pixels for each object point. This study describes the concept and performance of pixel-level cylindrical liquid crystal (LC) lenses, which are designed to steer light to the left and right eye sequentially to form stereo parallax. The width of the LC lenses can be as small as 20-30 μm, so that the associated auto-stereoscopic display will have the same resolution as the 2D display panel in use. Such a thin sheet of tunable LC lens array can be applied directly on existing mobile displays, and can deliver 3D viewing experience while maintaining 2D viewing capability. Transparent electrodes were laser patterned to achieve the single pixel lens resolution, and a high birefringent LC material was used to realise a large diffraction angle for a wide field of view. Simulation was carried out to model the intensity profile at the viewing plane and optimise the lens array based on the measured LC phase profile. The measured viewing angle and intensity profile were compared with the simulation results.

  9. Temporal properties of liquid crystal displays: implications for vision science experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Tobias; Tanner, Thomas G

    2012-01-01

    Liquid crystal displays (LCD) are currently replacing the previously dominant cathode ray tubes (CRT) in most vision science applications. While the properties of the CRT technology are widely known among vision scientists, the photometric and temporal properties of LCDs are unfamiliar to many practitioners. We provide the essential theory, present measurements to assess the temporal properties of different LCD panel types, and identify the main determinants of the photometric output. Our measurements demonstrate that the specifications of the manufacturers are insufficient for proper display selection and control for most purposes. Furthermore, we show how several novel display technologies developed to improve fast transitions or the appearance of moving objects may be accompanied by side-effects in some areas of vision research. Finally, we unveil a number of surprising technical deficiencies. The use of LCDs may cause problems in several areas in vision science. Aside from the well-known issue of motion blur, the main problems are the lack of reliable and precise onsets and offsets of displayed stimuli, several undesirable and uncontrolled components of the photometric output, and input lags which make LCDs problematic for real-time applications. As a result, LCDs require extensive individual measurements prior to applications in vision science.

  10. Effect of gold nanorods in an MgO protective layer of AC plasma display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seok Ho; Lee, Seong Min; Kim, Woo Hyun; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2015-04-15

    We propose a modified MgO protective layer for alternating current plasma display panels. The modified MgO protective layer of the panel tested here has a structure that incorporates silica-coated Au nanorods (NRs), leading to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the near-infrared (IR) region. The silica-coated Au NRs were synthesized by a simple chemical method and inserted into an MgO protective layer using an air-spray method. The operating voltage of the proposed structure was decreased by 10 V. The luminance and luminous efficacy of the test panel part with the silica-coated Au NRs both increased by about 15%. According to the measured results of the IR response time, the sustain discharge time lag was reduced. In addition, by inserting the silica-coated Au NRs into the MgO protective layer, a decrease of the IR emission proceeding from the plasma discharge was acquired. Finally, we investigated the LSPR effect of the silica-coated Au NRs in a simulation with a finite-difference time domain method.

  11. A Monte-Carlo Model of Partially Trapped UV Radiation in a Plasma Display Panel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straaten, Trudy; Kushner, Mark J.

    1999-10-01

    Plasma Display Panels (PDPs) are being developed for large-area high-brightness flat panel displays. Color PDP cells generally use xenon gas mixtures to generate UV photons that are converted to visible light by phosphors. While the UV photons produced by Xe(6s'-5s5p6, 6s-5s5p6) are only in a quasi-optically thick regime due to the small dimensions (100s μms) of PDP cells, current models of PDPs do not explicitly address UV radiation transport other than by using radiation trapping factors. In this paper we report on results from a two-dimensional hybrid simulation of a PDP cell which models radiation transport using Monte Carlo (MC) photon transport and frequency redistribution algorithms. We examine the spectrum of UV photons incident on the phosphor and their escape probability. For typical operating conditions (400 Torr, 1-4% Xe mole fraction) there is significant frequency redistribution of resonance radiation due to absorption and subsequent re-emission at a different frequency within the lineshape. Significant line reversal occurs at Xe mole fractions of a few percent, the degree of which depends on PDP cell dimensions. The escape probability generally decreases during the current pulse due to additional quenching by electron impact processes.

  12. An Adaptive Algorithm of Local dimming for Liquid Crystal Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxia Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The local dimming backlight technique enables liquid crystal display to present images with high contrast ratio and low power consumption. Considering that it is more important to make sure a high quality of the displayed image when reducing the power consumption, therefore, in this paper the new algorithm chooses RPSNR (the peak signal-to-noise ratio =30 as the lowest standard to guarantee the quality of image. RPSNR =30 could provide a value that the maximum distortion of the image can be accepted, then, we substitute the maximum gray level of each region into the formula to judge whether satisfy the flow chart. If the value do not meet the condition, we decrease it one by one until find the right value. Finally, we take the luminance of the right value as backlight luminance.   Meanwhile, a method is also proposed in this paper to simplify the calculation time. Successive searches will be made on the basis of the n (ranging from 0.1 to 1 times of the maximum luminance, and stop when RPSNR>=30. However, in order to guarantee the quality of the image, the 0.7 times of the maximum luminance is used as the minimum backlight luminance. In the end, we only choose 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 times of the maximum luminance as backlight luminance.

  13. Optical studies of E-beam evaporated MgO films for plasma display panels

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S I; Oh, S G

    1999-01-01

    Variable-incident-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used for non-destructive depth profiling of MgO thin films, one of the key elements of plasma display panels. We have found that all the examined MgO films have a three-layer structure with a dense interface layer , a void-included middle layer, and a surface layer. We have also found that the void fraction is increased with the oxygen-flow rate at a fixed substrate temperature and decreased with the substrate temperature at a fixed oxygen-flow rate. Moreover, discuss the close correlation between the water adsorption and the void fraction and show a general agreement between the surface layer thickness and the mean height determined by using a atomic force microscopy.

  14. Effect of Acid Dissolution Conditions on Recovery of Valuable Metals from Used Plasma Display Panel Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chan-Mi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this particular study was to recover valuable metals from waste plasma display panels using high energy ball milling with subsequent acid dissolution. Dissolution of milled (PDP powder was studied in HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4 acidic solutions. The effects of dissolution acid, temperature, time, and PDP scrap powder to acid ratio on the leaching process were investigated and the most favorable conditions were found: (1 valuable metals (In, Ag, Mg were recovered from PDP powder in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl:H2O = 50:50; (2 the optimal dissolution temperature and time for the valuable metals were found to be 60°C and 30 min, respectively; (3 the ideal PDP scrap powder to acid solution ratio was found to be 1:10. The proposed method was applied to the recovery of magnesium, silver, and indium with satisfactory results.

  15. Study on Birefringent Color Generation for a Reflective Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyukh, Sergiy; Valyukh, Iryna; Xu, Peizhi; Chigrinov, Vladimir

    2006-10-01

    We study the possibility of a layer of a surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal coupled with several retardation plates for birefringent color generation. Double and single polarizer reflective bistable dichromatic ferroelectric liquid crystal displays are considered. We demonstrate that one or two retardation plates are sufficient for a display having good color characteristics and high brightness. Optimal parameters for green/red and blue/yellow ferroelectric liquid crystal displays are found.

  16. Micropatterning with a liquid crystal display (LCD) projector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoga, Kazuyoshi; Kobayashi, Jun; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    Photolithography has been applied to biological applications such as cell and protein micropatterning and the fabrication of microfluidic channels. However, the preparation of photomasks for projecting micropattern lighting images is often time consuming and costly. Therefore, we have developed maskless photolithography devices by modifying the optics of commercially available liquid crystal display (LCD) projectors from extended to reduced projection. The developed second and third devices produce practically a centimeter-scale micropattern by dividing an original large mask pattern into several patterns, which are individually and synchronously exposed to substrates with a motorized XY-stage, applying them to cell micropatterning and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device production. The first part of this chapter describes the developments of the maskless photolithography devices. The second part describes the exposure control system with a motorized XY-stage. The third part describes the applications of devices to cell micropatterning. The last part describes the application of the devices to the fabrication of the PDMS microfluidic channel. Maskless photolithography with an LCD projector has a large advantage with no requirement for a photomask. In particular, the maskless photolithography devices show a greater power by optimizing the conditions of pattern size and shape.

  17. Intense red-emitting Y4Al2O9:Eu3+ phosphor with short decay time and high color purity for advanced plasma display panel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yadav, Ravishanker; Khan, Atif F; Yadav, Ashish; Chander, Harish; Haranath, Divi; Gupta, Bipin Kr; Shanker, Virendra; Chawla, Santa

    2009-01-01

    ...) excitations has been developed for application in next generation plasma display panels (PDPs). The developed phosphor has better luminescence efficiency, colour purity and shorter decay time than commercial...

  18. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... PRODUCTS INTENDED FOR ORAL INGESTION THAT CONTAIN ALCOHOL Labeling § 328.50 Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. (a) The amount (percentage) of...

  19. Breakdown Voltage Research of Penning Gas Mixture in Plasma Display Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Bingang; Liu Chunliang; Song Zhongxiao; Fan Yufeng; Xia Xing; Liu Liu; Fan Duowang

    2005-01-01

    Paschen law and equations, which ignore the influence of the Penning ionization on the electron ionization coefficient (α), are always used as the approximation of the breakdown voltage criterion of the Penning gas mixture in current researches of discharge characteristics of the plasma display panel (PDP). It is doubtful that whether their results match the facts. Based on the Townsend gas self-sustaining discharge condition and the chemical kinetics analysis of the Penning gas mixture discharging in PDP, the empirical equation to describe the breakdown of the Penning gas mixture is given. It is used to calculate the breakdown voltage curves of Ne-Xe/MgO and Ne-Ar/MgO in a testing macroscopic discharge cell of AC-PDP. The effective secondary electron emission coefficients (γeff) of the MgO protective layers are derived by comparing the breakdown voltage curves obtained from the empirical equation with the experimental data of breakdown voltages. In comparison with the results calculated by the Paschen law and the equation which ignore the influence of the Penning ionization on α , the results calculated by the empirical equation have better conformity with experimental data. The empirical equation characterizes the breakdown of the Penning gas mixture in PDP effectively, and gives a convenient way to study its breakdown characteristics and the secondary electron emission behaviors.

  20. Bending Characteristics of Foldable Touch Display Panel with a Protection Structure Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Chie Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes and demonstrates an enhancement of a touch display panel (TDP through a polymer-based protection structure to achieve higher bendability and reliability. The bending performance of the TDP without or with the protection structure designs is addressed using three-dimensional geometry-nonlinear finite element analysis and mechanical testing. The elastic properties of the components in the TDP structure are derived from nanoindentation and uniaxial tensile/compressive testing. The calculated results are compared with each other and also against the experimental bending fatigue test data. At last, a design guideline and optimal factor setting for enhanced bending performance are sought through parametric FE analysis and Taguchi experimental design, respectively. The optimal design is compared with the original in terms of bending stress. The simulation results show that bending would create significant tensile and compressive bending stresses on the indium tin oxide/dielectric layers, which are the main cause of several commonly observed failures, such as thin film cracking and delamination, in a thin rigid film coating on a thick compliant substrate. It also turns out that a substrate with a lower stiffness has a better mechanical stability against bending stress.

  1. Multi-cusp ion source for doping process of flat panel display manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inouchi, Yutaka, E-mail: inouchi-yutaka@nissin.co.jp; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Dohi, Shojiro; Tanii, Masahiro; Takahashi, Genki; Nishimura, Ippei; Tatemichi, Junichi; Konishi, Masashi; Naito, Masao [FPD Machine Business Center, Nissin Ion Equipment Co., Ltd., Shiga 528-0068 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    We developed a multi-cusp ion source for Nissin ion doping system iG5 which is used in low temperature poly-crystalline silicon processes for flat panel display (FPD) manufacturing. In this ion source, BF{sub 3} or PH{sub 3} diluted H{sub 2} plasmas are produced and large area ribbon ion beams are extracted. In general, ion ratio of B{sup +} in BF{sub 3} plasma is much smaller than BF{sub 2}{sup +} in multi-cusp ion sources. We developed a new method to increase B{sup +} ratio and obtained mass analyzed B{sup +} target current of 130 mA. We employed newly improved multi-slot type electrodes for the beam extraction system and obtained stable beams with the uniformity of below 3%. In BF{sub 3} plasmas, several undesirable metal fluorides are produced in the plasma chamber and deposited on the electrode system, which cause glitches and poor beam uniformity. We introduce several cleaning methods.

  2. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field/R and D high performance flat panel display technology (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium energy bun`ya / koseino flat panel display gijutsu no sogo kaihatsu kenkyu (daiichi nendo ) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    One of the subjects in technology supporting the highly information-oriented society which will develop and diversify toward the 21st century is the construction of high grade man/machine interface. For it, high precision/high luminance/energy saving/thin plane displays are strongly requested. This R and D is to indicate models of systematical development in the region of element technology individually existing in the Shikoku area by forming a regional consortium in the industry/universities/government. Creation of new industries by gathering display related enterprises is a first step in a plan to realize `Display Island Shikoku.` As a concrete target, with the use of high-tech diamond semiconducting technology, a development is conducted of the high performance flat panel display using the negative electron affinity (NEA) electron emitter which drastically solves the problems such as luminance, visibility angle and response speed, the subjects on the commercialized liquid crystal flat panel display. 16 refs., 45 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Su; Bos, Philip J.; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yang, Deng-Ke; Lee, Joong Hee; Lee, Seung Hee

    2016-10-01

    Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but linear flexoelectric effect. Despite of the urgent requirement of solving the issue, understanding of such a phenomenon is yet vague. Here, we thoroughly analyze and firstly report the flexoelectric effect in in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell. The effect takes place on the area above electrodes due to splay and bend deformations of nematic liquid crystal along oblique electric fields, so that the obvious spatial shift of the optical transmittance is experimentally observed and is clearly demonstrated based on the relation between direction of flexoelectric polarization and electric field polarity. In addition, we report that the IPS mode has inherent characteristics to solve the image-flickering issue in the low-power consumption display in terms of the physical property of liquid crystal material and the electrode structure.

  4. An electrochemical study of a liquid crystal used in information displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, D. M.; Kern, J. B.; Robertson, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    The operational lifetime of liquid crystal displays were investigated. Electrochemical reaction at the electrodes of the display can cause failure after 2000 to 3000 hours of operation. Studies using cyclic voltametry of electrochemical reactions of N (p-methoxybenzilidene p-butylaniline (MBBA), a nematic liquid crystal were made. These studies indicate the presence of a reversible reduction of MBBA at the cathode, and that the reduction product undergoes a further reaction leading to products which are not reversibly oxidized. It is concluded that the degradation of the liquid crystal in displays can be reduced with a suitable frequency of alternating voltage.

  5. Use of personal digital assistants for retrieval of medical images and data on high-resolution flat panel displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman; McCoy, J Michael; McGill, D Ric; Li, Minglin; Brown, Allen

    2003-01-01

    For its new acute care hospital, the University of California at Los Angeles is evaluating innovative technology involving high-resolution flat panel display devices configured as "network appliances" that can be wall mounted for use in the retrieval and display of medical images and data. Physicians and healthcare providers can log on with wireless handheld computers, which can serve as an identification device as well as a navigational tool for selecting patient records and data. These data are displayed and manipulated on the flat panel display without the need for a keyboard or mouse. A prototype was developed with commercially available image display software, which was modified to allow the remote control of software functions from a handheld device through an infrared communication port. The system also allows navigation through the patient data in a World Wide Web-based electronic patient record. This prototype illustrates the evolution of radiologic facilities toward "shareable" high-quality display devices that allow more convenient and cost-effective access to medical images and related data in complex clinical environments, resulting in a paradigm shift in data navigation and accessibility.

  6. Two-dimensional model of an AC plasma display panel cell in a neon-xenon mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeuf, J.P.; Pitchford, L.C. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-31

    We present a 2-D fluid model of an AC plasma display panel cell. Plasma Display Panels (PDP) are flat display devices where the light of each picture element is emitted from a plasma created by an electric discharge. In the simplest electrode configuration, AC plasma display panels consist of two glass plates, each with parallel electrodes deposited on their surfaces. The electrodes are covered with a dielectric film above which a protective MgO layer is deposited. The plates are sealed together with their electrodes at right angles, and the cap between the plates is filled with a rare gas mixture. An electric discharge can be initiated in the gas cap by applying a voltage pulse between a line electrode and a column electrode. This discharge is transient due to the dielectric layers covering the electrode: the charges deposited on the dielectric surfaces induce in the gas cap a voltage which opposes the electrode voltage. Since the electrode voltage is AC (frequency in the 10-100 kHz range), a discharge is initiated each time the electrode voltage changes sign (the voltage across the dielectric layers adds to the electrode voltage when it changes sign). The {open_quotes}ON{close_quotes} state of a picture element is therefore a succession of transient discharges. In color displays, the UV light of the discharge is used to excite phosphors in the three fundamental colors (at least three discharge cells are used for one pixel of the screen). Neon-xenon or helium-xenon mixtures are generally used in color displays where photons emitted by excited atomic (147 nm) and molecular (150 nm and 173 nm) xenon are used to excite the phosphors.

  7. Controllable liquid crystal gratings for an adaptive 2D/3D auto-stereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. A.; Jin, T.; He, L. C.; Chu, Z. H.; Guo, T. L.; Zhou, X. T.; Lin, Z. X.

    2017-02-01

    2D/3D switchable, viewpoint controllable and 2D/3D localizable auto-stereoscopic displays based on controllable liquid crystal gratings are proposed in this work. Using the dual-layer staggered structure on the top substrate and bottom substrate as driven electrodes within a liquid crystal cell, the ratio between transmitting region and shielding region can be selectively controlled by the corresponding driving circuit, which indicates that 2D/3D switch and 3D video sources with different disparity images can reveal in the same auto-stereoscopic display system. Furthermore, the controlled region in the liquid crystal gratings presents 3D model while other regions maintain 2D model in the same auto-stereoscopic display by the corresponding driving circuit. This work demonstrates that the controllable liquid crystal gratings have potential applications in the field of auto-stereoscopic display.

  8. 77 FR 3793 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and Components Thereof; Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission...

  9. 77 FR 5055 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Determination Not To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Determination Not To Review Initial Determination Granting Joint Motion To Terminate Based on Settlement Agreement...

  10. 77 FR 45375 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Terminating the Investigation as...

  11. Evaluation of improved efficiency with a diamond coating for a plasma display panel electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kato, Tomokazu; Hatori, Tadatsugu; Hashiguchi, Seishiro

    2003-05-01

    Application of diamond to electrode coating of a plasma display panel (PDP) is evaluated, since we expect diamond to emit much secondary electron due to the Auger neutralization induced by Xe ions. In a conventional magnesium oxide-xenon (MgO/Xe) system, the most abundant Xe+ produced in the discharge does not effectively cause the secondary electron emission, because the condition of the Auger neutralization is not satisfied. In order to increase the efficiency of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, being especially important for engineering, we should avoid such inefficiency. Under suitable conditions in diamond/Xe system the Auger neutralization can occur. Further, if the electron affinity χ is negative, i.e., negative electron affinity (NEA), the condition of the Auger neutralization in diamond/Xe system is sufficiently satisfied. First, we calculate the coefficients of the secondary electron emission on diamond of clean surface or of hydrogenated surface where the dangling bonds are terminated, on the basis of the Hagstrum model. If the NEA with the electron affinity χ=-0.5 is realized, the high ion-induced secondary electron coefficients such as γXe=0.25 and γNe=0.32 are obtained. Next, we carry out a one-dimensional fluid simulation of the electric discharge in which the two secondary electron emission coefficients of Ne and Xe obtained theoretically are set. Results are presented with changing the sustaining voltage, the fraction of Xe, and the duration of the zero-voltage phase. For 10%Xe mixture, it is shown that the efficiency of UV radiation in the diamond coating increases two times higher than that in the MgO coating. An unnecessarily spontaneous breakdown during the zero-voltage phase, which is peculiar to high secondary electron emission materials, is observed. A mechanism of the breakdown is discussed and means to suppress it are proposed. Taking the zero-voltage phase short and increasing the fraction of Xe up to 50%, in comparison with MgO, a maximum

  12. Modeling the Color Image and Video Quality on Liquid Crystal Displays with Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Objective image and video quality metrics focus mostly on the digital representation of the signal. However, the display characteristics are also essential for the overall Quality of Experience (QoE). In this paper, we use a model of a backlight dimming system for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD...

  13. Polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal for flexible displays using plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Murashige, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroto; Iino, Yoshiki; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Kawakita, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Yuzuru

    2001-12-01

    We have developed a ferroelectric liquid crystal device with a novel structure containing a polymer fiber network for flexible lightweight displays using thin plastic substrates. The aligned polymer fibers of sub-micrometers -diameter were formed under ultraviolet light irradiation in a heated nematic- phase solution consisting of liquid crystal and monofunctional acrylate monomer. The rigid polymer network was found to adhere to the two plastic substrates, and the uniform liquid crystal alignment provided a contrast ratio of 100:1 for a monomer concentration of 20 wt%. This device achieves a continuous grayscale capability as a result of change in the spatial distribution of small liquid crystal domains, and also exhibits a fast response time of 80 microsecond(s) due to high-purity separation of polymer and liquid crystal materials. It therefore has attractive features for flexible moving-image display applications.

  14. Charge retention of twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, K. H.

    1990-01-01

    A simulated thin-film transistor (TFT) circuit has been built to drive the twisted nematic (TN) cell for the measurements of charge retention and the transmission versus peak voltage applied to the drain electrode of the simulated TFT using the gate pulse width as a parameter. The established rule that the transmission of the TN cell depends only on the rms voltage applied to the cell has been confirmed by calculating the rms voltage of the charge retention curves in correlation with the measured transmissions. The deviation of the decaying charge retention curves from the exponential behavior has been observed and can be qualitatively explained by a combination of the dielectric and transport properties of nematic liquid-crystal medium.

  15. Liquid crystal cell design of VGA field sequential color LCoS display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Geng, Weidong; Dai, Yongping

    2009-07-01

    The design of liquid crystal cell is an important factor to determine the display quality of LCoS display device. The goal of this paper is to gain VGA field sequential color (FSC) LCoS device used for near-to-eye system. The characteristics of optics and electrooptics for the twist nematic liquid crystal material and the material requirements of the FSC LCoS were studied. The LCOS liquid crystal cell optimized by dynamic parameter space method had an uniform reflectivity (about 90%) for the light with wave length from 450nm to 650nm. Both considering the electrooptic response curve of liquid crystal and the relationship between the contrast ratio and pixel size, we determined to use high speed twist nematic liquid crystal working in normally white mode. The liquid crystal cell gap and the pixel size were determined as 2.5um and 12um, respectively. The VGA FSC LCoS device was fabricated with SMIC 0.35um CMOS process and filled with LC-A liquid crystal of Merck in Varitronix. The measurement showed that the response time of liquid crystal from light to dark was 1.8ms and from dark to light was 4.4ms. The contrast ratio is bigger than 50:1. The LCoS displays well.

  16. Handbook of display technology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Joseph A

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  17. Time-multiplexed three-dimensional displays based on directional backlights with fast-switching liquid-crystal displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Ko-Wei; Shieh, Han-Ping D

    2006-05-01

    An autostereoscopic display using a directional backlight with a fast-switching liquid-crystal (LC) display was designed and fabricated to obtain a better perception of 3D images by enhanced resolution and brightness. A grooved light guide in combination with an asymmetric focusing foil was utilized to redirect the emitting cones of light to the left and right eyes, respectively. By designing the groove structures of the focusing foil with rotation from -1.5 degrees to 1.5 degrees in the gradient and having the pitch ratio of the grooved light guide to the focusing foil of less than 3, the boundary angle then shifts from normal viewing and the moiré phenomenon can be suppressed. Cross talk of less than 6% and a LC response time of faster than 7.1 ms further improve the stereoscopic image perception. Additionally, 2D-3D compatibility is provided.

  18. A NEW METHOD TO ALIGN LIQUID CRYSTAL MOLECULES BY LINEAR PHOTO-POLYMERIZATION FOR LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG ZHAO-YAN; FANG KUN; XUAN LI; HUANG XI-MIN; DING BAO-QUAN; LU RAN; ZHAO YING-YING

    2000-01-01

    A new technique to uniformly align liquid crystal molecules is presented.The technique is based on producing an anisotropic surface on the glass substrate coated with photo-polymers by photo-polymerization of linear polarized UVlight.The orientation of liquid crystal molecules is governed by the direction of the polarized vector of UV-light.Using this method,we have studied the photo-polymer PSi-CM aligning LC 6710A molecules.The liquid crystal microscopic texture between crossed polarizers,optical retardation from liquid crystal layers and electro-optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal display cell are obtained,which was prepared with one side -photo-alignment and the other siderebbed substrate.

  19. Reduction of image blurring in an autostereoscopic multilayer liquid crystal display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hironobu

    2011-03-01

    A multilayer liquid crystal display (LCD) is a display device constructed by stacking multiple liquid crystal layers on top of a light source. As shown in a previous study, a multilayer LCD can deliver varying images depending on the viewers'eye positions, and can be used for auto-stereoscopic 3D viewing. However, undesirable blurring is sometimes observed in the images that a viewer receives from the display. Such blurring is notable especially around objects in the scene that are far away from the viewer. To address this problem, we propose to put a convex lens in front of the layers of liquid crystal. The lens refracts the beams of light, thus bringing the effects of moving the objects to nearer positions. Through a simulation-based study, we show that an optimal choice exists for the focal length of the lens, which reduces the local image blurring while not compromising the overall image quality.

  20. Phase separation of monomer in liquid crystal mixtures and surface morphology in polymer-stabilized vertical alignment liquid crystal displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jae Jin; Lee, Jun Hyup; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon [Development Center, LCD Business, SAMSUNG Electronics Co. LTD., Tangjeong-Myeon, Asan, Chungnam 336-741 (Korea, Republic of); Kikuchi, Hirotsuku; Higuchi, Hiroki [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Kim, Dae Hyun; Lee, Seung Hee, E-mail: jsquare.lyu@samsung.com, E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of BIN Fusion Technology and Department of Polymer-Nano Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-17

    The polymer-stabilized vertically aligned (PS-VA) liquid crystal display (LCD) driving mode has high potential for manufacturing low power consuming displays due to the higher transmittance and fast response as compared with the existing patterned vertically aligned and multi-domain vertically aligned modes. In this paper we have investigated the reaction mechanisms of monomer-liquid crystal blends to form a surface pre-tilt angle of liquid crystal in vertical alignment LCD associated with a fishbone electrode structure. The observed sizes of polymer bumps formed on the substrates were found to be dependent on the exposed UV wavelength and were almost equal in both top and bottom substrates. When a large UV wavelength was used, the phase separation mechanism of monomer in PS-VA mode was found nearly isotropic rather than anisotropic in contrast to the previous studies.

  1. Integrated light-guide plates that can control the illumination angle for liquid crystal display backlight system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Di; Yang, Xingpeng; Jin, Guofan; Yan, Yingbai; Fan, Shoushan

    2006-01-01

    Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with edge-lit backlight systems offer several advantages, such as low energy consuming, low weight, and high uniformity of intensity, over traditional cathode-ray tube displays, and make them ideal for many applications including monitors in notebook personal computers, screens for TV, and many portable information terminals, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, etc. To satisfy market requirements for mobile and personal display panels, it is more and more necessary to modify the backlight system and make it thinner, lighter, and brighter all at once. In this paper, we have proposed a new integrated LGP based on periodic and aperiodic microprism structures by using polymethyl methacrylate material, which can be designed to control the illumination angle, and to get high uniformity of intensity. So the backlight system will be simplified to use only light sources and one LGP without using other optical sheets, such as reflection sheet, diffusion sheet and prism sheets. By using optimizing program and ray tracing method, the designed LGPs can achieve a uniformity of intensity better than 86%, and get a peak illumination angle from +400 to -200, without requiring other optical sheets. We have designed a backlight system with only one LED light source and one LGP, and other LGP design examples with different sizes (1.8 inches and 14.1 inches) and different light source (LED or CCFL), are performed also.

  2. Evaluation of the Pioneer PDP-502MX 4 x 3 Aspect Ratio, 50 Inch Diagonal Color Plasma Display Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    NIDL evaluated the thin, large screen, flat panel Pioneer 50 inch plasma display panel (PDP) to determine its usefulness to the display of images that are of interest to imagery analysts and GI specialists, As NIDL's ratings show, the Pioneer PDP-502MX is not going to be useful as the primary imagery analysis display on an IEC workstation, It fails many of the IEC requirements so we rate it "F" for IEC workstation monoscopic and stereo applications, Rather, its usefulness comes from its large, 50 inch diagonal size and its high pixel count for a PDP, up to 1280 x 768 pixels in the 16:9 and 1024 x 768 pixels in the 4:3 format, that could make it appropriate for group conference discussions, The Pioneer PDP-502MX has a relatively good gray scale capability; it can display 245 of 256 differences in input levels for a 7,94 bit depth, Its linearity surpasses that we have measured for CRT monitors, and comes about because of its precisely formed pixel structure, This pixel structure, like in LCD monitors, can have several non- operating pixels, It has a very high (exceeds 60% over the entire screen) and a very uniform 1-pixel-on/1-pixel-off contrast modulation for both the horizontal and vertical directions, The PDP can have a maximum luminance up to 40 fL for a small patch of white, and a minimum luminance of 0.2 fL For full screen white, its luminance is 18 fL, limited by internal circuitry to minimize panel heat generation and its luminance is more uniform than a CRT monitor, The reflectivity and the viewing angle are about the same as for a CRT monitor, It has a capability to do stereo imaging at 43 Hz per eye, which is on the borderline of visible flicker, and its dynamic range in stereo is good, The extinction ratio is poor, and is probably limited by the long persistence of the green phosphor, Most who have seen the Pioneer PDP-502MX would love to have one, at least for football games, The price is about 18,000.

  3. Fast-response liquid-crystal lens for 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifan; Ren, Hongwen; Xu, Su; Li, Yan; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2014-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) display has become an increasingly important technology trend for information display applications. Dozens of different 3D display solutions have been proposed. The autostereoscopic 3D display based on lenticular microlens array is a promising approach, and fast-switching microlens array enables this system to display both 3D and conventional 2D images. Here we report two different fast-response microlens array designs. The first one is a blue phase liquid crystal lens driven by the Pedot: PSS resistive film electrodes. This BPLC lens exhibits several attractive features, such as polarization insensitivity, fast response time, simple driving scheme, and relatively low driving voltage, as compared to other BPLC lens designs. The second lens design has a double-layered structure. The first layer is a polarization dependent polymer microlens array, and the second layer is a thin twisted-nematic (TN) liquid crystal cell. When the TN cell is switched on/off, the traversing light through the polymeric lens array is either focused or defocused, so that 2D/3D images are displayed correspondingly. This lens design has low driving voltage, fast response time, and simple driving scheme. Simulation and experiment demonstrate that the performance of both switchable lenses meet the requirement of 3D display system design.

  4. Bistable light shutter using dye-doped liquid crystals for a see-through display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jae-Won; Heo, Joon; Yu, Byeong-Huh; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2016-03-01

    See-through displays have got high attention as one of the next generation display devices. Especially, see-through displays that use organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been actively studied. However, a see-through display using OLEDs cannot provide black color because of their see-through area. Although a see-through display using LCDs can provide black color with crossed polarizers, it cannot block the background. This inevitable problem can be solved by placing a light shutter at the back of a see-through display. To maintain the transparent or opaque state, an electric field must be applied to a light shutter. To achieve low power consumption, a bistable light shutter using polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) has been proposed. It is switchable between the translucent and transparent states only. Therefore, it cannot provide black color. Moreover, it cannot block the background perfectly because of poor performance in the translucent state. In this work we will introduce a bistable light shutter using dye-doped CLCs. To improve the electro-optic characteristics in the opaque state, we employed a crossed electrode structure instead of a parallel one. We will demonstrate that the light shutter can exhibit stable bistable operation between the transparent homeotropic and opaque focal-conic states thanks to polymer stabilization.

  5. Fourier series analysis of fractal lenses: theory and experiments with a liquid-crystal display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey A; Sigarlaki, Sean P; Craven, Julia M; Calvo, María Luisa

    2006-02-20

    We report on a Fourier series approach that predicts the focal points and intensities produced by fractal zone plate lenses. This approach allows us to separate the effects of the fractal order from those of the lens aperture. We implement these fractal lenses onto a liquid-crystal display and show experimental verification of our theory.

  6. Searching for the preferred backlight intensity in liquid crystal displays with local backlight dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Local backlight dimming is one of the most promising techniques for reducing power consumption and improving contrast characteristics of liquid crystal displays (LCD). In practice, due to light diffusion and a smaller number of backlight sources than pixels, local backlight dimming must often trade...

  7. The development of self-assembled liquid crystal display alignment layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogboom, J.; Elemans, J.A.A.W.; Rowan, A.E.; Rasing, T.H.M.; Nolte, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    From simple pocket calculators to mobile telephones and liquid crystal display (LCD)-TV, over the past few decades, devices based on LCD technology have proliferated and can now be found in all conceivable aspects of everyday life. Although used in cutting-edge technology, it is surprising that a vi

  8. 77 FR 37067 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 119 (Wednesday, June 20, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 37067-37068] [FR Doc No: 2012-15005] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-741/749] Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components Thereof; Final...

  9. Technical and radiological image quality comparison of different liquid crystal displays for radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dams FE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francina EM Dams,2 KY Esther Leung,1 Pieter HM van der Valk,2 Marc CJM Kock,2 Jeroen Bosman,1 Sjoerd P Niehof1 1Medical Physics and Technology, 2Department of Radiology, Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Dordrecht, The Netherlands Background: To inform cost-effective decisions in purchasing new medical liquid crystal displays, we compared the image quality in displays made by three manufacturers. Methods: We recruited 19 radiologists and residents to compare the image quality of four liquid crystal displays, including 3-megapixel Barco®, Eizo®, and NEC® displays and a 6-megapixel Barco display. The evaluators were blinded to the manufacturers' names. Technical assessments were based on acceptance criteria and test patterns proposed by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Radiological assessments were performed on images from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 18. They included X-ray images of the thorax, knee, and breast, a computed tomographic image of the thorax, and a magnetic resonance image of the brain. Image quality was scored on an analog scale (range 0–10. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: The Barco 3-megapixel display passed all acceptance criteria. The Eizo and NEC displays passed the acceptance criteria, except for the darkest pixel value in the grayscale display function. The Barco 6-megapixel display failed criteria for the maximum luminance response and the veiling glare. Mean radiological assessment scores were 7.8±1.1 (Barco 3-megapixel, 7.8±1.2 (Eizo, 8.1±1.0 (NEC, and 8.1±1.0 (Barco 6-megapixel. No significant differences were found between displays. Conclusion: According to the tested criteria, all the displays had comparable image quality; however, there was a three-fold difference in price between the most and least expensive displays. Keywords: data display, humans, radiographic image enhancement, user-computer interface

  10. Fundamental display properties of flexible devices containing polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal between plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Murashige, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroto; Iino, Yoshiki; Kawakita, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Hiroshi

    2002-09-01

    We describe several fundamental display properties of a flexible ferroelectric liquid crystal device containing polymer fibers between thin plastic substrates. The composite film of liquid crystal and polymer was created from a solution of liquid crystal and monomer materials between the plastic substrates under ultraviolet light irradiation. The dynamic electrooptic response to analog voltage pulses was examined with an incidence of laser beam light, and its light modulation property exhibited good linearity in continuous gray-scale capability. The excellent spatial uniformity of liquid crystal alignment formed between the flexible substrates resulted in high-contrast light modulation, although slight spontaneous bending of liquid crystal alignment in the device plane was recognized. When the laser light beam was obliquely incident on the flexible display device, the measured transmittance revealed that the device has a wide viewing angle of more than 100 deg without contrast reversal. This is considered to be caused by the molecular switching in the device plane and the thin electrooptic layer in the display device.

  11. A Polarizer-free Liquid Crystal Display Using Dye-doped Liquid Crystal Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Yang, Jhih-Ming; Lin, Hung-Chun; Wu, Jing-Nuo

    2009-01-01

    In conclusion, we have introduced and demonstrated polarizer-free LCDs using dye-doped LC gels. These polarizer-free dye-doped LC gels exhibit high reflectance, high contrast ratio, wide viewing angle, and fast response time. Especially the low temperature process is favorable for flexible displays. The gel-like materials assist stabilizing the flexible display under trimming. Our dye-doped LC gels provide a stable LC mode and open a new window in paper-like flexible displays. A polarizer-fre...

  12. An experimental and numerical investigation of flat panel display cell using magnetic fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, J W; Park, S J; Lee, H S

    2002-01-01

    Optical and fluid dynamical properties of magnetic fluid have been studied experimentally and numerically using a test device with a water-base magnetite magnetic fluid. It has been found that the 3.5 mu m thick fluid film absorbs most of the incoming visible light and can be actuated fast enough to realize display devices. The computational simulation shows that the surface tension of the liquid plays the most dominant roles for the test device, and a device that can actuate the magnetic fluid magnetically is proposed.

  13. Introduction to grayscale calibration and related aspects of medical imaging grade liquid crystal displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterly, Kenneth A; Blume, Hartwig R; Flynn, Michael J; Samei, Ehsan

    2008-06-01

    Consistent presentation of digital radiographic images at all locations within a medical center can help ensure a high level of patient care. Currently, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are the electronic display technology of choice for viewing medical images. As the inherent luminance (and thereby perceived contrast) properties of different LCDs can vary substantially, calibration of the luminance response of these displays is required to ensure that observer perception of an image is consistent on all displays. The digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) grayscale standard display function (GSDF) defines the luminance response of a display such that an observer's perception of image contrast is consistent throughout the pixel value range of a displayed image. The main purpose of this work is to review the theoretical and practical aspects of calibration of LCDs to the GSDF. Included herein is a review of LCD technology, principles of calibration, and other practical aspects related to calibration and observer perception of images presented on LCDs. Both grayscale and color displays are considered, and the influence of ambient light on calibration and perception is discussed.

  14. Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display with slanted wall-shaped electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhou; Qionghua Wang; Di Wu; Jianpeng Cui

    2012-01-01

    A polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display (BPLCD) with slanted wall-shaped electrodes is proposed. Compared with the traditional BPLCD with wall-shaped electrodes, the electrodes of the proposed BPLCD are slightly angled to obtain phase retardation in the entire cell even at the position of electrodes. The proposed BPLCD demonstrates a relatively higher average transmittance and overall brightness than the traditional BPLCD.%A polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display (BPLCD) with slanted wall-shaped electrodes is proposed.Compared with the traditional BPLCD with wall-shaped electrodes,the electrodes of the proposed BPLCD are slightly angled to obtain phase retardation in the entire cell even at the position of electrodes.The proposed BPLCD demonstrates a relatively higher average transmittance and overall brightness than the traditional BPLCD.Owing to the continuous improvement in image quality of liquid crystal displays (LCDs),they have been widely employed in desktop monitors,TVs,and mobile displays at present[1-5].With the development of LCDs the polymer-stabilized blue phase LCDs (BPLCDs)[6-11]can replace the conventional LCDs and become the nextgeneration display technology.The polymer-stabilized BPLCDs have numerous attractive features,such as submillisecond gray-to-gray response time,alignmentlayer-free process optically isotropic dark state and cell gap insensitivity[12-14].Because of these advantages,the fabrication processes of the BPLCDs are simplified,motion-image blurs are reduced,and color-sequential displays using RGB LEDs are enabled.

  15. COMPENSATION EFFECT OF POLYIMIDE THIN FILMS ON NORMALLY WHITE TWISTED NEMATIC LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Baozhong; HE Tianbai; DING Mengxian

    1997-01-01

    The disadvantages of Normally White Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Display (NW-TN-LCD) were discussed. The reason that the negative birefringent polyimide thin films were used to compensate NW-TN-LCD to decrease off-axis leakage, improve contrast ratios and enlarge viewing angles' was explained in this paper. A certain polyimide thin film was taken as an example to show compensation effect on NW-TN-LCD.

