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Sample records for crystal composite films

  1. Crystal structure and phase composition of aluminium thin films with holmium additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koleshko, V.M.; Belitskij, V.F.; Obukhov, V.E.; Rumak, N.V.; Urban, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of holmium additions on the crystal structure and phase composition of thin aluminium films has been studied. A regularity in grain size changes in aluminium thin films versus the holmium content in them is established. The holmium introduction is shown to result in the appearance of axial texture in the aluminium films, the texture axis being determined by the quantity of the addition. During heat treatment of the aluminium films, containing holmium additions, in the range of low ( approximately 100-200 deg C) annealing temperatures holmium monohydroxide is formed, and at annealing temperatures 300 deg C 0 3 is formed

  2. Residual stress and Young's modulus of pulsed laser deposited PZT thin films: Effect of thin film composition and crystal direction of Si cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Abelmann, Leon; Sardan Sukas, Ö.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the residual stress and Young's modulus of Pb(ZrxTi1 - x)O3 (PZT) thin films with a (110) preferred orientation and a composition x ranging from 0.2 to 0.8. The films are grown by pulsed laser deposition on silicon cantilevers aligned along the <110> and <100> silicon crystal

  3. Fabrication and Crystal Structure of Sol-Gel Deposited BST Thin Films with Compositional Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czekaj D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present research technology of compositionally graded barium strontium titanate Ba1-xSrxTiO3 thin films deposited on stainless steel substrates by sol-gel spin coating followed with thermal annealing at T = 650°C is reported. Results of thermal behavior of the sol-gel derived powders with compositions used for fabrication of graded structure (i.e. with Sr mole fraction x = 0.5, 0.4 and 0.3 are described. X-ray diffraction studies of the phase composition and crystal structure of such complex thin film configuration are given. It was found that gel powders exhibited a large total weight loss of about Δm ≈ 44-47%. Three stages of weight loss took place at temperature ranges: below T ≈ 300°C, at ΔT ≈ 300-500°C and between T = 600°C and T = 800°C. Phase analysis has shown that the dominating phase is Ba0.67Sr0.33TiO3 compound while the second phase is Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 or Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 for “up-graded” and “down-graded” structure, respectively.

  4. Superior environment resistance of quartz crystal microbalance with anatase TiO2/ZnO nanorod composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Wei; Wei, Li; Shaodan, Wang; Yu, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: ZnO nanorod array being prepared by an in situ method on the QCM coated with Au film via hydrothermal process and surface modification with coated TiO 2 by sol–gel methods to form a superhydrophobic TiO 2 /ZnO composite film the anatase TiO 2 /ZnO nanorod composite film with a sharp, pencil-like structure exhibiting excellent superhydrophobicity (water contact angle of 155°), non-sticking water properties, and an autonomous cleaning property under UV irradiation. The anatase TiO 2 /ZnO nanorod composite film facilitates the precise measurement and extended lifetime of the QCM for the detection of organic gas molecules. - Highlights: • This work combines, for the first time, the advantage of the TiO 2 /ZnO composite film on photocatalysis and reversible super-hydrophobic and super-hydrophilic transition, and puts forward a solution to satisfy weatherability of quartz crystal microbalance in long-term application. • The anatase TiO 2 /ZnO nanorod composite film with pencil structure exhibit excellent super-hydrophobicity (water contact angle can reach 155°), no-sticking water properties and self-cleaning property under UV irradiation. • The photocatalysis and reversible super-hydrophobic and super-hydrophilic transition of the TiO 2 /ZnO nanorod composite film is stable in long-term application. - Abstract: The precise measurement of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in the detection and weighing of organic gas molecules is achieved due to excellent superhydrophobicity of a deposited film composite. Photocatalysis is utilized as a method for the self-cleaning of organic molecules on the QCM for extended long-term stability in the precision of the instrument. In this paper, ZnO nanorod array is prepared via in situ methods on the QCM coated with Au film via hydrothermal process. Subsequently, a TiO 2 /ZnO composite film is synthesized by surface modification with TiO 2 via sol–gel methods. Results show the anatase TiO 2 /ZnO nanorod

  5. Composition dependence of crystallization temperature and magnetic property of NdFeB thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoa, T.V. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials (ReCAMM), Chungnam National University, Daejon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Ha, N.D. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials (ReCAMM), Chungnam National University, Daejon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, S.M. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials (ReCAMM), Chungnam National University, Daejon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, H.M. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials (ReCAMM), Chungnam National University, Daejon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G.W. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials (ReCAMM), Chungnam National University, Daejon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Hien, T.D. [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tai, L.T. [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Duong, N.P. [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Lee, K.E. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials (ReCAMM), Chungnam National University, Daejon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.G. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials (ReCAMM), Chungnam National University, Daejon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.O. [Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials (ReCAMM), Chungnam National University, Daejon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: magkim@cnu.ac.kr

    2006-09-15

    Si(100)/Mo(30nm)/Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 92-x}B{sub 8}(800nm)/Mo(30nm) (x=14, 20, 30) films are prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. As-deposited films are amorphous materials. The crystallization temperature of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase decreases from 575deg. C to 500deg. C with increase of x from 14 to 20-30. The optimum annealing temperature with 30min annealing time is 650 deg. C, 625 deg. C and 600 deg. C for x=14, 20 and 30, respectively, and the x=20 film has the largest energy product of 100118MG.

  6. Crystal structure and composition of BAlN thin films: Effect of boron concentration in the gas flow

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Shuo; Li, Xiaohang; Fischer, Alec M.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.; Ponce, Fernando A.

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the microstructure of BxAl1-xN films grown by flow-modulated epitaxy at 1010 oC, with B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios ranging from 0.06 to 0.18. The boron content obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns ranges from x = 0.02 to 0.09. On the other hand, boron content deduced from the aluminum signal in the Rutherford backscattering spectra (RBS) ranges x = 0.06 to 0.16, closely following gas-flow ratios. Transmission electron microscopy indicates the sole presence of wurtzite crystal structure in the BAlN films, and a tendency towards columnar growth for B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios below 0.12. For higher ratios, the BAlN films exhibit a tendency towards twin formation and finer microstructure. Electron energy loss spectroscopy has been used to profile spatial variations in the composition of the films.The RBS data suggest that the incorporation of B is highly efficient for our growth method, while the XRD data indicate that the epitaxial growth may be limited by a solubility limit in the crystal phase at about 9%, for the range of B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios that we used, which is significantly higher than previously thought.

  7. Crystal structure and composition of BAlN thin films: Effect of boron concentration in the gas flow

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Shuo

    2017-07-20

    We have investigated the microstructure of BxAl1-xN films grown by flow-modulated epitaxy at 1010 oC, with B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios ranging from 0.06 to 0.18. The boron content obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns ranges from x = 0.02 to 0.09. On the other hand, boron content deduced from the aluminum signal in the Rutherford backscattering spectra (RBS) ranges x = 0.06 to 0.16, closely following gas-flow ratios. Transmission electron microscopy indicates the sole presence of wurtzite crystal structure in the BAlN films, and a tendency towards columnar growth for B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios below 0.12. For higher ratios, the BAlN films exhibit a tendency towards twin formation and finer microstructure. Electron energy loss spectroscopy has been used to profile spatial variations in the composition of the films.The RBS data suggest that the incorporation of B is highly efficient for our growth method, while the XRD data indicate that the epitaxial growth may be limited by a solubility limit in the crystal phase at about 9%, for the range of B/(B+Al) gas-flow ratios that we used, which is significantly higher than previously thought.

  8. Effects of Saponification Rate on Electrooptical Properties and Morphology of Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Liquid Crystal Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro

    1995-03-01

    The relationship between the saponification rate of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and the electrooptical properties and morphology of the PVA/liquid crystal (LC) composite films was investigated. Light transmission clazing and the LC droplet size were varied by changing the saponification rate or the blend ratio of two kinds of PVA with different saponification rates because the refractive index and surface tension could be controlled by the saponification rate of PVA. The threshold voltage decreased with increasing saponification rate though the extrapolation length was decreased. It was suggested that the electrooptical properties were strongly dependent on the droplet size.

  9. Optical sensor platform based on cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) - 4'-(hexyloxy)-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (HOBC) bi-phase nematic liquid crystal composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Moliria V; Tercjak, Agnieszka; Gutierrez, Junkal; Barud, Hernane S; Napoli, Mariana; Nalin, Marcelo; Ribeiro, Sidney J L

    2017-07-15

    The preparation of composite materials has gained tremendous attention due to the potential synergy of the combined materials. Here we fabricate novel thermal/electrical responsive photonic composite films combining cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) with a low molecular weight nematic liquid crystal (NLC), 4'-(hexyloxy)-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (HOBC). The obtained composite material combines both intense structural coloration of photonic cellulose and thermal and conductive properties of NLC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results confirmed that liquid crystals coated CNC films maintain chiral nematic structure characteristic of CNC film and simultaneously, transversal cross-section scanning electron microscopy images indicated penetration of liquid crystals through the CNC layers. Investigated composite film maintain NLC optical properties being switchable as a function of temperature during heating/cooling cycles. The relationship between the morphology and thermoresponsive in the micro/nanostructured materials was investigated by using transmission optical microscopy (TOM). Conductive response of the composite films was proved by Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) measurement. Designed thermo- and electro-responsive materials open novel simple pathway of fabrication of CNC-based materials with tunable properties. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  11. Crystallization kinetics of amorphous aluminum-tungsten thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Car, T.; Radic, N. [Rugjer Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia). Div. of Mater. Sci.; Ivkov, J. [Institute of Physics, Bijenicka 46, P.O.B. 304, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Babic, E.; Tonejc, A. [Faculty of Sciences, Physics Department, Bijenicka 32, P.O.B. 162, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    1999-01-01

    Crystallization kinetics of the amorphous Al-W thin films under non-isothermal conditions was examined by continuous in situ electrical resistance measurements in vacuum. The estimated crystallization temperature of amorphous films in the composition series of the Al{sub 82}W{sub 18} to Al{sub 62}W{sub 38} compounds ranged from 800 K to 920 K. The activation energy for the crystallization and the Avrami exponent were determined. The results indicated that the crystallization mechanism in films with higher tungsten content was a diffusion-controlled process, whereas in films with the composition similar to the stoichiometric compound (Al{sub 4}W), the interface-controlled crystallization probably occurred. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 26 refs.

  12. Effect of thickness and composition on the structure and ordering in La-doped intergranular films between Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Yun [Interfacial Molecular Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States); Garofalini, Stephen H., E-mail: shg@rutgers.edu [Interfacial Molecular Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to determine the effect of the composition and thickness on the atomistic structure of La-Si-O-N intergranular films (IGFs) between prism and misaligned high-index silicon nitride crystals. Results showed that ordered La adsorption onto the prism-terminated surface is not affected by the orientation of the opposing crystal, although the extent of the ordering away from the interface is affected by IGF thickness. La adsorption at ordered sites 1 and 2 on the prism surface occurred for almost all of the compositions in both 1.8 and 0.6 nm thick IGFs and at sites farther from the prism interface in the thicker IGF, similar to adsorption in triple points. La adsorption on the prism surface occurred at sites precisely the same as seen in high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy studies. Saturation of available sites is affected by the thickness of the IGF, which governs the number of La ions (and N ions) in the IGF, with lower site filling in the thinner IGF. There are clear energy differences for La in the interior of the IGF vs. the interface based on composition and IGF thickness, with the thicker IGF showing greater variation in driving forces for segregation or La incorporation into the IGF. Fracture is affected by both composition and thickness and occurs in the glassy IGF and not in the ordered interfacial regions, consistent with experimentally observed intergranular fracture for La-doped silicon nitride. Segregation of La to the interface affects N distribution within the interior of the IGF, which affects strength.

  13. On dewetting of thin films due to crystallization (crystallization dewetting).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mehran; Rahimzadeh, Amin; Eslamian, Morteza

    2016-03-01

    Drying and crystallization of a thin liquid film of an ionic or a similar solution can cause dewetting in the resulting thin solid film. This paper aims at investigating this type of dewetting, herein termed "crystallization dewetting", using PbI2 dissolved in organic solvents as the model solution. PbI2 solid films are usually used in X-ray detection and lead halide perovskite solar cells. In this work, PbI2 films are fabricated using spin coating and the effect of major parameters influencing the crystallization dewetting, including the type of the solvent, solution concentration, drying temperature, spin speed, as well as imposed vibration on the substrate are studied on dewetting, surface profile and coverage, using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Simplified hydrodynamic governing equations of crystallization in thin films are presented and using a mathematical representation of the process, it is phenomenologically demonstrated that crystallization dewetting occurs due to the absorption and consumption of the solution surrounding a growing crystal. Among the results, it is found that a low spin speed (high thickness), a high solution concentration and a low drying temperature promote crystal growth, and therefore crystallization dewetting. It is also shown that imposed vibration on the substrate can affect the crystal size and crystallization dewetting.

  14. Crystallization of calcium carbonate on radiation-grafted polyethylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Zhengchi; Zhang Fengying; Deng Bo; Yang Haijun; Chen Shuang; Sheng Kanglong

    2006-01-01

    In biomineralization processes, nucleation and growth of inorganic crystals can be regulated by organic template molecules. This has inspired great interest in studying mimic biomineralization. In our study, growing CaCO 3 crystals on PE films functionalized through radiation-induced grafting was attempted. PE films grafted with different functional groups of different distributions and densities were used as substrates for CaCO 3 nucleation and crystal growth from Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 supersaturated solution under different environmental conditions (e.g. additives and temperature) to study the effects and mechanisms. The grafted PE films were analyzed by ATR-FTIR and AFM, and the evolution of CaCO 3 crystal formation on the grafted PE film was characterized by SEM, FTIR, and XRD. The results indicated that heterogeneous nucleation of CaCO 3 crystals was significantly facilitated by the functional groups grafted on the surface of PE films, that the morphology of CaCO 3 crystals could be controlled by distribution and density of the grafted functional groups, and that polymorphism of CaCO 3 crystal could be regulated by selection of grafting functional groups. We believe that studying the effects of chemical structures on inorganic crystallization is of great importance since radiation-induced grafting is an effective method to graft desirable functional groups onto different polymers by selected monomers, in the endeavor of developing advanced organic/inorganic composites with high performance, with a wide availability of polymers, monomers and inorganic solutions. (authors)

  15. Composition and crystal structure of N doped TiO2 film deposited at different O2 flow rate by direct current sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wanyu; Ju, Dongying; Chai, Weiping

    2011-06-01

    N doped Ti02 films were deposited by direct current pulse magnetron sputtering system at room temperature. The influence of 02 flow rate on the crystal structure of deposited films was studied by Stylus profilometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometer. The results indicate that the 02 flow rate strongly controls the growth behavior and crystal structure of N doped Ti02 film. It is found that N element mainly exists as substitutional doped state and the chemical stiochiometry is near to TiO1.68±0.06N0.11±0.01 for all film samples. N doped Ti02 film deposited with 2 sccm (standard-state cubic centimeter per minute) 02 flow rate is amorphous structure with high growth rate, which contains both anatase phase and rutile phase crystal nucleuses. In this case, the film displays the mix-phase of anatase and rutile after annealing treatment. While N doped Ti02 film deposited with 12 cm(3)/min 02 flow rate displays anatase phase before and after annealing treatment. And it should be noticed that no TiN phase appears for all samples before and after annealing treatment. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of Poly(styrene-acrylates-acrylic acid Microspheres and Their Chemical Composition towards Colloidal Crystal Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Ríos-Osuna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, polystyrene colloidal microspheres have been prepared using hexyl acrylate (HA, ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA, isooctyl acrylate (IOA, butyl acrylate (BA, or isobutyl acrylate (IBA as comonomers. Microspheres with diameters from 212 to 332 nm and with a polystyrene content of 65–78% were prepared. The particles prepared in this work do not present the typical core-shell structure; as a consequence, DSC analysis showed that the microspheres exhibited only one Tg. TEM images show that the particles with comonomer content below ~30% were spherical and regular. Microspheres containing comonomer between 21 to 25% produced the less brittle films showing very iridescent colors. The films prepared from microspheres containing hexyl, ethylhexyl, and isooctyl acrylate as comonomers are firmly attached to the substrate due to their adhesive properties. The large decrease of the fragility observed in these films makes them much more attractive materials in sensing applications.

  17. Chitosan-Assisted Crystallization and Film Forming of Perovskite Crystals through Biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Chen; Yip, Hin-Lap; Sun, Runcang; Wang, Xiaohui

    2016-03-18

    Biomimetic mineralization is a powerful approach for the synthesis of advanced composite materials with hierarchical organization and controlled structure. Herein, chitosan was introduced into a perovskite precursor solution as a biopolymer additive to control the crystallization and to improve the morphology and film-forming properties of a perovskite film by way of biomineralization. The biopolymer additive was able to control the size and morphology of the perovskite crystals and helped to form smooth films. The mechanism of chitosan-mediated nucleation and growth of the perovskite crystals was explored. As a possible application, the chitosan-perovskite composite film was introduced into a planar heterojunction solar cell and increased power conversion efficiency relative to that observed for the pristine perovskite film was achieved. The biomimetic mineralization method proposed in this study provides an alternative way of preparing perovskite crystals with well-controlled morphology and properties and extends the applications of perovskite crystals in photoelectronic fields, including planar-heterojunction solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A composite hydrogels-based photonic crystal multi-sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhu, Zhigang; Zhu, Xiangrong; Yu, Wei; Liu, Mingju; Ge, Qiaoqiao; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2015-01-01

    A facile route to prepare stimuli-sensitive poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) (PVA/PAA) gelated crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal material was developed. PVA was physically gelated by utilizing an ethanol-assisted method, the resulting hydrogel/crystal composite film was then functionalized with PAA to form an interpenetrating hydrogel film. This sensor film is able to efficiently diffract the visible light and rapidly respond to various environmental stimuli such as solvent, pH and strain, and the accompanying structural color shift can be repeatedly changed and easily distinguished by naked eye. (paper)

  19. Thermal analysis of compositionally modulated Fe/Y films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiura, M.; Morishita, T.; Togami, Y.; Tsushima, K.

    1987-01-01

    Structures of compositionally modulated Fe/Y films were studied by thermal analysis. The exothermic peak found in the DSC curve of (Fe 12 A/Y 12 A) most probably corresponds to crystallization of an amorphous material. SEM analysis suggested that the composition of crystallized (Fe 12 A/Y 12 A) was YFe2. It is concluded that a compositionally modulated (Fe 12 A/Y 12 A) is amorphous in structure as well as in magnetic properties

  20. Strongly nonlinear electronic transport in Cr-Si composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkov, A.T.; Vinzelberg, H.; Schumann, J.; Nakama, T.; Yagasaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    The phase formation, the resistivity and the thermopower of amorphous Cr 0.15 Si 0.85 , and nanocrystalline CrSi 2 -Si thin film composites have been studied. The films were produced by a magnetron sputtering of a composite target onto unheated substrates with subsequent crystallization of the film at high temperatures. As the film composite develops under the heat treatment from the initial amorphous state into the final polycrystalline material, two percolation thresholds were found. At first, the percolating cluster of nanocrystalline CrSi 2 is formed. However, this cluster is destroyed with further annealing due to crystallization and redistribution of Si. The composite films which are close to this insulating threshold reveal a strongly nonlinear conductivity. The conductivity increases with the current by two orders of magnitude

  1. Composition dependences of crystal structure and electrical properties of epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 films grown on Si and SrTiO3 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Shoji; Okamoto, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Shintaro; Akiyama, Kensuke; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    {100}-oriented Pb(Zr x ,Ti1- x )O3 (PZT) thin films of approximately 2 µm thickness and Zr/(Zr + Ti) ratios of 0.39-0.65 were epitaxially grown on (100)cSrRuO3//(100)SrTiO3 (STO) and (100)cSrRuO3//(100)cLaNiO3//(100)CeO2//(100)YSZ//(100)Si (Si) substrates having different thermal expansion coefficients by pulsed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The effects of Zr/(Zr + Ti) ratio and type of substrate on the crystal structure and dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the films were systematically investigated. The X-ray diffraction measurement showed that both films changed from having a tetragonal symmetry to rhombohedral symmetry through the coexisting region with increasing Zr/(Zr + Ti) ratio. This region showed the Zr/(Zr + Ti) ratios of 0.45-0.59 for the films on the STO substrates that were wider than the films on the Si substrates. Saturation polarization values were minimum at approximately Zr/(Zr + Ti) = 0.50 for the films on the STO substrates, and no obvious Zr/(Zr + Ti) ratio dependence was detected in the films on the Si substrates. On the other hand, the maximum field-induced strain values measured by scanning force microscopy at approximately Zr/(Zr + Ti) = 0.50 at 100 kV/cm were about 0.5 and 0.1% in the films on the Si and STO, respectively.

  2. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  3. On the crystallization of amorphous germanium films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, F.; Komem, Y.; Bendayan, M.; Beserman, R.

    1993-06-01

    The incubation time for crystallization of amorphous Ge (a-Ge) films, deposited by e-gun, was studied as a function of temperature between 150 and 500°C by means of both in situ transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The temperature dependence of t0 follows an Arrhenius curve with an activation energy of 2.0 eV for free-sustained a-Ge films. In the case where the a-Ge films were on Si 3N 4 substrate, the activation energy of the incubation process was 1.3 eV.

  4. Diffusion and crystal growth in plasma deposed thin ITO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, H.; Wulff, H.; Quaas, M.; Tun, Tin Maung.; Hipple, R.

    2000-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films were deposited by means of DC-planar magnetron sputtering. A metallic In/Sn (90/10) target an Ar/O 2 gas mixture were used. The oxygen flow was varied between 0 and 2 sccm. Substrate voltages between 0 and -100 V were used. With increasing oxygen flow film structure and composition change from crystalline metallic In/Sn to amorphous ITO. Simultaneously the deposition rate decreases and the film density increases. The diffusion of oxygen into metallic In/Sn films and the amorphous-to-crystalline transformation of ITO were studied using in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD), grazing incidence reflectometry (GIXR), and AFM. From the X-ray integral intensities diffusion constants, activation energies of the diffusion, reaction order and activation energy of the crystal growth were extracted. (authors)

  5. Inkjet printing of single-crystal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemawari, Hiromi; Yamada, Toshikazu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Haas, Simon; Chiba, Ryosuke; Kumai, Reiji; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2011-07-13

    The use of single crystals has been fundamental to the development of semiconductor microelectronics and solid-state science. Whether based on inorganic or organic materials, the devices that show the highest performance rely on single-crystal interfaces, with their nearly perfect translational symmetry and exceptionally high chemical purity. Attention has recently been focused on developing simple ways of producing electronic devices by means of printing technologies. 'Printed electronics' is being explored for the manufacture of large-area and flexible electronic devices by the patterned application of functional inks containing soluble or dispersed semiconducting materials. However, because of the strong self-organizing tendency of the deposited materials, the production of semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity (indispensable for realizing high carrier mobility) may be incompatible with conventional printing processes. Here we develop a method that combines the technique of antisolvent crystallization with inkjet printing to produce organic semiconducting thin films of high crystallinity. Specifically, we show that mixing fine droplets of an antisolvent and a solution of an active semiconducting component within a confined area on an amorphous substrate can trigger the controlled formation of exceptionally uniform single-crystal or polycrystalline thin films that grow at the liquid-air interfaces. Using this approach, we have printed single crystals of the organic semiconductor 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C(8)-BTBT) (ref. 15), yielding thin-film transistors with average carrier mobilities as high as 16.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This printing technique constitutes a major step towards the use of high-performance single-crystal semiconductor devices for large-area and flexible electronics applications.

  6. Thin aligned organic polymer films for liquid crystal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Kathryn Ellen

    1997-01-01

    This project was designed to investigate the possibility of producing alignment layers for liquid crystal devices by cross-linking thin films containing anisotropic polymer bound chromophores via irradiation with polarised ultraviolet light. Photocross-linkable polymers find use in microelectronics, liquid crystal displays, printing and UV curable lacquers and inks; so there is an increasing incentive for the development of new varieties of photopolymers in general. The synthesis and characterisation of two new photopolymers that are suitable as potential alignment layers for liquid crystal devices are reported in this thesis. The first polymer contains the anthracene chromophore attached via a spacer unit to a methacrylate backbone and the second used a similarly attached aryl azide group. Copolymers of the new monomers with methyl methacrylate were investigated to establish reactivity ratios in order to understand composition drift during polymerisation. (author)

  7. Effect of a Polymercaptan Material on the Electro-Optical Properties of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films

    OpenAIRE

    Yujian Sun; Cuihong Zhang; Le Zhou; Hua Fang; Jianhua Huang; Haipeng Ma; Yi Zhang; Jie Yang; Lan-Ying Zhang; Ping Song; Yanzi Gao; Jiumei Xiao; Fasheng Li; Kexuan Li

    2016-01-01

    Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films were prepared by the ultraviolet-light-induced polymerization of photopolymerizable monomers in nematic liquid crystal/chiral dopant/thiol-acrylate reaction monomer composites. The effects of the chiral dopant and crosslinking agents on the electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were systematically investigate. While added the chiral dopant S811 into the PDLC films, the initial off-state transmittance of the films was decreased. It was found...

  8. A novel composite alignment layer for transflective liquid crystal display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shuangyao; Li Xuan [State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Tao Du; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Kwok, Hoi Sing, E-mail: eechigr@ust.h [Center for Display Research, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-10-20

    A novel composite photoalignment layer for transflective liquid crystal displays is explored. The key technique is to introduce a functional photo-crosslinkage into a rewritable azodye material with proper mixing. Bearing good alignment quality derived from the azodye material, the composite layer provides strong azimuthal and polar anchoring energy comparable to that of rubbed polyimide layers. The capability of dual modes fabrication in one cell exhibited by azodyes could be well retained and the new alignment film exhibits a display resolution of up to 2 {mu}m. Furthermore, after exposure to strong LED unpolarized light the composite layer shows much better stability than that with a pure azodye material.

  9. A novel composite alignment layer for transflective liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuangyao; Li Xuan; Tao Du; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Kwok, Hoi Sing

    2010-01-01

    A novel composite photoalignment layer for transflective liquid crystal displays is explored. The key technique is to introduce a functional photo-crosslinkage into a rewritable azodye material with proper mixing. Bearing good alignment quality derived from the azodye material, the composite layer provides strong azimuthal and polar anchoring energy comparable to that of rubbed polyimide layers. The capability of dual modes fabrication in one cell exhibited by azodyes could be well retained and the new alignment film exhibits a display resolution of up to 2 μm. Furthermore, after exposure to strong LED unpolarized light the composite layer shows much better stability than that with a pure azodye material.

  10. Influence of crystal phases on electro-optic properties of epitaxially grown lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shin; Seki, Atsushi; Masuda, Yoichiro

    2010-02-01

    We describe here how we have improved the crystal qualities and controlled the crystal phase of the lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) film without changing the composition ratio using an oxygen-pressure crystallization process. A PLZT film deposited on a SrTiO3 substrate with the largest electro-optic (EO) coefficient of 498 pm/V has been achieved by controlling the crystal phase of the film. Additionally, a fatigue-free lead zirconate titanate (PZT) capacitor with platinum electrodes has been realized by reducing the oxygen vacancies in the films.

  11. Lasing in liquid crystal thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)], E-mail: palto@online.ru

    2006-09-15

    A lasing condition is formulated in matrix form for optically anisotropic thin films. Lasing behavior of liquid-crystal slabs is analyzed. In particular, it is shown that if the spatial extent of a liquid crystal slab is much larger than its thickness, then laser emission is feasible not only along the normal to the slab, but also in the entire angular sector. The generated laser light can be observed experimentally as a spot or as concentric rings on a screen. The lowest lasing threshold corresponds to in-plane sliding modes leaking into the substrate. The feedback required for lasing is provided by reflection from the interfaces, rather than edges, of the liquid-crystal slab operating as a planar Fabry-Perot cavity. For cholesteric liquid crystals, it is shown that energy loss to the sliding modes leaking into the substrates and escaping through their edges is a key factor that limits the efficiency of band-edge emission along the normal to the slab.

  12. Control of composition and crystallinity in hydroxyapatite films deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Housei; Ueno, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) films were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering under a simultaneous flow of H2O vapor gas. Crystallization during sputter-deposition at elevated temperatures and solid-phase crystallization of amorphous films were compared in terms of film properties. When HAp films were deposited with Ar sputtering gas at temperatures above 460 °C, CaO byproducts precipitated with HAp crystallites. Using Xe instead of Ar resolved the compositional problem, yielding a single HAp phase. Preferentially c-axis-oriented HAp films were obtained at substrate temperatures between 460 and 500 °C and H2O pressures higher than 1×10-2 Pa. The absorption signal of the asymmetric stretching mode of the PO43- unit (ν3) in the Fourier-transform infrared absorption (FT-IR) spectra was the narrowest for films as-crystallized during deposition with Xe, but widest for solid-phase crystallized films. While the symmetric stretching mode of PO43- (ν1) is theoretically IR-inactive, this signal emerged in the FT-IR spectra of solid-phase crystallized films, but was absent for as-crystallized films, indicating superior crystallinity for the latter. The Raman scattering signal corresponding to ν1 PO43- sensitively reflected this crystallinity. The surface hardness of as-crystallized films evaluated by a pencil hardness test was higher than that of solid-phase crystallized films.

  13. Local structural environments of Ge doped in eutectic Sb-Te film before and after crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Yeol; Cheong, Byung-ki; Choi, Yong Gyu

    2018-06-01

    Electrical phase change device using the Ge-doped eutectic Sb-Te (e.g., Ge1Sb8Te2) film is known to exhibit improved energy efficiency thanks to lowered threshold voltage as well as decreased power consumption for the reset operation, as compared with Ge2Sb2Te5 film. Ge K-edge EXAFS analysis is employed in this study in an effort to elucidate such merits of Ge1Sb8Te2 film in connection with its local atomic arrangements. It is then verified that a Ge atom is four-fold coordinated in its nearest-neighboring shell both in the as-deposited and in the annealed films. It needs to be highlighted that approximately two Sb atoms constitute the Ge tetrahedral units in its amorphous state; however, after being crystallized, heteropolar Ge-Sb bonds hardly exist in this Ge1Sb8Te2 film. It has been known that crystallization temperature and activation energy for crystallization of this Ge1Sb8Te2 composition are greater than those of Ge2Sb2Te5 composition. In addition, these two phase change materials exhibit distinctly different crystallization mechanisms, i.e., nucleation-dominant for Ge2Sb2Te5 film but growth-dominant for Ge1Sb8Te2 film. These discrepancies in the crystallization-related properties are delineated in terms of the local structural changes verified from the present EXAFS analysis.

  14. Optical Power Limiting Liquid Crystal Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-10

    materials. In addition to the nonlinear studies, a separate subproject involving linear properties 0 of polymer dispersed liquid crystals in the infrared ...The horizontal axis represents on-axis laser intensity Io, defined as Io = 2P/( ww2 ), where P is the power and u0 is the beam waist. As can be seen in...I * 9 IR Shutter 1 Included in our original contract was a separate project to evaluate the use of liquid crystal composites in infrared shattering

  15. Synthesis and characterization of silver-polypyrrole film composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayad, Mohamad M., E-mail: mayad12000@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Tanta, Tanta (Egypt); Zaki, Eman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Tanta, Tanta (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    In this work, we report the chemical polymerization of pyrrole to obtain thin film of polypyrrole (PPy) hydrochloride deposited onto the electrode of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The film in the base form was exposed to a solution of AgNO{sub 3}. Electroless reduction for silver ions by the PPy film took place and silver particles were adsorbed onto the film surface. The silver particles content at the PPy films were analyzed by QCM and the results showed that the concentrations of silver uptakes increase as the original AgNO{sub 3} solution increases. The morphology of the surface of the PPy film and the silver-PPy film composite were studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). They showed that the obtained silver particles have spherical, cubic and tetrahedral structures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the structure of the powder composite. This work reveals the capability of PPy film coating on QCM in sensing and removing silver from several environmental samples.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of silver-polypyrrole film composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, Mohamad M.; Zaki, Eman

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we report the chemical polymerization of pyrrole to obtain thin film of polypyrrole (PPy) hydrochloride deposited onto the electrode of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The film in the base form was exposed to a solution of AgNO 3 . Electroless reduction for silver ions by the PPy film took place and silver particles were adsorbed onto the film surface. The silver particles content at the PPy films were analyzed by QCM and the results showed that the concentrations of silver uptakes increase as the original AgNO 3 solution increases. The morphology of the surface of the PPy film and the silver-PPy film composite were studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). They showed that the obtained silver particles have spherical, cubic and tetrahedral structures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the structure of the powder composite. This work reveals the capability of PPy film coating on QCM in sensing and removing silver from several environmental samples.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of silver-polypyrrole film composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Mohamad. M.; Zaki, Eman

    2009-11-01

    In this work, we report the chemical polymerization of pyrrole to obtain thin film of polypyrrole (PPy) hydrochloride deposited onto the electrode of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The film in the base form was exposed to a solution of AgNO 3. Electroless reduction for silver ions by the PPy film took place and silver particles were adsorbed onto the film surface. The silver particles content at the PPy films were analyzed by QCM and the results showed that the concentrations of silver uptakes increase as the original AgNO 3 solution increases. The morphology of the surface of the PPy film and the silver-PPy film composite were studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). They showed that the obtained silver particles have spherical, cubic and tetrahedral structures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the structure of the powder composite. This work reveals the capability of PPy film coating on QCM in sensing and removing silver from several environmental samples.

  18. Biosensors Based on Ultrathin Film Composite Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-25

    composite membranes should have a number C •’ of potential advantages including fast response time, simplicity of construction, and applicability to a number...The support membrane for the ultrathin film composite was an Anopore ( Alltech Associates) microporous alumina filter, these membranes are 55 Pm thick...constant 02 concentration in this solution. Finally, one of the most important potential advantage of a sensor based on an ultrathin film composite

  19. Chemical state analysis of oxide thin films using a high resolution double crystal X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hirohisa; Morinaga, Kenji; Ohta, Yoshio.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical state analysis of r.f.-sputtered amorphous oxide thin films was determined by a high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with double crystals. The polymerization degree of silicate anions in the silicate film was as same as a target (α-Quartz). The oxygen coordination number of Al 3+ ions in the aluminate film was different from a target (α-Al 2 O 3 ), and it was a mixture of 4 and 6 in a spinel-like structure. In CaO-SiO 2 and CaO-Al 2 O 3 films, when the film thickness is thin at the beginning of sputtering, the composition of films are in the shortage of CaO. But when the film thickness become thicker, the composition of films become as same as the target. From the results above, the chemical state of films and their variations with film thickness can be clarified by using the apparatus. (author)

  20. Crystallization behavior of Ge-doped eutectic Sb70Te30 films in optical disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khulbe, Pramod K.; Hurst, Terril; Mansuripur, Masud; Horie, Michikazu

    2002-01-01

    We report laser-induced crystallization behavior of binary Sb-Te and ternary Ge-doped eutectic Sb70Te30 thin film samples in a typical quadrilayer stack as used in phase-change optical disk data storage. Several experiments have been conducted on a two-laser static tester in which one laser operating in pulse mode writes crystalline marks on amorphous film or amorphous marks on crystalline film, while the second laser operating at low-power cw mode simultaneously monitors the progress of the crystalline or amorphous mark formation in real time in terms of the reflectivity variation. The results of this study show that the crystallization kinetics of this class of film is strongly growth dominant, which is significantly different from the crystallization kinetics of stochiometric Ge-Sb-Te compositions. In Sb-Te and Ge-doped eutectic Sb70Te30 thin-film samples, the crystallization behavior of the two forms of amorphous states, namely, as-deposited amorphous state and melt-quenched amorphous state, remains approximately same. We have also presented experiments showing the effect of the variation of the Sb/Te ratio and Ge doping on the crystallization behavior of these films

  1. Application of composition modulated thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Film produced by evaporating two components through a rotating pinwheel shutter which cuts off the vapor first from one source and then the other are evaluated. These films have a modulated composition rather than a layered structure. Mechanical properties were determined using a bulge tester

  2. Crystallization and growth of Ni-Si alloy thin films on inert and on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, I.; Weiss, B. Z.

    1995-04-01

    The crystallization kinetics and thermal stability of NiSi2±0.2 alloy thin films coevaporated on two different substrates were studied. The substrates were: silicon single crystal [Si(100)] and thermally oxidized silicon single crystal. In situ resistance measurements, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were used. The postdeposition microstructure consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases. The amorphous phase, independent of the composition, crystallizes homogeneously to NiSi2 at temperatures lower than 200 °C. The activation energy, determined in the range of 1.4-2.54 eV, depends on the type of the substrate and on the composition of the alloyed films. The activation energy for the alloys deposited on the inert substrate was found to be lower than for the alloys deposited on silicon single crystal. The lowest activation energy was obtained for nonstoichiometric NiSi2.2, the highest for NiSi2—on both substrates. The crystallization mode depends on the structure of the as-deposited films, especially the density of the existing crystalline nuclei. Substantial differences were observed in the thermal stability of the NiSi2 compound on both substrates. With the alloy films deposited on the Si substrate, only the NiSi2 phase was identified after annealing to temperatures up to 800 °C. In the films deposited on the inert substrate, NiSi and NiSi2 phases were identified when the Ni content in the alloy exceeded 33 at. %. The effects of composition and the type of substrate on the crystallization kinetics and thermal stability are discussed.

  3. Surface and bulk crystallization of amorphous solid water films: Confirmation of “top-down” crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Chunqing; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2016-10-01

    The crystallization kinetics of nanoscale amorphous solid water (ASW) films are investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). TPD measurements are used to probe surface crystallization and RAIRS measurements are used to probe bulk crystallization. Isothermal TPD results show that surface crystallization is independent of the film thickness (from 100 to 1000 ML). Conversely, the RAIRS measurements show that the bulk crystallization time increases linearly with increasing film thickness. These results suggest that nucleation and crystallization begin at the ASW/vacuum interface and then the crystallization growth front propagates linearly into the bulk. This mechanism was confirmed by selective placement of an isotopic layer (5% D2O in H2O) at various positions in an ASW (H2O) film. In this case, the closer the isotopic layer was to the vacuum interface, the earlier the isotopic layer crystallized. These experiments provide direct evidence to confirm that ASW crystallization in vacuum proceeds by a “top-down” crystallization mechanism.

  4. Study of memory effects in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jinwoo

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the memory effects in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films. We found that optical responses, such as the memory effects, of the films depended strongly on the morphology. For example, memory effects were observed for films with polymer ball morphologies; however, only weak hysteresis effects were observed for films with droplet morphologies. In particular, a stronger memory effect was observed for films with more complicated polymer ball structures. Coincidentally, T TE , the temperature at which the memory state is thermally erased, was generally higher for the films exhibiting a stronger memory effect. In addition, studies of the temporal evolution of the films show that the memory effects become stronger after films have been kept on the shelf for a period of time. This change is likely to be associated with a modification of surface anchoring properties at the LC-polymer interface.

  5. High transmittance optical films based on quantum dot doped nanoscale polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2016-04-01

    We propose a simple way to fabricate highly transparent nanoscale polymer dispersed liquid crystal (nano-PDLC) films between glass substrates and investigate their incident angle dependent optical transmittance properties with both collimated and Lambertian intensity distribution light sources. We also demonstrate that doping nano-PDLC films with 0.1% InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QD) results in a higher optical transmittance. This work lays the foundation for such nanostructured composites to potentially serve as roll-to-roll coatable light extraction or brightness enhancement films in emissive display applications, superior to complex nanocorrugation techniques proposed in the past.

  6. Liquid crystal polyester-carbon fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, T. S.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid crystal polymers (LCP) have been developed as a thermoplastic matrix for high performance composites. A successful melt impregnation method has been developed which results in the production of continuous carbon fiber (CF) reinforced LCP prepreg tape. Subsequent layup and molding of prepreg into laminates has yielded composites of good quality. Tensile and flexural properties of LCP/CF composites are comparable to those of epoxy/CF composites. The LCP/CF composites have better impact resistance than the latter, although epoxy/CF composites possess superior compression and shear strength. The LCP/CF composites have good property retention until 200 F (67 % of room temperature value). Above 200 F, mechanical properties decrease significantly. Experimental results indicate that the poor compression and shear strength may be due to the poor interfacial adhesion between the matrix and carbon fiber as adequate toughness of the LCP matrix. Low mechanical property retention at high temperatures may be attributable to the low beta-transition temperature (around 80 C) of the LCP matrix material.

  7. Influence of Polycation Composition on Electrochemical Film Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Schneider

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of polyelectrolyte composition on the electrodeposition onto platinum is investigated using a counterion switching approach. Film formation of preformed polyelectrolytes is triggered by oxidation of hexacyanoferrates(II (ferrocyanide, leading to polyelectrolyte complexes, which are physically crosslinked by hexacyanoferrate(III (ferricyanide ions due to preferential ferricyanide/polycation interactions. In this study, the electrodeposition of three different linear polyelectrolytes, namely quaternized poly[2-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate] (i.e., poly{[2-(methacryloyloxyethyl]trimethylammonium chloride}; PMOTAC, quaternized poly[2-(dimethylaminoethyl acrylate] (i.e., poly{[2-(acryloyloxyethyl]trimethylammonium chloride}; POTAC, quaternized poly[N-(3-dimethylaminopropylmethacrylamide] (i.e., poly{[3-(methacrylamidopropyl]trimethylammonium chloride}; PMAPTAC and different statistical copolymers of these polyelectrolytes with N-(3-aminopropylmethacrylamide (APMA, are studied. Hydrodynamic voltammetry utilizing a rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE shows the highest deposition efficiency DE for PMOTAC over PMAPTAC and over POTAC. Increasing incorporation of APMA weakens the preferred interaction of the quaternized units with the hexacyanoferrate(III ions. At a sufficient APMA content, electrodeposition can thus be prevented. Additional electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurements reveal the formation of rigid polyelectrolyte films being highly crosslinked by the hexacyanoferrate(III ions. Results indicate a different degree of water incorporation into these polyelectrolyte films. Hence, by adjusting the polycation composition, film properties can be tuned, while different chemistries can be incorporated into these electrodeposited thin hydrogel films.

  8. Crystallization kinetics of a-Se, part 4: thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Roman; Gutwirth, Jan; Málek, Jiří

    2014-09-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry was used to study the crystallization behaviour of selenium thin films in dependence on film thickness and deposition rate. In the current work, which is the fourth in a sequence of articles dealing with crystallization kinetics of a-Se, the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics was described in terms of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami nucleation-growth model. Two-dimensional crystallite growth, consistent with the idea of sterically restricted crystallization in a thin layer, was confirmed for all data. It was found that neither the film thickness (tested within the 100-2350 nm range) nor the deposition rate appears to have any significant influence on the crystallization kinetics. However, the higher amount of intrinsic defects possibly produced by a higher deposition rate seems to accelerate the crystallization, shifting it towards lower temperatures. Very good correlation between the results obtained for thin films and those for fine powders was found. Based on the obtained results, interpretations of relevant literature data were made.

  9. Applications of thin-film sandwich crystallization platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axford, Danny, E-mail: danny.axford@diamond.ac.uk; Aller, Pierre; Sanchez-Weatherby, Juan; Sandy, James [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-24

    Crystallization via sandwiches of thin polymer films is presented and discussed. Examples are shown of protein crystallization in, and data collection from, solutions sandwiched between thin polymer films using vapour-diffusion and batch methods. The crystallization platform is optimal for both visualization and in situ data collection, with the need for traditional harvesting being eliminated. In wells constructed from the thinnest plastic and with a minimum of aqueous liquid, flash-cooling to 100 K is possible without significant ice formation and without any degradation in crystal quality. The approach is simple; it utilizes low-cost consumables but yields high-quality data with minimal sample intervention and, with the very low levels of background X-ray scatter that are observed, is optimal for microcrystals.

  10. Physiochemical Characterization of Iodine (V Oxide Part II: Morphology and Crystal Structure of Particulate Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Little

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the production of particulate films of iodine (V oxides is investigated. The influence that sonication and solvation of suspended particles in various alcohol/ketone/ester solvents have on the physical structure of spin or drop cast films is examined in detail with electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Results indicate that sonicating iodine oxides in alcohol mixtures containing trace amounts of water decreases deposited particle sizes and produces a more uniform film morphology. UV-visible spectra of the pre-cast suspensions reveal that for some solvents, the iodine oxide oxidizes the solvent, producing I2 and lowering the pH of the suspension. Characterizing the crystals within the cast films reveal their composition to be primarily HI3O8, their orientations to exhibit a preferential orientation, and their growth to be primarily along the ac-plane of the crystal, enhanced at higher spin rates. Spin-coating at lower spin rates produces laminate-like particulate films versus higher density, one-piece films of stacked particles produced by drop casting. The particle morphology in these films consists of a combination of rods, plates, cubes, and rhombohedra structure.

  11. Crystal orientation dependent thermoelectric properties of highly oriented aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.; Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of highly oriented Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be improved by controlling their crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of the AZO films was changed by changing the temperature

  12. Analysis of thin-film photonic crystal microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottage, John Mark

    2003-01-01

    Optical-scale microstructures containing thin-film photonic crystals (TFPCs) are modelled by transfer/scattering matrix methods, based on Fourier-series expansion of the optical Bloch eigenmodes. The majority of the TFPCs considered consist of 2D arrays of holes arranged in a triangular lattice, etched into high-index Al x Ga 1-x As and placed on a low-index oxidised substrate. These TFPCs can be easily fabricated by standard electron-beam lithography techniques. Unlike most photonic crystal devices that have been proposed, our 'intra-pass-band' TFPCs would work by exploiting the somewhat surprising properties of propagating optical Bloch waves rather than directly relying on photonic bandgaps. By numerical modelling, it is demonstrated that 2D-patterned TFPCs can support highly dispersive high-Q quasi-guided and truly-guided resonant modes, and the unusual properties of these modes are explained in terms of their Bloch-wave compositions. Modal dispersion diagrams of TFPCs, showing the loci of the resonant modes in in-plane wavevector space at fixed frequency, are calculated. These so-called 'resonance diagrams' and variants thereof, are shown to be a useful design tool for TFPC-based integrated optical components. It is suggested that TFPCs may be a viable alternative to distributed Bragg reflectors in semiconductor vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers, possessing potential advantages in terms of compactness and ease of fabrication. The high angular and spectral dispersion of the resonant modes implies that TFPCs could form the basis of a new family of compact devices for performing such functions as wavelength-division multiplexing/demultiplexing, beam-steering and frequency-selective filtering. Enhancement of nonlinear effects could also be achieved in TFPC resonators, because in them a high cavity Q-factor and a low in-plane group-velocity can be attained simultaneously. (author)

  13. Crystal structure and thin film morphology of BBL ladder polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, H H [Department of Macromolecular Science, Han Nam University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Fratini, A V [Department of Chemistry, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH (United States); Chabinyc, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH (United States); Price, G E [University of Dayton Research, Dayton, OH (United States); Agrawal, A K [Systran Corporation, Dayton, OH (United States); Wang, C S [University of Dayton Research, Dayton, OH (United States); Burkette, J [University of Dayton Research, Dayton, OH (United States); Dudis, D S [Materials Directorate, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Arnold, F E [Materials Directorate, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Crystal structure and morphology of poly[7-oxo-7H-benz(d,e)imidazo(4`,5`:5,6)-benzimidazo(2,1-a)isoquinoline-3,4:10,11-tetrayl-10-carbonyl] (BBL) ladder-like polymer were studied. The polymer forms a two-dimensional lattice of nematic liquid crystalline structure. An orthorhombic unit cell with cell parameters of a=7.87 b=3.37 c=11.97A was determined from the fiber diffraction pattern. In thin films, the rigid chains spontaneously form a layered structure across the film thickness, but in a very unusual manner, i.e. the very large molecular plane is standing perpendicularly to the film surface plane. The results are identical to our recent results of poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) (PBT) film [7]. The polymer, however, lost its anisotropic order upon extrusion into a film and resulted in a fiber-like structure. (orig.)

  14. Liquid crystals for organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Hiroaki; Usui, Takayuki; Hanna, Jun-Ichi

    2015-04-01

    Crystalline thin films of organic semiconductors are a good candidate for field effect transistor (FET) materials in printed electronics. However, there are currently two main problems, which are associated with inhomogeneity and poor thermal durability of these films. Here we report that liquid crystalline materials exhibiting a highly ordered liquid crystal phase of smectic E (SmE) can solve both these problems. We design a SmE liquid crystalline material, 2-decyl-7-phenyl-[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (Ph-BTBT-10), for FETs and synthesize it. This material provides uniform and molecularly flat polycrystalline thin films reproducibly when SmE precursor thin films are crystallized, and also exhibits high durability of films up to 200 °C. In addition, the mobility of FETs is dramatically enhanced by about one order of magnitude (over 10 cm2 V-1 s-1) after thermal annealing at 120 °C in bottom-gate-bottom-contact FETs. We anticipate the use of SmE liquid crystals in solution-processed FETs may help overcome upcoming difficulties with novel technologies for printed electronics.

  15. Raman analysis of gold on WSe2 single crystal film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Bablu; Sun Leong, Wei; Li, Yida; Thong, John T L; Gong, Hao; Sun, Linfeng; Xiang Shen, Ze; Simsek, Ergun

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of high-quality single-crystal tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) films on a highly insulating substrate is presented. We demonstrate for the first time that the presence of gold (Au) nanoparticles in the basal plane of a WSe 2 film can enhance its Raman scattering intensity. The experimentally observed enhancement ratio in the Raman signal correlates well with the simulated electric field intensity using both three-dimensional electromagnetic software and theoretical calculation considering layered medium coupled-dipole approximation (LM-CDA). This work serves as a guideline for the use of Au nanoparticles on WSe 2 single-crystal thin films for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications in the future. (paper)

  16. A more clear insight of the lysozyme crystal composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Ulrich, J. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Zentrum fuer Ingenieurswissenschaften, Verfahrenstechnik/TVT, 06099 Halle Saale (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Crystallization can be used as a purification method for proteins. Lysozyme was chosen as a model substance. Changing crystallization conditions will lead as shown to different lysozyme crystal morphologies with different properties. Beside others, lysozyme crystals can show a Tetragonal, High Temperature and Low Temperature Orthorhombic crystal morphology. Experiments such as conductivity measurements, pH tests, chloride detection tests, experiments using methylene blue as a dye and dissolution experiments were carried out to investigate the composition of the lysozyme crystals. It is proven that lysozyme crystals are made up of the initial buffer solution components: lysozyme (the protein), water which is part of the crystal lattice, salt ions which are attached to the protein molecule and voids filled with the buffer solution containing the crystallization agent (e.g. salt). Interesting dissolution behaviours of the lysozyme crystals were observed which are not described so far elsewhere (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Unique Crystal Orientation of Poly(ethylene oxide) Thin Films by Crystallization Using a Thermal Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbabode, Gabin; Delvaux, Maxime; Schweicher, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide), (PEO), thin films of different thicknesses (220, 450, and 1500 nm) and molecular masses (4000, 8000, and 20000 g/mol) have been fabricated by spin-coating of methanol solutions onto glass substrates. All these samples have been recrystallized from the melt using a directional......, to significantly decrease the distribution of crystal orientation obtained after crystallization using the thermal gradient technique....

  18. Enhanced magnetoelectric coupling in a composite multiferroic system via interposing a thin film polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuyun; Mohanchandra, Kotekar P.; Lo Conte, Roberto; Ty Karaba, C.; Schneider, J. D.; Chavez, Andres; Tiwari, Sidhant; Sohn, Hyunmin; Nowakowski, Mark E.; Scholl, Andreas; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Bokor, Jeffrey; Carman, Gregory P.; Candler, Rob N.

    2018-05-01

    Enhancing the magnetoelectric coupling in a strain-mediated multiferroic composite structure plays a vital role in controlling magnetism by electric fields. An enhancement of magnetoelastic coupling between ferroelectric single crystal (011)-cut [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3](1-x)-[PbTiO3]x (PMN-PT, x≈ 0.30) and ferromagnetic polycrystalline Ni thin film through an interposed benzocyclobutene polymer thin film is reported. A nearly twofold increase in sensitivity of remanent magnetization in the Ni thin film to an applied electric field is observed. This observation suggests a viable method of improving the magnetoelectric response in these composite multiferroic systems.

  19. Electrophoretic deposition of composite halloysite nanotube–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deen, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Zhitomirsky, I., E-mail: zhitom@mcmaster.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► Composite halloysite nanotubes–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films were prepared. ► Electrophoretic deposition method was used for deposition. ► Natural hyaluronic acid was used as a dispersing, charging and film forming agent. ► Film composition and deposition yield can be varied. ► The films can be used for biomedical implants with controlled release of drugs. -- Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition method has been developed for the deposition of biocomposite films containing halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), hydroxyapatite (HA) and hyaluronic acid. The method is based on the use of natural hyaluronate biopolymer as a dispersing and charging agent for HNT and HA and film forming agent for the fabrication of the composite films. The deposition kinetics was studied by the quartz crystal microbalance method. The composite films were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis and electron microscopy. The composite films are promising materials for the fabrication of biomedical implants with advanced functional properties.

  20. Electrophoretic deposition of composite halloysite nanotube–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deen, I.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composite halloysite nanotubes–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films were prepared. ► Electrophoretic deposition method was used for deposition. ► Natural hyaluronic acid was used as a dispersing, charging and film forming agent. ► Film composition and deposition yield can be varied. ► The films can be used for biomedical implants with controlled release of drugs. -- Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition method has been developed for the deposition of biocomposite films containing halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), hydroxyapatite (HA) and hyaluronic acid. The method is based on the use of natural hyaluronate biopolymer as a dispersing and charging agent for HNT and HA and film forming agent for the fabrication of the composite films. The deposition kinetics was studied by the quartz crystal microbalance method. The composite films were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis and electron microscopy. The composite films are promising materials for the fabrication of biomedical implants with advanced functional properties

  1. Stepwise crystallization and the layered distribution in crystallization kinetics of ultra-thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Biao, E-mail: chemizuo@zstu.edu.cn, E-mail: wxinping@yahoo.com; Xu, Jianquan; Sun, Shuzheng; Liu, Yue; Yang, Juping; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xinping, E-mail: chemizuo@zstu.edu.cn, E-mail: wxinping@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of the Education Ministry, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2016-06-21

    Crystallization is an important property of polymeric materials. In conventional viewpoint, the transformation of disordered chains into crystals is usually a spatially homogeneous process (i.e., it occurs simultaneously throughout the sample), that is, the crystallization rate at each local position within the sample is almost the same. Here, we show that crystallization of ultra-thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films can occur in the heterogeneous way, exhibiting a stepwise crystallization process. We found that the layered distribution of glass transition dynamics of thin film modifies the corresponding crystallization behavior, giving rise to the layered distribution of the crystallization kinetics of PET films, with an 11-nm-thick surface layer having faster crystallization rate and the underlying layer showing bulk-like behavior. The layered distribution in crystallization kinetics results in a particular stepwise crystallization behavior during heating the sample, with the two cold-crystallization temperatures separated by up to 20 K. Meanwhile, interfacial interaction is crucial for the occurrence of the heterogeneous crystallization, as the thin film crystallizes simultaneously if the interfacial interaction is relatively strong. We anticipate that this mechanism of stepwise crystallization of thin polymeric films will allow new insight into the chain organization in confined environments and permit independent manipulation of localized properties of nanomaterials.

  2. Crystallization of Electrodeposited Germanium Thin Film on Silicon (100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mastura Shafinaz Zainal; Matsumura, Ryo; Anisuzzaman, Mohammad; Park, Jong-Hyeok; Muta, Shunpei; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Sadoh, Taizoh; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2013-11-06

    We report the crystallization of electrodeposited germanium (Ge) thin films on n-silicon (Si) (100) by rapid melting process. The electrodeposition was carried out in germanium (IV) chloride: propylene glycol (GeCl₄:C₃H₈O₂) electrolyte with constant current of 50 mA for 30 min. The measured Raman spectra and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) images show that the as-deposited Ge thin film was amorphous. The crystallization of deposited Ge was achieved by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 980 °C for 1 s. The EBSD images confirm that the orientations of the annealed Ge are similar to that of the Si substrate. The highly intense peak of Raman spectra at 300 cm -1 corresponding to Ge-Ge vibration mode was observed, indicating good crystal quality of Ge. An additional sub peak near to 390 cm -1 corresponding to the Si-Ge vibration mode was also observed, indicating the Ge-Si mixing at Ge/Si interface. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) reveals that the intermixing depth was around 60 nm. The calculated Si fraction from Raman spectra was found to be in good agreement with the value estimated from Ge-Si equilibrium phase diagram. The proposed technique is expected to be an effective way to crystallize Ge films for various device applications as well as to create strain at the Ge-Si interface for enhancement of mobility.

  3. Crystallization of Electrodeposited Germanium Thin Film on Silicon (100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manaf Hashim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the crystallization of electrodeposited germanium (Ge thin films on n-silicon (Si (100 by rapid melting process. The electrodeposition was carried out in germanium (IV chloride: propylene glycol (GeCl4:C3H8O2 electrolyte with constant current of 50 mA for 30 min. The measured Raman spectra and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD images show that the as-deposited Ge thin film was amorphous. The crystallization of deposited Ge was achieved by rapid thermal annealing (RTA at 980 °C for 1 s. The EBSD images confirm that the orientations of the annealed Ge are similar to that of the Si substrate. The highly intense peak of Raman spectra at 300 cm−1 corresponding to Ge-Ge vibration mode was observed, indicating good crystal quality of Ge. An additional sub peak near to 390 cm−1 corresponding to the Si-Ge vibration mode was also observed, indicating the Ge-Si mixing at Ge/Si interface. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES reveals that the intermixing depth was around 60 nm. The calculated Si fraction from Raman spectra was found to be in good agreement with the value estimated from Ge-Si equilibrium phase diagram. The proposed technique is expected to be an effective way to crystallize Ge films for various device applications as well as to create strain at the Ge-Si interface for enhancement of mobility.