  16. Averaged Stokes polarimetry applied to characterize parallel-aligned liquid crystal on silicon displays

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Ruiz, Andrés; Martínez Guardiola, Francisco Javier; Gallego Rico, Sergi; Ortuño Sánchez, Manuel; Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto; Pascual Villalobos, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Parallel-aligned liquid crystal on silicon (PA-LCoS) displays have become the most attractive spatial light modulator device for a wide range of applications, due to their superior resolution and light efficiency, added to their phase-only capability. Proper characterization of their linear retardance and phase flicker instabilities is a must to obtain an enhanced application of PA-LCoS. We present a novel polarimetric method, based on Stokes polarimetry, we have recently proposed for the mea...

  17. Milestone in the History of Field-Effect Liquid Crystal Displays and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadt, Martin

    2009-03-01

    The history of digital electronics would have been very different without the invention of field-effect liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in 1970 and their sophisticated development and implementation into numerous products. Transmissive and reflective LCDs have become a key interface between man and machine. After almost 40 years of interdisciplinary R+D and engineering, today's LCDs enable virtually all display applications, including high definition television. Field-effect LCDs are characterized by flat design, low weight, low driving voltage, design flexibility, compatibility with silicon-on-glass and very low power consumption, especially in reflection. Their polarization-sensitive layer concept is the basis for sandwiching and integration of optical and electronic thin-film functions. The liquid crystal technology has become a fast growing industry over the past 38 years, today surpassing 100 billion, with many spin-offs into new areas. Prerequisite for field-effect LCDs and their large diversification potential is the unique self-organization of liquid crystals. New applications beyond displays based on self-organisation, smart boundary alignment, dedicated liquid crystalline materials and the ability of LCs to respond to electromagnetic fields, including light, are being developed. Examples for new applications are LC polymer thin-film optics, or synergies between LCDs and solid state back-lighting, such as inorganic and organic light emitting diodes (LEDs/OLEDs).

  18. A Study on Large Display Panel Design for the Countermeasures against Team Errors within the Main Control Room of APR-1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sa Kil; Lee, Yong Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The personal aspect of human errors has been mainly overcome by virtue of the education and training. However, in the system aspect, the education and training system needs to be reconsidered for more effective reduction of human errors affected from various systems hazards. Traditionally the education and training systems are mainly not focused on team skills such as communication, situational awareness, and coordination, etc. but individual knowledge, skill, and attitude. However, the team factor is one of the crucial issues to reduce the human errors in most industries. In this study, we identify the emerging types of team errors, especially, in digitalized control room of nuclear power plants such as the APR-1400 main control room. Most works in nuclear industry are to be performed by a team of more than two persons. Even though the individual errors can be detected and recovered by the qualified others and/or the well trained team, it is rather seldom that the errors by team could be easily detected and properly recovered by the team itself. Note that the team is defined as two or more people who are appropriately interacting with each other, and the team is a dependent aggregate, which accomplishes a valuable goal. Team error is one of the typical organizational errors that may occur during performing operations in nuclear power plants. The large display panel is a representative feature of digitalized control room. As a group-view display, the large display panel provides plant overview to the operators. However, in terms of team performance and team errors, the large display panel is on a discussion board still because the large display panel was designed just a concept of passive display. In this study, we will propose revised large display panel which is integrated with several alternative interfaces against feasible team errors.

  19. The study of LED uniform lightguide for liquid crystal display backlight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chao-Heng; Chen, Zhi-Peng

    2008-08-01

    A conventional backlight unit (BLU) is used to as the light module to present uniform light of liquid crystal display (LCD). In general, cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) is utilized to be the light source of BLU. The light emitting diode (LED) is now considered well known as a promising device for solid state lighting. It has the advantages of long durability, no mercury substance and good endurance of heavy impact. To satisfy the market demands of the thin-film liquid crystal display (LCD) and the green product, the LED is applied to as the light source to make display thinner, lighter, no Hg containing. In this research, the LED uniform lightguide is demonstrated because it enables the point-like light to distribute propagating-light line pattern successfully. By optimizing the size and the radian of the device, the designed LED uniform lightguide can achieve the output efficiency more than 85%, and its illuminative uniformity is improved about 85%. Thus, the LED uniform lightguide not only can decrease the number of LED to save the space, but also enhance the optical efficiency. In the future, a novel LED uniform module could make displays thinner and lighter for backlight system applications.

  20. Precise prediction of optical responses of liquid-crystal display products using a behavioral model of liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chansoo; Cho, Youngmin; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Jongbin; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2012-01-01

    We propose a precise circuit model to estimate transient optical responses of an active-matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD). Liquid crystal (LC) molecules in the pixel is behaviorally modeled by using the first-order system that is described by Verilog-A. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a pixel determine the accuracy of the dynamic responses. Measuring C-V characteristics is impossible because pixels are driven by switching transistors in the AMLCD. We propose a method to obtain the C-V data from natural optical responses. Estimated optical responses based on the C-V data extracted by our proposal show more accurate results than those based on C-V data obtained by using transmittance-voltage data. It is demonstrated that our behavioral model enables us to predict very accurate transient responses, which makes it possible to design LCD products with lower costs.

  1. Application of pyrolysis process to remove and recover liquid crystal and films from waste liquid crystal display glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rixin; Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-12-01

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) glass mainly consists of polarizing film, liquid crystal and glass substrate. Removing and recovering the liquid crystal and films from the LCD glass effectively has important significance for recovering the other parts. This study proposed a pyrolysis process to recover the organic parts from LCD glass. Through thermal gravimetric analysis, the pyrolysis temperature of the LCD glass could be chosen at 850 K. The removal rate of organic parts from LCD glass reached 87.87 wt%. Pyrolysis products consisted of 66.82 wt% oils, 21.01 wt% gaseous and 12.13 wt% residues. In addition, the oils contained 46.27 wt% acetic acid and 32.94 wt% triphenyl phosphate. Then, the pyrolysis mechanisms and products sources of the liquid crystal glass have been analyzed based on the information of bonds energy. The pyrolysis mechanism analysis proved that the products mainly consisted of acetic acid, triphenyl phosphate and C, which is consistent to the results of GC-MS analysis. A reasonable way has been put forward to recycle the pyrolysis products: acetic acid and triphenyl phosphate can be collected by distillation, the rest oils and gases can be used as fuel and the remained glass can be used to extract indium and to produce building materials.

  2. Strengthened nonlinearity in liquid crystal panel with ZnSe aligning layers due to surface charge accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Xue, Tingyu; Fu, Jiayin; Zhang, Jingwen

    2015-09-01

    With ZnSe thin films as aligning layers in fabricating liquid crystal (LC) panel with pentylcyanobiphenyl doped with C60, the response time in writing holograms was shortened to milliseconds. When two laser beams were overlapped in an LC panel, 2D diffraction patterns were observed, along with exponential gain coefficient highly LC and ZnSe thickness dependent. In addition, energy transferring in subwavelength scale through surface grating was evident. By using a hybrid LC panel, it was found the energy transferring direction was voltage polarity and thickness dependent. Electrostatic modification based surface plasmon polariton excitation was proposed to explain all the findings

  3. The application of APTEA experiment design to the experiment for determining information density of large scale display panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Ho; Lee, Hyun Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-01

    APTEA experiment design was developed for the purpose of enhancing the availability of integrated test facility in 1994, and is composed of 5 phases including 28 contents. We applied APTEA experiment design to a preliminary human factors experiment for the determination of information density on a large scale display panel in order to confirm the usability of APTEA before utilizing it with integrated test facility. As results, we verified the easiness on the use of APTEA experiment design and identified points to be considered as follows. - Each phase and content doesn`t demand the same duration and level of work. Therefore it is unnecessary for experimenter to give same weight to all the phases and contents. - Filling up the phases and contents of ATPEA require various knowledge such as programming, human factors principles, experiment design. So a multidisciplinary team is desired in using APTEA experiment design. - It will be difficult to clearly discern the differences among contents in some experiments. In this case, the integration of several contents is desirable. 5 tabs., 2 figs., 5 refs. (Author) .new.

  4. Development of a DAQ system for a plasma display panel-based X-ray detector (PXD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hakjae [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Jun [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Sangheum [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan-si (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jungwon [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dankook University, Yongin, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kisung, E-mail: kisung@korea.ac.kr [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a novel plasma display panel (PDP)-based X-ray detector (PXD) was developed. The goal of this study is to develop a data acquisition system for use with the PXD as an imaging detector. Since the prototype detector does not have any barrier ribs or a switching device in a detector pixel, a novel pixelation scheme—the line-scan method—is developed for this new detector. To implement line scanning, a multichannel high-voltage switching circuit and a multichannel charge-acquisition circuit are developed. These two circuits are controlled by an FPGA-based digital signal processing board, from which the information about the charge and position of each pixel can be sent to a PC. FPGA-based baseline compensation and switching noise rejection algorithms are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The characteristic curve of the entire PXD system is acquired, and the correlation coefficients between the X-ray dose, and the signal intensity and the SNR were determined to be approximately 0.99 and 52.9, respectively. - Highlights: • We developed a data acquisition circuit for a novel X-ray imaging detector. • Line scan, noise rejection, and data transmission methods have been implemented by the FPGA. • The linearity and SNR of the proposed detector system have been measured quantitatively.

  5. Apparatus and method for remotely monitoring a utility meter by use of a liquid crystal display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombrich, P.P.; Case, S.K.; Konicek, L.R.

    1986-12-09

    An apparatus is described for optically sensing the angular position of a pointer member fixedly mounted on a rotatable shaft for rotational movement therewith as the shaft rotates about an axis of rotation, the apparatus comprising: (a) a follower member fixedly interconnected into the rotatable shaft for rotation about the axis of rotation with the pointer member, the follower member and the pointer having a circumferential path of travel. The follower member has first and second opposite sides facing in opposite axial directions, a first portion of the first side being generally reflective for reflecting light in a forward direction and a second portion being generally absorptive; (b) light emitting means positioned forward of the following member for emitting light in a backward direction towards the first side of the follower member; (c) light detecting means positioned forward of the follower member for detecting light reflected off of the follower member in a forward direction; and (d) liquid crystal display means positioned forward of the follower member, between the follower member and the light detecting means. The liquid crystal display means defines six distinct areas disposed about the circumferential path of the follower member and a background area encompassing the remaining area of the liquid crystal shutter means.

  6. Cylindrical liquid crystal lenses system for autostereoscopic 2D/3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Huang, Yi-Pai; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Po-Hao; Chen, Po-Chuan; Tsai, Chao-Hsu

    2012-06-01

    The liquid crystal lenses system, which could be electrically controlled easily for autostereoscopic 2D/3D switchable display was proposed. The High-Resistance liquid crystal (HRLC) lens utilized less controlled electrodes and coated a high-resistance layer between the controlled-electrodes was proposed and was used in this paper. Compare with the traditional LC lens, the HR-LC Lens could provide smooth electric-potential distribution within the LC layer under driving status. Hence, the proposed HR-LC Lens had less circuit complexity, low driving voltage, and good optical performance also could be obtained. In addition, combining with the proposed driving method called dual-directional overdriving method, the above method could reduce the switching time by applying large voltage onto cell. Consequently, the total switching time could be further reduced to around 2second. It is believed that the LC lens system has high potential in the future.

  7. Effect of wavelength on the laser patterning of a cholesteric liquid crystal display electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.H., E-mail: chunhanli@itri.org.tw [Laser Application Technology Center / Industrial Technology Research Institute South (ITRI South),8 Gongyan Rd., Liujia Dist., Tainan City 734, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Lin, H.K. [Laser Application Technology Center / Industrial Technology Research Institute South (ITRI South),8 Gongyan Rd., Liujia Dist., Tainan City 734, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Graduate Institute of Materials Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China)

    2013-02-01

    A 1064 nm fiber laser and a 355 nm ultraviolet solid-state laser with galvanometer scanners and F-theta lenses are used to rapidly etch the silver electrode pattern of a cholesteric liquid crystal display. These results of the two laser processes are that the 1064 nm laser effectively reduces the damage to the liquid crystal layer and underlying indium tin oxide layer, and reduces the heat-affected zone of the ablated silver electrode. - Highlights: ► Laser patterning reduces the process time and costs lower than screen printing process. ► Etching of silver electrodes using 355-nm and 1064-nm lasers is compared. ► 1064-nm fiber laser can improve throughput, lower cost, and increase pattern quality.

  8. In-Plane Switching Mode for Liquid Crystal Displays Using a DNA Alignment Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yun Jeong; Gim, Min-Jun; Oh, Kyunghwan; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2015-06-24

    We successfully fabricated the in-plane switching mode (IPS) LC display (LCD) based on a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) alignment layer. As widely known, the DNA has the right-handed double helical structure that has naturally grown grooves with a very regular period, which can be used as an alignment layer to control the orientation of liquid crystal (LC) molecules. The LC molecules on this topographical layer of DNA material align obliquely at a specific angle with respect to the direction of DNA chains, providing an instant and convenient tool for the fabrication of the IPS display compared to the conventional ways such as rubbing and mechanical shearing methods. The electro-optical performance and response time of this device were also investigated. Our result will be of great use in further exploration of the electro-optical properties of the other biomaterials.

  9. Low voltage transflective blue-phase liquid crystal display with a non-uniform etching substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Mao, Jiang-Lin; Fan, Hao-Xiang; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-09-01

    A transflective polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal display (BP-LCD) with a non-uniform etching substrate is proposed. In-plane switching (IPS) electrodes on the bottom substrate are put on the different gaps, and the bottom substrate between the electrodes is etched into different depths in transmissive (T) and reflective (R) regions. This structure can balance the optical phase retardation in the two regions and is helpful to achieve well-matched voltag-dependent transmittance and reflectance curves. This transflective display has high optical efficiency, a wide viewing angle, and low operating voltage (approximately 6 V). Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61535007 and 61320106015) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB328802).

  10. Towards an optimal model for a bistable nematic liquid crystal display device

    KAUST Repository

    Cummings, L. J.

    2013-03-13

    Bistable liquid crystal displays offer the potential for considerable power savings compared with conventional (monostable) LCDs. The existence of two stable field-free states that are optically distinct means that contrast can be maintained in a display without an externally applied electric field. An applied field is required only to switch the device from one state to the other, as needed. In this paper we examine a theoretical model of a possible bistable device, originally proposed by Cummings and Richardson (Euro J Appl Math 17:435-463 2006), and explore means by which it may be optimized, in terms of optical contrast, manufacturing considerations, switching field strength, and switching times. The compromises inherent in these conflicting design criteria are discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  11. Holographic three-dimensional display and hologram calculation based on liquid crystal on silicon device [invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junchang; Tu, Han-Yen; Yeh, Wei-Chieh; Gui, Jinbin; Cheng, Chau-Jern

    2014-09-20

    Based on scalar diffraction theory and the geometric structure of liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS), we study the impulse responses and image depth of focus in a holographic three-dimensional (3D) display system. Theoretical expressions of the impulse response and the depth of focus of reconstructed 3D images are obtained, and experimental verifications of the imaging properties are performed. The results indicated that the images formed by holographic display based on the LCoS device were periodic image fields surrounding optical axes. The widths of the image fields were directly proportional to the wavelength and diffraction distance, and inversely proportional to the pixel size of the LCoS device. Based on the features of holographic 3D imaging and focal depth, we enhance currently popular hologram calculation methods of 3D objects to improve the computing speed of hologram calculation.

  12. Liquid-crystal displays for medical imaging: a discussion of monochrome versus color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven L.; Samei, Ehsan

    2004-05-01

    A common view is that color displays cannot match the performance of monochrome displays, normally used for diagnostic x-ray imaging. This view is based largely on historical experience with cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays, and does not apply in the same way to liquid-crystal displays (LCDs). Recent advances in color LCD technology have considerably narrowed performance differences with monochrome LCDs for medical applications. The most significant performance advantage of monochrome LCDs is higher luminance, a concern for use under bright ambient conditions. LCD luminance is limited primarily by backlight design, yet to be optimized for color LCDs for medical applications. Monochrome LCDs have inherently higher contrast than color LCDs, but this is not a major advantage under most conditions. There is no practical difference in luminance precision between color and monochrome LCDs, with a slight theoretical advantage for color. Color LCDs can provide visualization and productivity enhancement for medical applications, using digital drive from standard commercial graphics cards. The desktop computer market for color LCDs far exceeds the medical monitor market, with an economy of scale. The performance-to-price ratio for color LCDs is much higher than monochrome, and warrants re-evaluation for medical applications.

  13. Novel Na(+) doped Alq3 hybrid materials for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices and flat panel displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, S A; Borghate, S V; Kalyani, N Thejo; Dhoble, S J

    2015-05-01

    Pure and Na(+) -doped Alq3 complexes were synthesized by a simple precipitation method at room temperature, maintaining a stoichiometric ratio. These complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The X-ray diffractogram exhibits well-resolved peaks, revealing the crystalline nature of the synthesized complexes, FTIR confirms the molecular structure and the completion of quinoline ring formation in the metal complex. UV/Vis absorption and PL spectra of sodium-doped Alq3 complexes exhibit high emission intensity in comparison with Alq3 phosphor, proving that when doped in Alq3 , Na(+) enhances PL emission intensity. The excitation spectra of the synthesized complexes lie in the range 242-457 nm when weak shoulders are also considered. Because the sharp excitation peak falls in the blue region of visible radiation, the complexes can be employed for blue chip excitation. The emission wavelength of all the synthesized complexes lies in the bluish green/green region ranging between 485 and 531 nm. The intensity of the emission wavelength was found to be elevated when Na(+) is doped into Alq3 . Because both the excitation and emission wavelengths fall in the visible region of electromagnetic radiation, these phosphors can also be employed to improve the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells by using the solar spectral conversion principle. Thus, the synthesized phosphors can be used as bluish green/green light-emitting phosphors for organic light-emitting diodes, flat panel displays, solid-state lighting technology - a step towards the desire to reduce energy consumption and generate pollution free light.

  14. The (unsuitability of modern liquid crystal displays (LCDs for vision research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud eGhodrati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychophysical and physiological studies of vision have traditionally used cathode ray tube (CRT monitors to present stimuli. These monitors are no longer easily available, and liquid crystal display (LCD technology is continually improving; therefore, we characterised a number of LCD monitors to determine if newer models are suitable replacements for CRTs in the laboratory. We compared the spatial and temporal characteristics of a CRT with five LCDs, including monitors designed with vision science in mind (ViewPixx and Display++, prosumer gaming monitors, and a consumer-grade LCD. All monitors had sufficient contrast, luminance range and reliability to support basic vision experiments with static images. However, the luminance of all LCDs depended strongly on viewing angle, which in combination with the poor spatial uniformity of all monitors except the VPixx, caused up to 80% drops in effective luminance in the periphery during central fixation. Further, all monitors showed significant spatial dependence, as the luminance of one area was modulated by the luminance of other areas. These spatial imperfections are most pronounced for experiments that use large or peripheral visual stimuli. In the temporal domain, the gaming LCDs were unable to generate reliable luminance patterns; one was unable to reach the requested luminance within a single frame whereas in the other the luminance of one frame affected the luminance of the next frame. The VPixx and Display++ were less affected by these problems, and had good temporal properties provided stimuli were presented for 2 or more frames. Of the consumer-grade and gaming displays tested, and if problems with spatial uniformity are taken into account, the Eizo FG2421 is the most suitable alternative to CRTs. The specialized ViewPixx performed best among all the tested LCDs, followed closely by the Display++; both are good replacements for a CRT, provided their spatial imperfections are considered.

  15. Rigorous analysis of an electric-field-driven liquid crystal lens for 3D displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong-Sik; Lee, Seung-Chul; Park, Woo-Sang [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    We numerically analyzed the optical performance of an electric field driven liquid crystal (ELC) lens adopted for 3-dimensional liquid crystal displays (3D-LCDs) through rigorous ray tracing. For the calculation, we first obtain the director distribution profile of the liquid crystals by using the Erickson-Leslie motional equation; then, we calculate the transmission of light through the ELC lens by using the extended Jones matrix method. The simulation was carried out for a 9 view 3D-LCD with a diagonal of 17.1 inches, where the ELC lens was slanted to achieve natural stereoscopic images. The results show that each view exists separately according to the viewing position at an optimum viewing distance of 80 cm. In addition, our simulation results provide a quantitative explanation for the ghost or blurred images between views observed from a 3D-LCD with an ELC lens. The numerical simulations are also shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The present simulation method is expected to provide optimum design conditions for obtaining natural 3D images by rigorously analyzing the optical functionalities of an ELC lens.

  16. Using channelized Hotelling observers to quantify temporal effects of medical liquid crystal displays on detection performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platiša, Ljiljana; Goossens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Badano, Aldo; Philips, Wilfried

    2010-02-01

    Clinical practice is rapidly moving in the direction of volumetric imaging. Often, radiologists interpret these images in liquid crystal displays at browsing rates of 30 frames per second or higher. However, recent studies suggest that the slow response of the display can compromise image quality. In order to quantify the temporal effect of medical displays on detection performance, we investigate two designs of a multi-slice channelized Hotelling observer (msCHO) model in the task of detecting a single-slice signal in multi-slice simulated images. The design of msCHO models is inspired by simplifying assumptions about how humans observe while viewing in the stack-browsing mode. For comparison, we consider a standard CHO applied only on the slice where the signal is located, recently used in a similar study. We refer to it as a single-slice CHO (ssCHO). Overall, our results confirm previous findings that the slow response of displays degrades the detection performance of the observers. More specifically, the observed performance range of msCHO designs is higher compared to the ssCHO suggesting that the extent and rate of degradation, though significant, may be less drastic than previously estimated by the ssCHO. Especially, the difference between msCHO and ssCHO is more significant for higher browsing speeds than for slow image sequences or static images. This, together with their design criteria driven by the assumptions about humans, makes the msCHO models promising candidates for further studies aimed at building anthropomorphic observer models for the stack-mode image presentation.

  17. Characterization of the anamorphic and frequency dependent phenomenon in Liquid Crystal on Silicon displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, L.; Lizana, A.; Márquez, A.; Moreno, I.; Iemmi, C.; Campos, J.; Yzuel, M. J.

    2011-04-01

    The diffractive efficiency of Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) displays can be greatly diminished by the appearance of temporal phase fluctuations in the reflected beam, depolarization effects and also because of phase modulation depths smaller than 2π. In order to maximize the efficiency of the Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) implemented in the LCoS device, the Minimum Euclidean Distance principle can be applied. However, not all the diffractive elements can be corrected in the same way due to the anamorphic and frequency dependent phenomenon, which is related to the LCoS response, largely dependending on the period and the spatial orientation of the generated DOE. Experimental evidence for the anamorphic and frequency dependent phenomenon is provided in this paper, as well as a comparative study between the efficiency obtained for binary gratings of different periods

  18. Enhanced contrast ratio of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal displays by controlling the surface-anchoring strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Young Jin; Woo, Chang Woo; Oh, Sang Hoon; Mukherjee, Amrita; Lee, Seung Hee [Department of BIN Fusion Technology and Department of Polymer Nano-Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Ji Ho; Kim, Kyeong Jin; Yang, Myung Su, E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.kr [Panel Performance Department, LG Display Co., Ltd., Paju, Gyeonggi-do 413-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-17

    The dark state of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal displays (LCDs) associated with the in-plane switching of a LC director depends on their molecular ordering. We propose a new approach to reduce the light leakage in the dark state of homogeneously aligned LCDs. A very small amount of reactive mesogen (RM) is mixed with the LC material and polymerized at room temperature and also at a low temperature (-20 {sup 0}C) to strengthen the surface-anchoring energy. The contrast ratio of the low-temperature cured cell is improved by about 50% over that of the pure LC cell and the room temperature cured RM-mixed LC cell due to an enhanced order parameter.

  19. A liquid crystal display with consistent moving image quality regardless of viewing angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Seung-Ryul; Kim, Jongbin; Kim, Minkoo; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes a new overdrive (OD) technology to precisely compensate for the viewing angle dependent characteristics of LCDs. This paper reports that optical response of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) is considerably dependent on viewing angles for the first time. The new OD technology applies different OD look-up tables (LUTs) depending on the viewing angles. In addition, we combine a new OD technology with an eye tracker that is usually adopted for autostereoscopic 3D LCD systems. The application results show that a new OD technology improves the motion image quality perfectly regardless of viewing angles. We expect that our proposed method will definitely enable the LCD products to have consistent motion image quality regardless of viewing angles.

  20. Graphene oxide liquid crystals: synthesis, phase transition, rheological property, and applications in optoelectronics and display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Tong, Xin; Wang, Yanan; Bao, Jiming; Wang, Zhiming M.

    2015-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) liquid crystals (LCs) are macroscopically ordered GO flakes dispersed in water or polar organic solvents. Since the first report in 2011, GO LCs have attracted considerable attention for their basic properties and potential device applications. In this review, we summarize recent developments and present a comprehensive understanding of GO LCs via many aspects ranging from the exfoliation of GO flakes from graphite, to phases and phase transitions under various conditions, the orientational responses of GO under external magnetic and electric fields, and finally Kerr effect and display applications. The emphasis is placed on the unique and basic properties of GO and their ordered assembly. We will also discuss challenges and issues that need to be overcome in order to gain a more fundamental understanding and exploit full device potentials of GO LCs.

  1. Novel cell parameter determination of a twisted-nematic liquid crystal display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xia; Jing Hai; Fu Guo-Zhu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a novel method is proposed to determine the cell parameters including the twist angle, optic retardation and rubbing direction of twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays (TNLCD) by rotating the TNLCD. It is a single-wavelength method. Because using subtraction equation of transmittance as curve fitting equation, the influence of the light from environment and the absorption by polarizer, the sample of TNLCD and analyser on the transmittance is eliminated. Accurate results can also be obtained in imperfect darkness. By large numbers of experiments, we found that not only the experimental setup is quite simple and can be easily adopted to be carried out, but also the results are accurate.

  2. Colorimetric characterization of liquid crystal display using an improved two-stage model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wang; Haisong Xu

    2006-01-01

    @@ An improved two-stage model of colorimetric characterization for liquid crystal display (LCD) was proposed. The model included an S-shape nonlinear function with four coefficients for each channel to fit the Tone reproduction curve (TRC), and a linear transfer matrix with black-level correction. To compare with the simple model (SM), gain-offset-gain (GOG), S-curve and three-one-dimensional look-up tables (3-1D LUTs) models, an identical LCD was characterized and the color differences were calculated and summarized using the set of 7 × 7 × 7 digital-to-analog converter (DAC) triplets as test data. The experimental results showed that the model was outperformed in comparison with the GOG and SM ones, and near to that of the S-curve model and 3-1D LUTs method.

  3. ELA-beam shaping systems for flat panel display prepared by LTPS%用于平板显示 LTPS制备的 ELA光束整形系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹广玥; 游利兵; 方晓东

    2016-01-01

    介绍了多晶硅薄膜较非晶硅薄膜在平板显示领域的优势以及准分子激光晶化制备多晶硅膜的结晶过程。介绍了透镜阵列实现匀光的原理。阐述了典型的准分子激光退火线型光束整形系统的扩束、匀光、投影等结构。并介绍了连续横向固化技术在准分子激光制备低温多晶硅领域的应用。讨论了准分子激光退火光学系统的发展现状,指出了其在平板显示行业的重要意义。%The advantages to poly silicon film instead of amorphous silicon film in the field of flat panel display were introduced .Crystallization process of poly silicon film by using excimer laser crystallization system was studied .The principle of how lens array achieve the uniformity of output laser energy density was described .The structure of typical excimer laser annealing(ELA) line beam shaping system, which included beam expanding unit , beam energy homogenizing unit , projection unit and so on was focused on .Finally the application of sequential lateral solidification technology in the area of low temperature poly silicon ( LTPS ) using excimer laser nnealing was introduced .The status of ELA optical system was discussed and its significance in flat panel display industry was pointed out .

  4. Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Young Jin; Kim, Jin Ho; Her, Jung Hwa; Lee, Seung Hee [Polymer BIN Fusion Research Center, Department of Polymer Nano-Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonju, Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Joun Ho; Kim, Byeong Koo [Mobile Product Development Department, LG Display Company, Ltd, Gumi, Gyungbuk 730-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Wan-Seok; Lee, Gi-Dong, E-mail: gdlee@dau.ac.k, E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.k [Department of Electronics Engineering, Dong-A University, Pusan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-03

    A viewing angle switchable liquid crystal display associated with fringe-field switching mode is proposed. In the device, one pixel is composed of a main pixel and a sub-pixel, in which both pixels are formed to generate a fringe electric field. However, the field directions are different from each other so that in the main pixel, the fringe field rotates the liquid crystal for displaying the main image, whereas it controls only the tilt angle of the liquid crystal without rotating in the sub-pixel region. In this way, phase retardation to cause leakage of light at the off-normal axis can be generated in the sub-pixel, and by utilizing the light, the main displayed image in the normal direction can be blocked in the oblique viewing direction.

  5. Need for liquid-crystal display monitors having the capability of rendering higher than 8 bits in display-bit depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwasa, Takeshi; Morishita, Junji; Hatanaka, Shiro; Ohki, Masafumi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose in this study was to examine the potential usefulness of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors having the capability of rendering higher than 8 bits in display-bit depth. An LCD monitor having the capability of rendering 8, 10, and 12 bits was used. It was calibrated to the grayscale standard display function with a maximum luminance of 450 cd/m(2) and a minimum of 0.75 cd/m(2). For examining the grayscale resolution reported by ten observers, various simple test patterns having two different combinations of luminance in 8, 10, and 12 bits were randomly displayed on the LCD monitor. These patterns were placed on different uniform background luminance levels, such as 0, 50, and 100%, for maximum luminance. All observers participating in this study distinguished a smaller difference in luminance than one gray level in 8 bits irrespective of background luminance levels. As a result of the adaptation processes of the human visual system, observers distinguished a smaller difference in luminance as the luminance level of the test pattern was closer to the background. The smallest difference in luminance that observers distinguished was four gray levels in 12 bits, i.e., one gray level in 10 bits. Considering the results obtained by use of simple test patterns, medical images should ideally be displayed on LCD monitors having 10 bits or greater so that low-contrast objects with small differences in luminance can be detected and for providing a smooth gradation of grayscale.

  6. Applying Ant Colony Algorithm and Neural Network Model to Color Deviation Defect Detection in Liquid Crystal Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Dar Lin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display (TFT-LCD has excellent properties such as lower voltage to start and less occupied space if comparing with traditional Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT. But screen flaw points and display color deviation defects on image display exist in TFT-LCD products. This research proposes a new automated visual inspection method to solve the problems. We first use multivariate Hotelling T2 statistic for integrating coordinates of color models to construct a T2 energy diagram for inspecting defects and controlling patterns in TFT-LCD display images. An Ant Colony based approach that integrates computer vision techniques is developed to detect the flaw point defects. Then, Back Propagation Network (BPN model is proposed to inspect small deviation defects of the LCD display colors. Experimental results show the proposed system can provide good effects and practicality.

  7. Ray-tracing simulations of liquid-crystal gradient-index lenses for three-dimensional displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijter, M.; Herzog, A.; De Boer, D.K.G.; Krijn, M.P.C.M.; Urbach, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, to our knowledge, we report ray-tracing simulations of an advanced liquid-crystal gradientindex lens structure for application in switchable two-dimensional/three-dimensional (3D) autostereoscopic displays. We present ray-tracing simulations of the angular-dependent lens action.

  8. Indirect Vision Driving with Fixed Flat Panel Displays for Near Unity, Wide, and Extended Fields of Camera View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    is needed to avoid obstacles. This is true since the scene will appear to be biocular instead of the binocular needed for stereopsis (i.e...experimentation site was closed to other vehicular and foot traffic during the study. In all exercises with the participant driving, the experimenter... traffic . When the right 78 side panel stopped working during a training run, he thought that he could continue with only minor difficulty. The next

  9. Study on the waste liquid crystal display treatment: focus on the resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinying; Lu, Xuebin; Zhang, Shuting

    2013-01-15

    A process combined pyrolysis and acid immersion was proposed in this study to dispose the hazardous liquid crystal display (LCD) waste for recovering valuable resources. The thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and fixed bed pyrolysis were investigated for the polarizing film that was separated from LCD. The results suggested the liquid product mainly contained acids, esters and aromatics should be upgraded such as hydrotreating process before used as industrial feedstock or fuel source. The gaseous product mainly consisted of H(2), CO, CO(2) and CH(4) can be used as a valuable fuel. The sulfuric acid immersion experiments were studied for recovering indium from the LCD glass after stripping the polarizing film. Central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the acid immersion process and the results indicated the indium recovery can be fitted based on the actual value to a polynomial quadratic equation and the temperature was more essential factor than time and acid concentration in the studied ranges. The optimum processing condition was obtained with time 42.2 min, temperature 65.6 °C and acid concentration 0.6 mol/L. Under the optimal conditions, the indium recovery was close to 100%.

  10. Automated optical inspection of liquid crystal display anisotropic conductive film bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Guangming; Du, Xiaohui; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Juanxiu; Liu, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Anisotropic conductive film (ACF) bonding is widely used in the liquid crystal display (LCD) industry. It implements circuit connection between screens and flexible printed circuits or integrated circuits. Conductive microspheres in ACF are key factors that influence LCD quality, because the conductive microspheres' quantity and shape deformation rate affect the interconnection resistance. Although this issue has been studied extensively by prior work, quick and accurate methods to inspect the quality of ACF bonding are still missing in the actual production process. We propose a method to inspect ACF bonding effectively by using automated optical inspection. The method has three steps. The first step is that it acquires images of the detection zones using a differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging system. The second step is that it identifies the conductive microspheres and their shape deformation rate using quantitative analysis of the characteristics of the DIC images. The final step is that it inspects ACF bonding using a back propagation trained neural network. The result shows that the miss rate is lower than 0.1%, and the false inspection rate is lower than 0.05%.

  11. Comparison of viewing angle and observer performances in different types of liquid-crystal display monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Shiro; Morishita, Junji; Hiwasa, Takeshi; Dogomori, Kiyoshi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Ohki, Masafumi; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2009-07-01

    It is known that the performance of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, such as the luminance and contrast ratio, is dependent on the viewing angle. Our purpose in this study was to compare the angular performance and the effect on observer performance of different types of LCD monitors. The luminance performance and contrast ratio as a function of viewing angle (-60 degrees to 60 degrees) in each direction for two types of LCD monitors, namely, a general-purpose LCD monitor and one especially designed for medical use, were measured in this study. Furthermore, the observer performance at various viewing angles in the horizontal direction for a medical-grade LCD monitor was investigated by eight observers based on a contrast-detail diagram. The two types of LCD monitors showed notable variations in luminance and contrast ratio as a function of the viewing angle. Acceptable viewing angles in terms of the contrast ratio were much smaller in each direction than those for nominal viewing angles in the specifications provided by the manufacturers, and those for the medical-grade LCD monitor in the horizontal and vertical directions were broader than those of the general-purpose LCD monitor. There was no significant difference in observer performance between 0 degrees and 40 degrees. On the other hand, our results showed a statistically significant difference in observer performance between 0 degrees and 60 degrees.

  12. Effects of personal experiences on the interpretation of the meaning of colours used in the displays and controls in electric control panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inseok; Hwang, Won-Gue

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted to examine how personal experiences affect the interpretation of the meaning of display and control colours on electric control panels (ECPs). In Korea, the red light on ECPs represents a normal state of operation, while the green light represents a stopped state of operation; this appears to contradict the general stereotypes surrounding these colours. The survey results indicated that the participants who had experience in using ECPs interpreted the colour meaning differently from the other participant group. More than half of the experienced participants regarded the coloured displays and controls as they were designed, while most participants in the other group appeared to interpret the colours in accordance with the stereotypes. It is presumed that accidents related to human errors can occur when non-experienced people use the ECPs, which are easily accessible in many buildings. Practitioner Summary: A survey was conducted to investigate how personal experiences affect the interpretation of the function meanings of coloured lights on electrical control panels. It was found that the interpretation varies according to personal experiences, which can induce accidents related to human errors while operating electrical equipment.

  13. Assessment of Anisotropic Semiconductor Nanorod and Nanoplatelet Heterostructures with Polarized Emission for Liquid Crystal Display Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Patrick D.; Souza, João B.; Fedin, Igor; She, Chunxing; Lee, Byeongdu; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2016-06-28

    Semiconductor nanorods can emit linear-polarized light at efficiencies over 80%. Polarization of light in these systems, confirmed through single-rod spectroscopy, can be explained on the basis of the anisotropy of the transition dipole moment and dielectric confinement effects. Here we report emission polarization in macroscopic semiconductor polymer composite films containing CdSe/CdS nanorods and colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets. Anisotropic nanocrystals dispersed in polymer films of poly butyl-co-isobutyl methacrylate (PBiBMA) can be stretched mechanically in order to obtain unidirectionally aligned arrays. A high degree of alignment, corresponding to an orientation factor of 0.87, was achieved and large areas demonstrated polarized emission, with the contrast ratio I-parallel to/I-perpendicular to= 5.6, making these films viable candidates for use in liquid crystal display (LCD) devices. To some surprise, we observed significant optical anisotropy and emission polarization for 2D CdSe nanoplatelets with the electronic structure of quantum wells. The aligned nanorod arrays serve as optical funnels, absorbing unpolarized light and re-emitting light from deep-green to red with quantum efficiencies over 90% and high degree of linear polarization. Our results conclusively demonstrate the benefits of anisotropic nanostructures for LCD backlighting. The polymer films with aligned CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod and rod-in-rod nanostructures show more than 2-fold enhancement of brightness compared to the emitter layers with randomly oriented nanostructures. This effect can be explained as the combination of linearly polarized luminescence and directional emission from individual nanostructures.

  14. Ice crystal characterization in cirrus clouds: a sun-tracking camera system and automated detection algorithm for halo displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Linda; Seefeldner, Meinhard; Wiegner, Matthias; Mayer, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    Halo displays in the sky contain valuable information about ice crystal shape and orientation: e.g., the 22° halo is produced by randomly oriented hexagonal prisms while parhelia (sundogs) indicate oriented plates. HaloCam, a novel sun-tracking camera system for the automated observation of halo displays is presented. An initial visual evaluation of the frequency of halo displays for the ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques) field campaign from October to mid-November 2014 showed that sundogs were observed more often than 22° halos. Thus, the majority of halo displays was produced by oriented ice crystals. During the campaign about 27 % of the cirrus clouds produced 22° halos, sundogs or upper tangent arcs. To evaluate the HaloCam observations collected from regular measurements in Munich between January 2014 and June 2016, an automated detection algorithm for 22° halos was developed, which can be extended to other halo types as well. This algorithm detected 22° halos about 2 % of the time for this dataset. The frequency of cirrus clouds during this time period was estimated by co-located ceilometer measurements using temperature thresholds of the cloud base. About 25 % of the detected cirrus clouds occurred together with a 22° halo, which implies that these clouds contained a certain fraction of smooth, hexagonal ice crystals. HaloCam observations complemented by radiative transfer simulations and measurements of aerosol and cirrus cloud optical thickness (AOT and COT) provide a possibility to retrieve more detailed information about ice crystal roughness. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a completely automated method to collect and evaluate a long-term database of halo observations and shows the potential to characterize ice crystal properties.

  15. Ice crystal characterization in cirrus clouds: a sun-tracking camera system and automated detection algorithm for halo displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Forster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Halo displays in the sky contain valuable information about ice crystal shape and orientation: e.g., the 22° halo is produced by randomly oriented hexagonal prisms while parhelia (sundogs indicate oriented plates. HaloCam, a novel sun-tracking camera system for the automated observation of halo displays is presented. An initial visual evaluation of the frequency of halo displays for the ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques field campaign from October to mid-November 2014 showed that sundogs were observed more often than 22° halos. Thus, the majority of halo displays was produced by oriented ice crystals. During the campaign about 27 % of the cirrus clouds produced 22° halos, sundogs or upper tangent arcs. To evaluate the HaloCam observations collected from regular measurements in Munich between January 2014 and June 2016, an automated detection algorithm for 22° halos was developed, which can be extended to other halo types as well. This algorithm detected 22° halos about 2 % of the time for this dataset. The frequency of cirrus clouds during this time period was estimated by co-located ceilometer measurements using temperature thresholds of the cloud base. About 25 % of the detected cirrus clouds occurred together with a 22° halo, which implies that these clouds contained a certain fraction of smooth, hexagonal ice crystals. HaloCam observations complemented by radiative transfer simulations and measurements of aerosol and cirrus cloud optical thickness (AOT and COT provide a possibility to retrieve more detailed information about ice crystal roughness. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a completely automated method to collect and evaluate a long-term database of halo observations and shows the potential to characterize ice crystal properties.

  16. Realization of Field Sequential Color in Simple Matrix Antiferroelectric Liquid Crystal Displays by Utilizing Fast Pretransitional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasushi; Chen, Guo-Ping; Manna, Uttam; Vij, Jagdish K.; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2009-07-01

    Simple matrix antiferroelectric liquid crystal displays (SM-AFLCDs) are prototyped to realize field sequential color (FSC) by utilizing the fast pretransitional response. The developed FSC-SM-AFLCDs will lead to the replacement of existing static driven FSC-SM-nematic-LCDs. Bright and clear color can be given to already market-acquired, black-and-white SM-LCDs of up to 1/64-duty and 3-in. diagonal size. To optimize the display performance, we analyze two important factors, the large pretransitional effect and the appropriate reset pulse, in terms of the interlayer interaction potential used in describing the field-induced transition of the antiferroelectric smectic phase.

  17. Horizontally-aligned carbon nanotubes arrays and their interactions with liquid crystal molecules: Physical characteristics and display applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérick Roussel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the physical characteristics of horizonthally-grown Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (h-al-SWNT arrays and their potential use as transparent and conducting alignment layer for liquid crystals display devices. Microscopy (SEM and AFM, spectroscopic (Raman and electrical investigations demonstrate the strong anisotropy of h-al-SWNT arrays. Optical measurements show that h-al-SWNTs are efficient alignment layers for Liquid Crystal (LC molecules allowing the fabrication of optical wave plates. Interactions between h-al-SWNT arrays and LC molecules are also investigated evidencing the weak azimuthal anchoring energy at the interface, which, in turn, leads to LC devices with a high pretilt angle. The electro-optical reponses of h-al-SWNT/LC cells demonstrate that h-al-SWNT arrays are efficient nanostructured electrodes with potential use for the combined replacement of Indium Tin Oxyde and polymeric alignment layers in conventional displays.

  18. Compact Holographic Projection Display Using Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon Spatial Light Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Feng Hsu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a holographic projection display in which a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM performs three functions: beam shaping, image display, and speckle reduction. The functions of beam shaping and image display are performed by dividing the SLM window into four sub-windows loaded with different diffractive phase elements (DPEs. The DPEs are calculated using a modified iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA. The function of speckle reduction is performed using temporal integration of display images containing speckles. The speckle contrast ratio of the display image is 0.39 due to the integration of eight speckled images. The system can be extended to display full-color images also by using temporal addition of elementary color images. Because the system configuration needs only an SLM, a Fourier transform lens, and two mirrors, the system volume is very small, becoming a potential candidate for micro projectors.

  19. Biological treatment of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, C N; Whang, L M; Lin, H L

    2008-01-01

    The amount of pollutants produced during manufacturing processes of TFT-LCD (thin-film transistor liquid crystal display) substantially increases due to an increasing production of the opto-electronic industry in Taiwan. The total amount of wastewater from TFT-LCD manufacturing plants is expected to exceed 200,000 CMD in the near future. Typically, organic solvents used in TFT-LCD manufacturing processes account for more than 33% of the total TFT-LCD wastewater. The main components of these organic solvents are composed of the stripper (dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and monoethanolamine (MEA)), developer (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH)) and chelating agents. These compounds are recognized as non-or slow-biodegradable organic compounds and little information is available regarding their biological treatability. In this study, the performance of an A/O SBR (anoxic/oxic sequencing batch reactor) treating synthetic TFT-LCD wastewater was evaluated. The long-term experimental results indicated that the A/O SBR was able to achieve stable and satisfactory removal performance for DMSO, MEA and TMAH at influent concentrations of 430, 800, and 190 mg/L, respectively. The removal efficiencies for all three compounds examined were more than 99%. In addition, batch tests were conducted to study the degradation kinetics of DMSO, MEA, and TMAH under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The organic substrate of batch tests conducted included 400 mg/L of DMSO, 250 mg/L of MEA, and 120 mg/L of TMAH. For DMSO, specific DMSO degradation rates under aerobic and anoxic conditions were both lower than 4 mg DMSO/g VSS-hr. Under anaerobic conditions, the specific DMSO degradation rate was estimated to be 14 mg DMSO/g VSS-hr, which was much higher than those obtained under aerobic and anoxic conditions. The optimum specific MEA and TMAH degradation rates were obtained under aerobic conditions with values of 26.5 mg MEA/g VSS-hr and 17.3 mg TMAH/g VSS

  20. Directional backlight liquid crystal autostereoscopic display: technical challenges, research progress, and prospect (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hang; Li, Kunyang; Zhou, Yangui; Liang, Haowen; Wang, Jiahui; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-09-01

    Recent upsurge on virtual and augmented realities (VR and AR) has re-ignited the interest to the immerse display technology. The VR/AR technology based on stereoscopic display is believed in its early stage as glasses-free, or autostereoscopic display, will be ultimately adopted for the viewing convenience, visual comfort and for the multi-viewer purposes. On the other hand, autostereoscopic display has not yet received positive market response for the past years neither with stereoscopic displays using shutter or polarized glasses. We shall present the analysis on the real-world applications, rigid user demand, the drawbacks to the existing barrier- and lenticular lens-based LCD autostereoscopy. We shall emphasize the emerging autostereoscopic display, and notably on directional backlight LCD technology using a hybrid spatial- and temporal-control scenario. We report the numerical simulation of a display system using Monte-Carlo ray-tracing method with the human retina as the real image receiver. The system performance is optimized using newly developed figure of merit for system design. The reduced crosstalk in an autostereoscopic system, the enhanced display quality, including the high resolution received by the retina, the display homogeneity without Moiré- and defect-pattern, will be highlighted. Recent research progress including a novel scheme for diffraction-free backlight illumination, the expanded viewing zone for autostereoscopic display, and the novel Fresnel lens array to achieve a near perfect display in 2D/3D mode will be introduced. The experimental demonstration will be presented to the autostereoscopic display with the highest resolution, low crosstalk, Moiré- and defect- pattern free.

  1. Profiling of liquid crystal displays with Raman spectroscopy: Preprocessing of spectra.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Stanimirovic; H.F.M. Boelens; A.J.G. Mank; H.C.J. Hoefsloot; A.K. Smilde

    2005-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is applied for characterizing paintable displays. Few other options than Raman spectroscopy exist for doing so because of the liquid nature of functional materials. The challenge is to develop a method that can be used for estimating the composition of a single display cell on the

  2. Projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, George L.; Yang, Kei H.

    1998-08-01

    Projection display in today's market is dominated by cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Further progress in this mature CRT projector technology will be slow and evolutionary. Liquid crystal based projection displays have gained rapid acceptance in the business market. New technologies are being developed on several fronts: (1) active matrix built from polysilicon or single crystal silicon; (2) electro- optic materials using ferroelectric liquid crystal, polymer dispersed liquid crystals or other liquid crystal modes, (3) micromechanical-based transducers such as digital micromirror devices, and grating light valves, (4) high resolution displays to SXGA and beyond, and (5) high brightness. This article reviews the projection displays from a transducer technology perspective along with a discussion of markets and trends.

  3. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles synthesized from liquid crystal display manufacturing extracts as a potential candidate for a drug delivery carrier: evaluation of their safety and biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin YC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Chih Lin,1 Liang-Yi Lin,2 Ming-Yi Gao,3 Yi-Ping Fang31Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University, 2Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 3Department of Biotechnology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, TaiwanAbstract: Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs were synthesized as a promising drug delivery carrier due to the large surface area and porous characteristics. Our previous study successfully recycled wastes from the liquid crystal display (LCD industry as the silica precursor. In this study, we substantiated the possibility of applying this material as a drug carrier. MSNs synthesized from the extraction of wastes from the manufacture of LCD panels were characterized as having an average diameter of 100 nm, a surface area of 788 m2/g, a uniform pore size distribution of 3.8 nm, and a pore volume of up to 1.04 cm3/g. Methotrexate and camptothecin were entrapped in MSNs at about 33.88% and 75.12%, respectively. The cell viability assay demonstrated that MSNs at 1 µg/mL had no significant influence on human lung fibroblast (WI-38 cells or ovarian cancer (ES-2 cells. A lactate dehydrogenase assay also indicated no inflammation occurred. Moreover, a hemolytic erythrocyte test indicated that the dose range of <100 µg/mL showed that 5% of erythrocytes were affected. After exposure to biofluids, the ordered structure was slightly degraded. The results revealed that MSNs synthesized from extraction of wastes from the manufacture of LCD panels had a good entrapment capacity for hydrophobic drugs and controllable safety conditions; they may be applied as a drug delivery carrier.Keywords: mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs, waste recycle, drug delivery carrier, safety, biocompatibility

  4. Development of a T7 Phage Display Library to Detect Sarcoidosis and Tuberculosis by a Panel of Novel Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvinder Talwar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous inflammatory disease, diagnosed through tissue biopsy of involved organs in the absence of other causes such as tuberculosis (TB. No specific serologic test is available to diagnose and differentiate sarcoidosis from TB. Using a high throughput method, we developed a T7 phage display cDNA library derived from mRNA isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells and leukocytes of sarcoidosis patients. This complex cDNA library was biopanned to obtain 1152 potential sarcoidosis antigens and a microarray was constructed to immunoscreen two different sets of sera from healthy controls and sarcoidosis. Meta-analysis identified 259 discriminating sarcoidosis antigens, and multivariate analysis identified 32 antigens with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 83% to classify sarcoidosis from healthy controls. Additionally, interrogating the same microarray platform with sera from subjects with TB, we identified 50 clones that distinguish between TB, sarcoidosis and healthy controls. The top 10 sarcoidosis and TB specific clones were sequenced and homologies were searched in the public database revealing unique epitopes and mimotopes in each group. Here, we show for the first time that immunoscreenings of a library derived from sarcoidosis tissue differentiates between sarcoidosis and tuberculosis antigens. These novel biomarkers can improve diagnosis of sarcoidosis and TB, and may aid to develop or evaluate a TB vaccine.

  5. Metal-induced crystallization fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zumin; Mittemeijer, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Metal-Induced CrystallizationAtomic Mechanisms and Interface Thermodynamics of Metal-Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Semiconductors at Low TemperaturesThermodynamics and Kinetics of Layer Exchange upon Low-Temperature Annealing Amorphous Si/Polycrystalline Al Layered StructuresMetal-Induced Crystallization by Homogeneous Insertion of Metallic Species in Amorphous SemiconductorsAluminum-Induced Crystallization: Applications in Photovoltaic TechnologiesApplications of Metal-Induced Crystallization for Advanced Flat-Panel DisplaysLaser-Assisted Meta

  6. Identification of a panel of tumor-associated antigens from breast carcinoma cell lines, solid tumors and testis cDNA libraries displayed on lambda phage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianfriglia Maurizio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor-associated antigens recognized by humoral effectors of the immune system are a very attractive target for human cancer diagnostics and therapy. Recent advances in molecular techniques have led to molecular definition of immunogenic tumor proteins based on their reactivity with autologous patient sera (SEREX. Methods Several high complexity phage-displayed cDNA libraries from breast carcinomas, human testis and breast carcinoma cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 were constructed. The cDNAs were expressed in the libraries as fusion to bacteriophage lambda protein D. Lambda-displayed libraries were efficiently screened with sera from patients with breast cancer. Results A panel of 21 clones representing 18 different antigens, including eight proteins of unknown function, was identified. Three of these antigens (T7-1, T11-3 and T11-9 were found to be overexpressed in tumors as compared to normal breast. A serological analysis of the 21 different antigens revealed a strong cancer-related profile for at least five clones (T6-2, T6-7, T7-1, T9-21 and T9-27. Conclusions Preliminary results indicate that patient serum reactivity against five of the antigens is associated with tumor disease. The novel T7-1 antigen, which is overexpressed in breast tumors and recognized specifically by breast cancer patient sera, is potentially useful in cancer diagnosis.

  7. UV durable colour pigment doped SmA liquid crystal composites for outdoor trans-reflective bi-stable displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Davey, A. B.; Crossland, W. A.; Chu, D. P.

    2012-10-01

    High brightness trans-reflective bi-stable displays based on smectic A (SmA) liquid crystals (LCs) can have nearly perfect transparency in the clear state and very high reflection in the scattered state. Because the LC material in use is stable under UV radiation, this kind of displays can stand for strong day-light and therefore be ideal for outdoor applications from e-books to public signage and advertisement. However, the colour application has been limited because the traditional colourants in use are conventional dyes which are lack of UV stability and that their colours are easily photo bleached. Here we present a colour SmA display demonstrator using pigments as colourant. Mixing pigments with SmA LCs and maintain the desirable optical switching performance is not straightforward. We show here how it can be done, including how to obtain fine sized pigment nano-particles, the effects of particle size and size distribution on the display performance. Our optimized pigments/SmA compositions can be driven by a low frequency waveform (~101Hz) to a scattered state to exhibit colour while by a high frequency waveform (~103Hz) to a cleared state showing no colour. Finally, we will present its excellent UV life-time (at least dye composition (~2.4 years). The complex interaction of pigment nano-particles with LC molecules and the resulting effects on the LC electro-optical performances are still to be fully understood. We hope this work will not only demonstrate a new and practical approach for outdoor reflective colour displays but also provide a new material system for fundamental liquid crystal colloid research work.

  8. Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Min Su; Kang, Byeong Gyun; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Yoon, Sukin; Lee, Seung Hee [Polymer BIN Fusion Research Center, Department of Polymer Nano-Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonju, Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ge Zhibing; Rao Linghui; Gauza, Sebastian; Wu, Shin-Tson, E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.k, E-mail: swu@creol.ucf.ed [College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2009-12-07

    Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect are emerging due to their submillisecond response time, wide view and simple fabrication process. However, the conventional in-plane switching device exhibits a relatively high operating voltage because the electric fields are restricted in the vicinity of the electrode surface. To overcome this technical barrier, we propose a partitioned wall-shaped electrode configuration so that the induced birefringence is uniform between electrodes throughout the entire cell gap. Consequently, the operating voltage is reduced by {approx} 2.8x with two transistors. The responsible physical mechanisms are explained.

  9. Development of High-Thrust and Double-Sided Linear Synchronous Motor Module For Liquid Crystal Display Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myung-jin; CHUNG; Sang-yeon; HWANG

    2010-01-01

    <正>Recently,there is an increasing requirement for controlling linear motion up to a few hundred of millimeter strokes in the area of the liquid crystal display(LCD) production equipment.The requirements of the motion system for LCD production equipment are high acceleration and high velocity with positioning accuracy.To satisfy these requirements,it has to be designed with the high-thrust force and low velocity ripple.In this work, high-thrust and double-sided linear synchronous motor (LSM)module is proposed and the developed high-thrust and double-sided LSM module is verified by performance test.

  10. Parallel aligned liquid crystal on silicon display based optical set-up for the generation of polarization spatial distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Irene; Lizana, Angel; Zheng, Xuejie; Peinado, Alba; Ramírez, Claudio; Martínez, Jose Luis; Márquez, Andrés.; Moreno, Ignacio; Campos, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Liquid Crystals on Silicon (LCOS) displays are a type of LCDs that work in reflection. Such devices, due to the double pass that the light beam performs through the LC cells, lead to larger phase modulation than transmissive LCDs with the same thickness. By taking advantage of this modulation capability exhibited by LCOS displays, we propose a new experimental set-up which is able to provide customized state of polarization spatial distributions just by means of a single LCOS display. To this aim, a double reflection on different halves of the display is properly performed. This fact is achieved by including a compact optical system that steers the light and performs a proper polarization plane rotation. The set-up has been experimentally implemented and some experimental concerns are discussed. The suitability of the system is provided by generating different experimental spatial distributions of polarization. In this regard, well-known polarization distributions, as axial, azimuthal or spiral linear polarization patterns are here provided. Based on the excellent results obtained, the suitability of the system to generate different spatially variant distributions of polarization is validated.

  11. LCD Panels: Vivid Presentations Using Your Overhead Projector and Your Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audio-Visual Supply, East Rutherford, NJ.

    Designed to help create effective presentations using liquid crystal display (LCD) panels, this guide contains the basic information on LCD panels, as well as suggestions on when, where and how to best use them, presented in a step-by-step procedure format. Seven topics are addressed in the guide: (1) eight steps to a successful meeting…

  12. Power generating reflective-type liquid crystal displays using a reflective polariser and a polymer solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Huh, Yoon; Park, Byoungchoo

    2015-06-01

    We herein report the results of a study of a power generating reflective-type liquid crystal display (LCD), composed of a 90° twisted nematic (TN) LC cell attached to the top of a light-absorbing polymer solar cell (PSC), i.e., a Solar-LCD. The PSC consisted of a polymer bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic (PV) layer of poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PCBM70), and showed a high power conversion efficiency of about 5%. In order to improve the visibility of the Solar-LCD, between the TN-LC and the PV cells we inserted a reflective polariser of a giant birefringent optical (GBO) film. The reflectivity from the Solar-LCD was observed to be considerably increased by more than 13-15% under illumination by visible light. The Solar-LCD also exhibited a significantly improved contrast ratio of more than 17-19. We believe there is a clear case for using such Solar-LCDs in new power-generating reflective-type displays; taken as a whole these results also demonstrate the possibility of their application in a number of energy-harvesting opto-electrical display devices.

  13. Image quality performance of liquid crystal display systems: influence of display resolution, magnification and window settings on contrast-detail detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Klaus; Smeets, Peter; De Hauwere, An; Voet, Tony; Duyck, Philippe; Verstraete, Koenraad; Thierens, Hubert

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of liquid crystal display (LCD) resolution, image magnification and window/level adjustment on the low-contrast performance in soft-copy image interpretation in digital radiography and digital mammography. In addition, the effect of a new LCD noise reduction mechanism on the low-contrast detectability was studied. Digital radiographs and mammograms of two dedicated contrast-detail phantoms (CDRAD 2.0 and CDMAM 3.4) were scored on five LCD devices with varying resolutions (1-3- and 5-megapixel) and one dedicated 5-megapixel cathode ray tube monitor. Two 5-megapixel LCDs were included. The first one was a standard 5-megapixel LCD and the second had a new (Per Pixel Uniformity) noise reduction mechanism. A multi-variate analysis of variance revealed a significant influence of LCD resolution, image magnification and window/level adjustment on the image quality performance assessed with both the CDRAD 2.0 and the CDMAM 3.4 phantoms. The interactive adjustment of brightness and contrast of digital images did not affect the reading time, whereas magnification to full resolution resulted in a significantly slower soft-copy interpretation. For digital radiography applications, a 3-megapixel LCD is comparable with a 5-megapixel CRT monitor in terms of low-contrast performance as well as in reading time. The use of a 2-megapixel LCD is only warranted when radiographs are analysed in full resolution and when using the interactive window/level adjustment. In digital mammography, a 5-megapixel monitor should be the first choice. In addition, the new PPU noise reduction system in the 5-megapixel LCD devices provides significantly better results for mammography reading as compared to a standard 5-magapixel LCD or CRT. If a 3-megapixel LCD is used in mammography setting, a very time-consuming magnification of the digital mammograms would be necessary.

  14. Image quality performance of liquid crystal display systems: Influence of display resolution, magnification and window settings on contrast-detail detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, Klaus [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)]. E-mail: klaus.bacher@ugent.be; Smeets, Peter [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); De Hauwere, An [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Voet, Tony [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Duyck, Philippe [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Verstraete, Koenraad [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Thierens, Hubert [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2006-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of liquid crystal display (LCD) resolution, image magnification and window/level adjustment on the low-contrast performance in soft-copy image interpretation in digital radiography and digital mammography. In addition, the effect of a new LCD noise reduction mechanism on the low-contrast detectability was studied. Digital radiographs and mammograms of two dedicated contrast-detail phantoms (CDRAD 2.0 and CDMAM 3.4) were scored on five LCD devices with varying resolutions (1-3- and 5-megapixel) and one dedicated 5-megapixel cathode ray tube monitor. Two 5-megapixel LCDs were included. The first one was a standard 5-megapixel LCD and the second had a new (Per Pixel Uniformity) noise reduction mechanism. A multi-variate analysis of variance revealed a significant influence of LCD resolution, image magnification and window/level adjustment on the image quality performance assessed with both the CDRAD 2.0 and the CDMAM 3.4 phantoms. The interactive adjustment of brightness and contrast of digital images did not affect the reading time, whereas magnification to full resolution resulted in a significantly slower soft-copy interpretation. For digital radiography applications, a 3-megapixel LCD is comparable with a 5-megapixel CRT monitor in terms of low-contrast performance as well as in reading time. The use of a 2-megapixel LCD is only warranted when radiographs are analysed in full resolution and when using the interactive window/level adjustment. In digital mammography, a 5-megapixel monitor should be the first choice. In addition, the new PPU noise reduction system in the 5-megapixel LCD devices provides significantly better results for mammography reading as compared to a standard 5-magapixel LCD or CRT. If a 3-megapixel LCD is used in mammography setting, a very time-consuming magnification of the digital mammograms would be necessary.

  15. Direct current electric field assembly of colloidal crystals displaying reversible structural color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aayush A; Ganesan, Mahesh; Jocz, Jennifer; Solomon, Michael J

    2014-08-26

    We report the application of low-voltage direct current (dc) electric fields to self-assemble close-packed colloidal crystals in nonaqueous solvents from colloidal spheres that vary in size from as large as 1.2 μm to as small as 0.1 μm. The assemblies are created rapidly (∼2 min) from an initially low volume fraction colloidal particle suspension using a simple capacitor-like electric field device that applies a steady dc electric voltage. Confocal microscopy is used to observe the ordering that is produced by the assembly method. This spatial evidence for ordering is consistent with the 6-fold diffraction patterns identified by light scattering. Red, green, and blue structural color is observed for the ordered assemblies of colloids with diameters of 0.50, 0.40, and 0.29 μm, respectively, consistent with spectroscopic measurements of reflectance. The diffraction and spectrophotometry results were found to be consistent with the theoretical Bragg's scattering expected for closed-packed crystals. By switching the dc electric field from on to off, we demonstrate reversibility of the structural color response on times scales ∼60 s. The dc electric field assembly method therefore represents a simple method to produce reversible structural color in colloidal soft matter.

  16. Brightness-Luminance Ratio of a Liquid Crystal Display in a Transmission Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Teruo

    1981-08-01

    A psychological experiment was executed binocularly for a bipartite or a separated field. The viewing subtence was 2° in both fields and the spatial separation in a separated field was 1°. Seven observers adjusted the luminance of a white comparison stimulus to appear equally as bright as a test stimulus of a liquid crystal cell. Red-, green-, blue-color under the tunable birefringence mode were shown as a test stimulus. The ratios of the mean observer in a bipartite field were 1.35± 0.23 for red, 1.20± 0.13 for green, 1.06± 0.13 for blue, and lower than those in a separated field.

  17. Generalized nematohydrodynamic boundary conditions with application to bistable twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Angbo

    2008-12-08

    Parallel to the highly successful Ericksen-Leslie hydrodynamic theory for the bulk behavior of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs), we derive a set of coupled hydrodynamic boundary conditions to describe the NLC dynamics near NLC-solid interfaces. In our boundary conditions, translational flux (flow slippage) and rotational flux (surface director relaxation) are coupled according to the Onsager variational principle of least energy dissipation. The application of our boundary conditions to the truly bistable π -twist NLC cell reveals a complete picture of the dynamic switching processes. It is found that the thus far overlooked translation-rotation dissipative coupling at solid surfaces can accelerate surface director relaxation and enhance the flow rate. This can be utilized to improve the performance of electro-optical nematic devices by lowering the required switching voltages and reducing the switching times. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  18. Effects of SiO2 and TiO2 fillers on thermal and dielectric properties of eco-friendly bismuth glass microcomposites of plasma display panels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shiv Prakash Singh; Karan Pal; Anal Tarafder; Mousumi Das; Kalyandurg Annapurna; Basudeb Karmakar

    2010-02-01

    The effects of SiO2 (amorphous) and TiO2 (crystalline, rutile) fillers on softening point (s), glass transition temperature (g), coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and dielectric constant () of zinc bismuth borate, ZnO–Bi2O3–B2O3 (ZBIB) glass microcomposites have been investigated with a view to its use as the white back (rear glass dielectric layer) of plasma display panels (PDPs). The experimentally measured properties have also been compared with those of theoretically predicted values. Both the experimental and theoretical trends of these properties with added filler contents correlate very well. The interaction of fillers with glass which occurred during sintering at 560°C has also been monitored by XRD and FTIR spectroscopic analyses. The microstructures and distribution of fillers in the glass matrix have been analyzed by SEM images. It is observed that the fillers have partially dissolved in the glass at the firing temperature leaving some unreacted filler as residue which results in ceramic–glass microcomposites. In consideration of the desired properties of white back of PDPs, the addition of TiO2 filler to ZBIB glass is found to be more preferable than SiO2 filler. The addition of 10 wt% TiO2 filler yielded s, g, CTE and values of 560°C, 480°C, 82 × 10-7/K and 14.6 which are found to meet the desired values of < 580°C, < 500°C, < 83 × 10-7/K and < 15, respectively with respect to use of PD200 glass as substrate in PDP technology.

  19. Crystal Structures of Human SIRT[subscript 3] Displaying Substrate-induced Conformational Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Lei; Wei, Wentao; Jiang, Yaobin; Peng, Hao; Cai, Jianhua; Mao, Chen; Dai, Han; Choy, Wendy; Bemis, Jean E.; Jirousek, Michael R.; Milne, Jill C.; Westphal, Christoph H.; Perni, Robert B.; (Viva Biotech); (Medicilon); (GSK)

    2009-11-04

    SIRT3 is a major mitochondrial NAD{sup +}-dependent protein deacetylase playing important roles in regulating mitochondrial metabolism and energy production and has been linked to the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction. SIRT3 is emerging as a potential therapeutic target to treat metabolic and neurological diseases. We report the first sets of crystal structures of human SIRT3, an apo-structure with no substrate, a structure with a peptide containing acetyl lysine of its natural substrate acetyl-CoA synthetase 2, a reaction intermediate structure trapped by a thioacetyl peptide, and a structure with the dethioacetylated peptide bound. These structures provide insights into the conformational changes induced by the two substrates required for the reaction, the acetylated substrate peptide and NAD+. In addition, the binding study by isothermal titration calorimetry suggests that the acetylated peptide is the first substrate to bind to SIRT3, before NAD{sup +}. These structures and biophysical studies provide key insight into the structural and functional relationship of the SIRT3 deacetylation activity.

  20. Bandgap properties in locally resonant phononic crystal double panel structures with periodically attached spring-mass resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Denghui; Shi, Zhiyu

    2016-10-01

    Bandgap properties of the locally resonant phononic crystal double panel structure made of a two-dimensional periodic array of a spring-mass resonator surrounded by n springs (n equals to zero at the beginning of the study) connected between the upper and lower plates are investigated in this paper. The finite element method is applied to calculate the band structure, of which the accuracy is confirmed in comparison with the one calculated by the extended plane wave expansion (PWE) method and the transmission spectrum. Numerical results and further analysis demonstrate that two bands corresponding to the antisymmetric vibration mode open a wide band gap but is cut narrower by a band corresponding to the symmetric mode. One of the regulation rules shows that the lowest frequency on the symmetric mode band is proportional to the spring stiffness. Then, a new design idea of adding springs around the resonator in a unit cell (n is not equal to zero now) is proposed in the need of widening the bandwidth and lowering the starting frequency. Results show that the bandwidth of the band gap increases from 50 Hz to nearly 200 Hz. By introducing the quality factor, the regulation rules with the comprehensive consideration of the whole structure quality limitation, the wide band gap and the low starting frequency are also discussed.

  1. Multi-wavelength sensitive holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating applied within image splitter for autostereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jihong; Wang, Kangni; Gao, Hui; Lu, Feiyue; Sun, Lijia; Zhuang, Songlin

    2016-09-01

    Multi-wavelength sensitive holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) grating and its application within image splitter for autostereoscopic display are reported in this paper. Two initiator systems consisting of photoinitiator, Methylene Blue and coinitiator, p-toluenesulfonic acid as well as photoinitiator, Rose Bengal and coinitiator, Nphenylglycine are employed. We demonstrate that Bragg gratings can be formed in this syrup polymerized under three lasers simultaneously including 632.8nm from He-Ne laser, 532nm from Verdi solid state laser, and 441.6nm from He- Cd laser. The diffraction efficiency of three kinds of gratings with different exposure wavelength are 57%, 75% and 33%, respectively. The threshold driving voltages of those gratings are 2.8, 3.05, and 2.85 V/μm, respectively. We also present the results for the feasibility of this proposed H-PDLC grating applied into image splitter without color dispersion for autostereoscopic display according to experimental splitting effect.

  2. A multilayer display augmented by alternating layers of lenticular sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hironobu

    2014-03-01

    A multilayer display is an autostereoscopic display constructed by stacking multiple layers of LC (liquid crystal) panels on top of a light source. It is capable of delivering smooth, continuous, and position-dependent images to viewers within a prescribed viewing zone. However, the images thus delivered may contain artifacts, which are inconsistent with real 3D scenes. For example, objects occluding one another may fuse together, or get obscured in the delivered images. To reduce such artifacts, it is often necessary to narrow the viewing zone. Using a directional rather than a uniform light source is one way to mitigate this problem. In this work, we present another solution to the problem. We propose an integrated architecture of multilayer and lenticular displays, where multiple LC panels are sandwiched between pairs of lenticular sheets. By associating a pair of lenticular sheets with a LC panel, each pixel in the panel is transformed into a view-dependent pixel, which is visible only from a particular viewing direction. Since all pixels in the integrated architecture are view-dependent, the display is partitioned into several sub-displays, each of which corresponds to a narrow viewing zone. The partitioning of display will reduce the possibility that the artifacts are noticeable in the delivered images. We will show several simulation results confirming that the proposed extension of multilayer display can deliver more plausible images than conventional multilayer display.

  3. Electrophoresis Gel Quantification with a Flatbed Scanner and Versatile Lighting from a Screen Scavenged from a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Brendan; Ng, Tuck Wah; Tan, Han Yen; Liew, Oi Wah

    2012-01-01

    The use of different types of stains in the quantification of proteins separated on gels using electrophoresis offers the capability of deriving good outcomes in terms of linear dynamic range, sensitivity, and compatibility with specific proteins. An inexpensive, simple, and versatile lighting system based on liquid crystal display backlighting is…

  4. Electrophoresis Gel Quantification with a Flatbed Scanner and Versatile Lighting from a Screen Scavenged from a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Brendan; Ng, Tuck Wah; Tan, Han Yen; Liew, Oi Wah

    2012-01-01

    The use of different types of stains in the quantification of proteins separated on gels using electrophoresis offers the capability of deriving good outcomes in terms of linear dynamic range, sensitivity, and compatibility with specific proteins. An inexpensive, simple, and versatile lighting system based on liquid crystal display backlighting is…

  5. The influence of the conical incidence on the waveguide-type colour-separating backlight for liquid crystal display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ji; Wang, Wenfeng

    2011-02-01

    The lightguide assisted by diffraction gratings is used to implement colour-separating backlight for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). In the configuration, the light incidence angle is required to be a precise designed one. However, the light incidence is conical always. In this paper, by rigorous coupled wave theory, the influence of conical input on the colour-separating backlight is investigated. It shows that, when the azimuthal angle of the light increases, the diffraction efficiency could be enhanced by a factor of 2, which means that the conical input will benefit the diffraction efficiency of the lightguide. However, it also leads to a larger output spot area at the same time, which could result in the mixing of RGB pix. When the azimuthal angle is smaller than 12°, the maximum diffraction angles of RGB light can be completely separated, which means that, with a designed distance or with an assisted micro-lens layer between the grating and the pix layer, the RGB light can reach their corresponding pix. The influence of the conical input on the polarized light is also investigated. The conical input will result in the output with composite polarization, which, in principle, disables the use of polarized light source in LCD.

  6. Exposure to volatile organic compounds and kidney dysfunction in thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Huang, Kuei-Hung; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chao, Keh-Ping; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Bao, Bo-Ying

    2010-06-15

    Many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted during the manufacturing of thin film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs), exposure to some of which has been reported to be associated with kidney dysfunction, but whether such an effect exists in TFT-LCD industry workers is unknown. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between exposure to VOCs and kidney dysfunction among TFT-LCD workers. The results showed that ethanol (1811.0+/-1740.4 ppb), acetone (669.0+/-561.0 ppb), isopropyl alcohol (187.0+/-205.3 ppb) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) (102.9+/-102.0 ppb) were the four dominant VOCs present in the workplace. The 63 array workers studied had a risk of kidney dysfunction 3.21-fold and 3.84-fold that of 61 cell workers and 18 module workers, respectively. Workers cumulatively exposed to a total level of isopropyl alcohol, PGMEA and propylene glycol monomethyl ether> or =324 ppb-year had a significantly higher risk of kidney dysfunction (adjusted OR=3.41, 95% CI=1.14-10.17) compared with those exposed to LCD industry, and cumulative exposure to specific VOCs might be associated with kidney dysfunction.

  7. Use of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass in the production of ceramic tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long

    2007-09-05

    In this study, we employ the following operating conditions: varied pressure (25 kgf/cm(2)), sintering temperature (900-1200 degrees C), sintering time (6h), percentage of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass by weight (0-50%) and temperature rising at a rate of 5 degrees C/min, to fabricate clay tiles. The sintering characteristics of the clay blended with TFT-LCD waste glass tiles are examined to evaluate the feasibility of the reuse of TFT-LCD waste glass. TFT-LCD waste glass contains large amounts of glass. The TCLP leaching concentrations all met the ROC EPAs current regulatory thresholds. The addition of TFT-LCD waste glass to the mixture, increased the apparent weight loss. The incorporation of 50% TFT-LCD waste glass resulted in a significant increase in the porosity ratio of the specimens compared to the porosity ratio of the ceramic tile containing TFT-LCD waste glass. The main constituent in both the clay tile and the clay with TFT-LCD waste glass samples is quartz. Increasing the temperature resulted in an increase in the flexural strength and resistance to abrasion in the tiles. The porosity ratio decreases as shrinkage increases. The relation between the porosity ratio and the hardness of the tiles used in the study is also shown.

  8. Dendronized Polyimides Bearing Long-Chain Alkyl Groups and Their Application for Vertically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tsuda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyimides having dendritic side chains were investigated. The terphenylene diamine monomer having a first-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris(n-dodecyloxy-benzoate and the monomer having a second-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris[-3’,4’,5’-tri(n-dodecyloxybenzyloxy]benzoate were successfully synthesized and the corresponding soluble dendritic polyimides were obtained by polycondensation with conventional tetracarboxylic dianhydride monomers such as benzophenone tertracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA. The two-step polymerizations in NMP that is a general method for the synthesis of soluble polyimides is difficult; however, the expected dendritic polyimides can be obtained in aromatic polar solvents such as m-cresol and pyridine. The solubility of these dendoronized polyimides is characteristic; soluble in common organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform, toluene and THF. These dendronized polyimides exhibited high glass transition temperatures and good thermal stability in both air and under nitrogen. Their application as alignment layers for LCDs was investigated, and it was found that these polyimides having dendritic side chains were applicable for the vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal displays (VAN-LCDs.

  9. Fluorescence depolarization and contact angle investigation of dynamic and static interfacial tension of liquid crystal display materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintella, Cristina M; Lima, Angelo M V; Gonçalves, Cristiane C; Watanabe, Yuji N; Mammana, Alaide P; Schreiner, Marcos A; Pepe, Iuri; Pizzo, Angela A

    2003-06-01

    Interfacial interactions control two processes empirically known to be critical for molecular anchoring in twisted nematic liquid crystal displays technology (TN-LCDs): surface treatment and filling procedure. Static and dynamical interfacial tensions (Gamma(SL)) between liquids and several substrates with similar roughness were observed respectively by contact angle (theta(c)) of sessile drops and by fluorescence depolarization of thin liquid films flowing at high velocity. Gamma(SL) decreased when glass was coated with tin dioxide and increased with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) deposition. Drops were circular for all substrates except rubbed PVA, where they flowed spontaneously along the rubbing direction, reaching an oblong form that had theta(c) parallel and perpendicular to the rubbing direction respectively greater and smaller than theta(c) for non-rubbed PVA. This is attributed to polar group alignment generating an asymmetric Gamma(SL) distribution with nanometric preferential direction, inducing a capillary-like flow. Polarization and anisotropy maps for high-velocity flow parallel to the PVA rubbing direction showed an increase in the net alignment of molecular domains and a widening of the region where it occurred. This is attributed to preferential anchoring in the downstream direction, instead of in several directions, as for non-rubbed PVA. This explains why filling direction is crucial for TN-LCDs homogeneous behavior.

  10. Lowering of the firing voltage and reducing of the discharge delay time in alternating current plasma display panels by a discontinuous spin-coated LaB6 film on the MgO protective layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Deng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A spin coated LaB6 discontinuous film is covered on MgO protective layer to improve the discharge performance of alternating current plasma display panels. Under the premise of high transmittance of more than 90%, a very small amount of polycrystal LaB6 powders added in an organic solvent are chosen as the coating solution. The discharge characteristics results show that with 250 torr 5% Xe-Ne pressure, the firing voltage and discharge delay time of the test panel with LaB6/MgO double protective layer are decreased by 13.4% and 36.5%, respectively, compared with that of conventional MgO protective layer, likely owing to the low work function of LaB6. Furthermore, the aging time of the proposed structure is comparable to that of pure MgO protective layer. Therefore, it will not increase the production costs and is highly suitable to be applied for alternating current plasma display panels with low electrical power consumption.

  11. Lowering of the firing voltage and reducing of the discharge delay time in alternating current plasma display panels by a discontinuous spin-coated LaB{sub 6} film on the MgO protective layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jiang, E-mail: dj78291@163.com [School of Physical Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China); Zeng, Baoqing [School of Physical Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China); Zhongshan Institute, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 528402 zhongshan (China); Wang, Xiaoju; Lin, Zulun; Qi, Kangcheng; Cao, Guichuan [School of Opto-electronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No.4, Section 2, Jianshe North Road, 610054 Chengdu (China)

    2014-03-15

    A spin coated LaB{sub 6} discontinuous film is covered on MgO protective layer to improve the discharge performance of alternating current plasma display panels. Under the premise of high transmittance of more than 90%, a very small amount of polycrystal LaB{sub 6} powders added in an organic solvent are chosen as the coating solution. The discharge characteristics results show that with 250 torr 5% Xe-Ne pressure, the firing voltage and discharge delay time of the test panel with LaB{sub 6}/MgO double protective layer are decreased by 13.4% and 36.5%, respectively, compared with that of conventional MgO protective layer, likely owing to the low work function of LaB{sub 6.} Furthermore, the aging time of the proposed structure is comparable to that of pure MgO protective layer. Therefore, it will not increase the production costs and is highly suitable to be applied for alternating current plasma display panels with low electrical power consumption.