  4. Precipitation of thin-film organic single crystals by a novel crystal growth method using electrospray and ionic liquid film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Keita; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2018-04-01

    We report an organic single crystal growth technique, which uses a nonvolatile liquid thin film as a crystal growth field and supplies fine droplets containing solute from the surface of the liquid thin film uniformly and continuously by electrospray deposition. Here, we investigated the relationships between the solute concentration of the supplied solution and the morphology and size of precipitated crystals for four types of fluorescent organic low molecule material [tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3), 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD), N,N‧-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N‧-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), and N,N-bis(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB)] using an ionic liquid as the nonvolatile liquid. As the concentration of the supplied solution decreased, the morphology of precipitated crystals changed from dendritic or leaf shape to platelike one. At the solution concentration of 0.1 mg/ml, relatively large platelike single crystals with a diagonal length of over 100 µm were obtained for all types of material. In the experiment using ionic liquid and dioctyl sebacate as nonvolatile liquids, it was confirmed that there is a clear positive correlation between the maximum volume of the precipitated single crystal and the solubility of solute under the same solution supply conditions.

  5. Model Lung Surfactant Films: Why Composition Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selladurai, Sahana L.; Miclette Lamarche, Renaud; Schmidt, Rolf; DeWolf, Christine E.

    2016-10-18

    Lung surfactant replacement therapies, Survanta and Infasurf, and two lipid-only systems both containing saturated and unsaturated phospholipids and one containing additional palmitic acid were used to study the impact of buffered saline on the surface activity, morphology, rheology, and structure of Langmuir monolayer model membranes. Isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy show that buffered saline subphases induce a film expansion, except when the cationic protein, SP-B, is present in sufficient quantities to already screen electrostatic repulsion, thus limiting the effect of changing pH and adding counterions. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction results indicate an expansion not only of the liquid expanded phase but also an expansion of the lattice of the condensed phase. The film expansion corresponded in all cases with a significant reduction in the viscosity and elasticity of the films. The viscoelastic parameters are dominated by liquid expanded phase properties and do not appear to be dependent on the structure of the condensed phase domains in a phase separated film. The results highlight that the choice of subphase and film composition is important for meaningful interpretations of measurements using model systems.

  6. Low temperature composite bolometers using RuO2 films as a thermistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapellier, M.; Rasmussen, F.B.

    1989-01-01

    Results from a massive composite bolometer made of a sapphire crystal and ruthenium oxide films are presented. The properties of such RuO 2 films, in the temperature range [50 mK, 200 mK] have been studied. Individual particle detections, using an 241 Am source, have been used to calibrate the system in this temperature interval. Improvements in the performances of such detectors lead to consider them as realistic candidates for the detection of Dark Matter

  7. Re-crystallization of ITO films after carbon irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Muhammad, E-mail: usmanm@ncp.edu.pk [Experimental Physics Laboratories, National Centre for Physics, Shahdara Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Shahid, E-mail: shahidkhan@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Khan, Majid [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Abbas, Turab Ali [Experimental Physics Laboratories, National Centre for Physics, Shahdara Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Carbon irradiation on ITO destroys crystal structure until threshold ion fluence. • Carbon irradiation induced amorphization in ITO is recoverable at higher fluence. • Optical transmittance is reduced after carbon irradiation. • Electrical resistivity is increased after irradiation with carbon ions in ITO. • Bandgap is reduced with increasing fluence of carbon irradiation. - Abstract: 2.0 MeV carbon ion irradiation effects on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrate are investigated. The films are irradiated with carbon ions in the fluence range of 1 × 10{sup 13} to 1 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. The irradiation induced effects in ITO are compared before and after ion bombardment by systematic study of structural, optical and electrical properties of the films. The XRD results show polycrystalline nature of un-irradiated ITO films which turns to amorphous state after 1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence of carbon ions. Further increase in ion fluence to 1 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} re-crystallizes the structure and retains for even higher fluences. A gradual decrease in the electrical conductivity and transmittance of irradiated samples is observed with increasing ion fluence. The band gap of the films is observed to be decreased after carbon irradiation.

  8. Re-crystallization of ITO films after carbon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Khan, Shahid; Khan, Majid; Abbas, Turab Ali

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon irradiation on ITO destroys crystal structure until threshold ion fluence. • Carbon irradiation induced amorphization in ITO is recoverable at higher fluence. • Optical transmittance is reduced after carbon irradiation. • Electrical resistivity is increased after irradiation with carbon ions in ITO. • Bandgap is reduced with increasing fluence of carbon irradiation. - Abstract: 2.0 MeV carbon ion irradiation effects on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrate are investigated. The films are irradiated with carbon ions in the fluence range of 1 × 10"1"3 to 1 × 10"1"5 ions/cm"2. The irradiation induced effects in ITO are compared before and after ion bombardment by systematic study of structural, optical and electrical properties of the films. The XRD results show polycrystalline nature of un-irradiated ITO films which turns to amorphous state after 1 × 10"1"3 ions/cm"2 fluence of carbon ions. Further increase in ion fluence to 1 × 10"1"4 ions/cm"2 re-crystallizes the structure and retains for even higher fluences. A gradual decrease in the electrical conductivity and transmittance of irradiated samples is observed with increasing ion fluence. The band gap of the films is observed to be decreased after carbon irradiation.

  9. Ion irradiation enhanced crystal nucleation in amorphous Si thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, J.S.; Atwater, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    The nucleation kinetics of the amorphous-to-crystal transition of Si films under 1.5 MeV Xe + irradiation have been investigated by means of in situ transmission electron microscopy in the temperature range T=500--580 degree C. After an incubation period during which negligible nucleation occurs, a constant nucleation rate was observed in steady state, suggesting that homogeneous nucleation occurred. Compared to thermal crystallization, a significant enhancement in the nucleation rate during high-energy ion irradiation (five to seven orders of magnitude) was observed with an apparent activation energy of 3.9±0.75 eV

  10. Hydrothermal crystallization of amorphous titania films deposited using low temperature atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.R.G. [Institute of Materials Engineering, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)], E-mail: drm@ansto.gov.au; Triani, G.; Zhang, Z. [Institute of Materials Engineering, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2008-10-01

    A two stage process (atomic layer deposition, followed by hydrothermal treatment) for producing crystalline titania thin films at temperatures compatible with polymeric substrates (< 130 deg. C) has been assessed. Titania thin films were deposited at 80 deg. C using atomic layer deposition. They were extremely flat, uniform and almost entirely amorphous. They also contained relatively high levels of residual Cl from the precursor. After hydrothermal treatment at 120 deg. C for 1 day, > 50% of the film had crystallized. Crystallization was complete after 10 days of hydrothermal treatment. Crystallization of the film resulted in the formation of coarse grained anatase. Residual Cl was completely expelled from the film upon crystallization. As a result of the amorphous to crystalline transformation voids formed at the crystallization front. Inward and lateral crystal growth resulted in voids being localized to the film/substrate interface and crystallite perimeters resulting in pinholing. Both these phenomena resulted in films with poor adhesion and film integrity was severely compromised.

  11. Aligned silane-treated MWCNT/liquid crystal polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervini, Raoul; Simon, George P; Ginic-Markovic, Milena; Matisons, Janis G; Huynh, Chi; Hawkins, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    We report on a method to preferentially align multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a liquid crystalline matrix to form stable composite thin films. The liquid crystalline monomeric chains can be crosslinked to form acrylate bridges, thereby retaining the nanotube alignment. Further post-treatment by ozone etching of the composite films leads to an increase in bulk conductivity, leading to higher emission currents when examined under conducting scanning probe microscopy. The described methodology may facilitate device manufacture where electron emission from nanosized tips is important in the creation of new display devices

  12. β-Ga2O3 versus ε-Ga2O3: Control of the crystal phase composition of gallium oxide thin film prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yi; Chen, Zimin; Tu, Wenbin; Ma, Xuejin; Pei, Yanli; Wang, Gang

    2017-10-01

    Gallium oxide thin films of β and ε phase were grown on c-plane sapphire using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and the phase compositions were analyzed using X-ray diffraction. The epitaxial phase diagram was constructed as a function of the growth temperature and VI/III ratio. A low growth temperature and low VI/III ratio were beneficial for the formation of hexagonal-type ε-Ga2O3. Further structure analysis revealed that the epitaxial relationship between ε-Ga2O3 and c-plane sapphire is ε-Ga2O3 (0001) || Al2O3 (0001) and ε-Ga2O3 || Al2O3 . The structural evolution of the mixed-phase sample during film thickening was investigated. By reducing the growth rate, the film evolved from a mixed phase to the energetically favored ε phase. Based on these results, a Ga2O3 thin film with a phase-pure ε-Ga2O3 upper layer was successfully obtained.

  13. Observation of two regions of selective light reflection from a thin film of a cholesteric liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaverdyan, R B; Dadalyan, T K; Chilingaryan, Yurii S

    2013-01-01

    Two regions of selective light reflection (in the short- and long- wavelength parts of the visible spectrum) from a thin film of a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC), consisting of the mixture of two CLCs with opposite chirality and a nematic liquid crystal, are experimentally found for the first time. The spectral position of the reflection regions and the separation between them varies depending on the CLC composition and the temperature. The long-wavelength region of reflection corresponds to the region of Bragg reflection from the CLC helix, while the short-wavelength region is probably due to the defects in the structure of the CLC film. (letters)

  14. Epitaxial growth of fcc-CoxNi100-x thin films on MgO(110) single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Sato, Yoichi; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Co x Ni 100-x (x=100, 80, 20, 0 at. %) epitaxial thin films were prepared on MgO(110) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 deg. C by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The growth mechanism is discussed based on lattice strain and crystallographic defects. CoNi(110) single-crystal films with a fcc structure are obtained for all compositions. Co x Ni 100-x film growth follows the Volmer-Weber mode. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of the Co x Ni 100-x films are in agreement within ±0.5% with the values of the respective bulk Co x Ni 100-x crystals, suggesting that the strain in the film is very small. High-resolution cross-sectional transmission microscopy shows that an atomically sharp boundary is formed between a Co(110) fcc film and a MgO(110) substrate, where periodical misfit dislocations are preferentially introduced in the film at the Co/MgO interface. The presence of such periodical misfit dislocations relieves the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate.

  15. Improved photovoltaic performance from inorganic perovskite oxide thin films with mixed crystal phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabartty, Joyprokash; Harnagea, Catalin; Celikin, Mert; Rosei, Federico; Nechache, Riad

    2018-05-01

    Inorganic ferroelectric perovskites are attracting attention for the realization of highly stable photovoltaic cells with large open-circuit voltages. However, the power conversion efficiencies of devices have been limited so far. Here, we report a power conversion efficiency of 4.20% under 1 sun illumination from Bi-Mn-O composite thin films with mixed BiMnO3 and BiMn2O5 crystal phases. We show that the photocurrent density and photovoltage mainly develop across grain boundaries and interfaces rather than within the grains. We also experimentally demonstrate that the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit photocurrent measured in the films are tunable by varying the electrical resistance of the device, which in turn is controlled by externally applying voltage pulses. The exploitation of multifunctional properties of composite oxides provides an alternative route towards achieving highly stable, high-efficiency photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

  16. Properties of laser-crystallized polycrystalline SiGe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, Moshe

    2008-06-06

    In this thesis, structural, electrical, and optical properties of laser-crystallized polycrystalline Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with 0crystallization of amorphous Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with 0.3film, which is directly coupled to a periodic compositional variation. - Amorphous SiGe samples that are exposed to a single laser pulse exhibit a ripple structure that evolves into a hillock structure when the samples are irradiated with additional laser pulses. - It is maintained that the main mechanism behind the structure formation is an instability of the propagating solid-liquid interface during solidification. - The study of defects with electron spin resonance showed that laser-crystallized poly-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with 0crystallization method and Ge content. The defect density for solid-phase crystallized SiGe films was lower and amounted to N{sub s}=7 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. - Germanium-rich laser-crystallized poly-SiGe thin films exhibited mostly a broad atypical electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR) signal that was accompanied by a nearly temperature-independent electrical conductivity in the range 20-100 K. - Most likely, the origin of the grain boundary conductance is due to dangling-bond defects and not impurities. Metallic-like conductance occurs when the dangling-bond defect density is above a critical value of about N{sub C} {approx} 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. - Laser crystallized poly-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with x{>=}0.5 exhibit optical absorption behavior that is characteristic for disordered SiGe, implying that the absorption occurs primarily at the grain boundaries. A sub-band-gap absorption peak was found for

  17. Carrier mobility and crystal perfection of tetracene thin film FET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, N.; Nishikawa, T.; Anezaki, T.; Unno, A.; Tachibana, M.; Kojima, K.

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that the carrier mobility of an organic field effect semiconductor (FET) depended on the crystal quality and/or the crystal perfection of the organic thin films [T.W. Kelly, D.V. Muyres, P.F. Baude, T.P. Smith, T.D. Jones, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 771 (2003) L6.5.1; D.J. Gundlach, J.A. Nichols, L. Zhou, T.N. Jackson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 (2002) 2925; H.K. Lauk, M. Halik, U. Zschieschang, G. Schmid, W. Radlik, J. Appl. Phys. 92 (2002) 5259; M. Shtein, J. Mapel, J.B. Benziger, S.R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 (2002) 268; D. Knipp, R.A. Street, A.R. Volkel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 (2003) 3907; R. Ruiz, A.C. Mayer, G.G. Malliaras, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85 (2004) 4926; R.W.I. de Boer, M.E. Gershenson, A.F. Morpurgo, V. Podzorov, Phys. Stat. Sol. A 201 (2004) 1031]. To improve the crystal quality of the thin film many efforts were made. One of the important improvements was the surface treatment of the substrate. The tetracene thin film FET (top contact structure) was fabricated using the substrate, which was coated by a spin-coating method with a 0.1% poly α-methylstyrene (AMS) solution. The crystal quality was improved by this treatment so that the carrier mobility was higher than that of non-treatment. The maximum mobility of the AMS-treated sample was obtained to be 0.12 cm 2 /V s

  18. Effect of Sb on physical properties and microstructures of laser nano/amorphous-composite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia-Ning; Gong, Shui-Li; Sun, Mei; Shan, Fei-Hu; Wang, Xi-Chang; Jiang, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    A nano/amorphous-composite film was fabricated by laser cladding (LC) of the Co–Ti–B 4 C–Sb mixed powders on a TA15 alloy. Such film mainly consisted of Ti–Al, Co–Ti, Co–Sb intermetallics, TiC, TiB 2 , TiB, and the amorphous phases. Experimental results indicated that the crystal systems of TiB 2 (hexagonal)/TiC (cubic) and Sb (rhombohedral) played important role on the formation of such film. Due to the mismatch of these crystals systems and mutual immiscibility of the metallic components, Sb was not incorporated in TiB 2 /TiC, but formed separate nuclei during the film growth. Thus, the growth of TiB 2 /TiC was stopped by the Sb nucleus in such LC molten pool, so as to form the nanoscale particles

  19. Effect of Sb on physical properties and microstructures of laser nano/amorphous-composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jia-Ning, E-mail: jn2369@163.com [Science and Technology on Power Beam Processes Laboratory, Beijing (China); Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China); Gong, Shui-Li, E-mail: gongshuili@sina.com [Science and Technology on Power Beam Processes Laboratory, Beijing (China); Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China); Sun, Mei; Shan, Fei-Hu; Wang, Xi-Chang [Science and Technology on Power Beam Processes Laboratory, Beijing (China); Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China); Jiang, Shuai [Science and Technology on Power Beam Processes Laboratory, Beijing (China); Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2013-11-01

    A nano/amorphous-composite film was fabricated by laser cladding (LC) of the Co–Ti–B{sub 4}C–Sb mixed powders on a TA15 alloy. Such film mainly consisted of Ti–Al, Co–Ti, Co–Sb intermetallics, TiC, TiB{sub 2}, TiB, and the amorphous phases. Experimental results indicated that the crystal systems of TiB{sub 2} (hexagonal)/TiC (cubic) and Sb (rhombohedral) played important role on the formation of such film. Due to the mismatch of these crystals systems and mutual immiscibility of the metallic components, Sb was not incorporated in TiB{sub 2}/TiC, but formed separate nuclei during the film growth. Thus, the growth of TiB{sub 2}/TiC was stopped by the Sb nucleus in such LC molten pool, so as to form the nanoscale particles.

  20. Crystal structures of sol-gel deposited zirconia thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.M.; Cheary, R.W.; Rice, M.; Ben-Nissan, B.; Cocking, J.L.; Johnstone, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors reports on the crystal structure of zirconia thin films by high temperature x-ray diffraction. The films were deposited by sol-gel processing onto polished stainless steel substrates, and dried at 200 deg C. X-ray diffraction at temperatures between 400 deg C and 800 deg C was carried out using an APEX diffractometer with a position sensitive detector. Previous results indicated that there was a transformation between the tetragonal phase and the monoclinic phase at approximately 770 deg C. Two experiments have been carried out: temperature runs, where the structure evolution is studied as a function of temperature; and time evolution of the structure at fixed temperatures. The results for both experiments, including structural analysis of the different phases found in the thin zirconia films and an analysis of the kinetics of the phase transformation(s) from the time evolution work are presented. This will include a comparison with theories of nucleation and crystallisation in single element films. Impurity phases introduced by interaction of the zirconia with the substrate have been observed, and the effect of increasing annealing time on the substrate-film interaction will also be discussed. 17 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  1. Surface phase separation, dewetting feature size, and crystal morphology in thin films of polystyrene/poly(ε-caprolactone) blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; He, Zhoukun; Li, Yuhan; Chen, Feng; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qing; Deng, Hua; Fu, Qiang

    2012-12-01

    Thin films of polystyrene (PS)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) blends were prepared by spin-coating and characterized by tapping mode force microscopy (AFM). Effects of the relative concentration of PS in polymer solution on the surface phase separation and dewetting feature size of the blend films were systematically studied. Due to the coupling of phase separation, dewetting, and crystallization of the blend films with the evaporation of solvent during spin-coating, different size of PS islands decorated with various PCL crystal structures including spherulite-like, flat-on individual lamellae, and flat-on dendritic crystal were obtained in the blend films by changing the film composition. The average distance of PS islands was shown to increase with the relative concentration of PS in casting solution. For a given ratio of PS/PCL, the feature size of PS appeared to increase linearly with the square of PS concentration while the PCL concentration only determined the crystal morphology of the blend films with no influence on the upper PS domain features. This is explained in terms of vertical phase separation and spinodal dewetting of the PS rich layer from the underlying PCL rich layer, leading to the upper PS dewetting process and the underlying PCL crystalline process to be mutually independent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonlinear optical and electroabsorption spectra of polydiacetylene crystals and films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, D.; Soos, Z. G.

    1996-01-01

    Vibronic structure of nonlinear optical (NLO) coefficients is developed within the Condon approximation, displaced harmonic oscillators, and crude adiabatic states. The displacements of backbone modes of conjugated polymers are taken from vibrational data on the ground and 1B excited state. NLO resonances are modeled by three excitations and transition moments taken from Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) theory and optimized to polydiacetylene (PDA) spectra in crystals and films, with blue-shifted 1B exciton. The joint analysis of third-harmonic-generation, two-photon absorption, and nondegenerate four-wave-mixing spectra of PDA crystals and films shows weak two-photon absorption to 2A below 1B, leading to overlapping resonances in the THG spectrum, strong two-photon absorption to an nA state some 35% above 1B, and weak Raman resonances in nondegenerate FWM spectra. The full π-π* spectrum contributes to Stark shifts and field-induced transitions, as shown by PPP results for PDA oligomers. The Stark shift dominates high-resolution electroabsorption (EA) spectra of PDA crystals below 10 K. The close correspondence between EA and the first-derivative I'(ω) of the linear absorption above the 1B exciton in PDA crystals provides an experimental separation of vibrational and electronic contributions that limits any even-parity state in this 0.5 eV interval. An oscillator-strength sum rule is applied to the convergence of PDA oligomers with increasing length, N, and the crystal oscillator strengths are obtained without adjustable parameters. The sum rule for the 1B exciton implies large transition moments to higher-energy Ag states, whose locations in recent models are contrasted to PPP results. Joint analysis of NLO and EA spectra clarifies when a few electronic excitations are sufficient, distinguishes between vibrational and electronic contributions, and supports similar π-electron interactions in conjugated molecules and polymers.

  3. Giant coercivity in ferromagnetic Co doped ZnO single crystal thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukya, B.; Negi, D.S.; Dileep, K.; Kumar, N.; Ghatak, Jay; Datta, R.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of ferromagnetism in ZnO doped with transition metal impurities has been discussed extensively and appeared to be a highly controversial and challenging topic in today's solid state physics. Magnetism observed in this system is generally weak and soft. We have grown Co:ZnO up to 30 at% Co in single crystal thin film form on c-plane sapphire. A composition dependent coercivity is observed in this system which reaches peak value at 25 at% Co, the values are 860 Oe and 1149 Oe with applied field along parallel and perpendicular to the film substrate interface respectively. This giant coercivity might pave the way to exploit this material as a magnetic semiconductor with novel logic functionalities. The findings are explained based on defect band itinerant ferromagnetism and its partial interaction with localized d electrons of Co through charge transfer. Besides large coercivity, an increase in the band gap with Co concentration has also been observed along with blue emission peak with long tail confirming the formation of extended point defect levels in the host lattice band gap. - Highlights: • Co doped ZnO ferromagnetic single crystal thin film. • Giant coercivity in Co:ZnO thin film which may help to turn this material into application. • Cathodoluminescence (CL) data showing increase in band gap with Co concentrations. • A theoretical proposal is made to explain the observed giant coercivity

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan—Agarose Composite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a growing interest to develop biodegradable functional composite materials for food packaging and biomedicine applications from renewable sources. Some composite films were prepared by the casting method using chitosan (CS and agarose (AG in different mass ratios. The composite films were analyzed for physical-chemical-mechanical properties including tensile strength (TS, elongation-at-break (EB, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR, swelling ratio, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and morphology observations. The antibacterial properties of the composite films were also evaluated. The obtained results reveal that an addition of AG in varied proportions to a CS solution leads to an enhancement of the composite film’s tensile strength, elongation-at-break, and water vapor transmission rate. The composite film with an agarose mass concentration of 60% was of the highest water uptake capacity. These improvements can be explained by the chemical structures of the new composite films, which contain hydrogen bonding interactions between the chitosan and agarose as shown by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis and the micro-pore structures as observed with optical microscopes and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The antibacterial results demonstrated that the films with agarose mass concentrations ranging from 0% to 60% possessed antibacterial properties. These results indicate that these composite films, especially the composite film with an agarose mass concentration of 60%, exhibit excellent potential to be used in food packaging and biomedical materials.

  5. Application of Thin Films of Conjugated Polymers in Novel LED's and Liquid Crystal 'Light Valves'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MacDiarmid, A

    1997-01-01

    .... Flexible, completely organic polymer dispersed liquid crystal light valves have been fabricated from transparent plastic substrates on which a conducting film of polypyrrole has been deposited...

  6. Synthesis and characterization of liquid crystals and their thermoset films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yong-Ho; Jung, Myung-Sup; Chang, Jin-Hae

    2010-01-01

    We prepared a series of aromatic liquid crystals (LCs) based on aromatic ester units with the reactive end groups methyl-maleimide and nadimide, and the resulting LCs were thermally cross-linked to produce liquid crystalline thermoset (LCT) films by means of solution-casting and heat treatment. The synthesized LCs and LCTs were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermomechanical analysis (TMA), and polarizing optical microscopy with a hot stage. We found that all these LCs form nematic phases. The coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of the LCT films are strongly affected by the reactive end group and the mesogen units in their main-chain structures. The methyl-maleimide-terminated biphenyl LCT was found to have the lowest CTE.

  7. A study on lead myristate (LM) soap film crystal by positron annihilation life spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zikang; Yu xianchun

    1992-01-01

    The quality of the LM soap film crystal is determined by means of the positron annihilation life spectroscopy. It is found that the technology to be used to make soap film will influence the film quality and the film quality can be improved by a reasonable heat treatment

  8. Improved thermal stability of polylactic acid (PLA) composite film via PLA-β-cyclodextrin-inclusion complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Youngjae; Rodriguez, Katia; Han, Jung H; Kim, Young Teck

    2015-11-01

    The effects of the incorporation of PLA-β-cyclodextrin-inclusion complex (IC) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on biopolyester PLA films were investigated. Thermal stability, surface morphology, barrier, and mechanical properties of the films were measured at varying IC (1, 3, 5, and 7%) and β-CD (1 and 5%) concentrations. The PLA-IC-composite films (IC-PLA-CFs) showed uniform morphological structure, while samples containing β-CD (β-CD-PLA-CFs) showed high agglomeration of β-CD due to poor interfacial interaction between β-CD and PLA moieties. According to the thermal property analysis, the 5% IC-PLA-CFs showed 6.6 times lower dimensional changes (6.5%) at the temperature range of 20-80°C than that of pure PLA film (43.0%). The increase of IC or β-CD content in the PLA-composite films shifted the glass transition and crystallization temperature to higher temperature regions. The crystallinity of both composite films improved by increasing IC or β-CD content. Both composite films had higher oxygen and water vapor permeability as IC or β-CD content increased in comparison to pure PLA film. All the composite films had less flexibility and lower tensile strength than the pure PLA film. In conclusion, this study shows that the IC technique is valuable to improve the thermal expansion stability of PLA-based films. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Single-layer nano-carbon film, diamond film, and diamond/nano-carbon composite film field emission performance comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Jinye; Wang, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    A series of single-layer nano-carbon (SNC) films, diamond films, and diamond/nano-carbon (D/NC) composite films have been prepared on the highly doped silicon substrate by using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. The films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission I-V measurements. The experimental results indicated that the field emission maximum current density of D/NC composite films is 11.8–17.8 times that of diamond films. And the field emission current density of D/NC composite films is 2.9–5 times that of SNC films at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm. At the same time, the D/NC composite film exhibits the advantage of improved reproducibility and long term stability (both of the nano-carbon film within the D/NC composite cathode and the SNC cathode were prepared under the same experimental conditions). And for the D/NC composite sample, a high current density of 10 mA/cm"2 at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm was obtained. Diamond layer can effectively improve the field emission characteristics of nano-carbon film. The reason may be due to the diamond film acts as the electron acceleration layer.

  10. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, V.; Aleksandrova, M.; Stefanov, P.; Grechnikov, A.; Gadjanova, V.; Dilova, T.; Angelov, Ts

    2014-12-01

    A study of NO2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO2 concentration >= 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO2 concentration. When the NO2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO2 in the air at room temperature.

  11. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Gadjanova, V; Angelov, Ts; Aleksandrova, M; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Stefanov, P; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Dilova, T; Grechnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    A study of NO 2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO 2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO 2 concentration ≥ 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO 2 concentration. When the NO 2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO 2 in the air at room temperature

  12. Dielectric and Energy Storage Properties of the Heterogeneous P(VDF-HFP)/PC Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojia; Peng, Guirong; Zhan, Zaiji

    2017-12-01

    Polymer-based materials with a high discharge energy and low energy loss have attracted considerable attention for energy storage applications. A new class of polymer-based composite films composed of amorphous polycarbonate (PC) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VDF-HFP)] has been fabricated by simply solution blending followed by thermal treatment under vacuum. The results show that the diameter of the spherical phase for PC and the melting temperature of P(VDF-HFP) increase, and the crystallinity and crystallization temperature of P(VDF-HFP) decrease with increasing PC content. The phase transition from the polar β phase to weak polarity γ phase is induced by PC addition. Moreover, the Curie temperature of the P(VDF-HFP)/PC composite films shifts to a lower temperature. With the addition of PC, the permittivity, polarization and discharge energy of the P(VDF-HFP)/PC composite films slightly decrease. However, the energy loss is significantly reduced.

  13. Investigation of polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol–titanium dioxide composite films for photo-catalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Shaoqiang; Zhang, Hongyang; Song, Yuanqing; Zhang, Jianling; Yang, Haigang; Jiang, Long, E-mail: jianglong@scu.edu.cn; Dan, Yi, E-mail: danyichenweiwei@163.com

    2015-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The study provides an easy and convenient method to fabricate films, which will give guidance for the preparation of three-dimensional materials. • The PPy/PVA–TiO{sub 2} films can keep better photo-catalytic activities both under UV and visible light irradiation when compared with TiO{sub 2} film. • There exist electron transfers between PPy/PVA and TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol–titanium dioxide (PPy/PVA–TiO{sub 2}) composite films used as photo-catalysts were fabricated by combining TiO{sub 2} sol with PPy/PVA solution in which PPy was synthesized by in situ polymerization of pyrrole (Py) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix and loaded on glass. The prepared photo-catalysts were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and photoluminescence (PL). The results indicate that the composites have same crystal structure as the TiO{sub 2} and extend the optic absorption from UV region to visible light region. By detecting the variation ratio, detected by ultraviolet–vis spectroscopy, of model pollutant rhodamine B (RhB) solution in the presence of the composite films under both UV and visible light irradiation, the photo-catalytic performance of the composite films was investigated. The results show that the PPy/PVA–TiO{sub 2} composite films show better photo-catalytic properties than TiO{sub 2} film both under UV and visible light irradiation, and the photo-catalytic degradation of RhB follows the first-order kinetics. The effects of the composition of composite films and the concentration of RhB on the photo-catalytic performance, as well as the possible photo-catalytic mechanism, were also discussed. By photo-catalytic recycle experiments, the structure stability of the PPy/PVA–TiO{sub 2} composite film was investigated and the results show that

  14. Effect of negative bias on the composition and structure of the tungsten oxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meihan; Lei, Hao; Wen, Jiaxing; Long, Haibo; Sawada, Yutaka; Hoshi, Yoichi; Uchida, Takayuki; Hou, Zhaoxia

    2015-12-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films were deposited at room temperature under different negative bias voltages (Vb, 0 to -500 V) by DC reactive magnetron sputtering, and then the as-deposited films were annealed at 500 °C in air atmosphere. The crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical composition and transmittance of the tungsten oxide thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The XRD analysis reveals that the tungsten oxide films deposited at different negative bias voltages present a partly crystallized amorphous structure. All the films transfer from amorphous to crystalline (monoclinic + hexagonal) after annealing 3 h at 500 °C. Furthermore, the crystallized tungsten oxide films show different preferred orientation. The morphology of the tungsten oxide films deposited at different negative bias voltages is consisted of fine nanoscale grains. The grains grow up and conjunct with each other after annealing. The tungsten oxide films deposited at higher negative bias voltages after annealing show non-uniform special morphology. Substoichiometric tungsten oxide films were formed as evidenced by XPS spectra of W4f and O1s. As a result, semi-transparent films were obtained in the visible range for all films deposited at different negative bias voltages.

  15. Comparison of functional parameters of CsI:Tl crystals and thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, A.; Gektin, A.; Lebedynskiy, A.; Mateychenko, P.; Shkoropatenko, A.

    2013-01-01

    500 mkm thick CsI:Tl columnar films can be produced using thermal evaporation in vacuum by sublimation of the same bulk crystal. Comparison of afterglow and radiation stability of deposited CsI:Tl films with source crystal was the aim of current work. It is shown that the afterglow in the films is always below its level in initial single crystal. It was ascertained that the annealing atmospheres influence the processes leading to the activator depletion of the films during the thermal processing. -- Highlights: ► Thick CsI:Tl columnar films were obtained by thermal evaporation in vacuum. ► Radiation stability of such CsI:Tl films appears to be better than that of crystal. ► CsI:Tl film parameters can be modified by annealing in different atmospheres

  16. Mechanical design of thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus with optimized thermal contact and crystal strain for coherence preservation x-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Shvydko, Yury; Stoupin, Stanislav; Kim, Kwang-Je

    2018-05-08

    A method and mechanical design for a thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus for coherence preservation x-ray optics with optimized thermal contact and minimized crystal strain are provided. The novel thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus mounts a thin-film diamond crystal supported by a thick chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond film spacer with a thickness slightly thicker than the thin-film diamond crystal, and two groups of thin film thermal conductors, such as thin CVD diamond film thermal conductor groups separated by the thick CVD diamond spacer. The two groups of thin CVD film thermal conductors provide thermal conducting interface media with the thin-film diamond crystal. A piezoelectric actuator is integrated into a flexural clamping mechanism generating clamping force from zero to an optimal level.

  17. Optical study on doped polyaniline composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G; Zheng, P; Wang, N L; Long, Y Z; Chen, Z J; Li, J C; Wan, M X

    2004-01-01

    Localization driven by disorder has a strong influence on the conducting properties of conducting polymers. Some authors hold the opinion that disorder in the material is homogeneous and that the conducting polymer is a disordered metal close to the Anderson-Mott metal-insulator (MI) transition, while others treat the disorder as inhomogeneous and have the opinion that conducting polymers are a composite of ordered metallic regions and disordered insulating regions. The morphology of conducting polymers is an important factor that has an influence on the type and extent of disorder. Different protonic acids used as dopants and moisture have influence on the polymer chain arrangement and interchain interactions. We performed optical reflectance measurements on several PANI-CSA/PANI-DBSA composite films with different dopant ratios and moisture contents. Optical conductivity and the real part of the dielectric function are calculated by Kramers-Kronig (KK) relations. σ 1 (ο) and ε 1 (ο) deviate from the simple Drude model in the low frequency range and the tendencies of the three sample are different and non-monotonic. The localization modified Drude model (LMD) in the framework of the Anderson-Mott theory cannot give a good fit to the experimental data. By introducing the distribution of relaxation time into the LMD, reasonable fits for all three samples are obtained. This result supports the inhomogeneous picture

  18. Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Nano-composite PMMA: TiO2 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyly Nyl Ismail; Ahmad Fairoz Aziz; Habibah Zulkefle

    2011-01-01

    There are two nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 solutions were prepared in this research. First solution is nano-composite PMMA commercially available TiO 2 nanopowder and the second solution is nano-composite PMMA with self-prepared TiO 2 powder. The self-prepared TiO 2 powder is obtained by preparing the TiO 2 sol-gel. Solvo thermal method were used to dry the TiO 2 sol-gel and obtained TiO 2 crystal. Ball millers were used to grind the TiO 2 crystal in order to obtained nano sized powder. Triton-X was used as surfactant to stabilizer the composite between PMMA: TiO 2 . Besides comparing the nano-composite solution, we also studied the effect of the thin films thickness on the optical properties and surface morphology of the thin films. The thin films were deposited by sol-gel spin coating method on glass substrates. The optical properties and surface characterization were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer equipment and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The result showed that nano-composite PMMA with self prepared TiO 2 give high optical transparency than nano-composite PMMA with commercially available TiO 2 nano powder. The results also indicate as the thickness is increased the optical transparency are decreased. Both AFM images showed that the agglomerations of TiO 2 particles are occurred on the thin films and the surface roughness is increased when the thickness is increased. High agglomeration particles exist in the AFM images for nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 with TiO 2 nano powder compare to the other nano-composite solution. (author)

  19. Stress-Induced Crystallization of Ge-Doped Sb Phase-Change Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, Gert; Pauza, Andrew; Kooi, Bart J.

    The large effects of moderate stresses on the crystal growth rate in Ge-doped Sb phase-change thin films are demonstrated using direct optical imaging. For Ge6Sb94 and Ge7Sb93 phase-change films, a large increase in crystallization temperature is found when using a polycarbonate substrate instead of

  20. Ultra-fast solid state electro-optical modulator based on liquid crystal polymer and liquid crystal composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouskova, Elena; Sio, Luciano De, E-mail: luciano@beamco.com; Vergara, Rafael; Tabiryan, Nelson [Beam Engineering for Advanced Measurements Company, Winter Park, Florida 32789 (United States); White, Timothy J.; Bunning, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-7707 (United States)

    2014-12-08

    A different generation of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) based on a liquid crystalline polymer host is reported wherein the fluid behavior of the reactive mesogenic monomer is an enabler to concentration windows (liquid crystal polymer/liquid crystal) (and subsequent morphologies) not previously explored. These liquid crystal (LC) polymer/LC composites, LCPDLCs, exhibit excellent optical and electro-optical properties with negligible scattering losses in both the ON and OFF states. These systems thus have application in systems where fast phase modulation of optical signal instead of amplitude control is needed. Polarized optical microscopy and high resolution scanning electron microscopy confirm a bicontinuous morphology composed of aligned LC polymer coexisting with a phase separated LC fluid. Operating voltages, switching times, and spectra of LCPDLCs compare favourably to conventional PDLC films. The LCPDLCs exhibit a low switching voltage (4–5 V/μm), symmetric and submillisecond (200 μs) on/off response times, and high transmission in both the as formed and switched state in a phase modulation geometry.

  1. Supercapacitors based on flexible graphene/polyaniline nanofiber composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Xu, Yuxi; Yao, Zhiyi; Liu, Anran; Shi, Gaoquan

    2010-04-27

    Composite films of chemically converted graphene (CCG) and polyaniline nanofibers (PANI-NFs) were prepared by vacuum filtration the mixed dispersions of both components. The composite film has a layered structure, and PANI-NFs are sandwiched between CCG layers. Furthermore, it is mechanically stable and has a high flexibility; thus, it can be bent into large angles or be shaped into various desired structures. The conductivity of the composite film containing 44% CCG (5.5 x 10(2) S m(-1)) is about 10 times that of a PANI-NF film. Supercapacitor devices based on this conductive flexible composite film showed large electrochemical capacitance (210 F g(-1)) at a discharge rate of 0.3 A g(-1). They also exhibited greatly improved electrochemical stability and rate performances.

  2. Laser irradiation and thermal treatment inducing selective crystallization in Sb2O3-Sb2S3 glassy films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, L. F.; Pradel, A.; Ribeiro, S. J. L.; Messaddeq, Y.; Nalin, M.

    2015-02-01

    The influence of both thermal treatment and laser irradiation on the structural and optical properties of films in the Sb2O3-Sb2S3 system was investigated. The films were prepared by RF-sputtering using glass compositions as raw materials. Irreversible photodarkening effect was observed after exposure the films to a 458 nm solid state laser. It is shown, for the first time, the use of holographic technique to measure "in situ", simultaneously and independently, the phase and amplitude modulations in glassy films. The films were also photo-crystallized and analysed "in situ" using a laser coupled to a micro-Raman equipment. Results showed that Sb2S3 crystalline phase was obtained after irradiation. The effect of thermal annealing on the structure of the films was carried out. Different from the result obtained by irradiation, thermal annealing induces the crystallization of the Sb2O3 phase. Photo and thermal induced effects on films were studied using UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermal analysis (DSC), X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (MEV) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).

  3. Composition and microstructure of beryllium carbide films prepared by thermal MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yu-dan; Luo, Jiang-shan; Li, Jia; Meng, Ling-biao; Luo, Bing-chi; Zhang, Ji-qiang; Zeng, Yong; Wu, Wei-dong, E-mail: wuweidongding@163.com

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Non-columnar-crystal Be{sub 2}C films were firstly prepared by thermal MOCVD. • Beryllium carbide was always the dominant phase in the films. • α-Be and carbon existed in films deposited below and beyond 400 °C, respectively. • Morphology evolved with temperatures and no columnar grains were characterized. • The preferred substrate temperature for depositing high quality Be{sub 2}C films was 400 °C. - Abstract: Beryllium carbide films without columnar-crystal microstructures were prepared on the Si (1 0 0) substrate by thermal metal organic chemical vapor deposition using diethylberyllium as precursor. The influence of the substrate temperature on composition and microstructure of beryllium carbide films was systematically studied. Crystalline beryllium carbide is always the dominant phase according to XRD analysis. Meanwhile, a small amount of α-Be phase exists in films when the substrate temperature is below 400 °C, and hydrocarbon or amorphous carbon exists when the temperature is beyond 400 °C. Surfaces morphology shows transition from domes to cylinders, to humps, and to tetraquetrous crystalline needles with the increase of substrate temperature. No columnar grains are characterized throughout the thickness as revealed from the cross-section views. The average densities of these films are determined to be 2.04–2.17 g/cm{sup 3}. The findings indicate the substrate temperature has great influences on the composition and microstructure of the Be{sub 2}C films grown by thermal MOCVD.

  4. Preparation and dielectric properties of compositionally graded lead barium zirconate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Xihong, E-mail: xhhao@imust.edu.c [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Zhang, Zhiqing [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Zhou, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); An, Shengli [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Zhai, Jiwei [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2010-07-09

    Both up and down compositionally graded (Pb{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x})ZrO{sub 3} (PBZ) thin films with increasing x from 0.4 to 0.6 were deposited on Pt(1 1 1)-buffer layered silicon substrates through a sol-gel method. The microstructure and dielectric properties of graded PBZ thin films were investigated systemically. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that both PBZ films had crystallized into a pure perovskite phase after annealed 700 {sup o}C. Electrical measurement results showed that although up graded films had a slightly larger tunability, dielectric loss of down graded films was much lower than that of up graded films. Therefore, the figure of merit of down graded PBZ films was greatly enhanced, as compared with up graded films. Moreover, down graded PBZ thin films also displayed excellent temperature stability with a smaller temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) of -0.59 x 10{sup -3} {sup o}C{sup -1} from 20 {sup o}C to 80 {sup o}C.

  5. Dynamics of the Wigner crystal of composite particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junren; Ji, Wencheng

    2018-03-01

    Conventional wisdom has long held that a composite particle behaves just like an ordinary Newtonian particle. In this paper, we derive the effective dynamics of a type-I Wigner crystal of composite particles directly from its microscopic wave function. It indicates that the composite particles are subjected to a Berry curvature in the momentum space as well as an emergent dissipationless viscosity. While the dissipationless viscosity is the Chern-Simons field counterpart for the Wigner crystal, the Berry curvature is a feature not presented in the conventional composite fermion theory. Hence, contrary to general belief, composite particles follow the more general Sundaram-Niu dynamics instead of the ordinary Newtonian one. We show that the presence of the Berry curvature is an inevitable feature for a dynamics conforming to the dipole picture of composite particles and Kohn's theorem. Based on the dynamics, we determine the dispersions of magnetophonon excitations numerically. We find an emergent magnetoroton mode which signifies the composite-particle nature of the Wigner crystal. It occurs at frequencies much lower than the magnetic cyclotron frequency and has a vanishing oscillator strength in the long-wavelength limit.

  6. Interfaces study of all-polysaccharide composite films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimkovic, I.; Kelnar, Ivan; Mendichi, R.; Tracz, A.; Filip, J.; Bertók, T.; Kasák, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 3 (2018), s. 711-718 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : all-polysaccharide composites * elemental analysis * film properties study Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  7. Ag induced suppression of irradiation response in YBCO/Ag composite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, D.; Mohanty, T.; Mohanta, D.; Patnaik, K.; Mishra, N.C.; Senapati, L.; Kanjilal, D.; Mehta, G.K.; Pinto, R.

    1999-01-01

    Practical application of cuprate superconductors in radiation environment demands that these systems remain insensitive to the irradiation induced defects. The cuprate superconductors however are many orders of magnitude more sensitive than the conventional low T c superconductors. To suppress the irradiation sensitivity of cuprates we consider a crystal engineering approach where metal ions as Ag is made to occupy inter and intra-granular sites of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin films. We show that superconducting and normal state properties of YBCO/Ag composite thin films prepared by laser ablation remain unchanged under 140 MeV Si ion irradiation up to fluence of 8 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 . The inter- and intra-granular occupancy of Ag is shown to induce microstructural modifications and rigidity to the CuO chains respectively which in turn lead to the radiation insensitivity of the composite films. (author)

  8. X-ray diffraction characterization of epitaxial CVD diamond films with natural and isotopically modified compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokhorov, I. A., E-mail: igor.prokhorov@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Materials Science Laboratory, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics”, Kaluga Branch (Russian Federation); Voloshin, A. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Ralchenko, V. G.; Bolshakov, A. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Romanov, D. A. [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Kaluga Branch (Russian Federation); Khomich, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Sozontov, E. A. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Comparative investigations of homoepitaxial diamond films with natural and modified isotopic compositions, grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on type-Ib diamond substrates, are carried out using double-crystal X-ray diffractometry and topography. The lattice mismatch between the substrate and film is precisely measured. A decrease in the lattice constant on the order of (Δa/a){sub relax} ∼ (1.1–1.2) × 10{sup –4} is recorded in isotopically modified {sup 13}C (99.96%) films. The critical thicknesses of pseudomorphic diamond films is calculated. A significant increase in the dislocation density due to the elastic stress relaxation is revealed by X-ray topography.

  9. Preparation and characterization of single-crystal multiferroic nanofiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhaohui; Xiao, Zhen; Yin, Simin; Mai, Jiangquan; Liu, Zhenya; Xu, Gang; Li, Xiang; Shen, Ge [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Han, Gaorong, E-mail: hgr@zju.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2013-03-05

    Graphical abstract: One-dimensional single-crystal multiferroic composites composed of PbTiO{sub 3} nanofiber-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanodot have been prepared for the first time by a facile in situ solid state sintering method. The composites demonstrate ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism as well as strong coupling between them. Highlights: ► 1D single-crystal multiferroic PTO-CFO was prepared via in situ solid state sintering method. ► A simple epitaxial growth relation has been found between the PTO–CFO composites. ► The composites reveal ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism as well as coupling between them. -- Abstract: One-dimensional single-crystal multiferroic composites consisting of PbTiO{sub 3} (PTO) nanofiber-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CFO) nanodot were prepared using an in situ solid state sintering method, where pre-perovskite PTO nanofibers and CFO nanodots were used as precursors. Structural analyses by using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction determined a epitaxial growth relation between the PTO nanofiber and the CFO nanodot. Ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity of the nanofiber composites were investigated by using vibarting sample magnetometer (VSM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM)

  10. Preparation of Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Zirconate Titanate Films and Their Crystallization Behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tursiloadi, Silvester

    2002-01-01

    The thin films with composition near morpotropic phase boundary (MPB) of the system xPb(Mg 1 /3, Nb 2 /3) O 3 -yPbTiO 3 -zPbZrO 3 (x = 0-0.35, y = 0.47 and z = 0.53), were prepared by sol-gel method. The starting materials were consisted of Pb(iso-OC 3 H 7 ) 2 , Zr(n-OC 4 H 9 ) 4 , Ti(iso-OC 3 H 7 ) 4 , Mg(CH 3 COO) 2 4H 2 O and Nb(OC 2 H 5 ) 5 . The l-propanol was used as solvent. The concentration of PMN-PT-PZ in coating solution was 0.7 M, and the pH of the solution was 4.5. The thin films were prepared by dip coating and spin coating. The crystallization behaviors of the PMN-PT-PZ thin films showed that the formation of perovskite phase at low temperature becomes difficult with increasing the content of PMN. The amounts of pyrochlore and perovskite phase in PMN-PT-PZ films depended on the heating temperatures, and PMN contents. Single-phase perovskite was found for the coated films containing 0 and 12.5 mol% after calculating at 600 o C, 21 mol% after calculating at 700 o C, and 30 mol% after calculating at 750 o C. Single-phase perovskite of coated films will never be found when the content of PMN was 35 mol%

  11. Effect of crystal structure on optical properties of sol–gel derived zirconia thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xiaodong_wang@tongji.edu.cn [Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Guangming; Zhou, Bin [Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shen, Jun, E-mail: shenjun67@tongji.edu.cn [Pohl Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► ZrO{sub 2} films were deposited by sol–gel method. ► Crystal structures of the films were tuned by different thermal annealing methods. ► The refractive indices vary with the crystal structures of the films. ► Lattice-mismatch was found to reduce the refractive index of ZrO{sub 2} films. -- Abstract: The optical properties of sol–gel derived zirconia thin films and their relation to the crystal structure are studied in this paper. ZrO{sub 2} films were deposited on quartz glass and silicon wafer substrates by sol–gel method with conventional furnace annealing (CFA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Crystal structures of the films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, while refractive indices of the films were determined from the reflectance and transmittance spectra. The refractive indices vary with the function of crystal structure and density of the films, which depends on annealing temperature and annealing technique. Lattice-mismatch between monoclinic phase and tetragonal phase was found to reduce the refractive index of ZrO{sub 2} films.

  12. Design and characterization of Ga-doped indium tin oxide films for pixel electrode in liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Kang, S.H.; Oh, H.S.; Yu, T.H.; Sohn, I.S.

    2013-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films doped with various metal atoms were investigated in terms of phase transition behavior and electro-optical properties for the purpose of upgrading ITO and indium zinc oxide (IZO) films, commonly used for pixel electrodes in flat panel displays. We explored Ce, Mg, Zn, and Ga atoms as dopants to ITO by the co-sputtering technique, and Ga-doped ITO films (In:Sn:Ga = 87.4:6.7:5.9 at.%) showed the phase transition behavior at 210 °C within 20 min with high visible transmittance of 91% and low resistivity of 0.22 mΩ cm. The film also showed etching rate similar to amorphous ITO, and no etching residue on glass surfaces. These results were confirmed with the film formed from a single Ga-doped ITO target with slightly different compositions (In:Sn:Ga = 87:9:4 at.%). Compared to the ITO target, Ga-doped ITO target left 1/4 less nodules on the target surface after sputtering. These results suggest that Ga-doped ITO films could be an excellent alternative to ITO and IZO for pixel electrodes in thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD). - Highlights: ► We report Ga-doped In–Sn–O films for a pixel electrode in liquid crystal display. ► Ga-doped In–Sn–O films show phase transition behavior at 210 °C. ► Ga-doped In–Sn–O films show high wet etchability and low resistivity

  13. High Performance Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Tiraferri, Alberto; Phillip, William A.; Schiffman, Jessica D.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2010-01-01

    obstacle hindering further advancements of this technology. This work presents the development of a high performance thin-film composite membrane for forward osmosis applications. The membrane consists of a selective polyamide active layer formed

  14. Effect of a Polymercaptan Material on the Electro-Optical Properties of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujian; Zhang, Cuihong; Zhou, Le; Fang, Hua; Huang, Jianhua; Ma, Haipeng; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Lan-Ying; Song, Ping; Gao, Yanzi; Xiao, Jiumei; Li, Fasheng; Li, Kexuan

    2016-12-30

    Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films were prepared by the ultraviolet-light-induced polymerization of photopolymerizable monomers in nematic liquid crystal/chiral dopant/thiol-acrylate reaction monomer composites. The effects of the chiral dopant and crosslinking agents on the electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were systematically investigate. While added the chiral dopant S811 into the PDLC films, the initial off-state transmittance of the films was decreased. It was found that the weight ratio among acrylate monomers, thiol monomer PETMP and the polymercaptan Capcure 3-800 showed great influence on the properties of the fabricated PDLC films because of the existence of competition between thiol-acrylate reaction and acrylate monomer polymerization reaction. While adding polymercaptans curing agent Capcure 3-800 with appropriate concentration into the PDLC system, lower driven voltage and higher contrast ratio were achieved. This made the polymer network and electro-optical properties of the PDLC films easily tunable by the introduction of the thiol monomers.

  15. Effect of a Polymercaptan Material on the Electro-Optical Properties of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujian Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC films were prepared by the ultraviolet-light-induced polymerization of photopolymerizable monomers in nematic liquid crystal/chiral dopant/thiol-acrylate reaction monomer composites. The effects of the chiral dopant and crosslinking agents on the electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were systematically investigate. While added the chiral dopant S811 into the PDLC films, the initial off-state transmittance of the films was decreased. It was found that the weight ratio among acrylate monomers, thiol monomer PETMP and the polymercaptan Capcure 3-800 showed great influence on the properties of the fabricated PDLC films because of the existence of competition between thiol-acrylate reaction and acrylate monomer polymerization reaction. While adding polymercaptans curing agent Capcure 3-800 with appropriate concentration into the PDLC system, lower driven voltage and higher contrast ratio were achieved. This made the polymer network and electro-optical properties of the PDLC films easily tunable by the introduction of the thiol monomers.

  16. Effects of annealing on the compositional heterogeneity and structure in zirconium-based bulk metallic glass thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, L.; Chu, J.P.; Li, C.-L.; Lee, C.-M.; Chen, Y.-C.; Liaw, P.K.; Voyles, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    In-situ heating fluctuation electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy have been utilized to study compositional and structural heterogeneities in Zr 51 Cu 32 Al 9 Ni 8 thin films upon annealing. Composition fluctuations are present in the as-deposited thin films. Well below the glass transition temperature, the composition fluctuations increase with annealing time. Short- and medium-range order also change with annealing temperature. The observed heterogeneities in the glass structure persist until annealing causes crystallization. The 20 nm thick Zr 51 Cu 32 Al 9 Ni 8 films contain oxide layers both at the surface and the film/substrate interface with the total thickness of 7–8 nm. In-situ annealing increased the oxygen content of the whole films to about 24 wt.% after 2 h at 400 °C. - Highlights: • Zr 51 Cu 32 Al 9 Ni 8 thin films were studied with in-situ heating electron microscopy. • Annealing at 400 °C increases the Zr and Cu compositional fluctuations. • Short-range order in Zr 51 Cu 32 Al 9 Ni 8 becomes less homogeneous above 350 °C. • Medium-range order changes in degree and types at 400 °C, well below T g . • Annealing increases composition and structure heterogeneities until crystallization

  17. Experimental investigations on weakly polar liquid crystal-aerosil composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Chethan V; Prasad, S Krishna; Yelamaggad, C V [Centre for Liquid Crystal Research, Jalahalli, Bangalore 560013 (India)

    2006-01-25

    We have carried out differential scanning calorimetric and dielectric studies on composites of hydrophilic aerosil with a liquid crystal that does not possess a terminal polar group. While the shift in the nematic-isotropic transition temperature is in agreement with the general behaviour observed for such composites, the dielectric studies show, contrary to the commonly observed feature, that there is a systematic increase in the relaxation frequency associated with the rotation of the molecules around their short axis, as the aerosil concentration in the composite is increased.

  18. On crystallization of bisphenol-A polycarbonate thin films upon annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chunhong; Li, Qichao; Mao, Wenfeng; Wang, Peng; He, Chunqing, E-mail: hecq@whu.edu.cn

    2015-10-16

    Crystallization of polycarbonate (PC) films as a function of annealing time has been investigated by various methods. A distinct diffraction peak at 17.56°, a sharp decrease of film thickness, an increase of refractive index and branch-type structures on the surface are found merely for the film after crystallization. Interestingly, positron annihilation parameters demonstrate fractional free-volumes in PC films vary significantly not only before crystallization but also at the early stage of annealing, which are not found by other methods. The results show that free-volumes in PC film must be increased remarkably before crystallization, which enables the occurrence of molecule rearrangement. - Highlights: • Fractional free-volume in PC film decreased of early stage of annealing. • Crystallization of PC film on Si substrate occurred after annealed for ∼48 hours. • Fractional free-volume in PC film increased remarkably before crystallization. • Positron diffusion length and S parameter revealed the variation of free volumes.

  19. Epitaxial Growth of Permalloy Thin Films on MgO Single-Crystal Substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Takahiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Permalloy (Py: Ni - 20 at. % Fe) thin films were prepared on MgO single-crystal substrates of (100), (110), and (111) orientations by molecular beam epitaxy. Py crystals consisting of fcc(100) and hcp(112-bar 0) orientations epitaxially nucleate on MgO(100) substrates. With increasing the substrate temperature, the volume ratio of fcc(100) to hcp(112-bar 0) crystal increases. The metastable hcp(112-bar 0) structure transforms into more stable fcc(110) structure with increasing the film thickness. Py(110) fcc single-crystal films are obtained on MgO(110) substrates, whereas Py films epitaxially grow on MgO(111) substrates with two types of fcc(111) variants whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of these fcc-Py films agree within ±0.4% with the values of bulk fcc-Py crystal, suggesting that the strains in the films are very small. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that periodical misfit dislocations are preferentially introduced in the films around the Py/MgO(100) and the Py/MgO(110) interfaces to reduce the lattice mismatches. The magnetic properties are considered to be reflecting the magnetocrystalline anisotropies of bulk fcc-Py and/or metastable hcp-Py crystals and the shape anisotropy caused by the surface undulations.

  20. Epitaxial Growth of Permalloy Thin Films on MgO Single-Crystal Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Takahiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi, E-mail: ohtake@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan)

    2011-07-06

    Permalloy (Py: Ni - 20 at. % Fe) thin films were prepared on MgO single-crystal substrates of (100), (110), and (111) orientations by molecular beam epitaxy. Py crystals consisting of fcc(100) and hcp(112-bar 0) orientations epitaxially nucleate on MgO(100) substrates. With increasing the substrate temperature, the volume ratio of fcc(100) to hcp(112-bar 0) crystal increases. The metastable hcp(112-bar 0) structure transforms into more stable fcc(110) structure with increasing the film thickness. Py(110){sub fcc} single-crystal films are obtained on MgO(110) substrates, whereas Py films epitaxially grow on MgO(111) substrates with two types of fcc(111) variants whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of these fcc-Py films agree within {+-}0.4% with the values of bulk fcc-Py crystal, suggesting that the strains in the films are very small. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that periodical misfit dislocations are preferentially introduced in the films around the Py/MgO(100) and the Py/MgO(110) interfaces to reduce the lattice mismatches. The magnetic properties are considered to be reflecting the magnetocrystalline anisotropies of bulk fcc-Py and/or metastable hcp-Py crystals and the shape anisotropy caused by the surface undulations.

  1. On crystallization of bisphenol-A polycarbonate thin films upon annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chunhong; Li, Qichao; Mao, Wenfeng; Wang, Peng; He, Chunqing

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization of polycarbonate (PC) films as a function of annealing time has been investigated by various methods. A distinct diffraction peak at 17.56°, a sharp decrease of film thickness, an increase of refractive index and branch-type structures on the surface are found merely for the film after crystallization. Interestingly, positron annihilation parameters demonstrate fractional free-volumes in PC films vary significantly not only before crystallization but also at the early stage of annealing, which are not found by other methods. The results show that free-volumes in PC film must be increased remarkably before crystallization, which enables the occurrence of molecule rearrangement. - Highlights: • Fractional free-volume in PC film decreased of early stage of annealing. • Crystallization of PC film on Si substrate occurred after annealed for ∼48 hours. • Fractional free-volume in PC film increased remarkably before crystallization. • Positron diffusion length and S parameter revealed the variation of free volumes

  2. Flash-lamp-crystallized polycrystalline silicon films with high hydrogen concentration formed from Cat-CVD a-Si films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohdaira, Keisuke; Tomura, Naohito; Ishii, Shohei; Matsumura, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    We investigate residual forms of hydrogen (H) atoms such as bonding configuration in poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si) films formed by the flash-lamp-induced crystallization of catalytic chemical vapor deposited (Cat-CVD) a-Si films. Raman spectroscopy reveals that at least part of H atoms in flash-lamp-crystallized (FLC) poly-Si films form Si-H 2 bonds as well as Si-H bonds with Si atoms even using Si-H-rich Cat-CVD a-Si films, which indicates the rearrangement of H atoms during crystallization. The peak desorption temperature during thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is as high as 900 o C, similar to the reported value for bulk poly-Si.