  12. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the venture business assisting type regional consortium - Minor business creation base type. Development of touch panel display operated by micro-Peltier device; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Micro Peltier soshi ni yoru shokkaku display no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The project aims to develop a small, light, and inexpensive touch panel display that enables visually handicapped people to transmit information by use of their manual sensation. Information from computers or the like is exhibited on the display in arrays of hillocks and dents. For improvement on display resolution and for cost reduction, efforts are made (1) to employ micro-Peltier devices for the simplification of the hillock-dent display mechanism and for the realization of a high resolution tactile display and (2) to establish a technology for manufacturing low-cost micro-Peltier devices. In the tactile display to be developed, the hillocks and dents are formed using gas-filled tiny balloons. The balloons are 2-dimensionally arranged, with the gas therein to be expanded and contracted via micro-Peltier devices. Difference between hillock-dent arrays and changes therein with the passage of time provide information. The gas in the balloons is inflated and contracted through the operation of micro-Peltier devices. In concrete terms, efforts were made to develop (1) a prototype hillock-dent display, (2) a technology for manufacturing high-performance low-cost micro-Peltier devices, and (3) a software program for computers to drive tactile displays. (NEDO)

  13. Single-panel reflective LCD projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Jeffrey A.

    1999-05-01

    We have constructed a high resolution projection display with a single reflective LCD panel. Reflective technology based on standard silicon CMOS processing has emerged as a favorable direction for projection displays. Advantages include low investment and fabrication costs, high resolution capability, and high aperture ratio. As a move towards lower cost and high performance, we have applied reflective technology to a single panel projection display. The pixel array is SXGA and is fabricated in a process with both 5 Volt logic and 15 Volt structures. A thin 1 micron liquid crystal cell is formed over the array. A fast on time of 0.2 ms is attained with a nematic LC effect. System architecture is based upon a scrolling color illumination system wherein three color bands are present on the panel at all times. This arrangement avoids the 2/3 light loss in spectral efficiency present in a more conventional color wheel system. The system demonstrates that color sequential projection displays are feasible with LCD devices. And this direction holds great promise in a wide variety of applications including consumer HDTV displays.

  14. EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTION HISTOGRAMS FOR INCREMENT OF CHROMATICITY COORDINATES IN DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider evaluation problem of chromaticity coordinates increment for an image displayed by indicating means (liquid crystal panels and etc.. Display device profile set by the weight matrix for components of primary colors serves as basic data for quantitative calculation. Research results have the form of mathematical expressions allowing calculation of increment values of chromaticity coordinates of the image displayed on indicating means and histograms of increment distribution.

  15. Optical simulation of in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal display using the finite-difference time-domain method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hu; Ma, Hongmei; Sun, Yu-Bao

    2016-09-01

    The finite-difference time-domain method is used to simulate the optical characteristics of an in-plane switching blue phase liquid crystal display. Compared with the matrix optic methods and the refractive method, the finite-difference time-domain method, which is used to directly solve Maxwell’s equations, can consider the lateral variation of the refractive index and obtain an accurate convergence effect. The simulation results show that e-rays and o-rays bend in different directions when the in-plane switching blue phase liquid crystal display is driven by the operating voltage. The finite-difference time-domain method should be used when the distribution of the liquid crystal in the liquid crystal display has a large lateral change. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304074, 61475042, and 11274088), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. A2015202320 and GCC2014048), and the Key Subject Construction Project of Hebei Province University, China.

  16. Leaching of indium from obsolete liquid crystal displays: Comparing grinding with electrical disintegration in context of LCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodbiba, Gjergj, E-mail: dodbiba@sys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan); Nagai, Hiroki; Wang Lipang; Okaya, Katsunori; Fujita, Toyohisa [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two pre-treatment methods, prior to leaching of indium from obsolete LCD modules, were described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional grinding and electrical disintegration have been evaluated and compared in the context of LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data on the leaching capacity for indium and the electricity consumption of equipment were inputted into the LCA model in order to compare the environmental performance of each method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An estimate for the environmental performance was calculated as the sum of six impact categories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical disintegration method outperforms conventional grinding in all impact categories. - Abstract: In order to develop an effective recycling system for obsolete Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs), which would enable both the leaching of indium (In) and the recovery of a pure glass fraction for recycling, an effective liberation or size-reduction method would be an important pre-treatment step. Therefore, in this study, two different types of liberation methods: (1) conventional grinding, and (2) electrical disintegration have been tested and evaluated in the context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In other words, the above-mentioned methods were compared in order to find out the one that ensures the highest leaching capacity for indium, as well as the lowest environmental burden. One of the main findings of this study was that the electrical disintegration was the most effective liberation method, since it fully liberated the indium containing-layer, ensuring a leaching capacity of 968.5 mg-In/kg-LCD. In turn, the estimate for the environmental burden was approximately five times smaller when compared with the conventional grinding.

  17. Design of 1-μm-pitch liquid crystal spatial light modulators having dielectric shield wall structure for holographic display with wide field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomae, Yoshitomo; Shibata, Yosei; Ishinabe, Takahiro; Fujikake, Hideo

    2017-03-01

    In the development of electronic holographic displays with a wide field of view, one issue is the realization of 1-μm-pitch spatial light modulators (SLMs) using liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) techniques. We clarified that it is necessary to suppress not only the leakage of fringe electric fields from adjacent pixels but also the effect of elastic forces in the liquid crystal to achieve full-phase modulation (2π) in individual pixels. We proposed a novel LCOS-SLM with a dielectric shield wall structure, and achieved driving of individual 1-μm-pitch pixels. We also investigated the optimum values for width and dielectric constant of the wall structure when enlarging the area that can modulate light in the pixels. These results contribute to the design of 1-μm-pitch LCOS-SLM devices for wide-viewing-angle holographic displays.

  18. Optimize the modulation response of twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays as pure phase spatial light modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baiheng; Peng, Fei; Kang, Mingwu; Zhou, Jiawu

    2014-11-01

    Twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays (TN-LCD) are widely used in numerous research fields of optics working as spatial light modulators. Approaches to obtaining desired intensity or phase modulation by TN-LCD have been extensively studied based on the knowledge of TN-LCD's internal structure parameters, e.g., the orientation of LC molecules at the surfaces, the twist angle, the thickness of the LC layer, and the birefringence of the material. Generally TN-LCD placed between two linear polarizers (P) produces coupled intensity and phase modulation. To obtain the commonly used pure phase modulation, quarter wave plates (QWP) are often used in front of and/or behind the LCD. In this paper, we present a method to optimize the optical modulation properties of the TN-LCD to obtain pure phase modulation in the configuration of P-QWP-LCD-QWP-P each with proper orientation. Firstly an improved method for determining the Jones matrix of the TN-LCD without knowing its internal parameters is presented, which is based on the macroscopical Jones matrix descriptions for TN-LCD, linear polarizer and QWP. Only three sets of intensity measurements are needed for the complete determination of the TN-LCD's Jones matrix for a single wavelength. Then Jones matrix calculations are carried out to determine the orientations of the polarizers and QWPs for pure phase modulation response. In addition, we prove that the phase modulation depth (PMD) of the TN-LCD can be further increased provided that the mean intensity transmission is decreased to a lower level, which is very useful when the TN-LCD is used as a phase modulator and the ratio between the intensities of the desired diffracted order relative to the other diffracted orders is required higher. Experimental results coincide well with the optical modulation properties of the TN-LCD predicted by our determined Jones matrix. In contrast to the traditional method which requires knowledge of the TN-LCD's internal structure parameters

  19. Quantitative assessment of touch-screen panel by nondestructive inspection with three-dimensional real-time display optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nam Hyun; Park, Kibeom; Kim, Jae-Young; Jung, Yeongri; Kim, Jeehyun

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure several materials immersed in optical adhesives. The effects of variations in the concentration, physical characteristics, and thickness of the materials were studied, and these parameters were found to significantly affect the OCT measurement. The materials were selected for their distinct spectral properties in the infrared region. To ensure reliability, we acquired images using a scanning electron microscope after performing the semiconductor production process. We verified the feasibility of the application of OCT for defect inspection and product verification of touch-screen panels.

  20. Successful marriage: American Panel Corporation and LG Philips LCD custom-designed avionic, shipboard, and rugged ground vehicle display modules from a consumer-oriented fabrication facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, William; Garrett, Kimberly S.

    2001-09-01

    American panel corporation (APC) believes the use of custom designed (instead of ruggedized commercial) AMLCD cells is the only way to meet the specific environmental and performance requirements of the military/commercial avionic, shipboard and rugged ground vehicle markets. The APC/LG.Philips LCD (LG) custom approach mitigates risk to the end-user in many ways. As a part of the APC/LG long- term agreement LG has committed to provide module level equivalent (form, fit and function equivalent) panels for a period of ten years. No other commercial glass manufacturer has provided such an agreement. With the use of LG's commercial production manufacturing capabilities, APC/LG can provide the opportunity to procure a lifetime buy for any program with delivery of the entire lot within six months of order placement. This ensures that the entire production program will receive identical glass for every unit. The APC/LG relationship works where others have failed due to the number of years spent cultivating the mutual trust and respect necessary for establishing such a partnership, LG's interest in capturing the market share of this niche application, and the magnitude of the initial up-front investment by APC in engineering, tooling, facilities, production equipment, and LCD cell inventory.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of fast-decaying bluish green phosphors of Tb{sup 3+}-doped CaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2} for 2D/3D plasma display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Lixun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzhai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui, Hefei 230026 (China); Xu Xin, E-mail: xuxin@ustc.edu.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzhai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui, Hefei 230026 (China); Hao Luyuan; Yang Xiufang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzhai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui, Hefei 230026 (China); Agathopoulos, Simeon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-451 10 Ioannina (Greece)

    2012-06-15

    Oxynitride phosphor powders comprising of CaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2} doped with Tb{sup 3+} were successfully synthesized using a high-temperature solid-state reaction method. The experimentally determined photoluminescence (PL) properties of the produced phosphors meet the requirements of 2D/3D plasma display panels (PDPs). In particular, under the excitation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, emission peaks corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 3}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} (J=6, 5, 4, 3) and {sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} (J=6, 5, 4, 3) transitions of Tb{sup 3+} ions were recorded. Monitoring the {sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 5} emission of Tb{sup 3+} at 545 nm, the excitation bands were assigned to the host-related absorption as well as the 4f-5d (fd) and the 4f-4f (ff) transitions of Tb{sup 3+}. The produced phosphors can be efficiently excited at 147 nm, and have an adequately short decay time ({tau}{sub 1/10}=1.14 ms). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tb{sup 3+}-doped CaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2} was proved to be a candidate for plasma display panels (PDPs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL and PLE spectra from VUV to visible range of the phosphor were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphor has an adequately short decay time that is necessary for 3D displays.

  2. Identification of Text and Symbols on a Liquid Crystal Display Part I: Characterisation of the Luminance, Temporal and Spectral Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Association of Physicists in Medicine set up the AAPM Task Group 18 to establish standards for medical displays, and this group recommended that luminance...Using CRT-Generated Stimuli. Color Research and Application, 24(3), 164-176. TG18, A. (2005). AAPM On-Line Report No. 03. Assessment of Display...for Medical Imaging Systems: Executive Summary of AAPM TG18 Report. Medical Physics, 32(4), 1205-1225. 29 DSTO-TN-0770 30 Appendix A

  3. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  4. Reduced operating voltage and grey-to-grey response time in a vertically aligned liquid crystal display using a mixture of two polyimide alignment materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Young Eun; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Byeong Hoon; Song, Won Il; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Lee, Gi-Dong; Lee, Seung Hee

    2013-12-01

    We proposed a method to reduce the operating voltage and the grey-to-grey switching time of a vertically aligned liquid crystal display using a mixture of planar and vertical polyimide alignment materials. The surface anchoring energy of the two-polyimide mixture was smaller than that of the pure vertical polyimide and consequently, liquid crystal molecules were easily switched to a planar state with an electric field, resulting in a greater maximum retardation than that of the pure polyimide at the same applied voltage. Rising time was also significantly reduced due to the suppressed optical bouncing effect in the mixed planar polyimide, and the decaying time showed negligible change. With the proposed approach, we can reduce the cell gap to obtain half-wave retardation allowing for faster response time while keeping a low operating voltage.

  5. 基于液晶空间光调制器的全息显示∗%Holographic display based on liquid crystal spatial light mo dulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏军; 常琛亮; 雷威

    2015-01-01

    In conventional phase-only holographic display, the phase-only computer generated hologram is usually calculated based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm, in which the Nyquist theory should be satisfied. However, due to the pixel structure of the liquid crystal spatial light modulator and a fixed spatial sampling rate, the size of the reconstructed image is limited by the space-bandwidth product of the liquid crystal phase modulator. The traditional solution is to use convolution algorithm or double-step Fresnel diffraction algorithm to calculate the Fresnel hologram, but FFT has to be calculated many times in both of the methods, thereby increasing the burden of hologram computation. Therefore, in this paper we propose a method to calculate the phase-only hologram based on setting a virtual hologram plane. This virtual hologram plane is set based on the principle of lens imaging. So the calculation of the hologram can be divided into two steps: the first step is to calculate the Fresnel diffraction from the object plane to the virtual hologram plane, and the second step is to calculate the hologram from the virtual hologram plane by being multiplied with a quadratic phase term. In this way, the hologram can be calculated from the original object with any sampling rate we need by adjusting the corresponding parameters of distance. By this method one can calculate the Fresnel diffraction between hologram plane and object plane with variable sampling rates, without considering the space-bandwidth product of the liquid crystal phase modulator, and this algorithm uses only one FFT calculation, which can speed up the calculation of hologram compared with the convolution based method (using three FFTs in calculation) and the double-step Fresnel method (using two FFTs in calculation). Both the computer simulation and the optical experiments demonstrate that the object can be reconstructed with different sizes in the holographic display system. In the optical

  6. WE-D-204-02: Novel Method for Correcting Degradation of Sharpness of Liquid-Crystal Display Based On Modulation Transfer Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokurei, S [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan); Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Hospital, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Morishita, J; Yabuuchi, H [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu Universi, Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiotsuki, K [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan); Bamba, Y; Ogaki, M; Kita, M [Eizo Corporation, Hakusan, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a method for improving sharpness of images reproduced on liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) by compensating for the degradation of modulation transfer function (MTF) of the LCD. Methods: The inherent MTF of a color LCD (display MTF) was measured using a commercially available color digital camera. The frequency responses necessary to compensate for the resolution property of the LCD were calculated from the inverses of the display MTFs in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In addition, the inverses of the display MTFs were combined with the response of the human eye. The finite impulse response (FIR) filters were computed by taking the inverse Fourier transform of the frequency responses, and the effects of the FIR filtering on both the resolution and noise properties of the displayed images were verified by measuring the MTF and Wiener spectrum (WS), respectively. The FIR filtering was then applied to the representation of digital bone and chest radiographs. Results: The FIR filtering improved the MTF values by up to almost 1.0 or greater over the frequency range of interest, while it minimally increased the WS values. Combining the inverses of the display MTFs with the response of the human eye led to further refinement of the MTF. Our method was successfully and beneficially applied to the image interpretation of bone radiographs. The resolution enhancement of chest radiographs, which include larger scattered radiation than bone radiographs, was easily perceived by incorporating the response of the human eye. In addition, no artifacts were observed on the processed images. Conclusion: Our proposed method to compensate for the degradation of the resolution properties of LCDs has the potential to improve the observer performance of radiologists when reading digital radiographs. This work was supported in part by grant from EIZO Corporation.

  7. Crosstalk in stereoscopic displays: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andrew J.

    2012-10-01

    Crosstalk, also known as ghosting or leakage, is a primary factor in determining the image quality of stereoscopic three dimensional (3D) displays. In a stereoscopic display, a separate perspective view is presented to each of the observer's two eyes in order to experience a 3D image with depth sensation. When crosstalk is present in a stereoscopic display, each eye will see a combination of the image intended for that eye, and some of the image intended for the other eye-making the image look doubled or ghosted. High levels of crosstalk can make stereoscopic images hard to fuse and lack fidelity, so it is important to achieve low levels of crosstalk in the development of high-quality stereoscopic displays. Descriptive and mathematical definitions of these terms are formalized and summarized. The mechanisms by which crosstalk occurs in different stereoscopic display technologies are also reviewed, including micropol 3D liquid crystal displays (LCDs), autostereoscopic (lenticular and parallax barrier), polarized projection, anaglyph, and time-sequential 3D on LCDs, plasma display panels and cathode ray tubes. Crosstalk reduction and crosstalk cancellation are also discussed along with methods of measuring and simulating crosstalk.

  8. A comparison of the suitability of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as visual stimulators in mfERG diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Christoph; Horn, Folkert K; Kremers, Jan; Juenemann, Anselm

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine up to which extent the specific characteristics of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors influence the retinal biosignal when used as stimulators in ocular electrophysiology. In a conventional CRT monitor, each pixel lights up only for a duration of a few milliseconds during each frame. In contrast, liquid crystal displays are quasi-static, i.e. each pixel has a constant luminance during the whole length of the frame, but lights up only with a certain delay after the trigger. These different display characteristics may affect the mfERG signal. The temporal and spatial luminance distributions of a CRT and an LCD monitor were measured in white flashes. The total amount of emitted light was calculated by integration of the intensity versus time curves. By means of an mfERG recording system (RETIsystem, Roland Consult, Brandenburg, Germany) first-order kernel (FOK) mfERG signals were computed and then analysed using customized MATLAB (TheMathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) software. With the two stimulator monitors, differences in the mfERG signal were observed. The latencies of mfERG responses recorded with the LCD monitor were significantly increased by 7.1 ms for N1 and 9.5 ms for P1 compared to the CRT. Due to a higher luminance, the N1 amplitude was significantly higher by approx. 2 dB in measurements with the LCD monitor while no significant difference could be detected with regard to the more contrast sensitive P1 amplitude. When using LCD monitors as stimulators the increase in latencies and differences in the luminance versus time profile must be taken into account. Prior to clinical application, the establishment of guidelines for the use of LCD monitors is recommended.

  9. [Evaluation of image quality using the normalized-rank approach for primary class liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors with different colors and resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Hidefumi; Katayama, Reiji; Sakaguchi, Taro; Maeda, Takashi; Morishita, Junji; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2010-11-20

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the image quality of five types of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors by utilizing the normalized-rank approach and to investigate the effect of LCD monitor specifications, such as display colors, luminance, and resolution, on the evaluators' ranking. The LCD monitors used in this study were 2, 3 and 5 mega-pixel monochrome LCD monitors, and 2 and 3 mega-pixel color LCD monitors (Eizo Nanao Corporation). All LCD monitors were calibrated to the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) with different maximum luminance (recommended luminance) settings. Also, four kinds of radiographs were used for observer study based on the normalized-rank approach: three adult chest radiographs, three pediatric chest radiographs, three ankle joint radiographs, and four double-contrasted upper gastrointestinal radiographs. Ten radiological technologists participated in the observer study. Monochrome LCD monitors exhibited superior ranking with statistically significant differences (pLCD monitors in all kinds of radiographs. The major difference between monochrome and color monitors was luminance. Therefore, it is considered that the luminance of LCD monitors affects observers' evaluations based on image quality. Moreover, in the case of radiographs that include high frequency image components, the monitor resolution also affects the evaluation. In clinical practice, it is necessary to optimize the luminance and choose appropriate LCD monitors for diagnostic images.

  10. After-effects of TFT-LCD display polarity and display colour on the detection of low-contrast objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Susanne; Buchner, Axel

    2010-07-01

    Participants performed a word-non-word discrimination task within a car control display emulated on a thin film transistor liquid-crystal display (TFT-LCD). The task simulated an information read-out from a TFT-LCD-based instrument panel. Subsequently, participants performed a low-contrast object detection task that simulated the detection of objects during night-time driving. In experiment 1, words/non-words were presented black-on-white (positive polarity) or white-on-black (negative polarity). In experiments 2 and 3, display colour was additionally manipulated. A positive polarity advantage in the discrimination task was consistently observed. In contrast, positive displays interfered more than negative displays with subsequent detection. The detrimental after-effect of positive polarity displays was strong with white and blue, reduced with amber and absent with red displays. Subjective measures showed a preference for blue over red, but a slight advantage for amber over blue. Implications for TFT-LCD design are derived from the results. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: When using TFT-LCDs as car instrument panels, positive polarity red TFT-LCDs are very likely to lead to good instrument readability while at the same time minimising - relative to other colours - the negative effects of an illuminated display on low-contrast object detection during night-time driving.

  11. Monocular display unit for 3D display with correct depth perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Hosomi, Takashi

    2009-11-01

    A study of virtual-reality system has been popular and its technology has been applied to medical engineering, educational engineering, a CAD/CAM system and so on. The 3D imaging display system has two types in the presentation method; one is a 3-D display system using a special glasses and the other is the monitor system requiring no special glasses. A liquid crystal display (LCD) recently comes into common use. It is possible for this display unit to provide the same size of displaying area as the image screen on the panel. A display system requiring no special glasses is useful for a 3D TV monitor, but this system has demerit such that the size of a monitor restricts the visual field for displaying images. Thus the conventional display can show only one screen, but it is impossible to enlarge the size of a screen, for example twice. To enlarge the display area, the authors have developed an enlarging method of display area using a mirror. Our extension method enables the observers to show the virtual image plane and to enlarge a screen area twice. In the developed display unit, we made use of an image separating technique using polarized glasses, a parallax barrier or a lenticular lens screen for 3D imaging. The mirror can generate the virtual image plane and it enlarges a screen area twice. Meanwhile the 3D display system using special glasses can also display virtual images over a wide area. In this paper, we present a monocular 3D vision system with accommodation mechanism, which is useful function for perceiving depth.

  12. Production and crystallization of a panel of structure-based mutants of the human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, Mari; Laulumaa, Saara; Ruskamo, Salla; Kursula, Petri

    2012-11-01

    The myelin sheath is a multilayered membrane that surrounds and insulates axons in the nervous system. One of the proteins specific to the peripheral nerve myelin is P2, a protein that is able to stack lipid bilayers. With the goal of obtaining detailed information on the structure-function relationship of P2, 14 structure-based mutated variants of human P2 were generated and produced. The mutants were designed to potentially affect the binding of lipid bilayers by P2. All mutated variants were also crystallized and preliminary crystallographic data are presented. The structural data from the mutants will be combined with diverse functional assays in order to elucidate the fine details of P2 function at the molecular level.

  13. Ergonomics Analysis of the Operation Display Panel of the CNC Reciprocating Solid Wood Panel Saw Based on CATIA V5%基于CATIA V5的数控往复式锯材剖分锯控制-显示面板人机分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志鹏; 马岩

    2015-01-01

    以CATIA V5为人机工程学的应用研究平台,研究了虚拟人体模型的建立及人体姿态仿真在数控往复式锯材剖分锯控制-显示面板设计中应用的具体方法,通过对操作人员使用产品的过程进行模拟分析与优化,找出产品设计中的缺陷与不足,对产品进行改进设计。%With CATIA V5 as the platform for application research of ergonomics, the establishment of virtual human body models and specific methods for application of human body posture simulation in the operation display panel of CNC recipro-cating solid wood panel saws are studied. Through the simulation analysis and optimization of the process of operators using products, the defects an insufficiencies involved in product design are found out, which helps product design improvement.

  14. Increase of brightness and transmission efficiency in flat panel display through serial synchronous scanning mode with double buffers%串行同步双缓冲扫描提高平板显示器的显示亮度和传送利用率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈章进; 陈峰; 冉峰; 徐美华; 郑方

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a serial synchronous scanning mode in flat panel display(FPD)by adding a latch buffer between the seriaiizer and the driving buffer.Comparing with conventional techniques,the proposed structure can efficiently reduce the brightness loss and improve the transmission performance.Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the ratio between the lightest weight display time and the relative transmission time is a tradeoff between brightness loss and transmission efficiency.

  15. Metabolic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basic metabolic panel (BMP) and comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP). The BMP checks your blood sugar, calcium, and ... as creatinine to check your kidney function. The CMP includes all of those tests, as well as ...

  16. Display standards for commercial flight decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, Larry S.; Penn, Cecil W.

    1994-06-01

    SAE display standards are used as guidelines for certifying commercial airborne electronic displays. The SAE document generation structure and approval process is described. The SAE committees that generate display standards are described. Three SAE documents covering flat panel displays (AS-8034, ARP-4256, and ARP-4260) are discussed with their current status. Head-Up Display documents are also in work.

  17. A FPGA-Based Integrated Controller for Liquid Crystal Display%基于FPGA的液晶控制器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪金辉; 张健; 宫娜; 吴武臣; 董利民

    2008-01-01

    介绍了一种基于 FPGA 的集成液晶控制器.系统由显示模块和控制模块组成,显示模块(LEM101)为10 bit 多功能通用型器件,内含看门狗(WDT)/时钟发生器,2 种频率的蜂鸣驱动电路,内置显示RAM,及3-4线串行接口.控制器基于1.5万门 FPGA 芯片(Xilinx XC3S1500),易于扩展和升级.利用 Verilog 语言,在 FPGA 芯片中实现了控制模块的设计,通过 GR-XC3S-1500 开发板验证,本设计完全满足对液晶模块的控制要求,并成功应用于光栅测量显示控制系统中.控制模块由四部分组成:存储、译码、串并转换器、输出控制.文章讨论了设计方法和设计过程,给出了部分 Verilog 代码.此外,本设计还创造性地在电源和 FPGA 芯片间插入低成本元件,满足了液晶上电后,初始化命令的延迟要求,从而节约了 FPGA 的硬件资源.%This paper presents a FPGA-based integrated controller for liquid crystal display system. The system consists of a display module and a controlling module. The former (LCM101 chip) is 10 bit multi-functional device with a WDT(watch dog timer), a dual frequency driving circuit, a display RAM and seri-al interface. The later is an integrated display controller using a FPGA chip of 1. 5million gate (Xilinx XC3S1500), so being easy to extend and upgrade. Integrated controller design in FPGA chip has been im-plemented by using Verilog language coding and verified in Xilinx Development Board. The design fits the requirements to control liquid crystal display entirely, and is successfully applied in a grating measurement system. The controller module includes four parts: storage, decoding, serial-parallel interface translation,and output controlling. This paper discusses the design method and the design process of each part above,providing Verilog codes partly. What's more a low-cost accessory is originally located between FPGA chip and power supply in hardware design to satisfy delay after liquid crystal electrify

  18. Effect of spatial noise of medical grade Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) on the detection of micro-calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, Hans; Fan, Jiahua; Dallas, William J.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    This presentation describes work in progress that is the result of an NIH SBIR Phase 1 project that addresses the wide- spread concern for the large number of breast-cancers and cancer victims [1,2]. The primary goal of the project is to increase the detection rate of microcalcifications as a result of the decrease of spatial noise of the LCDs used to display the mammograms [3,4]. Noise reduction is to be accomplished with the aid of a high performance CCD camera and subsequent application of local-mean equalization and error diffusion [5,6]. A second goal of the project is the actual detection of breast cancer. Contrary to the approach to mammography, where the mammograms typically have a pixel matrix of approximately 1900 x 2300 pixels, otherwise known as FFDM or Full-Field Digital Mammograms, we will only use sections of mammograms with a pixel matrix of 256 x 256 pixels. This is because at this time, reduction of spatial noise on an LCD can only be done on relatively small areas like 256 x 256 pixels. In addition, judging the efficacy for detection of breast cancer will be done using two methods: One is a conventional ROC study [7], the other is a vision model developed over several years starting at the Sarnoff Research Center and continuing at the Siemens Corporate Research in Princeton NJ [8].

  19. Panel Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Based on our 2013-article, ”Does Deployment to War Affect Soldiers' Public Service Motivation – A Panel Study of Soldiers Before and After their Service in Afghanistan”, we present Panel Analysis as a methodological discipline. Panels consist of multiple units of analysis, observed at two or more...

  20. Vortex beam generation and other advanced optics experiments reproduced with a twisted-nematic liquid-crystal display with limited phase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofré, Aaron; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Vargas, Asticio; Moreno, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    In this work we propose the use of twisted-nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulators (TN-LC-SLM) as a useful tool for training students in the manipulation of light beams with phase-only masks. In particular, we focus the work on the realization of phase-only gratings and phase-only spiral phases for the generation of vortex beams, beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). Despite the extensive activity in this field, its experimental implementation for educational purposes is limited because it requires the use of very expensive high-resolution liquid-crystal on silicon (LCOS) SLMs. Here, we show that a low-cost experimental implementation can be done with older TNLC technology. However, these devices, intended for display applications, exhibit rather limited optical phase modulation properties in comparison with modern LCOS devices, such as a very low range of phase modulation and a general coupled intensity modulation. However, we show that a precise characterization of their retardance parameters permits their operation in useful modulation configurations. As examples, we include one continuous phase-only configuration useful for reproducing the optimal triplicator phase grating, and a binary π-phase modulation. We include experiments with the realization of different phase diffraction gratings, and their combination with spiral phase patterns and lens functions to generate a variety of vortex beams.

  1. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  2. Panel Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Based on our 2013-article, ”Does Deployment to War Affect Soldiers' Public Service Motivation – A Panel Study of Soldiers Before and After their Service in Afghanistan”, we present Panel Analysis as a methodological discipline. Panels consist of multiple units of analysis, observed at two or more...... in research settings where it is not possible to distribute units of analysis randomly or where the independent variables cannot be manipulated. The greatest disadvantage in regard to using panel studies is that data may be difficult to obtain. This is most clearly vivid in regard to the use of panel surveys...

  3. Flat panel display characterization: a perceptual approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, C.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, consumer television sets have substantially increased in screen size, with screen diagonals up to 65-inch and beyond. At the same time, their thickness has decreased to only a few centimeters. Right from the start, this combination has been highly appreciated by consumers, resu

  4. A study on 100 MeV O{sup 7+} irradiated SnO{sub 2}/Ag/SnO{sub 2} multilayer as transparent electrode for flat panel display application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vikas [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Singh, Satyavir, E-mail: satyavir84@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Asokan, K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sachdev, Kanupriya [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Materials Research Centre, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 India (India)

    2016-07-15

    The multilayer thin films of SnO{sub 2}/Ag/SnO{sub 2} were deposited using electron-beam and thermal evaporation for flat panel display application. The as-prepared SnO{sub 2}/Ag/SnO{sub 2} specimen was irradiated with 100 MeV O{sup 7+} ions by varying the fluences 1 × 10{sup 12} and 5 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. The pristine and irradiated films were investigated using XRD, SEM, AFM and Raman to find out modification in the structure and surface morphology of the films. UV–Vis and Hall measurement techniques were used to investigate the optical and electrical properties respectively. It was observed that the roughness of the film after irradiation (for the fluence of 1 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}) ​ decreased to 0.68 nm from 1.6 nm and showed an increase in roughness to 1.35 nm on increasing the fluence to 5 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. This oxide/metal/oxide structure fulfills the basic requirements of a TCE, like high-transmittance >75% for pristine and >80% for the fluence of 1 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} over a broad spectrum of visible light for practical applications. The multilayer structure shows change in the electrical resistivity from 1.6 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm to 6.3 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm after irradiation.

  5. Biological treatment of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater using aerobic and anoxic/oxic sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chin-Nan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chen, Po-Chun

    2010-09-01

    The amount of pollutants produced during manufacturing processes of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) substantially increases due to an increasing production of the opto-electronic industry in Taiwan. This study presents the treatment performance of one aerobic and one anoxic/oxic (A/O) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating synthetic TFT-LCD wastewater containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), monoethanolamine (MEA), and tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The long-term monitoring results for the aerobic and A/O SBRs demonstrate that stable biodegradation of DMSO, MEA, and TMAH can be achieved without any considerably adverse impacts. The ammonium released during MEA and TMAH degradation can also be completely oxidized to nitrate through nitrification in both SBRs. Batch studies on biodegradation rates for DMSO, MEA, and TMAH under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions indicate that effective MEA degradation can be easily achieved under all three conditions examined, while efficient DMSO and TMAH degradation can be attained only under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The potential odor problem caused by the formation of malodorous dimethyl sulfide from DMSO degradation under anaerobic conditions, however, requires insightful consideration in treating DMSO-containing wastewater.

  6. Panel Session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    2004-01-01

    In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach.......In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach....

  7. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  8. Review of Defense Display Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Programs Flat Panel Autostereoscopic N-perspective 3D High Definition DMD Digital Projector Light Piping & Quantum Cavity Displays Solid State Laser...Megapixel Displays • Size Commonality • 67 % Weight Reduction • > 200 sq. in. per Display 20-20 Vision Simulators True 3D , sparse symbols Foldable Display...megapixel 2D and True 3D Display Technology 25M & T3D FY02-FY06 New service thrusts

  9. Designing low cost LED display for the billboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yi-Jian; Uang, Chii-Maw; Wang, Ping-Chieh; Ho, Zu-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    With quickly advance of the computer, microelectronics and photonics technologies, LED display panel becomes a new electronic advertising media. It can be used to show any information whatever characters or graphics. Most LED display panels are built of many Light-Emitting Diodes arranged in a matrix form. The display has many advantages such as low power, low cost, long life and high definition. Because the display panel is asked to show rich color, the LED display panel's driving system becomes very complex. The design methodology of LED display panel's driver becomes more and more important to meet the market requirements. Cost is always the most important issue in public market domain. In this paper, we report a design methodology of LED display panel's driver based on the microprocessor control unit (MCU) system and LED display controller IC, HT1632C, to control three colors, RGB, color LED display panel and the modular panel size is 24*16 in matrix form. The HT1632C is a memory mapping LED display controller, it can be used on many applications, such as digital clock, thermometer, counter, voltmeter or other instrumentation readouts. Three pieces of HT1632C are used to drive a 24*16 RGB LED display panel, in our design case. Each HT163C chip is used to control one of the R, G and B color. As the drive mode is driven in DC mode, the RGB display panel can create and totally of seven colors under the control of MCU. The MCU generates the control signal to drive HT1632C. In this study, the software design methodology is adopted with dynamic display principle. When the scan frequency is 60Hz, LED display panel will get the clear picture and be able to display seven colors.

  10. Interactive display system having a digital micromirror imaging device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard; Kaull, Lisa; Brewster, Calvin

    2006-04-11

    A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. A projector cooperates with a digital imaging device, e.g. a digital micromirror imaging device, for projecting an image through the panel for display on the outlet face. The imaging device includes an array of mirrors tiltable between opposite display and divert positions. The display positions reflect an image light beam from the projector through the panel for display on the outlet face. The divert positions divert the image light beam away from the panel, and are additionally used for reflecting a probe light beam through the panel toward the outlet face. Covering a spot on the panel, e.g. with a finger, reflects the probe light beam back through the panel toward the inlet face for detection thereat and providing interactive capability.

  11. Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ramachandran

    1963-05-01

    Full Text Available This introductory article give an insight into the different methods employed in the construction of Sandwich panels, their limitations and future design application for defence use as a structural element with one of the highest strength-weight ratios yet devised.

  12. Panel Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of the ASIS Mid-Year Meeting, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Lists the speakers and summarizes the issues addressed for 12 panel sessions on topics related to networking, including libraries and national networks, federal national resources and energy programs, multimedia issues, telecommuting, remote image serving, accessing the Internet, library automation, scientific information, applications of Z39.50,…

  13. Latest development of display technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Yue; Yao, Qiu-Xiang; Liu, Pan; Zheng, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ji-Cheng; Zheng, Hua-Dong; Zeng, Chao; Yu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Tao; Zeng, Zhen-Xiang

    2016-09-01

    In this review we will focus on recent progress in the field of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) display technologies. We present the current display materials and their applications, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), flexible OLEDs quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs), active-matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), electronic paper (E-paper), curved displays, stereoscopic 3D displays, volumetric 3D displays, light field 3D displays, and holographic 3D displays. Conventional 2D display devices, such as liquid crystal devices (LCDs) often result in ambiguity in high-dimensional data images because of lacking true depth information. This review thus provides a detailed description of 3D display technologies.

  14. 基于柱面光栅的液晶三维自由立体显示%3D Autostereoscopic Liquid Crystal Display Based on Lenticular Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琼华; 陶宇虹; 李大海; 赵仁亮; 赵悟翔

    2008-01-01

    根据双目视差原理和柱面光栅的分光特性研制了液晶三维自由立体显示器.该立体显示器由二维平板液晶显示器和柱面光栅有机耦合而成.采用九个视差图实现了三维静态、动态和视频的显示效果.一个19英寸的立体显示器具有相对应的平面显示器相同的亮度、对比度和色彩,其分辨率在垂直和水平方向都有合理的下降.该立体显示器的观看距离是(1000±500)mm,视角为 90°,可供多人不戴立体眼镜就能自由观看立体图像.%According to binocular parallax and the optical property of lenticular lens, a three-dimension (3D) au-tostereoscopic liquid crystal display was developed. The display is composed of a two-dimension (2D) fiat liquid crystal display and a lenticular lens sheet. Nine views are used to realize the display of 3D static, animation and video images. A 19-inch 3D monitor prototype presents the same brightness, contrast ratio and color as those of the corresponding 2D display. Only the resolution reduces on both the horizontal and vertical direction of the screen reasonably. The viewing distance is (1000±500)mm and viewing angle is 90°. Several viewers without wearing eyeglass can see 3D stereo images on the prototype of the display.

  15. LCD Projection Display System with High Brightness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new compact XGA projection is designed with three 0.99" liquid crystal panels. By using 275W UHP lamp, above 3000 ANSI lumens could be achieved with the uniformity of 85%. The color temperature is 6742K.

  16. LCD panel characterization by measuring full Jones matrix of individual pixels using polarization-sensitive digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongchan; Yu, Hyeonseung; Park, Jung-Hoon; Park, YongKeun

    2014-10-06

    We present measurements of the full Jones matrix of individual pixels in a liquid-crystal display (LCD) panel. Employing a polarization-sensitive digital holographic microscopy based on Mach-Zehnder interferometry, the complex amplitudes of the light passing through individual LCD pixels are precisely measured with respect to orthogonal bases of polarization states, from which the full Jones matrix components of individual pixels are obtained. We also measure the changes in the Jones matrix of individual LCD pixels with respect to an applied bias. In addition, the complex optical responses of a LCD panel with respect to arbitrary polarization states of incident light were characterized from the measured Jones matrix.

  17. Autostereoscopic three-dimensional display based on two parallax barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiang-Yong; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Zhao, Wu-Xiang; Li, Da-Hai

    2011-06-20

    An autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) display composed of a flat-panel display, two parallax barriers, and a backlight panel is proposed. Parallax barrier 1, located between the backlight panel and the flat-panel display, divides the lights to create the perception of stereoscopic images. Parallax barrier 2, located between the flat-panel display and the viewers, acts as the function of decreasing the cross talk of the stereoscopic images. The operation principle of the display and the calculation equations for the parallax barriers are described in detail. An autostereoscopic 3D display prototype is developed. The prototype presents high-quality stereoscopic images. At the optimal viewing distance, it presents stereoscopic images without cross talk. At other viewing distances, it has less cross talk than a conventional autostereoscopic 3D display based on one parallax.

  18. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  19. Advanced manufacturing technologies on color plasma displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsui, Keiichi

    2000-06-01

    The mass production of the color plasma display started from 1996. However, since the price of the panel is still expensive, PDPs are not in widespread use at home. It is necessary to develop the new and low-cost manufacturing technologies to reduce the price of the panel. This paper describes some of the features of new fabrication technologies of PDPs.

  20. Colorimetric characterization models based on colorimetric characteristics evaluation for active matrix organic light emitting diode panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rui; Xu, Haisong; Tong, Qingfen

    2012-10-20

    The colorimetric characterization of active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) panels suffers from their poor channel independence. Based on the colorimetric characteristics evaluation of channel independence and chromaticity constancy, an accurate colorimetric characterization method, namely, the polynomial compensation model (PC model) considering channel interactions was proposed for AMOLED panels. In this model, polynomial expressions are employed to calculate the relationship between the prediction errors of XYZ tristimulus values and the digital inputs to compensate the XYZ prediction errors of the conventional piecewise linear interpolation assuming the variable chromaticity coordinates (PLVC) model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed PC model outperformed other typical characterization models for the two tested AMOLED smart-phone displays and for the professional liquid crystal display monitor as well.