  3. Pulsed laser deposition of semiconductor-ITO composite films on electric-field-applied substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narazaki, Aiko; Sato, Tadatake; Kawaguchi, Yoshizo; Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koshizaki, Naoto

    2002-01-01

    The DC electric-field effect on the crystallinity of II-VI semiconductor in composite systems has been investigated for CdS-ITO films fabricated via alternative pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of CdS and indium tin oxide (ITO) on electric-field-applied substrates. The alternative laser ablation was performed under irradiation of ArF excimer laser in mixture gas of helium and oxygen. The application of electric-field facilitated the preferential crystal-growth of CdS in nanometer scale at low pressure, whereas all the films grown without the field were amorphous. There is a large difference in the crystallization between the films grown on field-applied and heated substrates; the latter showed the crystal-growth with random orientations. This difference indicates that the existence of electric-field has an influence on the transformation from amorphous to crystalline phase of CdS. The driving force for the field-induced crystallization is also discussed in the light of the Joule heat

  4. Thin composite films consisting of polypyrrole and polyparaphenylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovtsov, I.; Bereznev, S.; Traksmaa, R.; Opik, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the combined method for the formation of thin composite films, consisting of polypyrrole (PPy) as a film forming agent and polyparaphenylene (PPP) with controlled electrical properties and high stability, enables one to avoid the low processability of PPP and to extend the possibilities for the development of electronic devices. The high temperature (250-600 deg. C) doping method was used for PPP preparation. The crystallinity and grindability of PPP was found to be increasing with the thermochemical modification. Thin composite films were prepared onto the light transparent substrates using the simple electropolymerization technique. The properties of films were characterized by the optical transmittance and temperature-dependent conductivity measurements. The morphology and thickness of the prepared films were determined using the scanning electron microscopy. The composite films showed a better adhesion to an inorganic substrate. It was found to be connected mostly with the improved properties of the high temperature doped PPP. The current-voltage characteristics of indium tin oxide/film/Au hybrid organic-inorganic structures showed the influence of the doping conditions of PPP inclusions in the obtained films

  5. Additive to regulate the perovskite crystal film growth in planar heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Xin; Sun, Po; Chen, Zhi-Kuan; Wang, Weiwei; Ma, Wanli

    2015-01-01

    We reported a planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell fabricated from MAPbI 3−x Cl x perovskite precursor solution containing 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) additive. The MAPbI 3−x Cl x perovskite films have been characterized by UV-vis, SEM, XRD, and steady-state photoluminescence (PL). UV-vis absorption spectra measurement shows that the absorbance of the film with CN additive is significantly higher than the pristine film and the absorption peak is red shift by 30 nm, indicating the perovskite film with additive possessing better crystal structures. In-situ XRD study of the perovskite films with additive demonstrated intense diffraction peaks from MAPbI 3−x Cl x perovskite crystal planes of (110), (220), and (330). SEM images of the films with additive indicated the films were more smooth and homogenous with fewer pin-holes and voids and better surface coverage than the pristine films. These results implied that the additive CN is beneficial to regulate the crystallization transformation kinetics of perovskite to form high quality crystal films. The steady-state PL measurement suggested that the films with additive contained less charge traps and defects. The planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells fabricated from perovskite precursor solution containing CN additive demonstrated 30% enhancement in performance compared to the devices with pristine films. The improvement in device efficiency is mainly attributed to the good crystal structures, more homogenous film morphology, and also fewer trap centers and defects in the films with the additive

  6. Crystal Structure of AgBi2I7 Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zewen; Meng, Weiwei; Mitzi, David B; Yan, Yanfa

    2016-10-06

    Synthesis of cubic-phase AgBi 2 I 7 iodobismuthate thin films and fabrication of air-stable Pb-free solar cells using the AgBi 2 I 7 absorber have recently been reported. On the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and nominal composition, it was suggested that the synthesized films have a cubic ThZr 2 H 7 crystal structure with AgBi 2 I 7 stoichiometry. Through careful examination of the proposed structure and computational evaluation of the phase stability and bandgap, we find that the reported "AgBi 2 I 7 " films cannot be forming with the ThZr 2 H 7 -type structure, but rather more likely adopt an Ag-deficient AgBiI 4 type. Both the experimental X-ray diffraction pattern and bandgap can be better explained by the AgBiI 4 structure. Additionally, the proposed AgBiI 4 structure, with octahedral bismuth coordination, removes unphysically short Bi-I bonding within the [BiI 8 ] hexahedra of the ThZr 2 I 7 model. Our results provide critical insights for assessing the photovoltaic properties of AgBi 2 I 7 iodobismuthate materials.

  7. Ferrite Nanoparticles, Films, Single Crystals, and Metamaterials: High Frequency Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, V.

    2006-01-01

    Ferrite materials have long played an important role in power conditioning, conversion, and generation across a wide spectrum of frequencies (up to ten decades). They remain the preferred magnetic materials, having suitably low losses, for most applications above 1 MHz, and are the only viable materials for nonreciprocal magnetic microwave and millimeter-wave devices (including tunable filters, isolators, phase shifters, and circulators). Recently, novel processing techniques have led to a resurgence of research interest in the design and processing of ferrite materials as nanoparticles, films, single crystals, and metamaterials. These latest developments have set the stage for their use in emerging technologies that include cancer remediation therapies such as magnetohyperthermia, magnetic targeted drug delivery, and magneto-rheological fluids, as well as enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. With reduced dimensionality of nanoparticles and films, and the inherent nonequilibrium nature of many processing schemes, changes in local chemistry and structure have profound effects on the functional properties and performance of ferrites. In this lecture, we will explore these effects upon the fundamental magnetic and electronic properties of ferrites. Density functional theory will be applied to predict the properties of these ferrites, with synchrotron radiation techniques used to elucidate the chemical and structural short-range order. This approach will be extended to study the atomic design of ferrites by alternating target laser-ablation deposition. Recently, this approach has been shown to produce ferrites that offer attractive properties not found in conventionally grown ferrites. We will explore the latest research developments involving ferrites as related to microwave and millimeter-wave applications and the attempt to integrate these materials with semiconductor materials platforms

  8. Crystallization characteristic and scaling behavior of germanium antimony thin films for phase change memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weihua; Zhao, Zihan; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang

    2018-04-19

    Amorphous Ge8Sb92 thin films with various thicknesses were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The crystallization kinetics and optical properties of the Ge8Sb92 thin films and related scaling effects were investigated by an in situ thermally induced method and an optical technique. With a decrease in film thickness, the crystallization temperature, crystallization activation energy and data retention ability increased significantly. The changed crystallization behavior may be ascribed to the smaller grain size and larger surface-to-volume ratio as the film thickness decreased. Regardless of whether the state was amorphous or crystalline, the film resistance increased remarkably as the film thickness decreased to 3 nm. The optical band gap calculated from the reflection spectra increases distinctly with a reduction in film thickness. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that the scaling of the Ge8Sb92 thin film can inhibit the crystallization process and reduce the grain size. The values of exponent indices that were obtained indicate that the crystallization mechanism experiences a series of changes with scaling of the film thickness. The crystallization time was estimated to determine the scaling effect on the phase change speed. The scaling effect on the electrical switching performance of a phase change memory cell was also determined. The current-voltage and resistance-voltage characteristics indicate that phase change memory cells based on a thinner Ge8Sb92 film will exhibit a higher threshold voltage, lower RESET operational voltage and greater pulse width, which implies higher thermal stability, lower power consumption and relatively lower switching velocity.

  9. Optical and structural properties of ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin films prepared by sol–gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Linhua; Su, Jing; Chen, Yulin; Zheng, Gaige; Pei, Shixin; Sun, Tingting; Wang, Junfeng; Lai, Min

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► ZnMgO thin film and ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin film have been prepared by sol–gel method. ► The intensity of ultraviolet emission of ZnMgO thin film is enhanced two times compared with that of pure ZnO thin film. ► Compared with ZnMgO thin film, ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin film shows better crystallization and optical properties. ► ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin films prepared by sol–gel method have potential applications in many optoelectronic devices. - Abstract: In this study, pure ZnO thin film, Mg-doped ZnO (ZnMgO) thin film, ZnO/ZnMgO and ZnMgO/ZnO composite thin films were prepared by sol–gel technique. The structural and optical properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometer, ellipsometer and photoluminescence spectra, respectively. The results showed that the incorporation of Mg increased the strain, broadened the optical bandgap, and improved the intensity of ultraviolet emission of ZnO thin film. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the ultraviolet emission peak was also increased due to Mg-doping at the same time. Compared with pure ZnO and ZnMgO thin films, the ZnO/ZnMgO thin film showed better crystalline quality and ultraviolet emission performance, smaller strains and higher transmittance in the visible range.

  10. Effects of quartz on crystallization behavior of mold fluxes and microstructural characteristics of flux film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Liu; Xiuli, Han; Mingduo, Li; Di, Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Mold fluxes are mainly prepared using cement clinker, quartz, wollastonite, borax, fluorite, soda ash and other mineral materials. Quartz, as one of the most common and essential materials, was chosen for this study to analyze itseffects on crystallization temperature, critical cooling rate, crystal incubation time, crystallization ratio and phases of flux film. We used the research methods of process mineralogy with the application of the single hot thermocouple technique, heat flux simulator, polarizing microscope, X-ray diffraction, etc. Results: By increasing the quartz content from 16 mass% to 24 mass%, the crystallization temperature, critical cooling rate and crystallization ratio of flux film decreased, and the crystal incubation time was extended. Meanwhile, the mineralogical structure of the flux film changed, with a large amount of wollastonite precipitation and a significant decrease in the cuspidine content until it reached zero. This showed a steady decline in the heat transfer control capacity of the flux film. The reason for the results above is that, by increasing the quartz content, the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron network structure promoted a rise in viscosity and restrained ion migration, inhibiting crystal nucleation and growth, leading to the weakening of the crystallization and a decline in the crystallization ratio.

  11. Solution Coating of Superior Large-Area Flexible Perovskite Thin Films with Controlled Crystal Packing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jianbo

    2017-05-08

    Solution coating of organohalide lead perovskites offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area flexible optoelectronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control of crystal packing. Herein, this study reports using solution shearing to confine crystal nucleation and growth in large-area printed MAPbI3 thin films. Near single-crystalline perovskite microarrays are demonstrated with a high degree of controlled macroscopic alignment and crystal orientation, which exhibit significant improvements in optical and optoelectronic properties comparing with their random counterparts, spherulitic, and nanograined films. In particular, photodetectors based on the confined films showing intense anisotropy in charge transport are fabricated, and the device exhibits significantly improved performance in all aspects by one more orders of magnitude relative to their random counterparts. It is anticipated that perovskite films with controlled crystal packing may find applications in high-performance, large-area printed optoelectronics, and solar cells.

  12. Solution Coating of Superior Large-Area Flexible Perovskite Thin Films with Controlled Crystal Packing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jianbo; Liu, Yucheng; Ren, Xiaodong; Yang, Zhou; Li, Ruipeng; Su, Hang; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Junzhuo; Xu, Hua; Hu, Jian-Yong; Amassian, Aram; Zhao, Kui; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2017-01-01

    Solution coating of organohalide lead perovskites offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area flexible optoelectronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control of crystal packing. Herein, this study reports using solution shearing to confine crystal nucleation and growth in large-area printed MAPbI3 thin films. Near single-crystalline perovskite microarrays are demonstrated with a high degree of controlled macroscopic alignment and crystal orientation, which exhibit significant improvements in optical and optoelectronic properties comparing with their random counterparts, spherulitic, and nanograined films. In particular, photodetectors based on the confined films showing intense anisotropy in charge transport are fabricated, and the device exhibits significantly improved performance in all aspects by one more orders of magnitude relative to their random counterparts. It is anticipated that perovskite films with controlled crystal packing may find applications in high-performance, large-area printed optoelectronics, and solar cells.

  13. Parylene-C microfibrous thin films as phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindam, Chandraprakash; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Awadelkarim, Osama O.

    2017-07-01

    Phononic bandgaps of Parylene-C microfibrous thin films ( μ\\text{FTF} s) were computationally determined by treating them as phononic crystals comprising identical microfibers arranged either on a square or a hexagonal lattice. The microfibers could be columnar, chevronic, or helical in shape, and the host medium could be either water or air. All bandgaps were observed to lie in the 0.01-162.9-MHz regime, for microfibers of realistically chosen dimensions. The upper limit of the frequency of bandgaps was the highest for the columnar μ\\text{FTF} and the lowest for the chiral μ\\text{FTF} . More bandgaps exist when the host medium is water than air. Complete bandgaps were observed for the columnar μ\\text{FTF} with microfibers arranged on a hexagonal lattice in air, the chevronic μ\\text{FTF} with microfibers arranged on a square lattice in water, and the chiral μ\\text{FTF} with microfibers arranged on a hexagonal lattice in either air or water. The softness of the Parylene-C μ\\text{FTF} s makes them mechanically tunable, and their bandgaps can be exploited in multiband ultrasonic filters.

  14. Effect of the Ultrasonic Substrate Vibration on Nucleation and Crystallization of PbI2 Crystals and Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zabihi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of defect-free and well-controlled solution-processed crystalline thin films is highly desirable for emerging technologies, such as perovskite solar cells. In this work, using PbI2 as a model solution with a vast variety of applications, we demonstrate that the excitation of a liquid thin film by imposed ultrasonic vibration on the film substrate significantly affects the nucleation and crystallization kinetics of PbI2 and the morphology of the resulting solid thin film. It is found that by applying ultrasonic vibration to PbI2 solution spun onto an ITO substrate with a moderate power and excitation duration (5 W and 1 min for the 40 kHz transducer used in this study, the nucleation rate increases and the crystals transform from 2D or planar to epitaxial 3D columnar structures, resulting in the suppression of crystallization dewetting. The effects of various induced physical phenomena as a result of the excitation by ultrasonic vibration are discussed, including microstreaming and micromixing, increased heat transfer and local temperature, a change in the thermodynamic state of the solution, and a decrease in the supersaturation point. It is shown that the ultrasonic-assisted solution deposition of the PbI2 thin films is controllable and reproducible, a process which is low-cost and in line with the large-scale fabrication of such solution-processed thin films.

  15. Organic Single-Crystal Semiconductor Films on a Millimeter Domain Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sooncheol; Kim, Jehan; Kim, Geunjin; Yu, Kilho; Jo, Yong-Ryun; Kim, Bong-Joong; Kim, Junghwan; Kang, Hongkyu; Park, Byoungwook; Lee, Kwanghee

    2015-11-18

    Nucleation and growth processes can be effectively controlled in organic semiconductor films through a new concept of template-mediated molecular crystal seeds during the phase transition; the effective control of these processes ensures millimeter-scale crystal domains, as well as the performance of the resulting organic films with intrinsic hole mobility of 18 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. [Spectroscopic study on film formation mechanism and structure of composite silanes-V-Zr passive film].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Chang-sheng; Shi, Lei; An, Cheng-qiang

    2015-02-01

    A composite silanes-V-Zr passive film was overlayed on hot-dip galvanized steel. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and radio frequency glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (rf-GD-OES) were used to characterize the molecular structure of the silanes-V-Zr passive film. The mechanism of film formation was discussed: The results show that the silane molecules are crosslinked as the main film former and inorganic inhibitor is even distributed in the film. The fitting peak of 100.7 eV in XPS single Si2p energy range spectra of the composite silanes-V-Zr passive film and the widening and strengthening of the Si--O infrared absorption peak at 1100 cm(-1) indicate that the silanes were adsorbed on the surface of zinc with chemical bond of Si--O--Zn, and the silane molecules were connected with each other by bond of Si--O--Si. Two characteristic absorption peaks of amide at 1650 and 1560 cm(-1) appear in the infrared spectroscopy of the composite silanes-V-Zr passive film, and a characteristic absorption peak of epoxy groups at 910 cm(-1) disappears in the infrared spectroscopy of the passive film. The results indicate that gamma-APT can be prepared through nucleophilic ring-opening of ethylene oxide in gamma-GPT molecule to form C--N covalent bonds. The rf-GD-OES results indicate that there is a oxygen enriched layer in 0.3 microm depth of the composite silanes-V-Zr passive film. Moreover, ZrF4, ZrO2 and some inorganic matter obtained by the reaction during the forming processof the composite silanes-V-Zr passive film are distributed evenly throughout the film. According to the film composition, the physical processes and chemical reactions during the film forming process were studied by using ATR-FTIR. Based on this, the film forming mechanism was proposed.

  17. Poly(malachite green) at nafion doped multi-walled carbon nanotube composite film for simple aliphatic alcohols sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasankar, Yogeswaran; Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2010-01-15

    Conductive composite film which contains nafion (NF) doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) along with the incorporation of poly(malachite green) (PMG) has been synthesized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE), gold and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes by potentiostatic methods. The presence of MWCNTs in the composite film (MWCNTs-NF-PMG) enhances surface coverage concentration (Gamma) of PMG to approximately 396%, and increases the electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) to approximately 305%. Similarly, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study reveals the enhancement in the deposition of PMG at MWCNTs-NF film. The surface morphology of the composite film deposited on ITO electrode has been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). These two techniques reveal that the PMG incorporated on MWCNTs-NF film. The MWCNTs-NF-PMG composite film also exhibits promising enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards the simple aliphatic alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and propanol. The electroanalytical responses of analytes at NF-PMG and MWCNTs-NF-PMG films were measured using both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). From electroanalytical studies, well defined voltammetric peaks have been obtained at MWCNTs-NF-PMG composite film for methanol, ethanol and propanol at Epa=609, 614 and 602mV respectively. The sensitivity of MWCNTs-NF-PMG composite film towards methanol, ethanol and propanol in CV technique are 0.59, 0.36 and 0.92microAmM(-1)cm(-2) respectively, which are higher than NF-PMG film. Further, the sensitivity values obtained using DPV are higher than the values obtained using CV technique.

  18. Action of colloidal silica films on different nano-composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdalla

    Full Text Available Nano-composite films have been the subject of extensive work to develop the energy-storage efficiency of electrostatic capacitors. Factors such as polymer purity, nano-particles size, and film morphology drastically affect the electrostatic efficiency of the dielectric material that form an insulating film between conductive electrodes of a capacitor. This in turn affects the energy storage performance of the capacitor. In the present work, we have studied the dielectric properties of 4 high pure amorphous polymer films: polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, polystyrene, polyimide and poly-4-vinylpyridine. Comparison between the dielectric properties of these polymers has revealed that the higher break down performance is a character of polyimide PI and PMMA. Also, our experimental data shows that adding colloidal silica to PMMA and PI leads to a net decrease in the dielectric properties compared to the pure polymer. Keywords: Dielectric break down, Polymers, Nano-composite, Colloidal silica

  19. Digital Compositing Dalam Film Animasi 3 Dimensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cito Yasuki Yasuki Rahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animation is a technique mostly used in the film world. Nowadays it is growing intechnical animation creation. Animation has evolved from 2D animation to the nextstage in the new form, more realistic and interesting, that is the 3D animation. With thedevelopment of existing technology, the 3D animation is more amazing for the audience,especially 3D animation combined with real action (live action. With the digitalcompositing, the result of a combination of 3D and real action to make the film seemmore alive, because the animation is really close to the original in real life.

  20. Effect of starting point formation on the crystallization of amorphous silicon films by flash lamp annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daiki; Ohdaira, Keisuke

    2018-04-01

    We succeed in the crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films by flash lamp annealing (FLA) at a low fluence by intentionally creating starting points for the trigger of explosive crystallization (EC). We confirm that a partly thick a-Si part can induce the crystallization of a-Si films. A periodic wavy structure is observed on the surface of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) on and near the thick parts, which is a clear indication of the emergence of EC. Creating partly thick a-Si parts can thus be effective for the control of the starting point of crystallization by FLA and can realize the crystallization of a-Si with high reproducibility. We also compare the effects of creating thick parts at the center and along the edge of the substrates, and a thick part along the edge of the substrates leads to the initiation of crystallization at a lower fluence.

  1. The structure and composition of lithium fluoride films grown by off-axis pulsed laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, S.J.; Ashfold, M.N.R.; Pearce, S.R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Alkali halide coatings have been reported to act as effective dipole layers to lower the surface work function and induce a negative electron affinity of diamond surfaces. Here, the results of the analysis of films grown on silicon and quartz substrates by 193 nm pulsed laser ablation from a commercially available sintered disk of LiF are reported. The morphology, composition and crystallinity of films grown are examined and suitable deposition parameters for optimising the growth are suggested. The ablation was shown to be very efficient at removing a large amount of material from the target, even at relatively low fluence. The morphology of the films produced was poor, however, with a high density of asperities categorised as either particulates produced by exfoliation, or as droplets produced by hydrodynamic sputtering. An improved morphology with smaller droplets and fewer particulates could be produced by mounting the substrate at an angle of 65 deg. to the axis of the ablation plume and using a fluence close to the measured ablation threshold of 1.2±0.1 J/cm 2 . The elemental composition of the films was shown to be indistinguishable from that of bulk LiF, despite evidence for significant recondensation of Li back onto the target. Films containing crystal grains oriented with the direction normal to the substrate surface were observed at substrate temperatures in excess of 300 deg. C. An improved extent of orientation was observed on the quartz substrates

  2. Single-Crystal Mesoporous ZnO Thin Films Composed of Nanowalls

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xudong; Ding, Yong; Li, Zhou; Song, Jinhui; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a controlled, large scale fabrication of mesoporous ZnO thin films. The entire ZnO mesoporous film is one piece of a single crystal, while high porosity made of nanowalls is present. The growth mechanism was proposed

  3. Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Films with Embedded Nano crystals for Thermal Detectors with Very High Sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja, C.; Torres, A.; Rosales-Quintero, P.; Moreno, M.

    2016-01-01

    We have optimized the deposition conditions of amorphous silicon-germanium films with embedded nano crystals in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) reactor, working at a standard frequency of 13.56 MHz. The objective was to produce films with very large Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR), which is a signature of the sensitivity in thermal detectors (micro bolometers). Morphological, electrical, and optical characterization were performed in the films, and we found optimal conditions for obtaining films with very high values of thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR = 7.9%K -1 ). Our results show that amorphous silicon-germanium films with embedded nano crystals can be used as thermo sensitive films in high performance infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) used in commercial thermal cameras.

  4. Crystal orientation dependent thermoelectric properties of highly oriented aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2013-02-06

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of highly oriented Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be improved by controlling their crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of the AZO films was changed by changing the temperature of the laser deposition process on LaAlO3 (100) substrates. The change in surface termination of the LaAlO3 substrate with temperature induces a change in AZO film orientation. The anisotropic nature of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the AZO films showed a favored thermoelectric performance in c-axis oriented films. These films gave the highest power factor of 0.26 W m−1 K−1 at 740 K.

  5. Nanotube liquid crystal elastomers: photomechanical response and flexible energy conversion of layered polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xiaoming; King, Benjamin C; Loomis, James; Panchapakesan, Balaji; Campo, Eva M; Hegseth, John; Cohn, Robert W; Terentjev, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Elastomeric composites based on nanotube liquid crystals (LCs) that preserve the internal orientation of nanotubes could lead to anisotropic physical properties and flexible energy conversion. Using a simple vacuum filtration technique of fabricating nanotube LC films and utilizing a transfer process to poly (dimethyl) siloxane wherein the LC arrangement is preserved, here we demonstrate unique and reversible photomechanical response of this layered composite to excitation by near infra-red (NIR) light at ultra-low nanotube mass fractions. On excitation by NIR photons, with application of small or large pre-strains, significant expansion or contraction of the sample occurs, respectively, that is continuously reversible and three orders of magnitude larger than in pristine polymer. Schlieren textures were noted in these LC composites confirming long range macroscopic nematic order of nanotubes within the composites. Order parameters of LC films ranged from S optical  = 0.51–0.58 from dichroic measurements. Film concentrations, elastic modulus and photomechanical stress were all seen to be related to the nematic order parameter. For the same nanotube concentration, the photomechanical stress was almost three times larger for the self-assembled LC nanotube actuator compared to actuator based on randomly oriented carbon nanotubes. Investigation into the kinetics of photomechanical actuation showed variation in stretching exponent β with pre-strains, concentration and orientation of nanotubes. Maximum photomechanical stress of ∼0.5 MPa W −1 and energy conversion of ∼0.0045% was achieved for these layered composites. The combination of properties, namely, optical anisotropy, reversible mechanical response to NIR excitation and flexible energy conversion all in one system accompanied with low cost makes nanotube LC elastomers important for soft photochromic actuation, energy conversion and photo-origami applications. (paper)

  6. PMN-PT-PZT composite films for high frequency ultrasonic transducer applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Benjauthrit, Vatcharee; Zheng, Fan; Chen, Rumin; Huang, Yuhong; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2012-06-01

    We have successfully fabricated x (0.65PMN-0.35PT)-(1 - x )PZT ( x PMN-PT-(1 - x )PZT), where x is 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9, thick films with a thickness of approximately 9 µm on platinized silicon substrate by employing a composite sol-gel technique. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy revealed that these films are dense and creak-free with well-crystallized perovskite phase in the whole composition range. The dielectric constant can be controllably adjusted by using different compositions. Higher PZT content of x PMN-PT-(1 - x )PZT films show better ferroelectric properties. A representative 0.9PMN-PT-0.1PZT thick film transducer is built. It has 200 MHz center frequency with a -6 dB bandwidth of 38% (76 MHz). The measured two-way insertion loss is 65 dB.

  7. PMN-PT–PZT composite films for high frequency ultrasonic transducer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Benjauthrit, Vatcharee; Zheng, Fan; Chen, Rumin; Huang, Yuhong; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully fabricated x(0.65PMN-0.35PT)–(1 − x)PZT (xPMN-PT–(1 − x)PZT), where x is 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9, thick films with a thickness of approximately 9 µm on platinized silicon substrate by employing a composite sol–gel technique. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy revealed that these films are dense and creak-free with well-crystallized perovskite phase in the whole composition range. The dielectric constant can be controllably adjusted by using different compositions. Higher PZT content of xPMN-PT–(1 − x)PZT films show better ferroelectric properties. A representative 0.9PMN-PT–0.1PZT thick film transducer is built. It has 200 MHz center frequency with a −6 dB bandwidth of 38% (76 MHz). The measured two-way insertion loss is 65 dB. PMID:23750072

  8. Stress and stability of sputter deposited A-15 and bcc crystal structure tungsten thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, M.J.; Stutz, C.E.

    1997-07-01

    Magnetron sputter deposition was used to fabricate body centered cubic (bcc) and A-15 crystal structure W thin films. Previous work demonstrated that the as-deposited crystal structure of the films was dependent on the deposition parameters and that the formation of a metastable A-15 structure was favored over the thermodynamically stable bcc phase when the films contained a few atomic percent oxygen. However, the A-15 phase was shown to irreversibly transform into the bcc phase between 500 C and 650 C and that a significant decrease in the resistivity of the metallic films was measured after the transformation. The current investigation of 150 nm thick, sputter deposited A-15 and bcc tungsten thin films on silicon wafers consisted of a series of experiments in which the stress, resistivity and crystal structure of the films was measured as a function of temperatures cycles in a Flexus 2900 thin film stress measurement system. The as-deposited film stress was found to be a function of the sputtering pressure and presputter time; under conditions in which the as-deposited stress of the film was {approximately}1.5 GPa compressive delamination of the W film from the substrate was observed. Data from the thermal studies indicated that bcc film stress was not affected by annealing but transformation of the A-15 structure resulted in a large tensile increase in the stress of the film, regardless of the as-deposited stress of the film. In several instances, complete transformation of the A-15 structure into the bcc phase resulted in {ge}1 GPa tensile increase in film stress.

  9. Stress and stability of sputter deposited A-15 and bcc crystal structure tungsten thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Keefe, M.J.; Stutz, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetron sputter deposition was used to fabricate body centered cubic (bcc) and A-15 crystal structure W thin films. Previous work demonstrated that the as-deposited crystal structure of the films was dependent on the deposition parameters and that the formation of a metastable A-15 structure was favored over the thermodynamically stable bcc phase when the films contained a few atomic percent oxygen. However, the A-15 phase was shown to irreversibly transform into the bcc phase between 500 C and 650 C and that a significant decrease in the resistivity of the metallic films was measured after the transformation. The current investigation of 150 nm thick, sputter deposited A-15 and bcc tungsten thin films on silicon wafers consisted of a series of experiments in which the stress, resistivity and crystal structure of the films was measured as a function of temperatures cycles in a Flexus 2900 thin film stress measurement system. The as-deposited film stress was found to be a function of the sputtering pressure and presputter time; under conditions in which the as-deposited stress of the film was approximately1.5 GPa compressive delamination of the W film from the substrate was observed. Data from the thermal studies indicated that bcc film stress was not affected by annealing but transformation of the A-15 structure resulted in a large tensile increase in the stress of the film, regardless of the as-deposited stress of the film. In several instances, complete transformation of the A-15 structure into the bcc phase resulted in ge1 GPa tensile increase in film stress

  10. Isotopically pure single crystal epitaxial diamond films and their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banholzer, W.F.; Anthony, T.R.; Williams, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the production of single crystal diamond consisting of isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13. In the present invention, isotopically pure single crystal diamond is grown on a single crystal substrate directly from isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13. One method for forming isotopically pure single crystal diamond comprises the steps of placing in a reaction chamber a single substrate heated to an elevated diamond forming temperature. Another method for forming isotopically pure single crystal diamond comprises diffusing isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13 through a metallic catalyst under high pressure to a region containing a single crystal substrate to form an isotopically pure single crystal diamond layer on said single crystal substrate

  11. Ferroelectricity and Piezoelectricity in Free-Standing Polycrystalline Films of Plastic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Jun; Yoneyama, Naho; Yokokura, Seiya; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Miura, Atsushi; Kitamura, Noboru; Inabe, Tamotsu

    2018-01-10

    Plastic crystals represent a unique compound class that is often encountered in molecules with globular structures. The highly symmetric cubic crystal structure of plastic crystals endows these materials with multiaxial ferroelectricity that allows a three-dimensional realignment of the polarization axes of the crystals, which cannot be achieved using conventional molecular ferroelectric crystals with low crystal symmetry. In this work, we focused our attention on malleability as another characteristic feature of plastic crystals. We have synthesized the new plastic/ferroelectric ionic crystals tetramethylammonium tetrachloroferrate(III) and tetramethylammonium bromotrichloroferrate(III), and discovered that free-standing translucent films can be easily prepared by pressing powdered samples of these compounds. The thus obtained polycrystalline films exhibit ferroelectric polarization switching and a relatively large piezoelectric response at room temperature. The ready availability of functional films demonstrates the practical utility of such plastic/ferroelectric crystals, and considering the vast variety of possible constituent cations and anions, a wide range of applications should be expected for these unique and attractive functional materials.

  12. Direct synthesis of highly textured Ge on flexible polyimide films by metal-induced crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, N.; Toko, K., E-mail: toko@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Suemasu, T. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Saitoh, N.; Yoshizawa, N. [Electron Microscope Facility, TIA, AIST, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8569 (Japan)

    2014-06-30

    The highly (111)-textured Ge thin film (50-nm thickness) is demonstrated on a flexible polyimide film via the low-temperature crystallization (325 °C) of amorphous Ge using Al as a catalyst. Covering the polyimide with insulators significantly improved the crystal quality of the resulting Ge layer. In particular, SiN covering led to 97% (111)-oriented Ge with grains 200 μm in size, two orders larger than the grain size of polycrystalline Ge directly formed on the polyimide film. This achievement will give a way to realize advanced electronic and optical devices simultaneously allowing for high performance, inexpensiveness, and flexibility.

  13. Fabrication of polypeptide-based piezoelectric composite polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, Dawnielle; West, James E.; Busch-Vishniac, Ilene J.; Yu, Seungju M.

    2008-01-01

    A new class of molecular composite piezoelectric material was produced by simultaneous poling and curing of a homogeneous solution comprising poly(γ-benzyl α,L-glutamate) and methylmethacrylate via corona discharge methods. This film exhibited high piezoelectricity (d 33 = 23 pC N -1 ), and its mechanical characteristics (modulus = 450 MPa) were similar to those of low molecular weight poly(methylmethacrylate). As it is produced via solution-based fabrication processes, the composite film is conducive to miniaturization for small sensors with integrated electronics, and could also potentially be used in piezoelectric coating applications

  14. Understanding Nickel Thin Film crystallization using X-Ray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microstructures of these Ni films were studied using X-ray diffractometry technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns depicted 100% and 42% relative intensity (RI) peaks identified for normal and helical deposited Ni films but none for the zigzag deposited Ni film. Higher degree of crystallinity of Ni was demonstrated ...

  15. The ion capturing effect of 5° SiOx alignment films in liquid crystal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Bos, Philip J.; Bhowmik, Achintya

    2010-09-01

    We show that SiOx, deposited at 5° to the interior surface of a liquid crystal cell allows for a surprisingly substantial reduction in the ion concentration of liquid crystal devices. We have investigated this effect and found that this type of film, due to its surface morphology, captures ions from the liquid crystal material. Ion adsorption on 5° SiOx film obeys the Langmuir isotherm. Experimental results shown allow estimation of the ion capturing capacity of these films to be more than an order of 10 000/μm2. These types of materials are useful for new types of very low power liquid crystal devices such as e-books.

  16. Dichroic dye-dependent studies in guest-host polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Praveen, E-mail: pmalik100@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar 144011, Punjab (India); Raina, K.K. [Liquid Crystal Group, Materials Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147004, Punjab (India)

    2010-01-01

    Guest-host polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (GHPDLC) films were prepared using a nematic liquid crystal, photo-curable polymer and dichroic dye (anthraquinone blue) by polymerization-induced phase separation (PIPS) technique. Non-ionic dichroic dye (1%, 2% and 4% wt./wt. ratio) was taken as guest in PDLC host. Polarizing microscopy shows that in the absence of electric field, liquid crystal (LC) droplets in polymer matrix mainly exhibit bipolar configuration, however, relatively at higher field, maltese-type crosses were observed. Our results show that approx1% dye-doped PDLC film shows better transmission and faster response times over pure polymer-dispersed nematic liquid crystal (PDNLC) and higher concentrated (2% and 4%) GHPDLC films.

  17. Dichroic dye-dependent studies in guest-host polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Praveen; Raina, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Guest-host polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (GHPDLC) films were prepared using a nematic liquid crystal, photo-curable polymer and dichroic dye (anthraquinone blue) by polymerization-induced phase separation (PIPS) technique. Non-ionic dichroic dye (1%, 2% and 4% wt./wt. ratio) was taken as guest in PDLC host. Polarizing microscopy shows that in the absence of electric field, liquid crystal (LC) droplets in polymer matrix mainly exhibit bipolar configuration, however, relatively at higher field, maltese-type crosses were observed. Our results show that ∼1% dye-doped PDLC film shows better transmission and faster response times over pure polymer-dispersed nematic liquid crystal (PDNLC) and higher concentrated (2% and 4%) GHPDLC films.

  18. Crystallization kinetics of GeTe phase-change thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinxing; Thelander, Erik; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Decker, Ulrich; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2015-07-01

    Pulsed laser deposition was employed to the growth of GeTe thin films on Silicon substrates. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the critical crystallization temperature lies between 220 and 240 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the crystallization kinetics of the as-deposited films, determining the activation energy to be 3.14 eV. Optical reflectivity and in situ resistance measurements exhibited a high reflectivity contrast of ~21% and 3-4 orders of magnitude drop in resistivity of the films upon crystallization. The results show that pulsed laser deposited GeTe films can be a promising candidate for phase-change applications.

  19. Crystallization kinetics of GeTe phase-change thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xinxing; Thelander, Erik; Gerlach, Jürgen W; Decker, Ulrich; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition was employed to the growth of GeTe thin films on Silicon substrates. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the critical crystallization temperature lies between 220 and 240 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the crystallization kinetics of the as-deposited films, determining the activation energy to be 3.14 eV. Optical reflectivity and in situ resistance measurements exhibited a high reflectivity contrast of ∼21% and 3–4 orders of magnitude drop in resistivity of the films upon crystallization. The results show that pulsed laser deposited GeTe films can be a promising candidate for phase-change applications. (paper)

  20. Novel Transrotational Solid State Order Discovered by TEM in Crystallizing Amorphous Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Vladimir

    Exotic thin crystals with unexpected transrotational microstructures have been discovered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for crystal growth in thin (10-100 nm) amorphous films of different chemical nature (oxides, chalcogenides, metals and alloys) prepared by various methods. Primarily we use our TEM bend contour technique. The unusual phenomenon can be traced in situ in TEM column: dislocation independent regular internal bending of crystal lattice planes in a growing crystal. Such transrotation (unit cell trans lation is complicated by small rotationrealized round an axis lying in the film plane) can result in strong regular lattice orientation gradients (up to 300 degrees per micrometer) of different geometries: cylindrical, ellipsoidal, toroidal, saddle, etc. Transrotation is increasing as the film gets thinner. Transrotational crystal resembles ideal single crystal enclosed in a curved space. Transrotational micro crystals have been eventually recognized by other authors in some vital thin film materials, i.e. PCMs for memory, silicides, SrTiO3. Atomic model and possible mechanisms of the phenomenon are discussed. New transrotational nanocrystalline model of amorphous state is also proposed Support of RF Ministry of Education and Science is acknowledged.

  1. Computational study of heat transport in compositionally disordered binary crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyver, John W.; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

    2006-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of compositionally disordered binary crystals with atoms interacting through Lennard-Jones potentials has been studied as a function of temperature. The two species in the crystal differ in mass, hard-core atomic diameter, well depth and relative concentration. The isobaric Monte Carlo was used to equilibrate the samples at near-zero pressure. The isoenergy molecular dynamics combined with the Green-Kubo approach was taken to calculate the heat current time-dependent autocorrelation function and determine the lattice thermal conductivity of the sample. The inverse temperature dependence of the lattice thermal conductivity was shown to fail at low temperatures when the atomic diameters of the two species differ. Instead, the thermal conductivity was nearly a constant across temperatures for species with different atomic diameters. Overall, it is shown that there is a dramatic decrease of the lattice thermal conductivity with increasing atomic radii ratio between species and a moderate decrease due to mass disorder

  2. Effect of film thickness on morphological evolution in dewetting and crystallization of polystyrene/poly(ε-caprolactone) blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; He, Zhoukun; Yang, Jinghui; Chen, Feng; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qin; Deng, Hua; Fu, Qiang

    2011-11-01

    In this Article, the morphological evolution in the blend thin film of polystyrene (PS)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) was investigated via mainly AFM. It was found that an enriched two-layer structure with PS at the upper layer and PCL at the bottom layer was formed during spinning coating. By changing the solution concentration, different kinds of crystal morphologies, such as finger-like, dendritic, and spherulitic-like, could be obtained at the bottom PCL layer. These different initial states led to the morphological evolution processes to be quite different from each other, so the phase separation, dewetting, and crystalline morphology of PS/PCL blend films as a function of time were studied. It was interesting to find that the morphological evolution of PS at the upper layer was largely dependent on the film thickness. For the ultrathin (15 nm) blend film, a liquid-solid/liquid-liquid dewetting-wetting process was observed, forming ribbons that rupture into discrete circular PS islands on voronoi finger-like PCL crystal. For the thick (30 nm) blend film, the liquid-liquid dewetting of the upper PS layer from the underlying adsorbed PCL layer was found, forming interconnected rim structures that rupture into discrete circular PS islands embedded in the single lamellar PCL dendritic crystal due to Rayleigh instability. For the thicker (60 nm) blend film, a two-step liquid-liquid dewetting process with regular holes decorated with dendritic PCL crystal at early annealing stage and small holes decorated with spherulite-like PCL crystal among the early dewetting holes at later annealing stage was observed. The mechanism of this unusual morphological evolution process was discussed on the basis of the entropy effect and annealing-induced phase separation.

  3. Cadmium-manganese oxide composite thin films: Synthesis, characterization and photoelectrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoor, M.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Faculty of Science, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Ebadi, M. [Solar Energy Research Institute, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Mazhar, M., E-mail: mazhar42pk@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Huang, N.M. [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Faculty of Science, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Mun, L.K.; Misran, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Basirun, W.J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Institute of Nanotechnology and Catalysis (NanoCat), University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2017-01-15

    Ceramic composite CdO–Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films have been deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) using a 1:1 mixture of cadmium complex, [Cd(dmae){sub 2}(OAc){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O (1) (where dmae = 2-dimethylaminoethanolato and OAc = acetato), and diacetatomanganese (II). The phase purity, stoichiometry and thickness of the films were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infra-red (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV–Vis spectroscopy and profilometer. The FEG-SEM analysis illustrated that the morphology of the fabricated films was influenced by the type of solvent. The optical direct band gap of the film fabricated from THF solution was 1.95 eV. From the current–voltage characteristics it is evident that the CdO–Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite semiconductor electrode exhibits n-type behaviour and the photocurrent density was found to be dependent on the deposition medium. The film deposited from THF solution displayed maximum photocurrent density of 4.80 mA cm{sup −2} at 0.65 V vs. Ag/AgCl/3 M KCl (∼1.23 V vs. RHE) in 0.5 M NaOH electrolyte. - Highlights: • Single crystal X-ray structure of [Cd(dmae){sub 2}(OAc){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O (1). • CdO-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite photoanode thin films. • Optical band gap of CdO-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} photoanode. • Photoelectrochemical and EIS studies.

  4. Nanocellulose-Zeolite Composite Films for Odor Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Neda; Mashayekhy Rad, Farshid; Mace, Amber; Ansari, Farhan; Akhtar, Farid; Nilsson, Ulrika; Berglund, Lars; Bergström, Lennart

    2015-07-08

    Free standing and strong odor-removing composite films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) with a high content of nanoporous zeolite adsorbents have been colloidally processed. Thermogravimetric desorption analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy combined with computational simulations showed that commercially available silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 have a high affinity and uptake of volatile odors like ethanethiol and propanethiol, also in the presence of water. The simulations showed that propanethiol has a higher affinity, up to 16%, to the two zeolites compared with ethanethiol. Highly flexible and strong free-standing zeolite-CNF films with an adsorbent loading of 89 w/w% have been produced by Ca-induced gelation and vacuum filtration. The CNF-network controls the strength of the composite films and 100 μm thick zeolite-CNF films with a CNF content of less than 10 vol % displayed a tensile strength approaching 10 MPa. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis showed that the CNF-zeolite films can eliminate the volatile thiol-based odors to concentrations below the detection ability of the human olfactory system. Odor removing zeolite-cellulose nanofibril films could enable improved transport and storage of fruits and vegetables rich in odors, for example, onion and the tasty but foul-smelling South-East Asian Durian fruit.

  5. Bioinspired Transparent Laminated Composite Film for Flexible Green Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daewon; Lim, Young-Woo; Im, Hyeon-Gyun; Jeong, Seonju; Ji, Sangyoon; Kim, Yong Ho; Choi, Gwang-Mun; Park, Jang-Ung; Lee, Jung-Yong; Jin, Jungho; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2017-07-19

    Herein, we report a new version of a bioinspired chitin nanofiber (ChNF) transparent laminated composite film (HCLaminate) made of siloxane hybrid materials (hybrimers) reinforced with ChNFs, which mimics the nanofiber-matrix structure of hierarchical biocomposites. Our HCLaminate is produced via vacuum bag compressing and subsequent UV-curing of the matrix resin-impregnated ChNF transparent paper (ChNF paper). It is worthwhile to note that this new type of ChNF-based transparent substrate film retains the strengths of the original ChNF paper and compensates for ChNF paper's drawbacks as a flexible transparent substrate. As a result, compared with high-performance synthetic plastic films, such as poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(ether sulfone), poly(ethylene naphthalate), and polyimide, our HCLaminate is characterized to exhibit extremely smooth surface topography, outstanding optical clarity, high elastic modulus, high dimensional stability, etc. To prove our HCLaminate as a substrate film, we use it to fabricate flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel. As far as we know, this work is the first to demonstrate flexible optoelectronics, such as flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel, actually fabricated on a composite film made of ChNF. Given its desirable macroscopic properties, we envision our HCLaminate being utilized as a transparent substrate film for flexible green optoelectronics.

  6. Investigating the crystal growth behavior of biodegradable polymer blend thin films using in situ atomic force microscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malwela, T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the crystal growth behavior of biodegradable polylactide (PLA)/poly[(butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) blend thin films using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Currently, polymer thin films have received increased research...

  7. Growth of n-alkane films on a single-crystal substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Z. U.; Ehrlich, S. N.; Matthies, B.

    2001-01-01

    The structure and growth mode of alkane films (n-C/sub n/H/sub 2n+2/; n=4, 6, 7) adsorbed on a Ag(111) surface have been investigated by synchrotron X-ray scattering. New models are proposed for the butane (n=4) and hexane (n=6) monolayer and butane bilayer structures. Specular reflectivity scans...... reveal that growth of all films is preempted between two and three layers by nucleation of bulk particles oriented with a single bulk crystal plane parallel to the film. In the case of butane, the bulk particles also have a fixed azimuthal relationship with the film resulting in complete epitaxy....

  8. Single-Crystal Mesoporous ZnO Thin Films Composed of Nanowalls

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xudong

    2009-02-05

    This paper presents a controlled, large scale fabrication of mesoporous ZnO thin films. The entire ZnO mesoporous film is one piece of a single crystal, while high porosity made of nanowalls is present. The growth mechanism was proposed in comparison with the growth of ZnO nanowires. The ZnO mesoporous film was successfully applied as a gas sensor. The fabrication and growth analysis of the mesoporous ZnO thin film gi ve general guidance for the controlled growth of nanostructures. It also pro vides a unique structure with a superhigh surface-to-volume ratio for surface-related applications. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. Pure crystal orientation and anisotropic charge transport in large-area hybrid perovskite films

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-11-10

    Controlling crystal orientations and macroscopic morphology is vital to develop the electronic properties of hybrid perovskites. Here we show that a large-area, orientationally pure crystalline (OPC) methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) hybrid perovskite film can be fabricated using a thermal-gradient-assisted directional crystallization method that relies on the sharp liquid-to-solid transition of MAPbI3 from ionic liquid solution. We find that the OPC films spontaneously form periodic microarrays that are distinguishable from general polycrystalline perovskite materials in terms of their crystal orientation, film morphology and electronic properties. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the film is strongly oriented in the (112) and (200) planes parallel to the substrate. This film is structurally confined by directional crystal growth, inducing intense anisotropy in charge transport. In addition, the low trap-state density (7.9 × 1013 cm−3) leads to strong amplified stimulated emission. This ability to control crystal orientation and morphology could be widely adopted in optoelectronic devices.

  10. mwnts composite film modified glassy carbon electrode

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: A poly p-aminosalicylic acid (Poly(p-ASA)) and multiwall carbon nanotubes. (MWCNTs) composite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was constructed by casting the MWNTs on the GC electrode surface followed by electropolymerization of the p-ASA on the MWCNTs/GCE. The electrochemical behaviours ...

  11. Structural, compositional and optical properties of spin coated MoO3 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishva; Shah, Dimple; Patel, K. D.; Zankat, Chetan

    2018-05-01

    The attraction towards the MoO3 thin film is due to its wide range of application base on its properties. Its application in the field of energy storage and conversion as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium ion battery, hole selective layer in solar cell and in pseudocapacitors makes it more attractive material. Taking in consideration, economical route and tailoring advantage of film formation we have used spin coating method for the synthesis of the film with Ammonium heptamolybdate (NH4)6Mo7O24 4H2O) and distilled water as the precursor and solvent respectively on the glass substrate. The method also provides the large area synthesis of the film which is beneficial for the commercial applications. The film was spin coated at 1600 rpm with 4 % weight per volume ratio. The film so formed was annealed at 300 °C for 3 hours. The structural investigation was done by the X-Ray diffraction technique which shows the thin film of polycrystalline type. The average crystallize size is about 50 nm. The composition of the film was studied with the help of EDAX. The optical properties were studied by the photoluminescence and UV Spectroscopy. The results from both the characterization are well matched with each other. Photoluminescence studies show band to band emission observed at 416 nm shown in the fig. 5. From UV spectroscopy, using transmission and absorption spectra we observed the band gap edge around 3 eV. This is in accordance with the photoluminescence result.

  12. Thin film polarizer and color filter based on photo-polymerizable nematic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadimasoudi, Mohammad; Neyts, Kristiaan; Beeckman, Jeroen

    2015-03-01

    We present a method to fabricate a thin film color filter based on a mixture of photo-polymerizable liquid crystal and chiral dopant. A chiral nematic liquid crystal layer reflects light for a certain wavelength interval Δλ (= Δn.P) with the period and Δn the birefringence of the liquid crystal. The reflection band is determined by the chiral dopant concentration. The bandwidth is limited to 80nm and the reflectance is at most 50% for unpolarized incident light. The thin color filter is interesting for innovative applications like polarizer-free reflective displays, polarization-independent devices, stealth technologies, or smart switchable reflective windows to control solar light and heat. The reflected light has strong color saturation without absorption because of the sharp band edges. A thin film polarizer is developed by using a mixture of photo-polymerizable liquid crystal and color-neutral dye. The fabricated thin film absorbs light that is polarized parallel to the c axis of the LC. The obtained polarization ratio is 80% for a film of only 12 μm. The thin film polarizer and the color filter feature excellent film characteristics without domains and can be detached from the substrate which is useful for e.g. flexible substrates.

  13. The fabrication and visible-near-infrared optical modulation of vanadium dioxide/silicon dioxide composite photonic crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiran; Li, Peng; Song, Xiaolong; Zhou, Liwei

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrated a visible and near-infrared light tunable photonic nanostructure, which is composed of vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin film and silicon dioxide (SiO2) ordered nanosphere arrays. The vanadium films were sputtered on two-dimensional (2D) SiO2 sphere arrays. VO2 thin films were prepared by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) method with different oxygen flow rates. The close-packed VO2 shell formed a continuous surface, the composition of VO2 films in the structure changed when the oxygen flow rates increased. The 2D VO2/SiO2 composite photonic crystal structure exhibited transmittance trough tunability and near-infrared (NIR) transmittance modulation. When the oxygen flow rate increased from 3 slpm to 4 slpm, the largest transmittance trough can be regulated from 904 to 929 nm at low temperature, the transmittance troughs also appear blue shift when the VO2 phase changes from insulator to metal. The composite nanostructure based on VO2 films showed visible transmittance tunability, which would provide insights into the glass color changing in smart windows.

  14. The fabrication and visible-near-infrared optical modulation of vanadium dioxide/silicon dioxide composite photonic crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jiran; Li, Peng; Song, Xiaolong; Zhou, Liwei [Tianjin University, School of Microelectronics, Tianjin (China)

    2017-12-15

    We demonstrated a visible and near-infrared light tunable photonic nanostructure, which is composed of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) thin film and silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) ordered nanosphere arrays. The vanadium films were sputtered on two-dimensional (2D) SiO{sub 2} sphere arrays. VO{sub 2} thin films were prepared by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) method with different oxygen flow rates. The close-packed VO{sub 2} shell formed a continuous surface, the composition of VO{sub 2} films in the structure changed when the oxygen flow rates increased. The 2D VO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} composite photonic crystal structure exhibited transmittance trough tunability and near-infrared (NIR) transmittance modulation. When the oxygen flow rate increased from 3 slpm to 4 slpm, the largest transmittance trough can be regulated from 904 to 929 nm at low temperature, the transmittance troughs also appear blue shift when the VO{sub 2} phase changes from insulator to metal. The composite nanostructure based on VO{sub 2} films showed visible transmittance tunability, which would provide insights into the glass color changing in smart windows. (orig.)

  15. In situ crystallized zirconium phenylphosphonate films with crystals vertically to the substrate and their hydrophobic, dielectric, and anticorrosion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhaohui; Zhang, Fazhi; Wang, Lei; Xu, Sailong; Guo, Xiaoxiao

    2010-01-05

    The in situ crystallization technique has been utilized to fabricate zirconium phenylphosphonate (ZrPP) films with their hexagonal crystallite perpendicular to the copper substrate. The micro/nano roughness surface structure, as well as the intrinsic hydrophobic characteristic of the surface functional groups, affords ZrPP films excellent hydrophobicity with water contact angle (CA) ranging from 134 degrees to 151 degrees , without any low-surface-energy modification. Particularly, in the corrosive solutions such as acidic or basic solutions over a wide pH from 2 to 12, no obvious fluctuation in CA was observed for all the ZrPP film. The k values of the hydrophobic ZrPP films are in the low-k range (k feature is proposed to bear ZrPP film a more stable low-k value in an ambient atmosphere. Besides, the polarization current of ZrPP films is reduced by 2 orders of magnitude, compared to that of the untreated copper substrate. Even deposited in a vacuum oven for 30 days at room temperature, ZrPP films also show excellent corrosion resistance, indicating a stable anticorrosion property.

  16. Influence of secondary phases during annealing on re-crystallization of CuInSe{sub 2} electrodeposited films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobeaut, A. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et Chimie des Solides, 33 rue St Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Laffont, L., E-mail: lydia.laffont@u-picardie.f [Laboratoire de Reactivite et Chimie des Solides, 33 rue St Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Tarascon, J.-M. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et Chimie des Solides, 33 rue St Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Parissi, L.; Kerrec, O. [Institut de Recherche et de Developpement de l' Energie Photovoltaique, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou cedex (France)

    2009-06-01

    Electrodeposited CuInSe{sub 2} thin films are of potential importance, as light absorber material, in the next generation of photovoltaic cells as long as we can optimize their annealing process to obtain dense and highly crystalline films. The intent of this study was to gain a basic understanding of the key experimental parameters governing the structural-textural-composition evolution of thin films as function of the annealing temperature via X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscopy and thermal analysis measurements. The crystallization of the electrodeposited CuInSe{sub 2} films, with the presence of Se and orthorhombic Cu{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}Se (o-Cu{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}Se) phases, occurs over two distinct temperature ranges, between 220 {sup o}C and 250 {sup o}C and beyond 520 {sup o}C. Such domains of temperature are consistent with the melting of elemental Se and the binary CuSe phase, respectively. The CuSe phase forming during annealing results from the reaction between the two secondary species o-Cu{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}Se and Se (o-Cu{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}Se + Se {yields} 2 CuSe) but can be decomposed into the cubic {beta}-Cu{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}Se phase by slowing down the heating rate. Formation of liquid CuSe beyond 520{sup o}C seems to govern both the grain size of the films and the porosity of the substrate-CuInSe{sub 2} film interface. A simple model explaining the competitive interplay between the film crystallinity and the interface porosity is proposed, aiming at an improved protocol based on temperature range, which will enable to enhance the film crystalline nature while limiting the interface porosity.

  17. Fabrication of high-quality single-crystal Cu thin films using radio-frequency sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghun; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Tae-Woo; Kim, Won-Kyung; Kim, Bum-Su; Park, Ji Hun; Bae, Jong-Seong; Cho, Yong Chan; Kim, Jungdae; Oh, Min-Wook; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jeong, Se-Young

    2014-08-29

    Copper (Cu) thin films have been widely used as electrodes and interconnection wires in integrated electronic circuits, and more recently as substrates for the synthesis of graphene. However, the ultra-high vacuum processes required for high-quality Cu film fabrication, such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), restricts mass production with low cost. In this work, we demonstrated high-quality Cu thin films using a single-crystal Cu target and radio-frequency (RF) sputtering technique; the resulting film quality was comparable to that produced using MBE, even under unfavorable conditions for pure Cu film growth. The Cu thin film was epitaxially grown on an Al2O3 (sapphire) (0001) substrate, and had high crystalline orientation along the (111) direction. Despite the 10(-3) Pa vacuum conditions, the resulting thin film was oxygen free due to the high chemical stability of the sputtered specimen from a single-crystal target; moreover, the deposited film had >5× higher adhesion force than that produced using a polycrystalline target. This fabrication method enabled Cu films to be obtained using a simple, manufacturing-friendly process on a large-area substrate, making our findings relevant for industrial applications.

  18. Crystallization of Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6 Thin Films on LaNiO3 Electrodes by RF Magnetron Reactive Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Chao-An; Gan, Jon-Yiew

    2000-02-01

    Strontium barium niobium (Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6) (SBN) thin films are prepared on conductive-oxide LNO (LaNiO3) electrodes by the rf magnetron sputtering system. Instead of conventional furnace annealing, SBN thin films are crystallized by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) above 700°C for 5 min. The textured SBN films are crystallized with two orientations: one is the (001) or (310) direction, and the other is the (002) or (620) direction. Films compositions measured by the electron spectroscopy of chemical analysis (ESCA) quantitative analysis method show nearly the same stoichiometric ratio as the target. The depth profiles of SBN films and the target are examined by secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). The concentrations of the films are quite uniform. After being heat treated at 800°C for 5 min by RTA, La and Ni diffuse into the SBN film. The diffusion coefficient of La in SBN films is also calculated.

  19. Polarized Raman scattering study of PSN single crystals and epitaxial thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pokorný

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a detailed analysis of the dependence of Raman scattering intensity on the polarization of the incident and inelastically scattered light in PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 (PSN single crystals and epitaxially compressed thin films grown on (100-oriented MgO substrates. It is found that there are significant differences between the properties of the crystals and films, and that these differences can be attributed to the anticipated structural differences between these two forms of the same material. In particular, the scattering characteristics of the oxygen octahedra breathing mode near 810 cm-1 indicate a ferroelectric state for the crystals and a relaxor state for the films, which is consistent with the dielectric behaviors of these materials.