  1. Moiré-reduction method for slanted-lenticular-based quasi-three-dimensional displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhenfeng; Surman, Phil; Zhang, Lei; Rawat, Rahul; Wang, Shizheng; Zheng, Yuanjin; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we present a method for determining the preferred slanted angle for a lenticular film that minimizes moiré patterns in quasi-three-dimensional (Q3D) displays. We evaluate the preferred slanted angles of the lenticular film for the stripe-type sub-pixel structure liquid crystal display (LCD) panel. Additionally, the sub-pixels mapping algorithm of the specific angle is proposed to assign the images to either the right or left eye channel. A Q3D display prototype is built. Compared with the conventional SLF, this newly implemented Q3D display can not only eliminate moiré patterns but also provide 3D images in both portrait and landscape orientations. It is demonstrated that the developed slanted lenticular film (SLF) provides satisfactory 3D images by employing a compact structure, minimum moiré patterns and stabilized 3D contrast.

  2. Development of a plasma panel radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R; Ben-Moshe, M; Benhammou, Y; Bensimon, R; Chapman, J W; Etzion, E; Ferretti, C; Friedman, P S; Levin, D S; Silver, Y; Varner, R L; Weaverdyck, C; Wetzel, R; Zhou, B; Anderson, T; McKinny, K; Bentefour, E H

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of a radiation detector based on plasma display panel technology. The plasma panel sensor (PPS) is a variant of micropattern gas radiation detectors. PPS components are non-reactive and intrinsically radiation-hard materials, such as glass substrates, metal electrodes and inert gas mixtures. Plasma display panels used as detectors were tested with cosmic ray muons, beta rays and gamma rays, protons, and thermal neutrons. The results demonstrated risetimes and time resolution of a few nanoseconds, as well as spatial resolution compatible with the pixel pitch.

  3. Development of a plasma panel muon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, D. S.; Ball, R.; Beene, J. R.; Benhammou, Y.; Chapman, J. W.; Dai, T.; Etzion, E.; Friedman, P. S.; Ben Moshe, M.; Silver, Y.; Varner, R. L.; Weaverdyck, C.; White, S.; Zhou, B.

    2011-10-01

    A radiation detector technology based on plasma display panels (PDPs), the underlying engine of panel plasma television displays, is being investigated. Emerging from this well-established television technology is the Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS), a novel variant of the micro-pattern radiation detector. The PPS is fundamentally a fast, high-resolution detector comprised of an array of plasma discharge cells, operating in a hermetically sealed gas mixture. We report on the PPS development effort, including proof-of-principle results of laboratory signal observations.

  4. Miniature information displays: primary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-04-01

    Positioned to replace current liquid crystal display technology in many applications, miniature information displays have evolved to provide several truly portable platforms for the world's growing personal computing and communication needs. The technology and functionality of handheld computer and communicator systems has finally surpassed many of the standards that were originally established for desktop systems. In these new consumer electronics, performance, display size, packaging, power consumption, and cost have always been limiting factors for fabricating genuinely portable devices. The rapidly growing miniature information display manufacturing industry is making it possible to bring a wide range of highly anticipated new products to new markets.

  5. Panel discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No Author Given

    1975-01-01

    Panel discussion: summation and future projections. Introductory remarks by panelists followed by questions and comments from the floor. Panelists: Dr. Joseph Barnea (former director of Resources and Transport for the United Nations; energy consultant to the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)); the Honorable Clyde F. Bel, Jr. (member of the Louisiana House of Representatives representing District 90 and New Orleans); Dr. David Lombard (acting chief of the Advanced Systems Branch of the Division of Geothermal Energy Research and Technology, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)); Fred C. Repper (vice-president of Central Power and Light Company in Corpus Christi, Texas); Dr. Hans Suter (environmental consultant in Corpus Christi, Texas; environmental columnist for the Corpus Christi Caller Times). Session chairman: Herbert Woodson.

  6. 显示屏用薄玻璃的化学钢化及性能分析%Chemical tempering and Performance Analysis of Thin Glass used for Display panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福; 安百江; 杨宝珠

    2012-01-01

    薄玻璃广泛应用于各类显示器件中。其特点是容易进行化学钢化,以提高显示器玻璃的使用寿命。采用钢化玻璃表面应力仪、维氏硬度计等研究化学钢化玻璃性能,并对制备参数进行优化,达到使用目的。%Thin glass is widely used in various types of display device. It is easily chemically tempered in order to improve the service life of the display. Performance of chemically tempered glass was researched by glass surface stress testing apparatus and Vickers hardness tester and then the preparing parameters were optimized to achieve the purpose of use.

  7. Research on Color Temperature and Color Reproduction Performance Based on Four Primary Colors Liquid Crystal Display%四元色液晶显示器色温与色重显性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦; 王静; 李娜; 李桂苓

    2013-01-01

    Based on the data of the test by choosing seven color temperatures and testing the colorimetric parameters of the four primary colors liquid crystal display, the relations of the color temperature and the brightness, chroma, tone, color gamut coverage of the liquid crystal display are analyzed. The result shows that while the color temperature rises up, the brightness of the LCD increases, and the color gamut coverage decreases with the distortion of some color tones and chromas.%选择7种色温,分别测试了四元色液晶显示器的色度参数,并基于测试数据,分析了色温与液晶显示器亮度、彩度、色调和色域覆盖率的关系.结果表明,色温升高时,液晶显示器的亮度加大,色域覆盖率减小,还引起某些颜色色调和彩度失真.

  8. Memory effect in ac plasma displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlenk, K.; Obuchowicz, E.

    1993-10-01

    The bistable or `memory' mode of operation of an ac plasma display panel is presented. The difference between dc and ac plasma panel operation from the point of view of memory function is discussed. The graphic ac plasma display with thin film Cr-Cu-Cr electrodes was developed in OBREP and its basic parameters are described. It consists of 36 X 59 picture elements, its outer dimensions are: 76 X 52 mm2 and the screen size is: 49 X 30 mm2. The different dielectric glass materials were applied as dielectric layers and the influence of the properties of these materials on display parameters and memory function was investigated.

  9. Progress in the Development of Plasma Panel Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Robert; Benhammou, Yan; Moshe, Meny Ben; Chapman, J Wehrley; Dai, Tiesheng; Etzion, Erez; Friedman, Peter S; Levin, Daniel S; Silver, Yiftah; Sherman, Guy; Varner, Robert L; Weaverdyck, Curtis; White, Steve; Yu, J; Zhou, Bing

    2011-01-01

    Plasma Display Panels (PDP), the underlying engine of panel plasma television displays, are being investigated for their utility as radiation detectors called Plasma Panel Sensors (PPS). The PPS a novel variant of a micropattern radiation detector, is intended to be a fast, high resolution detector comprised of an array of plasma discharge cells operating in a hermetically sealed gas mixture. We report on the PPS development effort, including recent laboratory measurements.

  10. Reconfigurable work station for a video display unit and keyboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nicholas L. (Inventor); Roe, Fred D., Jr. (Inventor); Fagg, Mary F. (Inventor); Henderson, David E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A reconfigurable workstation is described having video, keyboard, and hand operated motion controller capabilities. The workstation includes main side panels between which a primary work panel is pivotally carried in a manner in which the primary work panel may be adjusted and set in a negatively declined or positively inclined position for proper forearm support when operating hand controllers. A keyboard table supports a keyboard in such a manner that the keyboard is set in a positively inclined position with respect to the negatively declined work panel. Various adjustable devices are provided for adjusting the relative declinations and inclinations of the work panels, tables, and visual display panels.

  11. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.

    1981-04-01

    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  12. Enhanced spatial-state feedback for night-vision goggle displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Edward N.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1997-06-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the use of visual flow cues as an aid to ground and vertical drift awareness during helicopter flight and targeting while using night vision goggles (NVGs). Three displays wee compared: (1) NVG display: simulated NVG image of cockpit and external environment. (2) Overlay display: NVG image with an overlay display but with symbology flow cue field and a surrounding wire-frame globe; (3) Cut-out display: same as the overlay display but with symbology removed from the central region. Three levels of contrast were also compared using each display type. The visual scenery was displayed to subjects using a helmet-mounted virtual reality device that had a 40 by 50 degree field-of-view liquid crystal display. The study involved six pilots. Three tasks were given: (1) Search task: designate enemy targets with a helmet-mounted sight; (2) Hover task: null out all transnational and yaw rates while in a hover; (3) Search/Hover task: perform both Search and Hover tasks simultaneously. These tasks were conducted in a fixed-based helicopter simulator which used the dynamics of a small-scale model helicopter. The following performance measures were collected: (1) Pilot ability to detect and recognize targets; (2) Pilots ability to null transnational and yaw rates; (3) Time scanning the instrument panel. Subjects also rated displays for efficacy in completing the three tasks. Target detection scores conducted during the Search and Search/Hover tasks were highest using the NVG display, followed by the cut-out display. Root-mean-square (RMS) drift rate error was comparable for all display types in the Hover and Hover/Search tasks, however RMS control input activity in all the translational axes was significantly higher in both rate-cueing displays than with the NVG display. From the control input and drift rate time histories it appears that the motion cues were more compelling in the overlay and cut- out displays than those perceived

  13. High-quality autostereoscopic display with spatial and sequential hybrid control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahui; Liang, Haowen; Fan, Hang; Zhou, Yangui; Krebs, Peter; Su, Jianbang; Deng, Yutao; Zhou, Jianying

    2013-12-10

    A novel design of an autostereoscopic display system with full resolution, low crosstalk, and weak Moiré pattern is presented. The system involves the usage of an LED backlight array and a liquid crystal display (LCD) panel, in conjunction with a Fresnel lens array, to form a 3D optical image system. The finer temporal synchronization is made possible with a dynamic synchronized backlight, so that the scanning of the LCD is in phase with the backlight array. The systematic optimization presents a full HD, or even an ultra HD, display for a single left or right channel. The achieved minimum systematic crosstalk is 2.64%, a sufficiently low value reported so far with an autostereoscopic system.

  14. METHOD OF SOFTWARE-BASED COMPENSATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL VARIATION IN CHROMATICITY COORDINATES OF LCD PANELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. The problem of software-based compensation of technological variation in chromaticity coordinates of liquid crystal panels is considered. A method of software-based compensation of technological variation in chromaticity coordinates is proposed. The method provides the color reproduction characteristics of the series-produced samples on-board indication equipment corresponding to the sample equipment, which is taken as the standard. Method. Mathematical calculation of the profile is performed for the given model of the liquid crystal panel. The coefficients that correspond to the typical values of the chromaticity coordinates for the vertices of the triangle color coverage constitute a reference mathematical model of the plate LCD panel from a specific manufacturer. At the stage of incoming inspection the sample of the liquid crystal panel, that is to be implemented within indication equipment, is mounted on the lighting test unit, where Nokia-Test control is provided by the formation of the RGB codes for display the image of a homogeneous field in the red, green, blue and white. The measurement of the (x,y-chromaticity coordinates in red, green, blue and white colors is performed using a colorimeter with the known value of absolute error. Instead of using lighting equipment, such measurements may be carried out immediately on the sample indication equipment during customizing procedure. The measured values are used to calculate individual LCD-panel profile coefficients through the use of Grassman's transformation, establishing mutual relations between the XYZ-color coordinates and RGB codes to be used for displaying the image on the liquid crystal panel. The obtained coefficients are to be set into the memory of the graphics controller together with the functional software and then used for image displaying. Main results. The efficiency of the proposed method of software-based compensation for technological variation of

  15. Crystal structure of a human rhinovirus that displays part of the HIV-1 V3 loop and induces neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianping; Smith, Allen D; Geisler, Sheila C; Ma, Xuejun; Arnold, Gail Ferstandig; Arnold, Eddy

    2002-07-01

    We report the 2.7 A resolution structure of a chimeric rhinovirus, MN-III-2, that displays part of the HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop and elicits HIV-neutralizing antibodies. The V3 loop insert is dominated by two type I beta turns. The structures of two adjacent tripeptides resemble those of analogous segments in three Fab/V3 loop peptide complexes. Although two of the three corresponding antibodies bind and neutralize MN-III-2 well, only one of the three can bind without significant rearrangement. These results suggest that the V3 loop insert: (1) can share some local conformational similarity to V3 loop sequences presented on different structural frameworks; (2) must be able to adopt multiple conformations, even in a relatively constrained environment; and (3) may mimic the conformational variability of the epitope on HIV-1, increasing the likelihood of eliciting appropriate neutralizing immune responses.

  16. Tiled large-screen three-dimensional display consisting of frameless multi-view display modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Yasuhiro; Tokoro, Masayuki; Hirabayashi, Kenji

    2014-03-24

    To realize large-screen three-dimensional (3D) displays, frameless multi-view display modules are arranged two-dimensionally. This paper proposes a multi-view display module in which a multi-view flat-panel display is projected onto a screen of the module to provide a frameless screen. The display module consists of a multi-view flat-panel display, an imaging lens, an aperture, a screen lens, and a vertical diffuser. Prototype display modules were constructed having a screen size of 27.3 in., a 3D resolution of 320 × 200, and 144 viewpoints. Four modules were tiled vertically to provide a screen size of 62.4 in. Distortions in the screen imaging and viewpoint generation were corrected.

  17. Life Cycle Analysis of Double-Arm Type Robotic Tools for LCD Panel Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Wyatt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study includes a life cycle assessment of double-arm type robotic tools made with three different materials. The robotic arms are used for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD panel handling. The environmental impacts generated during all the life stages of the robots have been investigated. The study shows that composite materials have less environmental impact compared with metallic materials. It is also found that the most significant impact category generated by the robotic tools is carcinogen, while the use stage of the robotic tool’s life cycle has the greatest environmental impact.

  18. Plasma panel-based radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Peter; Beene, James; Benhammou, Yan; Ben-Moshe, Meny; Bentefour, Hassan; Chapman, J W; Etzion, Erez; Ferretti, Claudio; Levin, Daniel; Silver, Yiftah; Varner, Robert; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Zhou, Bing; 10.1002/jsid.151

    2013-01-01

    The plasma panel sensor (PPS) is a gaseous micropattern radiation detector under current development. It has many operational and fabrication principles common to plasma display panels. It comprises a dense matrix of small, gas plasma discharge cells within a hermetically sealed panel. As in plasma display panels, it uses nonreactive, intrinsically radiation-hard materials such as glass substrates, refractory metal electrodes, and mostly inert gas mixtures. We are developing these devices primarily as thin, low-mass detectors with gas gaps from a few hundred microns to a few millimeters. The PPS is a high gain, inherently digital device with the potential for fast response times, fine position resolution (<50-mm RMS) and low cost. In this paper, we report on prototype PPS experimental results in detecting betas, protons, and cosmic muons, and we extrapolate on the PPS potential for applications including the detection of alphas, heavy ions at low-to-medium energy, thermal neutrons, and X-rays.

  19. Updated defense display market assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD installed base for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 313,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within future weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern, especially flat panel, display technologies being developed to replace older, especially cathode ray tube, technology for civil-commercial markets. Total DoD display needs (FPD, HMD) are some 427,000.

  20. Chirality versus dichroism: Competition and role in conical diffraction displayed from the Nd:Bi2ZnOB2O6 acentric biaxial laser crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenier, A.; Majchrowski, A.; Michalski, E.

    2017-10-01

    We have grown acentric chiral Nd-doped BZBO single crystals by the Kyropoulos method, cut perpendicular to the optical axis. With a focused beam at wavelengths in the spectral domain of transparency with various polarizations, the conoscopy patterns revealed the specific role of chirality: disappearance of the optical axis replaced by two C-directions, linear polarization rotation and spiral patterns. The specific rotatory power was measured. The output near field exhibits the influence of chirality on the conical diffraction. Going to wavelengths in the spectral domain of absorption corresponding to the 4I9/2 → 4F5/2 Nd3+ transition, we first studied the chirality/dichroism competition from propagation along the C-directions, characterizing the circular and elliptic eigen-modes. We exhibited the wavelengths at which the ellipse degenerates linearly, signature of the chirality/dichroism balancing. The second aspect is the existence of the optical axis which can be restored if the dichroism is high enough. In this case a singular Voigt wave can propagate. From the experimental determination of the optical parameters, a theoretical description has been proposed, leading to quite well agreement in the far field (conoscopy) and in the near field (conical diffraction).

  1. Paring Down HIV Env: Design and Crystal Structure of a Stabilized Inner Domain of HIV-1 gp120 Displaying a Major ADCC Target of the A32 Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, William D; Gohain, Neelakshi; Veillette, Maxime; Chapleau, Jean-Philippe; Orlandi, Chiara; Visciano, Maria L; Ebadi, Maryam; DeVico, Anthony L; Fouts, Timothy R; Finzi, Andrés; Lewis, George K; Pazgier, Marzena

    2016-05-03

    Evidence supports a role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) toward transitional epitopes in the first and second constant (C1-C2) regions of gp120 (A32-like epitopes) in preventing HIV-1 infection and in vaccine-induced protection. Here, we describe the first successful attempt at isolating the inner domain (ID) of gp120 as an independent molecule that encapsulates the A32-like region within a minimal structural unit of the HIV-1 Env. Through structure-based design, we developed ID2, which consists of the ID expressed independently of the outer domain and stabilized in the CD4-bound conformation by an inter-layer disulfide bond. ID2 expresses C1-C2 epitopes in the context of CD4-triggered full-length gp120 but without any known neutralizing epitope present. Thus, ID2 represents a novel probe for the analysis and/or selective induction of antibody responses to the A32 epitope region. We also present the crystal structure of ID2 complexed with mAb A32, which defines its epitope.

  2. Oil defect detection of electrowetting display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hou-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Yan, Yung-Jhe; Huang, Ting-Wei; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, transparent display is an emerging topic in display technologies. Apply in many fields just like mobile device, shopping or advertising window, and etc. Electrowetting Display (EWD) is one kind of potential transparent display technology advantages of high transmittance, fast response time, high contrast and rich color with pigment based oil system. In mass production process of Electrowetting Display, oil defects should be found by Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) detection system. It is useful in determination of panel defects for quality control. According to the research of our group, we proposed a mechanism of AOI detection system detecting the different kinds of oil defects. This mechanism can detect different kinds of oil defect caused by oil overflow or material deteriorated after oil coating or driving. We had experiment our mechanism with a 6-inch Electrowetting Display panel from ITRI, using an Epson V750 scanner with 1200 dpi resolution. Two AOI algorithms were developed, which were high speed method and high precision method. In high precision method, oil jumping or non-recovered can be detected successfully. This mechanism of AOI detection system can be used to evaluate the oil uniformity in EWD panel process. In the future, our AOI detection system can be used in quality control of panel manufacturing for mass production.

  3. Using high-resolution displays for high-resolution cardiac data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyer, Christopher; Hodrien, John; Wood, Jason; Kohl, Peter; Brodlie, Ken

    2009-07-13

    The ability to perform fast, accurate, high-resolution visualization is fundamental to improving our understanding of anatomical data. As the volumes of data increase from improvements in scanning technology, the methods applied to visualization must evolve. In this paper, we address the interactive display of data from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scanning of a rabbit heart and subsequent histological imaging. We describe a visualization environment involving a tiled liquid crystal display panel display wall and associated software, which provides an interactive and intuitive user interface. The oView software is an OpenGL application that is written for the VR Juggler environment. This environment abstracts displays and devices away from the application itself, aiding portability between different systems, from desktop PCs to multi-tiled display walls. Portability between display walls has been demonstrated through its use on walls at the universities of both Leeds and Oxford. We discuss important factors to be considered for interactive two-dimensional display of large three-dimensional datasets, including the use of intuitive input devices and level of detail aspects.

  4. Colorimetric evaluation of display performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Bogdan B.

    2001-08-01

    The development of information techniques, using new technologies, physical phenomena and coding schemes, enables new application areas to be benefited form the introduction of displays. The full utilization of the visual perception of a human operator, requires the color coding process to be implemented. The evolution of displays, from achromatic (B&W) and monochromatic, to multicolor and full-color, enhances the possibilities of information coding, creating however a need for the quantitative methods of display parameter assessment. Quantitative assessment of color displays, restricted to photometric measurements of their parameters, is an estimate leading to considerable errors. Therefore, the measurements of a display's color properties have to be based on spectral measurements of the display and its elements. The quantitative assessment of the display system parameters should be made using colorimetric systems like CIE1931, CIE1976 LAB or LUV. In the paper, the constraints on the measurement method selection for the color display evaluation are discussed and the relations between their qualitative assessment and the ergonomic conditions of their application are also presented. The paper presents the examples of using LUV colorimetric system and color difference (Delta) E in the optimization of color liquid crystal displays.

  5. Universal Numeric Segmented Display

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, Md Abul kalam; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation display plays a vital role to display numerals. But in today's world matrix display is also used in displaying numerals. Because numerals has lots of curve edges which is better supported by matrix display. But as matrix display is costly and complex to implement and also needs more memory, segment display is generally used to display numerals. But as there is yet no proposed compact display architecture to display multiple language numerals at a time, this paper proposes uniform display architecture to display multiple language digits and general mathematical expressions with higher accuracy and simplicity by using a 18-segment display, which is an improvement over the 16 segment display.

  6. A Novel Approach to Surgical Instructions for Scrub Nurses by Using See-Through-Type Head-Mounted Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Sasaki, Asami; Sato, Chikage; Yamazaki, Mutsuko; Takayasu, Junya; Tanaka, Naofumi; Okabayashi, Norie; Hirano, Hiromi; Saito, Kazutaka; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori

    2015-08-01

    In order to facilitate assists in surgical procedure, it is important for scrub nurses to understand the operation procedure and to share the operation status with attending surgeons. The potential utility of head-mounted display as a new imaging monitor has been proposed in the medical field. This study prospectively evaluated the usefulness of see-through-type head-mounted display as a novel intraoperative instructional tool for scrub nurses. From January to March 2014, scrub nurses who attended gasless laparoendoscopic single-port radical nephrectomy and radical prostatectomy wore the monocular see-through-type head-mounted display (AiRScouter; Brother Industries Ltd, Nagoya, Japan) displaying the instruction of the operation procedure through a crystal panel in front of the eye. Following the operation, the participants completed an anonymous questionnaire, which evaluated the image quality of the head-mounted display, the helpfulness of the head-mounted display to understand the operation procedure, and adverse effects caused by the head-mounted display. Fifteen nurses were eligible for the analysis. The intraoperative use of the head-mounted display could help scrub nurses to understand the surgical procedure and to hand out the instruments for the operation with no major head-mounted-display wear-related adverse event. This novel approach to support scrub nurses will help facilitate technical and nontechnical skills during surgery.

  7. Advanced and tendencies in the development of display technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanets, I. N.

    2006-06-01

    Advances and key display applications are discussed. Computer, compact mobile, TV and collective large screen displays are mentioned. Flat panel displays step on CRT devices to leave them behind in 2007. Materials, active matricies and applications of bright radiative field emission and organic LED displays are developing successively and pressing other technologies to be used in photo-cameras, cellular phones, auto-cars and avionics. Progress in flexible screens can substantially extend the display design and application soon. 3D display systems are under intensive development, and laser is an important unit in some vaiants of holographic and volumetric 3D displays. Value forecast of different display markets is presented.

  8. Pixel size and pitch measurements of liquid crystal spatial light modulator by optical diffraction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravinder Kumar Banyal; B Raghavendra Prasad

    2005-08-01

    We present a simple technique for the determination of pixel size and pitch of liquid crystal (LC) based spatial light modulator (SLM). The proposed method is based on optical diffraction from pixelated LC panel that has been modeled as a two-dimensional array of rectangular apertures. A novel yet simple, two-plane measurement technique is implemented to circumvent the difficulty in absolute distance measurement. Experimental results are presented for electrically addressed twisted nematic LC-SLM removed from the display projector.

  9. Imaging acquisition display performance: an evaluation and discussion of performance metrics and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silosky, Michael S; Marsh, Rebecca M; Scherzinger, Ann L

    2016-07-08

    When The Joint Commission updated its Requirements for Diagnostic Imaging Services for hospitals and ambulatory care facilities on July 1, 2015, among the new requirements was an annual performance evaluation for acquisition workstation displays. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a large cohort of acquisition displays used in a clinical environment and compare the results with existing performance standards provided by the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). Measurements of the minimum luminance, maximum luminance, and luminance uniformity, were performed on 42 acquisition displays across multiple imaging modalities. The mean values, standard deviations, and ranges were calculated for these metrics. Additionally, visual evaluations of contrast, spatial resolution, and distortion were performed using either the Society of Motion Pictures and Television Engineers test pattern or the TG-18-QC test pattern. Finally, an evaluation of local nonuniformities was performed using either a uniform white display or the TG-18-UN80 test pattern. Displays tested were flat panel, liquid crystal displays that ranged from less than 1 to up to 10 years of use and had been built by a wide variety of manufacturers. The mean values for Lmin and Lmax for the displays tested were 0.28 ± 0.13 cd/m2 and 135.07 ± 33.35 cd/m2, respectively. The mean maximum luminance deviation for both ultrasound and non-ultrasound displays was 12.61% ± 4.85% and 14.47% ± 5.36%, respectively. Visual evaluation of display performance varied depending on several factors including brightness and contrast settings and the test pattern used for image quality assessment. This work provides a snapshot of the performance of 42 acquisition displays across several imaging modalities in clinical use at a large medical center. Comparison with existing performance standards reveals that changes in display technology and the move from cathode ray

  10. Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Films for Electronic Paper Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Karl

    2003-03-01

    Despite the dominance of liquid crystal displays, they do not perform some functions very well. While backlit liquid crystal displays can offer excellent color performance, they wash out in bright lighting and suffer from high power consumption. Reflective liquid crystal displays have limited brightness, making these devices challenging to read for long periods of time. Flexible liquid crystal displays are difficult to manufacture and keep stable. All of these attributes (long battery lifetime, bright reflective appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates) are traits that would be found in an ideal electronic paper display - an updateable substitute for paper that could be employed in electronic books, newspapers, and other applications. I will discuss technologies that are being developed for electronic-paper-like displays, and especially on particle-based technologies. A microencapsulated electrophoretic display technology is being developed at the E Ink corporation. This display film offers offer high brightness and an ink-on-paper appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates, and image stability that can lead to very low power consumption. I will present some of the physical and chemical challenges associated with making display films with high performance.

  11. [Current situations and problems of quality control for medical imaging display systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibutani, Takayuki; Setojima, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Katsumi; Takada, Katsumi; Okuno, Teiichi; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Nakajima, Tadashi; Fujisawa, Ichiro

    2015-04-01

    Diagnostic imaging has been shifted rapidly from film to monitor diagnostic. Consequently, Japan medical imaging and radiological systems industries association (JIRA) have recommended methods of quality control (QC) for medical imaging display systems. However, in spite of its need by majority of people, executing rate is low. The purpose of this study was to validate the problem including check items about QC for medical imaging display systems. We performed acceptance test of medical imaging display monitors based on Japanese engineering standards of radiological apparatus (JESRA) X-0093*A-2005 to 2009, and performed constancy test based on JESRA X-0093*A-2010 from 2010 to 2012. Furthermore, we investigated the cause of trouble and repaired number. Medical imaging display monitors had 23 inappropriate monitors about visual estimation, and all these monitors were not criteria of JESRA about luminance uniformity. Max luminance was significantly lower year-by-year about measurement estimation, and the 29 monitors did not meet the criteria of JESRA about luminance deviation. Repaired number of medical imaging display monitors had 25, and the cause was failure liquid crystal panel. We suggested the problems about medical imaging display systems.

  12. Antinuclear antibody panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003535.htm Antinuclear antibody panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The antinuclear antibody panel is a blood test that looks at ...

  13. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  14. Dual redundant display in bubble canopy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Ken; Niemczyk, James

    2010-04-01

    Today's cockpit integrator, whether for state of the art military fast jet, or piston powered general aviation, is striving to utilize all available panel space for AMLCD based displays to enhance situational awareness and increase safety. The benefits of a glass cockpit have been well studied and documented. The technology used to create these glass cockpits, however, is driven by commercial AMLCD demand which far outstrips the combined worldwide avionics requirements. In order to satisfy the wide variety of human factors and environmental requirements, large area displays have been developed to maximize the usable display area while also providing necessary redundancy in case of failure. The AMLCD has been optimized for extremely wide viewing angles driven by the flat panel TV market. In some cockpit applications, wide viewing cones are desired. In bubble canopy cockpits, however, narrow viewing cones are desired to reduce canopy reflections. American Panel Corporation has developed AMLCD displays that maximize viewing area, provide redundancy, while also providing a very narrow viewing cone even though commercial AMLCD technology is employed suitable for high performance AMLCD Displays. This paper investigates both the large area display architecture with several available options to solve redundancy as well as beam steering techniques to also limit canopy reflections.

  15. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel Print A A A What's in ... Is The hepatic function panel, also known as liver function tests, is a group of seven tests ...

  16. TRMM Solar Array Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This final report presents conclusions/recommendations concerning the TRMM Solar Array; deliverable list and schedule summary; waivers and deviations; as-shipped performance data, including flight panel verification matrix, panel output detail, shadow test summary, humidity test summary, reverse bias test panel; and finally, quality assurance summary.

  17. Interactive 3D display simulator for autostereoscopic smart pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Yeong-Seon; Lee, Ho-Dong; Park, Min-Chul; Son, Jung-Young; Park, Gwi-Tae

    2012-06-01

    There is growing interest of displaying 3D images on a smart pad for entertainments and information services. Designing and realizing various types of 3D displays on the smart pad is not easy for costs and given time. Software simulation can be an alternative method to save and shorten the development. In this paper, we propose a 3D display simulator for autostereoscopic smart pad. It simulates light intensity of each view and crosstalk for smart pad display panels. Designers of 3D display for smart pad can interactively simulate many kinds of autostereoscopic displays interactively by changing parameters required for panel design. Crosstalk to reduce leakage of one eye's image into the image of the other eye, and light intensity for computing visual comfort zone are important factors in designing autostereoscopic display for smart pad. Interaction enables intuitive designs. This paper describes an interactive 3D display simulator for autostereoscopic smart pad.

  18. Diagnostic performance of detecting breast cancer on computed radiographic (CR) mammograms: comparison of hard copy film, 3-megapixel liquid-crystal-display (LCD) monitor and 5-megapixel LCD monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takayuki; Suzuki, Akihiko; Uchiyama, Nachiko; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Takahashi, Shoki

    2008-11-01

    The purpose was to compare observer performance in the detection of breast cancer using hard-copy film, and 3-megapixel (3-MP) and 5-megapixel (5-MP) liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors in a simulated screening setting. We amassed 100 sample sets, including 32 patients with surgically proven breast cancer (masses present, N = 12; microcalcifications, N = 10; other types, N = 10) and 68 normal controls. All the mammograms were obtained using computed radiography (CR; sampling pitch of 50 mum). Twelve mammographers independently assessed CR mammograms presented in random order for hard-copy and soft-copy reading at minimal 4-week intervals. Observers rated the images on seven-point (1 to 7) and continuous (0 to 100) malignancy scales. Receiver-operating-characteristics analysis was performed, and the average area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each modality. The jackknife method with the Bonferroni correction was applied to multireader/multicase analysis. The average AUC values for the 3-MP LCD, 5-MP LCD, and hard-copy film were 0.954, 0.947, and 0.956 on the seven-point scale and 0.943, 0.923, and 0.944 on the continuous scale, respectively. There were no significant differences among the three modalities on either scale. Soft-copy reading using 3-MP and 5-MP LCDs is comparable to hard-copy reading for detecting breast cancer.

  19. Influence of MTN-LCD Parameters to Liquid Crystal on Silicon Display Device%混合扭曲向列相模式的液晶盒参数对硅基液晶显示器的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽; 范伟; 代永平; 张志东

    2011-01-01

    Mixed mode twisted nematic (MTN) characterized by excellent color dispersion effect and low driving voltage is used in liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS).Based on MTN mode, the influence of LCD parameters on LCOS display were simulated in this paper, such as the elastic constants, dielectric constant, pretilt angle and cell gap, et al.The simulation results can provide scientific basis for the research of LCOS.%90°混合扭曲向列相液晶(MTN)模式因其良好的关态色散特性、低驱动电压而被应用于小型或者微型硅基液晶显示器(LCOS).针对MTN模式,模拟研究了液晶弹性常数、介电各向异性、预倾角以及盒厚变化对显示效果的影响,研究结果为硅基液晶显示器的开发提供了一定的理论依据.

  20. Liquid Crystal Materials for Matrix Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    TBATPB-doped MBBA, which is shown as a reference curve in Figure 1. More complete data on the scattering angles of HRL-26N3 -26N4, and - 25N2 are shown...D/T is more favorable at 20 V than at 15 V dc,Don since at higher voltage TD increases, and T decreases. For example,on at 20 V and 64*C the TD /Ton...Figure 9) changes with temperature. In the lower temperature range the TD and TON decrease with increasing temperature in the same manner as n

  1. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We show how one can determine the various properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information stored in optical fields carrying orbital angular momentum, by performing a modal decomposition. Although the modal...

  2. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N

    2014-01-01

    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap

  3. Passive Matrix Organic Electroluminescent Display for 3G Cellular Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The major features of the display technologies for 3G cellular phone are reviewed. The comparison between their potential candidates for 3G cellular phone is given, and a detailed discussion is made on passive matrix organic electroluminescent display technology. A novel method to improve display contrast ratio is presented. Finally several 3G phone set prototypes with OLED display panels are given as well as the market forecast

  4. THE THERMOELECTRIC SOLAR PANELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahiska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, load characteristics of thermoelectric and photovoltaic solar panels are investigated and compared with each other with experiments. Thermoelectric solar panels converts the heat generated by sun directly to electricity; while, photovoltaic solar pales converts photonic energy from sun to electricity. In both types, maximum power can be obtained when the load resistance is equal to internal resistance. According to experimental results, power generated from unit surface with thermoelectric panel is 30 times greater than the power generated by photovoltaic panel. From a panel surface of 1 m2, thermoelectric solar panel has generated 4 kW electric power, while from the same surface, photovoltaic panel has generated 132 W only.

  5. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-26

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects. © 2010 ACM.

  6. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael

    2010-07-25

    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, so-called panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects.

  7. Dual side transparent OLED 3D display using Gabor super-lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestak, Sergey; Kim, Dae-Sik; Cho, Sung-Woo

    2015-03-01

    We devised dual side transparent 3D display using transparent OLED panel and two lenticular arrays. The OLED panel is sandwiched between two parallel confocal lenticular arrays, forming Gabor super-lens. The display provides dual side stereoscopic 3D imaging and floating image of the object, placed behind it. The floating image can be superimposed with the displayed 3D image. The displayed autostereoscopic 3D images are composed of 4 views, each with resolution 64x90 pix.

  8. Digital Display Integration Project Project Online 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Bardsley, J N

    1999-01-01

    The electronic display industry is changing in three important ways. First, the dominance of the cathode ray tube (CRT) is being challenged by the development of flat panel displays (FPDs). This will lead to the availability of displays of higher performance, albeit at greater cost. Secondly, the analog interfaces between displays that show data and the computers that generate the data are being replaced by digital connections. Finally, a high-resolution display is becoming the most expensive component in computer system for homes and small offices. It is therefore desirable that the useful lifetime of the display extend over several years and that the electronics allows the display to be used with many different image sources. Hopefully, the necessity of having three or four large CRTs in one office to accommodate different computer operating systems or communication protocols will soon disappear. Instead, we hope to see a set of flat panels that can be switched to show several independent images from multip...

  9. Titanium honeycomb panel testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, W. L.; Thompson, Randolph C.

    The paper describes the procedures of thermal mechanical tests carried out at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility on two tianium honeycomb wing panels bonded using liquid interface diffusion (LID) technique, and presents the results of these tests. The 58.4 cm square panels consisted of two 0.152-cm-thick Ti 6-2-4-2 face sheets LID-bonded to a 1.9-cm-thick honeycomb core, with bearing plates fastened to the perimeter of the upper and the lower panel surfaces. The panels were instrumented with sensors for measuring surface temperature, strain, and deflections to 315 C and 482 C. Thermal stress levels representative of those encountered during aerodynamic heating were produced by heating the upper panel surface and restraining all four edges. After more than 100 thermal cycles from room temperature to 315 C and 50 cycles from room temperature to 482 C, no significant structural degradation was detected in the panels.

  10. High-Resolution Large-Field-of-View Three-Dimensional Hologram Display System and Method Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Mintz, Frederick W. (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A real-time, dynamic, free space-virtual reality, 3-D image display system is enabled by using a unique form of Aerogel as the primary display media. A preferred embodiment of this system comprises a 3-D mosaic topographic map which is displayed by fusing four projected hologram images. In this embodiment, four holographic images are projected from four separate holograms. Each holographic image subtends a quadrant of the 4(pi) solid angle. By fusing these four holographic images, a static 3-D image such as a featured terrain map would be visible for 360 deg in the horizontal plane and 180 deg in the vertical plane. An input, either acquired by 3-D image sensor or generated by computer animation, is first converted into a 2-D computer generated hologram (CGH). This CGH is then downloaded into large liquid crystal (LC) panel. A laser projector illuminates the CGH-filled LC panel and generates and displays a real 3-D image in the Aerogel matrix.

  11. 2D/3D switchable displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  12. Detection of masses and microcalcifications of breast cancer on digital mammograms: comparison among hard-copy film, 3-megapixel liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors and 5-megapixel LCD monitors: an observer performance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitani, Takeshi; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Soeda, Hiroyasu; Matsuo, Yoshio; Okafuji, Takashi; Sakai, Shuji; Furuya, Akio; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Ishii, Nobuhide; Honda, Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare observer performance in the detection of masses and microcalcifications of breast cancer among hard-copy reading and soft-copy readings using 3-megapixel (3M) and 5-megapixel (5M) liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors. For the microcalcification detection test, we prepared 100 mammograms: 40 surgically verified cancer cases and 60 normal cases. For the mass detection test, we prepared 100 mammograms: 50 cancer cases and 50 normal cases. After six readers assessed both microcalcifications and masses set for each modality, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The average A(z)s for mass detection using a hard copy and 3M and 5M LCD monitors were 0.923, 0.927 and 0.920, respectively; there were no significant differences. The average A(z) for microcalcification detection using hard copy, 3M and 5M LCD monitors was 0.977, 0.954 and 0.972, respectively. There were no significant differences, but the P-values between the hard copy and 3M LCD monitor and that between the 3M and 5M LCD monitor were 0.08 and 0.09, respectively. In conclusion, the observer performances for detecting masses of breast cancers were comparable among the hard copy and two LCD monitors; however, soft-copy reading with a 3M LCD monitor showed slightly lower observer performance for detecting microcalcifications of breast cancers than hard-copy or 5M LCD monitor reading.

  13. Heath monitoring of a glass transfer robot in the mass production line of liquid crystal display using abnormal operating sounds based on wavelet packet transform and artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eui-Youl; Lee, Young-Joon; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the fault detect method of a moving transfer robot in the mass production line of liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturers based on the wavelet packet transform (WPT) for feature extraction and the artificial neural network (ANN) for fault classification. Most of fault detection methods in a mechanical system have been researched based on the vibration signal. Unlike the existing methodologies, this study aims to minimize the uncertainty of a field engineer's decision making process for determining whether a fault is present or not based on the human auditory perception by developing a fault diagnosis system that uses the abnormal operating sound radiated from a moving transfer robot as a source signal. Abnormal operating sound radiated from a moving transfer robot has been used for this work instead of other source signals such as vibration, acoustic emission, electrical signal, etc. Its advantage as a source signal makes it possible to monitor the status of multiple faults by using only a microphone despite a relatively low sensitivity. In the application of ANN, since it is important to minimize the error of trained ANN in terms of the accuracy of fault diagnosis logic, in the paper, the number of input and target data samples was increased through a regeneration process based on statistical properties, and then the uncorrelated nodes in the input vector were also removed to improve the orthogonality of the input vector based on the entropy based feature selection method. Consequently, it can be concluded that the abnormal operating sound is sufficiently useful as a source signal for the fault diagnosis of mechanical components as well as other source signals.

  14. REINFORCED COMPOSITE PANEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  15. REINFORCED COMPOSITE PANEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing rein...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  16. STS-39 MS Veach monitors AFP-675 panel on OV-103's aft flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-39 Mission Specialist (MS) Charles L. Veach analyzes data displayed on Air Force Program 675 (APF-675) command and monitor panel on the aft flight deck payload station aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Just above Veach's head, Panel A3 closed circuit television (CCTV) screen A2 glows. At Veach's right is a portable laptop computer attached to panel L10.

  17. Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystals: Materials, Formation, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available By combining polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC and holography, holographic PDLC (H-PDLC has emerged as a new composite material for switchable or tunable optical devices. Generally, H-PDLC structures are created in a liquid crystal cell filled with polymer-dispersed liquid crystal materials by recording the interference pattern generated by two or more coherent laser beams which is a fast and single-step fabrication. With a relatively ideal phase separation between liquid crystals and polymers, periodic refractive index profile is formed in the cell and thus light can be diffracted. Under a suitable electric field, the light diffraction behavior disappears due to the index matching between liquid crystals and polymers. H-PDLCs show a fast switching time due to the small size of the liquid crystal droplets. So far, H-PDLCs have been applied in many promising applications in photonics, such as flat panel displays, switchable gratings, switchable lasers, switchable microlenses, and switchable photonic crystals. In this paper, we review the current state-of-the-art of H-PDLCs including the materials used to date, the grating formation dynamics and simulations, the optimization of electro-optical properties, the photonic applications, and the issues existed in H-PDLCs.

  18. Thin film polycrystalline silicon: Promise and problems in displays and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonash, S.J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Thin film polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with its carrier mobilities, potentially good stability, low intragrain defect density, compatibility with silicon processing, and ease of doping activation is an interesting material for {open_quotes}macroelectronics{close_quotes} applications such as TFTs for displays and solar cells. The poly-Si films needed for these applications can be ultra-thin-in the 500{Angstrom} to 1000{Angstrom} thickness range for flat panel display TFTs and in the 4{mu}m to 10{mu}m thickness range for solar cells. Because the films needed for these microelectronics applications can be so thin, an effective approach to producing the films is that of crystallizing a-Si precursor material. Unlike cast materials, poly-Si films made this way can be produced using low temperature processing. Unlike deposited poly-Si films, these crystallized poly-Si films can have grain widths that are much larger than the film thickness and almost atomically smooth surfaces. This thin film poly-Si crystallized from a-Si precursor films, and its promise and problems for TFTs and solar cells, is the focus of this discussion.

  19. A modular display system for insect behavioral neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Michael B; Dickinson, Michael H

    2008-01-30

    Flying insects exhibit stunning behavioral repertoires that are largely mediated by the visual control of flight. For this reason, presenting a controlled visual environment to tethered insects has been and continues to be a powerful tool for studying the sensory control of complex behaviors. To create an easily controlled, scalable, and customizable visual stimulus, we have designed a modular system, based on panels composed of an 8 x 8 array of individual LEDs, that may be connected together to 'tile' an experimental environment with controllable displays. The panels have been designed to be extremely bright, with the added flexibility of individual-pixel brightness control, allowing experimentation over a broad range of behaviorally relevant conditions. Patterns to be displayed may be designed using custom software, downloaded to a controller board, and displayed on the individually addressed panels via a rapid communication interface. The panels are controlled by a microprocessor-based display controller which, for most experiments, will not require a computer in the loop, greatly reducing the experimental infrastructure. This technology allows an experimenter to build and program a visual arena with a customized geometry in a matter of hours. To demonstrate the utility of this system, we present results from experiments with tethered Drosophila melanogaster: (1) in a cylindrical arena composed of 44 panels, used to test the contrast dependence of object orientation behavior, and (2) above a 30-panel floor display, used to examine the effects of ground motion on orientation during flight.

  20. Projection display technologies for the new millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Frederic J.

    2000-04-01

    Although analog CRTs continue to enable most of the world's electronic projection displays such as US consumer rear projection televisions, discrete pixel (digital) active matrix LCD and DLP reflective mirror array projectors have rapidly created large nonconsumer markets--primarily for business. Recent advances in image quality, compactness and cost effectiveness of digital projectors have the potential to revolutionize major consumer and entertainment markets as well. Digital penetration of the mainstream consumer projection TV market will begin in the hear 2000. By 2005 digital projection HDTVs could take the major share of the consumer HDTV projection market. Digital projection is expected to dominate both the consumer HDTV and the cinema market by 2010, resulting in potential shipments for all projection markets exceeding 10 M units per year. Digital projection is improving at a rate 10X faster than analog CRT projectors and 5X faster than PDP flat panels. Continued rapid improvement of digital projection is expected due to its relative immaturity and due to the wide diversity of technological improvements being pursued. Key technology enablers are the imaging panels, light sources and micro-optics. Market shares of single panel projectors, MEMs panels, LCOS panels and low T p-Si TFT LCD panel variants are expected to increase.

  1. Three-dimensional display based on dual parallax barriers with uniform resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Guo-Jiao; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Wu-Xiang; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2013-08-20

    The 3D display based on a parallax barrier is a low-cost autostereoscopic display. However, the vertical and horizontal resolution of the 3D images displayed on it will be seriously nonuniform as this display has a large number of views. It will worsen the display quality; therefore, a 3D display that consists of a 2D display panel and dual parallax barriers is proposed. With a 2D display panel, the proposed 3D display provides the synthetic images with square pixel units in which the arrangement of pixels can make the 3D image have uniform resolution. With the dual parallax barriers, the proposed 3D display shows the pixels in square pixel units for different horizontal views. Therefore, this display has uniform resolution of 3D images. A four-view prototype of the proposed 3D display is developed, and it provides uniform 3D resolution in the vertical and horizontal directions.

  2. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  3. MyCrystals - a simple visual data management program for laboratory-scale crystallization experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvgreen, Monika Nøhr; Løvgreen, Mikkel; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2009-01-01

    MyCrystals is designed as a user-friendly program to display crystal images and list crystallization conditions. The crystallization conditions entry fields can be customized to suit the experiments. MyCrystals is also able to sort the images by the entered crystallization conditions, which...

  4. Low driving voltage and fast-response in-plane switching liquid crystal display%低驱动电压和快速响应的共面转换液晶显示器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王森; 孙玉宝

    2016-01-01

    In-plane switching liquid crystal displays (IPS-LCDs)are widely applied in TFT-LCD for its excellent viewing angle and outstanding ability of color reproduction.However,its development in high-end LCDs is limited by its slow response.A fast response IPS-LCD with protrusion electrode is proposed in this paper,and its optical characteristics is simulated by TechWiz software.With the pro-trusion electrode,the driving voltage of IPS-LCD is reduced by 2.3 V.Although the driving voltage is reduced,the electric field in the liquid crystal layer is changed due to the electrode on protrusion,so the rise response speed is improved.In addition,the protrusion structure reduces the effective cell gap of the LC layer,and the decay time is proportional to the square of the cell thickness,so the decay re-sponse speed is also obviously improved.The whole response speed is improved by approximately 38% in contrast with the conventional IPS-LCD.%共面转换液晶显示器(IPS-LCD)由于其优异的视角特性和色彩还原能力在 TFT-LCD 中得到了广泛应用,然而响应速度慢的缺点始终限制着其在高端液晶显示器中的发展.本文中提出一种凸起电极结构的共面转换液晶显示器,并采用 TechWiz 软件模拟了该结构的电光特性.与传统 IPS-LCD 相比,我们提出的新结构 IPS-LCD 的驱动电压降低了2.3 V.在响应时间方面,尽管驱动电压降低了,但是由于凸起电极改变液晶层中的电场状况,因此上升响应速度得到了一定提高.此外,凸起结构减小了液晶层的等效盒厚,因为下降时间正比于液晶盒厚的平方,所以下降响应速度也得到了明显提高,该结构的整体响应速度相比传统结构提高了大约38%.

  5. A computer graphics display technique for the examination of aircraft design data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talcott, N. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An interactive computer graphics technique has been developed for quickly sorting and interpreting large amounts of aerodynamic data. It utilizes a graphic representation rather than numbers. The geometry package represents the vehicle as a set of panels. These panels are ordered in groups of ascending values (e.g., equilibrium temperatures). The groups are then displayed successively on a CRT building up to the complete vehicle. A zoom feature allows for displaying only the panels with values between certain limits. The addition of color allows a one-time display thus eliminating the need for a display build up.

  6. Make Your Own Solar Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  7. Make Your Own Solar Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  8. Three-dimensional imaging with simultaneous reproduction of two image elements in one display pixel by information-dependent polarization coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhov, Vasily

    2010-05-20

    Information-dependent (active) polarization encoding can be used to simultaneously present two image-resolvable elements [elements of left and right views of a three-dimensional (3D) scene] in a single display pixel. Polarization decoding, with the help of passive polarization filters, makes it possible to separate elements of left and right views and to observe them independently by left and right eyes. In this paper the basic theory of such 3D displays is developed. The relevant solutions of the general equation of light elliptical polarization are obtained in all important cases: cases of controlled birefringence and/or optical activity as three basic controlled polarization encoders. The obtained formulas are essentially the forms of signals that should control the values of birefringence and optical activity to realize the required polarization encoding. Optical schemes of flat-panel direct-view stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays with the use of liquid crystal polarization encoding matrices are considered.

  9. POPOVER Review Panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davito, A.; Baker, C.J.; King, C.J.; Costerus, B.; Nelson, T.; Prokosch, D.; Pastrnak, J.; Grace, P.

    1996-04-10

    The POPOVER series of high explosive (HE) certification tests was conducted at the Big Explosives Experimental Facility (BEEF) in Area 4 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The two primary objectives of POPOVER were to certify that: (1) BEEF meets DOE requirements for explosives facilities and is safe for personnel-occupied operations during testing of large charges of conventional HE. (2) Facility structures and equipment will function as intended when subjected to the effects of these charges. After careful analysis of test results, the POPOVER Review Panel concludes that the POPOVER series met both objectives. Further details on the Review Panel`s conclusions are included in Section 7--Findings and Recommendations.

  10. Assessment of OLED displays for vision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Emily A; Jiang, Haomiao; Vildavski, Vladimir; Farrell, Joyce E; Norcia, Anthony M

    2013-10-23

    Vision researchers rely on visual display technology for the presentation of stimuli to human and nonhuman observers. Verifying that the desired and displayed visual patterns match along dimensions such as luminance, spectrum, and spatial and temporal frequency is an essential part of developing controlled experiments. With cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) becoming virtually unavailable on the commercial market, it is useful to determine the characteristics of newly available displays based on organic light emitting diode (OLED) panels to determine how well they may serve to produce visual stimuli. This report describes a series of measurements summarizing the properties of images displayed on two commercially available OLED displays: the Sony Trimaster EL BVM-F250 and PVM-2541. The results show that the OLED displays have large contrast ratios, wide color gamuts, and precise, well-behaved temporal responses. Correct adjustment of the settings on both models produced luminance nonlinearities that were well predicted by a power function ("gamma correction"). Both displays have adjustable pixel independence and can be set to have little to no spatial pixel interactions. OLED displays appear to be a suitable, or even preferable, option for many vision research applications.

  11. Vision Algorithms Catch Defects in Screen Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Andrew Watson, a senior scientist at Ames Research Center, developed a tool called the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO), which models human vision for use in robotic applications. Redmond, Washington-based Radiant Zemax LLC licensed the technology from NASA and combined it with its imaging colorimeter system, creating a powerful tool that high-volume manufacturers of flat-panel displays use to catch defects in screens.

  12. Panel 4: Report of the Microbiology Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenkamp, Stephen J.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Hakansson, Anders P.; Heikkinen, Terho; King, Samantha; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Novotny, Laura A.; Patel, Janak A.; Pettigrew, Melinda; Swords, W. Edward

    2017-01-01

    Objective To perform a comprehensive review of the literature from July 2011 until June 2015 on the virology and bacteriology of otitis media in children. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Two subpanels comprising experts in the virology and bacteriology of otitis media were created. Each panel reviewed the relevant literature in the fields of virology and bacteriology and generated draft reviews. These initial reviews were distributed to all panel members prior to meeting together at the Post-symposium Research Conference of the 18th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media, National Harbor, Maryland, in June 2015. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by all panel members. Conclusions Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing our understanding of the microbiology of otitis media. Numerous advances were made in basic laboratory studies, in animal models of otitis media, in better understanding the epidemiology of disease, and in clinical practice. Implications for Practice (1) Many viruses cause acute otitis media without bacterial coinfection, and such cases do not require antibiotic treatment. (2) When respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, and influenza virus peak in the community, practitioners can expect to see an increase in clinical otitis media cases. (3) Biomarkers that predict which children with upper respiratory tract infections will develop otitis media may be available in the future. (4) Compounds that target newly identified bacterial virulence determinants may be available as future treatment options for children with otitis media. PMID:28372529

  13. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis). This group of tests ...

  14. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  15. Pop-Art Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    James Rosenquist's giant Pop-art panels included realistic renderings of well-known contemporary foods and objects, juxtaposed with famous people in the news--largely from the 1960s, '70s and '80s--and really serve as visual time capsules. In this article, eighth-graders focus on the style of James Rosenquist to create their own Pop-art panel that…

  16. Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    At its meeting on 7 December 2006, the Standing Concertation Committee took note of the appointment of four new members of the Panel: Wisla Carena, Pierre Charrue, Sue Foffano and Markus Nordberg. The present composition of the Panel (appointed ad personam) is as follows: Tiziano Camporesi (Chairperson), Wisla Carena, Pierre Charrue, Sue Foffano, Josi Schinzel (Equal Opportunities Officer), Markus Nordberg, Christine Petit-Jean-Genaz et Elena Wildner. Human Resources Department Tel. 74480

  17. THE THERMOELECTRIC SOLAR PANELS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ahiska; Nykyruy, L. I.; Omer, G.; G. D. Mateik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, load characteristics of thermoelectric and photovoltaic solar panels are investigated and compared with each other with experiments. Thermoelectric solar panels converts the heat generated by sun directly to electricity; while, photovoltaic solar pales converts photonic energy from sun to electricity. In both types, maximum power can be obtained when the load resistance is equal to internal resistance. According to experimental results, power generated from unit surface with th...

  18. Pop-Art Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    James Rosenquist's giant Pop-art panels included realistic renderings of well-known contemporary foods and objects, juxtaposed with famous people in the news--largely from the 1960s, '70s and '80s--and really serve as visual time capsules. In this article, eighth-graders focus on the style of James Rosenquist to create their own Pop-art panel that…

  19. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  20. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  1. Review of Display Technologies Focusing on Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rodríguez Fernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the main manufacturing technologies of displays, focusing on those with low and ultra-low levels of power consumption, which make them suitable for current societal needs. Considering the typified value obtained from the manufacturer’s specifications, four technologies—Liquid Crystal Displays, electronic paper, Organic Light-Emitting Display and Electroluminescent Displays—were selected in a first iteration. For each of them, several features, including size and brightness, were assessed in order to ascertain possible proportional relationships with the rate of consumption. To normalize the comparison between different display types, relative units such as the surface power density and the display frontal intensity efficiency were proposed. Organic light-emitting display had the best results in terms of power density for small display sizes. For larger sizes, it performs less satisfactorily than Liquid Crystal Displays in terms of energy efficiency.

  2. Writing next-generation display photomasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Tor; Wahlsten, Mikael; Park, Youngjin

    2016-10-01

    Recent years have seen a fast technical development within the display area. Displays get ever higher pixel density and the pixels get smaller. Current displays have over 800 PPI and market forces will eventually drive for densities of 2000 PPI or higher. The transistor backplanes also get more complex. OLED displays require 4-7 transistors per pixel instead of the typical 1-2 transistors used for LCDs, and they are significantly more sensitive to errors. New large-area maskwriters have been developed for masks used in high volume production of screens for state-of-theart smartphones. Redesigned laser optics with higher NA and lower aberrations improve resolution and CD uniformity and reduce mura effects. The number of beams has been increased to maintain the throughput despite the higher writing resolution. OLED displays are highly sensitive to placement errors and registration in the writers has been improved. To verify the registration of produced masks a separate metrology system has been developed. The metrology system is self-calibrated to high accuracy. The calibration is repeatable across machines and sites using Z-correction. The repeatability of the coordinate system makes it possible to standardize the coordinate system across an entire supply chain or indeed across the entire industry. In-house metrology is a commercial necessity for high-end mask shop, but also the users of the masks, the panel makers, would benefit from having in-house metrology. It would act as the reference for their mask suppliers, give better predictive and post mortem diagnostic power for the panel process, and the metrology could be used to characterize and improve the entire production loop from data to panel.

  3. Liquid Crystal Motion Picture Projector①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIYongji

    1997-01-01

    A liquid crystal moving picture projector and method are described.Light incident on a liquid crystal display-type device is selectively scattered or transmitted by respective portions of liquid crystal display,and a projection mechanism projects an image formed by either such scattered light or such transmitted light.A liquid cystal moving picture projector includes a liquid crystal display for creating characteristics of an image,and projecttion optics for projecting images sequentially created by the display.The display includes a liquid crystal material capable of temporary storing information at respective areas.The temporary storage may be a function of charge storing directly on liquid crystal material.A method of projecting plural images in sequence includes:creating an image or characteristics of an image in a liquid crystal material,storing such image in such liquid crystal material,directing light at such liquid crystal material,projecting such image as a function of light transmitted through or scattered by such liquid crystal material,and creating a further image in such liquid crystal material for subsequent projection.

  4. Automatic ranging circuit for a digital panel meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Theodore R.; Ross, Harley H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a range changing circuit that operates in conjunction with a digital panel meter of fixed sensitivity. The circuit decodes the output of the panel meter and uses that information to change the gain of an input amplifier to the panel meter in order to insure that the maximum number of significant figures is always displayed in the meter. The circuit monitors five conditions in the meter and responds to any of four combinations of these conditions by means of logic elements to carry out the function of the circuit.

  5. New ultraportable display technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-08-01

    MicroDisplay devices are based on a combination of technologies rooted in the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS active-matrix liquid crystal display substrates. Customized diffraction grating and optical distortion correction technology for lens-system compensation allow the elimination of many lenses and systems-level components. The MicroDisplay Corporation's miniature integrated information display technology is rapidly leading to many new defense and commercial applications. There are no moving parts in MicroDisplay substrates, and the fabrication of the color generating gratings, already part of the CMOS circuit fabrication process, is effectively cost and manufacturing process-free. The entire suite of the MicroDisplay Corporation's technologies was devised to create a line of application- specific integrated circuit single-chip display systems with integrated computing, memory, and communication circuitry. Next-generation portable communication, computer, and consumer electronic devices such as truly portable monitor and TV projectors, eyeglass and head mounted displays, pagers and Personal Communication Services hand-sets, and wristwatch-mounted video phones are among the may target commercial markets for MicroDisplay technology. Defense applications range from Maintenance and Repair support, to night-vision systems, to portable projectors for mobile command and control centers.

  6. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ...... be obtained by shining light from the backside of the workpiece. When there is no light from the backside, the front surface seems totally untouched. This was achieved by laser ablation with ultra-short pulses.......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  7. Origami of thick panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures.

  8. Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2014-01-01

    Revised throughout to cover the latest developments in the fast moving area of display technology, this 2nd edition of Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices, will continue to be a valuable resource for those wishing to understand the operation of liquid crystal displays. Significant updates include new material on display components, 3D LCDs and blue-phase displays which is one of the most promising new technologies within the field of displays and it is expected that this new LC-technology will reduce the response time and the number of optical components of LC-modules. Prof. Yang is a pion

  9. Panel 3 - characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erck, R.A.; Erdemir, A.; Janghsing Hsieh; Lee, R.H.; Xian Zheng Pan; Deming Shu [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Feldman, A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States); Kleimer, R. [Coors Ceramics Co., Golden, CO (United States); Lawton, E.A. [JPL/Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States); McHargue, C.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The task of this panel was to identify and prioritize needs in the area of characterization of diamond and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films for use in the transportation industry. Until recent advances in production of inexpensive films of diamonds and DLC, it was not feasible that these materials could be mass produced. The Characterization Panel is restricting itself to identifying needs in areas that would be most useful to manufacturers and users in producing and utilizing diamond and DLC coatings in industry. These characterization needs include in-situ monitoring during growth, relation of structure to performance, and standards and definitions.

  10. Polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  11. An automatic gore panel mapping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiver, John D.; Phelps, Norman N.

    1990-01-01

    The Automatic Gore Mapping System is being developed to reduce the time and labor costs associated with manufacturing the External Tank. The present chem-milling processes and procedures are discussed. The down loading of the simulation of the system has to be performed to verify that the simulation package will translate the simulation code into robot code. Also a simulation of this system has to be programmed for a gantry robot instead of the articulating robot that is presently in the system. It was discovered using the simulation package that the articulation robot cannot reach all the point on some of the panels, therefore when the system is ready for production, a gantry robot will be used. Also a hydrosensor system is being developed to replace the point-to-point contact probe. The hydrosensor will allow the robot to perform a non-contact continuous scan of the panel. It will also provide a faster scan of the panel because it will eliminate the in-and-out movement required for the present end effector. The system software is currently being modified so that the hydrosensor will work with the system. The hydrosensor consists of a Krautkramer-Branson transducer encased in a plexiglass nozzle. The water stream pumped through the nozzle is the couplant for the probe. Also, software is being written so that the robot will have the ability to draw the contour lines on the panel displaying the out-of-tolerance regions. Presently the contour lines can only be displayed on the computer screens. Research is also being performed on improving and automating the method of scribing the panels. Presently the panels are manually scribed with a sharp knife. The use of a low power laser or water jet is being studied as a method of scribing the panels. The contour drawing pen will be replaced with scribing tool and the robot will then move along the contour lines. With these developments the Automatic Gore Mapping Systems will provide a reduction in time and labor costs

  12. Mobile display technologies: Past developments, present technologies, and future opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    It has been thirty years since the first active matrix (AM) flat panel display (FPD) was industrialized for portable televisions (TVs) in 1984. The AM FPD has become a dominant electronic display technology widely used from mobile displays to large TVs. The development of AM FPDs for mobile displays has significantly changed our lives by enabling new applications, such as notebook personal computers (PCs), smartphones and tablet PCs. In the future, the role of mobile displays will become even more important, since mobile displays are the live interface for the world of mobile communications in the era of ubiquitous networks. Various developments are being conducted to improve visual performance, reduce power consumption and add new functionality. At the same time, innovative display concepts and novel manufacturing technologies are being investigated to create new values.

  13. Rational Design of Composite Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Hans Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    panels as well as single-skin panels, the effect of shear is included. The finite difference method is used solving the system of governing plate equations. Laterally loaded panels are analysed with respect to mid-point deflections and stresses. The numerical results are discussed in the light of 'Det......A non-linear structural model for composite panels is presented. The non-linear terms in the lateral displacements are modelled as an additional set of lateral loads acting on the panel. Hence the solution is reduced to that of an equivalent panel with small displacements In order to treat sandwich...

  14. Photovoltaic-Panel Laminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two-piece unit heats and presses protective layers to form laminate. Rubber diaphragm between upper and lower vacuum chambers alternates between neutral position and one that presses against solar-cell array, supplying distributed force necessary to press layers of laminate together. Encapsulation helps to protect cells from environment and to ensure long panel life while allowing efficient generation of electricity from Sunlight.

  15. Adapting deployed touch screen displays for NVG compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudette, Claude

    2008-04-01

    As the battlefield becomes "digitized", all arms of the military are deploying COTS displays in the form of Portable Notebooks, Kneeboards, GPS and PDA's in ever greater numbers. Many of these COTS equipments and associated displays use full color LCD's and resistive touch panels as the operator-interface. These displays are a challenge to those who must modify the COTS equipment for NVG compatibility. Traditional NVG filter options have relatively poor color rendering and are too thick or rigid to interface with touch panels. In addition, many of these displays do not have sufficient dimming capabilities to allow covert night-time operations and do not have sufficient luminance for daytime operations. Polymeric materials recently developed by Wamco have been specifically designed for applications where traditional NVG filters have failed. These applications will be discussed and quantified in terms of NVG Compatibility, Color Rendering, Luminance Contrast and Daytime Readability, Touch Screen Sensitivity and Environmental Performance.

  16. Standardizing visual display quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besuijen, Ko; Spenkelink, Gerd P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The current ISO 9241–3 standard for visual display quality and the proposed user performance tests are reviewed. The standard is found to be more engineering than ergonomic and problems with system configuration, software applications, display settings, user behaviour, wear and physical environment

  17. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  18. Advanced solar panel designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E. B.

    1996-01-01

    Solar panel designs that utilize new high-efficiency solar cells and lightweight rigid panel technologies are described. The resulting designs increase the specific power (W/kg) achievable in the near-term and are well suited to meet the demands of higher performance small satellites (smallsats). Advanced solar panel designs have been developed and demonstrated on two NASA SBIR contracts at Applied Solar. The first used 19% efficient, large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells with a lightweight rigid graphite epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A 1,445 cm(exp 2) coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 60 W/kg with a high potential of achieving 80 W/kg. The second panel design used new 22% efficiency, dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with a lightweight aluminum core/graphite fiber mesh facesheet substrate. A 1,445 cm(exp 2) coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 105 W/kg with the potential of achieving 115 W/kg. This paper will address the construction details for the GaAs/isogrid and dual-junction GaAs/carbon mesh panel configurations. These are ultimately sized to provide 75 Watts and 119 Watts respectively for smallsats or may be used as modular building blocks for larger systems. GaAs/isogrid and dual-junction GaAs/carbon mesh coupons have been fabricated and tested to successfully demonstrate critical performance parameters and results are also provided here.

  19. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  20. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  1. Fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Daniel Aaron; Melikov, Rustamzhon; Conkar, Deniz; Nur Firat-Karalar, Elif; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2016-11-01

    The usage time of displays (e.g., TVs, mobile phones, etc) is in general shorter than their functional life time, which worsens the electronic waste (e-waste) problem around the world. The integration of biomaterials into electronics can help to reduce the e-waste problem. In this study, we demonstrate fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs to use as a backlight source for liquid crystal (LC) displays for the first time. We express and purify enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and monomeric Cherry protein (mCherry), and afterward we integrate these proteins as a wavelength-converter on a blue LED chip. The protein-integrated backlight exhibits a high luminous efficacy of 248 lm/Wopt and the area of the gamut covers 80% of the NTSC color gamut. The resultant colors and objects in the image on the display can be well observed and distinguished. Therefore, fluorescent proteins show promise for display applications.

  2. Defense display market assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 242,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within Service weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil- commercial markets.

  3. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument (panel

  4. PRINCIPLES OF INDICATION FOR EN-ROUTE FLIGHT PATHS OF THE AIRCRAFT ON THE SCREEN OF ON-BOARD DISPLAY DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Markelov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We consider the principles and algorithms for construction of en-route flight paths of an aircraft (airplane in a horizontal plane for their subsequent display on the navigation situation indicators in the cockpit. Navigation situation indicatorsaredisplay devices designed on the basis of flat liquid crystal panel. Methods. Flight trajectory display by on-board multifunction indicators is performed by successive drawing of graphic primitives available in the library and defined in accordance with an array of data to display the route. An array of data is generated by on-board software complex based on the information provided in the flight task and the corresponding «Jeppesen» database or analogous one. Formation of the array is carried out by bringing the set of trajectory paths to the format of three typical trajectories described. In addition, each of the types of trajectories has a standard description of the algorithm for calculating the parameters that make up an array of data to display.Main Results.The algorithms of forming and calculating the amounts of data of routing paths required for their construction and display on the multifunction indicators applied in avionics.Practical Relevance.These novel routing algorithms for constructing trajectory paths unify algorithms of generating information for display on the navigation situation indicators and optimize a set of calculated data for flight control at the trajectory in the horizontal plane.

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of photovoltaic panels with a rotation mechanism for region of Republic Bashkortostan

    OpenAIRE

    Yakupov, Aynur Makhmut; Ismagilov, Flur Rashitovich; Khayrullin, Irek Hanifovich; Vavilov, Vacheslav Evgenyevich; Bekuzin, Vladimir Igorevich

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with evaluation of the effectiveness of using the solar panels in the Republic of Bashkortostan and with the issue of the efficient use of solar energy potential gained from photovoltaic panels via tracking the Sun’s trajectory. The study based on long-term measurements of the selected parameters, the efficiency of the installed system was evaluated in the static regime. We study two types of photovoltaic panels: micromorph and crystal. This article discusses the feasibility ...

  6. FEMA DFIRM Panel Scheme Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer contains information about the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) panel areas. The spatial entities representing FIRM panels are polygons. The polygon for...

  7. Panoramic projection avionics displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmanash, Michael H.

    2003-09-01

    Avionics projection displays are entering production in advanced tactical aircraft. Early adopters of this technology in the avionics community used projection displays to replace or upgrade earlier units incorporating direct-view CRT or AMLCD devices. Typical motivation for these upgrades were the alleviation of performance, cost and display device availability concerns. In these systems, the upgraded (projection) displays were one-for-one form / fit replacements for the earlier units. As projection technology has matured, this situation has begun to evolve. The Lockheed-Martin F-35 is the first program in which the cockpit has been specifically designed to take advantage of one of the more unique capabilities of rear projection display technology, namely the ability to replace multiple small screens with a single large conformal viewing surface in the form of a panoramic display. Other programs are expected to follow, since the panoramic formats enable increased mission effectiveness, reduced cost and greater information transfer to the pilot. Some of the advantages and technical challenges associated with panoramic projection displays for avionics applications are described below.

  8. A Liquid Crystal Displayed Method of I/O Bus Driving Based on CPLD%一种基于CPLD的I/O总线驱动液晶显示的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓东; 郑为民; 唐志敏

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses a new kind of driving the LCD via I/O bus using CPLD and realizing the precise I/Ocontrol timing sequence by establishing the corresponding Verilog-HDL model. The results of application show thatthis solution can not only solve the matching of low-speed device with high-speed bus but also provide the display in-terface during the motherboard debugging process, and also prove that the whole system is reliable and stable.

  9. Medical Physics Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèye, Paul; Avery, Steven; Baird, Richard; Soares, Christopher; Amols, Howard; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Drew

    2006-03-01

    The panel discussion will explore opportunities and vistas in medical physics research and practice, medical imaging, teaching medical physics to undergraduates, and medical physics curricula as a recruiting tool for physics departments. Panel members consist of representatives from NSBP (Paul Guèye and Steven Avery), NIH/NIBIB (Richard Baird), NIST (Christopher Soares), AAPM (Howard Amols), ASTRO (Prabhakar Tripuraneni), and Jefferson Lab (Stan Majewski and Drew Weisenberger). Medical Physicists are part of Departments of Radiation Oncology at hospitals and medical centers. The field of medical physics includes radiation therapy physics, medical diagnostic and imaging physics, nuclear medicine physics, and medical radiation safety. It also ranges from basic researcher (at college institutions, industries, and laboratories) to applications in clinical environments.

  10. Potential improvements for dual directional view displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Jonathan; Parry Jones, Lesley; Gass, Paul; Imai, Akira; Takatani, Tomoo; Yabuta, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Dual directional view (DDV) displays show different images to different viewers. For example, the driver of a car looking at a central DDV display could view navigation information, while the passenger, looking from a different angle, could be watching a movie. This technology, which has now established itself on the dashboards of high-end Jaguar, Mercedes, and Range Rover cars, is manufactured by Sharp Corporation using a well-known parallax barrier technique. Unfortunately parallax barriers are associated with an inevitable drop in brightness compared with a single view display. A parallax barrier-based DDV display typically has less than half the transmission of a single view display. Here we present a solution to these problems via the use of a combined microlens and parallax barrier system, which can not only boost the brightness by 55% from a parallax barrier-only system but increase the head freedom by 25% and reduce crosstalk also. However, the use of microlenses (which must be positioned between the polarizers of the LCD) can adversely affect the contrast ratio of the display. Careful choice of the LCD mode is therefore required in order to create a DDV display that is both high in brightness and contrast ratio. The use of a single-domain vertically aligned nematic (VAN) liquid crystal (LC) mode, together with a microlens plus parallax barrier system can achieve this with a contrast ratio of 1700∶1 measured at 30° to normal incidence.

  11. System and Device with Three-Dimensional Image Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a binocular device (44) and a system (40) including a binocular device (44) configured for displaying one or more labels for an input device (2), such as a keyboard or a control panel, comprising a plurality of parts (4, 6) configured for activation and registration...

  12. Student Panels, Business Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    The purpose of student panels is to give feedback on students’ general and overall impression with the content and teaching of the individual courses as well as the progression and relationship between the courses offered. This will provide us with a background for assessing whether we meet...... are able to understand needed changes regarding courses and studies especially in relation to change the course portfolio of a study in order to strengthen the study’s content and/or progression....

  13. Interactive auto-stereoscopic display with efficient and flexible interleaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyungboo; Park, Jong-Il; Choi, Byung-Uk

    2012-02-01

    We propose a system that displays a three-dimensional (3D) scene on a 3D display device, consisting of a flat-panel display and a slanted parallax barrier, which can directly manipulate virtual 3D objects in real time. The proposed system consists of a 3D scene display part and a user interaction part. First, we propose a multi-view image interleaving method that considers the distance between a user and a display device for a slanted parallax barrier-based 3D display. Second, we define hand motion parameters for convenient hand motion analysis, and we propose a hand gesture recognition method that uses dynamic time warping (DTW) with specified hand motion parameters for user interaction. Thus, the proposed system makes it possible to see in any position, and viewers can perform event actions without regard to the shape or timing of hand motions.

  14. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together...... with the rapidly evolving positioning techniques, a new category of position-dependent, map-based services to be introduced. The report consists of the following parts: Part I: Categorization of handheld devices, Part II: Cartographic design for small-display devices, Part III: Study on the GiMoDig Client ? Portal...... Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  15. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  16. Military display performance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  17. Raster graphics display library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsrud, Anders; Stephenson, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    The Raster Graphics Display Library (RGDL) is a high level subroutine package that give the advanced raster graphics display capabilities needed. The RGDL uses FORTRAN source code routines to build subroutines modular enough to use as stand-alone routines in a black box type of environment. Six examples are presented which will teach the use of RGDL in the fastest, most complete way possible. Routines within the display library that are used to produce raster graphics are presented in alphabetical order, each on a separate page. Each user-callable routine is described by function and calling parameters. All common blocks that are used in the display library are listed and the use of each variable within each common block is discussed. A reference on the include files that are necessary to compile the display library is contained. Each include file and its purpose are listed. The link map for MOVIE.BYU version 6, a general purpose computer graphics display system that uses RGDL software, is also contained.

  18. Panel data analysis using EViews

    CERN Document Server

    Agung, I Gusti Ngurah

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive and accessible guide to panel data analysis using EViews software This book explores the use of EViews software in creating panel data analysis using appropriate empirical models and real datasets. Guidance is given on developing alternative descriptive statistical summaries for evaluation and providing policy analysis based on pool panel data. Various alternative models based on panel data are explored, including univariate general linear models, fixed effect models and causal models, and guidance on the advantages and disadvantages of each one is given. Panel Data Analysis

  19. Can I use a Panel? Panel Conditioning and Attrition Bias in Panel Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, J.W.M.; Toepoel, V.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decades there has been an increasing use of panel surveys at the household or individual level, instead of using independent cross-sections. Panel data have important advantages, but there are also two potential drawbacks: attrition bias and panel conditioning effects. Attrition bias c

  20. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Ubaldini, Stefano [Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering IGAG, National Research Council, Via Salaria km 29300, 00015 Montelibretti, Rome (Italy); De Michelis, Ida [Department of Industrial Engineering, Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, 67100, Zona industriale di Pile, L’Aquila (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [ISL Kopacek KG, Beckmanngasse 51, 1140 Wien (Austria); Vegliò, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering, Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, 67100, Zona industriale di Pile, L’Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca, E-mail: f.beolchini@univpm.it [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • End-of-life LCD panels represent a source of indium. • Several experimental conditions for indium leaching have been assessed. • Indium is completely extracted with 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min. • Cross-current leaching improves indium extraction and operating costs are lowered. • Benefits to the environment come from reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and reagents use. - Abstract: Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100 ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85–90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50–55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35 mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90 kg CO{sub 2}-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium

  1. Display measuring system СМ-100 for LCD characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sorokin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Creation of new liquid crystal displays and their adaptation for different external environments are impossible without correct diagnosing of wide range of electro-optical effects inherent to nematic, smectic and cholesteric liquid crystal materials. The modern universal display measuring complexes allow to solve this problem. Among different display measuring complexes those are wide used in the world for scientific centers and enterprises in Russia, Belorussia and Ukraine the complex CM-100, which has been developed in Institute of Semiconductor Phisics of NAS of Ukraine, is the most suitable.

  2. 3D液晶显示模组不均匀分区背光扫描及其设计方法%Shutter glass type of 3D liquid crystal display module non-uniform partition scanning backlight and its design method based on

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琦

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of liquid crystal display technology, 3D display gradually sought after the market and consumers. In the 3D LCD TV, there is a kind of shutter type 3D display technology. This technique also shot the same object's left and right eyes two pictures by two cameras at certain intervals, and synthetic treatment, on the display screen through time-sharing display out, then match the shutter glasses with the same time frequency, the same object images to the left and the right eyes respectively to watch camera captured. As the two pictures there is disparity is different, the human eye can feel the stereo image, realize 3D display effect. In order to achieve better 3D display effect, generally control the scanning backlight system through mode of backlight.%随着液晶显示技术的快速发展,3D液晶显示逐渐受到市场和消费者的追捧。在3D液晶电视中,有一类快门式3D显示技术。这种技术通过一定间隔的两台摄像机同时拍摄同一个物体的左右眼两幅画面,然后合成处理后,在显示屏上通过分时显示的方式显示出来,然后搭配与分时频率相同的快门式眼镜,使人的左右眼分别观看到摄像机拍摄到的同一物体画面。由于两幅画面存在视差的不同,人眼即可感受到了立体的影像,实现3D效果显示。为了实现更好的3D显示效果,一般通过扫描背光的方式来对背光系统进行控制。

  3. Interactive displays natural human-interface technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Achintya K

    2014-01-01

    One of the first books to provide an in-depth discussion of the technologies, applications and trends in the rapidly emerging field of interactive displays (touch, gesture & voice) The book will cover the technologies, applications and trends in the field of interactive displays, namely interfaces based on touch, gesture and voice and those using a combination of these technologies. The book will be split into 4 main parts with each being dedicated to a specific user interface. Part 1 ''Touch Interfaces'' will provide a review of the currently deployed touch-screen technologies and applications. It will also cover the recent developments towards achieving thinner, lightweight and cost-reduced touch screen panels in the future via integration of touch functionalities. Part 2 ''Gesture Interfaces'' will examine techniques and applications in stereoscopic 3D computer vision, structured-light 3D computer vision and time-of-flight 3D computer vision in gesture interfaces. Part 3 ''Voice Interfaces'' will revie...