  20. Photoconductivity of reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Haifeng; Ren, Wen; Su, Junhong; Cai, Changlong

    2012-01-01

    A photoconductive device was fabricated by patterning magnetron sputtered Pt/Ti electrode and Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO)/Graphene Oxide (GO) composite films with a sensitive area of 10 × 20 mm 2 . The surface morphology of as-deposited GO films was observed by scanning electronic microscopy, optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The absorption properties and chemical structure of RGO/GO composite films were obtained using a spectrophotometer and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photoconductive properties of the system were characterized under white light irradiation with varied output power and biased voltage. The results show that the resistance decreased from 210 kΩ to 11.5 kΩ as the irradiation power increased from 0.0008 mW to 625 mW. The calculated responsiveness of white light reached 0.53 × 10 −3 A/W. Furthermore, the device presents a high photo-conductivity response and displays a photovoltaic response with an open circuit voltage from 0.017 V to 0.014 V with irradiation power. The sources of charge are attributed to efficient excitation dissociation at the interface of the RGO/GO composite film, coupled with cross-surface charge percolation.

  1. UV detectors based on epitaxial diamond films grown on single-crystal diamond substrates by vapor-phase synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharonov, G.V.; Petrov, S.A.; Bol'shakov, A.P.; Ral'chenko, V.G.; Kazyuchits, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for use of CVD-technology for epitaxial growth of single-crystal diamond films of instrumental quality in UHF plasma for the production of optoelectronic devices are discussed. A technology for processing diamond single crystals that provides a perfect surface crystal structure with roughness less than 0,5 nm was developed. It was demonstrated that selective UV detectors based on synthetic single-crystal diamond substrates coated with single-crystal films can be produced. A criterion for selecting clean and structurally perfect single crystals of synthetic diamond was developed for the epitaxial growth technology. (authors)

  2. Chitosan-based films composites for wound healing purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Natali de O.; Silva, Gabriela T. da; Schulz, Gracelie A.S.; Fajardo, Andre R.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan has been extensively applied in the developing of biomaterials due to its desirable good physico-chemical and biological properties. According to this, here films composite of chitosan, poly(vinyl alcohol) and bovine bone powder were prepared by casting willing to be applied in wound healing purposes. Moreover, the first step was the developing of a suitable method to obtain bovine bone powder, which was utilized here as filler. All the materials and films were fully characterized by FTIR, DRX and thermal analysis. Water uptake capacity was measured by swelling assays. (author)

  3. Influence of the additive Ag for crystallization of amorphous Ge-Sb-Te thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki-Ho; Kim, Sung-Won; Seo, Jae-Hee [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Kwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Yong, E-mail: hyleee@chonnam.ac.k [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Kwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    We have investigated the optical and amorphous-to-crystalline transition properties in four-types of chalcogenide thin films; Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11}, Ag-Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} and Ag-Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11}. Crystallization was caused by nano-pulse illumination ({lambda} = 658 nm) with power (P) of 1-17 mW and pulse duration (t) of 10-460 ns, and the morphologies of crystallized spots were observed by SEM and microscope. It was found that the crystallized spot nearby linearly increases in size with increasing the illuminating energy (E = P {center_dot} t) and eventually ablated out by over illumination. Changes in the optical transmittance of as-deposited and annealed films were measured using a UV-vis-IR spectrophotometer. In addition, a speed of amorphous-to-crystalline transition was evaluated by detecting the reflection response signals for the nano-pulse scanning. Conclusively, the Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11} film has a faster crystallization speed than the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film despite its higher crystallization temperature. The crystallization speed was largely improved by adding Ag in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film but not in Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11} film. To explain these results, we considered a heat confinement by electron hopping.

  4. Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xiaohong, E-mail: yxhong1981_2004@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Faculty of Clothing and Design, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350121, Fujian (China); Xu, Wenzheng, E-mail: xwz8199@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Huang, Fenglin, E-mail: windhuang325@163.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Dongsheng, E-mail: mjuchen@126.com [Faculty of Clothing and Design, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350121, Fujian (China); Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by magnetron sputtering technique. • Ag film was easily oxidized into Ag{sub 2}O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. • The zinc film coated on the surface of Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. • Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film can obtained structural color. • The anti-ultraviolet and antistatic properties of polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film all were good. - Abstract: Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by using direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering and radio frequency (RF) magnetron reaction sputtering techniques with pure silver (Ag) and zinc (Zn) targets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the deposited film on the fabric. It was found that the zinc film coated on Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. Anti-ultraviolet property and antistatic property of the coated samples using different magnetron sputtering methods were also investigated. The experimental results showed that Ag film was oxidized into in Ag{sub 2}O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. The deposition of Zn film on the surface of the fabric coated with Ag film before RF reactive sputtering, could successfully obtained Ag/ZnO composite film, and also generated structural color on the polyester fabric.

  5. Local optical spectroscopy of opaline photonic crystal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhia, T.; Baranchikov, A. E.; Gorelik, V. S.; Klimonsky, S. O.

    2017-09-01

    The homogeneity of opaline films obtained by vertical deposition of colloidal SiO2 microparticles has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and local optical spectroscopy. It was found that the particle size distribution is narrowed during the deposition, the microstructure of the films improves, and the reflection peak in the first photonic stop band increases and narrows. These changes may be due to the fact that large microparticles, whose mass significantly exceeds the average mass, leave the solution in the course of time, falling on the bottom of the vessel under gravity. It is established that the microstructure of opaline films is improved with a decrease in thickness.

  6. Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for High-Performance Films and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwen

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with extraordinary properties and thus many potential applications have been predicted to be the best reinforcements for the next-generation multifunctional composite materials. Difficulties exist in transferring the most use of the unprecedented properties of individual CNTs to macroscopic forms of CNT assemblies. Therefore, this thesis focuses on two main goals: 1) discussing the issues that influence the performance of bulk CNT products, and 2) fabricating high-performance dry CNT films and composite films with an understanding of the fundamental structure-property relationship in these materials. Dry CNT films were fabricated by a winding process using CNT arrays with heights of 230 mum, 300 im and 360 mum. The structures of the as-produced films, as well as their mechanical and electrical properties were examined in order to find out the effects of different CNT lengths. It was found that the shorter CNTs synthesized by shorter time in the CVD furnace exhibited less structural defects and amorphous carbon, resulting in more compact packing and better nanotube alignment when made into dry films, thus, having better mechanical and electrical performance. A novel microcombing approach was developed to mitigate the CNT waviness and alignment in the dry films, and ultrahigh mechanical properties and exceptional electrical performance were obtained. This method utilized a pair of sharp surgical blades with microsized features at the blade edges as micro-combs to, for the first time, disentangle and straighten the wavy CNTs in the dry-drawn CNT sheet at single-layer level. The as-combed CNT sheet exhibited high level of nanotube alignment and straightness, reduced structural defects, and enhanced nanotube packing density. The dry CNT films produced by microcombing had a very high Young's modulus of 172 GPa, excellent tensile strength of 3.2 GPa, and unprecedented electrical conductivity of 1.8x10 5 S/m, which were records for CNT films or

  7. Influence of Substrate on Crystal Orientation of Large-Grained Si Thin Films Formed by Metal-Induced Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Toko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Producing large-grained polycrystalline Si (poly-Si film on glass substrates coated with conducting layers is essential for fabricating Si thin-film solar cells with high efficiency and low cost. We investigated how the choice of conducting underlayer affected the poly-Si layer formed on it by low-temperature (500°C Al-induced crystallization (AIC. The crystal orientation of the resulting poly-Si layer strongly depended on the underlayer material: (100 was preferred for Al-doped-ZnO (AZO and indium-tin-oxide (ITO; (111 was preferred for TiN. This result suggests Si heterogeneously nucleated on the underlayer. The average grain size of the poly-Si layer reached nearly 20 µm for the AZO and ITO samples and no less than 60 µm for the TiN sample. Thus, properly electing the underlayer material is essential in AIC and allows large-grained Si films to be formed at low temperatures with a set crystal orientation. These highly oriented Si layers with large grains appear promising for use as seed layers for Si light-absorption layers as well as for advanced functional materials.

  8. Preparation and thermo-optical characteristics of a smart polymer-stabilized liquid crystal thin film based on smectic A–chiral nematic phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jian; Wang, Huihui; Cao, Hui; Ding, Hangjun; Yang, Zhou; Yang, Huai; Wang, Ling; Xie, Hui; Luo, Xueyao; Xiao, Jiumei

    2014-01-01

    A smart polymer stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) thin film with temperature-controllable light transmittance was prepared based on a smectic-A (SmA)–chiral nematic (N*) phase transition, and then the effect of the composition and the preparation condition of the PSLC film on its thermo-optical (T-O) characteristics has been investigated in detail. Within the temperature range of the SmA phase, the PSLC shows a strong opaque state due to the focal conic alignment of liquid crystal (LC) molecules, while the film exhibits a transparent state result from the parallel alignment of N* phase LC molecules at a higher temperature. Importantly, the PSLC films with different temperature of phase transition and contrast ratio can be prepared by changing the composition of photo-polymerizable monomer/LC/chiral dopant. According to the competition between the polymerization of the curable monomers and the diffusion of LC molecules, the ultraviolet (UV) curing surrounding temperature and the intensity of UV irradiation play a critical role in tuning the size of the polymer network meshes, which in turn influence the contrast ratio and the switching speed of the film. Our observations are expected to pave the way for preparing smart PSLC thin films for applications in areas of smart windows, thermo-detectors and other information recording devices. (paper)

  9. High performance thin-film composite forward osmosis membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Tiraferri, Alberto; Phillip, William A; Schiffman, Jessica D; Elimelech, Menachem

    2010-05-15

    Recent studies show that osmotically driven membrane processes may be a viable technology for desalination, water and wastewater treatment, and power generation. However, the absence of a membrane designed for such processes is a significant obstacle hindering further advancements of this technology. This work presents the development of a high performance thin-film composite membrane for forward osmosis applications. The membrane consists of a selective polyamide active layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer fabricated by phase separation onto a thin (40 mum) polyester nonwoven fabric. By careful selection of the polysulfone casting solution (i.e., polymer concentration and solvent composition) and tailoring the casting process, we produced a support layer with a mix of finger-like and sponge-like morphologies that give significantly enhanced membrane performance. The structure and performance of the new thin-film composite forward osmosis membrane are compared with those of commercial membranes. Using a 1.5 M NaCl draw solution and a pure water feed, the fabricated membranes produced water fluxes exceeding 18 L m(2-)h(-1), while consistently maintaining observed salt rejection greater than 97%. The high water flux of the fabricated thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes was directly related to the thickness, porosity, tortuosity, and pore structure of the polysulfone support layer. Furthermore, membrane performance did not degrade after prolonged exposure to an ammonium bicarbonate draw solution.

  10. High Performance Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Ngai Yin

    2010-05-15

    Recent studies show that osmotically driven membrane processes may be a viable technology for desalination, water and wastewater treatment, and power generation. However, the absence of a membrane designed for such processes is a significant obstacle hindering further advancements of this technology. This work presents the development of a high performance thin-film composite membrane for forward osmosis applications. The membrane consists of a selective polyamide active layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer fabricated by phase separation onto a thin (40 μm) polyester nonwoven fabric. By careful selection of the polysulfone casting solution (i.e., polymer concentration and solvent composition) and tailoring the casting process, we produced a support layer with a mix of finger-like and sponge-like morphologies that give significantly enhanced membrane performance. The structure and performance of the new thin-film composite forward osmosis membrane are compared with those of commercial membranes. Using a 1.5 M NaCl draw solution and a pure water feed, the fabricated membranes produced water fluxes exceeding 18 L m2-h-1, while consistently maintaining observed salt rejection greater than 97%. The high water flux of the fabricated thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes was directly related to the thickness, porosity, tortuosity, and pore structure of the polysulfone support layer. Furthermore, membrane performance did not degrade after prolonged exposure to an ammonium bicarbonate draw solution. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Realization of hydrodynamic experiments on quasi-2D liquid crystal films in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Noel A.; Eremin, Alexey; Glaser, Matthew A.; Hall, Nancy; Harth, Kirsten; Klopp, Christoph; Maclennan, Joseph E.; Park, Cheol S.; Stannarius, Ralf; Tin, Padetha; Thurmes, William N.; Trittel, Torsten

    2017-08-01

    Freely suspended films of smectic liquid crystals are unique examples of quasi two-dimensional fluids. Mechanically stable and with quantized thickness of the order of only a few molecular layers, smectic films are ideal systems for studying fundamental fluid physics, such as collective molecular ordering, defect and fluctuation phenomena, hydrodynamics, and nonequilibrium behavior in two dimensions (2D), including serving as models of complex biological membranes. Smectic films can be drawn across openings in planar supports resulting in thin, meniscus-bounded membranes, and can also be prepared as bubbles, either supported on an inflation tube or floating freely. The quantized layering renders smectic films uniquely useful in 2D fluid physics. The OASIS team has pursued a variety of ground-based and microgravity applications of thin liquid crystal films to fluid structure and hydrodynamic problems in 2D and quasi-2D systems. Parabolic flights and sounding rocket experiments were carried out in order to explore the shape evolution of free floating smectic bubbles, and to probe Marangoni effects in flat films. The dynamics of emulsions of smectic islands (thicker regions on thin background films) and of microdroplet inclusions in spherical films, as well as thermocapillary effects, were studied over extended periods within the OASIS (Observation and Analysis of Smectic Islands in Space) project on the International Space Station. We summarize the technical details of the OASIS hardware and give preliminary examples of key observations.

  12. The structure of ultrathin iron films on tungsten single-crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrathin iron films vapour deposited onto the surface of a cylindrical tungsten single crystal are discussed. Results from work function change, Auger electron spectroscopic and low energy electron diffraction techniques are combined for a comparison of the initial stages of film growth on four low index planes. Advantage is taken of the opportunity to evaporate onto and simultaneously to make measurements on all surface orientations of the zone. (Auth.)

  13. Enhanced transduction of photonic crystal dye lasers for gas sensing via swelling polymer film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron; Lind, Johan Ulrik; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner

    2011-01-01

    We present the enhanced transduction of a photonic crystal dye laser for gas sensing via deposition of an additional swelling polymer film. Device operation involves swelling of the polymer film during exposure to specific gases, leading to a change in total effective refractive index. Experimental...... in its application to other intracavity-based detection schemes to enable gas sensing. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  14. Crystallization of HWCVD amorphous silicon thin films at elevated temperatures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muller, TFG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available conditions where the hydrogen content would be minimal and the films would still exhibit good optical properties. Experimental data shows that by varying deposition conditions the transition to the nano/microcrystalline phase can be achieved. Transitional...

  15. Grain Boundaries Act as Solid Walls for Charge Carrier Diffusion in Large Crystal MAPI Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Richard; Schäfer, Frank; Hartmann, Nicolai F; Giesbrecht, Nadja; Bein, Thomas; Docampo, Pablo; Hartschuh, Achim

    2018-03-07

    Micro- and nanocrystalline methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI)-based thin-film solar cells today reach power conversion efficiencies of over 20%. We investigate the impact of grain boundaries on charge carrier transport in large crystal MAPI thin films using time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and numerical model calculations. Crystal sizes in the range of several tens of micrometers allow for the spatially and time resolved study of boundary effects. Whereas long-ranged diffusive charge carrier transport is observed within single crystals, no detectable diffusive transport occurs across grain boundaries. The observed PL transients are found to crucially depend on the microscopic geometry of the crystal and the point of observation. In particular, spatially restricted diffusion of charge carriers leads to slower PL decay near crystal edges as compared to the crystal center. In contrast to many reports in the literature, our experimental results show no quenching or additional loss channels due to grain boundaries for the studied material, which thus do not negatively affect the performance of the derived thin-film devices.

  16. Picosecond laser pulse-driven crystallization behavior of SiSb phase change memory thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huan; Li Simian; Zhai Fengxiao; Wang Yang; Lai Tianshu; Wu Yiqun; Gan Fuxi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We reported crystallization dynamics of a novel SiSb phase change material. → We measured optical constants of as-deposited and irradiated SiSb areas. → Optical properties of as-deposited and irradiated SiSb thin film were compared. → Crystallization of irradiated SiSb was confirmed by using AFM and micro-Raman spectra. → The heat conduction effect of lower metal layer of multi-layer films was studied. - Abstract: Transient phase change crystallization process of SiSb phase change thin films under the irradiation of picosecond (ps) laser pulse was studied using time-resolved reflectivity measurements. The ps laser pulse-crystallized domains were characterized by atomic force microscope, Raman spectra and ellipsometrical spectra measurements. A reflectivity contrast of about 15% can be achieved by ps laser pulse-induced crystallization. A minimum crystallization time of 11 ns was achieved by a low-fluence single ps laser pulse after pre-irradiation. SiSb was shown to be very promising for fast phase change memory applications.

  17. Effect of dc negative-bias and silicon introduction on performance of Si-B-N composite film by RF-PECD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Hua; Yu Xiang; Yu Junfeng; Wang Chengbiao

    2005-01-01

    Under action of different dc negative-bias voltages on samples incorporating with silicon, a series of Si-B-N composite films were synthesized on steel 1045 using RF-PECVD technique (radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition), and the surface analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and etc. were followed. The experimental results showed: Si-B-N composite films had an obvious mixture phase of c-BN and h-BN crystal at a certain dc negative bias, and the film's mechanical performances including micro-hardness and adhesion were improved. Moreover, bias effect on deposition performance of Si-B-N composite film has been systematically investigated, and silicon introduction was found to be necessary for the growth of Si-B-N film and the improvement of adhesion

  18. Crystal structure determination of solar cell materials: Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films using X-ray anomalous dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Hiroshi; Fukano, Tatsuo; Ohta, Shingo; Seno, Yoshiki; Katagiri, Hironori; Jimbo, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 thin films as a solar cell material were synthesized. ► The wavelength dependences of the diffraction intensity were measured. ► The crystal structures were clearly identified as kesterite structure for all samples. ► Crystal structure analysis revealed that the atomic compositions were Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.97 and Zn/Sn = 1.42 for the sample synthesized using stoichiometric amount of starting materials. - Abstract: The crystal structure of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin films fabricated by vapor-phase sulfurization was determined using X-ray anomalous dispersion. High statistic synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction data were collected from very small amounts of powder. By analyzing the wavelength dependencies of the diffraction peak intensities, the crystal structure was clearly identified as kesterite. Rietveld analysis revealed that the atomic composition deviated from stoichiometric composition, and the compositions were Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.97, and Zn/Sn = 1.42.

  19. The investigation of composite films containing GaAs and GaAs-Te- by roentgenodiffractometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyev, M.I.; Akhmedova, G.B.; Aliyeva, A.M.; Gadjiyeva, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    The initial films HDPE and composite films on the base of high-density polyethylene and semiconductor filters HDPE+GaAs and HDPE+GaAs-Te- at room temperature are investigated by the method of roentgenodiffractometric analysis. The crystallinity degree values of these samples are calculated. It is revealed that crystallinity degree value of composite films increases in 1.3 and 1.4 times correspondingly in the result of implantation of GaAs and GaAs-Te- micro-particles in polymer matrix. The obtained results are explained within framework of three-phase models and change of polymer permolecular structure at implantation of filler micro-particles playing the role of additional centers of nucleus of crystallization

  20. Epitaxial growth of bcc-FexCo100-x thin films on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Shikada, Kouhei; Kirino, Fumiyoshi; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    Fe x Co 100-x (x=100, 65, 50 at%) epitaxial thin films were prepared on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 deg. C by ultra-high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The film structure and the growth mechanism are discussed. FeCo(2 1 1) films with bcc structure grow epitaxially on MgO(1 1 0) substrates with two types of variants whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other for all compositions. Fe x Co 100-x film growth follows the Volmer Weber mode. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings are in agreement with the values of respective bulk Fe x Co 100-x crystals with very small errors less than ±0.4%, suggesting the strains in the films are very small. High-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows that periodical misfit dislocations are preferentially introduced in the film at the Fe 50 Co 50 /MgO interface along the MgO[1 1-bar 0] direction. The presence of such periodical dislocations decreases the large lattice mismatch of about -17% existing at the FeCo/MgO interface along the MgO[1 1-bar 0] direction.

  1. Epitaxial growth of bcc-Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} thin films on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru, E-mail: ohtake@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.j [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Shikada, Kouhei [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan); Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} (x=100, 65, 50 at%) epitaxial thin films were prepared on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 deg. C by ultra-high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The film structure and the growth mechanism are discussed. FeCo(2 1 1) films with bcc structure grow epitaxially on MgO(1 1 0) substrates with two types of variants whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other for all compositions. Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} film growth follows the Volmer Weber mode. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings are in agreement with the values of respective bulk Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} crystals with very small errors less than +-0.4%, suggesting the strains in the films are very small. High-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows that periodical misfit dislocations are preferentially introduced in the film at the Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50}/MgO interface along the MgO[1 1-bar 0] direction. The presence of such periodical dislocations decreases the large lattice mismatch of about -17% existing at the FeCo/MgO interface along the MgO[1 1-bar 0] direction.

  2. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.A.; Song, L.

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphous structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphous structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobial, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflammatory, steroid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor consisting of the compositions listed above

  3. Effect of medium range order on pulsed laser crystallization of amorphous germanium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T. T., E-mail: li48@llnl.gov; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Heo, T. W.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Campbell, G. H. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Santala, M. K. [Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, 204 Rogers Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2016-05-30

    Sputter deposited amorphous Ge thin films had their nanostructure altered by irradiation with high-energy Ar{sup +} ions. The change in the structure resulted in a reduction in medium range order (MRO) characterized using fluctuation electron microscopy. The pulsed laser crystallization kinetics of the as-deposited versus irradiated materials were investigated using the dynamic transmission electron microscope operated in the multi-frame movie mode. The propagation rate of the crystallization front for the irradiated material was lower; the changes were correlated to the MRO difference and formation of a thin liquid layer during crystallization.

  4. Effect of medium range order on pulsed laser crystallization of amorphous germanium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T. T.; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Heo, T. W.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Campbell, G. H.; Santala, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Sputter deposited amorphous Ge thin films had their nanostructure altered by irradiation with high-energy Ar"+ ions. The change in the structure resulted in a reduction in medium range order (MRO) characterized using fluctuation electron microscopy. The pulsed laser crystallization kinetics of the as-deposited versus irradiated materials were investigated using the dynamic transmission electron microscope operated in the multi-frame movie mode. The propagation rate of the crystallization front for the irradiated material was lower; the changes were correlated to the MRO difference and formation of a thin liquid layer during crystallization.

  5. Experiment-scale molecular simulation study of liquid crystal thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Dac; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Matheson, Michael A.; Brown, W. Michael

    2014-03-01

    Supercomputers have now reached a performance level adequate for studying thin films with molecular detail at the relevant scales. By exploiting the power of GPU accelerators on Titan, we have been able to perform simulations of characteristic liquid crystal films that provide remarkable qualitative agreement with experimental images. We have demonstrated that key features of spinodal instability can only be observed with sufficiently large system sizes, which were not accessible with previous simulation studies. Our study emphasizes the capability and significance of petascale simulations in providing molecular-level insights in thin film systems as well as other interfacial phenomena.

  6. Effect of the fluorinated groups on nematic liquid crystal alignment on monomer crosslinked film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tao; Peng Zenghui; Ruan Shengping; Xuan Li

    2004-01-01

    It was found in this work that photosensitive monomers, bisphenol A dicinnamate ester and hexafluorobiphenol a dicinnamate ester were crosslinked under irradiation of linearly polarized ultraviolet light. The exposed films induced homogeneous and homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals (LC), respectively. We verified through experiments that it was fluorinated groups that caused the generation of LC homeotropic alignment on the crosslinked film. Photoreaction process was revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectra. There was no clear morphological anisotropy on these aligned films observed through atomic force microscope analysis. The surface energies were measured and homeotropic alignment reason was discussed in this work

  7. Single-crystal films of a combination of materials (co-crystal) involving DAST and IR-125 for electro-optic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, A.; Titus, J.; Rajagopalan, H.; Vippa, P.; Thakur, M.

    2006-03-01

    Single-crystal film of DAST (4'-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate) has been shown [1] to have exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients (r11 ˜ 770 pm/V at 633 nm). In this report, single crystal film of a combination of materials (co-crystal) involving DAST and a dye molecule IR-125 will be discussed. Modified shear method was used to prepare the co-crystal films. The film has been characterized using polarized optical microscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The optical absorption spectrum has two major bands: one at about 350--600 nm corresponding to DAST and the other at about 600-900 nm corresponding to IR-125. The x-ray diffraction results show peaks involving the presence of DAST and IR-125 within the co-crystal film. Since the co-crystal has strong absorption at longer wavelengths it is expected to show higher electro-optic coefficients at longer wavelengths. Preliminary measurements at 1.55 μm indicate a high electro-optic coefficient of the co-crystal film. [1] Swamy, Kutty, Titus, Khatavkar, Thakur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2004, 85, 4025; Kutty, Thakur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2005, 87, 191111.

  8. Luminescence study of ZnSe/PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahariya, Vikas [Amity School of Applied Science, Amity University Haryana Panchgaon, Manesar, Haryana 122413 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The ZnSe nanocrystals have been prepared into poly vinyl alcohol(PVA) polymer matrix on glass using ZnCl2 and Na2SeSO3 as zinc and selenium source respectively. Poly vinyl Alcohol (PVA) used as polymer matrix cum capping agent due to their high viscosity and water solubility. It is transparent for visible region and prevents Se- ions to photo oxidation. The ZnSe/PVA composite film was deposited on glass substrate. The film was characterized by X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible absorption Spectroscopy and Photoluminescence. The X Ray Diffraction (XRD) study confirms the nanometer size (10 nm) particle formation within PVA matrix with cubic zinc blend crystal structure. The UV-Visible Absorption spectrum of ZnSe/PVA composite film shown blue shift in absorption edge indicating increased band gap due to quantum confinement. The calculated energy band gap from the absorption edge using Tauc relation is 3.4 eV. From the Photoluminescence study a broad peak at 435 nm has been observed in violet blue region due to recombination of surface states.

  9. Mechanism of Crystallization and Implications for Charge Transport in Poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene) Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Duc T.

    2014-04-09

    In this work, crystallization kinetics and aggregate growth of poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene) (P3EHT) thin films are studied as a function of film thickness. X-ray diffraction and optical absorption show that individual aggregates and crystallites grow anisotropically and mostly along only two packing directions: the alkyl stacking and the polymer chain backbone direction. Further, it is also determined that crystallization kinetics is limited by the reorganization of polymer chains and depends strongly on the film thickness and average molecular weight. Time-dependent, field-effect hole mobilities in thin films reveal a percolation threshold for both low and high molecular weight P3EHT. Structural analysis reveals that charge percolation requires bridged aggregates separated by a distance of ≈2-3 nm, which is on the order of the polymer persistence length. These results thus highlight the importance of tie molecules and inter-aggregate distance in supporting charge percolation in semiconducting polymer thin films. The study as a whole also demonstrates that P3EHT is an ideal model system for polythiophenes and should prove to be useful for future investigations into crystallization kinetics. Recrystallization kinetics and its relationship to charge transport in poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene) (P3EHT) thin films are investigated using a combination of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, and field-effect transistor measurements. These results show that thin film crystallization kinetics is limited by polymer chain reorganization and that charge percolation depends strongly on the edge-to-edge distance between aggregates. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Study of carbon nanotubes based Polydimethylsiloxane composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M I; Giorcelli, M; Shahzad, N; Guastella, S; Castellino, M; Jagdale, P; Tagliaferro, A

    2013-01-01

    Thanks to their remarkable characteristics, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have fields of applications which are growing every day. Among them, the use of CNTs as filler for polymers is one of the most promising. In this work we report on Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites with different weight percentages (0.0% to 3.0%) of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having diameter 10–30 nm and length 20–30 μm. To achieve optimum dispersion of CNTs in PDMS matrix, high speed mechanical stirring and ultrasonication were performed. By using the doctor blade technique, 70 μm thick uniform films were produced on glass. They were subsequently thermally cured and detached from the glass to get flexible and self standing films. The surface morphological study done by FESEM, shows that CNTs are well dispersed in the PDMS. Raman spectroscopy and FTIR were used to investigate the possible structural changes in the polymer composite. To examine the optical behavior UV-VIS spectroscopy was employed in both specular and diffused modes. A linear increase in absorption coefficient is found with the increasing percentage of CNTs while the transmittance decreases exponentially. The results confirm the dependence of optical limiting effect on the quantity of MWCNTs. Based on optical study, MWCNTs/PDMS composite films can be a promising material to extend performances of optical limiters against laser pulses, which is often required in lasing systems.

  11. Molecular interactions in gelatin/chitosan composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Congde; Ma, Xianguang; Zhang, Jianlong; Yao, Jinshui

    2017-11-15

    Gelatin and chitosan were mixed at different mass ratios in solution forms, and the rheological properties of these film-forming solutions, upon cooling, were studied. The results indicate that the significant interactions between gelatin and chitosan promote the formation of multiple complexes, reflected by an increase in the storage modulus of gelatin solution. Furthermore, these molecular interactions hinder the formation of gelatin networks, consequently decreasing the storage modulus of polymer gels. Both hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions are formed between gelatin and chitosan, as evidenced by the shift of the amide-II bands of polymers. X-ray patterns of composite films indicate that the contents of triple helices decrease with increasing chitosan content. Only one glass transition temperature (T g ) was observed in composite films with different composition ratios, and it decreases gradually with an increase in chitosan proportion, indicating that gelatin and chitosan have good miscibility and form a wide range of blends. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Zeta-potential of fouled thin film composite membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Hachisuka, H.; Nakamura, T. [Nitto denko Corp., Ibaraki, (Japan); Kimura, S. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Environ. Chemical Engineering; Ueyama, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-10-01

    The surface zeta-potential of a cross-linked polyamide thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane was measured using an electrophoresis method. It was confirmed that this method could be effectively applied to analyze the fouling of such membranes. It is known that the water flux of membranes drastically decreases as a result of fouling by surfactants. Although the surfactants adsorbed on reverse osmosis membranes could not be detected by conventional methods such as SEM, EDX and FT-IR, their presence could be clarified by the profile measurements of the surface zeta-potential. The profiles of the membrane surface zeta-potentials changed to more positive values in the measured pH range as a result of fouling by cationic or amphoteric surfactants. This measuring method of surface zeta-potentials allowed us to analyze a very small amount of fouling of a thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane. This method could be used to analyze the fouled surface of the thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane which is used for production of ultrapure water and shows a remarkable decrease in flux. It also became clear that this method is easy and effective for the reverse osmosis membrane surface analysis of adsorbed materials such as surfactants. (author)

  13. Measurement of positron reemission from thin single-crystal W(100) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.M.; Lynn, K.G.; Pareja, R.; Nielsen, B.

    1985-01-01

    Epitaxial thin single-crystal (100) tungsten films 1000, 2500, and 5000 A thick have been fabricated by high-vacuum electron-beam evaporation. These films were subsequently used as thin-film moderators for the study of the positron-transmission-reemission process with a variable-energy (0--80 keV) monoenergetic positron beam in an ultrahigh-vacuum system. The films were shown to be routinely cleanable by heating first in oxygen (10 -6 Torr) and then in vacuum (10 -9 Torr). Transmission and back reemission of slow positrons from these surfaces was observed. The positron work function, phi/sub +/ has been determined to be approx. =3.0 eV ( +- 0.3 eV). The transmission slow positrons were emitted in a narrow cone with a full width at half maximum of approx. =30 0 consistent with the angular distribution of back-reemission positrons. The reemitted yields as a function of incident positron energy were found to be very different between forward reemission and back reemission. The maximum forward-reemission yields were 18% for 1000-A-thick W film and 12% for 2500-A-thick W film at 5 and 10 keV optimum incident positron energies, respectively. These results show that one can use thin single-crystal tungsten films as positron moderators or remoderators

  14. Fabrication of polycrystalline silicon thin films on glass substrates using fiber laser crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dao, Vinh Ai; Han, Kuymin; Heo, Jongkyu; Kyeong, Dohyeon; Kim, Jaehong; Lee, Youngseok; Kim, Yongkuk; Jung, Sungwook; Kim, Kyunghae [Information and Communication Device Laboratory, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Junsin, E-mail: yi@yurim.skku.ac.k [Information and Communication Device Laboratory, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    Laser crystallization of amorphous silicon (a-Si), using a fiber laser of {lambda} = 1064 nm wavelength, was investigated. a-Si films with 50 nm thickness deposited on glass were prepared by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The infrared fundamental wave ({lambda} = 1064 nm) is not absorbed by amorphous silicon (a-Si) films. Thus, different types of capping layers (a-CeO{sub x}, a-SiN{sub x}, and a-SiO{sub x}) with a desired refractive index, n and thickness, d were deposited on the a-Si surface. Crystallization was a function of laser energy density, and was performed using a fiber laser. The structural properties of the crystallized films were measured via Raman spectra, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The relationship between film transmittance and crystallinity was discussed. As the laser energy density increased from 10-40 W, crystallinity increased from 0-90%. However, the higher laser density adversely affected surface roughness and uniformity of the grain size. We found that favorable crystallization and uniformity could be accomplished at the lower energy density of 30 W with a-SiO{sub x} as the capping layer.

  15. One step deposition of highly adhesive diamond films on cemented carbide substrates via diamond/β-SiC composite interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao; Zhuang, Hao; Jiang, Xin, E-mail: xin.jiang@uni-siegen.de

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel diamond/beta-silicon carbide composite gradient interlayers were synthesized. • The interlayer features a cross-sectional gradient with increasing diamond content. • Diamond top layers and the interlayers were deposited in one single process. • The adhesion of the diamond film is drastically improved by employing the interlayer. • The stress was suppressed by manipulating the distribution of diamond and silicon carbide. - Abstract: Deposition of adherent diamond films on cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide substrates has been realized by application of diamond/beta-silicon carbide composite interlayers. Diamond top layers and the interlayers were deposited in one single process by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. Two different kinds of interlayers have been employed, namely, gradient interlayer and interlayer with constant composition. The distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide phases was precisely controlled by manipulating the gas phase composition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the existence of diamond, beta-silicon carbide and cobalt silicides (Co{sub 2}Si, CoSi) phases, as well as the quality of diamond crystal and the residual stress in the films. Rockwell-C indentation tests were carried out to evaluate the film adhesion. It is revealed that the adhesion of the diamond film is drastically improved by employing the interlayer. This is mainly influenced by the residual stress in the diamond top layer, which is induced by the different thermal expansion coefficient of the film and the substrate. It is even possible to further suppress the stress by manipulating the distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide in the interlayer. The most adhesive diamond film on cemented carbide is thus obtained by employing a gradient composite interlayer.

  16. Fabrication of flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal films using conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang-Bae; Park, Sucheol; Hong, Jin-Who

    2009-01-01

    Conducting polymers exhibit good mechanical and interfacial compatibility with plastic substrates. We prepared an optimized coating formulation based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl acrylate and fabricated a transparent electrode on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate. The surface resistances and transmittance of the prepared thin films were 500-600 Ω/□ and 87% at 500 nm, respectively. To evaluate the performance of the conducting polymer electrode, we fabricated a five-layer flexible polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) device as a PET-PEDOT-PDLC-PEDOT-PET flexible film. The prepared PDLC device exhibited a low driving voltage (15 VAC), high contrast ratio (60:1), and high transmittance in the ON state (60%), characteristics that are comparable with those of conventional PDLC film based on indium tin oxide electrodes. The fabrication of conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes in this study showed that such films can be used as a substitute for an indium tin oxide electrode, which further enhances the flexibility of PDLC film

  17. Comparison of the luminescent properties of Lu3Al5O12:Pr crystals and films under synchrotron radiation excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Zorenko, T.; Voznyak, T.; Nizankovskiy, S.

    2016-01-01

    The work is dedicated to comparative investigation of the luminescent properties of Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 :Pr(LuAG:Pr) single crystals and single crystalline films using excitation by synchrotron radiation with an energy of 3.7–25 eV in the exciton range of LuAG host. We have found that the differences in the excitation spectra and luminescence decay kinetics of LuAG:Pr crystals and films are caused by involving the LuAl antisite defects and oxygen vacancies in the crystals and Pb 2+ flux related dopants in the films in the excitation processes of the Pr 3+ luminescence. Taking into account these differences, we have determined the energy structure of the Pr 3+ ions in LuAG host and estimated the differences in the energies of creation of excitons bound with the isolated Pr 3+ ions in LuAG:Pr films and the dipole Pr–LuAl antisite defect centers in the crystal counterpart. - Highlights: • Comparison of the luminescent properties of LuAG:Pr single crystals and films. • Superposition of the Pr 3+ and defect centers luminescence of LuAG:Pr crystal. • Different creation energies of an excitons bound with the Pr 3+ in LuAG:Pr crystals and films. • More faster decay kinetics of the Pr 3+ luminescence in LuAG:Pr films. • Low content of slow emission component in LuAG:Pr films.

  18. Growth Rate and Morphology of a Single Calcium Carbonate Crystal on Polysulfone Film Measured with Time Lapse Raman Micro Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liszka, B.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    The growth of single, self- nucleated calcium carbonate crystals on a polysulfone (PSU) film was investigated with high resolution, time lapse Raman imaging. The Raman images were acquired on the interface of the polymer with the crystal. The growth of crystals could thus be followed in time. PSU is

  19. 1D - photonic crystals prepared from the amorphous chalcogenide films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohoutek, T.; Orava, J.; Wágner, T.; Hrdlička, M.; Vlček, Milan; Frumar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2009), S346-S350 ISSN 0957-4522. [International Conference of Optical and Optoelectronic Materials and Applications. London, 29.07.2007-03.08.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : chalcogenide thin films Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.020, year: 2009

  20. Effects of flexible substrate thickness on Al-induced crystallization of amorphous Ge thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, Naoki [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Toko, Kaoru, E-mail: toko@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Saitoh, Noriyuki; Yoshizawa, Noriko [Electron Microscope Facility, TIA, AIST, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8569 (Japan); Suemasu, Takashi [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2015-05-29

    Amorphous germanium (a-Ge) thin films were directly crystallized on flexible plastic substrates at 325 °C using Al-induced crystallization. The thickness of the plastic substrate strongly influenced the crystal quality of the resulting polycrystalline Ge layers. Using a thicker substrate lowered the stress on the a-Ge layer during annealing, which increased the grain size and fraction of (111)-oriented grains within the Ge layer. Employing a 125-μm-thick substrate led to 95% (111)-oriented Ge with grains having an average size of 100 μm. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the Ge grains had a low-defect density. Production of high-quality Ge films on plastic substrates allows for the possibility for developing Ge-based electronic and optical devices on inexpensive flexible substrates. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline Ge thin films are directly formed on flexible plastic substrates. • Al-induced crystallization allows the low-temperature growth (325 °C) of amorphous Ge. • The substrate bending during annealing strongly influences the crystal quality of poly-Ge. • A thick substrate (125 μm) leads to 95% (111)-oriented Ge with grains 100 μm in size.

  1. Self-assembly morphology effects on the crystallization of semicrystalline block copolymer thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuhan; Pan, Caiyuan; Li, Binyao; Han, Yanchun

    2007-03-01

    Self-assembly morphology effects on the crystalline behavior of asymmetric semicrystalline block copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(L-lactic acid) thin film were investigated. Firstly, a series of distinctive self-assembly aggregates, from spherical to ellipsoid and rhombic lamellar micelles (two different kinds of rhombic micelles, defined as rhomb 1 and rhomb 2) was prepared by means of promoting the solvent selectivity. Then, the effects of these self-assembly aggregates on crystallization at the early stage of film evolution were investigated by in situ hot stage atomic force microscopy. Heterogeneous nucleation initiated from the spherical micelles and dendrites with flat on crystals appeared with increasing temperature. At high temperature, protruding structures were observed due to the thickening of the flat-on crystals and finally more thermodynamically stable crystallization formed. Annealing the rhombic lamellar micelles resulted in different phenomena. Turtle-shell-like crystalline structure initiated from the periphery of the rhombic micelle 1 and spread over the whole film surface in the presence of mostly noncrystalline domain interior. Erosion and small hole appeared at the surface of the rhombic lamellar micelle 2; no crystallization like that in rhomb 1 occurred. It indicated that the chain-folding degree was different in these two micelles, which resulted in different annealing behaviors.

  2. Preparation and Properties of Silver Nanowire-Based Transparent Conductive Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ji-Li; Zhang, Hua-Yu; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanowire-based transparent conductive composite films with different structures were successfully prepared using various methods, including liquid polyol, magnetron sputtering and spin coating. The experimental results revealed that the optical transmittance of all different structural composite films decreased slightly (1-3%) compared to pure films. However, the electrical conductivity of all composite films had a great improvement. Under the condition that the optical transmittance was greater than 78% over the wavelength range of 400-800 nm, the AgNW/PVA/AgNW film became a conductor, while the AZO/AgNW/AZO film and the ITO/AgNW/ITO film showed 88.9% and 94% reductions, respectively, for the sheet resistance compared with pure films. In addition, applying a suitable mechanical pressure can improve the conductivity of AgNW-based composite films.

  3. Preparation and properties of carbohydrate-based composite films incorporated with CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Wang, Long-Feng; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to develop the carbohydrate biopolymer based antimicrobial films for food packaging application. The nanocomposite films of various biopolymers and copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) were prepared by solvent casting method. The nanocomposite films were characterized using SEM, FTIR, XRD, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The thermal stability, UV barrier, water vapor permeability, and antibacterial activity of the composite films were also evaluated. The surface morphology of the films was dependent on the types of polymers used. The XRD revealed the crystallinity of CuONPs in the composite films. The addition of CuONPs increased the thickness, tensile strength, UV barrier property, relative humidity, and water vapor barrier property. The CuONPs incorporated composite films exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. The developed composite films could be used as a UV-light barrier antibacterial films for active food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of annealing ambient on anisotropic retraction of film edges during solid-state dewetting of thin single crystal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye Hyun; Thompson, Carl V., E-mail: cthomp@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239 (United States); Ma, Wen [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239 (United States); Yildiz, Bilge [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239 (United States); Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    During solid-state dewetting of thin single crystal films, film edges retract at a rate that is strongly dependent on their crystallographic orientations. Edges with kinetically stable in-plane orientations remain straight as they retract, while those with other in-plane orientations develop in-plane facets as they retract. Kinetically stable edges have retraction rates that are lower than edges with other orientations and thus determine the shape of the natural holes that form during solid-state dewetting. In this paper, measurements of the retraction rates of kinetically stable edges for single crystal (110) and (100) Ni films on MgO are presented. Relative retraction rates of kinetically stable edges with different crystallographic orientations are observed to change under different annealing conditions, and this accordingly changes the initial shapes of growing holes. The surfaces of (110) and (100) films were also characterized using low energy electron diffraction, and different surface reconstructions were observed under different ambient conditions. The observed surface structures were found to correlate with the observed changes in the relative retraction rates of the kinetically stable edges.

  5. Influence of metal induced crystallization parameters on the performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.; Barquinha, P.; Fortunato, E.; Martins, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, metal induced crystallization using nickel was employed to obtain polycrystalline silicon by crystallization of amorphous films for thin film transistor applications. The devices were produced through only one lithographic process with a bottom gate configuration using a new gate dielectric consisting of a multi-layer of aluminum oxide/titanium oxide produced by atomic layer deposition. The best results were obtained for TFTs with the active layer of poly-Si crystallized for 20 h at 500 deg. C using a nickel layer of 0.5 nm where the effective mobility is 45.5 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . The threshold voltage, the on/off current ratio and the sub-threshold voltage are, respectively, 11.9 V, 5.55x10 4 and 2.49 V/dec

  6. Non-classical crystallization of thin films and nanostructures in CVD and PVD processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Nong Moon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to a recently-developed approach to the growth mechanism of thin films and nanostructures via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Starting from the underlying principles of the low pressure synthesis of diamond films, it is shown that diamond growth occurs not by individual atoms but by charged nanoparticles. This newly-discovered growth mechanism turns out to be general to many CVD and some physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. This non-classical crystallization is a new paradigm of crystal growth, with active research taking place on growth in solution, especially in biomineralization processes. Established understanding of the growth of thin films and nanostructures is based around processes involving individual atoms or molecules. According to the author’s research over the last two decades, however, the generation of charged gas phase nuclei is shown to be the rule rather than the exception in the CVD process, and charged gas phase nuclei are actively ...

  7. Spontaneous formation and dynamics of half-skyrmions in a chiral liquid-crystal film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nych, Andriy; Fukuda, Jun-Ichi; Ognysta, Uliana; Žumer, Slobodan; Muševič, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Skyrmions are coreless vortex-like excitations emerging in diverse condensed-matter systems, and real-time observation of their dynamics is still challenging. Here we report the first direct optical observation of the spontaneous formation of half-skyrmions. In a thin film of a chiral liquid crystal, depending on experimental conditions including film thickness, they form a hexagonal lattice whose lattice constant is a few hundred nanometres, or appear as isolated entities with topological defects compensating their charge. These half-skyrmions exhibit intriguing dynamical behaviour driven by thermal fluctuations. Numerical calculations of real-space images successfully corroborate the experimental observations despite the challenge because of the characteristic scale of the structures close to the optical resolution limit. A thin film of a chiral liquid crystal thus offers an intriguing platform that facilitates a direct investigation of the dynamics of topological excitations such as half-skyrmions and their manipulation with optical techniques.

  8. Magnetic coupling mechanisms in particle/thin film composite systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni A. Badini Confalonieri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 20 nm and size distribution of 7% were chemically synthesized and spin-coated on top of a Si-substrate. As a result, the particles self-assembled into a monolayer with hexagonal close-packed order. Subsequently, the nanoparticle array was coated with a Co layer of 20 nm thickness. The magnetic properties of this composite nanoparticle/thin film system were investigated by magnetometry and related to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies. Herein three systems were compared: i.e. a reference sample with only the particle monolayer, a composite system where the particle array was ion-milled prior to the deposition of a thin Co film on top, and a similar composite system but without ion-milling. The nanoparticle array showed a collective super-spin behavior due to dipolar interparticle coupling. In the composite system, we observed a decoupling into two nanoparticle subsystems. In the ion-milled system, the nanoparticle layer served as a magnetic flux guide as observed by magnetic force microscopy. Moreover, an exchange bias effect was found, which is likely to be due to oxygen exchange between the iron oxide and the Co layer, and thus forming of an antiferromagnetic CoO layer at the γ-Fe2O3/Co interface.

  9. Electrochemical deposition of Mg(OH)2/GO composite films for corrosion protection of magnesium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Wu; Jun Liang; Weixue Li

    2015-01-01

    Mg(OH)2/graphene oxide (GO) composite film was electrochemical deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloys at constant potential. The characteristics of the Mg(OH)2/GO composite film were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that the flaky GO randomly distributed in the composite film. Compared with the Mg(OH)2 film, the Mg(OH)2/GO composite film exhibited more uniform and compac...

  10. Electron field emission from screen-printed graphene/DWCNT composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Pan, Rong; Chen, Yiwei; Piao, Xianqin; Qian, Min; Feng, Tao; Sun, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The field emission performance improved significantly when adding graphene into DWCNTs as the emission material. ► We set up a model of pure DWCNT films and graphene/DWCNT composite films. ► We discussed the contact barrier between emission films and electric substrates by considering the Fermi energies of silver, DWCNT and graphene. - Abstract: The electron field emission properties of graphene/double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) composite films prepared by screen printing have been systematically studied. Comparing with the pure DWCNT films and pure graphene films, a significant enhancement of electron emission performance of the composite films are observed, such as lower turn-on field, higher emission current density, higher field enhancement factor, and long-term stability. The optimized composite films with 20% weight ratio of graphene show the best electron emission performance with a low turn-on field of 0.62 V μm −1 (at 1 μA cm −2 ) and a high field enhancement factor β of 13,000. A model of the graphene/DWCNT composite films is proposed, which indicate that a certain amount of graphene will contribute the electron transmission in the silver substrate/composite films interface and in the interior of composite films, and finally improve the electron emission performance of the graphene/DWCNT composite films.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of silk fibroin/bioactive glass composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hailin; Liu Na; Feng Xinxing; Chen Jianyong

    2012-01-01

    Composite films of silk fibroin (SF) with nano bioactive glass (NBG) were prepared by the solvent casting method, and the structures and properties of the composite films were characterized. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis shows that the random coil and β-sheet structure co-exist in the SF films. Results of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) indicate that the NBG particles are uniformly dispersed in the SF films. The measurements of the water contact angles suggest that the incorporation of NBG into SF can improve the hydrophilicity of the composites. The bioactivity of the composite films was evaluated by soaking in 1.5 times simulated body fluid (1.5 × SBF), and formation of a hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) layer was determined by XRD and FESEM. The results show that the SF/NBG composite film is bioactive as it induces the formation of HCA on the surface of the composite film after soaking in 1.5 × SBF for 7 days. In vitro osteoblasts attachment and proliferation tests show that the composite film is a good matrix for the growth of osteoblasts. Consequently, the incorporation of NBG into the SF film can enhance both the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the film, which suggests that the SF/NBG composite film may be a potential biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: ► The incorporation of NBG into SF can improve the hydrophilicity of the SF/NBG composite films. ► The SF/NBG composite films show the better bioactivity than the pure SF film. ► The SF/NBG composite films facilitate cell growth and promote cell proliferation and differentiation.

  12. Size effects on structural and dielectric properties of PZT thin films at compositions around the morpho tropic phase boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Elton Carvalho; Araujo, Eudes Borges; Souza Filho, Antonio Gomes de; Bdikin, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The demand for portability in consumer electronics has motivated the understanding of size effects on ferroelectric thin films. The actual comprehension of these effects in ferroelectrics is unsatisfactory, since the polarization interacts more strongly than other order parameters such as strain and charge. As a result, extrinsic effects are produced if these variables are uncontrolled and problems such as ferroelectric paraelectric phase transition at nanometers scale remains an unsolved issue. In the present work, the effects of thickness and compositional fractions on the structural and dielectric properties of PbZr 1-x Ti x O 3 (PZT) thin films were studied at a composition around the morphotropic phase boundary (x = 0.50). For this purpose, thin films with different thicknesses and different PbO excess were deposited on Si(100) and Pt=T iO 2 =SiO 2 =Si substrates by a chemical method and crystallized in electric furnace at 700 deg C for 1 hour. The effects of substrate, pyrolysis temperature and excess lead addition in the films are reported. For films with 10 mol% PbO in excess, the pyrolysis in the regime of 300 deg C for 30 minutes was observed to yield PZT pyrochlore free thin films deposited on Pt=T iO 2 =SiO 2 =Si substrate. Out this condition, the transformation from amorphous to the pyrochlore metastable phase is kinetically more favorable that a transformation to the perovskite phase, which is thermodynamically stable. Rietveld refinements based on X-ray diffraction results showed that films present a purely tetragonal phase and that this phase does not change when the film thickness decreases. The dielectric permittivity measurements showed a monoclinic → tetragonal phase transition at 198K. Results showed that the dielectric permittivity (ε) increases continuously from 257 to 463, while the thickness of the PZT films increases from 200 to 710 nm. These results suggests that interface pinning centers can be the responsible mechanism by

  13. Hexamethyldisiloxane thin films as sensitive coating for quartz crystal microbalance based volatile organic compounds sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutamine, M.; Bellel, A.; Sahli, S.; Segui, Y.; Raynaud, P.

    2014-01-01

    Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) thin films coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrodes have been characterized for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The sensitive coatings were plasma polymerized in pure vapor of HMDSO and HMDSO/O 2 mixture. The sensor sensitivity was evaluated by monitoring the frequency shift (∆f) of the coated QCM electrode exposed to different concentrations of VOC vapors, such as ethanol, methanol, benzene and chloroform. The isotherm response characteristics showed good reproducibility and reversibility. For all types of analyte, ∆f were found to be linearly correlated with the concentration of VOC vapor. It was shown that it is possible to tune the chemical affinity of the sensor by changing the oxygen ratio in the deposition gas mixture. Contact angle measurements (CA), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study surface wettability, chemical composition and surface morphology of the coated QCM electrodes. ATR-FTIR analysis showed the presence of methyl groups around 840 cm −1 due to Si-(CH 3 ) 3 rocking vibration making the elaborated sensor surface hydrophobic. When the coating is performed in HMDSO/O 2 mixture, AFM and SEM images showed an increase in the effective specific surface area of the sensor due to the increase in surface roughness. Surface morphology combined with chemical composition significantly affects the sensitivity of the QCM-based sensor. - Highlights: • Hexamethyldisiloxane layers were evaluated for volatile organic compounds detection. • The kinetic response of the sensor showed good reproducibility and reversibility. • Hydrophobic coating and high specific surface area increase the sensor sensitivity. • Sensor affinity can be controlled by controlling oxygen proportion in the mixture

  14. The response of quartz crystals coated with thin fatty acid film to organic gases

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, C N; Kim, K H; Kwon, Y S

    1999-01-01

    We tried to apply a quartz crystal as a sensor by using the resonant frequency and the resistance properties of quartz crystals. Four kinds of fatty acids that have the same head groups were coated on the surfaces of the quartz crystals, and the shift of the resonant frequency and the resistance were observed based on the lengths of the tail groups. Myristic acid (C sub 1 sub 4), palmitic acid (C sub 1 sub 6), stearic acid (C sub 1 sub 8), and arachidic acid (C sub 2 sub 0) were deposited on the surfaces of quartz crystals by using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. As a result, the resonant frequency change was more sensitive to high molecular-weight fatty acids than to low molecular-weight ones. We also observed the effect of temperature on stearic acid LB films, and the response properties of quartz crystals coated with stearic-acid LB films to organic gases were investigated. As a result, the sensitivity of quartz crystals to organic gases was higher for higher molecular-weight gas, and we found that quar...

  15. Solid phase crystallized polycrystalline thin-films on glass from evaporated silicon for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Dengyuan; Inns, Daniel; Straub, Axel; Terry, Mason L.; Campbell, Patrick; Aberle, Armin G.

    2006-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-films are made on planar and textured glass substrates by solid phase crystallization (SPC) of in situ doped amorphous silicon (a-Si) deposited by electron-beam evaporation. These materials are referred to by us as EVA materials (SPC of evaporated a-Si). The properties of EVA poly-Si films are characterised by Raman microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. A narrow and symmetrical Raman peak at a wave number of about 520 cm -1 is observed for all samples, showing that the films are fully crystallized. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that the films are preferentially (111)-oriented. Furthermore, the full width at half maximum of the dominant (111) XRD peaks indicates that the structural quality of the films is affected by the a-Si deposition temperature and the surface morphology of the glass substrates. A-Si deposition at 200 instead of 400 deg. C leads to an enhanced poly-Si grain size. On textured glass, the addition of a SiN barrier layer between the glass and the Si improves the poly-Si material quality. No such effect occurs on planar glass. Mesa-type solar cells are made from these EVA films on planar and textured glass. A strong correlation between the cells' current-voltage characteristics and their crystalline material quality is observed

  16. Crystal structure of red lead titanate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L.A.; Peng, J.L.; Jiang, B. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Li, X. [Jilin Univ., Changchun, JL (China). Dept of Chemistry

    1998-09-01

    Orange-red lead titanate thin films are examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and diffraction. It is remarkable that the structure is based on that of tetragonal-tungsten-bronze (TTB) rather than perovskite-type. The chemical basis for this result is examined. It is deduced that the TTB structure is stabilized by inclusion of hydroxyl ions during synthesis by a sol-gel route involving hydrolysis of n-Butyl titanate 7 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  17. Crystal structure of red lead titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Peng, J.L.; Jiang, B.; Li, X.

    1998-01-01

    Orange-red lead titanate thin films are examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and diffraction. It is remarkable that the structure is based on that of tetragonal-tungsten-bronze (TTB) rather than perovskite-type. The chemical basis for this result is examined. It is deduced that the TTB structure is stabilized by inclusion of hydroxyl ions during synthesis by a sol-gel route involving hydrolysis of n-Butyl titanate

  18. In situ monitoring of thermal crystallization of ultrathin tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films using surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Thermal crystallization of 3, 10, and 60 nm-thick tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) films is studied using surface-enhanced Raman scattering with a constant heating rate. An abrupt higher frequency shift of the quinoline-stretching mode is found to be an indication of a phase transition of Alq3 molecules from amorphous to crystalline. While the 60 nm-thick film shows the same crystallization temperature as a bulk sample, the thinner films were found to have a lower crystallization temperature and slower rate of crystallization. Non-isothermal kinetics analysis is performed to quantify kinetic properties such as the Avrami exponent constants and crystallization rates of ultrathin Alq3 films.

  19. Synthesis of electro-optically active polymer composite of poly[2,2'-bis(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-alt-fluorene]/hydroxypropyl cellulose showing liquid crystal structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eguchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical preparation of a composite consisting of poly[2,2′-bis(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-alt-fluorene] and hydroxypropyl cellulose (PEFE/HPC was carried out. We conducted electrochemical polymerization of poly[2,2′-bis(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-alt-fluorene] (EFE as a monomer in a lyotropic liquid crystal of HPC. We used an organic solvent instead of water for lyotropic liquid crystal medium to expand the possibility of the range of monomers, although water is usually employed as a solvent for HPC for showing liquid crystallinity. Here, we employed N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF as a solvent for HPC. Electrochemical polymerization in the polymer liquid crystal was carried out to obtain a polymer film with liquid crystal order. The polymer film thus prepared exhibited optical activity. Fourier transfer infrared (FT-IR absorption spectroscopy reveals that the film is a composite consisting of HPC and polymer. The composite PEFE/HPC thus prepared in HPC/DMF system showed electrochromism.

  20. The quest for highly sensitive QCM humidity sensors: the coating of CNT/MOF composite sensing films as case study

    KAUST Repository

    Chappanda, Karumbaiah. N.