  4. Modern Display Technologies for Airborne Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    from the sulphonic acid group and achieved operating life of greater than 10’ cycles with over 3 years shelf-life. The switching speed was rather slow...pitch. In spite of all this ordering, however, liquid crystals are clearly liquid, flowing readily with quite low viscosity . Consequently the...solids and is the basis of most optical effects used in displays. Other physical properties, such as electrical conductivity, elasticity, viscosity

  5. Aerial secure display by use of polarization-processing display with retarder film and retro-reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shusei; Uchida, Keitaro; Mizushina, Haruki; Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2017-02-01

    Security is one of the big issues in automated teller machine (ATM). In ATM, two types of security have to be maintained. One is to secure displayed information. The other is to secure screen contamination. This paper gives a solution for these two security issues. In order to secure information against peeping at the screen, we utilize visual cryptography for displayed information and limit the viewing zone. Furthermore, an aerial information screen with aerial imaging by retro-reflection, named AIRR enables users to avoid direct touch on the information screen. The purpose of this paper is to propose an aerial secure display technique that ensures security of displayed information as well as security against contamination problem on screen touch. We have developed a polarization-processing display that is composed of a backlight, a polarizer, a background LCD panel, a gap, a half-wave retarder, and a foreground LCD panel. Polarization angle is rotated with the LCD panels. We have constructed a polarization encryption code set. Size of displayed images are designed to limit the viewing position. Furthermore, this polarization-processing display has been introduced into our aerial imaging optics, which employs a reflective polarizer and a retro-reflector covered with a quarter-wave retarder. Polarization-modulated light forms the real image over the reflective polarizer. We have successfully formed aerial information screen that shows the secret image with a limited viewing position. This is the first realization of aerial secure display by use of polarization-processing display with retarder-film and retro-reflector.

  6. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana; Ubaldini, Stefano; De Michelis, Ida; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2M sulfuric acid at 80°C for 10min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85-90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50-55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO2 (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90kg CO2-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium. This new strategy represents a useful approach for secondary production of indium from waste LCD panels.

  7. From optical MEMS to photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Jideog; Lee, Hong-Seok; Moon, Il-Kwon; Won, JongHwa; Ku, Janam; Choi, Hyung; Shin, Hyungjae

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents the emergence of photonic crystals as significant optomechatronics components, following optical MEMS. It is predicted that, in the coming years, optical MEMS and photonic crystals may go through dynamic interactions leading to synergy as well as competition. First, we present the Structured Defect Photonic Crystal (SDPCTM) devised by the authors for providing the freedom of designing photonic bandgap structures, such that the application of photonic crystals be greatly extended. Then, we present the applications of optical MEMS and photonic crystals to displays and telecommunications. It is shown that many of the applications that optical MEMS can contribute to telecommunications and displays may be implemented by photonic crystals.

  8. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Jeong, Mi-Kyung; Kilicaslan, M Fatih; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Hong, Hyun-Seon; Hong, Soon-Jik

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time.

  9. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Malcolm P.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Stancel, Robert

    2013-03-19

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  10. Microsphere Insulation Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohling, R.; Allen, M.; Baumgartner, R.

    2006-01-01

    Microsphere insulation panels (MIPs) have been developed as lightweight, longlasting replacements for the foam and vacuum-jacketed systems heretofore used for thermally insulating cryogenic vessels and transfer ducts. The microsphere core material of a typical MIP consists of hollow glass bubbles, which have a combination of advantageous mechanical, chemical, and thermal-insulation properties heretofore available only separately in different materials. In particular, a core filling of glass microspheres has high crush strength and low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum.

  11. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Brown, Malcolm P.; Stancel, Robert

    2012-06-05

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  12. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  13. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications.

  14. The Ultimate Display

    CERN Document Server

    Fluke, C J

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical images and datasets are increasingly high-resolution and multi-dimensional. The vast majority of astronomers perform all of their visualisation and analysis tasks on low-resolution, two-dimensional desktop monitors. If there were no technological barriers to designing the ultimate stereoscopic display for astronomy, what would it look like? What capabilities would we require of our compute hardware to drive it? And are existing technologies even close to providing a true 3D experience that is compatible with the depth resolution of human stereoscopic vision? We consider the CAVE2 (an 80 Megapixel, hybrid 2D and 3D virtual reality environment directly integrated with a 100 Tflop/s GPU-powered supercomputer) and the Oculus Rift (a low- cost, head-mounted display) as examples at opposite financial ends of the immersive display spectrum.

  15. Phase-polarization parallax barriers for an autostereo/stereo/monoscopic display with full-screen resolution at each operation mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhov, Vasily

    2015-10-01

    It is attractive to have a three-mode flat-panel 3D display capable of working in autostereoscopic, stereoscopic-with-passive-glasses, and monoscopic modes and providing full-screen resolution of images at each mode. The concept of autostereoscopic displays simultaneously reproducing two image elements in each display pixel based on information-dependent polarization coding and subsequent decoding was recently proposed. Such a concept allows full-screen resolution in each image view and flickerless 3D images to be observed even at a 60-Hz frame rate. The essential problem of such display implementation is to create the suitable structure of the phase-polarization parallax barrier (PPPB) capable of working properly at a variable polarization state of input light. This paper presents the results of theoretical research of an electrically switchable liquid crystal (LC) PPPB. The Jones matrix notation of the required performance function of the LC PPPB is found. The results of computer modeling of achromatic characteristics of suitable LC structures are discussed to determine the optimum structures for PPPB. The proposed layout of three-mode 3D display with LC PPPB allows it to go from autostereoscopic mode to "stereoscopic-with-passive-glasses" mode and backward by electrical switching the LC PPPB in combination with removing/inserting the output polaroid film.

  16. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  17. Objective Crystal Spectrometer on the SRG satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Rasmussen, I.

    1994-01-01

    The flight version of the Objective Crystal Spectrometer (OXS) on the SPECTRUM-X- GAMMA satellite is presented. The spectrometer is a panel that is placed in front of one of the SODART telescopes. It is composed of an array of the three Bragg crystals, LiF(220), Si(111) and RAP(001) for high...

  18. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  19. Virtual Auditory Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    timbre , intensity, distance, room modeling, radio communication Virtual Environments Handbook Chapter 4 Virtual Auditory Displays Russell D... musical note “A” as a pure sinusoid, there will be 440 condensations and rarefactions per second. The distance between two adjacent condensations or...and complexity are pitch, loudness, and timbre respectively. This distinction between physical and perceptual measures of sound properties is an

  20. Electroluminescence Gray Scale Display Driving Method and Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Hao; LI Rong-yu; YANG Xin

    2007-01-01

    The increasing use of color terminals for personal computers has raised a demand for video graphic adapter(VGA)-format panel displays. Since only monochrome(ZnS∶Mn) electroluminescence(EL) displays of suitable size and speed are available, lack of colors has to be replaced by grayscale in the first place. There are two basic driving methods to achieve grayscale in thin-film EL displays: pulse amplitude modulation(PAM) method and pulse width modulation(PWM) method. But there are serious disadvantages of the two traditional methods. For the former method, the high voltage PAM ICs are too expensive to produce the grayscale EL display in bulks and the driver integrated circuit(IC) is complex. Though the PWM method has good grayscale display quality, the hardware implementation is too complex. A new driving method with which the width and the amplitude of the pulse can be modulated and simultaneously the challenge can be solved efficaciously is presented.

  1. Virtual acoustic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    A 3D auditory display can potentially enhance information transfer by combining directional and iconic information in a quite naturalistic representation of dynamic objects in the interface. Another aspect of auditory spatial clues is that, in conjunction with other modalities, it can act as a potentiator of information in the display. For example, visual and auditory cues together can reinforce the information content of the display and provide a greater sense of presence or realism in a manner not readily achievable by either modality alone. This phenomenon will be particularly useful in telepresence applications, such as advanced teleconferencing environments, shared electronic workspaces, and monitoring telerobotic activities in remote or hazardous situations. Thus, the combination of direct spatial cues with good principles of iconic design could provide an extremely powerful and information-rich display which is also quite easy to use. An alternative approach, recently developed at ARC, generates externalized, 3D sound cues over headphones in realtime using digital signal processing. Here, the synthesis technique involves the digital generation of stimuli using Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTF's) measured in the two ear-canals of individual subjects. Other similar approaches include an analog system developed by Loomis, et. al., (1990) and digital systems which make use of transforms derived from normative mannikins and simulations of room acoustics. Such an interface also requires the careful psychophysical evaluation of listener's ability to accurately localize the virtual or synthetic sound sources. From an applied standpoint, measurement of each potential listener's HRTF's may not be possible in practice. For experienced listeners, localization performance was only slightly degraded compared to a subject's inherent ability. Alternatively, even inexperienced listeners may be able to adapt to a particular set of HRTF's as long as they provide adequate

  2. ALDS 1978 panel review. [PNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, D.L. (ed.)

    1979-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is examining the analysis of large data sets (ALDS). After one year's work, a panel was convened to evaluate the project. This document is the permanent record of that panel review. It consists of edited transcripts of presentations made to the panel by the PNL staff, a summary of the responses of the panel to these presentations, and PNL's plans for the development of the ALDS project. The representations of the PNL staff described various aspects of the project and/or the philosophy surrounding the project. Supporting materials appear in appendixes. 20 figures, 4 tables. (RWR)

  3. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  4. Single Crystal Si Layers on Glass Fabricated by Hydrophilic Fusion Bonding and Smart-Cut Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN Wan-Bao; LIU Wei-Li; SONG Zhi-Tang; FENG Song-Lin; ZHU Shi-Fu; ZHAO Bei-Jun

    2004-01-01

    @@ A single crystal Si thin film on a glass substrate has been obtained successfully by hydrophilic fusion bonding and the smart-cut technology. Tensile strength testing shows that the bonded interface has strong adhesion and the bonding strength is about 8.7 MPa. Crystallinity and microstructure of the samples have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrical properties have also been investigated by Hall measurements and four-point probe. The mobility of the transferred Si layer on glass is about 122cm2/V.s. The results show that the single-crystal silicon layer transferred onto glass by direct bonding keeps good quality for the applications of integrated circuits, transducers, and flat panel display.

  5. Image Descriptors for Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    hypothetical televison display. The viewing distance is 4 picture heights, and the bandwidth limitation has been set by the U.S. Monochrome Standards...significantly influence the power spectrum over most of the video frequency range. A large dc component and a small random component provide another scene... influences . It was Illuminated with natural light to a brightness of over 300 ft-L. The high brightness levels were chosen so as to nearly reproduce the

  6. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  7. Electronic route information panels (DRIPs).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Also in the Netherlands, the term Dynamic Route Information Panel (DRIP) is used for an electronic route information panel. A DRIP usually indicates whether there are queues on the various routes to a particular destination and how long they are. On certain locations DRIPS also give the estimated tr

  8. Thermal-Diode Sandwich Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiulis, A.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal diode sandwich panel transfers heat in one direction, but when heat load reversed, switches off and acts as thermal insulator. Proposed to control temperature in spacecraft and in supersonic missiles to protect internal electronics. In combination with conventional heat pipes, used in solar panels and other heat-sensitive systems.

  9. Plane and parabolic solar panels

    CERN Document Server

    Sales, J H O

    2009-01-01

    We present a plane and parabolic collector that absorbs radiant energy and transforms it in heat. Therefore we have a panel to heat water. We study how to increment this capture of solar beams onto the panel in order to increase its efficiency in heating water.

  10. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph; Valdes, Francisco

    2017-02-14

    An exemplary mounting clip for removably attaching panels to a supporting structure comprises a base, spring locking clips, a lateral flange, a lever flange, and a spring bonding pad. The spring locking clips extend upwardly from the base. The lateral flange extends upwardly from a first side of the base. The lateral flange comprises a slot having an opening configured to receive at least a portion of one of the one or more panels. The lever flange extends outwardly from the lateral flange. The spring bonding flange extends downwardly from the lever flange. At least a portion of the first spring bonding flange comprises a serrated edge for gouging at least a portion of the one or more panels when the one or more panels are attached to the mounting clip to electrically and mechanically couple the one or more panels to the mounting clip.

  11. Market trends in the projection display industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sweta

    2001-03-01

    The projection display industry represents a multibillion- dollar market that includes four distinct technologies. High-volume consumer products and high-value business products drive the market, with different technologies being used in different application markets. The consumer market is dominated by rear CRT technology, especially in the projection TV segment. Rear LCD (liquid crystal display), MEMS/DLP (or Digital Light Processing TM) and LCOS (Liquid-crystal-on-silicon) TVs are slowly emerging as future competitors to rear CRT projectors. Front CRT projectors are also facing challenges from LCD and DLP technology for the home theater market while the business market is completely dominated by front LCD and DLP technology. Three-chip DLP projectors have replaced liquid crystal light valves in large venue applications where projectors have higher light output requirements. In recent years front LCD and LCOS projectors have been increasingly competing with 3-chip DLP projectors especially at the low end of the large venue application market. Within the next five years the projection market will experience very fast growth. Sales and presentation applications, which are the fastest growing applications in the business market, will continue to be the major driving force for the growth for front projectors, and the shift in the consumer market to digital and HDTV products will drive the rear projection market.

  12. Book Display as Adult Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Moore

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Book display as an adult service is defined as choosing and positioning adult books from the collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access. The paper considers the library-as-a-whole as a display, examines the right size for an in-library display, and discusses mass displays, end-caps, on-shelf displays, and the Tiffany approach. The author proposes that an effective display depends on an imaginative, unifying theme, and that book displays are part of the joy of libraries.

  13. Handbook of Visual Display Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Wayne; Fihn, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Visual Display Technology is a unique work offering a comprehensive description of the science, technology, economic and human interface factors associated with the displays industry. An invaluable compilation of information, the Handbook will serve as a single reference source with expert contributions from over 150 international display professionals and academic researchers. All classes of display device are covered including LCDs, reflective displays, flexible solutions and emissive devices such as OLEDs and plasma displays, with discussion of established principles, emergent technologies, and particular areas of application. The wide-ranging content also encompasses the fundamental science of light and vision, image manipulation, core materials and processing techniques, display driving and metrology.

  14. Plasma Panel Sensors for Particle and Beam Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Peter S; Beene, James R; Benhammou, Yan; Bentefour, E H; Chapman, J W; Etzion, Erez; Ferretti, Claudio; Guttman, Nir; Levin, Daniel S; Ben-Moshe, Meny; Silver, Yiftah; Varner, Robert L; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Zhou, Bing

    2012-01-01

    The plasma panel sensor (PPS) is an inherently digital, high gain, novel variant of micropattern gas detectors inspired by many operational and fabrication principles common to plasma display panels (PDPs). The PPS is comprised of a dense array of small, plasma discharge, gas cells within a hermetically-sealed glass panel, and is assembled from non-reactive, intrinsically radiation-hard materials such as glass substrates, metal electrodes and mostly inert gas mixtures. We are developing the technology to fabricate these devices with very low mass and small thickness, using gas gaps of at least a few hundred micrometers. Our tests with these devices demonstrate a spatial resolution of about 1 mm. We intend to make PPS devices with much smaller cells and the potential for much finer position resolutions. Our PPS tests also show response times of several nanoseconds. We report here our results in detecting betas, cosmic-ray muons, and our first proton beam tests.

  15. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.;

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion...... of the zeolite particles, particularly after thermal treatment. When using mesoporous zeolites, the particles were evenly distributed throughout the mesopore system of the zeolitic support, even after calcination, leading to nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals....

  16. Technologies and solutions for data display in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterman, Noemi

    2006-06-01

    Recent advances in technology have led to the introduction of a variety of innovative devices, each with their own platform for data display, into the operating room (OR). While these innovative applications are expanding the traditional boundaries of the surgical space and enhancing treatment capabilities, the introduction of additional screens and displays is placing an ever-increasing load on the OR team. This review describes the main data display platforms currently available in ORs: computer monitors with CRT (cathode ray tube) or LCD (liquid crystal display) screens, suspended imaging displays, wearable computers (WC), auditory displays and tactile (haptic) displays. The different display platforms are evaluated according to their compatibility with the characteristics of the working environment (OR), the monitoring task, and the users (the surgical team). No single display configuration provides an ultimate solution for presenting patient data in the OR. A multi-sensory data display including visual, acoustic and haptic manipulation is suggested as a promising configuration for data display in the OR.

  17. Navigational Heads-Up Display: Will a Shipboard Augmented Electronic Navigation System Sink or Swim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    76 Table 6. Subject Video Game Practice...Interface GPS Global Positioning System HMD Head-Mounted Display HUD Heads-Up Display IP Internet Protocol IR Infrared LCD Liquid-Crystal Display...Stress Disorder SDK Software Development Kit SOG Speed over Ground SWOS Surface Warfare Officer School USD United States Dollar USNS United States

  18. Secure information display with limited viewing zone by use of multi-color visual cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Hayasaki, Yoshio; Nishida, Nobuo

    2004-04-01

    We propose a display technique that ensures security of visual information by use of visual cryptography. A displayed image appears as a completely random pattern unless viewed through a decoding mask. The display has a limited viewing zone with the decoding mask. We have developed a multi-color encryption code set. Eight colors are represented in combinations of a displayed image composed of red, green, blue, and black subpixels and a decoding mask composed of transparent and opaque subpixels. Furthermore, we have demonstrated secure information display by use of an LCD panel.

  19. Display implementation in the Abrams Main Battle Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrembelski, Rick J.

    1999-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of a major weapon system, the Abrams Main Battle Tank, as it relates to Flat Panel Display (FPD) technology. The Abrams pioneered FPD implementation in military ground vehicles in response to the integration of embedded computer systems into the tank. This major weapon system is poised to field the latest upgrade, the System Enhancement Package (SEP), with 2nd generation Flat Panel Displays. This has been accomplished by managing requirements, dynamic communication with FPD research and development programs, and aggressively leveraging those programs. The tank has progressed from implementing available FPDs to influencing the enabling of FPD technology. The experience gained offers valuable insight to following ground vehicle systems and to those diligently working to fully enable this critical technology.

  20. Industrial resin inspection for display production using automated fluid-inspection based on multimodal optical detection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Park, Kibeom; Jung, Yeongri; Kim, Pilun; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-09-01

    The large-scale liquid-crystal display (LCD) industry requires an accurate inspection system for identifying defects, as the LCD quality can be drastically degraded because of defects. In particular, the refractive index of LCD panels can be changed by internal micrometer-range substances, which form as a result of defectiveness and the insufficient solidification of industrial liquid resins. Intrinsically, the defect inspection of the raw materials must be performed prior to the LCD manufacturing process. Thus, optical coherence tomography (OCT) based automated fluid-inspection (AFI) methodology was introduced to demarcate and enumerate the defects in industrial liquid resins and the final product (LCD smartphone). The accuracy of the method was enhanced by implementing an intensity-detection algorithm. Subsequently, the optimal solidification rates of liquid resins were investigated using a fluorescence sensor-based ultraviolet hardening method to prevent the formation of defects between the internal layers of the LCD panel. Therefore, AFI can be implemented as an effective and cost-saving method in the smartphone industry for improving the quality of the final product.

  1. The future of 2D metrology for display manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Tor; Wahlsten, Mikael; Park, Youngjin

    2016-10-01

    The race to 800 PPI and higher in mobile devices and the transition to OLED displays are driving a dramatic development of mask quality: resolution, CDU, registration, and complexity. 2D metrology for large area masks is necessary and must follow the roadmap. Driving forces in the market place point to continued development of even more dense displays. State-of-the-art metrology has proven itself capable of overlay below 40 nm and registration below 65 nm for G6 masks. Future developments include incoming and recurrent measurements of pellicalized masks at the panel maker's factory site. Standardization of coordinate systems across supplier networks is feasible. This will enable better yield and production economy for both mask and panel maker. Better distortion correction methods will give better registration on the panels and relax the flatness requirements of the mask blanks. If panels are measured together with masks and the results are used to characterize the aligners, further quality and yield improvements are possible. Possible future developments include in-cell metrology and integration with other instruments in the same platform.

  2. Photolithographic process of microcapsule sheet for electrophoretic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Lee Soon; Choi, Hyung Suk; Kim, Woo-Sik; Lee, Dong-Ho; Min, Kyung-Eun; Seo, Kwan-Ho; Kyu Kang, Inn; Park, Soo-Young; Ho Hwang, Sung; Kwon, Younghwan

    2004-01-05

    A new method of fabricating electrophoretic display sheet was developed utilizing a photolithographic process. In this method, stripe-type barrier ribs with height of 50-80 {mu}m and gap between ribs of 100-150 {mu}m were patterned on the transparent electrode substrate by photolithographic process using a negative-type photoresist. Microspheres dispersed in UV curable monomer system were closely packed into the spaces between the barrier ribs. After laminating the upper ITO film, the resulting sheet was UV-irradiated to give an electrophoretic display panel with uniform packing of microspheres.

  3. Uniform LED illuminator for miniature displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Vladimir; Pelka, David G.; Parkyn, William A.

    1998-10-01

    The Total Internally Reflecting (TIR) lens is a faceted structure composed of prismatic elements that collect a source's light over a much larger angular range than a conventional Fresnel lens. It has been successfully applied to the efficient collimation of light from incandescent and fluorescent lamps, and from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A novel LED-powered collimating backlight is presented here, for uniformly illuminating 0.25'-diagonal miniature liquid- crystal displays, which are a burgeoning market for pagers, cellular phones, digital cameras, camcorders, and virtual- reality displays. The backlight lens consists of a central dual-asphere refracting section and an outer TIR section, properly curved with a curved exit face.

  4. Crystal science fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, V.; Halfpenny, PJ; Roberts, KJ

    2017-01-01

    The fundamentals of crystal science notably crystallography, crystal chemistry, crystal defects, crystal morphology and the surface chemistry of crystals are introduced with particular emphasis on organic crystals.

  5. Exascale Workshop Panel Report Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-07-01

    The Exascale Review Panel consists of 12 scientists and engineers with experience in various aspects of high-performance computing and its application, development, and management. The Panel hear presentations by several representatives of the workshops and town meetings convened over the past few years to examine the need for exascale computation capability and the justification for a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program to develop such capability. This report summarizes information provided by the presenters and substantial written reports to the Panel in advance of the meeting in Washington D.C. on January 19-20, 2010. The report also summarizes the Panel's conclusions with regard to the justification of a DOE-led exascale initiative.

  6. Reminder - Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    At its meeting on 7 December 2006, the Standing Concertation Committee also took note of the nomination of a fourth new member of the Panel: Wisla Carena. The present composition of the Panel (appointed ad personam) is now as follows: Tiziano Camporesi (Chairperson), Wisla Carena, Pierre Charrue, Sue Foffano, Josi Schinzel (Equal Opportunities Officer), Markus Nordberg, Christine Petit-Jean-Genaz and Elena Wildner. Human Resources Department Tel. 74480

  7. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  8. Variations in performance of LCDs are still evident after DICOM gray-scale standard display calibration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lowe, Joanna M

    2010-07-01

    Quality assurance in medical imaging is directly beneficial to image quality. Diagnostic images are frequently displayed on secondary-class displays that have minimal or no regular quality assurance programs, and treatment decisions are being made from these display types. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of calibration on physical and psychophysical performance of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and the extent of potential variance across various types of LCDs.

  9. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  10. Colorimetry for CRT displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golz, Jürgen; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the sources of error in specifying color in CRT displays. These include errors inherent in the use of the color matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer when only colorimetric, not radiometric, calibrations are available. We provide transformation coefficients that prove to correct the deficiencies of this observer very well. We consider four different candidate sets of cone sensitivities. Some of these differ substantially; variation among candidate cone sensitivities exceeds the variation among phosphors. Finally, the effects of the recognized forms of observer variation on the visual responses (cone excitations or cone contrasts) generated by CRT stimuli are investigated and quantitatively specified. Cone pigment polymorphism gives rise to variation of a few per cent in relative excitation by the different phosphors--a variation larger than the errors ensuing from the adoption of the CIE standard observer, though smaller than the differences between some candidate cone sensitivities. Macular pigmentation has a larger influence, affecting mainly responses to the blue phosphor. The estimated combined effect of all sources of observer variation is comparable in magnitude with the largest differences between competing cone sensitivity estimates but is not enough to disrupt very seriously the relation between the L and M cone weights and the isoluminance settings of individual observers. It is also comparable with typical instrumental colorimetric errors, but we discuss these only briefly.

  11. Development of a plasma panel radiation detector: recent progress and key issues

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, Yiftah; Beene, James R; Benhammou, Yan; Ben-Moshe, Meny; Chapman, J W; Dai, Tiesheng; Etzion, Erez; Ferretti, Claudio; Guttman, Nir; Friedman, Peter S; Levin, Daniel S; Ritt, S; Varner, Robert L; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Zhou, Bing

    2012-01-01

    A radiation detector based on plasma display panel technology, which is the principal component of plasma television displays is presented. Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS) technology is a variant of micropattern gas radiation detectors. The PPS is conceived as an array of sealed plasma discharge gas cells which can be used for fast response (O(5ns) per pixel), high spatial resolution detection (pixel pitch can be less than 100 micrometer) of ionizing and minimum ionizing particles. The PPS is assembled from non-reactive, intrinsically radiation-hard materials: glass substrates, metal electrodes and inert gas mixtures. We report on the PPS development program, including simulations and design and the first laboratory studies which demonstrate the usage of plasma display panels in measurements of cosmic ray muons, as well as the expansion of experimental results on the detection of betas from radioactive sources.

  12. Easy Attachment Of Panels To A Truss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Mark; Gralewski, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual antenna dish, solar collector, or similar structure consists of hexagonal panels supported by truss erected in field. Truss built in increments to maintain access to panel-attachment nodes. Each panel brought toward truss at angle and attached to two nodes. Panel rotated into attachment at third node.

  13. Easy Attachment Of Panels To A Truss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Mark; Gralewski, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual antenna dish, solar collector, or similar structure consists of hexagonal panels supported by truss erected in field. Truss built in increments to maintain access to panel-attachment nodes. Each panel brought toward truss at angle and attached to two nodes. Panel rotated into attachment at third node.

  14. Data Display in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Verdinelli PsyD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual displays help in the presentation of inferences and conclusions and represent ways of organizing, summarizing, simplifying, or transforming data. Data displays such as matrices and networks are often utilized to enhance data analysis and are more commonly seen in quantitative than in qualitative studies. This study reviewed the data displays used by three prestigious qualitative research journals within a period of three years. The findings include the types of displays used in these qualitative journals, the frequency of use, and the purposes for using visual displays as opposed to presenting data in text.

  15. Modeling Power-Constrained Optimal Backlight Dimming for Color Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burini, Nino; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Korhonen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for modeling color liquid crystal displays (LCDs) having local light-emitting diode (LED) backlight with dimming capability. The proposed framework includes critical aspects like leakage, clipping, light diffusion and human perception of luminance and allows...

  16. Spatial constraints of stereopsis in video displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Clifton

    1989-01-01

    Recent development in video technology, such as the liquid crystal displays and shutters, have made it feasible to incorporate stereoscopic depth into the 3-D representations on 2-D displays. However, depth has already been vividly portrayed in video displays without stereopsis using the classical artists' depth cues described by Helmholtz (1866) and the dynamic depth cues described in detail by Ittleson (1952). Successful static depth cues include overlap, size, linear perspective, texture gradients, and shading. Effective dynamic cues include looming (Regan and Beverly, 1979) and motion parallax (Rogers and Graham, 1982). Stereoscopic depth is superior to the monocular distance cues under certain circumstances. It is most useful at portraying depth intervals as small as 5 to 10 arc secs. For this reason it is extremely useful in user-video interactions such as telepresence. Objects can be manipulated in 3-D space, for example, while a person who controls the operations views a virtual image of the manipulated object on a remote 2-D video display. Stereopsis also provides structure and form information in camouflaged surfaces such as tree foliage. Motion parallax also reveals form; however, without other monocular cues such as overlap, motion parallax can yield an ambiguous perception. For example, a turning sphere, portrayed as solid by parallax can appear to rotate either leftward or rightward. However, only one direction of rotation is perceived when stereo-depth is included. If the scene is static, then stereopsis is the principal cue for revealing the camouflaged surface structure. Finally, dynamic stereopsis provides information about the direction of motion in depth (Regan and Beverly, 1979). Clearly there are many spatial constraints, including spatial frequency content, retinal eccentricity, exposure duration, target spacing, and disparity gradient, which - when properly adjusted - can greatly enhance stereodepth in video displays.

  17. Dynamic exit pupil trackers for autostereoscopic displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akşit, Kaan; Baghsiahi, Hadi; Surman, Phil; Ölçer, Selim; Willman, Eero; Selviah, David R; Day, Sally; Urey, Hakan

    2013-06-17

    This paper describes the first demonstrations of two dynamic exit pupil (DEP) tracker techniques for autostereoscopic displays. The first DEP tracker forms an exit pupil pair for a single viewer in a defined space with low intraocular crosstalk using a pair of moving shutter glasses located within the optical system. A display prototype using the first DEP tracker is constructed from a pair of laser projectors, pupil-forming optics, moving shutter glasses at an intermediate pupil plane, an image relay lens, and a Gabor superlens based viewing screen. The left and right eye images are presented time-sequentially to a single viewer and seen as a 3D image without wearing glasses and allows the viewer to move within a region of 40 cm × 20 cm in the lateral plane, and 30 cm along the axial axis. The second DEP optics can move the exit pupil location dynamically in a much larger 3D space by using a custom spatial light modulator (SLM) forming an array of shutters. Simultaneous control of multiple exit pupils in both lateral and axial axes is demonstrated for the first time and provides a viewing volume with an axial extent of 0.6-3 m from the screen and within a lateral viewing angle of ± 20° for multiple viewers. This system has acceptable crosstalk (< 5%) between the stereo image pairs. In this novel version of the display the optical system is used as an advanced dynamic backlight for a liquid crystal display (LCD). This has advantages in terms of overall display size as there is no requirement for an intermediate image, and in image quality. This system has acceptable crosstalk (< 5%) between the stereo image pairs.

  18. Unique interactive projection display screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  19. MicroDisplay technology: from eyeglass-mounted displays to portable projectors to the Dick Tracy video phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip

    1997-06-01

    MicroDisplay devices are based on a combination of technologies ranging from the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS active-matrix liquid crystal display substrates to proprietary tunable color- filter technology, to optical distortion correction technology for lens-system compensation. All of these technologies were devised to create a line of application- specific integrated circuit single-chip display devices with integrated computing, memory, and communication circuitry. Next-generation portable communication, computer, and consumer electronic devices such as truly portable monitor and TV projectors, eyeglass-clip-on virtual displays, pagers and personal communication services hand-sets, and wristwatch-mounted video phones are all target markets for MicroDisplay technology.

  20. A time-sequential autostereoscopic 3D display using a vertical line dithering for utilizing the side lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jin; Park, Minyoung

    2014-11-01

    In spite of the developments of various autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) technologies, the inferior resolution of the realized 3D image is a severe problem that should be resolved. For that purpose, a time-sequential 3D display is developed to provide 3D images with higher resolution and attracts much attention. Among them, a method using a directional backlight unit (DBLU) is an effective way to be adopted in liquid crystal display (LCD) with higher frame rate such as 120Hz. However, in the conventional time-sequential system, the insufficient frame rate results a flicker problem which means a recognizable fluctuation of image brightness. A dot dithering method can be a good solution for reducing that problem but it was impossible to observe the 3D image in side lobes because the image data and the directivity of light rays from the DBLU do not match in side lobes. In this paper, we propose a new vertical line dithering method to expand the area for 3D image observation by utilizing the side lobes. Since the side lobes locate in the left and right position of the center lobe, it is needed to arrange the image data in LCD panel and directivity of the light rays from the DBLU to have continuity in horizontal direction. Although the observed 3D images in side lobes are flipped ones, the utilization of the side lobes can increase the number of observers in horizontal direction.

  1. High temperature structural sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  2. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  3. Rapid display of radiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Moore, Stephen M.; Whitman, Robert A.; Blaine, G. James; Jost, R. Gilbert; Karlsson, L. M.; Monsees, Thomas L.; Hassen, Gregory L.; David, Timothy C.

    1991-07-01

    The requirements for the rapid display of radiographic images exceed the capabilities of widely available display, computer, and communications technologies. Computed radiography captures data with a resolution of about four megapixels. Large-format displays are available that can present over four megapixels. One megapixel displays are practical for use in combination with large-format displays and in areas where the viewing task does not require primary diagnosis. This paper describes an electronic radiology system that approximates the highest quality systems, but through the use of several interesting techniques allows the possibility of its widespread installation throughout hospitals. The techniques used can be grouped under three major system concepts: a local, high-speed image server, one or more physician's workstations each with one or more high-performance auxiliary displays specialized to the radiology viewing task, and dedicated, high-speed communication links between the server and the displays. This approach is enhanced by the use of a progressive transmission scheme to decrease the latency for viewing four megapixel images. The system includes an image server with storage for over 600 4-megapixel images and a high-speed link. A subsampled megapixel image is fetched from disk and transmitted to the display in about one second followed by the full resolution 4-megapixel image in about 2.5 seconds. Other system components include a megapixel display with a 6-megapixel display memory space and frame-rate update of image roam, zoom, and contrast. Plans for clinical use are presented.

  4. Military display market segment: helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2004-09-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of one of its segments: helicopter displays. Parameters requiring special consideration, to include luminance ranges, contrast ratio, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are examined. Performance requirements for rotary-wing displays relative to several premier applications are summarized. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DoD applications across 10 or more platforms, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area sizes across helicopter platforms, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or greater, is illustrated. Rotary-wing displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus Rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military helicopter programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. The military display market study is summarized with breakouts for the helicopter market segment. Our defense-wide study as of March 2004 has documented 1,015,494 direct view and virtual image displays distributed across 1,181 display sizes and 503 weapon systems. Helicopter displays account for 67,472 displays (just 6.6% of DoD total) and comprise 83 sizes (7.0% of total DoD) in 76 platforms (15.1% of total DoD). Some 47.6% of these rotary-wing applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, as per fixed-wing aircraft, the predominant instantiation involves higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  5. Spectral analysis of views interpolated by chroma subpixel downsampling for 3D autosteroscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Avishai; Stern, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    One of the main limitations of horizontal parallax autostereoscopic displays is the horizontal resolution loss due the need to repartition the pixels of the display panel among the multiple views. Recently we have shown that this problem can be alleviated by applying a color sub-pixel rendering technique1. Interpolated views are generated by down-sampling the panel pixels at sub-pixel level, thus increasing the number of views. The method takes advantage of lower acuity of the human eye to chromatic resolution. Here we supply further support of the technique by analyzing the spectra of the subsampled images.

  6. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... to damage caused by unstable environmental conditions. Unfortunately, past structural interventions often caused significant damage due to insufficient knowledge of the behaviour of the wood panels, glue and paint layers. Over the last fifty years, the field has developed treatment strategies based......, it is imperative to strengthen scientific research into the production methods, ageing and future behaviour of panel paintings, being an intricate interplay between different materials. A deeper understanding of the processes that adversely affect panel paintings over time will contribute to the improved care...

  7. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  8. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  9. X-1 on display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    A Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1 series aircraft on display at an Open House at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit or High-Speed Flight Research Station hangar on South Base of Edwards Air Force Base, California. (The precise date of the photo is uncertain, but it is probably before 1948.) The instrumentation that was carried aboard the aircraft to gather data is on display. The aircraft data was recorded on oscillograph film that was read, calibrated, and converted into meaningful parameters for the engineers to evaluate from each research flight. In the background of the photo are several early U.S. jets. These include several Lockheed P-80 Shooting Stars, which were used as chase planes on X-1 flights; two Bell P-59 Airacomets, the first U.S. jet pursuit aircraft (fighter in later parlance); and a prototype Republic XP-84 Thunderjet. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for eXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant

  10. NO y Blue Ribbon panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosley, David R.

    1996-01-01

    Total NOy was determined on the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West A using two separate instruments, one operated by Georgia Institute of Technology and one by Nagoya University. The two data sets exhibited significant disagreement, with no systematic correlation, and differences often a factor of 2 or more. Additionally, regardless of data set chosen, the total NOy was much greater than the sum of its components measured separately. A panel was convened by NASA in July 1993 to examine these conflicting datasets and the question of "missing NOy" on this mision. This paper reports the conclusions and recommendations from the panel.

  11. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  12. The "Virtual" Panel: A Computerized Model for LGBT Speaker Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Christopher; Torres-Harding, Susan; Pedersen, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent societal trends indicate more tolerance for homosexuality, but prejudice remains on college campuses. Speaker panels are commonly used in classrooms as a way to educate students about sexual diversity and decrease negative attitudes toward sexual diversity. The advent of computer-delivered instruction presents a unique opportunity to…

  13. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity--the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice--but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals.

  14. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity—the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice—but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals. PMID:27734829

  15. Super long viewing distance light homogeneous emitting three-dimensional display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hongen

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) display technology has continuously been attracting public attention with the progress in today's 3D television and mature display technologies. The primary characteristics of conventional glasses-free autostereoscopic displays, such as spatial resolution, image depths, and viewing angle, are often limited due to the use of optical lenses or optical gratings. We present a 3D display using MEMS-scanning-mechanism-based light homogeneous emitting (LHE) approach and demonstrate that the display can directly generate an autostereoscopic 3D image without the need for optical lenses or gratings. The generated 3D image has the advantages of non-aberration and a high-definition spatial resolution, making it the first to exhibit animated 3D images with image depth of six meters. Our LHE 3D display approach can be used to generate a natural flat-panel 3D display with super long viewing distance and alternative real-time image update.

  16. Description of the primary flight display and flight guidance system logic in the NASA B-737 transport systems research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A primary flight display format was integrated with the flight guidance and control system logic in support of various flight tests conducted with the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle B-737-100 airplane. The functional operation of the flight guidance mode control panel and the corresponding primary flight display formats are presented.

  17. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  18. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2015-10-20

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  19. Maintenance Procedure Display: Head Mounted Display (HMD) Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Milrian; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Solem, Jody A.; Holden, Kritina L.; Hoffman, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing maintenance procedures for head mounted displays is shown. The topics include: 1) Study Goals; 2) Near Eye Displays (HMDs); 3) Design; 4) Phase I-Evaluation Methods; 5) Phase 1 Results; 6) Improved HMD Mounting; 7) Phase 2 -Evaluation Methods; 8) Phase 2 Preliminary Results; and 9) Next Steps.

  20. Introducing large color displays in the Gripen fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Mats; Brandtberg, Hans

    1998-09-01

    Cockpit design is about communication between the aircraft system and the pilot. The information available on-board is very large and increases with on-going development of the systems. New functions for integration and fusion will, together with decision support and automation, set requirements on the displays to transfer information to the pilot. Information overload, mental workload and flight safety are always important areas to put efforts in. The present version of the Swedish JAS 39 Gripen aircraft has three monochrome multi-function displays. The displays are fairly large for a small aircraft, 5' X 6', giving a good situation awareness for the pilot. A new version of the Gripen cockpit featuring large color displays is now under development and will be introduced to the Swedish air force and ready for export market in the end of 2001. Display size, resolution, graphics capability and color have great impact on the pilots ability to acquire and understand the presented information. These factors are very important when designing an improved cockpit. By utilizing the most modern flat panel AMLCD techniques we have succeeded in integrating three 6.2' X 8.3' full-color multi-function displays in the Gripen aircraft.

  1. Mobile response in web panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijne, M.A.; Wijnant, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates unintended mobile access to surveys in online, probability-based panels. We find that spontaneous tablet usage is drastically increasing in web surveys, while smartphone usage remains low. Further, we analyze the bias of respondent profiles using smartphones and tablets com

  2. ASIST 2003: Part II: Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of the ASIST Annual Meeting, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Forty-six panels address topics including women in information science; users and usability; information studies; reference services; information policies; standards; interface design; information retrieval; information networks; metadata; shared access; e-commerce in libraries; knowledge organization; information science theories; digitization;…

  3. Humid free efficient solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Manoj Kumar; Panjwani, Suresh Kumar; Mangi, Fareed Hussain; Khan, Danish; Meicheng, Li

    2017-09-01

    The paper examines the impact of the humidity on the Solar panels which makes a space for the drastic variation in the power generated and makes the device less efficient. Humidity readily affects the efficiency of the solar cells and creates a minimal layer of water on its surface. It also decreases the efficiency by 10-20% of the total power output produced. Moreover, to handle this issue, all around characterized measures are required to be taken to guarantee the smooth working of the solar panels utilized in humid areas. In connection with this issue, Karachi, the biggest city of Pakistan which is located near the costal line touching Arabian Sea, was taken as a reference city to measure the humidity range. In Karachi, the average humidity lies between 25-70% (as per Pakistan Meteorological Department PMD), that indirectly leads in decreasing power acquired from a Solar Panel and develops various complexities for the solar system. The system on average experiences stability issues, such as those of power fluctuations etc., due to which, the whole solar system installed observes abnormal variations in acquired power. Silica Gel was used as a desiccant material in order to assure dryness over the solar panel. More than four experiments were conducted with the usage of water absorbent to improve the efficiency and to make system more power efficient.