    2017-11-01

    The application of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as a sensing layer has been attracting great interest over the last decade, due to their uniform properties in terms of high porosity and tunability, which provides a large surface area and/or centers for trapping/binding a targeted analyte. Here we report the fabrication of a highly sensitive humidity sensor that is based on composite thin films of HKUST-1 MOF and carbon nanotubes (CNT). The composite sensing films were fabricated by spin coating technique on a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) and a comparison of their shift in resonance frequencies to adsorbed water vapor (5 to 75% relative humidity) is presented. Through optimization of the CNT and HKUST-1 composition, we could demonstrate a 230% increase in sensitivity compared to plain HKUST-1 film. The optimized CNT-HKUST-1 composite thin films are stable, reliable, and have an average sensitivity of about 2.5×10−5 (Δf/f) per percent of relative humidity, which is up to ten times better than previously reported QCM-based humidity sensors. The approach presented here is facile and paves a promising path towards enhancing the sensitivity of MOF-based sensors.

  1. Crystallization to polycrystalline silicon thin film and simultaneous inactivation of electrical defects by underwater laser annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, Emi [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Research Fellowships of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1-8 Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Horita, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ikenoue, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2012-12-17

    We propose a low-temperature laser annealing method of a underwater laser annealing (WLA) for polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films. We performed crystallization to poly-Si films by laser irradiation in flowing deionized-water where KrF excimer laser was used for annealing. We demonstrated that the maximum value of maximum grain size of WLA samples was 1.5 {mu}m, and that of the average grain size was 2.8 times larger than that of conventional laser annealing in air (LA) samples. Moreover, WLA forms poly-Si films which show lower conductivity and larger carrier life time attributed to fewer electrical defects as compared to LA poly-Si films.

  2. Reduction of crystallization temperature of the Nd-Fe-B thin films by Cu addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yungui; Yang Zheng; Matsumoto, M.; Morisako, A.; Takei, S.

    2004-01-01

    Nonmagnetic Cu element has been doped into the sputtered Nd-Fe-B thin films. It is found that the introduction of suitable amount of copper atoms could reduce the crystallization temperature of the 2:14:1 phase by near 100 deg. C, compared with that without Cu. For the 15 nm Nd 16 Fe 70.2 Cu 1.8 B 12 film deposited at 340 deg. C, perpendicular coercivity and remanent magnetization ratio of 350 kA/m and 0.96 have been successfully obtained. Cu addition would lead to the grain growth, but the average grain size in the films could be greatly decreased through lowering the deposition temperature. These results are compared with those found in the fabrication of FePtCu films

  3. Effect of composition on properties of In2O3-Ga2O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, I. E.; Kozlov, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    The In2O3-Ga2O3 mixed oxide polycrystalline thin films with various ratios of components were obtained by pulsed laser deposition. The effect of films composition on surface morphology, electrophysical and gas sensing properties and energies of adsorption and desorption of combustible gases was studied. The films with50%In2O3-50%Ga2O3 composition showed maximum gas response (˜25 times) combined with minimum optimal working temperature (˜530 °C) as compared with the other films. The optical transmittance of the films in visible range was investigated. For 50%In2O3-50%Ga2O3 films, the transmittance is higher in comparison with the other films. The explanation of the dependency of films behaviors on their composition was presented.The In2O3-Ga2O3 films were assumed to have perspectives as gas sensing material for semiconducting gas sensors.

  4. Antimicrobial Carvacrol-Containing Polypropylene Films: Composition, Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Krepker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant research has been directed toward the incorporation of bioactive plant extracts or essential oils (EOs into polymers to endow the latter with antimicrobial functionality. EOs offer a unique combination of having broad antimicrobial activity from a natural source, generally recognized as safe (GRAS recognition in the US, and a volatile nature. However, their volatility also presents a major challenge in their incorporation into polymers by conventional high-temperature-processing techniques. Herein, antimicrobial polypropylene (PP cast films were produced by incorporating carvacrol (a model EO or carvacrol, loaded into halloysite nanotubes (HNTs, via melt compounding. We studied the composition-structure-property relationships in these systems, focusing on the effect of carvacrol on the composition of the films, the PP crystalline phase and its morphology and the films’ mechanical and antimicrobial properties. For the first time, molecular dynamics simulations were applied to reveal the complex interactions between the components of these carvacrol-containing systems. We show that strong molecular interactions between PP and carvacrol minimize the loss of this highly-volatile EO during high-temperature polymer processing, enabling semi-industrial scale production. The resulting films exhibit outstanding antimicrobial properties against model microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Alternaria alternata. The PP/(HNTs-carvacrol nanocomposite films, containing the carvacrol-loaded HNTs, display a higher level of crystalline order, superior mechanical properties and prolonged release of carvacrol, in comparison to PP/carvacrol blends. These properties are ascribed to the role of HNTs in these nanocomposites and their effect on the PP matrix and retained carvacrol content.

  5. Synthesis of nano-crystalline zirconium aluminium oxynitride (ZrAlON) composite films by dense plasma Focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, I.A.; Hassan, M.; Hussain, T. [Department of Physics, GC University, 54000 Lahore (Pakistan); Ahmad, R., E-mail: ahriaz@gmail.com [Department of Physics, GC University, 54000 Lahore (Pakistan); Zakaullah, M. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Rawat, R.S. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)

    2009-04-01

    Zirconium aluminium oxynitride multiphase composite film is deposited on zirconium substrate using energetic nitrogen ions delivered from dense plasma Focus device. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) results show that five Focus shots are sufficient to initiate the nucleation of ZrN and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} whereas 10 Focus shots are sufficient to initiate the nucleation of AlN. XRD results reveal that crystal growth of nitrides/oxides increases by increasing Focus shots (up to 30 Focus shots) and resputtering of the previously deposited film is taken place by further increase in Focus shots (40 Focus shots). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) results indicate the uniform distribution of spherical grains ({approx}35 nm). A smoother surface is observed for 20 Focus shots at 0 deg. angular position. SEM results also show a net-type microstructure (thread like features) of the sample treated for 30 Focus shots whereas rough surface morphology is observed for 40 Focus shots. Energy dispersive spectroscopic profiles show the distribution of different elements present in the deposited composite films. A typical microhardness value of the deposited composite films is 5255 {+-} 10 MPa for 10 grams imposed load which is 3.3 times than the microhardness values of unexposed sample. The microhardness values of the exposed samples increases with increasing Focus shots (up to 30 Focus shots) and decreases for 40 Focus shots treatment due to resputtering of the previously deposited composite film. The microhardness values of the composite films decreases by increasing the sample's angular position.

  6. Electrochemical and surface characterisation of carbon-film-coated piezoelectric quartz crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Edilson M.; Gouveia-Caridade, Carla; Soares, David M.; Brett, Christopher M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of carbon films, of thickness between 200 and 500 nm, sputter-coated on gold- and platinum-coated 6 MHz piezoelectric quartz crystal oscillators, as new electrode materials have been investigated. Comparative studies under the same experimental conditions were performed on bulk electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry was carried out in 0.1 M KCl electrolyte solution, and kinetic parameters of the model redox systems Fe(CN) 6 3-/4- and [Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ] 3+/2+ as well as the electroactive area of the electrodes were obtained. Atomic force microscopy was used in order to examine the surface morphology of the films, and the properties of the carbon films and the electrode-solution interface were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of the preparation and development of nanometer thick carbon film modified quartz crystals. Such modified crystals should open up new opportunities for the investigation of electrode processes at carbon electrodes and for the application of electrochemical sensing associated with the EQCM.

  7. Crystallization and segregation in vitreous rutile films annealed at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omari, M.A.; Sorbello, R.S.; Aita, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    Vitreous titania films with rutile short-range order were sputter deposited on unheated fused silica substrates, sequentially annealed at 973 and 1273 K, and examined by Raman microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. A segregated microstructure developed after the 1273 K anneal. This microstructure consists of supermicron-size craters dispersed in a matrix of submicron rutile crystals. Ti-O short-range order in the craters is characteristic of a mixture of two high pressure phases, m-TiO 2 (monoclinic P2 1 /c space group) and α-TiO 2 (tetragonal Pbcn space group). We calculated that a high average compressive stress parallel to the substrate must be accommodated in the films at 1273 K, caused by the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of titania and fused silica. The formation of the segregated microstructure is modeled by considering two processes at work at 1273 K to lower a film's internal energy: crystallization and nonuniform stress relief. The Gibbs-Thomson relation shows that small m-TiO 2 crystallites are able to form directly from vitreous TiO 2 at 1273 K. However, the preferred mechanism for forming α-TiO 2 is likely to be by epitaxial growth at crystalline rutile twin boundaries (secondary crystallization). Both phases are denser than crystalline rutile and reduce the average thermal stress in the films

  8. Nonlinear Analysis of Actuation Performance of Shape Memory Alloy Composite Film Based on Silicon Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical model of the shape memory alloy (SMA composite film with silicon (Si substrate was established by the method of mechanics of composite materials. The coupled action between the SMA film and Si substrate under thermal loads was analyzed by combining static equilibrium equations, geometric equations, and physical equations. The material nonlinearity of SMA and the geometric nonlinearity of bending deformation were both considered. By simulating and analyzing the actuation performance of the SMA composite film during one cooling-heating thermal cycle, it is found that the final cooling temperature, boundary condition, and the thickness of SMA film have significant effects on the actuation performance of the SMA composite film. Besides, the maximum deflection of the SMA composite film is affected obviously by the geometric nonlinearity of bending deformation when the thickness of SMA film is very large.

  9. Electrochemical deposition of Mg(OH2/GO composite films for corrosion protection of magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mg(OH2/graphene oxide (GO composite film was electrochemical deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloys at constant potential. The characteristics of the Mg(OH2/GO composite film were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS, X-ray diffractometer (XRD and Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that the flaky GO randomly distributed in the composite film. Compared with the Mg(OH2 film, the Mg(OH2/GO composite film exhibited more uniform and compact structure. Potentiodynamic polarization tests revealed that the Mg(OH2/GO composite film could significantly improve the corrosion resistance of Mg(OH2 film with an obvious positive shift of corrosion potential by 0.19 V and a dramatic reduction of corrosion current density by more than one order of magnitude.

  10. Orbital hybridization, crystal structure and anomalous resistivity of ultrathin CrZrx alloy films on polymeric substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Drew; Zuber, Kamil; Merkens, Kerstin; Murphy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The orbital hybridization and crystal structure are experimentally explored for ultrathin chrome zirconium (CrZr x ) alloy films co-sputtered on precoated polymeric substrates. We determine the level of orbital hybridization and crystal structure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron diffraction. Body-centred cubic and Ω-hexagonally close-packed phases are observed to coexist in the sputtered Cr-based films. Experiments reveal the orbital hybridization and crystal structure combine to produce anomalous resistivity for these ultrathin films.

  11. Quasi van der Waals epitaxy of copper thin film on single-crystal graphene monolayer buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zonghuan; Sun, Xin; Washington, Morris A.; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2018-03-01

    Quasi van der Waals epitaxial growth of face-centered cubic Cu (~100 nm) thin films on single-crystal monolayer graphene is demonstrated using thermal evaporation at an elevated substrate temperature of 250 °C. The single-crystal graphene was transferred to amorphous (glass) and crystalline (quartz) SiO2 substrates for epitaxy study. Raman analysis showed that the thermal evaporation method had minimal damage to the graphene lattice during the Cu deposition. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction analyses revealed that both Cu films are single-crystal with (1 1 1) out-of-plane orientation and in-plane Σ3 twin domains of 60° rotation. The crystallinity of the SiO2 substrates has a negligible effect on the Cu crystal orientation during the epitaxial growth, implying the strong screening effect of graphene. We also demonstrate the epitaxial growth of polycrystalline Cu on a commercial polycrystalline monolayer graphene consisting of two orientation domains offset 30° to each other. It confirms that the crystal orientation of the epitaxial Cu film follows that of graphene, i.e. the Cu film consists of two orientation domains offset 30° to each other when deposited on polycrystalline graphene. Finally, on the contrary to the report in the literature, we show that the direct current and radio frequency flip sputtering method causes significant damage to the graphene lattice during the Cu deposition process, and therefore neither is a suitable method for Cu epitaxial growth on graphene.

  12. High temperature oxidation and crystallization behavior of phosphate glass compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Diego; Rodriguez, Diego; Grumbaum, N.; Gonzalez Oliver, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the thermal transformation of three iron phosphate glasses having the following nominal compositions: M4 [70% P 2 O 5 , 30% Fe 2 O 3 ], M5 [85% M4, 15% UO 2 ] y M7 [69.7% P 2 O 5 , 28.6% Fe 2 O 3 , 1,7% Al 2 O 3 ]. Thermogravimetric analysis, DTA (differential thermal analysis) and SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) were performed.It was observed that it is easily possible to produce glasses in these systems having very low crystallinity.We could determine the final stable crystalline phases [Fe 4 (P 2 O 7 ) 3 , Fe(PO 3 ) 3 and Fe 3 (P 2 O 7 ) 2 ].The presence of uranium ions affects not only the redox effects but also the crystallization of the system.SAXS data obtained during the heating in vacuum up to ∼600degC, gave some variation of scattering intensities vs. scattering vector suggesting the development of an extra phase or some kind inhomogeneities that seems to disappear on heating

  13. Mechanical behaviour of composite materials made by resin film infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casavola C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Innovative composite materials are frequently used in designing aerospace, naval and automotive components. In the typical structure of composites, multiple layers are stacked together with a particular sequence in order to give specific mechanical properties. Layers are organized with different angles, different sequences and different technological process to obtain a new and innovative material. From the standpoint of engineering designer it is useful to consider the single layer of composite as macroscopically homogeneous material. However, composites are non homogeneous bodies. Moreover, layers are not often perfectly bonded together and delamination often occurs. Other violations of lamination theory hypotheses, such as plane stress and thin material, are not unusual and in many cases the transverse shear flexibility and the thickness-normal stiffness should be considered. Therefore the real behaviour of composite materials is quite different from the predictions coming from the traditional lamination theory. Due to the increasing structural performance required to innovative composites, the knowledge of the mechanical properties for different loading cases is a fundamental source of concern. Experimental characterization of materials and structures in different environmental conditions is extremely important to understand the mechanical behaviour of these new materials. The purpose of the present work is to characterize a composite material developed for aerospace applications and produced by means of the resin film infusion process (RFI. Different tests have been carried out: tensile, open-hole and filled-hole tensile, compressive, openhole and filled-hole compressive. The experimental campaign has the aim to define mechanical characteristics of this RFI composite material in different conditions: environmental temperature, Hot/Wet and Cold.

  14. Structural characterization of metastable hcp-Ni thin films epitaxially grown on Au(100) single-crystal underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Takahiro; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Ni(1120) epitaxial thin films with hcp structure were prepared on Au(100) single-crystal underlayers at 100 deg. C by ultra high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The detailed film structure is studied by in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The hcp-Ni film consists of two types of variants whose c-axes are rotated around the film normal by 90 deg. each other. An atomically sharp boundary is recognized between the film and the underlayer, where misfit dislocations are introduced. Presence of such dislocations seems to relieve the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the film and the underlayer.

  15. The density and compositional analysis of titanium doped sapphire single crystal grown by the Czocharlski method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, H. H.; Ibrahim, Z.; Othaman, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Titanium doped sapphire (Ti:Al2O3) crystal has attracted attention not only as beautiful gemstones, but also due to their applications as high power laser action. It is very important crystal for tunable solid state laser. Ti:Al2O3 crystals have been success grown using the Czocharlski method with automatic diameter control (ADC) system. The crystals were grown with different pull rates. The structure of the crystal was characterized with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The density of the crystal was measurement based on the Archimedes principle and the chemical composition of the crystal was confirmed by the Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy. The XRD patterns of crystals are showed single main peak with a high intensity. Its shows that the samples are single crystal. The Ti:Al2O3 grown with different pull rate will affect the distribution of the concentration of dopant Ti3+ and densities on the sapphire crystals boules as well on the crystal growth process. The increment of the pull rate will increase the percentage distribution of Ti3+ and on the densities of the Ti:Al2O3 crystal boules. This may be attributed to the speed factor of the pull rate of the crystal that then caused changes in the heat flow in the furnace and then causes the homogeneities is changed of species distribution of atoms along crystal.

  16. Superior piezoelectric composite films: taking advantage of carbon nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Nasser; Araby, Sherif; Meng, Qingshi; Hsu, Hung-Yao; Yan, Cheng; Azari, Sara; Lee, Sang-Heon; Xu, Yanan; Ma, Jun; Yu, Sirong

    2014-01-31

    Piezoelectric composites comprising an active phase of ferroelectric ceramic and a polymer matrix have recently found numerous sensory applications. However, it remains a major challenge to further improve their electromechanical response for advanced applications such as precision control and monitoring systems. We here investigated the incorporation of graphene platelets (GnPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), each with various weight fractions, into PZT (lead zirconate titanate)/epoxy composites to produce three-phase nanocomposites. The nanocomposite films show markedly improved piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical responses (50%) besides an enhancement of ~200% in stiffness. The carbon nanomaterials strengthened the impact of electric field on the PZT particles by appropriately raising the electrical conductivity of the epoxy. GnPs have been proved to be far more promising in improving the poling behavior and dynamic response than MWNTs. The superior dynamic sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite may be caused by the GnPs' high load transfer efficiency arising from their two-dimensional geometry and good compatibility with the matrix. The reduced acoustic impedance mismatch resulting from the improved thermal conductance may also contribute to the higher sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite. This research pointed out the potential of employing GnPs to develop highly sensitive piezoelectric composites for sensing applications.

  17. Superior piezoelectric composite films: taking advantage of carbon nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Nasser; Araby, Sherif; Meng, Qingshi; Hsu, Hung-Yao; Lee, Sang-Heon; Ma, Jun; Yan, Cheng; Xu, Yanan; Azari, Sara; Yu, Sirong

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites comprising an active phase of ferroelectric ceramic and a polymer matrix have recently found numerous sensory applications. However, it remains a major challenge to further improve their electromechanical response for advanced applications such as precision control and monitoring systems. We here investigated the incorporation of graphene platelets (GnPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), each with various weight fractions, into PZT (lead zirconate titanate)/epoxy composites to produce three-phase nanocomposites. The nanocomposite films show markedly improved piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical responses (50%) besides an enhancement of ∼200% in stiffness. The carbon nanomaterials strengthened the impact of electric field on the PZT particles by appropriately raising the electrical conductivity of the epoxy. GnPs have been proved to be far more promising in improving the poling behavior and dynamic response than MWNTs. The superior dynamic sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite may be caused by the GnPs’ high load transfer efficiency arising from their two-dimensional geometry and good compatibility with the matrix. The reduced acoustic impedance mismatch resulting from the improved thermal conductance may also contribute to the higher sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite. This research pointed out the potential of employing GnPs to develop highly sensitive piezoelectric composites for sensing applications. (paper)

  18. Studies of Second Order Optical Nonlinearities of 4-Aminobenzophenone (ABP) Single Crystal Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Achintya; Thakur, Mrinal

    1998-03-01

    Specific organic materials exhibit very high second order optical susceptibilities. Growth of single crystal films of these materials and characterization of nonlinear optical properties are necessary for implementation of device applications. We have grown large-area films ( 1 cm^2 area, 4 μm thick) of ABP by a modification of the shear method. Single crystal nature of the films was confirmed by polarized optical microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a [100] surface orientation. The absorption spectra revealed transparency from 390 nm to 1940 nm. Significant elements of the second order optical susceptibility tensor were measured by detailed SHG experiments using a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 100 ps, 82 MHz). Second-harmonic power was measured using lock-in detection with carefully selected polarization conditions while the film was rotated about the propagation direction. Using LiNbØas the reference, d-coefficients of ABP were found to be d_23=7.2 pm/V and d_22=0.7 pm/V. Type-I and type-II phase-matching directions were identified on the film by analyzing the optical indicatrix surfaces at fundamental and second-harmonic frequencies.

  19. Insight into excimer laser crystallization exploiting ellipsometry: Effect of silicon film precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, Maria [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy)], E-mail: maria.losurdo@ba.imip.cnr.it; Giangregorio, Maria M.; Sacchetti, Alberto; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Mariucci, Luigi; Fortunato, Guglielmo [IFN-CNR, Via Cineto Romano, 42 - 00156 Rome (Italy)

    2007-07-16

    The optical diagnostic of spectroscopic ellipsometry is shown to be an effective tool to investigate the mechanism of excimer laser crystallization (ELC) of silicon thin films. A detailed spectroscopic ellipsometric investigation of the microstructures of polycrystalline Si films obtained on SiO{sub 2}/Si wafers by ELC of a-Si:H and nc-Si films deposited, respectively, by SiH{sub 4} plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and SiF{sub 4}-PECVD is presented. It is shown that ellipsometric spectra of the pseudodielectric function of polysilicon thin films allows to discern the three different ELC regimes of partial melting, super lateral growth and complete melting. Exploiting ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy, it is shown that ELC of nc-Si has very low energy density threshold of 95 mJ/cm{sup 2} for complete melting, and that re-crystallization to large grains of {approx} 2 {mu}m can be achieved by multi-shot irradiation at an energy density as low as 260 mJ/cm{sup 2} when using nc-Si when compared to 340 mJ/cm{sup 2} for the ELC of a-Si films.

  20. Crystal chemistry of nephelines from ijolites and nepheline-rich pegmatites: influence of composition and genesis on the crystal structure investigated by X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulić, Predrag; Balić-Žunić, Tonči; Belmonte, Louise Josefine

    2011-01-01

    Ten nepheline single crystals from five different localities representing rocks from nepheline-syenite pegmatites to urtite, ijolite and cancrinite-ijolite were investigated chemically and structurally. The chemical compositions were determined by electron microprobe, whereas the crystal structur...

  1. Magnetic properties and crystal texture of Co alloy thin films prepared on double bias Cr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Lambeth, D. N.; Lee, L.-L.; Laughlin, D. E.

    1993-05-01

    A double layer Cr film structure has been prepared by sputter depositing Cr on single crystal Si substrates first without substrate bias and then with various substrate bias voltages. Without substrate bias, Cr{200} texture grows on Si at room temperature; thus the first Cr layer acts like a seed Cr layer with the {200} texture, and the second Cr layer, prepared with substrate bias, tends to replicate the {200} texture epitaxially. CoCrTa and CoNiCr films prepared on these double Cr underlayers, therefore, tend to have a {112¯0} texture with their c-axes oriented in the plane of the film. At the same time, the bias sputtering of the second Cr layer increases the coercivity of the subsequently deposited magnetic films significantly. Comparison studies of δM curves show that the use of the double Cr underlayers reduces the intergranular exchange interactions. The films prepared on the Si substrates have been compared with the films prepared on canasite and glass substrates. It has also been found that the magnetic properties are similar for films on canasite and on glass.

  2. Nano-crystallization in ZnO-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films via excimer laser annealing for thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Mami N., E-mail: f-mami@ms.naist.jp; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Bermundo, Juan Paolo Soria; Uraoka, Yukiharu [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Ishihara, Ryoichi; Cingel, Johan van der; Mofrad, Mohammad R. T. [Delft University of Technology, Feldmannweg 17, P.O. Box 5053, 2600 GB Delft (Netherlands); Kawashima, Emi; Tomai, Shigekazu; Yano, Koki [Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., 1280 Kami-izumi, Sodegaura, Chiba, 299-0293 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    In a previous work, we reported the high field effect mobility of ZnO-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (IZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) irradiated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) [M. Fujii et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 122107 (2013)]. However, a deeper understanding of the effect of ELA on the IZO film characteristics based on crystallinity, carrier concentrations, and optical properties is needed to control localized carrier concentrations for fabricating self-aligned structures in the same oxide film and to adequately explain the physical characteristics. In the case of as-deposited IZO film used as the channel, a high carrier concentration due to a high density of oxygen vacancies was observed; such a film does not show the required TFT characteristics but can act as a conductive film. We achieved a decrease in the carrier concentration of IZO films by crystallization using ELA. This means that ELA can form localized conductive or semi-conductive areas on the IZO film. We confirmed that the reason for the carrier concentration decrease was the decrease of oxygen-deficient regions and film crystallization. The annealed IZO films showed nano-crystalline phase, and the temperature at the substrate was substantially less than the temperature limit for flexible films such as plastic, which is 50°C. This paves the way for the formation of self-aligned structures and separately formed conductive and semi-conductive regions in the same oxide film.

  3. Nano-crystallization in ZnO-doped In_2O_3 thin films via excimer laser annealing for thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Bermundo, Juan Paolo Soria; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ishihara, Ryoichi; Cingel, Johan van der; Mofrad, Mohammad R. T.; Kawashima, Emi; Tomai, Shigekazu; Yano, Koki

    2016-01-01

    In a previous work, we reported the high field effect mobility of ZnO-doped In_2O_3 (IZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) irradiated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) [M. Fujii et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 122107 (2013)]. However, a deeper understanding of the effect of ELA on the IZO film characteristics based on crystallinity, carrier concentrations, and optical properties is needed to control localized carrier concentrations for fabricating self-aligned structures in the same oxide film and to adequately explain the physical characteristics. In the case of as-deposited IZO film used as the channel, a high carrier concentration due to a high density of oxygen vacancies was observed; such a film does not show the required TFT characteristics but can act as a conductive film. We achieved a decrease in the carrier concentration of IZO films by crystallization using ELA. This means that ELA can form localized conductive or semi-conductive areas on the IZO film. We confirmed that the reason for the carrier concentration decrease was the decrease of oxygen-deficient regions and film crystallization. The annealed IZO films showed nano-crystalline phase, and the temperature at the substrate was substantially less than the temperature limit for flexible films such as plastic, which is 50°C. This paves the way for the formation of self-aligned structures and separately formed conductive and semi-conductive regions in the same oxide film.

  4. Potential dependence of surface crystal structure of iron passive films in borate buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Huihua; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Qian, Pu; Santosa, Arifin; Ishikawa, Ikuo; Kurata, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    The effect of passivation potential on surface crystal structure, apparent thickness and passivity of oxide films formed on pure iron prepared by plasma sputter deposition was investigated. The crystallinity was improved with passivation potential and the width of atomically flat terraces was expanded to 6 nm when passivating at 750 mV for 15 min, as observed by ex situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) after aging in air (<30% RH). Apparent thickness and passivity are linearly dependent on passivation potential. The former weakly depends on passivation duration, the latter strongly depends on passivation duration. This is well explained by the correlation between crystal structure and passivity

  5. Preparation of sensitive and recyclable porous Ag/TiO{sub 2} composite films for SERS detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengyi; Yu, Jiajie; Yang, Jingying; Lv, Xiang; Wang, Tianhe, E-mail: thwang56@126.com

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new but simple method of fabricating robust TiO{sub 2} films on glass. • AgNPs were deposited on the surface of TiO{sub 2} films with the assistance of UV irradiation. • Substrates with high SERS sensitivity and excellent recyclability. - Abstract: Porous Ag/TiO{sub 2} composite films were prepared by spin coating of titania on normal glass slides and subsequent photochemical deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The films were characterized by XRD and FESEM to reveal micro structural and morphological differences between films obtained under varied conditions. The SERS properties of these films were investigated using aqueous crystal violet (CV) as probe molecules. The results indicate that the content of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and photo-reduction time had significant influences on both the microstructure and SERS performance of Ag/TiO{sub 2} films. The highest SERS sensitivity that allowed as low as 10{sup −10} M aqueous CV to be detected, was achieved with the PEG/(C{sub 4}H{sub 9}O){sub 4}Ti molar ratio being 0.08% and with 30 min of UV irradiation. With this film a linear relationship was established through experiment between SERS intensity and CV concentration from 10{sup −10} to 10{sup −5} M, which could be used as a calibration curve for CV concentration measurement. In addition, the film could be reused as a SERS substrate for up to four times without significantly losing SERS sensitivity if a simple regeneration was followed. It is visualized that the Ag/TiO{sub 2} film on glass has potentials for being developed into a practical SERS substrate with high sensitivity and good reusability.

  6. Preparation of metastable bcc permalloy epitaxial thin films on GaAs(011){sub B3} single-crystal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru, E-mail: ohtake@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Higuchi, Jumpei; Yabuhara, Osamu [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan); Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2011-09-30

    Permalloy (Py) single-crystal films with bcc structure were obtained on GaAs(011){sub B3} single-crystal substrates by ultra high vacuum rf magnetron sputtering. The film growth and the detailed film structures were investigated by refection high energy electron diffraction and pole figure X-ray diffraction. bcc-Py films epitaxially grow on the substrates in the orientation relationship of Py(011)[011-bar]{sub bcc} || GaAs(011)[011-bar]{sub B3}. The lattice constant of bcc-Py film is determined to be a = 0.291 nm. With increasing the film thickness, parts of the bcc crystal transform into more stable fcc structure by atomic displacement parallel to the bcc{l_brace}011{r_brace} close-packed planes. The resulting film thus consists of a mixture of bcc and fcc crystals. The phase transformation mechanism is discussed based on the experimental results. The in-plane magnetization properties reflecting the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bcc-Py crystal are observed for the Py films grown on GaAs(011){sub B3} substrates.

  7. Preparation of metastable bcc permalloy epitaxial thin films on GaAs(011)B3 single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Higuchi, Jumpei; Yabuhara, Osamu; Kirino, Fumiyoshi; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    Permalloy (Py) single-crystal films with bcc structure were obtained on GaAs(011) B3 single-crystal substrates by ultra high vacuum rf magnetron sputtering. The film growth and the detailed film structures were investigated by refection high energy electron diffraction and pole figure X-ray diffraction. bcc-Py films epitaxially grow on the substrates in the orientation relationship of Py(011)[011-bar] bcc || GaAs(011)[011-bar] B3 . The lattice constant of bcc-Py film is determined to be a = 0.291 nm. With increasing the film thickness, parts of the bcc crystal transform into more stable fcc structure by atomic displacement parallel to the bcc{011} close-packed planes. The resulting film thus consists of a mixture of bcc and fcc crystals. The phase transformation mechanism is discussed based on the experimental results. The in-plane magnetization properties reflecting the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bcc-Py crystal are observed for the Py films grown on GaAs(011) B3 substrates.

  8. Effects of crystallization on structural and dielectric properties of thin amorphous films of (1 - x)BaTiO3-xSrTiO3 (x=0-0.5, 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, H.; Morii, K.; Nakayama, Y.

    1993-05-01

    The possibilities for fabricating solid solutions of (Ba1-x,Srx)TiO3 (x≤0.5,1.0) by crystallization of amorphous films and for improving their dielectric properties by adjusting the Sr content were investigated. Thin amorphous films were prepared from powder targets consisting of mixtures of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 by sputtering with a neutralized Ar-ion beam. The amorphous films crystallized into (Ba1-x, Srx)TiO3 solid solutions with a cubic perovskite-type structure after annealing in air at 923 K for more than 1 h. The Debye-type dielectric relaxation was observed for the amorphous films, whereas the crystallized films showed paraelectric behavior. The relative dielectric constants were of the order of 20 for the amorphous samples, but increased greatly after crystallization to about 60-200, depending on the composition; a larger increase in the dielectric constant was observed in the higher Sr content films, in the range x≤0.5, which could be correlated with an increase in the grain size of the crystallites. The crystallization processes responsible for the difference in the grain size are discussed based on the microstructural observations.

  9. Transparent megahertz circuits from solution-processed composite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingqiang; Wan, Da; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Xiangheng; Guo, Shishang; Jiang, Changzhong; Li, Jinchai; Chen, Tangsheng; Duan, Xiangfeng; Fan, Zhiyong; Liao, Lei

    2016-04-21

    Solution-processed amorphous oxide semiconductors have attracted considerable interest in large-area transparent electronics. However, due to its relative low carrier mobility (∼10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), the demonstrated circuit performance has been limited to 800 kHz or less. Herein, we report solution-processed high-speed thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated circuits with an operation frequency beyond the megahertz region on 4 inch glass. The TFTs can be fabricated from an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (a-IGZO/SWNT) composite thin film with high yield and high carrier mobility of >70 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). On-chip microwave measurements demonstrate that these TFTs can deliver an unprecedented operation frequency in solution-processed semiconductors, including an extrinsic cut-off frequency (f(T) = 102 MHz) and a maximum oscillation frequency (f(max) = 122 MHz). Ring oscillators further demonstrated an oscillation frequency of 4.13 MHz, for the first time, realizing megahertz circuit operation from solution-processed semiconductors. Our studies represent an important step toward high-speed solution-processed thin film electronics.

  10. Temperature dependence of gas sensing behaviour of TiO2 doped PANI composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Subodh; Sharma, S. S.; Sharma, Preetam; Sharma, Vinay; Rajura, Rajveer Singh; Singh, M.; Vijay, Y. K.

    2014-04-01

    In the present work we have reported the effect of temperature on the gas sensing properties of TiO2 doped PANI composite thin film based chemiresistor type gas sensors for hydrogen gas sensing application. PANI and TiO2 doped PANI composite were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline at low temperature. The electrical properties of these composite thin films were characterized by I-V measurements as function of temperature. The I-V measurement revealed that conductivity of composite thin films increased as the temperature increased. The changes in resistance of the composite thin film sensor were utilized for detection of hydrogen gas. It was observed that at room temperature TiO2 doped PANI composite sensor shows higher response value and showed unstable behavior as the temperature increased. The surface morphology of these composite thin films has also been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement.

  11. Visualization of nanosecond laser-induced dewetting, ablation and crystallization processes in thin silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dongfeng; Zhang, Zifeng; Yu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Yawen

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, nanosecond pulsed laser crystallization, dewetting and ablation of thin amorphous silicon films are investigated by time-resolved imaging. Laser pulses of 532 nm wavelength and 7 ns temporal width are irradiated on silicon film. Below the dewetting threshold, crystallization process happens after 400 ns laser irradiation in the spot central region. With the increasing of laser fluence, it is observed that the dewetting process does not conclude until 300 ns after the laser irradiation, forming droplet-like particles in the spot central region. At higher laser intensities, ablative material removal occurs in the spot center. Cylindrical rims are formed in the peripheral dewetting zone due to solidification of transported matter at about 500 ns following the laser pulse exposure.

  12. Growth of Ba-hexaferrite films on single crystal 6-H SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhoahui; Yang, Aria; Yoon, S.D.; Ziemer, Katherine; Vittoria, Carmine; Harris, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    Barium hexaferrite films have been processed by pulsed laser deposition on single crystal 6-H silicon carbide substrates. Atomic force microscopy images show hexagonal crystals (∼0.5μm in diameter) oriented with the c-axis perpendicular to the film plane. X-ray θ-2θ diffraction measurements indicate a strong (0,0,2n) alignment of crystallites. The magnetization for low-pressure deposition (20mTorr) is comparable to bulk values (4πM s ∼4320G). The loop squareness, important for self-bias microwave device applications, increases with oxygen pressure reaching a maximum value of 70%. This marks the first growth of a microwave ferrite on SiC substrates and offers a new approach in the design and development of μ-wave and mm-wave monolithic integrated circuits. c integrated circuits

  13. The microstructural changes of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film during crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingbo; Qi, Chao; Chen, Limin; Zheng, Long; Xie, Qiyun

    2018-05-01

    Phase change memory is known as the most promising candidate for the next generation nonvolatile memory technology. In this paper, the microstructural changes of Ge2Sb2Te5 film, which is the most common choice of phase change memory material, has been carefully studied by the combination of several characterization techniques. The combination of resistance measurements, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray reflectivity allows us to simultaneously extract the characteristics of microstructural changes during crystallization process. The existence of surface/interface Ge2Sb2Te5 layer has been proposed here based on X-ray reflectivity measurements. Although the total film thickness decreases, as a result of the phase transition from amorphous to metastable crystalline cubic and then to the stable hexagonal phase, the surface/interface thickness increases after crystallization. Moreover, the increase of average grain size, density and surface roughness has been confirmed during thermal annealing process.

  14. Thermoelectric properties of conducting polyaniline/BaTiO3 nanoparticle composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anno, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Nakabayashi, T.; Kurokawa, H.; Akagi, F.; Hojo, M.; Toshima, N.

    2011-05-01

    Conducting polyaniline (PANI)/BaTiO3 nanoparticle composite films with different molar ratio values R=1, 5, 10, and 100 have been prepared on a quartz substrate by casting the m-cresol solution of PANI, (±)-10-camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) and BaTiO3 nanoparticle with an average diameter of about 20 nm. The CSA-doped PANI/BaTiO3 composite films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV-Vis transmission spectroscopy. The Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity of the films with different R values, together with CSA-doped PANI films, were measured in the temperature range from room temperature to ~400 K. The relation between the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity in the composite films are discussed from a comparison of them with those of CSA-doped PANI films and other PANI composite films.

  15. Compositional analysis of silicon oxide/silicon nitride thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meziani Samir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen, amorphous silicon nitride (SiNx:H abbreviated SiNx films were grown on multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si substrate by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD in parallel configuration using NH3/SiH4 gas mixtures. The mc-Si wafers were taken from the same column of Si cast ingot. After the deposition process, the layers were oxidized (thermal oxidation in dry oxygen ambient environment at 950 °C to get oxide/nitride (ON structure. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX were employed for analyzing quantitatively the chemical composition and stoichiometry in the oxide-nitride stacked films. The effect of annealing temperature on the chemical composition of ON structure has been investigated. Some species, O, N, Si were redistributed in this structure during the thermal oxidation of SiNx. Indeed, oxygen diffused to the nitride layer into Si2O2N during dry oxidation.

  16. Crystal Structure, Optical, and Electrical Properties of SnSe and SnS Semiconductor Thin Films Prepared by Vacuum Evaporation Techniques for Solar Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariswan; Sutrisno, H.; Prasetyawati, R.

    2017-05-01

    Thin films of SnSe and SnS semiconductors had been prepared by vacuum evaporation techniques. All prepared samples were characterized on their structure, optical, and electrical properties in order to know their application in technology. The crystal structure of SnSe and SnS was determined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) instrument. The morphology and chemical composition were obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive of X-Ray Analysis (EDAX). The optical property such as band gap was determined by DR-UV-Vis (Diffuse Reflectance-Ultra Violet-Visible) spectroscopy, while the electrical properties were determined by measuring the conductivity by four probes method. The characterization results indicated that both SnSe and SnS thin films were polycrystalline. SnSe crystallized in an orthorhombic crystal system with the lattice parameters of a = 11.47 Å, b = 4.152 Å and c = 4.439 Å, while SnS had an orthorhombic crystal system with lattice parameters of a = 4.317 Å, b = 11.647 Å and c = 3.981 Å. Band gaps (Eg) of SnSe and SnS were 1.63 eV and 1.35 eV, respectively. Chemical compositions of both thin films were non-stoichiometric. Molar ratio of Sn : S was close to ideal which was 1 : 0.96, while molar ratio of Sn : S was 1 : 0.84. The surface morphology described the arrangement of the grains on the surface of the thin film with sizes ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 microns. Color similarity on the surface of the SEM images proved a homogenous thin layer.

  17. Fabrication of compact and stable perovskite films with optimized precursor composition in the fast-growing procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tanghao; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Hu, Qin; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Yifei; Yang, Wenqiang; Wu, Jiang; Ye, Fengjun; Luo, Deying; Zhu, Kai; Padture, Nitin P.; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas; Zhu, Rui; Gong, Qihuang

    2017-06-02

    The fast-growing procedure (FGP) provides a simple, high-yield and lead (Pb)-release free method to prepare perovskite films. In the FGP, the ultra-dilute perovskite precursor solution is drop-cast onto a hot (~240 degrees C) substrate, where a perovskite film grows immediately accompanied by the rapid evaporation of the host solvent. In this process, all the raw materials in the precursor solution are deposited into the final perovskite film. The potential pollution caused by Pb can be significantly reduced. Properties of the FGP-processed perovskite films can be modulated by the precursor composition. While CH3NH3Cl (MACl) affects the crystallization process and leads to full surface coverage, CH(NH2)2I (FAI) enhances the thermal stability of the film. Based on the optimized precursor composition of PbI2(1-x)FAI xMACl, x=0.75, FGP-processed planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells exhibit power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceeding 15% with suppressed hysteresis and excellent reproducibility.

  18. Study on photocatalytic performance of cerium-graphene oxide-titanium dioxide composite film for formaldehyde removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Quan; Lai, Alvin C.K.; Zeng, Liping

    2016-01-01

    In order to degrade in-car formaldehyde gas, graphene oxide (GO), cerium (Ce), and TiO_2 were organically combined by one-step sol-gel method. Then the mixed collosol was coated onto the surface of inorganic glass substrates to form Ce-GO-TiO_2 composite film by way of immersion, coating, and calcinations. The morphology and crystal structure of as-prepared Ce-GO-TiO_2 film were studied by a series of detection techniques. The photocatalytic performance of this film was analyzed by the degradation effect of formaldehyde under simulated sunlight. The results showed that the Ce-GO-TiO_2 film had the inbuilt mesoporous structure in the lamellar stacking with particles. When the doping amount of Ce and GO were 0.4 and 0.2% (mass ratio), the composite film can improve effectively the response to the visible light and its degradation rate for low concentration of formaldehyde was up to 83.8% in simulated sunlight for 7 h, which could be attributed to the co-function of Ce and GO. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced phase transformation in undoped and niobium doped titanium dioxide composite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Subodh K., E-mail: subodhkgtm@gmail.com [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Chettah, Abdelhak [LGMM Laboratory, Université 20 Août 1955-Skikda, BP 26, 21000 Skikda (Algeria); Singh, R.G. [Department of Physics, Bhagini Nivedita College, Delhi University, Delhi 110043 (India); Ojha, Sunil; Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Study reports the effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation induced phase transformation in undoped and Niobium doped anatase TiO{sub 2} composite thin films. Investigations were carried out at different densities of electronic excitations (EEs) using 120 MeV Ag and 130 MeV Ni ions irradiations. Films were initially annealed at 900 °C and results revealed that undoped films were highly stable in anatase phase, while the Nb doped films showed the composite nature with the weak presence of Niobium penta-oxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) phase. The effect at low density of EEs in undoped film show partial anatase to rutile phase transformation; however doped film shows only further growth of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase beside the anatase to rutile phase transformation. At higher density of EEs induced by Ag ions, registered continuous ion track of ∼3 nm in lattice which leads to nano-crystallization followed by decomposition/amorphization of rutile TiO{sub 2} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} phases in undoped and doped films, respectively. However, Ni ions are only induced discontinuous sequence of ion tracks with creation of damage and disorder and do not show amorphization in the lattice. The in-elastic thermal spike calculations were carried out for anatase TiO{sub 2} phase to understand the effect of EEs on anatase to rutile phase transformation followed by amorphization in NTO films in terms of continuous and discontinuous track formation by SHI irradiation.

  20. Perovskite single crystals and thin films for optoelectronic devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Han, Qifeng; Yang, Yang; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Sun, Pengyu

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid organolead trihalide perovskite (OTP) solar cells have developed as a promising candidate in photovoltaics due to their excellent properties including a direct bandgap, strong absorption coefficient, long carrier lifetime, and high mobility. Most recently, formamidinium (NH2CH=NH2+ or FA) lead iodide (FAPbI3) has attracted significant attention due to several advantages: (1) the larger organic FA cation can replace the MA cation and form a more symmetric crystal structure, (2) the smaller bandgap of FAPbI3 allows for near infrared (NIR) absorption, and (3) FAPbI3 has an elevated decomposition temperature and thus potential to improve stability. Single crystals provide an excellent model system to study the intrinsic electrical and optical properties of these materials due to their high purity, which is particularly important to understand the limits of these materials. In this work, we report the growth of large ( 5 millimeter size) single crystal FAPbI3 using a novel liquid based crystallization method. The single crystal FAPbI3 demonstrated a δ-phase to α-phase transition with a color change from yellow to black when heated to 185°C within approximately two minutes. The crystal structures of the two phases were identified and the PL emission peak of the α-phase FAPbI3 (820 nm) shows clear red-shift compared to the FAPbI3 thin film (805 nm). The FAPbI3 single crystal shows a long carrier lifetime of 484 ns, a high carrier mobility of 4.4 cm2·V-1·s-1, and even more interestingly a conductivity of 1.1 × 10-7(ohm·cm)-1, which is approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of the MAPbI3 single crystal. Finally, high performance photoconductivity type photodetectors were successfully demonstrated using the single crystal FAPbI3.

  1. Crystallization processes in Ni-Ti-B glassy alloys of near-ternary-eutectic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, N.; Morris, D.G.; Stadelmann, P.

    1987-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics and mechanisms of three Ni-Ti-B glasses have been examined with a view to elucidating the roles of chemical composition and quenched structure on behaviour. Alloys of composition near a ternary-eutectic point have been chosen because they represent a real and complex situation where several crystalline phases may form simultaneously. Crystallization processes are analysed in terms of nucleation and growth stages. Different nucleation mechanisms seem to be best explained in terms of the short range ordered structure of the quenched glass. Analysis of crystal glass interface energies indicates that it is not this energy term which controls the nucleation of crystals on annealing. Crystal growth may involve a eutectic mechanism or a single-phase mechanism controlled by interface or matrix-diffusion kinetics. Crystallization is fastest when eutectic nucleation and growth occurs. Formation of the eutectic colony requires the initial formation of the phase of complex structure followed by the phase of simpler structure

  2. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Studies Of Dimethyl Methylphosphonate Sorption Into Trisilanolphenyl-Poss Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-06

    QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE STUDIES OF DIMETHYL METHYLPHOSPHONATE SORPTION INTO TRISILANOLPHENYL-POSS FILMS Joshua D. Kittle Thesis ...subsequent DIMP layers form a solid- like phase as a result of nucleated growth around the first layer. Bertilsson et al. studied the adsorption of...of QCMs in liquids,55, 56 opening the door to a variety of applications, including the study of electrodeposition of metals,57,65 electrochemical

  3. Study optoelectronic properties for polymer composite thick film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobayr, Mahmood Radhi; Al Razak, Ali Hussein Abd; Mahdi, Shatha H.; Fadhil, Rihab Nassr

    2018-05-01

    Coupling the epoxy with cadmium oxide particles are important for optical properties that may be affected by various mixing proportions. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of different mixing proportions on these properties of reinforced epoxy with cadmium oxide particles. The ultrasonic techniques were used to mix and prepared samples of composites. The surfaces topographic of the 50 µm thick reinforced epoxy films were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and microscopy technique (FTIR) Spectroscopy. AFM imaging and quantitative characterization of the films showed that for all samples the root mean square of the surface roughness increases monotonically with increasing the CdO concentrations (from 0% to 15%). The observed effects of CdO concentrations on surface roughness can be explained by two things: the first reason is that the atoms of additives are combined with the original material to form a new compound that is smoother, more homogeneity and smaller in particle size. The second reason is due to high mixing due to ultrasonic mixing. It is clear also, AFM examination of the prepared samples of reinforced epoxy resin shown that topographical contrast and the identification of small structural details critically depend on hardness of epoxy resin, which in turn depended on the ratio of material (CdO) added. We show that the AFM imaging of the films showed that the mean diameter (104.8nm) of films for all of the samples decreased from 135.50 nm to 83.20 nm with the increase of CdO concentrations.

  4. Effect of carbon derivatives in sulfonated poly(etherimide)-liquid crystal polymer composite for methanol vapor sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Souvik; Rathi, Keerti; Pal, Kaushik

    2017-05-01

    A class of highly sensitive chemiresistive sensors is developed for methanol (MeOH) vapor detection in ambient atmosphere by introducing conductive nanofillers like carbon black, multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and reduced graphene oxide into sulfonated poly(etherimide) (PEI)/liquid crystal polymer (LCP) composite (sPEI-LCP). Polar composites are prepared by a sulfonation process for instantaneous enhancement in adsorption capability of the sensing films to the target analyte (MeOH). Sensing properties exhibit that polymer composite-based fabricated sensors are efficient for the detection of different concentration of methanol vapor from 300-1200 parts-per-million (ppm) at room temperature. The incorporation of nanofiller induces the dramatic change in sensing behavior of base composite film (sPEI-LCP). Thus, less mass fraction of nanofillers (i.e. 2 wt%) influences the nonlinear sensing behavior for the entire range of methanol vapor. The simple method and low fabrication cost of the prepared sensor are compelling reasons that methanol vapor sensor is suitable for environmental monitoring.

  5. Composite Films Formed by Cellulose nanocrystals and Latex Nanoparticles: Optical, Structural, and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollick, Brandon McRae

    This thesis describes the preparation of iridescent, birefringent, composite films composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), latex nanoparticles (NPs) and a NP crosslinker; hexanediamine (HDA). First, aqueous suspensions were prepared with varying quantities of CNCs, NPs and HDA before equilibrating for one week. The cholesteric (Ch) phase was then cast and dried into a film. The optical, structural and mechanical properties of the film was analyzed. Second, films with identical compositions of CNCs, NPs, and HDA were fabricated in three different ways to yield films of different morphology, (i) fast drying of an isotropic suspension, yielding an isotropic film, (ii) slow drying of an isotropic suspension, yielding a partially Ch films, (iii) slow drying of an equilibrated suspension, yielding a highly Ch film. The optical and mechanical properties of the films was analyzed.

  6. Transient phases during crystallization of solution-processed organic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jing; Li, Yang; Ulbrandt, Jeffery; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Hollin, Jonathan; Whalley, Adam; Headrick, Randall

    We report an in-situ study of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) organic semiconductor thin film deposition from solution via hollow pen writing, which exhibits multiple transient phases during crystallization. Under high writing speed (25 mm/s) the films have an isotropic morphology, although the mobilities range up to 3.0 cm2/V.s. To understand the crystallization in this highly non-equilibrium regime, we employ in-situ microbeam grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering combined with optical video microscopy at different deposition temperatures. A sequence of crystallization was observed in which a layered liquid-crystalline (LC) phase of C8-BTBT precedes inter-layer ordering. For films deposited above 80ºC, a transition from LC phase to a transient crystalline state that we denote as Cr1 occurs after a temperature-dependent incubation time, which is consistent with classical nucleation theory. After an additional ~ 0.5s, Cr1 transforms to the final stable structure Cr2. Based on these results, we demonstrate a method to produce large crystalline grain size and high carrier mobility during high-speed processing by controlling the nucleation rate during the transformation from the LC phase. Nsf DMR-1307017, NSF DMR-1332208.

  7. Control of polythiophene film microstructure and charge carrier dynamics through crystallization temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Marsh, Hilary S.; Reid, Obadiah G.; Barnes, George; Heeney, Martin; Stingelin, Natalie; Rumbles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure of neat conjugated polymers is crucial in determining the ultimate morphology and photovoltaic performance of polymer/fullerene blends, yet until recently, little work has focused on controlling the former. Here, we demonstrate that both the long-range order along the (100)-direction and the lamellar crystal thickness along the (001)-direction in neat poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly[(3,3″-didecyl[2,2′:5′, 2″-terthiophene]-5,5″-diyl)] (PTTT-10) thin films can be manipulated by varying crystallization temperature. Changes in crystalline domain size impact the yield and dynamics of photogenerated charge carriers. Time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements show that neat polymer films composed of larger crystalline domains have longer photoconductance lifetimes and charge carrier yield decreases with increasing crystallite size for P3HT. Our results suggest that the classical polymer science description of temperature-dependent crystallization of polymers from solution can be used to understand thin-film formation in neat conjugated polymers, and hence, should be considered when discussing the structural evolution of organic bulk heterojunctions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Control of polythiophene film microstructure and charge carrier dynamics through crystallization temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Marsh, Hilary S.

    2014-03-22

    The microstructure of neat conjugated polymers is crucial in determining the ultimate morphology and photovoltaic performance of polymer/fullerene blends, yet until recently, little work has focused on controlling the former. Here, we demonstrate that both the long-range order along the (100)-direction and the lamellar crystal thickness along the (001)-direction in neat poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly[(3,3″-didecyl[2,2′:5′, 2″-terthiophene]-5,5″-diyl)] (PTTT-10) thin films can be manipulated by varying crystallization temperature. Changes in crystalline domain size impact the yield and dynamics of photogenerated charge carriers. Time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements show that neat polymer films composed of larger crystalline domains have longer photoconductance lifetimes and charge carrier yield decreases with increasing crystallite size for P3HT. Our results suggest that the classical polymer science description of temperature-dependent crystallization of polymers from solution can be used to understand thin-film formation in neat conjugated polymers, and hence, should be considered when discussing the structural evolution of organic bulk heterojunctions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Surface structure of ultrathin metal films deposited on copper single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, M.T.

    2000-04-01

    Ultrathin films of Cobalt, Iron and Manganese have been thermally evaporated onto an fcc Copper (111) single crystal substrate and investigated using a variety of surface structural techniques. The small lattice mismatch between these metals and the Cu (111) substrate make them an ideal candidate for the study of the phenomena of pseudomorphic film growth. This is important for the understanding of the close relationship between film structure and magnetic properties. Growing films with the structure of their substrate rather than their bulk phase may provide an opportunity to grow materials with novel physical and magnetic properties, and hence new technological applications. Both Cobalt and Iron have been found to initially maintain a registry with the fcc Cu (111) surface in a manner consistent with pseudomorphic growth. This growth is complicated by island rather than layer by layer growth in the initials stages of the film. In both cases a change in the structure of the film seems to occur at a point where the coalescence of islands in the film may be expected to occur. When the film does change structure they do not form a perfect overlayer with the structure of their bulk counterpart. The films do contain a number of features representative of the bulk phase but also contain considerable disorder and possibly remnants of fcc (111) structure. The order present in these films can be greatly improved by annealing. Manganese appears to grow with an fcc Mn (111) lattice spacing and there is no sign of a change in structure in films of up to 4.61 ML thick. The gradual deposition and annealing of a film to 300 deg. C, with a total deposition time the same as that for a 1 ML thick film, causes a surface reconstruction to occur that is apparent in a R30 deg. (√3 x √3) LEED pattern. This is attributed to the formation of a surface alloy, which is also supported by the local expansion of the Cu lattice in the (111) direction. (author)

  10. Transition from Spin Dewetting to continuous film in spin coating of Liquid Crystal 5CB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Palash; Bhandaru, Nandini; Das, Anuja; Mukherjee, Rabibrata

    2018-05-08

    Spin dewetting refers to spontaneous rupture of the dispensed solution layer during spin coating, resulting in isolated but periodic, regular sized domains of the solute and is pre-dominant when the solute concentration (C n ) is very low. In this article we report how the morphology of liquid crystal (LC) 5CB thin films coated on flat and patterned PMMA substrate transform from spin dewetted droplets to continuous films with increase in C n . We further show that within the spin dewetted regime, with gradual increase in the solute concentration, periodicity of the isotropic droplets (λ D ) as well as their mean diameter (d D ), gradually decreases, till the film becomes continuous at a critical concentration (C n *). Interestingly, the trend that λ D reduces with increase in C n is exact opposite to what is observed in thermal/solvent vapor induced dewetting of a thin film. The spin dewetted droplets exhibit transient Radial texture, in contrast to Schlieren texture observed in elongated threads and continuous films of 5CB, which remains in the Nematic phase at room temperature. Finally we show that by casting the film on a grating patterned substrate it becomes possible to align the spin dewetted droplets along the contours substrate patterns.

  11. Preparation of Surlyn films reinforced with cellulose nanofibres and feasibility of applying the transparent composite films for organic photovoltaic encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertngim, Anantaya; Phiriyawirut, Manisara; Wootthikanokkhan, Jatuphorn; Yuwawech, Kitti; Sangkhun, Weradesh; Kumnorkaew, Pisist; Muangnapoh, Tanyakorn

    2017-10-01

    This research concerns the development of Surlyn film reinforced with micro-/nanofibrillated celluloses (MFC) for use as an encapsulant in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of fibre types and the mixing methods on the structure-properties of the composite films. Three types of cellulose micro/nanofibrils were prepared: the as-received MFC, the dispersed MFC and the esterified MFC. The fibres were mixed with Surlyn via an extrusion process, using two different mixing methods. It was found that the extent of fibre disintegration and tensile modulus of the composite films prepared by the master-batching process was superior to that of the composite system prepared by the direct mixing method. Using the esterified MFC as a reinforcement, compatibility between polymer and the fibre increased, accompanied with the improvement of the percentage elongation of the Surlyn composite film. The percentage of light transmittance of the Surlyn/MFC films was above 88, regardless of the fibre types and fibre concentrations. The water vapour transmission rate of the Surlyn/esterified MFC film was 65% lower than that of the neat Surlyn film. This contributed to the longer lifetime of the OPV encapsulated with the Surlyn/esterified MFC film.

  12. Crystallization and melting behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced nylon-6 composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phang, In Yee; Ma, Jianhua; Shen, Lu; Liu, Tianxi; Zhang, Wei-De

    2006-01-01

    The crystallization and melting behavior of neat nylon-6 (PA6) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)/PA6 composites prepared by simple melt-compounding was comparatively studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results show two crystallization exotherms (TCC, 1 and TCC, 2) for PA6/MWNTs

  13. Local structure, composition, and crystallization mechanism of a model two-phase “composite nanoglass”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Soma; Shibata, Tomohiro [CSRRI-IIT, MRCAT, Sector 10, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kelly, S. D. [EXAFS Analysis, Bolingbrook, Illinois 60440 (United States); Balasubramanian, M. [Sector 20 XOR, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Srinivasan, S. G.; Du, Jincheng; Banerjee, Rajarshi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203-5017 (United States); Ayyub, Pushan, E-mail: pushan@tifr.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2016-02-14

    We report a detailed study of the local composition and structure of a model, bi-phasic nanoglass with nominal stoichiometry Cu{sub 55}Nb{sub 45}. Three dimensional atom probe data suggest a nanoscale-phase-separated glassy structure having well defined Cu-rich and Nb-rich regions with a characteristic length scale of ≈3 nm. However, extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicates subtle differences in the local environments of Cu and Nb. While the Cu atoms displayed a strong tendency to cluster and negligible structural order beyond the first coordination shell, the Nb atoms had a larger fraction of unlike neighbors (higher chemical order) and a distinctly better-ordered structural environment (higher topological order). This provides the first experimental indication that metallic glass formation may occur due to frustration arising from the competition between chemical ordering and clustering. These observations are complemented by classical as well as ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Our study indicates that these nanoscale phase-separated glasses are quite distinct from the single phase nanoglasses (studied by Gleiter and others) in the following three respects: (i) they contain at least two structurally and compositionally distinct, nanodispersed, glassy phases, (ii) these phases are separated by comparatively sharp inter-phase boundaries, and (iii) thermally induced crystallization occurs via a complex, multi-step mechanism. Such materials, therefore, appear to constitute a new class of disordered systems that may be called a composite nanoglass.

  14. Geometrical optics approach in liquid crystal films with three-dimensional director variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, G; Kelly, J; Gartland, E C; Allender, D W

    2003-04-01

    A formal geometrical optics approach (GOA) to the optics of nematic liquid crystals whose optic axis (director) varies in more than one dimension is described. The GOA is applied to the propagation of light through liquid crystal films whose director varies in three spatial dimensions. As an example, the GOA is applied to the calculation of light transmittance for the case of a liquid crystal cell which exhibits the homeotropic to multidomainlike transition (HMD cell). Properties of the GOA solution are explored, and comparison with the Jones calculus solution is also made. For variations on a smaller scale, where the Jones calculus breaks down, the GOA provides a fast, accurate method for calculating light transmittance. The results of light transmittance calculations for the HMD cell based on the director patterns provided by two methods, direct computer calculation and a previously developed simplified model, are in good agreement.

  15. Characterization of nanostructured photosensitive (NiS)x(CdS)(1-x) composite thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubale, A.U.; Bargal, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thin films of (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) with variable composition (x = 1 to 0) were deposited onto glass substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. → The structural, surface morphological and electrical characterizations of the as deposited and annealed films were studied. → The bandgap and activation energy of annealed (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) film decrease with improvement in photosensitive nature. -- Abstract: Recently ternary semiconductor nanostructured composite materials have attracted the interest of researchers because of their photovoltaic applications. Thin films of (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) with variable composition (x = 1-0) had been deposited onto glass substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. As grown and annealed films were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDAX to investigate structural and morphological properties. The (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) films were polycrystalline in nature having mixed phase of rhombohedral and hexagonal crystal structure due to NiS and CdS respectively. The optical and electrical properties of (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) thin films were studied to determine compsition dependent bandgap, activation energy and photconductivity. The bandgap and activation energy of annealed (NiS) x (CdS) (1-x) film decrease with improvement in photosensitive nature.

  16. Characterization of nanostructured photosensitive (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} composite thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubale, A.U., E-mail: ashokuu@yahoo.com [Nanostructured Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities, Amravati 444604, Maharashtra (India); Bargal, A.N. [Nanostructured Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Govt. Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities, Amravati 444604, Maharashtra (India)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Thin films of (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} with variable composition (x = 1 to 0) were deposited onto glass substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. {yields} The structural, surface morphological and electrical characterizations of the as deposited and annealed films were studied. {yields} The bandgap and activation energy of annealed (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} film decrease with improvement in photosensitive nature. -- Abstract: Recently ternary semiconductor nanostructured composite materials have attracted the interest of researchers because of their photovoltaic applications. Thin films of (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} with variable composition (x = 1-0) had been deposited onto glass substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. As grown and annealed films were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDAX to investigate structural and morphological properties. The (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} films were polycrystalline in nature having mixed phase of rhombohedral and hexagonal crystal structure due to NiS and CdS respectively. The optical and electrical properties of (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} thin films were studied to determine compsition dependent bandgap, activation energy and photconductivity. The bandgap and activation energy of annealed (NiS){sub x}(CdS){sub (1-x)} film decrease with improvement in photosensitive nature.

  17. Piezoresistive polysilicon film obtained by low-temperature aluminum-induced crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Suraj Kumar; Celik-Butler, Zeynep; Butler, Donald P.

    2010-01-01

    A low-temperature deposition process employing aluminum-induced crystallization has been developed for fabrication of piezoresistive polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) films on low cost and flexible polyimide substrates for force and pressure sensing applications. To test the piezoresistive properties of the polysilicon films, prototype pressure sensors were fabricated on surface-micromachined silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) diaphragms, in a half-Wheatstone bridge configuration. Characterization of the pressure sensor was performed using atomic force microscope in contact mode with a specially modified probe-tip. Low pressure values ranging from 5 kPa to 45 kPa were achieved by this method. The resistance change was found to be - 0.1% to 0.5% and 0.07% to 0.3% for polysilicon films obtained at 500 o C and 400 o C, respectively, for the applied pressure range.

  18. Characteristic electron energy loss in lanthanum films adsorbed on tungsten (110) single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetskij, D.A.; Gorchinskij, A.D.; Kobylyanskij, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    The spectrum of electron energy loss (ELS) in a wide range of energy loss 0-150 eV has been studied for La films adsorbed on W(110) single crystal with the coverage Θ from submonolayer to a few monolayers. The concentration dependence of loss energy peaks amplitude of different nature has been studied for the adsorption of rare earth element on refractory substrate. It has been shown that the essential information for the interpretation of the energy loss nature may be obtained by the investigation of such dependences for La adsorption on W(110). It is found that the surface and bulk plasmons peaks appear in ELS of La-W(110) system before the completion of the physical monolayer. Thus, the collectivization of valence electrons in the rare earth element film at the transition metal surface ensues for the submonolayer coverage like in the case of collective processes in alkali and alkaline earth element films

  19. Photonic-Crystal-Based Thin Film Sensor for Detecting Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hyung Kwan; Park, Jung Yul [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Early detection of toxic gases, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), is important for safety and environmental protection. However, the conventional detection methods require long-term measurement times and expensive equipment. In this study, we propose a thin-film-type chemical sensor for VOCs, which consists of self assembled monosize nanoparticles for 3-D photonic crystal structures and polydimthylsiloxane (PDMS) film. It is operated without any external power source, is truly portable, and has a fast response time. The structure color of the sensor changes when it is exposed to VOCs, because VOCs induce a swelling of the PDMS. Therefore, using this principle of color change, we can create a thin-film sensor for immediate detection of various types of VOCs. The proposed device evidences that a fast response time of just seconds, along with a clear color change, are successfully observed when the sensor is exposed to gas-phase VOCs.

  20. Surface alignment of liquid crystal multilayers evaporated on a photoaligned polyimide film observed by surface profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oo, T.N.; Iwata, T.; Kimura, M.; Akahane, T.

    2005-01-01

    The investigation of the surface alignment of liquid crystal (LC) multilayers evaporated on a photoaligned polyimide vertical alignment (PI-VA) film was carried out by means of a novel three-dimensional (3-D) surface profiler. The photoinduced anisotropy of the partially UV-exposed PI-VA film can be visualized as a topological image of LC multilayers. It seems that the topology of LC multilayers is indicating the orientational distribution of LC molecules on the treated film. Moreover, it was shown that the surface profiler can be used to produce non-contact images with high vertical resolution (∼ 0.01 nm). Copyright (2003) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  1. A sensor of alcohol vapours based on thin polyaniline base film and quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Mohamad M; El-Hefnawey, Gad; Torad, Nagy L

    2009-08-30

    Thin films of polyaniline base, emeraldine base (EB), coating on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrode were used as a sensitive layer for the detection of a number of primary aliphatic alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol and 1-propanol vapours. The frequency shifts (Deltaf) of the QCM were increased due to the vapour adsorption into the EB film. Deltaf were found to be linearly correlated with the concentrations of alcohols vapour in part per million (ppm). The sensitivity of the sensor was found to be governed by the chemical structure of the alcohol. The sensor shows a good reproducibility and reversibility. The diffusions of different alcohols vapour were studied and the diffusion coefficients (D) were calculated. It is concluded that the diffusion of the vapours into the EB film follows Fickian kinetics.

  2. Preparation and structural characterization of FeCo epitaxial thin films on insulating single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    FeCo epitaxial films were prepared on MgO(111), SrTiO 3 (111), and Al 2 O 3 (0001) single-crystal substrates by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The effects of insulating substrate material on the film growth process and the structures were investigated. FeCo(110) bcc films grow on MgO substrates with two type domains, Nishiyama-Wassermann (NW) and Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) relationships. On the contrary, FeCo films grown on SrTiO 3 and Al 2 O 3 substrates include FeCo(111) bcc crystal in addition to the FeCo(110) bcc crystals with NW and KS relationships. The FeCo(111) bcc crystal consists of two type domains whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other. The out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of FeCo(110) bcc and FeCo(111) bcc crystals formed on the insulating substrates are in agreement with those of the bulk Fe 50 Co 50 (at. %) crystal with small errors ranging between +0.2% and +0.4%, showing that the strains in the epitaxial films are very small.

  3. Evaluation of secondary crystallization effect in poly hydroxybutyrate and silanized coir dust composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, Carolina C. de; Costa, Marysilvia F. da; Thire, Rossana M.S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate is a natural and biodegradable polyester, susceptible to secondary crystallization when it is stored at environment temperature. Coir dust is an agroindustrial waste which has good prospects for use as filler in composites. In this context, PHB-coir dust composites were produced. The compatibilization was made by coir dust silanization. The secondary crystallization evolution on materials was evaluated by x-ray diffraction. Its effect was verified by tension tests which presented that elastic modulus increases when crystallinity increases. (author)

  4. Crystallization and degradation behaviors of poly(butylene succinate)/poly(Z-L-lysine) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Licheng; Hu, Jun; Ye, Suwen; Wei, Junchao; Chen, Yiwang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/poly(Z-L-lysine) (PZlys) composites were successfully prepared through physical blend. • PZlys may greatly affected the crystallization behaviors of PBS without changing its crystalline structure. • The degradation speed of PBS may be greatly accelerated by introduction of PZlys in PBS matrix. - Abstract: A new type of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/poly(Z-L-lysine) (PZlys) composites were prepared. The crystallization behaviors were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and the results showed that PZlys can restrict the crystallization of PBS, the crystallization speed of PBS/PZlys were slower than that of PBS, and the crystallization degree of the composites were smaller than that of PBS. However, the WAXD results showed that the incorporation of PZlys did not change the crystalline structure of PBS. The in vitro degradation experiments demonstrated that the degradation speed of the composites were faster than that of PBS. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the composites showed that the composites with a proper composition (for example, 80/20) can keep the mechanical properties of PBS without evident difference, which implied that the composites might be potentially useful as biodegradable materials

  5. Compositions of melts for growth of functional single crystals of complex oxides and other compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, L. V.

    2008-12-01

    The melt compositions ( M c) are calculated for growing crystals with valuable physical properties. The calculation is based on the compositions of the invariant points of the liquidus curves for 33 congruently and 12 incongruently melting solid phases of 42 fusibility diagrams of binary systems. These systems include Na, Ca, Ba, Mg, and Y aluminates; Bi and Pb germanates; Li, K, Ba, and Bi borates; Ba, Fe, Sr, and Bi titanates; Li, K, Cs, Ba, Zn, Ca niobates; Li, Pb, and Gd molibdates; Pb and Nd tungstates; etc. More than 60 studies with data on the experimentally found melt compositions ( M e) for growing the noted crystals are analyzed. It is shown that the melt compositions M c and M e for growth of congruently and incongruently melting crystals are similar. Large-size stoichiometric crystals of high optical quality are grown using these melt compositions. Nonstoichiometric crystals of low structural quality are grown from melt compositions either corresponding to the stoichiometric ratio of the components ( M s) or similar to the compositions at invariant points ( M i). In these cases, a large difference is observed between the melt compositions M c, M s, and M e.

  6. Composite structure of ZnO films coated with reduced graphene oxide: structural, electrical and electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Weiqiang; Hu, Yuehui; Chen, Yichuan; Hu, Keyan; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Wenjun; Tong, Fan; Lao, Zixuan

    2018-02-01

    ZnO films coated with reduced graphene oxide (RGO-ZnO) were prepared by a simple chemical approach. The graphene oxide (GO) films transferred onto ZnO films by spin coating were reduced to RGO films by two steps (exposed to hydrazine vapor for 12 h and annealed at 600 °C). The crystal structures, electrical and photoluminescence properties of RGO-ZnO films on quartz substrates were systematically studied. The SEM images illustrated that RGO layers have successfully been coated on the ZnO films very tightly. The PL properties of RGO-ZnO were studied. PL spectra show two sharp peaks at 390 nm and a broad visible emission around 490 nm. The resistivity of RGO-ZnO films was measured by a Hall measurement system, RGO as nanofiller considerably decrease the resistivity of ZnO films. An electrode was fabricated, using RGO-ZnO films deposited on Si substrate as active materials, for super capacitor application. By comparison of different results, we conclude that the RGO-ZnO composite material couples possess the properties of super capacitor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61464005, 51562015), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province (Nos. 20143ACB21004, 20151BAB212008, 20171BAB216015), the Jiangxi Province Foreign Cooperation Projects, China (No. 20151BDH80031), the Leader Training Object Project of Major Disciplines Academic and Technical of Jiangxi Province (No. 20123BCB22002), and the Key Technology R & D Program of the Jiangxi Provine of Science and Technology (No. 20171BBE50053).

  7. Features of film growth during plasma anodizing of Al 2024/SiC metal matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue Wenbin [Key Laboratory for Radiation Beam Technology and Materials Modification, Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)]. E-mail: xuewb@bnu.edu.cn

    2006-07-15

    Plasma anodizing is a novel promising process to fabricate corrosion-resistant protective films on metal matrix composites. The corrosion-resistant films were prepared by plasma anodizing on SiC reinforced aluminum matrix composite. The morphology and microstructure of films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Specifically, the morphology of residual SiC reinforcement particles in the film was observed. It is found that the most SiC reinforcement particles have been molten to become silicon oxide, but a few tiny SiC particles still remain in the film close to the composite/film interface. This interface is irregular due to the hindering effect of SiC particles on the film growth. Morphology and distribution of residual SiC particles in film provide direct evidence to identify the local melt occurs in the interior of plasma anodizing film even near the composite/film interface. A model of film growth by plasma anodizing on metal matrix composites was proposed.

  8. Functional chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract composite films for applications in food packaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Y.M.; Lim, S.H.; Tay, B.Y.; Lee, M.W.; Thian, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) films were solution casted. • GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. • All chitosan-based composite films showed remarkable transparency. • Increasing amounts of GFSE incorporated increased the elongation at break of films. • Chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth. - Abstract: Chitosan-based composite films with different amounts of grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v) were fabricated via solution casting technique. Experimental results showed that GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. The presence of GFSE made the films more amorphous and tensile strength decreased, while elongation at break values increased as GFSE content increased. Results from the measurement of light transmission revealed that increasing amounts of GFSE (from 0.5 to 1.5% v/v) did not affect transparency of the films. Furthermore, packaging of bread samples with chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth as compared to control samples. Hence, chitosan-based GFSE composite films have the potential to be a useful material in the area of food technology

  9. Functional chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract composite films for applications in food packaging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Y.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Lim, S.H.; Tay, B.Y. [Forming Technology Group, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (Singapore); Lee, M.W. [Food Innovation and Resource Centre, Singapore Polytechnic (Singapore); Thian, E.S., E-mail: mpetes@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) films were solution casted. • GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. • All chitosan-based composite films showed remarkable transparency. • Increasing amounts of GFSE incorporated increased the elongation at break of films. • Chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth. - Abstract: Chitosan-based composite films with different amounts of grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v) were fabricated via solution casting technique. Experimental results showed that GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. The presence of GFSE made the films more amorphous and tensile strength decreased, while elongation at break values increased as GFSE content increased. Results from the measurement of light transmission revealed that increasing amounts of GFSE (from 0.5 to 1.5% v/v) did not affect transparency of the films. Furthermore, packaging of bread samples with chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth as compared to control samples. Hence, chitosan-based GFSE composite films have the potential to be a useful material in the area of food technology.

  10. Features of film growth during plasma anodizing of Al 2024/SiC metal matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Wenbin

    2006-01-01

    Plasma anodizing is a novel promising process to fabricate corrosion-resistant protective films on metal matrix composites. The corrosion-resistant films were prepared by plasma anodizing on SiC reinforced aluminum matrix composite. The morphology and microstructure of films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Specifically, the morphology of residual SiC reinforcement particles in the film was observed. It is found that the most SiC reinforcement particles have been molten to become silicon oxide, but a few tiny SiC particles still remain in the film close to the composite/film interface. This interface is irregular due to the hindering effect of SiC particles on the film growth. Morphology and distribution of residual SiC particles in film provide direct evidence to identify the local melt occurs in the interior of plasma anodizing film even near the composite/film interface. A model of film growth by plasma anodizing on metal matrix composites was proposed

  11. Microstructure and tribological properties of NbN-Ag composite films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Hongbo; Xu, Junhua, E-mail: jhxu@just.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • NbN-Ag films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • The fcc-NbN, hcp-NbN and fcc-Ag coexisted in NbN-Ag films. • The incorporation of Ag into NbN matrix led to the decrease of hardness. • The films (9.2–13.5 at.% Ag) were found to be optimized for wear resistance tools. - Abstract: Recently, the chameleon thin films were developed with the purpose of adjusting their chemistry at self-mating interfaces in response to environmental changes at a wide temperature range. However, very few studies have focused on what state the lubricious noble metal exists in the films and the tribological properties at room temperature (RT). Composite NbN-Ag films with various Ag content (Ag/(Nb + Ag)) were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering to investigate the crystal structure, mechanical and tribological properties. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses showed that face-centered cubic (fcc) NbN, hexagonal close-packed (hcp) NbN and fcc silver coexisted in NbN-Ag films. The incorporation of soft Ag into NbN matrix led to the hardness decrease from 29.6 GPa at 0 at.% Ag to 11.3 GPa at 19.9 at.% Ag. Tribological properties of NbN-Ag films performed using dry pin-on-disc wear tests against Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} depended on Ag content to a large extent. The average friction coefficient and wear rate of NbN-Ag films decreased as Ag content increased from 4.0 to 9.2 at.%. With a further increase of Ag content, the average friction coefficient further decreased, while the wear rate increased gradually. The optimal Ag content was found to be 9.2–13.5 at.%, which showed low average friction coefficient values of 0.46–0.40 and wear rate values of 1.1 × 10{sup −8} to 1.7 × 10{sup −8} mm{sup 3}/(mm N). 3D Profiler and Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the lubricant tribo-film AgNbO{sub 3} detected on the surface of the

  12. Hydrodynamics of defects in nematic liquid crystal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis I propose a new theory to deal with the presence of a macroscopic density of defects or disclinations in two-dimensional systems of uniaxial nematic liquid crystal. The static part of the Abelian-Higgs model is the basis for a gauge covariant form of the Frank free energy for distortions in nematics, where the gauge field models the screening due to the presence of the defects. Certain results for vortices in the Abelian-Higgs model are reformulated for use in my theory. The model suggests disclinations with an isotropic core region. The covariant Frank free energy is used to derive a new form of the Ericksen-Leslie equations describing the hydrodynamics off nematics. These equations are set up according to the concept of thermodynamic fluxes and forces. Detailed analytic results are derived for the case where the dynamics is due to director reorientations, but no liquid flow. The hydrodynamic equations are reduced to dynamic equations for disclination points assuming a quasi-static motion in moduli space. The static form of the disclinations is based on solutions in the Bogomol'nyi limit, their quasi-static motion is induced through a deviation from this limit. The resulting equations are valid for a configuration containing disclinations with winding numbers of the same sign. These general equations require a, specific ansatz to yield further results. I consider two regimes, for defects close together and far apart from one another. A set of disclinations with winding numbers of the same sign which are close to one another, i.e. with overlapping cores, can result from disintegration of a larger disclination, and they repel one another. The results for this case predict how the disintegration could occur. The interaction of disclinations, with winding numbers of the same sign, which are far apart from one another is repulsive and decreases exponentially with the distances between them. Two such disclinations move on a straight line where their

  13. Crystallization and melting behavior of isotactic polypropylene composites filled by zeolite supported β-nucleator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Juan; Li, Gu; Tan, Nanshu; Ding, Qian; Mai, Kancheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The supported calcium pimelate β-zeolite was prepared. ► The β-nucleation of zeolite was enhanced dramatically through reaction. ► High β-phase content iPP composites were obtained by introducing the β-zeolite into iPP. - Abstract: In order to prepare the zeolite filled β-iPP composites, the calcium pimelate as β-nucleator supported on the surface of zeolite (β-zeolite) was prepared by the interaction between calcified zeolite and pimelic acid. The β-nucleation, crystallization behavior and melting characteristic of zeolite, calcified zeolite and β-zeolite filled iPP composites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffractometer. The results indicated that addition of the zeolite and calcified zeolite as well as β-zeolite increased the crystallization temperature of iPP. The zeolite and calcified zeolite filled iPP composites mainly crystallized in the α-crystal form and the strong β-heterogeneous nucleation of β-zeolite results in the formation of only β-crystal in β-zeolite filled iPP composites. The zeolite filled β-iPP composites with high β-crystal contents (above 0.90) can be easily obtained by adding β-zeolite into iPP matrix.

  14. Polymer−metal organic framework composite films as affinity layer for capacitive sensor devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachdeva, S.; Gravesteijn, Dirk J; Soccol, D.; Kapteijn, F.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Gascon, J.; Smet, de L.C.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple method for sensor development using polymer-MOF composite films. Nanoparticles of NH2-MIL-53(Al) dispersed in a Matrimid polyimide were applied as a thin film on top of capacitive sensor devices with planar electrodes. These drop-cast films act as an affinity layer. Sensing

  15. Polymer-metal organic framework composite films as affinity layer for capacitive sensor devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachdeva, Sumit; Soccol, Dimitri; Gravesteijn, Dirk J.; Kapteijn, Freek; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Gascon, Jorge; Smet, de L.C.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple method for sensor development using polymer-
    MOF composite films. Nanoparticles of NH2-MIL-53(Al) dispersed in a Matrimid
    polyimide were applied as a thin film on top of capacitive sensor devices with planar electrodes. These drop-cast films act as an affinity layer.

  16. Optical properties of zirconium oxynitride films: The effect of composition, electronic and crystalline structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, P. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Borges, J., E-mail: joelborges@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Department of Control Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Rodrigues, M.S. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Barradas, N.P. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Espinós, J.P.; González-Elipe, A.R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-University Sevilla), Avda. Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Cunha, L.; Marques, L.; Vasilevskiy, M.I.; Vaz, F. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Optical behaviour of ZrO{sub x}N{sub y} films were correlated with structural properties. • A continuous depopulation of the d-band and an opening of an energy gap was observed. • Drude–Lorentz parameters changed for the metallic samples. • Optical bandgap of the films increases with non-metallic elements incorporation. - Abstract: This work is devoted to the investigation of zirconium oxynitride (ZrO{sub x}N{sub y}) films with varied optical responses prompted by the variations in their compositional and structural properties. The films were prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering of Zr, using Ar and a reactive gas mixture of N{sub 2} + O{sub 2} (17:3). The colour of the films changed from metallic-like, very bright yellow-pale and golden yellow, for low gas flows to red-brownish for intermediate gas flows. Associated to this colour change there was a significant decrease of brightness. With further increase of the reactive gas flow, the colour of the samples changed from red-brownish to dark blue or even to interference colourations. The variations in composition disclosed the existence of four different zones, which were found to be closely related with the variations in the crystalline structure. XRD analysis revealed the change from a B1 NaCl face-centred cubic zirconium nitride-type phase for films prepared with low reactive gas flows, towards a poorly crystallized over-stoichiometric nitride phase, which may be similar to that of Zr{sub 3}N{sub 4} with some probable oxygen inclusions within nitrogen positions, for films prepared with intermediate reactive gas flows. For high reactive gas flows, the films developed an oxynitride-type phase, similar to that of γ-Zr{sub 2}ON{sub 2} with some oxygen atoms occupying some of the nitrogen positions, evolving to a ZrO{sub 2} monoclinic type structure within the zone where films were prepared with relatively high reactive gas flows. The analysis carried out by reflected electron energy

  17. Composition, structure and properties of SiN x films fabricated by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zh.Q.; Yang, P.; Huang, N.; Sun, H.; Wan, G.J.; Leng, Y.X.; Chen, J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Silicon nitride (SiN x ) thin films are of special interest in both scientific research and industrial applications due to their remarkable properties such as high thermal stability, chemical inertness, high hardness and good dielectric properties. In this work, SiN x films were fabricated by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering of high purity single crystal silicon targets in an Ar-N 2 mixture. The effect of N 2 partial pressure on the film composition, chemical bonding configurations, surface morphology, surface free energy, optical and mechanical properties were investigated. We showed that with increased N 2 partial pressure, the N to Si ratio (N/Si) in the film increased and N atoms are preferentially incorporated in the NSi 3 stoichiometric configuration. It leads the Si-N network a tendency to chemical order. Films deposited at a high N 2 fraction were consistently N-rich. The film surface transformed from a loose granular structure with microporosity to a homogeneous, continuous, smooth and dense structure. A progressive densification of the film microstructure occurs as the N 2 fraction is increased. The reduced surface roughness and the increased N incorporation in the film give rise to the increased contact angle with double-distilled water from 24 o to 49.6 o . To some extent, the SiN x films deposited by pulsed magnetron sputtering are hydrophilic in nature. The as-deposited SiN x films exhibit good optical transparency in the visible region and the optical band gap E opt can be varied from 1.68 eV for a-Si to 3.62 eV for SiN x films, depending on the synthesis parameters. With the increase of the N/Si atomic ratio, wear resistance of the SiN x films was improved, a consequence of increased hardness and elastic modulus. The SiN x films have lower friction coefficient and better wear resistance than 316L stainless steel under dry sliding friction, where the SiN x films experienced only fatigue wear

  18. Tribological behavior of in situ Ag nanoparticles/polyelectrolyte composite molecular deposition films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yanbao; Wang Deguo; Liu Shuhai

    2010-01-01

    Multilayer polyelectrolyte films containing silver ions were obtained by molecular deposition method on a glass plate or a quartz substrate. The in situ Ag nanoparticles were synthesized in the multilayer polyelectrolyte films which were put into fresh NaBH 4 aqueous solution. The structure and surface morphology of composite molecular deposition films were observed by UV-vis spectrophotometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Tribological characteristic was investigated by AFM and micro-tribometer. It was found that the in situ Ag nanoparticles/polyelectrolyte composite molecular deposition films have lower coefficient of friction and higher anti-wear life than pure polyelectrolyte molecular deposition films.

  19. Tips pentacene crystal alignment for improving performance of solution processed organic thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengran

    A newly-developed p-type organic semiconductor 6,13-bis (triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS pentacene) demonstrates various advantages such as high mobility, air stability and solution processibility, but at the same time its application is restricted by major issues, such as crystal misorientation and performance variation of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). This dissertation demonstrates several different approaches to address these issues. As a result, both crystal orientation and areal coverage can be effectively improved, leading to an enhancement of average mobility and performance consistency of OTFTs. Chapter 1 presents an introduction and background of this dissertation. Chapter 2 explores the usage of inorganic silica nanoparticles to manipulate the morphology of TIPS pentacene thin films and the performance of solution-processed organic OTFTs. The resultant drop-cast films yield improved morphological uniformity at ~10% SiO2 loading, which also leads to a 3-fold increase in average mobility and nearly 4-times reduction in the ratio of standard deviation of mobility (μStdev) to average mobility (μAvg). The experimental results suggest that the SiO2 nanoparticles mostly aggregate at TIPS pentacene grain boundaries, and that 10% nanoparticle concentration effectively reduces the undesirable crystal misorientation without considerably compromising TIPS pentacene crystallinity. Chapter 3 discusses the utilization of air flow to effectively reduce the TIPS pentacene crystal anisotropy and enhance performance consistency in OTFTs. Under air-flow navigation (AFN), TIPS pentacene forms thin films with improved crystal orientation and increased areal coverage, which subsequently lead to a four-fold increase of average hole mobility and one order of magnitude enhancement in performance consistency. Chapter 4 investigates the critical roles of lateral and vertical phase separation in the performance of the next-generation organic and hybrid electronic

  20. Nickel coated flyash (Ni-FAC) cenosphere doped polyaniline composite film for electromagnetic shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, Pritom J; Ramamurthy, Praveen C; Madras, Giridhar; Vinoy, K J; Kishore

    2015-01-01

    A solid waste material fly ash cenosphere (FAC) was nickel coated and polyaniline in situ polymerized at −30 ± 2 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. A thin film of this composite material was prepared by solution processing and surface morphology/topography was studied. High electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (SE) was obtained for this film; 59 ± 4 μm and 133 ± 4 μm films show an average of 38 and 60 dB SE, respectively, in the frequency range 8.2–12.4 GHz (X-band). Unlike PANI film, the SE of these composite films is high at high frequency. The presence of magneto dielectric microsphere (Ni-FAC) increases the heterogeneity of the composite film in an efficient way for EMI shielding by changing film topography and increasing ac conductivity and permeability. (paper)

  1. Morphology and kinetics of crystals growth in amorphous films of Cr2O3, deposited by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagmut, Aleksandr

    2018-06-01

    An electron microscopic investigation was performed on the structure and kinetics of the crystallization of amorphous Cr2O3 films, deposited by pulsed laser sputtering of chromium target in an oxygen atmosphere. The crystallization was initiated by the action of an electron beam on an amorphous film in the column of a transmission electron microscope. The kinetic curves were plotted on the basis of a frame-by-frame analysis of the video recorded during the crystallization of the film. It was found that the amorphous phase - crystal phase transition in Cr2O3 films occurs as a layer polymorphic crystallization and is characterized by the values of the dimensionless relative length unit δ0 ≈ 2000-3100. The action of the electron beam initiates the formation of crystals of two basic morphological forms: disk-shaped and sickle-shaped. Growth of a disk-shaped crystals is characterized by a constant rate v and the quadratic dependence of the fraction of the crystalline phase x on the time t. Sickle-shaped crystal at an initial stage, as it grows, becomes as ring-shaped and disk-shaped crystal. The growth of a sickle-shaped crystal is characterized by normal and tangential velocity components, which depend on the time as ∼√t and as ∼1/√t respectively The end point of the arc at the interface between the amorphous and crystalline phases as the crystal grows describes a curve, which is similar to the Fermat helix. For sickle-shaped, as well as for disk-shaped crystals, the degree of crystallinity x ∼ t2.

  2. Ion backscattering, channeling and nuclear reaction analysis study of passive films formed on FeCrNi and FeCrNiMo (100) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, C; Schmaus, D [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France). Groupe de Physique des Solides de l' ENS; Elbiache, A; Marcus, P [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1990-01-01

    The compositions of passive films formed on Fe-17Fr-13Ni (at. %) and Fe-18.5Cr-14Ni-1.5Mo (100) single crystals have been determined and the structure of the alloy under the film has been investigated. The alloys were passivated in 0.05M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 250 mV/SHE for 30 min. The oxygen content was measured by nuclear microanalysis using the {sup 16}O(d,p) {sup 17}O* reaction. The oxygen content in the passive film is similar for the two alloys and equal to (12{plus minus}2) 10{sup 15} O/cm{sup 2}. The cationic compositions of the passive films have been determined by {sup 4}He channeling at two incident beam energies: 0.8 and 2.0 MeV. For the two alloys studied, a total cation content of (5{plus minus}2)10{sup 15} at/cm{sup 2} is found in the passive films. The corresponding thickness is about 12 A. There is an excess of oxygen, which can be attributed to the presence of hydroxyls and sulfate. A strong chromium enrichment is found in the passive film formed on both alloys: chromium represents about 50% of the cations. There is no evidence of molybdenum enrichment in the passive film formed on the Mo-alloyed stainless steel. The comparison of the results obtained at the two different incident beam energies (0.8MeV and 2MeV) reveals the existence of defects at the alloy/passive film interface. (author).

  3. Positron reemission: measurement of thin single crystal W(100) films to be used as transmission moderator or re-moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.M.; Lynn, K.G.; Pareja, R.; Nielsen, B.

    1984-11-01

    It has been shown that one can produce thin single crystal W films capable of reemitting positrons at a sufficiently high fraction to be used either as a moderator or as a re-moderator. Both the impurities and the defects could be removed by the appropriate cleaning and annealing procedures, and narrow beam emission could be attained when the films were cleaned. This technique would also be a good method for characterizing defect concentration at interfaces or in thin films

  4. Structural and electronic characterization of 355 nm laser-crystallized silicon: Interplay of film thickness and laser fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semler, Matthew R.; Swenson, Orven F.; Hoey, Justin M.; Guruvenket, Srinivasan; Gette, Cody R.; Hobbie, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the laser crystallization of amorphous silicon thin films as a function of laser fluence and film thickness. Silicon films grown through plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition were subjected to a Q-switched, diode-pumped solid-state laser operating at 355 nm. The crystallinity, morphology, and optical and electronic properties of the films are characterized through transmission and reflectance spectroscopy, resistivity measurements, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and optical and scanning-electron microscopy. Our results reveal a unique surface morphology that strongly couples to the electronic characteristics of the films, with a minimum laser fluence at which the film properties are optimized. A simple scaling model is used to relate film morphology to conductivity in the laser-processed films

  5. Modeling and analysis of film composition on mechanical properties of maize starch based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Maran, J; Sivakumar, V; Thirugnanasambandham, K; Kandasamy, S

    2013-11-01

    The present study investigates the influence of composition (content of maize starch (1-3 g), sorbitol (0.5-1.0 ml), agar (0.5-1.0 g) and tween-80 (0.1-0.5 ml)) on the mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation, Young's modulus, puncture force and puncture deformation) of the maize starch based edible films using four factors with three level Box-Behnken design. The edible films were obtained by casting method. The results showed that, tween-80 increases the permeation of sorbitol in to the polymer matrix. Increasing concentration of sorbitol (hydrophilic nature and plasticizing effect of sorbitol) decreases the tensile strength, Young's modulus and puncture force of the films. The results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second order polynomial models were obtained for all responses with high R(2) values (R(2)>0.95). 3D response surface plots were constructed to study the relationship between process variables and the responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of high loading of cellulose nanocrystals in polyacrylonitrile composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Luo; Huibin Chang; Amir A. Bakhtiary Davijani; H. Clive Liu; Po-Hsiang Wang; Robert J. Moon; Satish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile-co-methacrylic acid (PAN-co-MAA) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) composite films were produced with up to 40 wt% CNC loading through the solution casting method. The rheological properties of the solution/suspensions and the structural, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the resulting films were investigated. The viscosity of the composite...

  7. Electrochemical synthesis of poly(pyrrole-co-o-anisidine)/chitosan composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçınkaya, Süleyman; Çakmak, Didem

    2017-05-01

    In this study, poly(pyrrole-co-o-anisidine)/chitosan composite films were electrochemically synthesized in various monomers feed ratio (pyrrole: o-anisidine; 9:1, 7:3, 1:1, 3:7 and 1:9) of pyrrole and o-anisidine on the platinum electrode. Electrochemical synthesis of the composite films was carried out via cyclic voltammetry technique. They were characterized by FT-IR, cyclic voltammetry, SEM micrographs, digital images, TGA and DSC techniques. The SEM results indicated that the particle size of the composite decreased with increasing o-anisidine ratio and the films became more likely to be smooth morphology. The TGA results proved that the film of the composite with 1:1 ratio showed highest final degradation temperature and lowest weight loss (83%) compared to copolymer and 9:1 1:9 composite films. The 1:1 composite film had higher thermal stability than copolymer and the other composite films (9:1 1:9). Meanwhile, electrochemical studies exhibited that the 1/9 composite film had good electrochemical stability as well.

  8. Correlation of magnetic and mechanical properties of hydrogenated, compositionally modulated, amorphous Fe80Zr20 films (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengarajan, S.; Yun, E.J.; Lee, B.H.; Cho, B.I.; Walser, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that large amounts of hydrogen can be electrolytically incorporated in amorphous, compositionally modulated (CM) FeZr films. The first irreversible changes in the magnetic state of an electrolytically hydrogenated iron-rich amorphous alloy were observed. The hydrogen-induced changes in the magnetization were interpreted in terms of specific structural rearrangements. In this work, simultaneous measurements of the variations in the magnetization and mechanical properties of these films were measured as a function of hydrogen charging to further clarify the hydrogen-induced structure changes. The Young close-quote s moduli E and internal friction d of as-deposited, and as-hydrogenated CM Fe 80 Zr 20 thin films were calculated from the displacements of a vibrating composite cantilever, measured using a laser heterodyne interferometer (LHI) having a displacement sensitivity of ∼0.01 A. E and d were measured using the resonant frequency method. CM films with thickness 1390 A and modulation wavelength ∼10 A were deposited on glass cantilevers (5 mm long, 2 mm wide, and 150 μm thick) by sequentially sputtering (rf diode) elemental Fe and Zr targets. The samples were electrolytically hydrogenated for various times in 2 N phosphoric acid with a current density of 26.3 mA/cm 2 . The maximum change in magnetization of the film (from 71.5 to 551 emu/cm 3 ) was observed after 5 min. During this time, E increased 18-fold from 535 GPa to 9.63 TPa. The unusually high Young close-quote s modulus of the as-deposited CM film is comparable to those previously observed in other CM films. The change is three times larger than the change in the E of carbon steel at the martensitic transformation, and nine times larger than the hydrogen induced increase in E of pure single crystals of iron. (Abstract Truncated)

  9. Effect of composition on SILAR deposited CdxZn1-xS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashith V., K.; Gowrish Rao, K.

    2018-04-01

    In the group of II-VI compound semiconductor, cadmium zinc sulphide (CdxZn1-xS) thin films have broad application in photovoltaic, optoelectronic devices etc. For heterojunction aspects, CdxZn1-xS thin film can be used as heterojunction partner for CdTe as the absorber layer. In this work, CdZnS thin films prepared on glass substrates by Successive Ion Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method by varying the composition. The XRD patterns of deposited films showed polycrystalline with the hexagonal phase. The crystallite size of the films was estimated from W-H plot. The bond length of the film varied w.r.to the composition of the CdxZn1-xS films. The urbach energy of the films was calcualted from absorbance data.

  10. Properties of plasticized composite films prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose and birch wood xylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Blomfeldt, Thomas O. J.; Hedenqvist, Mikael S.

    2012-01-01

    was combined with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and films were cast with and without glycerol, sorbitol or methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG) as plasticizers. Microscopy revealed some NFC agglomeration in the composite films as well as a layered nanocellulose structure. Equilibrium moisture content...... in plasticized films increased with glycerol content but was independent of xylan:NFC ratio in unplasticized films. Sorbitol- and MPEG-plasticized films showed equilibrium moisture contents of approximately 10 wt% independent of plasticizer content. Tensile testing revealed increases in tensile strength...... with increased NFC content in the xylan:NFC composition range from 50:50 to 80:20 and plasticizer addition generally provided less brittle films. The oxygen permeability of unplasticized xylan-NFC films fell into a range which was similar to that for previously measured pure NFC films and was statistically...

  11. Magnetic studies of Fe-Y compositionally modulated thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badia, F.; Ferrater, C.; Lousa, A.; Martinez, B.; Labarta, A.; Tejada, J.

    1990-01-01

    Compositionally modulated thin films of Y/Fe have been studied by using SQUID magnetometry. Samples were grown by electron-beam evaporation onto Kapton substrates. In the low applied field regime, the samples show irreversible behavior when they are submitted to ZFC-FC magnetization processes, increasing the irreversibility zone as the thickness of the Fe layers increases. In the high applied magnetic field regime (H≥10 000 Oe), samples show ferromagnetic behavior. The temperature dependence of the saturation magnetization has been studied, and it was found that both spin-wave excitations and Stoner excitations occur at temperatures higher than 40 K, and a marked deviation from the T 3/2 law was noted below 30 K

  12. Superhydrophobicity and regeneration of PVDF/SiO2 composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Xianfeng; Wang, Daohui; Huang, Qinglin; Liu, Zhen; Li, Nana; Xiao, Changfa

    2017-02-01

    Superhydrophobicity of polymers is easily destroyed by careless touching due to the softness of microstructures. In this study, based on a well-constructed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) surface, a novel superhydrophobic PVDF/SiO2 composite film was fabricated by adding hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticle and solvent into a coagulation bath. The water contact angle of the composite film reached 162.3° and the sliding angle was as low as 1.5°. More importantly, the composite film could be regenerated only through immersing the composite film in the designed regeneration agent. The composition of the designed regeneration agent ensured that SiO2 nanoparticles were firmly adhered on the film surface even under the ultrasonic cleaning. Hence, the superhydrophobicity and self-cleaing property could be regenerated and maintained effectively, and moreover, these propeties could resist a proper pressure. In addition, after many rubbing-regenerating cycles, the regeneration method was still valid.

  13. Room temperature pulsed laser deposition of Si{sub x} C thin films in different compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyecz, I.; Budai, J. [University of Szeged, Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, P.O. Box 406, Szeged (Hungary); Oszko, A. [University of Szeged, Department of Solid State and Radiochemistry, P.O. Box 168, Szeged (Hungary); Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, Budapest (Hungary); Toth, Z. [Research Group on Laser Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 406, Szeged (Hungary)

    2010-09-15

    Amorphous silicon-carbon alloy films in different compositions were prepared by pulsed laser deposition from two-component targets containing pure silicon and carbon parts. The silicon-carbon ratio in the films was varied by adjusting the number of laser shots on the constituent silicon and carbon targets. The composition, optical properties, thickness, and bonding structure of the films were determined by backscattering spectrometry, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Backscattering spectrometry data were used to determine the deposition rate of silicon and carbon. This enabled the calculation of the number of the shots onto each target to reach a predefined composition. As the film composition changed from carbon to silicon, it was shown that the microscopic and macroscopic properties of the films also changed from a diamond-like carbon phase to an amorphous silicon phase via graphite- and silicon-carbide-like composite. (orig.)

  14. The crystallization of (NiCu)ZrTiAlSi glass/crystalline composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czeppe, T.; Sypien, A.; Ochin, P.; Anastassova, S.

    2007-01-01

    Alloys of composition (Ni 1-x Cu x ) 60 Zr 18 Ti 13 A1 5 Si 4 were investigated in the form of ribbons and massive samples. The microstructure of the massive samples consists of dendritic crystals in the amorphous or nanocrystalline matrix. The amount of the amorphous phase is the lowest in the sample with the highest Cu content. The segregation in the liquid phase, leading to the local differences in density and the composition of the crystallizing dendrites in the samples crystallized in the copper mould was shown. The typical compositions of the multi-component crystals could be distinguished; one with the increased content of aluminum, the second with the high content of silicon and third, with the high content of (NiCu) and (ZrTi). The cubic phase Ni(Cu)Ti(Zr) with Cu and Zr dissolved could be identified. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Crystal orientation mapping applied to the Y-TZP/WC composite

    CERN Document Server

    Faryna, M; Sztwiertnia, K

    2002-01-01

    Crystal orientation measurements made by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and microscopic observations provided the basis for a quantitative investigation of microstructure in an yttria stabilized, tetragonal zirconia-based (Y-TZP) composite. Automatic crystal orientation mapping (ACOM) in a SEM can be preferable to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for microstructural characterization, since no sample thinning is required, extensive crystal data is already available, and the analysis area is greatly increased. A composite with a 20 vol.% tungsten carbide (WC) content was chosen since it revealed crystal relationships between the matrix and carbide phase already established by TEM analysis. However, this composite was difficult to investigate in the EBSD/ SEM since it is non-conductive, the Y-TZP grain size is of the order of the system resolution, and the sample surface, though carefully prepared, reveals a distinctive microtopography. In this paper, so...

  16. Correlation of the crystal orientation and electrical properties of silicon thin films on glass crystallized by line focus diode laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, J., E-mail: j.yun@unsw.edu.au [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Huang, J.; Teal, A. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Kim, K. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Suntech R& D Australia, Botany, NSW 2019 (Australia); Varlamov, S.; Green, M.A. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-06-30

    In this work, crystallographic orientation of polycrystalline silicon films on glass formed by continuous wave diode laser crystallization was studied. Most of the grain boundaries were coincidence lattice Σ3 twin boundaries and other types of boundaries such as, Σ6, Σ9, and Σ21 were also frequently observed. The highest photoluminescence signal and mobility were observed for a grain with (100) orientation in the normal direction. X-ray diffraction results showed the highest occupancies between 41 and 70% along the (110) orientation. However, the highest occupancies changed to (100) orientation when a 100 nm thick SiO{sub x} capping layer was applied. Suns-Voc measurement and photoluminescence showed that higher solar cell performance is obtained from the cell crystallized with the capping layer, which is suspected from increased occupancies of (100) orientation. - Highlights: • Linear grains parallel to the scan direction formed with high density. • Σ3 coincidence lattice (CSL) boundaries found inside a grain • Grain boundaries exhibit various CSL boundaries such as Σ9, Σ18, and Σ27. • Grain with < 100 > orientation in normal direction showed highest electrical properties. • Improved voltage observed when percentage of < 100 > normal orientation is increased.

  17. Composite films from pectin and fish skin gelatin or soybean flour protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, LinShu; Liu, Cheng-Kung; Fishman, Marshall L; Hicks, Kevin B

    2007-03-21

    Composite films were prepared from pectin and fish skin gelatin (FSG) or pectin and soybean flour protein (SFP). The inclusion of protein promoted molecular interactions, resulting in a well-organized homogeneous structure, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy and fracture-acoustic emission analysis. The resultant composite films showed an increase in stiffness and strength and a decrease in water solubility and water vapor transmission rate, in comparison with films cast from pectin alone. The composite films inherited the elastic nature of proteins, thus being more flexible than the pure pectin films. Treating the composite films with glutaraldehyde/methanol induced chemical cross-linking with the proteins and reduced the interstitial spaces among the macromolecules and, consequently, improved their mechanical properties and water resistance. Treating the protein-free pectin films with glutaraldehyde/methanol also improved the Young's modulus and tensile strength, but showed little effect on the water resistance, because the treatment caused only dehydration of the pectin films and the dehydration is reversible. The composite films were biodegradable and possessed moderate mechanical properties and a low water vapor transmission rate. Therefore, the films are considered to have potential applications as packaging or coating materials for food or drug industries.

  18. Correlation of electrolyte-derived inclusions to crystallization in the early stage of anodic oxide film growth on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, C., E-mail: christian.jaeggi@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Advanced Materials Processing Laboratory, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Parlinska-Wojtan, M., E-mail: magdalena.parlinska@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Center for Electron Microscopy, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Kern, P., E-mail: Philippe.Kern@neopac.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland)

    2012-01-01

    Pure titanium has been subjected to anodization in sulfuric and phosphoric acid. For a better understanding of the oxide growth and properties of the final film, with a particular interest focused on the solution anions in the early stage of crystallization, microstructural analyses (Raman, Transmission Electron Microscopy [TEM]) of the oxide films were correlated to chemical depth profiling by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). Raman spectroscopy shows that crystallization of the oxide films starts at potentials as low as 10-20 V. The onset of crystallization and the ongoing increase in crystallinity with increasing anodization potentials had already earlier been correlated to ac-impedance measurements [Jaeggi et al., Surf. Interface Anal. 38 (2006) 182]. TEM observations show a clear difference in the early phase of crystallization between oxides grown in 1 M sulfuric acid compared to 1 M phosphoric acid. Moreover, independent of electrolyte type, nano-sized pores from oxygen bubbles formation were revealed in the central part of the films. Until now, oxygen bubbles inside an anodically grown oxide have not been observed before without the presence of crystalline regions nearby. A growth model is proposed, in which the different starting locations of crystallization inside the films are correlated to the presence of the acid anions as residues in the film, as found by GDOES chemical depth-profiling.

  19. Effect of deposition temperature on electron-beam evaporated polycrystalline silicon thin-film and crystallized by diode laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, J., E-mail: j.yun@unsw.edu.au; Varalmov, S.; Huang, J.; Green, M. A. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Kim, K. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Suntech R and D Australia, Botany, New South Wales 2019 (Australia)

    2014-06-16

    The effects of the deposition temperature on the microstructure, crystallographic orientation, and electrical properties of a 10-μm thick evaporated Si thin-film deposited on glass and crystallized using a diode laser, are investigated. The crystallization of the Si thin-film is initiated at a deposition temperature between 450 and 550 °C, and the predominant (110) orientation in the normal direction is found. Pole figure maps confirm that all films have a fiber texture and that it becomes stronger with increasing deposition temperature. Diode laser crystallization is performed, resulting in the formation of lateral grains along the laser scan direction. The laser power required to form lateral grains is higher in case of films deposited below 450 °C for all scan speeds. Pole figure maps show 75% occupancies of the (110) orientation in the normal direction when the laser crystallized film is deposited above 550 °C. A higher density of grain boundaries is obtained when the laser crystallized film is deposited below 450 °C, which limits the solar cell performance by n = 2 recombination, and a performance degradation is expected due to severe shunting.

  20. Primary and aggregate color centers in proton irradiated LiF crystals and thin films for luminescent solid state detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinini, M; Ambrosini, F; Ampollini, A; Bonfigli, F; Libera, S; Picardi, L; Ronsivalle, C; Vincenti, M A; Montereali, R M

    2015-01-01

    Proton beams of 3 MeV energy, produced by the injector of a linear accelerator for proton therapy, were used to irradiate at room temperature lithium fluoride crystals and polycrystalline thin films grown by thermal evaporation. The irradiation fluence range was 10 11 -10 15 protons/cm 2 . The proton irradiation induced the stable formation of primary and aggregate color centers. Their formation was investigated by optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The F 2 and F 3 + photoluminescence intensities, carefully measured in LiF crystals and thin films, show linear behaviours up to different maximum values of the irradiation fluence, after which a quenching is observed, depending on the nature of the samples (crystals and films). The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the absorption spectra of colored crystals, allowed to clearly identify the formation of more complex aggregate defects in samples irradiated at highest fluences. (paper)

  1. Preparation of hcp-Ni(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films on Au(100) single-crystal underlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Takahiro; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi, E-mail: ohtake@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Ni epitaxial films with an hcp structure are successfully obtained on Au(100) single-crystal underlayers formed on MgO(100) substrates at temperatures lower than 300 {sup 0}C by molecular beam epitaxy. With increasing the substrate temperature, the volume ratio of more stable fcc phase inc{sub r}eases in the film. The Ni film prepared at 100 {sup 0}C consists primarily of hcp crystal with the (112-bar 0) plane parallel to the substrate surface coexisting with a small amount of fcc-Ni(100) crystal. The lattice constant of hcp-Ni crystal is determined as a = 0.249 nm, c = 0.398 nm, and c/a = 1.60.

  2. Preparation of hcp-Ni(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films on Au(100) single-crystal underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Takahiro; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Ni epitaxial films with an hcp structure are successfully obtained on Au(100) single-crystal underlayers formed on MgO(100) substrates at temperatures lower than 300 0 C by molecular beam epitaxy. With increasing the substrate temperature, the volume ratio of more stable fcc phase inc r eases in the film. The Ni film prepared at 100 0 C consists primarily of hcp crystal with the (112-bar 0) plane parallel to the substrate surface coexisting with a small amount of fcc-Ni(100) crystal. The lattice constant of hcp-Ni crystal is determined as a = 0.249 nm, c = 0.398 nm, and c/a = 1.60.

  3. Primary and aggregate color centers in proton irradiated LiF crystals and thin films for luminescent solid state detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, M.; Ambrosini, F.; Ampollini, A.; Bonfigli, F.; Libera, S.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vincenti, M. A.; Montereali, R. M.

    2015-04-01

    Proton beams of 3 MeV energy, produced by the injector of a linear accelerator for proton therapy, were used to irradiate at room temperature lithium fluoride crystals and polycrystalline thin films grown by thermal evaporation. The irradiation fluence range was 1011-1015 protons/cm2. The proton irradiation induced the stable formation of primary and aggregate color centers. Their formation was investigated by optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The F2 and F3+ photoluminescence intensities, carefully measured in LiF crystals and thin films, show linear behaviours up to different maximum values of the irradiation fluence, after which a quenching is observed, depending on the nature of the samples (crystals and films). The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the absorption spectra of colored crystals, allowed to clearly identify the formation of more complex aggregate defects in samples irradiated at highest fluences.

  4. Temperature and composition dependence of birefringence of lithium-tantalate crystals determined by holographic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastwoeste, K.; Schwalenberg, S.; Baeumer, Ch.; Kraetzig, E.

    2003-01-01

    Iron-doped lithium-tantalate samples with different compositions ranging from the congruently melting to the stoichiometric one are analyzed by anisotropic holographic scattering. The temperature dependence of the birefringence yields information on the composition of the crystals. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Temperature and composition dependence of birefringence of lithium-tantalate crystals determined by holographic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastwoeste, K.; Schwalenberg, S.; Baeumer, Ch.; Kraetzig, E. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Osnabrueck, D-49069 Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    Iron-doped lithium-tantalate samples with different compositions ranging from the congruently melting to the stoichiometric one are analyzed by anisotropic holographic scattering. The temperature dependence of the birefringence yields information on the composition of the crystals. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Enhancement of polar crystalline phase formation in transparent PVDF-CaF{sub 2} composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Goo; Ha, Jong-Wook, E-mail: jongwook@krict.re.kr; Sohn, Eun-Ho; Park, In Jun; Lee, Soo-Bok

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The crystalline phase in transparent PVDF-CaF{sub 2} composite films was investigated. • CaF{sub 2} promoted the formation of polar crystalline phases in PVDF matrix. • Ordered γ-phase was obtained by thermal treatment of as-cast films at the vicinity of its melting temperature. - Abstract: We consider the influence of calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) nanoparticles on the crystalline phase formation of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) for the first time. The transparent PVDF-CaF{sub 2} composite films were prepared by casting on PET substrates using N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as a solvent. It was found that CaF{sub 2} promoted the formation of polar crystalline phase of PVDF in composites, whereas nonpolar α-phase was dominant in the neat PVDF film prepared at the same condition. The portion of polar crystalline phase increased in proportional to the weight fraction of CaF{sub 2} in the composite films up to 10 wt%. Further addition of CaF{sub 2} suppressed completely the α-phase formation. Polar crystalline phase observed in as-cast composite films was a mixture of β- and γ-polymorph structures. It was also shown that much ordered γ-phase could be obtained through thermal treatment of as-cast PVDF-CaF{sub 2} composite film at the temperatures above the melting temperature of the composite films, but below that of γ-phase.

  7. Composite film fabricated on biomedical material with corona streamer plasma processing to mitigate bacterial adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamarneh, Ibrahim; Pedrow, Patrick; Eskhan, Asma; Abu-Lail, Nehal

    2011-10-01

    Composite films might control bacterial adhesion and concomitant biofouling that afflicts biomedical materials. Different size molecules of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with nominal molecular weights 600, 2000, and 20000 g/mol were used to synthesize composite films with plasma processing and dip-coating procedures on surgical-grade 316L stainless steel. Before dip-coating, the substrate was pre-coated with plasma-polymerized di(ethylene glycol) vinyl ether (pp-EO2V) in an atmospheric pressure corona streamer plasma reactor. The PEG dip-coating step followed immediately in the same chamber due to the finite lifetime of radicals associated with freshly deposited pp-EO2V. Morphology of the composite film was investigated with an ESEM. FTIR confirmed incorporation of pp-EO2V and PEG species into the composite film. More investigations on the composite film were conducted by XPS measurements. Adhesion of the composite film was evaluated with a standard peel-off test. Stability of the composite film in buffer solution was evaluated by AFM. AFM was also used to measure the film roughness and thickness. Polar and non-polar contact angle measurements were included.

  8. Crystallization of sol-gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin films in argon and oxygen atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopic techniques are applied to reveal the mechanisms of crystallization of 75 nm thin films of ferroelectric lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT). Sol-gel methods, followed by pyrolysis at 350 deg C, were used to provide a common starting point after which a variety of rapid-thermal annealing (RTA) experiments in the temperature range 400-700 deg C were made in argon, oxygen and nitrogen/hydrogen atmospheres. The results are interpreted in terms of the crystal chemical analysis, which points out that partial pressure of oxygen and heating rate are important experimental parameters which must be controlled if ferroelectric perovskite-type Pb 2 ZrTiO 6 , rather than pyrochlore-type Pb 2 ZrTiO 6+x , where O < X < 1 or -1 < X < O, is to be obtained after the RTA step. Thus significant improvements in the crystallization of perovskite-type PZT were clearly demonstrated by using argon atmospheres for the RTA step. The results have significance for the production of high-quality ferroelectric thin films, with improved switching and fatigue characteristics, since even small amounts of the pyrochlore phase prove detrimental for these properties. 18 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  9. Crystallization of sol-gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin films in argon and oxygen atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L A [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Brooks, K G [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    Electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopic techniques are applied to reveal the mechanisms of crystallization of 75 nm thin films of ferroelectric lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT). Sol-gel methods, followed by pyrolysis at 350 deg C, were used to provide a common starting point after which a variety of rapid-thermal annealing (RTA) experiments in the temperature range 400-700 deg C were made in argon, oxygen and nitrogen/hydrogen atmospheres. The results are interpreted in terms of the crystal chemical analysis, which points out that partial pressure of oxygen and heating rate are important experimental parameters which must be controlled if ferroelectric perovskite-type Pb{sub 2}ZrTiO{sub 6}, rather than pyrochlore-type Pb{sub 2}ZrTiO{sub 6+x}, where O < X < 1 or -1 < X < O, is to be obtained after the RTA step. Thus significant improvements in the crystallization of perovskite-type PZT were clearly demonstrated by using argon atmospheres for the RTA step. The results have significance for the production of high-quality ferroelectric thin films, with improved switching and fatigue characteristics, since even small amounts of the pyrochlore phase prove detrimental for these properties. 18 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  10. Progress in thin-film silicon solar cells based on photonic-crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Kenji; De Zoysa, Menaka; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Jeon, Seung-Woo; Noda, Susumu

    2018-06-01

    We review the recent progress in thin-film silicon solar cells with photonic crystals, where absorption enhancement is achieved by using large-area resonant effects in photonic crystals. First, a definitive guideline for enhancing light absorption in a wide wavelength range (600–1100 nm) is introduced, showing that the formation of multiple band edges utilizing higher-order modes confined in the thickness direction and the introduction of photonic superlattice structures enable significant absorption enhancement, exceeding that observed for conventional random scatterers. Subsequently, experimental evidence of this enhancement is demonstrated for a variety of thin-film Si solar cells: ∼500-nm-thick ultrathin microcrystalline silicon cells, few-µm-thick microcrystalline silicon cells, and ∼20-µm-thick thin single-crystalline silicon cells. The high short-circuit current densities and/or efficiencies observed for each cell structure confirm the effectiveness of using multiple band-edge resonant modes of photonic crystals for enhancing broadband absorption in actual solar cells.