  4. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century. The...

  5. Risk-based decisionmaking (Panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    By means of a panel discussion and extensive audience interaction, explore the current challenges and progress to date in applying risk considerations to decisionmaking related to low-level waste. This topic is especially timely because of the proposed legislation pertaining to risk-based decisionmaking and because of the increased emphasis placed on radiological performance assessments of low-level waste disposal.

  6. NAS Panel faults export controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A study prepared by a top-level panel says that current export controls on militarily sensitive U.S. technology may be “overcorrecting” previous weaknesses in that system, resulting in “a complex and confusing control system” that makes it more difficult for U.S. businesses to compete in international markets. Moreover, this control system has “an increasingly corrosive effect” on U.S. relations with allies. The panel recommended that the United States concentrate more effort on bringing about uniformity in the export control policies of countries belonging to the Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom), i.e., most of the member nations in NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and Japan.The 21-member panel was appointed by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), a joint unit of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The panel, composed of administrators, researchers, and former government officials, was chaired by AGU member Lew Allen, Jr., director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, Calif.) and former chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force. Their report was supported by NAS funds, by a number of private organizations (including AGU), by the U.S. Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State, by the National Science Foundation, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. EXTREMAL CONTROL FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve DAPHIN TANGUY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology for extremal control of photovoltaic panels has been designed through the use of an embedded polynomial controller using robust approaches and algorithms. Also, a framework for testing solar trackers in a hard ware in the loop (HIL configuration has been established. Efficient gradient based optimization methods were put in place in order to determine the parameters of the employed photovoltaic panel, as well as for computing the Maximum Power Point (MPP. Further a numerical RST controller has been computed in order to allow the panel to follow the movement of the sun to obtain a maximum energetic efficiency. A robustness analysis and correction procedure has been done on the RST polynomial algorithm. The hardware in the loop configuration allows for the development of a test and development platform which can be used for bringing improvements to the current design and also test different control approaches. For this, a microcontroller based solution was chosen. The achieved performances of the closed loop photovoltaic panel (PP system are validated in simulation using the MATLAB / SIMULINK environment and the WinPim & WinReg dedicated software. As it will be seen further in this paper, the extremal control of this design resides in a sequential set of computations used for obtaining the new Maximum Power Point at each change in the system.

  8. Panel: RFID Security and Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kevin

    The panel on RFID security and privacy included Ross Anderson, Jon Callas, Yvo Desmedt, and Kevin Fu. Topics for discussion included the "chip and PIN" EMV payment systems, e-Passports, "mafia" attacks, and RFID-enabled credit cards. Position papers by the panelists appear in the following pages, and the RFID-enabled credit card work appears separately in these proceedings.

  9. ASIST 2003: Part II: Panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of the ASIST Annual Meeting, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Forty-six panels address topics including women in information science; users and usability; information studies; reference services; information policies; standards; interface design; information retrieval; information networks; metadata; shared access; e-commerce in libraries; knowledge organization; information science theories; digitization;…

  10. Evaluation of an organic light-emitting diode display for precise visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masaki; Sunaga, Shoji

    2013-06-11

    A new type of visual display for presentation of a visual stimulus with high quality was assessed. The characteristics of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display (Sony PVM-2541, 24.5 in.; Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) were measured in detail from the viewpoint of its applicability to visual psychophysics. We found the new display to be superior to other display types in terms of spatial uniformity, color gamut, and contrast ratio. Changes in the intensity of luminance were sharper on the OLED display than those on a liquid crystal display. Therefore, such OLED displays could replace conventional cathode ray tube displays in vision research for high quality stimulus presentation. Benefits of using OLED displays in vision research were especially apparent in the fields of low-level vision, where precise control and description of the stimulus are needed, e.g., in mesopic or scotopic vision, color vision, and motion perception.

  11. Three-dimensional display technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain's power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies.

  12. Use of Internet panels to conduct surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Ron D; Liu, Honghu; Kapteyn, Arie

    2015-09-01

    The use of Internet panels to collect survey data is increasing because it is cost-effective, enables access to large and diverse samples quickly, takes less time than traditional methods to obtain data for analysis, and the standardization of the data collection process makes studies easy to replicate. A variety of probability-based panels have been created, including Telepanel/CentERpanel, Knowledge Networks (now GFK KnowledgePanel), the American Life Panel, the Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences panel, and the Understanding America Study panel. Despite the advantage of having a known denominator (sampling frame), the probability-based Internet panels often have low recruitment participation rates, and some have argued that there is little practical difference between opting out of a probability sample and opting into a nonprobability (convenience) Internet panel. This article provides an overview of both probability-based and convenience panels, discussing potential benefits and cautions for each method, and summarizing the approaches used to weight panel respondents in order to better represent the underlying population. Challenges of using Internet panel data are discussed, including false answers, careless responses, giving the same answer repeatedly, getting multiple surveys from the same respondent, and panelists being members of multiple panels. More is to be learned about Internet panels generally and about Web-based data collection, as well as how to evaluate data collected using mobile devices and social-media platforms.

  13. Composite panel, wall assembly and components therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.J.

    1988-12-20

    This invention is concerned with improvements in wall assemblies made of a plurality of composite wall panels, such as concrete wall panels, and components and connectors for such assemblies. The invention is also concerned with a method of making such composite wall panels by molding concrete to form a concrete panel. It is particularly applicable for the provision of upstanding walls around oil tanks and hydrocarbon storage facilities, thereby to form part of a containment structure that can satisfy safety regulations for spills around such facilities. In accordance with another aspect of the invention, there is provided a composite building product comprising a concrete panel, said panel being obtained by molding a respective concrete composition. The panel has at least one metal hinge element integrally secured at a respective peripheral edge, with said metal hinge element being secured at the panel to project sufficiently therefrom so as to present a first hinge element. Several of the panels can be connected in a corral-type wall assembly in a variety of configuration. Another aspect of the invention provides, for use in a wall assembly, a portable composite panel comprising a concrete panel body, which is obtained by molding a respective concrete composition; and a frame assembly for reinforcing the peripheral edges of said concrete panel body. The frame assembly includes at least one metal member for provision of a first hing element for connecting a plurality of said panels in a corral-type wall assembly. 7 figs.

  14. Modeling liquid crystal polymeric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez Pinto, Vianney Karina

    The main focus of this work is the theoretical and numerical study of materials that combine liquid crystal and polymer. Liquid crystal elastomers are polymeric materials that exhibit both the ordered properties of the liquid crystals and the elastic properties of rubbers. Changing the order of the liquid crystal molecules within the polymer network can induce shape change. These materials are very valuable for applications such as actuators, sensors, artificial muscles, haptic displays, etc. In this work we apply finite element elastodynamics simulations to study the temperature induced shape deformation in nematic elastomers with complex director microstructure. In another topic, we propose a novel numerical method to model the director dynamics and microstructural evolution of three dimensional nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals. Numerical studies presented in this work are in agreement with experimental observations and provide insight into the design of application devices.

  15. El Salvador - Rural Electrification - Solar Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This is a summative qualitative performance evaluation (PE) of the solar panel component of the solar panel component of the RE Sub-Activity. The final report will...

  16. Blue Ribbon Panel Report - BRP - Cancer Moonshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Blue Ribbon Panel Report outlines 10 recommendations to accelerate progress against cancer. The panel was established to ensure that the Cancer Moonshot's approaches are grounded in the best science.

  17. Blue Ribbon Panel 2016 Video Playlist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue Ribbon Panel members discuss recommendations from the panel report that was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7, 2016. The playlist includes an overview video and 10 videos on the specific recommendations.

  18. Jacquard-woven photonic bandgap fiber displays

    CERN Document Server

    Sayed, Imran; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of photonic textile displays woven on a Jacquard loom, using newly discovered polymer photonic bandgap fibers that have the ability to change color and appearance when illuminated with ambient or transmitted light. The photonic fiber can be thin (smaller than 300 microns in diameter) and highly flexible, which makes it possible to weave in the weft on a computerized Jacquard loom and develop intricate double weave structures together with a secondary weft yarn. We demonstrate how photonic crystal fibers enable a variety of color and structural patterns on the textile, and how dynamic imagery can be created by balancing the ambient and emitted radiation. Finally, a possible application in security ware for low visibility conditions is described as an example.

  19. Demonstrations with a Liquid Crystal Shutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    The experiments presented show the response of a liquid crystal shutter to applied electric voltages and the delay of the operations. Both properties are important for liquid crystal displays of computers and television sets. Two characteristics of the shutter are determined: (i) the optical transmittance versus applied voltage of various…

  20. Viewing Ice Crystals Using Polarized Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a method for identifying and examining single ice crystals by photographing a thin sheet of ice placed between two inexpensive polarizing filters. Suggests various natural and prepared sources for ice that promote students' insight into crystal structures, and yield colorful optical displays. Includes directions, precautions, and sample…

  1. Axion Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ozaki, Sho

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy effective theories for gapped insulators are classified by three parameters: permittivity $\\epsilon$, permeability $\\mu$, and theta angle $\\theta$. Crystals with periodic $\\epsilon$ are known as photonic crystals. We here study the band structure of photons in a new type of crystals with periodic $\\theta$ (modulo $2\\pi$) in space, which we call the axion crystals. We find that the axion crystals have a number of new properties that the usual photonic crystals do not possess, such as the helicity-dependent photonic band gaps and the nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation at small momentum. We briefly discuss possible realizations of axion crystals in condensed matter systems as well as high-energy physics.

  2. Crystal Ball Functional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, David

    2016-09-01

    The A2 collaboration of the MAinz MIkrotron is dedicated to studying meson production and nucleon structure and behavior via photon scattering. The photons are made via bremsstrahlung process and energy-tagged using the Glasgow Photon tagger. The photon beam then interacts in a variety of targets: cryogenic, polarized or solid state, and scattered particles deposit their energy within the NaI crystals. Scintillators are able to give results on particles energy and time. Events are reconstructed by combining information from the Tagging spectrometer, the Crystal Ball detector, the TAPS forward wall spectrometer, a Cherenkov detector, and multi-wire proportional chambers. To better understand the detector and experimental events, a live display was built to show energies deposited in crystals in real-time. In order to show a range of energies and particles, addressable LEDs that are individually programmable were used. To best replicate the Crystal Ball, 3D printing technology was employed to build a similar highly segmented icosahedron that can hold each LED, creating a 3D representation of what photons see during experiments. The LEDs were controlled via Arduino microcontroller. Finally, we implemented the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System to grab live event data, and a simple program converts this data in to color and crystal number data that is able to communicate with the Arduino. Using these simple parts, we can better visualize and understand the tools used in nuclear physics. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. IIA-1358175.

  3. Elucidating the effects of solar panel waste glass substitution on the physical and mechanical characteristics of clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Huang, Long-Sheng; Shie, Je-Lueng; Cheng, Ching-Jung; Lee, Ching-Hwa; Chang, Tien-Chin

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of solar panel waste glass on fired clay bricks. Brick samples were heated to temperatures which varied from 700-1000 degrees C for 6 h, with a heating rate of 10 degrees C min(-1). The material properties of the resultant material were then determined, including speciation variation, loss on ignition, shrinkage, bulk density, 24-h absorption rate, compressive strength and salt crystallization. The results indicate that increasing the amount of solar panel waste glass resulted in a decrease in the water absorption rate and an increase in the compressive strength of the solar panel waste glass bricks. The 24-h absorption rate and compressive strength of the solar panel waste glass brick made from samples containing 30% solar panel waste glass sintered at 1000 degrees C all met the Chinese National Standard (CNS) building requirements for first-class brick (compressive strengths and water absorption of the bricks were 300 kg cm(-2) and 10% of the brick, respectively). The addition of solar panel waste glass to the mixture reduced the degree of firing shrinkage. The salt crystallization test and wet-dry tests showed that the addition of solar panel waste glass had highly beneficial effects in that it increased the durability of the bricks. This indicates that solar panel waste glass is indeed suitable for the partial replacement of clay in bricks.

  4. Tone compatibility between HDR displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  5. Grounds of two positions photovoltaic panels

    OpenAIRE

    Castán Fortuño, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this Master Thesis is to find the optimum positioning for a two positions photovoltaic panel. Hence, it will be implemented a model in order to optimize the energy of the sun that the photovoltaic panel is receiving by its positioning. Likewise this project will include the comparison with other photovoltaic panel systems as the single position photovoltaics panels. Ultimately, it is also going to be designed a system array for the optimized model of two positions photovoltai...

  6. Lightweight composites for modular panelized construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Amol S.

    Rapid advances in construction materials technology have enabled civil engineers to achieve impressive gains in the safety, economy, and functionality of structures built to serve the common needs of society. Modular building systems is a fast-growing modern, form of construction gaining recognition for its increased efficiency and ability to apply modern technology to the needs of the market place. In the modular construction technique, a single structural panel can perform a number of functions such as providing thermal insulation, vibration damping, and structural strength. These multifunctional panels can be prefabricated in a manufacturing facility and then transferred to the construction site. A system that uses prefabricated panels for construction is called a "panelized construction system". This study focuses on the development of pre-cast, lightweight, multifunctional sandwich composite panels to be used for panelized construction. Two thermoplastic composite panels are proposed in this study, namely Composite Structural Insulated Panels (CSIPs) for exterior walls, floors and roofs, and Open Core Sandwich composite for multifunctional interior walls of a structure. Special manufacturing techniques are developed for manufacturing these panels. The structural behavior of these panels is analyzed based on various building design codes. Detailed descriptions of the design, cost analysis, manufacturing, finite element modeling and structural testing of these proposed panels are included in this study in the of form five peer-reviewed journal articles. The structural testing of the proposed panels involved in this study included flexural testing, axial compression testing, and low and high velocity impact testing. Based on the current study, the proposed CSIP wall and floor panels were found satisfactory, based on building design codes ASCE-7-05 and ACI-318-05. Joining techniques are proposed in this study for connecting the precast panels on the construction

  7. An integrated impact assessment and weighting methodology: evaluation of the environmental consequences of computer display technology substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Schoenung, Julie M

    2007-04-01

    Computer display technology is currently in a state of transition, as the traditional technology of cathode ray tubes is being replaced by liquid crystal display flat-panel technology. Technology substitution and process innovation require the evaluation of the trade-offs among environmental impact, cost, and engineering performance attributes. General impact assessment methodologies, decision analysis and management tools, and optimization methods commonly used in engineering cannot efficiently address the issues needed for such evaluation. The conventional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) process often generates results that can be subject to multiple interpretations, although the advantages of the LCA concept and framework obtain wide recognition. In the present work, the LCA concept is integrated with Quality Function Deployment (QFD), a popular industrial quality management tool, which is used as the framework for the development of our integrated model. The problem of weighting is addressed by using pairwise comparison of stakeholder preferences. Thus, this paper presents a new integrated analytical approach, Integrated Industrial Ecology Function Deployment (I2-EFD), to assess the environmental behavior of alternative technologies in correlation with their performance and economic characteristics. Computer display technology is used as the case study to further develop our methodology through the modification and integration of various quality management tools (e.g., process mapping, prioritization matrix) and statistical methods (e.g., multi-attribute analysis, cluster analysis). Life cycle thinking provides the foundation for our methodology, as we utilize a published LCA report, which stopped at the characterization step, as our starting point. Further, we evaluate the validity and feasibility of our methodology by considering uncertainty and conducting sensitivity analysis.

  8. Giant Magnetostrictive Material Exciter for Panel Loudspeaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; ZHANG Yong-fa

    2008-01-01

    The exciter component in a panel loudspeaker has a profound effect on the overall performance of the system.The equivalent circuit analysis of the combination of giant magnetostrictive material exciter and distributed mode panel is introduced and how exciter parameters influence panel lffudspeaker's performance is discussed.NumericaI predictions are given in order to show how these influences are manifested.

  9. Recent Discoveries on Antwerp Panel Makers' Marks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1993-01-01

    There still exist today uncertainties and misunderstandings in our interpretation of panel makers' marks from early 17th century Antwerp. In the future, panel marks and the panels on which they can be found will certainly render much more information concerning the technology of that time. Still...

  10. Bamboo-based Panels for Structural Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXuhe; WANGZheng

    2005-01-01

    With technical assistance from INBAR and the Research Institute of Wood Industry of the Chinese Academy of Forestry, the construction of the Pingbian Primary School was completed in 2004,where bamboo plywood panels and laminated beams were used for the roof trusses, sheathing boards and wall panels. This is the first time that bamboo-based panels are used for structural applications.

  11. Technology sandwich panels with mineral wool insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tyulenev M.; Burtzeva M.; Mednikova E.

    2016-01-01

    Sandwich panel — self–supporting structure consisting of metal cladding and thermal insulation core. As a heat–insulating core used mineral wool, foamed plastics. Production of sandwich panels with insulation mineral wool performed on modular lines for the production of aggregate or conveyer scheme. Sandwich panels are used as load–bearing elements of the facades, as well as a roof covering.

  12. Plasma Panel Detectors for MIP Detection for the SLHC and a Test Chamber Design

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Robert; Etzion, Erez; Friedman, Peter S; Levin, Daniel S; Moshe, Meny Ben; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Zhou, Bing

    2010-01-01

    Performance demands for high and super-high luminosity at the LHC (up to 10^35 cm^(-2) sec^(-1) after the 2017 shutdown) and at future colliders demand high resolution tracking detectors with very fast time response and excellent temporal and spatial resolution. We are investigating a new radiation detector technology based on Plasma Display Panels (PDP), the underlying engine of panel plasma television displays. The design and production of PDPs is supported by four decades of industrial development. Emerging from this television technology is the Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS), a novel variant of the micropattern radiation detector. The PPS is fundamentally an array of micro-Geiger plasma discharge cells operating in a non-ageing, hermetically sealed gas mixture . We report on the PPS development program, including design of a PPS Test Cell.

  13. Research of 3D display using anamorphic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Honda, Toshio

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes the auto-stereoscopic display which can reconstruct more reality and viewer friendly 3-D image by increasing the number of parallaxes and giving motion parallax horizontally. It is difficult to increase number of parallaxes to give motion parallax to the 3-D image without reducing the resolution, because the resolution of display device is insufficient. The magnification and the image formation position can be selected independently in horizontal direction and the vertical direction by projecting between the display device and the 3-D image with the anamorphic optics. The anamorphic optics is an optics system with different magnification in horizontal direction and the vertical direction. It consists of the combination of cylindrical lenses with different focal length. By using this optics, even if we use a dynamic display such as liquid crystal display (LCD), it is possible to display the realistic 3-D image having motion parallax. Motion parallax is obtained by assuming width of the single parallax at the viewing position to be about the same size as the pupil diameter of viewer. In addition, because the focus depth of the 3-D image is deep in this method, conflict of accommodation and convergence is small, and natural 3-D image can be displayed.

  14. Parallax multi-viewer autostereoscopic three-dimensional display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Lingdao; Schonfeld, Dan; Li, Qun

    2014-03-01

    It is a widely held belief that in the long run, three-dimensional (3D) display should supply stereo to multiple viewers without wearing any viewing aids and free to move. Over the last few decades, great e®orts have been made to approach auto-stereoscopic (AS) display for multiple viewers. Spatial multiplexing technique has ¯rst been employed to accommodate multiple viewers simultaneously in stereoscopic planar display. However, resolution of each view image decreases as the number of viewers increases. Recent development of high-speed liquid crystal display (LCD), which is capable of operating 240-Hz frame rate, makes feasible multi-viewer display via time multiplexing and improving image quality at the same time. In this paper, we propose a display adjustment algorithm that enables high-quality auto-stereoscopic display for multiple viewers. The proposed method relies on spatio-temporal parallax barrier to channel desired stereo pair to corresponding viewers according to their locations. We subsequently conduct simulations that demonstrate the e®ectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Su; Lim, Young Jin; Yoon, Sukin; Kang, Shin-Woong; Lee, Seung Hee [Department of BIN Fusion Technology and Department of Polymer-Nano Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Miyoung [Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-844 (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Shin-Tson, E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.k, E-mail: swu@creol.ucf.ed [College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2010-04-14

    An optically isotropic liquid crystal (LC) such as a blue phase LC or an optically isotropic nano-structured LC exhibits a very wide viewing angle because the induced birefringence is along the in-plane electric field. Utilizing such a material, we propose a liquid crystal display (LCD) whose viewing angle can be switched from wide view to narrow view using only one panel. In the device, each pixel is divided into two parts: a major pixel and a sub-pixel. The main pixels display the images while the sub-pixels control the viewing angle. In the main pixels, birefringence is induced by horizontal electric fields through inter-digital electrodes leading to a wide viewing angle, while in the sub-pixels, birefringence is induced by the vertical electric field so that phase retardation occurs only at oblique angles. As a result, the dark state (or contrast ratio) of the entire pixel can be controlled by the voltage of the sub-pixels. Such a switchable viewing angle LCD is attractive for protecting personal privacy.

  16. Noise reduction in double-panel structures by cavity and panel resonance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.-H.; Berkhoff, A.P

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the cavity and the panel resonance control in a double‐panel structure. The double‐panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its light weight and effective transmission‐lo

  17. Panel 4 - applications to transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Au, J. [Sundstrand Aerospace, Rockford, IL (United States); Bhattacharya, R. [Universal Energy Systems, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States); Bhushan, B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Blunier, D. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States); Boardman, B. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Brombolich, L. [Compu-Tec Engineering, Chesterfield, MO (United States); Davidson, J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Graham, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Hakim, N. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Harris, K. [Dubbeldee Harris Diamond Corp., Mt. Arlington, NJ (United States); Hay, R. [Norton Diamond Film, Northboro, MA (United States); Herk, L. [Southwest Research Inst., Southfield, MI (United States); Hojnacki, H.; Rourk, D. [Intelligent Structures Incorporated, Canton, MI (United States); Kamo, R. [Adiabatics, Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Nieman, B. [Allied-Signal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States); O`Neill, D. [3M, St. Paul, MN (United States); Peterson, M.B. [Wear Sciences, Arnold, MD (United States); Pfaffenberger, G. [Allison Gas Turbine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Pryor, R.W. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Russell, J. [Superconductivity Publications, Inc., Somerset, NJ (United States); Syniuta, W. [Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Newton, MA (United States); Tamor, M. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Vojnovich, T. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Yarbrough, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States); Yust, C.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this group was to compile a listing of current and anticipated future problem areas in the transportation industry where the properties of diamond and DLC films make them especially attractive and where the panel could strongly endorse the establishment of DOE/Transportation Industry cooperative research efforts. This section identifies the problem areas for possible applications of diamond/DLC technology and presents indications of current approaches to these problems.

  18. Solar Cells and Solar Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    TO CATALOG THIS DATA IN THE FORM OF A MODELo THE PRESENT DATA CAN BE MADE TO FIT A P-N JUNCTION WITH PHOTOCONDUCTIVE SERIES AND SHUNT RESISTANCES...TO THE SUN. ANALYSIS OF THE APPARENT MOTION OF THE SUN, WIND EFFECTS, PANEL ORIENTATION, SUN SENSING , AND BASIC SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS ARE INCLUDED IN...DESIGN REQUIREMENTS LED TO SPECIFICATION OF A TWO-DEGREE-OF- FREEDOM GEARLESS MECHANISM INCORPORATING SUN SENSING , DIRECT SHAFT TORQUINGs AND POWER

  19. Full-resolution autostereoscopic display using an all-electronic tracking/steering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, Jean-Etienne

    2012-03-01

    PolarScreens is developing a new 3D display technology capable of displaying full HD resolution in each eye without the need for glasses. The technology combines a regular backlight, a 120Hz 3D LCD panel, a vertical Patterned active shutter panel and a head tracking system. The technology relies on a 12-sub-pixel wide alternated pattern encoded in the stereo image to follow the head movement. Alternatively for a passive 3D display, the barrier is made of vertical strip Polarizer Film. This can be applied to any full resolution polarized display like iZ3D, Perceiva, or active retarder 3D display. The end result is a full resolution autostereoscopic display with complete head movement freedom. There are no mechanical moving part (like lenticular) or extra active components to steer the correct L/R image to the user's eyes. The new display has the capacity of displaying 2D/3D information on a pixel per pixel base so there is no need for full screen or windowed 2D/3D switchable apparatus.

  20. Quality of Experience for Large Ultra-High-Resolution Tiled Displays with Synchronization Mismatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sachin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates to quality of experience when viewing images, video, or other content on large ultra-high-resolution displays made from individual display tiles. We define experiments to measure vernier acuity caused by synchronization mismatch for moving images. The experiments are used to obtain synchronization mismatch acuity threshold as a function of object velocity and as a function of occlusion or gap width. Our main motivation for measuring the synchronization mismatch vernier acuity is its relevance in the application of tiled display systems, which create a single contiguous image using individual discrete panels arranged in a matrix with each panel utilizing a distributed synchronization algorithm to display parts of the overall image. We also propose a subjective assessment method for perception evaluation of synchronization mismatch for large ultra-high-resolution tiled displays. For this, we design a synchronization mismatch measurement test video set for various tile configurations for various interpanel synchronization mismatch values. The proposed method for synchronization mismatch perception can evaluate tiled displays with or without tile bezels. The results from this work can help during design of low-cost tiled display systems, which utilize distributed synchronization mechanisms for a contiguous or bezeled image display.

  1. Effect of Wall Charge on Striation in Plasma Display Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Feng; OUYANG Jiting; CAO Jing; FENG Shuo; MIAO Jinsong; WANG Jianqi

    2007-01-01

    Different configurations and driving voltages have been employed to investigate the effect of the wall charge on the striations in macroscopic plasma display panel (PDP) cells.The experimental results show that a discharge channel near the dielectric layer is indispensable to striation occurring in the anode area during a discharge,while the pre-accumulated charge on the dielectric layer and the surface state are not important.The origin of the striation is related only to the physical process in the cell.The dielectric layer acts as a charge collector during a PDP discharge.

  2. Panel urges cloning ethics boards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, E.

    1997-01-03

    A 7-month review of the system that guides U.S. policy on the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project has concluded that it is time for a radical overhaul. A report completed last month recommends that a high-level policy board be created in the office of the Secretary of Health and Human Services to help develop policies on such sensitive issues as genetic privacy, antidiscrimination legislation, public education on genetic risks, and the regulation of genetic testing. If accepted, the proposal-from a review panel chaired by attorney Mark Rothstein of the University of Houston and geneticist M. Anne Spence of the University of California, Irvine-would create a new panel of 15 to 18 members to serve as {open_quotes}a public forum for discussion of ... critical issues.{close_quotes} This panel would replace the current advisory body, known as the ELSI Working Group, and end what the report calls a {open_quotes}discordance{close_quotes} between the broad scope of the Working Group and the {open_quotes}very limited focus{close_quotes} of the research program under which it operates.

  3. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiser, L. [Beiser (Leo) Inc., Flushing, NY (United States); Veligdan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays - Deprecated

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is up-to-date but newer better data can be retrieved at: https://data.energystar.gov/dataset/ENERGY-STAR-Certified-Displays/xsyb-v8gs Certified models...

  5. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  6. Ultraminiature, Micropower Multipurpose Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High information content electronic displays remain the most difficult element of the human-machine interface to effectively miniaturize. Mobile applications need a...

  7. Application of Image Servo Alignment Module Design to Automatic Laminating Machine for Touch Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ming Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For general add-on touch panels, a touch-sensitive layer is attached to the outside of LCD panel. As the touch panel has a sensitive layer, it must be aligned with the display panel very well, the laminating precision is also required. The integration of this kind of equipment is complex, and the research and development of the equipments covers many topics of system integration. It is difficult to customize the products for different sizes or functions. This research used key technologies, including different space alignment design and unmarked alignment method, to create an easily operated image servo alignment system. Stable and rapid alignment results were obtained by parametric optimization. Finally, this module was applied to the industrial automatic laminating machine in practice for alignment and lamination.

  8. Voltage Drop Compensation Method for Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang-moo; Ryu, Do-hyung; Kim, Keum-nam; Choi, Jae-beom; Kim, Byung-hee; Berkeley, Brian

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, the conventional voltage drop compensation methods are reviewed and the novel design and driving scheme, the advanced power de-coupled (aPDC) driving method, is proposed to effectively compensate the voltage IR drop of active matrix light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. The advanced PDC driving scheme can be applied to general AMOLED pixel circuits that have been developed with only minor modification or without requiring modification in pixel circuit. A 14-in. AMOLED panel with the aPDC driving scheme was fabricated. Long range uniformity (LRU) of the 14-in. AMOLED panel was improved from 43% without the aPDC driving scheme, to over 87% at the same brightness by using the scheme and the layout complexity of the panel with new design scheme is less than that of the panel with the conventional design scheme.

  9. Effective color design for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    2002-06-01

    Visual communication is a key aspect of human-computer interaction, which contributes to the satisfaction of user and application needs. For effective design of presentations on computer displays, color should be used in conjunction with the other visual variables. The general needs of graphic user interfaces are discussed, followed by five specific tasks with differing criteria for display color specification - advertising, text, information, visualization and imaging.

  10. 30-view projection 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junejei; Wang, Yuchang

    2015-03-01

    A 30-view auto-stereoscopic display using angle-magnifying screen is proposed. Small incident angle of Lamp-scanning from exit pupil of projection lens is magnified into large field of view on the observing side. The lamp-scanning is realized by the vibration of Galvano-mirror that synchronizing with the frame rate of the DMD and reflecting the laser illuminator to the scanning angles. To achieve 15-view, a 3-chip DLP projector with frame rate of 720 Hz is used. For one cycle of vibration of Galvano-mirror, steps of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 10, 12, 14 are reflected on going-path and steps of 13, 11, 9, 7, 5, 3, 1 are reflected on returning path. A frame is divided into two half parts of odd lines and even lines for two views. For each view, 48 half frames per second are provided. A projection lens with aperture-relay module is used to double the lens aperture and separating the frame into two half parts of even and odd lines. After going through the Philips prism, three panels, the scanning 15 spots are doubled to 30 spots and emerge from the exit pupil of the projection lens. The exit 30 light spots from the projection lens are projected to 30 viewing zones by the anglemagnifying screen. A cabinet of rear projection with two folded mirrors is used because a projection lens of long throw distance is required.

  11. Performance studies of electrochromic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Ciprian; Dobre, Robert Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    The idea of having flexible, very thin, light, low power and even low cost display devices implemented using new materials and technologies is very exciting. Nowadays we can talk about more than just concepts, such devices exist, and they are part of an emerging concept: FOLAE (Flexible Organic and Large Area Electronics). Among the advantages of electrochromic devices are the low power consumption (they are non-emissive, i.e. passive) and the aspect like ink on paper with good viewing angle. Some studies are still necessary for further development, before proper performances are met and the functional behavior can be predicted. This paper presents the results of the research activity conducted to develop electric characterization platform for the organic electronics display devices, especially electrochromic displays, to permit a thorough study. The hardware part of platform permits the measuring of different electric and optical parameters. Charging/discharging a display element presents high interest for optimal driving circuitry. In this sense, the corresponding waveforms are presented. The contrast of the display is also measured for different operation conditions as driving voltage levels and duration. The effect of temperature on electrical and optical parameters (contrast) of the display will be also presented.

  12. Historical halo displays as past weather indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Dagmar; Neuhäuser, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    Certain halo displays like the 22° circle were known to indicate specific weather pattern since millennia - as specified in Babylonian omina, Aristotle's Meteorology, farmers' weather lore, etc. Today, it is known that halo phenomena are due to refraction and reflection of sun and moon light in ice crystals in cirrus and cirrostratus, so that halo observations do indicate atmospheric conditions like temperature, humidity, pressure etc. in a few km height. The Astronomical Diaries of Babylonia have recorded both halo phenomena (circles, parhelia, etc.) and weather conditions (rain, clouds, etc.), so that we can use them to show statistically, whether, which and how fast halo phenomena are related to weather - for the last few centuries BC for Babylonia. We can then also compare the observations of Babylonian priests in the given BC epoch (without air and light pollution) with the last few decades of the modern epoch (with air and light pollution), where amateur halo observers have systematically recorded such phenomena (in Europe). Weather and climate are known to be partly driven by solar activity. Hence, one could also consider whether there is an indirect relation between halo displays as weather proxy and aurorae as solar activity proxy - if low solar activity leads to low pressure systems, one could expect more halos, preliminary studies show such a hint. For the last few decades, we have many halo observations, satellite imaging of the aurora oval, and many data on solar activity. A statistically sufficient amount of aurora and halo observations should be available for the historic time to investigate such a possible connection: halos were recorded very often in antiquity and the medieval times (as found in chronicles etc.), and modern scholarly catalogs of aurorae also often contain unrecognized halo displays.

  13. SOLIDFELIX: a transportable 3D static volume display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Knut; Kreft, Alexander; Wörden, Henrik Tom

    2009-02-01

    Flat 2D screens cannot display complex 3D structures without the usage of different slices of the 3D model. Volumetric displays like the "FELIX 3D-Displays" can solve the problem. They provide space-filling images and are characterized by "multi-viewer" and "all-round view" capabilities without requiring cumbersome goggles. In the past many scientists tried to develop similar 3D displays. Our paper includes an overview from 1912 up to today. During several years of investigations on swept volume displays within the "FELIX 3D-Projekt" we learned about some significant disadvantages of rotating screens, for example hidden zones. For this reason the FELIX-Team started investigations also in the area of static volume displays. Within three years of research on our 3D static volume display at a normal high school in Germany we were able to achieve considerable results despite minor funding resources within this non-commercial group. Core element of our setup is the display volume which consists of a cubic transparent material (crystal, glass, or polymers doped with special ions, mainly from the rare earth group or other fluorescent materials). We focused our investigations on one frequency, two step upconversion (OFTS-UC) and two frequency, two step upconversion (TFTSUC) with IR-Lasers as excitation source. Our main interest was both to find an appropriate material and an appropriate doping for the display volume. Early experiments were carried out with CaF2 and YLiF4 crystals doped with 0.5 mol% Er3+-ions which were excited in order to create a volumetric pixel (voxel). In addition to that the crystals are limited to a very small size which is the reason why we later investigated on heavy metal fluoride glasses which are easier to produce in large sizes. Currently we are using a ZBLAN glass belonging to the mentioned group and making it possible to increase both the display volume and the brightness of the images significantly. Although, our display is currently

  14. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  15. Thermostructural Behavior of a Hypersonic Aircraft Sandwich Panel Subjected to Heating on One Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.

    1997-01-01

    Thermostructural analysis was performed on a heated titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panel. The sandwich panel was supported at its four edges with spar-like substructures that acted as heat sinks, which are generally not considered in the classical analysis. One side of the panel was heated to high temperature to simulate aerodynamic heating during hypersonic flight. Two types of surface heating were considered: (1) flat-temperature profile, which ignores the effect of edge heat sinks, and (2) dome-shaped-temperature profile, which approximates the actual surface temperature distribution associated with the existence of edge heat sinks. The finite-element method was used to calculate the deformation field and thermal stress distributions in the face sheets and core of the sandwich panel. The detailed thermal stress distributions in the sandwich panel are presented, and critical stress regions are identified. The study shows how the magnitudes of those critical stresses and their locations change with different heating and edge conditions. This technical report presents comprehensive, three-dimensional graphical displays of thermal stress distributions in every part of a titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panel subjected to hypersonic heating on one side. The plots offer quick visualization of the structural response of the panel and are very useful for hot structures designers to identify the critical stress regions.

  16. Discharge characteristics of plasma display panels with Si-doped MgO protective layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Sanjay K., E-mail: sanjayk.ram@gmail.co [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces (UMR 7647 du CNRS), Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016 (India); Barik, U.K. [Samtel Color Limited, Ghaziabad-201009 (India); Sarkar, Surajit; Biswas, Paramananda [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016 (India); Singh, Vandana [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces (UMR 7647 du CNRS), Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Dwivedi, H.K. [Samtel Color Limited, Ghaziabad-201009 (India); Kumar, Satyendra [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016 (India)

    2009-10-01

    We report on our study of the influence of varying concentrations of Si doping on the secondary electron emission (SEE) yield of MgO thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation technique. The series of Si-doped MgO films were microstructurally characterized with various tools like X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The optimization of the concentration of Si doping is seen to enhance the SEE yield. We discuss the correlation of SEE yield in the context of different deposition and measurement conditions and crystalline orientation.

  17. Large area deposition of field emission cathodes for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, J; Hayes, J; Jankowski, A F; Morse, J

    1999-02-11

    The convention for field emission cathode (FEC) synthesis involves coating with a very-high tolerance in thickness uniformity using a planetary substrate fixture and a large source-to-substrate separation. New criteria for a deposition process must facilitate a reduction in the operating voltage by increasing the density of emitters through a reduction of cathode size and spacing. The objective of scaling the substrate size from small (less than 30 cm{sup 2}) to large (greater than 500 cm{sup 2}) areas further compounds manufacturing requirements to a point beyond that easily obtained by modifications to the convention for FEC deposition. A new patented approach to design, assemble, and operate a coating system enables FEC deposition over large areas through process control of source divergence coupled to incremental substrate positioning.

  18. Large area deposition of field emission cathodes for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, J; Hayes, J; Jankowski, A F; Morse, J

    1999-02-11

    The convention for field emission cathode (FEC) synthesis involves coating with a very-high tolerance in thickness uniformity using a planetary substrate fixture and a large source-to-substrate separation. New criteria for a deposition process must facilitate a reduction in the operating voltage by increasing the density of emitters through a reduction of cathode size and spacing. The objective of scaling the substrate size from small (less than 30 cm{sup 2}) to large (greater than 500 cm{sup 2}) areas further compounds manufacturing requirements to a point beyond that easily obtained by modifications to the convention for FEC deposition. A new patented approach to design, assemble, and operate a coating system enables FEC deposition over large areas through process control of source divergence coupled to incremental substrate positioning.

  19. Comparative study on PS material of EAPSM for flat panel display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin-Woong; Song, Jin-Han; Lee, Ho-Jin; Kim, Kyu-Sik; Jeong, Woo-Gun; Yoon, Young-Jin; Yun, Sang-Pil; Jung, Sung-Mo

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated and compared the i-line 5.2 % Cr based EAPSM and i-line 5.2 % MoSi based EAPSM to find more appropriate material of shifter for FPD. The evaluation items were their CD linearity, phase shift, and optical properties such as transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance under the wavelength range 200-800 nm. Finally, from the results, we performed simulations. The CD linearity and the phase shift were seen as the performances of the same level within all their specifications. The optical properties indicated that the transmittance was higher in the i-line 5.2 % Cr based EAPSM than in i-line 5.2 % MoSi based EAPSM from about 350 nm wavelength, and the reflectance was lower in the iline 5.2 % Cr based EAPSM than in i-line 5.2 % MoSi based EAPSM under the entire wavelength region. From these results, NILS and contrast were simulated between them in 5.0 μm pitch LS pattern and it was found that they did not have a significant difference. Side-lobe effect appeared in both EAPSMs when clear features were closely adjacent under 2.0 μm contact pattern. However, the side-lobe could be removed effectively by adopting Rim type EAPSM. The i-line 5.2 % MoSi based EAPSM may be more suitable for the Rim type EAPSM than the i-line 5.2 % Cr based EAPSM considering their structure and production process of the Rim type EAPSM. It may be appropriate that we use the i-line 5.2 % Cr based EAPSM in LS pattern and the i-line 5.2 % MoSi based EAPSM in contact pattern, because they were almost same level in that performance perspective.

  20. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.