  11. Electro-optical effects in porous PET films filled with liquid crystal: new possibilities for fiber optics and THZ applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopik, A; Pasechnik, S; Semerenko, D; Shmeliova, D; Dubtsov, A; Srivastava, A K; Chigrinov, V

    2014-03-15

    The results of investigation of electro-optical properties of porous polyethylene terephthalate films filled with a nematic liquid crystal (5 CB) are presented. It is established that the optical response of the samples on the applied voltage drastically depends on the frequency range. At low frequencies of applied electrical field (foptical response arises as an impulse of light intensity, which decays for the time essentially shorter than the electric pulse duration. At high frequencies (f>fc) electric field induces an overall change in the light intensity, which is typical for an electro-optical response of a liquid crystal (LC) layer in a conventional "sandwich"-like cell. The dependences of critical frequency fc, threshold voltages, and characteristic times on a pore diameter d were established. The peculiarities of electro-optical effects can be explained in the framework of the approach which connects the variations of light intensity with the corresponding changes of the effective refractive index n(eff) of a composite LC media. The unusual behavior of the electro-optical response at low frequencies is assigned to the orienting action of the specific shear flow typical for electrokinetic phenomena in polar liquids.

  12. Periodic reversal of magneto-optic Faraday rotation on uniaxial birefringence crystal with ultrathin magnetic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Su

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental approach of inclined incidence magneto-optic Faraday effect observed in the polar plane is applied. Three samples containing ferromagnetic cobalt ultrathin films on a semiconductor zinc oxide (0001 single crystal substrate with in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy are evaluated. Through the fine adjustment of crossed polarizers in the magneto-optic effect measurement completely recorded the detail optical and magneto-optical responses from the birefringent crystal substrate and the magnetic film, especially for the signal induced from the substrate with uniaxial optical axis. The angle dependency of interference phenomena periodically from the optical and magneto-optical responses is attributed to the birefringence even in the absence of a magnetic field. The new type of observation finds that the transmission Faraday intensity in the oblique incidence includes a combination of polarization rotations, which results from optical compensation from the substrate and magneto-optical Faraday effects from the film. The samples grown at different rates and examined by this method exhibit magnetic structure discriminations. This result can be applied in the advanced polarized-light technologies to enhance the spatial resolution of magnetic surfaces with microstructural information under various magnetic field direction.

  13. Effect of compatibilization and reprocessing on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/wood flour composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arieny Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have focused on polymer mixtures aimed at the potential applications of these materials. This work analyzed the effect of polymer reprocessing and the type and concentration of compatibilizer on the isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene/wood flour composites. The composites, which were polypropylene grafted with acrylic acid (PP-g-AA and maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA, were processed in a twin screw extruder with and without compatibilizer. Reprocessed polypropylene reached complete crystallization in less time than the composites with virgin polypropylene. The addition of wood flour to the composites did not change the kinetics significantly compared to that of the pure polymers, but the compatibilizers did, particularly PP-g-AA. The nucleation exponent (n and crystallization rate (K were calculated from Avrami plots. The values of n ranged from 2 to 3, indicating instantaneous to sporadic nucleation. The crystallization half-time of reprocessed polypropylene was shorter than that of virgin polypropylene and of the compositions containing PP-g-AA compatibilizer. The activation energy of crystallization and the equilibrium melting temperature were calculated, respectively, from Arrhenius and Hoffman-Weeks plots. Both of these parameters showed lower values in the composites, particularly in the ones containing compatibilizers.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline/activated carbon composites and preparation of conductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zengin, Huseyin; Kalayci, Guellue

    2010-01-01

    Polyaniline was synthesized via polyaniline/activated carbon (PANI/AC) composites by in situ polymerization and ex situ solution mixing. PANI and PANI/AC composite films were prepared by drop-by-drop and spin coating methods. The electrical conductivities of HCl doped PANI film and PANI/AC composite films were measured according to the standard four-point-probe technique. The composite films exhibited an increase in electrical conductivity over neat PANI. PANI and PANI/AC composites were investigated by spectroscopic methods including UV-vis, FTIR and photoluminescence. UV-vis and FTIR studies showed that AC particles affect the quinoid units along the polymer backbone and indicate strong interactions between AC particles and quinoidal sites of PANI. The photoluminescence properties of PANI and PANI/AC composites were studied and the photoluminescence intensity of PANI/AC composites was higher than that of neat PANI. The increase of conductivity of PANI/AC composites may be partially due to the doping or impurity effect of AC, where the AC competes with chloride ions. The amount of weight loss and the thermostability of PANI and PANI/AC composites were determined from thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology of particles and films were examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM measurements indicated that the AC particles were well dispersed and isolated in composite films.

  15. Simultaneous determination of adenine guanine and thymine at multi-walled carbon nanotubes incorporated with poly(new fuchsin) composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Ching; Yogeswaran, Umasankar [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No.1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No.1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net

    2009-03-16

    A composite film (MWCNTs-PNF) which contains multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) along with the incorporation of poly(new fuchsin) (PNF) has been synthesized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE), gold (Au) and indium tin oxide (ITO) by potentiostatic methods. The presence of MWCNTs in the composite film enhances surface coverage concentration ({gamma}) of PNF to {approx}176.5%, and increases the electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) to {approx}346%. The composite film also exhibits promising enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards the mixture of biochemical compounds such as adenine (AD), guanine (GU) and thymine (THY). The surface morphology of the composite film deposited on ITO has been studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. These two techniques reveal that the PNF incorporated on MWCNTs. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study reveals the enhancement in the functional properties of MWCNTs and PNF. The electrocatalytic responses of analytes at MWCNTs and MWCNTs-PNF films were measured using both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). From electrocatalysis studies, well separated voltammetric peaks have been obtained at the composite film for AD, GU and THY, with the peak separation of 320.3 and 132.7 mV between GU-AD and AD-THY respectively. The sensitivity of the composite film towards AD, GU and THY in DPV technique is 218.18, 12.62 and 78.22 mA M{sup -1} cm{sup -2} respectively, which are higher than MWCNTs film. Further, electroanalytical studies of AD, GU and THY present in single-strand deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) have been carried out using semi-derivative CV and DPV.

  16. Microstructure of Co(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films, grown on MgO(100) single-crystal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nukaga, Yuri; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi, E-mail: nukaga@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Co(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films with hcp structure were prepared on MgO(100) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 {sup 0}C by ultra high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The microstructure is investigated by employing X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The film consists of two types of domains whose c-axes are rotated around the film normal by 90{sup 0} each other. Stacking faults are observed for the film along the Co[0001] direction. An atomically sharp boundary is recognized between the film and the substrate, where some misfit dislocations are introduced in the film at the Co/MgO interface. Dislocations are also observed in the film up to 15 nm thickness from the interface. Presence of such stacking faults and misfit dislocations seem to relieve the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of the film are in agreement within 0.5% and 0.1%, respectively, with those of the bulk hcp-Co crystal, suggesting the strain in the film is very small.

  17. Microstructure of Co(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films, grown on MgO(100) single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nukaga, Yuri; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Co(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films with hcp structure were prepared on MgO(100) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 0 C by ultra high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The microstructure is investigated by employing X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The film consists of two types of domains whose c-axes are rotated around the film normal by 90 0 each other. Stacking faults are observed for the film along the Co[0001] direction. An atomically sharp boundary is recognized between the film and the substrate, where some misfit dislocations are introduced in the film at the Co/MgO interface. Dislocations are also observed in the film up to 15 nm thickness from the interface. Presence of such stacking faults and misfit dislocations seem to relieve the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of the film are in agreement within 0.5% and 0.1%, respectively, with those of the bulk hcp-Co crystal, suggesting the strain in the film is very small.

  18. Solid-phase crystallization of amorphous silicon on ZnO:Al for thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.; Conrad, E.; Dogan, P.; Fenske, F.; Gorka, B.; Haenel, T.; Lee, K.Y.; Rau, B.; Ruske, F.; Weber, T.; Gall, S.; Rech, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (formerly Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin), Kekulestr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Berginski, M.; Huepkes, J. [Institute of Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The suitability of ZnO:Al thin films for polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film solar cell fabrication was investigated. The electrical and optical properties of 700 -nm-thick ZnO:Al films on glass were analyzed after typical annealing steps occurring during poly-Si film preparation. If the ZnO:Al layer is covered by a 30 nm thin silicon film, the initial sheet resistance of ZnO:Al drops from 4.2 to 2.2 {omega} after 22 h annealing at 600 C and only slightly increases for a 200 s heat treatment at 900 C. A thin-film solar cell concept consisting of poly-Si films on ZnO:Al coated glass is introduced. First solar cell results will be presented using absorber layers either prepared by solid-phase crystallization (SPC) or by direct deposition at 600 C. (author)

  19. Effect of cross linking of PVA/starch and reinforcement of modified barley husk on the properties of composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Aanchal; Garg, Sangeeta; Kohli, Deepak; Maiti, Mithu; Jana, Asim Kumar; Bajpai, Shailendra

    2016-10-20

    Barley husk (BH) was graft copolymerized by palmitic acid. The crystalline behavior of BH decreased after grafting. Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA)/starch (St) blend film, urea formaldehyde cross linked PVA/St films and composite films containing natural BH, grafted BH were prepared separately. The effect of urea/starch ratio, content of BH and grafted BH on the mechanical properties, water uptake (%), and biodegradability of the composite films was observed. With increase in urea: starch ratio from 0 to 0.5 in the blend, tensile strength of cross linked film increased by 40.23% compared to the PVA/St film. However, in grafted BH composite film, the tensile strength increased by 72.4% than PVA/St film. The degradation rate of natural BH composite film was faster than PVA/St film. Various films were characterized by SEM, FT-IR and thermal analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Composition and structural analysis of Sm-Co thin films on (100)Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghantasala, M.; Sood, D.K.; Mohan, S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The necessity of integration of magnetics with silicon processing technology became essential with the advent of Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS). The need to control the crystalline and magnetic properties of the magnetic thin films on silicon substrates has been the primary motivation for this work. The major objective of this work is to prepare the stoichiometric and crystalline SmCo 5 thin films with good magnetic properties on single crystal silicon substrate. We have prepared the SmCo think films on single crystal (100) silicon substrates using DC magnetron sputtering. Films have been prepared in pure argon as the sputter media at two different pressures 2 x 10 -2 torr and 2 x 10 3 torr with the substrates kept at room temperature, 500 and 700 deg C separately. These films have been characterised using RBS, XRD and SEM. RBS analysis showed that the films are nearly stoichiometric (1:4.9) and have significant amounts of oxygen as impurity. But XRD studies indicated that the as deposited films (at all substrate temperatures) are yet to form the crystalline structure. Some of the films have been subjected to rapid thermal annealing at two different temperatures at 800 and 1000 deg C for 30 secs in an effort to crystallise the films. RBS analysis of these films indicated that the room temperature and post annealed films at 1000 deg C resulted in considerable interdiffusion characteristics, whereas the high temperature deposited (500 and 700 deg C) and annealed films showed relatively very stable characteristics with minimal diffusion between the film and the substrate. XRD and SEM analysis of the films is in progress. The detailed results of these investigations will be presented

  1. Quantitative characterization of the composition, thickness and orientation of thin films in the analytical electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.B.; Watanabe, M.; Papworth, A.J.; Li, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Compositional variations in thin films can introduce lattice-parameter changes and thus create stresses, in addition to the more usual stresses introduced by substrate-film mismatch, differential thermal expansion, etc. Analytical electron microscopy comprising X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry within a probe-forming field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is one of the most powerful methods of composition measurement on the nanometer scale, essential for thin-film analysis. Recently, with the development of improved X-ray collection efficiencies and quantitative computation methods it has proved possible to map out composition variations in thin films with a spatial resolution approaching 1-2 nm. Because the absorption of X-rays is dependent on the film thickness, concurrent composition and film thickness determination is another advantage of X-ray microanalysis, thus correlating thickness and composition variations, either of which may contribute to stresses in the film. Specific phenomena such as segregation to interfaces and boundaries in the film are ideally suited to analysis by X-ray mapping. This approach also permits multiple boundaries to be examined, giving some statistical certainty to the analysis particularly in nano-crystalline materials with grain sizes greater than the film thickness. Boundary segregation is strongly affected by crystallographic misorientation and it is now possible to map out the orientation between many different grains in the (S)TEM

  2. Elastic Moduli of Nanoparticle-Polymer Composite Thin Films via Buckling on Elastomeric Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongyi; Karim, Alamgir; University of Akron Team

    2011-03-01

    Polymeric thin films find applications in diverse areas such as coatings, barriers and packaging. The dispersion of nanoparticles into the films was proven to be an effective method to generate tunable properties, particularly mechanical strength. However, there are very few methods for mechanical characterization of the composite thin films with high accuracy. In this study, nanometric polystyrene and polyvinyl alcohol films with uniformly dispersed cobalt and Cloisite nanoparticles at varying concentrations were synthesized via flow-coating and then transferred to crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flexible substrates. The technique of Strain-Induced Elastic Buckling Instability for Mechanical Measurements (SIEBIMM) was employed to determine the elastic moduli of the films, which were calculated from the buckling patterns generated by applying compressive stresses. Results on moduli of films as a function of the concentrations of nanoparticles and the thicknesses of the composite films will be presented. *Corresponding author: alamgir@uakron.edu

  3. Photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beijiao; Zhang, Peiqing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Tengyu; Zeng, Jianghui; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Guoxiang; Xu, Peipeng; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Shixun

    2016-11-10

    A three-port phase-change photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 chalcogenide thin film was proposed. The chalcogenide material used was determined to have a high refractive index and fast phase-change speed by using laser radiation. The structure with a T-junction cavity was used to achieve three switch functions: switching "ON" in only one output port, switching "OFF" in both output ports, and dividing signals into two output ports. The transmission properties of the designed device at 2.0 μm were studied by the finite difference time domain method, which showed that the switch divider can achieve very high switching efficiency by optimizing T-junction cavity parameters. The scaling laws of photonic crystals revealed that the operating wavelength of the designed structure can be easily extended to another wavelength in the midinfrared region.

  4. N-type polycrystalline silicon films formed on alumina by aluminium induced crystallization and overdoping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuezuen, O. [InESS, UMR 7163 CNRS-ULP, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)], E-mail: Ozge.Tuzun@iness.c-strasbourg.fr; Slaoui, A. [InESS, UMR 7163 CNRS-ULP, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Gordon, I. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Focsa, A. [InESS, UMR 7163 CNRS-ULP, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Ballutaud, D. [GEMaC-UMR 8635 CNRS, 1 place Aristide Briand, F-92195 Meudon (France); Beaucarne, G.; Poortmans, J. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2008-08-30

    In this work, we investigated the formation of n-type polysilicon films on alumina substrates by overdoping a p-type silicon layer obtained by aluminium induced crystallization of amorphous silicon (AIC), and subsequent epitaxy. The phosphorus doping of the AIC was carried out by thermal diffusion from a solid source. The structural quality of the n-type Si film was monitored by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The doping efficiency was determined by resistivity measurements and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The sheet resitivity changed from 2700{omega}/sq to 19.6{omega}/sq after thermal diffusion at 950 deg. C for 1h, indicating the overdoping effect. The SIMS profile carried out after the high temperature epitaxy exhibits a two steps phosphorus distribution, indicating the formation of an n{sup +}n structure.

  5. Effect of the Crystal Structure on the Electrical Properties of Thin-Film PZT Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delimova, L. A.; Gushchina, E. V.; Zaitseva, N. V.; Seregin, D. S.; Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    A new method of two-stage crystallization of lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) films using a seed sublayer with a low excess lead content has been proposed and realized. A seed layer with a strong texture of perovskite Pe(111) grains is formed from a solution with a lead excess of 0-5 wt %; the fast growth of the grains is provided by the deposition of the main film from a solution with high lead content. As a result, a strong Pe(111) texture with complete suppression of the Pe(100) orientation forms. An analysis of current-voltage dependences of the transient currents and the distributions of the local conductivity measured by the contact AFM method reveals two various mechanisms of current percolation that are determined by traps in the bulk and at the perovskite grain interfaces.

  6. Alcohol vapours sensor based on thin polyaniline salt film and quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Mohamad M; Torad, Nagy L

    2009-06-15

    A sensor based on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique was developed for detection of a number of primary aliphatic alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol vapours. Detection was based on a sensitive and a thin film of polyaniline, emeraldine salt (ES), coated the QCM electrode. The frequency shifts (Delta f) of the QCM were increased due to the vapour absorption into the ES film. The values of Delta f were found to be linearly correlated with the concentrations of alcohols vapour in mg L(-1). The changes in frequency are due to the hydrophilic character of the ES and the electrostatic interaction as well as the type of the alcohol. The sensor shows a good reproducibility and reversibility. The diffusion and diffusion coefficient (D) of different alcohols vapour were determined. It was found that the sensor follows Fickian kinetics.

  7. Research on Mechanical Behaviors of Micro-crystal Muscovite/UHMWPE Composites to Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huarong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UHMWPE composites were prepared by hot pressing process with micro-crystal muscovite as reinforced particulates. The mechanical behaviors of composites to impact loading was evaluated by split Hopkinson bar. The results demonstrated that dynamic yield stress and failure stress of UHMWPE composites were gradually increased when the filling amount was less than 20%; when the filling content of muscovite was around 15%, the energy absorption efficiency of the composite reaches maximum value. It was also found that when strain rate within 3200/s, the dynamic yield stress, failure stress and energy absorption efficiency of UHMWPE composites increased with the increase of strain rate and display strain rate enhancement effect.

  8. Thin films of metal oxides on metal single crystals: Structure and growth by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    Detailed studies of the growth and structure of thin films of metal oxides grown on metal single crystal surfaces using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) are presented. The oxide overlayer systems studied are iron oxide and titanium oxide on the Pt(III) surface. The complexity of the metal oxides and large lattice mismatches often lead to surface structures with large unit cells. These are particularly suited to a local real space technique such as scanning tunneling microscopy. In particular, the symmetry that is directly observed with the STM elucidates the relationship of the oxide overlayers to the substrate as well as distinguishing, the structures of different oxides

  9. Comparative study of broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findikoglu, A. T.; Jia, Q. X.; Kwon, C.; Reagor, D. W.; Kaduchak, G.; Rasmussen, K. Oe.; Bishop, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    We have used a coplanar waveguide structure to study broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate. We have incorporated both time- and frequency-domain measurements to determine small-signal effective refractive index and loss tangent as functions of frequency (up to 4 GHz), dc bias (up to 10 6 V/m), and cryogenic temperature (17 and 60 K). The large-signal impulse response of the devices and the associated phenomenological nonlinear wave equation illustrate how dissipation and nonlinearity combine to produce the overall response in the large-signal regime. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics

  10. Time-resolved luminescent spectroscopy of YAG:Ce single crystal and single crystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Savchyn, V.; Vozniak, T.; Puzikov, V.; Danko, A.; Nizhankovski, S.

    2010-01-01

    The peculiarities of the luminescence and energy transfer from YAG host to the emission centers formed by the Y Al antisite defects and Ce 3+ ions have been studied in YAG:Ce single crystals, grown from the melt by modified Bridgman method in Ar and CO 2 + H 2 atmospheres, and YAG:Ce single crystalline film, grown by liquid phase epitaxy method, using the comparative time-resolved luminescent spectroscopy under excitation by synchrotron radiation in the range of fundamental adsorption of this garnet.

  11. Crystallized InBiS3 thin films with enhanced optoelectronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N.; Hussain, Arshad; Ahmed, R.; Omar, M. Firdaus Bin; Sultan, M.; Fu, Yong Qing

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a one-step thermal evaporation approach was used for fabrication of indium bismuth sulphide thin films, and the synergetic effects of co-evaporation of two sources (indium granules and Bi2S3 powders) were investigated using different characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the crystalline orthorhombic structure for the post-annealed samples. Surface roughness and crystal size of the obtained film samples were increased with increasing annealing temperatures. Analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the formation of the InBiS3 structure for the obtained films, which is also confirmed by the XRD results. The optical absorption coefficient value of the annealed samples was found to be in the order of 105 cm-1 in the visible region of the solar spectrum. The optical band gap energy and electrical resistivity of the fabricated samples were observed to decrease (from 2.2 to 1.3 eV, and from 0.3 to 0.01 Ω-cm, respectively) with increasing annealing temperatures (from 200 to 350 °C), indicating the suitability of the prepared InBiS3 thin films for solar cell applications.

  12. Thin film pc-Si by aluminium induced crystallization on metallic substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayron C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si on flexible metallic substrates is promising for low cost production of photovoltaic solar cells. One of the attractive methods to produce pc-Si solar cells consists in thickening a large-grained seed layer by epitaxy. In this work, the deposited seed layer is made by aluminium induced crystallization (AIC of an amorphous silicon (a-Si thin film on metallic substrates (Ni/Fe alloy initially coated with a tantalum nitride (TaN conductive diffusion barrier layer. Effect of the thermal budget on the AIC grown pc-Si seed layer was investigated in order to optimize the process (i.e. the quality of the pc-Si thin film. Structural and optical characterizations were carried out using optical microscopy, μ-Raman and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD. At optimal thermal annealing conditions, the continuous AIC grown pc-Si thin film showed an average grain size around 15 μm. The grains were preferably (001 oriented which is favorable for its epitaxial thickening. This work proves the feasibility of the AIC method to grow large grains pc-Si seed layer on TaN coated metal substrates. These results are, in terms of grains size, the finest obtained by AIC on metallic substrates.

  13. Adsorption of quantum dots onto polymer and Gemini surfactant films: a quartz crystal microbalance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, T; Merchán, M D; Velázquez, M M

    2014-08-26

    We used quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation to study the mechanical properties, the kinetics of adsorption, and the amount of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) adsorbed onto a SiO2 sensor, referred as bare sensor, onto the sensor modified with a film of the polymer poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene), PMAO, or with a film of the Gemini surfactant ethyl-bis(dimethyl octadecyl ammonium bromide), abbreviated as 18-2-18. Results showed that when the sensor is coated with polymer or surfactant molecules, the coverage increases compared with that obtained for the bare sensor. On the other hand, rheological properties and kinetics of adsorption of QDs are driven by QD nanoparticles. Thus, the QD films present elastic behavior, and the elasticity values are independent of the molecule used as coating and similar to the elasticity value obtained for QDs films on the bare sensor. The QD adsorption is a two-step mechanism in which the fastest process is attributed to the QD adsorption onto the solid substrate and the slowest one is ascribed to rearrangement movements of the nanoparticles adsorbed at the surface.

  14. Crossover from negative to positive magnetoresistance in superconductor/ferromagnet composites thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, O. [Centro de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Narino, Ciudad Universitaria Torobajo, Pasto (Colombia); Baca, E. [Grupo de Ingenieria de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Fuchs, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe (Germany); Moran, O., E-mail: omoranc@unal.edu.c [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568 Medellin (Colombia)

    2010-11-15

    Thick films of ((Bi, Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}){sub 0.95}/(LaSr{sub 0.7}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 3}){sub 0.05} [(Bi-2223){sub 0.95}(LSMO){sub 0.05}] composites were fabricated on (0 0 1)-oriented LaAlO{sub 3} substrates by a simple melting-quenching-annealing method and their structural, morphological and magnetoelectrical properties carefully studied. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns suggested a highly oriented growth along the c-axis of LSMO. This preferred orientation, with the crystal c-axis being perpendicular to the plane of the substrate, was considered to be indicative of a textured growth mode. Electrical and magnetic measurements showed the presence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in the composite at temperatures above room temperature and below T{approx}50 K, respectively. A clear crossover from negative to positive magnetoresistance was observed at {approx}80 K in a magnetic field as strong as 5 T.

  15. Strong composite films with layered structures prepared by casting silk fibroin-graphene oxide hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Li, Chun; Yuan, Wenjing; Shi, Gaoquan

    2013-04-01

    Composite films of graphene oxide (GO) sheets and silk fibroin (SF) with layered structures have been prepared by facile solution casting of SF-GO hydrogels. The as-prepared composite film containing 15% (by weight, wt%) of SF shows a high tensile strength of 221 +/- 16 MPa and a failure strain of 1.8 +/- 0.4%, which partially surpass those of natural nacre. Particularly, this composite film also has a high modulus of 17.2 +/- 1.9 GPa. The high mechanical properties of this composite film can be attributed to its high content of GO (85 wt%), compact layered structure and the strong hydrogen bonding interaction between SF chains and GO sheets.Composite films of graphene oxide (GO) sheets and silk fibroin (SF) with layered structures have been prepared by facile solution casting of SF-GO hydrogels. The as-prepared composite film containing 15% (by weight, wt%) of SF shows a high tensile strength of 221 +/- 16 MPa and a failure strain of 1.8 +/- 0.4%, which partially surpass those of natural nacre. Particularly, this composite film also has a high modulus of 17.2 +/- 1.9 GPa. The high mechanical properties of this composite film can be attributed to its high content of GO (85 wt%), compact layered structure and the strong hydrogen bonding interaction between SF chains and GO sheets. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XPS spectrum of the SF-GO hybrid film, SEM images of lyophilized GO dispersion and the failure surface of GO film. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00196b

  16. Turning Wood Autohydrolysate Directly into Food Packing Composite Films with Good Toughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaJie Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based composite films were produced by incorporating wood autohydrolysate (WH, chitosan (CS, and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC. In this work, WH was directly utilized without further purification, and CNC was introduced as the reinforced material to prepare WH-CS-CNC composite films with excellent properties. The effects of CNC on the properties of WH-CS-CNC composite films were investigated by characterizing their structures, mechanical properties, oxygen barrier, and thermal stability properties. The results suggested that CNC could improve tensile strength of the composite films, and the tensile strain at break could be up to 4.7%. Besides, the oxygen permeability of the prepared composite films could be as low as 3.57 cm3/day·m2·kPa, making them suitable for the food packaging materials. These above results showed that the addition of CNC is an effective method to enhance the toughness of composite films. In addition, WH-CS-CNC composite films have great potential in the field of sustainable food packing materials.

  17. Influence of O2 Flux on Compositions and Properties of ITO Films Deposited at Room Temperature by Direct-Current Pulse Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hua-Lin; Ding Wan-Yu; Liu Chao-Qian; Chai Wei-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature by dc pulse magnetron sputtering. Varying O 2 flux, ITO films with different properties are obtained. Both x-ray diffractometer and x-ray photoelectron spectrometer are used to study the change of crystalline structures and bonding structures of ITO films, respectively. Electrical properties are measured by four-point probe measurements. The results indicate that the chemical structures and compositions of ITO films strongly depend on the O 2 flux. With increasing O 2 flux, ITO films display better crystallization, which could decrease the resistivity of films. On the contrary, ITO films contain less O vacancies with increasing O 2 flux, which could worsen the conductive properties of films. Without any heat treatment onto the samples, the resistivity of the ITO film could reach 6.0 × 10 −4 Ω ·cm, with the optimal deposition parameter of 0.2 sccm O 2 flux. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Incommensurate composite crystal structure of scandium-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Yoshito; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Mami; Takeya, Satoshi; Honda, Kazumasa; Akahama, Yuichi; Kawamura, Haruki

    2005-01-01

    The long-unknown crystal structure of the high pressure phase scandium-II was solved by powder x-ray diffraction and was found to have tetragonal host channels along the c axis and guest chains that are incommensurate with the host, as well as the high pressure phases of Ba, Sr, Bi, and Sb. The pressure dependences of the lattice constants, the incommensurability, the atomic distances, and the atomic volume were investigated

  19. Effects of copolymer composition, film thickness, and solvent vapor annealing time on dewetting of ultrathin block copolymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changchun; Wen, Gangyao; Li, Jingdan; Wu, Tao; Wang, Lina; Xue, Feifei; Li, Hongfei; Shi, Tongfei

    2016-09-15

    Effects of copolymer composition, film thickness, and solvent vapor annealing time on dewetting of spin-coated polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) films (dewetting of the films with different thicknesses occur via the spinodal dewetting and the nucleation and growth mechanisms, respectively. The PS-b-PMMA films rupture into droplets which first coalesce into large ones to reduce the surface free energy. Then the large droplets rupture into small ones to increase the contact area between PMMA blocks and acetone molecules resulting from ultimate migration of PMMA blocks to droplet surface, which is a novel dewetting process observed in spin-coated films for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Composition dependence of spontaneous crystallization of phosphosilicate glass melts during cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S.J.; Zhu, C.F.; Zhang, Y.F.

    2012-01-01

    Crystallization behavior of alumino-phospho-silicate melts during cooling is studied by means of the differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and viscometry. The results show a pronounced impact of alkaline earth oxide, alkali oxide and fluoride on the crystal type and crystallizat......Crystallization behavior of alumino-phospho-silicate melts during cooling is studied by means of the differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and viscometry. The results show a pronounced impact of alkaline earth oxide, alkali oxide and fluoride on the crystal type...... and crystallization degree. It is found that adding NaF into the studied compositions slightly decreases melt fragility and improves both the glass-forming ability and melt workability. This effect is associated with the unique structural role of NaF compared to the other modifier oxides. It is also found...

  1. Hierarchical porous graphene/polyaniline composite film with superior rate performance for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yuena; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yajie; Wei, Zhixiang

    2013-12-23

    A highly flexible graphene free-standing film with hierarchical structure is prepared by a facile template method. With a porous structure, the film can be easily bent and cut, and forms a composite with another material as a scaffold. The 3D graphene film exhibits excellent rate capability and its capacitance is further improved by forming a composite with polyaniline nanowire arrays. The flexible hierarchical composite proves to be an excellent electrode material for flexible supercapacitors. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Compositionally graded SiCu thin film anode by magnetron sputtering for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, B.D., E-mail: bpolat@itu.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Eryilmaz, O.L. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Keleş, O., E-mail: ozgulkeles@itu.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Erdemir, A. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Amine, K. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Compositionally graded and non-graded composite SiCu thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on Cu disks for investigation of their potentials in lithium ion battery applications. The compositionally graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu delivered a 1400 mAh g{sup −1} capacity with 80% Coulombic efficiency in the first cycle and still retained its capacity at around 600 mAh g{sup −1} (with 99.9% Coulombic efficiency) even after 100 cycles. On the other hand, the non-graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu exhibited 1100 mAh g{sup −1} as the first discharge capacity with 78% Coulombic efficiency but the cycle life of this film degraded very quickly, delivering only 250 mAh g{sup −1} capacity after 100th cycles. Not only the Cu content but also the graded film thickness were believed to be the main contributors to the much superior performance of the compositionally graded SiCu films. We also believe that the Cu-rich region of the graded film helped reduce internal stress build-up and thus prevented film delamination during cycling. In particular, the decrease of Cu content from interface region to the top of the coating reduced the possibility of stress build-up across the film during cycling, thus leading to a high electrochemical performance.b - Highlights: • Highly adherent SiCu films are deposited by magnetron sputtering. • Compositionally graded SiCu film is produced and characterized. • Decrease of Cu content diverted the propagation of stress in the anode. • Cu rich layer at the bottom improves the adherence of the film.

  3. Thermal dewetting behavior of polystyrene composite thin films with organic-modified inorganic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Masaki; Takahashi, Yosuke; Fujii, Takeshi; Liu, Yang; Sugioka, Ken-ichi; Tsukada, Takao; Minami, Kimitaka; Adschiri, Tadafumi

    2014-07-29

    The thermal dewetting of polystyrene composite thin films with oleic acid-modified CeO2 nanoparticles prepared by the supercritical hydrothermal synthesis method was investigated, varying the nanoparticle concentration (0-30 wt %), film thickness (approximately 50 and 100 nm), and surface energy of silanized silicon substrates on which the composite films were coated. The dewetting behavior of the composite thin films during thermal annealing was observed by an optical microscope. The presence of nanoparticles in the films affected the morphology of dewetting holes, and moreover suppressed the dewetting itself when the concentration was relatively high. It was revealed that there was a critical value of the surface energy of the substrate at which the dewetting occurred. In addition, the spatial distributions of nanoparticles in the composite thin films before thermal annealing were investigated using AFM and TEM. As a result, we found that most of nanoparticles segregated to the surface of the film, and that such distributions of nanoparticles contribute to the stabilization of the films, by calculating the interfacial potential of the films with nanoparticles.

  4. Microstructure and magnetic properties of FeCo epitaxial thin films grown on MgO single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikada, Kouhei; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    FeCo epitaxial films were prepared on MgO(100), MgO(110), and MgO(111) substrates by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. FeCo thin films with (100), (211), and (110) planes parallel to the substrate surface grow on respective MgO substrates. FeCo/MgO interface structures are studied by high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and the epitaxial growth mechanism is discussed. Atomically sharp boundaries are recognized between the FeCo thin films and the MgO substrates where misfit dislocations are introduced in the FeCo thin films presumably to decrease the lattice misfits. Misfit dislocations are observed approximately every 9 and 1.4 nm in FeCo thin film at the FeCo/MgO(100) and the FeCo/MgO(110) interfaces, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the lattice spacing measured parallel to the single-crystal substrate surfaces are in agreement within 0.1% with those of the respective bulk values of Fe 50 Co 50 alloy crystal, showing that the FeCo film strain is very small. The magnetic anisotropies of these epitaxial films basically reflect the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bulk FeCo alloy crystal

  5. Synthesis, nanostructure and magnetic properties of FeCo-reduced graphene oxide composite films by one-step electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Derang; Li, Hao; Wang, Zhenkun; Wei, Jinwu; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    FeCo-reduced graphene oxide (FeCo-RGO) composite film was fabricated on indium tin oxide substrate using one-step electrodeposition method. Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope results show that the reduced graphene oxide is coprecipitated with the FeCo film. The energy-dispersive spectrometer results demonstrate that the atomic ratio of Fe/Co in FeCo-RGO composite film is larger than that of the FeCo film under the same fabrication condition. As a result, the FeCo-RGO composite film exhibits good soft magnetic properties and high-frequency properties as well as the FeCo film. The magnetic anisotropy field and saturation magnetization of FeCo-RGO composite film are increased when compared with FeCo film. Furthermore, the ferromagnetic resonance frequency is improved from 2.15 GHz for the FeCo film to 3.9 GHz for the FeCo-RGO composite film. - Highlights: • FeCo-reduced graphene oxide composite film was fabricated on indium tin oxide substrate. • One step electrodeposition method was used. • Good soft magnetic properties were exhibited by the composite films. • Increase of resonance frequency from 2.15 GHz for FeCo film to 3.9 GHz for composite film

  6. Single particle measurements of the chemical composition of cirrus ice residue during CRYSTAL-FACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cziczo, D. J.; Murphy, D. M.; Hudson, P. K.; Thomson, D. S.

    2004-02-01

    The first real-time, in situ, investigation of the chemical composition of the residue of cirrus ice crystals was performed during July 2002. This study was undertaken on a NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft as part of CRYSTAL-FACE, a field campaign which sought to further our understanding of the relation of clouds, water vapor, and climate by characterizing, among other parameters, anvil cirrus formed about the Florida peninsula. A counter flow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to separate cirrus ice from the unactivated interstitial aerosol particles and evaporate condensed-phase water. Residual material, on a crystal-by-crystal basis, was subsequently analyzed using the NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory's Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument. Sampling was performed from 5 to 15 km altitude and from 12° to 28° north latitude within cirrus originating over land and ocean. Chemical composition measurements provided several important results. Sea salt was often incorporated into cirrus, consistent with homogeneous ice formation by aerosol particles from the marine boundary layer. Size measurements showed that large particles preferentially froze over smaller ones. Meteoritic material was found within ice crystals, indicative of a relation between stratospheric aerosol particles and tropospheric clouds. Mineral dust was the dominant residue observed in clouds formed during a dust transport event from the Sahara, consistent with a heterogeneous freezing mechanism. These results show that chemical composition and size are important determinants of which aerosol particles form cirrus ice crystals.

  7. High-Density Polyethylene and Heat-Treated Bamboo Fiber Composites: Nonisothermal Crystallization Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat-treated bamboo fibers (BFs on nonisothermal crystallization of high-density polyethylene (HDPE was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry under nitrogen. The Avrami-Jeziorny model was used to fit the measured crystallization data of the HDPE/BF composites and to obtain the model parameters for the crystallization process. The heat flow curves of neat HDPE and HDPE/heat-treated BF composites showed similar trends. Their crystallization mostly occurred within a temperature range between 379 K and 399 K, where HDPE turned from the liquid phase into the crystalline phase. Values of the Avrami exponent (n were in the range of 2.8~3.38. Lamellae of neat HDPE and their composites grew in a three-dimensional manner, which increased with increased heat-treatment temperature and could be attributed to the improved ability of heterogeneous nucleation and crystallization completeness. The values of the modified kinetic rate constant (KJ first increased and then decreased with increased cooling rate because the supercooling was improved by the increased number of nucleating sites. Heat-treated BF and/or a coupling agent could act as a nucleator for the crystallization of HDPE.

  8. Preparation of reduced graphene oxide/gelatin composite films with reinforced mechanical strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenchao; Wang, Zhipeng; Liu, Yu; Li, Nan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We used and compared different proportion of gelatin and chitosan as reducing agents. ► The mechanical properties of the films are investigated, especially the wet films. ► The cell toxicity of the composite films as biomaterial is carried out. ► The water absorption capabilities of the composite films also studied. -- Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) was reduced by chitosan/gelatin solution and added to gelatin (Gel) to fabricate reduced graphene oxide/gelatin (RGO/Gel) films by a solvent-casting method using genipin as cross-linking agent. The structure and properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The addition of RGO increased the tensile strength of the RGO/Gel films in both dry and wet states, but decreased their elongation at break. The incorperation of RGO also decreased the swelling ability of the films in water. Cell cultures were carried out in order to test the cytotoxicity of the films. The cells grew and reproduced well on the RGO/Gel films, indicating that the addition of RGO has no negative effect on the compatibility of the gelatin. Therefore, the reduced graphene oxide/gelatin composite is a promising biomaterial with excellent mechanical properties and good cell compatibility.

  9. Single-crystal-like GdNdO{sub x} thin films on silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering and high-temperature annealing for crystal seed layer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ziwei; Xiao, Lei; Liang, Renrong, E-mail: wang-j@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liangrr@tsinghua.edu.cn; Shen, Shanshan; Xu, Jun; Wang, Jing, E-mail: wang-j@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liangrr@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Single-crystal-like rare earth oxide thin films on silicon (Si) substrates were fabricated by magnetron sputtering and high-temperature annealing processes. A 30-nm-thick high-quality GdNdO{sub x} (GNO) film was deposited using a high-temperature sputtering process at 500°C. A Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture was used as the sputtering target, in which the proportions of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} were controlled to make the GNO’s lattice parameter match that of the Si substrate. To further improve the quality of the GNO film, a post-deposition annealing process was performed at a temperature of 1000°C. The GNO films exhibited a strong preferred orientation on the Si substrate. In addition, an Al/GNO/Si capacitor was fabricated to evaluate the dielectric constant and leakage current of the GNO films. It was determined that the single-crystal-like GNO films on the Si substrates have potential for use as an insulator layer for semiconductor-on-insulator and semiconductor/insulator multilayer applications.

  10. Single-crystal-like GdNdOx thin films on silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering and high-temperature annealing for crystal seed layer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziwei Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal-like rare earth oxide thin films on silicon (Si substrates were fabricated by magnetron sputtering and high-temperature annealing processes. A 30-nm-thick high-quality GdNdOx (GNO film was deposited using a high-temperature sputtering process at 500°C. A Gd2O3 and Nd2O3 mixture was used as the sputtering target, in which the proportions of Gd2O3 and Nd2O3 were controlled to make the GNO’s lattice parameter match that of the Si substrate. To further improve the quality of the GNO film, a post-deposition annealing process was performed at a temperature of 1000°C. The GNO films exhibited a strong preferred orientation on the Si substrate. In addition, an Al/GNO/Si capacitor was fabricated to evaluate the dielectric constant and leakage current of the GNO films. It was determined that the single-crystal-like GNO films on the Si substrates have potential for use as an insulator layer for semiconductor-on-insulator and semiconductor/insulator multilayer applications.

  11. Mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of hydroxyapatite/poly(butylenes succinate) composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenmin; Zhang, Yihe; Zhang, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Biodegradable synthetic polymers have attracted much attention nowadays, and more and more researches have been done on biodegradable polymers due to their excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In this work, hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were melt-mixing with poly (butylenes succinate) (PBS) to prepare the material, which could be used in the biomedical industry. To develop high-performance PBS for cryogenic engineering applications, it is necessary to investigate the cryogenic mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of HA/PBS composites. Cryogenic mechanical behaviors of the composites were studied in terms of tensile and impact strength at the glass transition temperature (-30°C) and compared to their corresponding behaviors at room temperature. With the increase of HA content, the crystallization of HA/PBS composites decreased and crystallization onset temperature shifted to a lower temperature. The diameter of spherulites increased at first and decreased with a further HA content. At the same time, the crystallization rate became slow when the HA content was no more than 15wt% and increased when HA content reached 20wt%. In all, the results we obtained demonstrate that HA/PBS composites reveal a better tensile strength at -30°C in contrast to the strength at room temperature. HA particles with different amount affect the crystallization of PBS in different ways. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. X-ray beam monitor made by thin-film CVD single-crystal diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E; Prestopino, G; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Angelone, M; Pillon, M; Kachkanov, V; Tartoni, N; Benetti, M; Cannatà, D; Di Pietrantonio, F

    2012-11-01

    A novel beam position monitor, operated at zero bias voltage, based on high-quality chemical-vapor-deposition single-crystal Schottky diamond for use under intense synchrotron X-ray beams was fabricated and tested. The total thickness of the diamond thin-film beam monitor is about 60 µm. The diamond beam monitor was inserted in the B16 beamline of the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell (UK). The device was characterized under monochromatic high-flux X-ray beams from 6 to 20 keV and a micro-focused 10 keV beam with a spot size of approximately 2 µm × 3 µm square. Time response, linearity and position sensitivity were investigated. Device response uniformity was measured by a raster scan of the diamond surface with the micro-focused beam. Transmissivity and spectral responsivity versus beam energy were also measured, showing excellent performance of the new thin-film single-crystal diamond beam monitor.

  13. An Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Multisensor System Based on Phthalocyanine Nanostructured Films: Discrimination of Musts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Garcia-Hernandez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An array of electrochemical quartz crystal electrodes (EQCM modified with nanostructured films based on phthalocyanines was developed and used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes. Nanostructured films of iron, nickel and copper phthalocyanines were deposited on Pt/quartz crystals through the Layer by Layer technique by alternating layers of the corresponding phthalocyanine and poly-allylamine hydrochloride. Simultaneous electrochemical and mass measurements were used to study the mass changes accompanying the oxidation of electroactive species present in must samples obtained from six Spanish varieties of grapes (Juan García, Prieto Picudo, Mencía Regadío, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha and Tempranillo. The mass and voltammetric outputs were processed using three-way models. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC was successfully used to discriminate the must samples according to their variety. Multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS evidenced the correlations existing between the voltammetric data and the polyphenolic content measured by chemical methods. Similarly, N-PLS showed a correlation between mass outputs and parameters related to the sugar content. These results demonstrated that electronic tongues based on arrays of EQCM sensors can offer advantages over arrays of mass or voltammetric sensors used separately.

  14. EBSD analysis of polysilicon films formed by aluminium induced crystallization of amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuezuen, O. [InESS, UMR 7163 CNRS-ULP, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: Ozge.Tuzun@iness.c-strasbourg.fr; Auger, J.M. [InESS, UMR 7163 CNRS-ULP, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); SMS Centre, UMR CNRS 5146, Ecole des Mines de Saint Etienne, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Gordon, I. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Focsa, A.; Montgomery, P.C. [InESS, UMR 7163 CNRS-ULP, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Maurice, C. [SMS Centre, UMR CNRS 5146, Ecole des Mines de Saint Etienne, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Slaoui, A. [InESS, UMR 7163 CNRS-ULP, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Beaucarne, G.; Poortmans, J. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2008-08-30

    Among the methods for enlarging the grain size of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin films, aluminium induced crystallization (AIC) of amorphous silicon is considered to be a very promising approach. In the AIC process, a thin a-Si layer on top of an aluminium layer crystallizes at temperatures well below the eutectic temperature of the Al/Si system (T{sub eu} = 577 deg. C). By means of electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD), we have mainly studied the effect of the aluminium layer quality varying the deposition system on the grain size, the defects and the preferential crystallographic orientation. We have found a strong correlation between the mean grain size and the size distribution with the Al deposition system and the surface quality. Furthermore, we show for the first time that more than 50% of the surface of the AIC films grown on alumina substrates are (103) preferentially oriented, instead of the commonly observed (100) preferential orientation. This may have important consequences for epitaxial thickening of the AIC layer into polysilicon absorber layers for solar cells.

  15. A coupled atomistics and discrete dislocation plasticity simulation of nanoindentation into single crystal thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Ronald E.; Shilkrot, L.E.; Curtin, William A.

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of 2D nanoindentation of circular 'Brinell' indenter into a single crystal metal thin film bonded to a rigid substrate is investigated. The simulation method is the coupled atomistics and discrete dislocation (CADD) model recently developed by the authors. The CADD model couples a continuum region containing any number of discrete dislocations to an atomistic region, and permits accurate, automatic detection and passing of dislocations between the atomistic and continuum regions. The CADD model allows for a detailed study of nanoindentation to large penetration depths (up to 60 A here) using only a small region of atoms just underneath the indenter where dislocation nucleation, cross-slip, and annihilation occur. Indentation of a model hexagonal aluminum crystal shows: (i) the onset of homogeneous dislocation nucleation at points away from the points of maximum resolved shear stress; (ii) size-dependence of the material hardness, (iii) the role of dislocation dissociation on deformation; (iv) reverse plasticity, including nucleation of dislocations on unloading and annihilation; (v) permanent deformation, including surface uplift, after full unloading; (vi) the effects of film thickness on the load-displacement response; and (vii) the differences between displacement and force controlled loading. This application demonstrates the power of the CADD method in capturing both long-range dislocation plasticity and short-range atomistic phenomena. The use of CADD permits for a clear study of the physical and mechanical influence of both complex plastic flow and non-continuum atomistic-level processes on the macroscopic response of material under indentation loading

  16. In situ observation of the impact of surface oxidation on the crystallization mechanism of GeTe phase-change thin films by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, R.; Bernier, N.; Cooper, D.; Sabbione, C.; Hippert, F.; Noé, P.

    2017-09-01

    The crystallization mechanisms of prototypical GeTe phase-change material thin films have been investigated by in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy annealing experiments. A novel sample preparation method has been developed to improve sample quality and stability during in situ annealing, enabling quantitative analysis and live recording of phase change events. Results show that for an uncapped 100 nm thick GeTe layer, exposure to air after fabrication leads to composition changes which promote heterogeneous nucleation at the oxidized surface. We also demonstrate that protecting the GeTe layer with a 10 nm SiN capping layer prevents nucleation at the surface and allows volume nucleation at a temperature 50 °C higher than the onset of crystallization in the oxidized sample. Our results have important implications regarding the integration of these materials in confined memory cells.

  17. Composition changes in sputter deposition of Y-Ba-Cu-O films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Y.; Naoe, M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss the mechanism of the composition change in sputter deposition of Y-BA-Cu-O film from YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-chi target investigated by means of a rf planar magnetron sputtering apparatus. Film composition changes significantly with not only substrate temperature Ts and sputtering gas pressure, but also substrate position. Lack of Cu and Ba content is significant in the film deposited at the substrate position just above the erosion area of the sputtering target. Suppression of bombardment of the substrate surface by negative ions emitted from the target and substrate is effective in increasing Cu and Ba content in the film. These results indicate not only that the sticking probability of the sputtered particles changes with Ts and incident particle energy, but also that high energy particle bombardment of the substrate surface plays an important role in the change of the film composition

  18. van der Waals epitaxy of SnS film on single crystal graphene buffer layer on amorphous SiO2/Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Yang, Yunbo; Guo, Fawen; Sun, Xin; Lu, Zonghuan; Mohanty, Dibyajyoti; Bhat, Ishwara; Washington, Morris; Lu, Toh-Ming; Wang, Gwo-Ching

    2018-03-01

    Conventional hetero-epitaxial films are typically grown on lattice and symmetry matched single crystal substrates. We demonstrated the epitaxial growth of orthorhombic SnS film (∼500 nm thick) on single crystal, monolayer graphene that was transferred on the amorphous SiO2/Si substrate. Using X-ray pole figure analysis we examined the structure, quality and epitaxy relationship of the SnS film grown on the single crystal graphene and compared it with the SnS film grown on commercial polycrystalline graphene. We showed that the SnS films grown on both single crystal and polycrystalline graphene have two sets of orientation domains. However, the crystallinity and grain size of the SnS film improve when grown on the single crystal graphene. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements show that the near surface texture has more phases as compared with that of the entire film. The surface texture of a film will influence the growth and quality of film grown on top of it as well as the interface formed. Our result offers an alternative approach to grow a hetero-epitaxial film on an amorphous substrate through a single crystal graphene buffer layer. This strategy of growing high quality epitaxial thin film has potential applications in optoelectronics.

  19. Magnetic and electromagnetic properties of Pr doped strontium ferrite/polyaniline composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Yuqing; Wang, Yan, E-mail: wangyan287580632@126.com

    2014-11-15

    This paper reported three acid (including hydrochloric acid HCl, p-toluenesulfonic acid PTS and D-camphor-10-acid CSA) doped SrPr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 11.8}O{sub 19}/PANI composite film and the HCl–PANI film prepared by a sol–gel method and in-situ oxidative polymerization. The characteristics of the film phase structure, surface morphology, conductivity and magnetic and electromagnetic properties were studied by using XRD, XPS, FESEM, four-probe tester, VSM and Vector Network Analyzer. The resistivity of organic acid doped composite films is higher than that of the HCl doped one. The saturation and remanent magnetization of PTS and HCl doped composite films are greater than the CSA-doped one; however, the coercivity of the three acid doped composite films is basically 5546 Oe. The saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity of SrPr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 11.8}O{sub 19} film are greater than those of the SrPr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 11.8}O{sub 19}–PANI composite film. In the frequency range of 8–12 GHz, the dielectric loss of HCl–PANI film is the maximum, and the dielectric loss of SrPr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 11.8}O{sub 19} film is the minimum; the magnetic loss of the four films is in descending order as SrPr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 11.8}O{sub 19} film, PrSrM/(HCl–PANI) composite film, PrSrM/(CSA–PANI) and HCl–PANI film. - Highlights: • Synthesizing three acid doped SrPr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 11.8}O{sub 19}/PANI composite films. • By sol–gel method and in-situ oxidative polymerization. • With excellent magnetic and electromagnetic properties. • The particular coating structure of PANI and Sr-ferrite. • Great interest for magnetic material and microwave absorbers.

  20. Polymer compositions, polymer films and methods and precursors for forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R; Peterson, Eric S; Orme, Christopher J

    2013-09-24

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  1. Self-supporting film method of silicon single crystal by ion implantation and it`s application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kazuo; Nakao, Setsuo; Niwa, Hiroaki; Miyagawa, Soji [National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    A few {mu}m of thickness of self-supporting film of silicon single crystal was produced by the ion implantation and the selective etching. This materials are distinguished by a uniform film thickness, good controllability, crystallization and the mechanical strength. For applying it to device, the detailed process has to be established, because there are some improved problems such as pinhole and morphology on the surface. This materials are very useful to the basic experiment of the base for epitaxial growth under irradiation of ion beams and the ion beam analysis in the atmosphere. (S.Y.)

  2. Surface topography and crystal and domain structures of films of ferroelectric copolymer of vinylidene difluoride and trifluoroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochervinskii, V. V., E-mail: kochval@mail.ru [Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, Branch (Russian Federation); Kiselev, D. A.; Malinkovich, M. D. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russian Federation); Korlyukov, A. A.; Lokshin, B. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds (Russian Federation); Volkov, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Kirakosyan, G. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Pavlov, A. S. [Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The crystallization of a copolymer from a solution at room temperature is found to lead to the formation of a metastable structure, characterized by the coexistence of ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. The fraction of the latter decreases after annealing above the Curie point. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has revealed a difference in the surface topographies between the films contacting with air and the films contacting with a glass substrate. The microstructure of copolymer chains has been investigated by {sup 19}F NMR spectroscopy. The chain fragments with “defect” attached monomeric units are ejected to the surface. The character of the ferroelectric domains formed during crystallization and their size distribution are analyzed.

  3. Formation of SmFe5(0001) ordered alloy thin films on Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuhara, Osamu; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    SmFe 5 (0001) single-crystal thin films are prepared by molecular beam epitaxy employing Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers on MgO(111) substrates. The Cu atoms diffuse into the Sm-Fe layer and substitute the Fe sites in SmFe 5 structure forming an alloy compound of Sm(Fe,Cu) 5 . The Sm(Fe,Cu) 5 film is more Cu enriched with increasing the substrate temperature. The Cu underlayer plays an important role in assisting the formation of the ordered phase.

  4. Formation of SmFe{sub 5}(0001) ordered alloy thin films on Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuhara, Osamu; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nukaga, Yuri; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi, E-mail: yabuhara@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    SmFe{sub 5}(0001) single-crystal thin films are prepared by molecular beam epitaxy employing Cu(111) single-crystal underlayers on MgO(111) substrates. The Cu atoms diffuse into the Sm-Fe layer and substitute the Fe sites in SmFe{sub 5} structure forming an alloy compound of Sm(Fe,Cu){sub 5}. The Sm(Fe,Cu){sub 5} film is more Cu enriched with increasing the substrate temperature. The Cu underlayer plays an important role in assisting the formation of the ordered phase.

  5. Compositional and structural changes in TiB2 films induced by bias, in situ and post-deposition annealing, respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelleg, Joshua; Sade, G.; Sinder, M.; Mogilyanski, D.

    2006-01-01

    Structural changes in TiB 2 films were induced at relatively low temperatures by the application of bias and in situ annealing or by post-deposition heat treatment of samples subjected to bias with simultaneous in situ annealing. In situ annealing by itself evoked only partial crystallization. Application of bias by itself only modified the composition of the as deposited film. A simple model is presented to explain the variation of the composition when RF bias is applied to a cold substrate. The crystallized films had a (0001) texture. A model has been suggested to explain the observed preferred orientation, based on the contribution of surface and strain energies. Both, the surface energy and strain energy are direction dependent. These were evaluated for two film orientations reported in the literature, namely, the (0001) and (101-bar 1)orientations. The preferred orientation of the film is determined by the lowest overall free energy resulting from the competition between the surface energy and the strain energy on different lattice planes. The surface energy is not film thickness dependent while the strain energy is thickness dependent and increases with it. For small film thickness, as in this work, the surface energy term is significant and (0001) orientation with a minimum surface energy is preferred. At large film thicknesses the strain energy becomes dominant and the (101-bar 1) preferred orientation is observed. Under certain experimental conditions strain energy effects may tip the preferred orientation to (101-bar 1). The elastic moduli in the (0001) and (101-bar 1) directions were determined as 435 and 538GPa, respectively

  6. Highly crystalline films of PCPDTBT with branched side chains by solvent vapor crystallization: influence on opto-electronic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Florian S U; Trefz, Daniel; Back, Justus; Kayunkid, Navaphun; Tornow, Benjamin; Albrecht, Steve; Yager, Kevin G; Singh, Gurpreet; Karim, Alamgir; Neher, Dieter; Brinkmann, Martin; Ludwigs, Sabine

    2015-02-18

    PCPDTBT, a marginally crystallizable polymer, is crystallized into a new crystal structure using solvent-vapor annealing. Highly ordered areas with three different polymer-chain orientations are identified using TEM/ED, GIWAXS, and polarized Raman spectroscopy. The optical and structural properties differ significantly from films prepared by standard device preparation protocols. Bilayer solar cells, however, show similar performance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Crystallization and electrical properties of ITO:Ce thin films for flat panel display applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Il; Cho, Sang Hyun; Choi, Sung Ryong; Oh, Min Cheol; Jang, Ji Hyang; Song, Pung Keun

    2009-01-01

    ITO and ITO:Ce films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering using an ITO (SnO 2 : 10 wt.%) target and CeO 2 doped ITO (CeO 2 : 0.5, 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 wt.%) ceramic targets, respectively, on unheated non-alkali glass substrates (corning E2000). The as-deposited films were annealed at 200 o C in an Ar atmosphere at a pressure of 1 Pa. The crystallization temperature of the ITO film was increased by introducing Ce atoms because they decrease the level of crystallinity. It was also confirmed that the etching rate, surface morphology and work function were improved by the addition of Ce atoms despite there being increased resistivity. The current voltage (I-V) characteristics of the OLED devices deteriorated with increasing Ce content in the ITO anode, which was attributed to a decrease in carrier density despite there being a high work function. Therefore, the carrier density is one of the most important factors that determine the turn-on voltage for OLED applications.

  8. Crystallization of silicon films of submicron thickness by blue-multi-laser-diode annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugiraneza, Jean de Dieu; Shirai, Katsuya; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Okada, Tatsuya; Noguchi, Takashi [University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Matsushima, Hideki; Hashimoto, Takao; Ogino, Yoshiaki; Sahota, Eiji [Hitachi Computer Peripherals Co. Ltd, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    Blue-Multi-Laser-Diode Annealing (BLDA) was performed in the continuous wave (CW) mode on Si films as thick as 0.5 {mu}m and 1 {mu}m deposited by rf sputtering. As a result of controlling the laser power from 4.0 to 4.8 W, a whole Si layer of 0.5 {mu}m in thickness was completely crystallized and consisted of a columnar structure of fine grains beneath a partially melted Si surface owing to the high temperature gradient along the depth in the Si layer. After additional hydrogenation in a furnace ambient, the ratio of the photo/dark current under AM 1.5 illumination distinctly improved to 6 times higher than that of as-deposited condition. The BLDA is expected to be applied to thin-film solar cells and/or to thin film transistor (TFT) photo-sensor systems on panels as a new low-temperature poly-silicon (LTPS) fabrication technique.

  9. Thin-film composite crosslinked polythiosemicarbazide membranes for organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN)

    KAUST Repository

    Aburabie, Jamaliah; Neelakanda, Pradeep; Karunakaran, Madhavan; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-01

    In this work we report a new class of solvent stable thin-film composite (TFC) membrane fabricated on crosslinked polythiosemicarbazide (PTSC) as substrate that exhibits superior stability compared with other solvent stable polymeric membranes

  10. A Facile Pathway to Modify Cellulose Composite Film by Reducing Wettability and Improving Barrier towards Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrophilic property of cellulose is a key limiting factor for its wide application. Here, a novel solution impregnation pathway was developed to increase the hydrophobic properties of cellulose. When compared with the regenerated cellulose (RC, the composite films showed a decrease in water uptake ability towards water vapor, and an increase of the water contact angle from 29° to 65° with increasing resin content in the composites, with only a slight change in the transmittance. Furthermore, the Young’s modulus value increased from 3.2 GPa (RC film to 5.1 GPa (RCBEA50 film. The results indicated that the composites had combined the advantages of cellulose and biphenyl A epoxy acrylate prepolymer (BEA resin. The presented method has great potential for the preparation of biocomposites with improved properties. The overall results suggest that composite films can be used as high-performance packaging materials.

  11. Preparation and properties of biodegradable films from Sterculia urens short fiber/cellulose green composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaramudu, J; Reddy, G Siva Mohan; Varaprasad, K; Sadiku, E R; Sinha Ray, S; Varada Rajulu, A

    2013-04-02

    The development of commercially viable "green products", based on natural resources for the matrices and reinforcements, in a wide range of applications, is on the rise. The present paper focuses on Sterculia urens short fiber reinforced pure cellulose matrix composite films. The morphologies of the untreated and 5% NaOH (alkali) treated S. urens fibers were observed by SEM. The effect of 5% NaOH treated S. urens fiber (5, 10, 15 and 20% loading) on the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the composites films is discussed. This paper presents the developments made in the area of biodegradable S. urens short fiber/cellulose (SUSF/cellulose) composite films, buried in the soil and later investigated by the (POM), before and after biodegradation has taken place. SUSF/cellulose composite films have great potential in food packaging and for medical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth of BaTiO3-PVDF composite thick films by using aerosol deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Yoon, Young Joon

    2016-01-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3)-polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite thick films were grown by using aerosol deposition at room temperature with BaTiO3 and PVDF powders. To produce a uniform composition in ceramic and polymer composite films, which show a substantial difference in specific gravity, we used PVDF-coated BaTiO3 powders as the starting materials. An examination of the microstructure confirmed that the BaTiO3 were well distributed in the PVDF matrix in the form of a 0 - 3 compound. The crystallite size in the BaTiO3-PVDF composite thick films was 5 ˜ 50 times higher than that in pure BaTiO3 thick films. PVDF plays a role in suppressing the fragmentation of BaTiO3 powder during the aerosol deposition process and in controlling the relative permittivity.

  13. Highly Hydrophilic Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membranes Functionalized with Surface-Tailored Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Kang, Yan; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    Thin-film composite polyamide membranes are state-of-the-art materials for membrane-based water purification and desalination processes, which require both high rejection of contaminants and high water permeabilities. However, these membranes

  14. Preparation of ZnO nanoribbon–MWCNT composite film and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-28

    Jul 28, 2017 ... has potential application as an antimicrobial bandage material. The composite film ... packaging of integrated circuits. Buckypapers have been ... +2 ions, which are known to inhibit active transport through the membrane,.

  15. One-step synthesis of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Seishi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates the preparation of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin films by simultaneous hot-wall deposition (HWD from multiple resources. The XRD result reveals that the solubility limit of Pb in ZnSe is quite narrow, less than 1 mol%, with obvious phase-separation in the composite thin films. A nanoscale elemental mapping of the film containing 5 mol% PbSe indicates that isolated PbSe nanocrystals are dispersed in the ZnSe matrix. The optical absorption edge of the composite thin films shifts toward the low-photon-energy region as the PbSe content increases. The use of a phase-separating PbSe-ZnSe system and HWD techniques enables simple production of the composite package.

  16. Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation and structure

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Yip, Ngai Yin; Phillip, William A.; Schiffman, Jessica D.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2011-01-01

    the technology to the point that it is commercially viable. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of thin-film composite membrane support layer structure on forward osmosis performance is conducted. The membranes consist of a selective polyamide

  17. In-situ Non-Invasive Imaging of Liquid-Immersed Thin Film Composite Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech; Pinnau, Ingo; Wessling, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We present a non-invasive method to directly image liquid-immersed thin film composite membranes. The approach allows accessing information not only on the lateral distribution of the coating thickness, including variations in its swelling

  18. Crystallization and mechanical properties of reinforced PHBV composites using melt compounding: Effect of CNCs and CNFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Du; Guomin, Zhao; Mingzhu, Pan; Leilei, Zhuang; Dagang, Li; Rui, Zhang

    2017-07-15

    Nanocellulose reinforced poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) composites were prepared using melt compounding. The effects of nanocellulose types (CNCs and CNFs) and nanocellulose content (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7wt%) on the crystallization, thermal and mechanical properties of PHBV composites were systematically compared in this study. The thermal stability of PHBV composites was improved by both CNCs and CNFs. CNFs with a higher thermal stability leaded to a higher thermal stability of PHBV composites. Both CNCs and CNFs induced a reduction in the crystalline size of PHBV spherulites. Furthermore, CNCs could act as a better nucleating agent for PHBV than did CNFs. CNCs and CNFs showed reinforcing effects in PHBV composites. At the equivalent content of nanocellulose, CNCs led to a higher tensile modulus of PHBV composites than did CNFs. 1wt% CNCs/PHBV composites exhibited the most optimum mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improved luminescence intensity and stability of thermal annealed ZnO incorporated Alq3 composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuba, M; Muralidharan, G

    2015-11-01

    The 30 wt% of ZnO (weight percentage of ZnO has been optimised) incorporated tris- (8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) has been synthesised and coated on to glass substrates using dip coating method. The structural and optical properties of the Alq3/ZnO composite film after thermal annealing from 50 to 300 °C insteps 50° has been studied and reported. XRD pattern reveals the presence of crystalline ZnO in all the annealed films. The films annealed above 150 °C reveal the presence of crystalline Alq3 along with crystalline ZnO. The FTIR spectra confirm the presence of hydroxyquinoline and ZnO vibration in all the annealed composite films. The composite films annealed above 150 °C show a partial sublimation and degradation of hydroxyquinoline compounds. The ZnO incorporated composite films (Alq3/ZnO) exhibit two emission peaks, one corresponding to ZnO at 487 nm and another at 513 nm due to Alq3. The films annealed at 200 °C exhibit maximum photoluminescence (PL) intensity than pristine film at 513 nm when excited at 390 nm.

  20. Diatomite as a novel composite ingredient for chitosan film with enhanced physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Lalehan; Kaya, Murat; Koc, Behlul; Mujtaba, Muhammad; Ilk, Sedef; Labidi, Jalel; Salaberria, Asier M; Cakmak, Yavuz Selim; Yildiz, Aysegul

    2017-12-01

    Practical applications of biopolymers in different industries are gaining considerable increase day by day. But still, these biopolymers lack important properties in order to meet the industrial demands. In the same regard, in the current study, chitosan composite films are produced by incorporating diatomite soil at two different concentrations. In order to obtain a homogeneous film, glutaraldehyde was supplemented to chitosan solution as a cross-linker. Compositing diatomaceous earth to chitosan film resulted in improvement of various important physicochemical properties compared to control such as; enhanced film wettability, increase elongation at break and improved thermal stability (264-277°C). The microstructure of the film was observed to haveconsisted of homogeneously distributed blister-shaped structures arised due to the incorporation of diatomite. The incorporation of diatomite did not influence the overall antioxidant activity of the composite films, which can be ascribe to the difficulty radicals formation. Chitosan film incorporated with increasing fraction of diatomite revealed a notable enhancement in the antimicrobial activity. Additionally with the present study, for the first time possible interactions between chitosan/diatomite were determined via quantum chemical calculations. Current study will be helpful in giving a new biotechnological perspective to diatom in terms of its successful application in hydrophobic composite film production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of MoO3–WO3 composite thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In order to achieve high colouration efficiency, MoO3–WO3 composite thin films have been successfully deposited on sodium silicate glass and silicon wafer (111) at 30 ◦C by a very simple novel wet process known as liquid phase deposition. The deposited films were annealed at different temperatures and ...

  2. Composite polyaniline/calixarene Langmuir - Blodgett films for gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrik, N. V.; DeRossi, D.; Kazantseva, Z. I.; Nabok, A. V.; Nesterenko, B. A.; Piletsky, S. A.; Kalchenko, V. I.; Shivaniuk, A. N.; Markovskiy, L. N.

    1996-12-01

    Mixtures of the polyaniline (emeraldine base) and phosphorylated calix[4]resorcinolarene derivative (CA) are proposed to prepare LB films for conductometric gas sensors. They are quite stable at the air - water interface and give LB films of high quality. The average thickness of the mixed monolayers is found to be 1.6 nm. The as-deposited films are insulating. Doping with HCl increases the conductivity up to between 0957-4484/7/4/002/img12 and 0957-4484/7/4/002/img13 which depends on the component ratio. The films containing more than 20 wt% of CA are doped reversibly in part. Thus, the films which are highly sensitive to either 0957-4484/7/4/002/img14 or HCl films are prepared by choosing the component ratio. Detection of 0957-4484/7/4/002/img14 and HCl in the ppm range is demonstrated.

  3. Calcinated tea and cellulose composite films and its dielectric and lead adsorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaramudu, Tippabattini; Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu; Kim, Hyun Chan; Kafy, Abdullahil; Kim, Jung Woong; Kim, Jaehwan

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, calcinated tea and cellulose composite (CTCC) films were fabricated via solution casting method. Chemical structure, morphology, crystallinity and thermal stability of the fabricated films were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The effect of calcinated tea loading on the properties of the prepared CTCC films was studied. The results suggest that the prepared CTCC films show higher mechanical properties, thermal stability and dielectric constant than the neat cellulose film. In addition, the CTCC films adsorb Pb 2+ ions and its adsorption performance depends on the calcinated tea content and pH level. The CTCC films are useful for sensors, flexible capacitor as well as lead adsorption applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of PANI/PSF conductive composite films and their characteristic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yuying; Shang Xiuli; Kong Chao; Zhao Hongxiao; Hu Zhong'ai

    2006-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI)/polysulfone (PSF) composite films are successfully prepared by phase separation and one-step in-situ polymerization.It is found that the head-on face (in contact with solution) of the films is green while the back face is white.The chemical component and the surface morphology of both surfaces of the films are characterized by FT-IR spectra and SEM,respectively.The effect of the polymerization temperature,time and concentration of the reactants on the electrical properties of the films are discussed in details.The thermo-oxidative degradation of the films is studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).The results indicate that the thermal stability of the PANI/PSF films is higher than that of the pure PSF film.

  5. A dense and strong bonding collagen film for carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Sheng; Li, Hejun; Li, Kezhi; Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Leilei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Significantly enhancement of biocompatibility on C/C composites by preparing a collagen film. • The dense and continuous collagen film had a strong bonding strength with C/C composites after dehydrathermal treatment (DHT) crosslink. • Numerous oxygen-containing functional groups formed on the surface of C/C composites without matrix damage. - Abstract: A strong bonding collagen film was successfully prepared on carbon/carbon (C/C) composites. The surface conditions of the modified C/C composites were detected by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectra. The roughness, optical morphology, bonding strength and biocompatibility of collagen films at different pH values were detected by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), universal test machine and cytology tests in vitro. After a 4-h modification in 30% H 2 O 2 solution at 100 °C, the contact angle on the surface of C/C composites was decreased from 92.3° to 65.3°. Large quantities of hydroxyl, carboxyl and carbonyl functional groups were formed on the surface of the modified C/C composites. Then a dense and continuous collagen film was prepared on the modified C/C substrate. Bonding strength between collagen film and C/C substrate was reached to 8 MPa level when the pH value of this collagen film was 2.5 after the preparing process. With 2-day dehydrathermal treatment (DHT) crosslinking at 105 °C, the bonding strength was increased to 12 MPa level. At last, the results of in vitro cytological test showed that this collagen film made a great improvement on the biocompatibility on C/C composites

  6. A dense and strong bonding collagen film for carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Sheng; Li, Hejun, E-mail: lihejun@nwpu.edu.cn; Li, Kezhi; Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Leilei

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Significantly enhancement of biocompatibility on C/C composites by preparing a collagen film. • The dense and continuous collagen film had a strong bonding strength with C/C composites after dehydrathermal treatment (DHT) crosslink. • Numerous oxygen-containing functional groups formed on the surface of C/C composites without matrix damage. - Abstract: A strong bonding collagen film was successfully prepared on carbon/carbon (C/C) composites. The surface conditions of the modified C/C composites were detected by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectra. The roughness, optical morphology, bonding strength and biocompatibility of collagen films at different pH values were detected by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), universal test machine and cytology tests in vitro. After a 4-h modification in 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution at 100 °C, the contact angle on the surface of C/C composites was decreased from 92.3° to 65.3°. Large quantities of hydroxyl, carboxyl and carbonyl functional groups were formed on the surface of the modified C/C composites. Then a dense and continuous collagen film was prepared on the modified C/C substrate. Bonding strength between collagen film and C/C substrate was reached to 8 MPa level when the pH value of this collagen film was 2.5 after the preparing process. With 2-day dehydrathermal treatment (DHT) crosslinking at 105 °C, the bonding strength was increased to 12 MPa level. At last, the results of in vitro cytological test showed that this collagen film made a great improvement on the biocompatibility on C/C composites.

  7. Application of an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance to the study of electrocatalytic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Jr., James S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The EQCM was used to study the deposition and composition of electrodeposited pure PbO2 and Bi-doped PbO2 active toward anodic oxygen-transfer reactions. Within the doped films, Bi is incorporated as Bi+5 in the form of BiO2A, where A is ClO4- or NO3-. For deposition of these 2 materials, changes in hydration between the Au oxide and the depositing film resulted in higher mass-to-charge ratios. XRD and XPS were used to study the films; the rutile structure of PbO2 is retained even with the Bi doping. The EQCM was also used to study the formation and dissolution of Au oxide and preoxide structures formed on the Au substrate electrodes in acidic media. The preoxide structures were AuOH and increased the surface mass. For the formation of stable Au films on quartz wafers, Ti interlayers between Au and quartz was found to be very effective.

  8. Preparation of pectin/silver nanoparticles composite films with UV-light barrier and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Tanomrod, Nattareya; Rawdkuen, Saroat; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was synthesized by a green method using an aqueous extract of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk (CMLE) as reducing and stabilizing agents, and they were used for the preparation of pectin-based antimicrobial composite films. The AgNPs were spherical in shape with the size in the range of 20-80nm and showed the absorption peak around 500nm. The pectin/AgNPs composite film exhibited characteristic absorption peak of AgNPs at 480nm. The surface color and light transmittance of the pectin films were greatly influenced by the addition of AgNPs. The lightness of the films decreased, however, redness and yellowness of the films increased after incorporation of AgNPs. UV-light barrier property of the pectin film increased significantly with a little decrease in the transparency. Though there were no structural changes in the pectin film by the incorporation of CMLE and AgNPs as indicated by the FTIR results, the film properties such as thermal stability, mechanical strength, and water vapor barrier properties of the pectin films increased. The pectin/AgNPs nanocomposite films exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Crystal Morphology on Singlet Exciton Fission in Diketopyrrolopyrrole Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Patrick E; Margulies, Eric A; Mauck, Catherine M; Miller, Stephen A; Wu, Yilei; Wu, Yi-Lin; Marks, Tobin J; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2016-02-25

    Singlet exciton fission (SF) is a promising strategy for increasing photovoltaic efficiency, but in order for SF to be useful in solar cells, it should take place in a chromophore that is air-stable, highly absorptive, solution processable, and inexpensive. Unlike many SF chromophores, diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) conforms to these criteria, and here we investigate SF in DPP for the first time. SF yields in thin films of DPP derivatives, which are widely used in organic electronics and photovoltaics, are shown to depend critically on crystal morphology. Time-resolved spectroscopy of three DPP derivatives with phenyl (3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione, PhDPP), thienyl (3,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione, TDPP), and phenylthienyl (3,6-di(5-phenylthiophen-2-yl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione, PhTDPP) aromatic substituents in 100-200 nm thin films reveals that efficient SF occurs only in TDPP and PhTDPP (τSF = 220 ± 20 ps), despite the fact that SF is most exoergic in PhDPP. This result correlates well with the greater degree of π-overlap and closer π-stacking in TDPP (3.50 Å) and PhTDPP (3.59 Å) relative to PhDPP (3.90 Å) and demonstrates that SF in DPP is highly sensitive to the electronic coupling between adjacent chromophores. The triplet yield in PhTDPP films is determined to be 210 ± 35% by the singlet depletion method and 165 ± 30% by the energy transfer method, showing that SF is nearly quantitative in these films and that DPP derivatives are a promising class of SF chromophores for enhancing photovoltaic performance.

  10. Crystallization characteristics of Mg-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 films for phase change memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jing; Shen Xiang; Nie Qiuhua; Wang Guoxiang; Wu Liangcai; Dai Shixun; Xu Tiefeng; Wang, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mg-doped Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST) phase change films with higher resistance and better thermal stability have been proposed. ► The increase of Mg content result in an enhancement in crystallization temperature, activation energy and electrical resistance. ► The proper Mg addition in GST can lead to a one-step crystallization process from amorphous to faced-centered cubic (fcc) phase. ► The formation of covalent Mg-Sb and Mg-Te bonds contribute to the enhancement thermal stability in Mg-doped GST films. - Abstract: Mg-doped Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST) films with different Mg doping concentrations have been prepared, and their crystallization behavior, structure and electrical properties have been systematically investigated for phase-change memory applications. The results show that the addition of Mg into GST films could result in an enhancement in crystallization temperature, activation energy and electrical resistance compared with the conventional GST films, indicating that a good amorphous thermal stability. On the other hand, the proper Mg concentration ranging from 13.6 to 31.1 at.% can lead to a one-step crystallization process from amorphous to faced-centered cubic (fcc) phase and suppress the formation of the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystalline phase. X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) further confirm that the formation of covalent Mg-Sb and Mg-Te bonds contribute to the enhanced thermal stability in Mg-doped GST films.

  11. Design of tunable surface mode waveguide based on photonic crystal composite structure using organic liquid*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lan-Lan; Liu Wei; Li Ping; Yang Xi; Cao Xu

    2017-01-01

    With the method of replacing the surface layer of photonic crystal with tubes, a novel photonic crystal composite structure used as a tunable surface mode waveguide is designed. The tubes support tunable surface states. The tunable propagation capabilities of the structure are investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain. Simulation results show that the beam transmission distributions of the composite structure are sensitive to the frequency range of incident light and the surface morphology which can be modified by filling the tubes with different organic liquids. By adjusting the filler in tubes, the T-shaped, Y-shaped, and L-shaped propagations can be realized. The property can be applied to the tunable surface mode waveguide. Compared with a traditional single function photonic crystal waveguide, our designed structure not only has a small size, but also is a tunable device. (paper)

  12. Molybdenum Nitride Films: Crystal Structures, Synthesis, Mechanical, Electrical and Some Other Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Jauberteau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Among transition metal nitrides, molybdenum nitrides have been much less studied even though their mechanical properties as well as their electrical and catalytic properties make them very attractive for many applications. The δ-MoN phase of hexagonal structure is a potential candidate for an ultra-incompressible and hard material and can be compared with c-BN and diamond. The predicted superconducting temperature of the metastable MoN phase of NaCl-B1-type cubic structure is the highest of all refractory carbides and nitrides. The composition of molybdenum nitride films as well as the structures and properties depend on the parameters of the process used to deposit the films. They are also strongly correlated to the electronic structure and chemical bonding. An unusual mixture of metallic, covalent and ionic bonding is found in the stoichiometric compounds.

  13. Film-thickness and composition dependence of epitaxial thin-film PZT-based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh; Dekkers, Jan M.; Vu, Hung Ngoc; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The transverse piezoelectric coefficient e31,f and mass-sensitivity were measured on piezoelectric cantilevers based on epitaxial PZT thin-films with film-thicknesses ranging from 100 to 2000 nm. The highest values of e31,f and mass-sensitivity were observed at a film thickness of 500–750 nm, while

  14. Chemical composition of cadmium selenochromite crystals doped with indium, silver and gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'skij, N.K.; Ochertyanova, L.I.; Shabunina, G.G.; Aminov, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    The high accuracy chemical analysis Which allows one to observe doping effect on the cadmium selenochromite crystal composition is performed. The problem on the possibility of impurity atom substitution for basic element is considered on the basis of data of atomic-absorption analysis of doped crystals. The crystals of cadmium selenochromite doped with indium by chromium to cadmium ratio are distributed into two groups and probably two types of substitution take place. At 0.08-1.5 at.% indium concentrations the Cr/Cd ratio >2. One can assume that indium preferably takes cadmium tetrahedral positions whereas at 1.5-2.5 at. % concentrations the Cr/Cd ratio =2 and cadmium is substituted for silver which does not contradict crystallochemical and physical properties of this compound. In crystals with gallium the Cr/Cd ratio <2. Gallium preferably substitutes chromium

  15. Metal–organic coordinated multilayer film formation: Quantitative analysis of composition and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Alexandra S.; Elinski, Meagan B.; Ohnsorg, Monica L.; Beaudoin, Christopher K.; Alexander, Kyle A.; Peaslee, Graham F.; DeYoung, Paul A.; Anderson, Mary E., E-mail: meanderson@hope.edu

    2015-09-01

    Metal–organic coordinated multilayers are self-assembled thin films fabricated by alternating solution–phase deposition of bifunctional organic molecules and metal ions. The multilayer film composed of α,ω-mercaptoalkanoic acid and Cu (II) has been the focus of fundamental and applied research with its robust reproducibility and seemingly simple hierarchical architecture. However, internal structure and composition have not been unambiguously established. The composition of films up to thirty layers thick was investigated using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and particle induced X-ray emission. Findings show these films are copper enriched, elucidating a 2:1 ratio for the ion to molecule complexation at the metal–organic interface. Results also reveal that these films have an average layer density similar to literature values established for a self-assembled monolayer, indicating a robust and stable structure. The surface structures of multilayer films have been characterized by contact angle goniometry, ellipsometry, and scanning probe microscopy. A morphological transition is observed as film thickness increases from the first few foundational layers to films containing five or more layers. Surface roughness analysis quantifies this evolution as the film initially increases in roughness before obtaining a lower roughness comparable to the underlying gold substrate. Quantitative analysis of topographical structure and internal composition for metal–organic coordinated multilayers as a function of number of deposited layers has implications for their incorporation in the fields of photonics and nanolithography. - Highlights: • Layer-by-layer deposition is examined by scanning probe microscopy and ion beam analysis. • Film growth undergoes morphological evolution during foundational layer deposition. • Image analysis quantified surface features such as roughness, grain size, and coverage. • Molecular density of each film layer is found to

  16. Compositional dependence of Young's moduli for amorphous FeCo-SiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Xie, J. L.; Deng, L. J.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, Z. W.; Bi, L.

    2011-01-01

    Systematic force-deflection measurements with microcantilevers and a combinatorial-deposition method have been used to investigate the Young's moduli of amorphous composite FeCo-SiO 2 thin films as a function of film composition, with high compositional resolution. It is found that the modulus decreases monotonically with increasing FeCo content. Such a trend can be explained in terms of the metalloid atoms having a significant effect on the Young's moduli of metal-metalloid composites, which is associated with the strong chemical interaction between the metalloid and themetallic atoms rather than that between the metallic components themselves. This work provides an efficient and effective method to study the moduli of magnetic thin films over a largecomposition coverage, and to compare the relative magnitudes of moduli for differentcompositions at high compositional resolution.

  17. Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 on Compositionally Variant Au-Pt Bimetallic Thin Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ming; Hansen, Heine Anton; Valenti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 on Au-Pt bimetallic catalysts with different compositions was evaluated, offering a platform for uncovering the correlation between the catalytic activity and the surface composition of bimetallic electrocatalysts. The Au-Pt alloy films were synthesized...... by a magnetron sputtering co-deposition technique with tunable composition. It was found that the syngas ratio (CO:H2) on the Au-Pt films is able to be tuned by systematically controlling the binary composition. This tunable catalytic selectivity is attributed to the variation of binding strength of COOH and CO...... intermediates, influenced by the surface electronic structure (d-band center energy) which is linked to the surface composition of the bimetallic films. Notably, a gradual shift of the d-band center away from the Fermi level was observed with increasing Au content, which correspondingly reduces the binding...

  18. PEO + PVP blended polymer composite films for multifunctional

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    has been noticed from PEO + PVP : Ni2+ polymer film at 373 K. Emission analysis of Co2+: ... suggested that these TM ions doped PEO + PVP polymer films are found to be potential ... by undertaking some nanoparticles for obtaining the sev-.

  19. Influence of the microstructure of a diamond-containing composite material on the tool cutting ability when grinding a diamond single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kuzei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the methods of electronic scanning microstructure and X-ray analysis, the influence of the structure of diamond-containing composite materials on the cutting ability of the tool for circular grinding of diamond single crystals has been studied. It is shown that the use of an oxide-hydroxide glass with a spreading temperature of 570–590 K as a precursor of the binder leads to the formation of melt films on the surface of silicon carbide and diamond particles at 600–630 K and the glass content in the batch is 10 vol. %. The conversion of oxidehydroxide glass films to oxide films proceeds at 700–775 K during the sintering of the composite material. Depending on the volume content of the glass in the charge, the porosity of the compact, three types of structure of composite materials are distinguished: a volumetric skeleton of glass-clad diamond particles and silicon carbide with pores at the sites of multiple compounds; a frame made of glass-clad diamond particles and silicon carbide with glass pores in places of multiple connections; a matrix of glass and the particles of diamond, silicon carbide and pores located in it. The maximum cutting ability of the tool for circular grinding of diamond is provided by a composite material with a structure of the first type.

  20. Composition and performance of thin film CdSe electrodeposited from selenosulfite solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, J.P.; Simms, D.; Cocivera, M.

    1985-01-01

    Cathodic electrodeposition of thin film CdSe from aqueous selenosulfite solution has been studied as function of solution composition and electrode potential. The Cd/Se ratio has been analyzed using polarography and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Polarography gives a compostion averaged over the whole film (2cm 2 ) while RBS gives local surface composition (1 mm 2 ). The average Cd/Se ratio is 1.1, but some variation was found to occur across the surface of film (0.82 to 1.2)

  1. Probing the phase composition of silicon films in situ by etch product detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingemans, G.; Donker, M. N. van den; Gordijn, A.; Kessels, W. M. M.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de

    2007-01-01

    Exploiting the higher etch probability for amorphous silicon relative to crystalline silicon, the transiently evolving phase composition of silicon films in the microcrystalline growth regime was probed in situ by monitoring the etch product (SiH 4 ) gas density during a short H 2 plasma treatment step. Etch product detection took place by the easy-to-implement techniques of optical emission spectroscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The phase composition of the films was probed as a function of the SiH 4 concentration during deposition and as a function of the film thickness. The in situ results were corroborated by Raman spectroscopy and solar cell analysis

  2. Structural and thermal properties of silk fibroin - Silver nanoparticles composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivananda, C. S.; Rao B, B. Lakshmeesha; Shetty, G. Rajesh; Sangappa, Y.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, silk fibroin-silver nanoparticles (SF-AgNPs) composite films have been prepared by simple solution casting method. The composite films were examined for structural and thermal properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimatric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The XRD results showed that with the introduction of AgNPs in the silk fibroin matrix the amorphous nature of the silk fibroin decreases with increasing nanoparticles concentration. The silk fibroin films possess good thermal stability with the presence of AgNPs.

  3. Determination of the area density and composition of alloy film using dual alpha particle energy loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaojun, E-mail: maxj802@163.com [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Bo; Gao, Dangzhong [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Xu, Jiayun [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Tang, Yongjian [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2017-02-01

    A novel method based on dual α-particles energy loss (DAEL) is proposed for measuring the area density and composition of binary alloy films. In order to obtain a dual-energy α-particles source, an ingenious design that utilizes the transmitted α-particles traveling the thin film as a new α-particles source is presented. Using the DAEL technique, the area density and composition of Au/Cu film are determined accurately with an uncertainty of better than 10%. Finally, some measures for improving the combined uncertainty are discussed.

  4. Comparative studies of monoclinic and orthorhombic WO3 films used for hydrogen sensor fabrication on SiC crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuev, V V; Romanov, R I; Fominski, V Y; Grigoriev, S N; Volosova, M A; Demin, M V

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous WO x films were prepared on the SiC crystal by using two different methods, namely, reactive pulsed laser deposition (RPLD) and reactive deposition by ion sputtering (RDIS). After deposition, the WO x films were annealed in an air. The RISD film possessed a m-WO 3 structure and consisted of closely packed microcrystals. Localized swelling of the films and micro-hills growth did not destroy dense crystal packing. RPLD film had layered β-WO 3 structure with relatively smooth surface. Smoothness of the films were destroyed by localized swelling and the micro-openings formation was observed. Comparative study of m-WO 3 /SiC, Pt/m-WO 3 /SiC, and P-WO 3 /SiC samples shows that structural characteristics of the WO 3 films strongly influence on the voltage/current response as well as on the rate of current growth during H 2 detection at elevated temperatures. (paper)

  5. Preparation of TiO2 thin films from autoclaved sol containing needle-like anatase crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Lei; Xu Mingxia; Fang Haibo; Sun Ming

    2006-01-01

    A new inorganic sol-gel method was introduced in this paper to prepare TiO 2 thin films. The autoclaved sol with needle-like anatase crystals was synthesized using titanyl sulfate (TiOSO 4 ) and peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as starting materials. The transparent anatase TiO 2 thin films were prepared on glass slides from the autoclaved sol by sol-gel dip-coating method. A wide range of techniques such as Fourier transform infrared transmission spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopes, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible spectrum were applied to characterize the autoclaved sol and TiO 2 thin films. The results indicate that the autoclaved sol is flavescent, semitransparent and stable at room temperature. The anatase crystals of TiO 2 films connect together to form net-like structure after calcined and the films become uniform with increasing heating temperature. The surface of the TiO 2 films contain not only Ti and O elements, but also a small amount of N and Na elements diffused from substrates during heat treatment. The TiO 2 films are transparent and their maximal light transmittances exceed 80% under visible light region

  6. Properties and Applications of High Emissivity Composite Films Based on Far-Infrared Ceramic Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yabo; Huang, Shaoyun; Wang, Wenqi; Liu, Xinghai; Li, Houbin

    2017-11-29

    Polymer matrix composite materials that can emit radiation in the far-infrared region of the spectrum are receiving increasing attention due to their ability to significantly influence biological processes. This study reports on the far-infrared emissivity property of composite films based on far-infrared ceramic powder. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to evaluate the physical properties of the ceramic powder. The ceramic powder was found to be rich in aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, and silicon oxide, which demonstrate high far-infrared emissivity. In addition, the micromorphology, mechanical performance, dynamic mechanical properties, and far-infrared emissivity of the composite were analyzed to evaluate their suitability for strawberry storage. The mechanical properties of the far-infrared radiation ceramic (cFIR) composite films were not significantly influenced ( p ≥ 0.05) by the addition of the ceramic powder. However, the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) properties of the cFIR composite films, including a reduction in damping and shock absorption performance, were significant influenced by the addition of the ceramic powder. Moreover, the cFIR composite films showed high far-infrared emissivity, which has the capability of prolonging the storage life of strawberries. This research demonstrates that cFIR composite films are promising for future applications.

  7. Bi-substituted iron garnet films for one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals: Synthesis and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Prokopov, A.R.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Salyuk, O.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Faraday hysteresis loops for Bi 1.0 Y 0.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.2 Al 0.8 O 12 film on glass-ceramic substrate (a), Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 film on gallium–gadolinium garnet (b) and for glass-ceramic/SiO 2 /Bi 1.0 Y 0.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.2 Al 0.8 O 12 /Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 structure (c). Highlights: ► Bismuth-substituted iron garnet films as magneto-optical layers in magneto-photonic crystals. ► It is impossible to crystallize the films with high Bi content on amorphous substrates. ► The crystallization of the films can be achieved by their deposition on buffer layer with low bismuth content. -- Abstract: The crystallization processes in Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 , Bi 2.5 Gd 0.5 Fe 3.8 Al 1.2 O 12 , Bi 1.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.5 Al 0.5 O 12 and Bi 1.0 Y 0.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.2 Al 0.8 O 12 garnet films deposited by reactive ion beam sputtering on (1 1 1) gadolinium–gallium garnet substrates, optical glass-ceramic and SiO 2 films have been studied. Films were annealed at low pressure in oxygen atmosphere and in the air. The possibility of preparation of crystalline garnet films with high concentration of bismuth on the SiO 2 films using a buffer layer with low concentration of Bi has been shown. This allows to produce one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals with high effective Faraday rotation (several tens of°/μm for the visible optical spectrum).

  8. Bi-substituted iron garnet films for one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals: Synthesis and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Prokopov, A.R.; Berzhansky, V.N. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Av., 4, 95007 Simferopol (Ukraine); Salyuk, O.Y., E-mail: olga-saliuk@yandex.ru [Institute of Magnetizm NASU and MESU, 36-B Vernadsky Blvd., 03142 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Faraday hysteresis loops for Bi{sub 1.0}Y{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.2}Al{sub 0.8}O{sub 12} film on glass-ceramic substrate (a), Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} film on gallium–gadolinium garnet (b) and for glass-ceramic/SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 1.0}Y{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.2}Al{sub 0.8}O{sub 12}/Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} structure (c). Highlights: ► Bismuth-substituted iron garnet films as magneto-optical layers in magneto-photonic crystals. ► It is impossible to crystallize the films with high Bi content on amorphous substrates. ► The crystallization of the films can be achieved by their deposition on buffer layer with low bismuth content. -- Abstract: The crystallization processes in Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, Bi{sub 2.5}Gd{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 3.8}Al{sub 1.2}O{sub 12}, Bi{sub 1.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 12} and Bi{sub 1.0}Y{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.2}Al{sub 0.8}O{sub 12} garnet films deposited by reactive ion beam sputtering on (1 1 1) gadolinium–gallium garnet substrates, optical glass-ceramic and SiO{sub 2} films have been studied. Films were annealed at low pressure in oxygen atmosphere and in the air. The possibility of preparation of crystalline garnet films with high concentration of bismuth on the SiO{sub 2} films using a buffer layer with low concentration of Bi has been shown. This allows to produce one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals with high effective Faraday rotation (several tens of°/μm for the visible optical spectrum).

  9. The infrared transmission through gold films on ordered two-dimensional non-close-packed colloidal crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Jing; Zhou Yuqin; Dong Gangqiang

    2014-01-01

    We studied the infrared transmission properties of gold films on ordered two-dimensional non-close-packed polystyrene (PS) colloidal crystal. The gold films consist of gold half-shells on the PS spheres and gold film with 2D arrays of holes on the glass substrate. An extraordinary optical transmission phenomenon could be found in such a structure. Simulations with the finite-difference time-domain method were also employed to get the transmission spectra and electric field distribution. The transmission response of the samples can be adjusted by controlling the thickness of the gold films. Angle-resolved measurements were performed using polarized light to obtain more information about the surface plasmon polariton resonances of the gold films. As the angle changes, the transmission spectra change a lot. The transmission spectra of p-polarized light have quite different properties compared to those of s-polarized light. (semiconductor physics)

  10. Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 Ca sub n sub - sub 1 Cu sub n O sub y films sputtered on substrates of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CuO sub y single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Katsurahara, K; Matsumoto, K; Fujiwara, N; Tanaka, H; Kishida, S

    2003-01-01

    We prepared Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub y (Bi-2212) films on substrates of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CuO sub y (Bi-2201) single crystals by a rf magnetron sputtering method, where He and O sub 2 mixture sputtering gas and an off-axis geometry were used. The EPMA measurement indicated that the films deposited on the Bi-2201 single crystal had approximately the same composition as those on MgO substrate, which showed a Bi-221 single-phase. The film deposited on the Bi-2201 single crystal post-annealed at 500degC for 0.5h showed a metallic temperature dependent resistance in the normal state and the superconducting transition (T sub c sup o sup n sup s sup e sup t) of about 80 K. Therefore, the Bi-2212 films are considerate to grow on the substrate of the Bi-2201 singe crystal. (author)

  11. Development and characterisation of composite films made of kefiran and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motedayen, Ali Akbar; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Salehi, Esmail Atai

    2013-02-15

    In this study, new edible composite films were prepared by blending kefiran with corn starch. Film-forming solutions of different ratios of kefiran to corn starch (100/0, 70/30, 50/50, 30/70) were cast at room temperature. The effects of starch addition on the resulting films' physical, mechanical and water-vapor permeability (WVP) properties were investigated. Increasing starch content from 0% to 50% (v/v) decreased the WVP of films; however, with further starch addition the WVP increased. Also, this increase in starch content increased the tensile strength and extensibility of the composite films. However, these mechanical properties decreased at higher starch contents. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) curves showed that addition of starch at all levels increased the glass transition temperature of films. The electron scanning micrograph for the composite film was homogeneous, without signs of phase separation between the components. Thus, it was observed that these two film-forming components were compatible, and that an interaction existed between them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Composite depth dose measurement for total skin electron (TSE) treatments using radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, Lisa M; Farrell, Thomas J; Jones, Glenn W; Hayward, Joseph E

    2003-01-01

    Total skin electron (TSE) radiotherapy is routinely used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and can be implemented using a modified Stanford technique. In our centre, the composite depth dose for this technique is achieved by a combination of two patient positions per day over a three-day cycle, and two gantry angles per patient position. Due to patient morphology, underdosed regions typically occur and have historically been measured using multiple thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). We show that radiochromic film can be used as a two-dimensional relative dosimeter to measure the percent depth dose in TSE radiotherapy. Composite depth dose curves were measured in a cylindrical, polystyrene phantom and compared with TLD data. Both multiple films (1 film per day) and a single film were used in order to reproduce a realistic clinical scenario. First, three individual films were used to measure the depth dose, one per treatment day, and then compared with TLD data; this comparison showed a reasonable agreement. Secondly, a single film was used to measure the dose delivered over three daily treatments and then compared with TLD data; this comparison showed good agreement throughout the depth dose, which includes doses well below 1 Gy. It will be shown that one piece of radiochromic film is sufficient to measure the composite percent depth dose for a TSE beam, hence making radiochromic film a suitable candidate for monitoring underdosed patient regions

  13. Development and characterization of carrageenan/grapefruit seed extract composite films for active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-07-01

    Carrageenan-based antimicrobial films were developed by incorporation of grape fruit seed extract (GSE) at different concentration into the polymer using a solvent casing method and their physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties were examined. The carrageenan/GSE composite films appeared yellowish tint due to the polyphenolic compounds in the GSE. SEM analysis showed rough surface with sponge like structures on the cross section of the films. FT-IR results indicated at GSE had good compatibility with carrageenan. The amorphous structure of polymer films was not changed by the incorporation of GSE. But, the addition of GSE increased moisture content, water vapor permeability, and surface hydrophilicity of the films. The tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased with increasing content of GSE, however, the elongation at break increased significantly up to 6.6μg/mL of GSE then decreased thereafter. Thermal stability of the films was not influenced by GSE incorporation. The carrageenan/GSE composite films exhibited great antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens. These results suggest that the carrageenan-based composite films have a high potential for being used as an antimicrobial or active food packaging applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mango kernel starch-gum composite films: Physical, mechanical and barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Lutfi, Zubala; Hasnain, Abid

    2017-05-01

    Composite films were developed by the casting method using mango kernel starch (MKS) and guar and xanthan gums. The concentration of both gums ranged from 0% to 30% (w/w of starch; db). Mechanical properties, oxygen permeability (OP), water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility in water and color parameters of composite films were evaluated. The crystallinity and homogeneity between the starch and gums were also evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The scanning electron micrographs showed homogeneous matrix, with no signs of phase separation between the components. XRD analysis demonstrated diminished crystalline peak. Regardless of gum type the tensile strength (TS) of composite films increased with increasing gum concentration while reverse trend was noted for elongation at break (EAB) which found to be decreased with increasing gum concentration. The addition of both guar and xanthan gums increased solubility and WVP of the composite films. However, the OP was found to be lower than that of the control with both gums. Furthermore, addition of both gums led to changes in transparency and opacity of MKS films. Films containing 10% (w/w) xanthan gum showed lower values for solubility, WVP and OP, while film containing 20% guar gum showed good mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and properties of Starch-g-PLA/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingmo; Wang, Qingling; Tang, Mingru

    2013-07-25

    Starch/lactic acid graft copolymer (Starch-g-PLA) was prepared by the in situ copolymerization of starch grafted with lactic acid catalyzed with sodium hydroxide, and then mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to get composite films. The structures of the graft copolymer and composite films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties, water resistance, and thermal stability were also investigated. It was found that the compatibility of Starch-g-PLA and PVA was better than that of starch and PVA in the composite films. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the Starch-g-PLA/PVA composite film increased by 69.15% and 84.22%, respectively, while the water absorption decreased by 50.39%, which overcame the shortcomings of hydrophilicity and poor mechanical properties of Starch/PVA film. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also showed that the thermal stability of Starch-g-PLA/PVA film was improved compared with Starch/PVA film. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Crystallization of a compositionally stratified basal magma ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laneuville, Matthieu; Hernlund, John; Labrosse, Stéphane; Guttenberg, Nicholas

    2018-03-01

    Earth's ∼3.45 billion year old magnetic field is regenerated by dynamo action in its convecting liquid metal outer core. However, convection induces an isentropic thermal gradient which, coupled with a high core thermal conductivity, results in rapid conducted heat loss. In the absence of implausibly high radioactivity or alternate sources of motion to drive the geodynamo, the Earth's early core had to be significantly hotter than the melting point of the lower mantle. While the existence of a dense convecting basal magma ocean (BMO) has been proposed to account for high early core temperatures, the requisite physical and chemical properties for a BMO remain controversial. Here we relax the assumption of a well-mixed convecting BMO and instead consider a BMO that is initially gravitationally stratified owing to processes such as mixing between metals and silicates at high temperatures in the core-mantle boundary region during Earth's accretion. Using coupled models of crystallization and heat transfer through a stratified BMO, we show that very high temperatures could have been trapped inside the early core, sequestering enough heat energy to run an ancient geodynamo on cooling power alone.

  17. Mercuric iodide composite films using polyamide, polycarbonate and polystyrene fabricated by casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugucioni, J.C.; Ghilardi Netto, T.; Mulato, M.

    2010-01-01

    Mercuric iodide (HgI 2 ) composite films were obtained by using the casting technique. Insulator polymers such as polyamide, polycarbonate and polystyrene were mixed to HgI 2 crystallites forming a final sub-millimeter thick self-standing film. Fabrication temperature varied from 10 to 100 o C, and total fabrication time reached at most 5 min. The larger the fabrication temperature, the thinner the film and the smaller its electrical resistivity. Electrical characterization was performed in the dark, under UV illumination and under mammographic X-ray exposure. The final properties of the films are discussed and related to fabrication conditions. The optimized composite film might be a better candidate for use as X-ray detector for medical imaging, in place of the single HgI 2 crystalline device.

  18. The Effect of Type and Concentration of Modifier in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide on Crystallization of Nanocrystalline Titania Thin Films.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Cerhová, Marie; Jandová, Věra; Dřínek, Vladislav; Daniš, E.; Matějová, L.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 133, MAR 2018 (2018), s. 211-217 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-23274S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : titania thin film * supercritical carbon dioxide * crystallization Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2016

  19. Transient phases during fast crystallization of organic thin films from solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jing; Li, Yang; Ulbrandt, Jeffrey G.; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Hollin, Jonathan; Whalley, Adam C.; Headrick, Randall L.

    2016-01-01

    We report an in situ microbeam grazing incidence X-ray scattering study of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) organic semiconductor thin film deposition by hollow pen writing. Multiple transient phases are observed during the crystallization for substrate temperatures up to ≈93 °C. The layered smectic liquid-crystalline phase of C8-BTBT initially forms and preceedes inter-layer ordering, followed by a transient crystalline phase for temperature >60 °C, and ultimately the stable phase. Based on these results, we demonstrate a method to produce extremely large grain size and high carrier mobility during high-speed processing. For high writing speed (25 mm/s), mobility up to 3.0 cm2/V-s has been observed.

  20. Transient phases during fast crystallization of organic thin films from solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an in situ microbeam grazing incidence X-ray scattering study of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT organic semiconductor thin film deposition by hollow pen writing. Multiple transient phases are observed during the crystallization for substrate temperatures up to ≈93 °C. The layered smectic liquid-crystalline phase of C8-BTBT initially forms and preceedes inter-layer ordering, followed by a transient crystalline phase for temperature >60 °C, and ultimately the stable phase. Based on these results, we demonstrate a method to produce extremely large grain size and high carrier mobility during high-speed processing. For high writing speed (25 mm/s, mobility up to 3.0 cm2/V-s has been observed.

  1. The ergonomics approach for thin film transistor-liquid crystal display manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Wei; Yao, Chia-Chun; Kuo, Chein-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) has been used all over the world. Although the manufacture process of TFT-LCD was highly automated, employees are hired to do manual job in module assembly process. The operators may have high risk of musculoskeletal disorders because of the long work hours and the repetitive activities in an unfitted work station. The tools of this study were questionnaire, checklist and to evaluate the work place design. The result shows that the participants reported high musculoskeletal disorder symptoms in shoulder (59.8%), neck (49.5%), wrist (39.5%), and upper back (30.6%). And, to reduce the ergonomic risk factors, revising the height of the work benches, chairs and redesigning the truck to decrease the chance of unsuitable positions were recommended and to reduce other ergonomics hazards and seta good human machine interface and appropriate job design.

  2. Ion plasma deposition of oxide films with graded-stoichiometry composition: Experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpyas, V. A.; Tumarkin, A. V.; Mikhailov, A. K.; Kozyrev, A. B.; Platonov, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    A method of ion plasma deposition is proposed for obtaining thin multicomponent films with continuously graded composition in depth of the film. The desired composition-depth profile is obtained by varying the working gas pressure during deposition in the presence of an additional adsorbing screen in the drift space between a sputtered target and substrate. Efficiency of the proposed method is confirmed by Monte Carlo simulation of the deposition of thin films of Ba x Sr1- x TiO3 (BSTO) solid solution. It is demonstrated that, during sputtering of a Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3 target, the parameter of composition stoichiometry in the growing BSTO film varies in the interval of x = 0.3-0.65 when the gas pressure is changed within 2-60 Pa.

  3. The electrochemical synthesis of polyaniline/polysulfone composite films and electrocatalytic activity for ascorbic acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zhongai; Shang Xiuli; Yang Yuying; Kong Chao; Wu Hongying

    2006-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI)/polysulfone (PSF) composite films with asymmetric porous structure were successfully prepared by electropolymerization. The back face (in contact with the electrode) of the freestanding composite film is green while the outer face is white. The chemical component and the morphology of the surfaces were characterized by FTIR spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. It was shown that replicate films gave reproducible voltammetry in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 . The influence of the electrolyte and the acidic concentration on the redox peak currents of polyaniline were investigated in detail. The composite film electrode showed good electrocatalytic activity for ascorbic acid, which the anodic overpotential was evidently reduced compared with that obtained at bare Pt electrode. The diffusion coefficient of ascorbic acid was 1.38 x 10 -6 cm 2 s -1

  4. Preparation of smooth, flexible and stable silver nanowires- polyurethane composite transparent conductive films by transfer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shengchi; Wang, Haifeng; Yang, Hui; Zhang, He; Guo, Xingzhong

    2018-02-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs)-polyurethane (PU) composite transparent conductive films were fabricated via transfer method using AgNWs conductive inks and polyurethane as starting materials, and the effects of post-treatments including heat treatment, NaCl solution bath and HCl solution bath for AgNWs film on the sheet resistance and transmittance of the composite films were respectively investigated in detail. AgNWs networks are uniformly embedded in the PU layer to improve the adhesion and reduce the surface roughness of AgNWs-PU composite films. Heat treatment can melt and weld the nanowires, and NaCl and HCl solution baths promote the dissolution and re-deposition of silver and the dissolving of the polymer, both which form conduction pathways and improve contact of AgNWs for reducing the sheet resistance. Smooth and flexible AgNWs-PU composite film with a transmittance of 85% and a sheet resistance of 15 Ω · sq‑1 is obtained after treated in 0.5 wt% HCl solution bath for 60 s, and the optoelectronic properties of the resultant composite film can maintain after 1000 cycles of bending and 100 days.

  5. Electrochemically modified crystal orientation, surface morphology and optical properties using CTAB on Cu2O thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karupanan Periyanan Ganesan

    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O thin films with different crystal orientations were electrochemically deposited in the presence of various molar concentrations of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO glass substrate using standard three electrodes system. X-ray diffraction (XRD studies reveal cubic structure of Cu2O with (111 plane orientation, after addition of CTAB in deposition solution, the orientation of crystal changes from (111 into (200 plane. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images explored significant variation on morphology of Cu2O thin films deposited with addition of CTAB compared to without addition of CTAB. Photoluminescence (PL spectra illustrate that the emission peak around at 650 nm is attributed to near band edge emission, and the film prepared at the 3 mM of CTAB exhibits much higher intensity than that of the all other films. UV–Visible spectra show optical absorption in the range of 480–610 nm and the highest transparency of Cu2O film prepared at the concentration of 3 mM CTAB. The optical band gap is increased in the range between 2.16 and 2.45 eV with increasing the CTAB concentrations. Keywords: Cuprous oxide, Crystal orientation, Electrodeposition and cubic structure

  6. Electrochemical reduction of CO2 on compositionally variant Au-Pt bimetallic thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, M.; Hansen, H.A.; Valenti, M.; Wang, Z.; Cao, A.; Dong, M.; Smith, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    The electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 on Au-Pt bimetallic catalysts with different compositions was evaluated, offering a platform for uncovering the correlation between the catalytic activity and the surface composition of bimetallic electrocatalysts. The Au-Pt alloy films were synthesized by a

  7. Influence of Interleaved Films on the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber Fabric/Polypropylene Thermoplastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Won Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A laminated composite was produced using a thermoplastic prepreg by inserting an interleaved film with the same type of matrix as the prepreg during the lay-up process to improve the low interlaminar properties, which is a known weakness of laminated composites. Carbon fiber fabric (CFF and polypropylene (PP were used to manufacture the thermoplastic prepregs. Eight prepregs were used to produce the laminated composites. Interleaved films with different thicknesses were inserted into each prepreg. The physical properties of the composite, such as thickness, density, fiber volume fraction (Vf, and void content (Vc, were examined. The tensile strength, flexural strength, interlaminar shear strength (ILSS, impact property, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used to characterize the mechanical properties. Compared to the composite without any inserted interleaved film, as the thickness of the inserted interleaved resin film was increased, Vc decreased by 51.45%. At the same time, however, the tensile strength decreased by 8.75%. Flexural strength increased by 3.79% and flexural modulus decreased by 15.02%. Interlaminar shear strength increased by 11.05% and impact strength increased by 15.38%. Fracture toughness of the laminated composite was improved due to insertion of interleaved film.

  8. Influence of Interleaved Films on the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber Fabric/Polypropylene Thermoplastic Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Joon Seok

    2016-05-06

    A laminated composite was produced using a thermoplastic prepreg by inserting an interleaved film with the same type of matrix as the prepreg during the lay-up process to improve the low interlaminar properties, which is a known weakness of laminated composites. Carbon fiber fabric (CFF) and polypropylene (PP) were used to manufacture the thermoplastic prepregs. Eight prepregs were used to produce the laminated composites. Interleaved films with different thicknesses were inserted into each prepreg. The physical properties of the composite, such as thickness, density, fiber volume fraction ( V f ), and void content ( V c ), were examined. The tensile strength, flexural strength, interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), impact property, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the mechanical properties. Compared to the composite without any inserted interleaved film, as the thickness of the inserted interleaved resin film was increased, V c decreased by 51.45%. At the same time, however, the tensile strength decreased by 8.75%. Flexural strength increased by 3.79% and flexural modulus decreased by 15.02%. Interlaminar shear strength increased by 11.05% and impact strength increased by 15.38%. Fracture toughness of the laminated composite was improved due to insertion of interleaved film.

  9. Strain-induced alignment and phase behavior of blue phase liquid crystals confined to thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukusoglu, Emre; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose A; Wang, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Ye; de Pablo, Juan J; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2017-12-06

    We report on the influence of surface confinement on the phase behavior and strain-induced alignment of thin films of blue phase liquid crystals (BPs). Confining surfaces comprised of bare glass, dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] ammonium chloride (DMOAP)-functionalized glass, or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated glass were used with or without mechanically rubbing to influence the azimuthal anchoring of the BPs. These experiments reveal that confinement can change the phase behavior of the BP films. For example, in experiments performed with rubbed-PVA surfaces, we measured the elastic strain of the BPs to change the isotropic-BPII phase boundary, suppressing formation of BPII for film thicknesses incommensurate with the BPII lattice. In addition, we observed strain-induced alignment of the BPs to exhibit a complex dependence on both the surface chemistry and azimuthal alignment of the BPs. For example, when using bare glass surfaces causing azimuthally degenerate and planar anchoring, BPI oriented with (110) planes of the unit cell parallel to the contacting surfaces for thicknesses below 3 μm but transitioned to an orientation with (200) planes aligned parallel to the contacting surfaces for thicknesses above 4 μm. In contrast, BPI aligned with (110) planes parallel to confining surfaces for all other thicknesses and surface treatments, including bare glass with uniform azimuthal alignment. Complementary simulations based on minimization of the total free energy (Landau-de Gennes formalism) confirmed a thickness-dependent reorientation due to strain of BPI unit cells within a window of surface anchoring energies and in the absence of uniform azimuthal alignment. In contrast to BPI, BPII did not exhibit thickness-dependent orientations but did exhibit orientations that were dependent on the surface chemistry, a result that was also captured in simulations by varying the anchoring energies. Overall, the results in this paper reveal that the orientations

  10. Composite films of poly-(ester-sulphonated) and poly-(3-methylthiophene) for ion-exchange voltammetry in acetonitrile solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopece, Paolo; Moretto, Ligia M.; Polizzi, Stefano; Ugo, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and characterisation of a polymeric electrode coating based on a composite of the poly-(ester-sulphonated) Eastman AQ55[reg] (AQ55) and poly-(3-methylthiophene) (PMeT), which is used for the controlled uptake and partial release of electroactive cations in acetonitrile solutions. The film is prepared by electrochemical oxidation in acetonitrile of 3-methylthiophene on glassy carbon disks or Pt-quartz crystal electrodes pre-coated with a thin film of AQ55. The electropolymerisation process is controlled so that the overall number of positive charges of oxidised PMeT is equal to the number of negative charges of the sulphonate groups of AQ55. Cyclic voltammetry and quartz crystal microbalance measurements indicate that the AQ55/PMeT mixed film is stable in acetonitrile and that its cation-exchange properties depend on the applied potential. When the PMeT moieties are reduced, the film incorporate cations; following electrochemical oxidation of the coating causes a release of the incorporated cations which, however, is only partial. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of cross sections of the composite polymer layer indicate that it is really a bi-layer, made by an inner compact layer of AQ55 on which a thicker and porous PMeT layer is grown. The outer PMeT layer acts as a barrier whose ionic charges can be changed electrochemically from positive (oxidation) to neutral (reduction). These ionic charges hinder or allow, respectively, the permeation of redox cations which tend to interact with the negatively charged sulphonic sites of the AQ55 layer. Direct self-neutralization of part of the positive charges of oxidized PMeT by the AQ55 sulphonic groups allows the release of part of the redox cations incorporated previously in the mixed film when PMeT is in the reduced state. By operating in acetonitrile solutions without added electrolyte it is possible to increase the fraction of redox cations which are released in

  11. Three-dimensional photonic crystals as intermediate filter for thin-film tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawny, Andreas; Miclea, Paul T.; Wehrspohn, Ralf B.; Lee, Seung-Mo; Knez, Mato; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lisca, Marian; Lederer, Falk L.; Carius, Reinhard

    2008-04-01

    The concept of a 3D photonic crystal structure as diffractive and spectrally selective intermediate filter within 'micromorphous' (a-Si/μc-Si) tandem solar cells has been investigated numerically and experimentally. Our device aims for the enhancement of the optical pathway of incident light within the amorphous silicon top cell in its spectral region of low absorption. From our previous simulations, we expect a significant improvement of the tandem cell efficiency of about absolutely 1.3%. This increases the efficiency for a typical a-Si / μc-Si tandem cell from 11.1% to 12.4%, as a result of the optical current-matching of the two junctions. We suggest as wavelength-selective optical element a 3D-structured optical thin-film, prepared by self-organized artificial opal templates and replicated with atomic layer deposition. The resulting samples are highly periodic thin-film inverted opals made of conducting and transparent zinc-oxide. We describe the fabrication processes and compare experimental data on the optical properties in reflection and transmission with our simulations and photonic band structure calculations.

  12. Two-dimensional photonic crystal bandedge laser with hybrid perovskite thin film for optical gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyungrae [Department of Biophysics and Chemical Biology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Seunghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myungjae [Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heonsu, E-mail: hsjeon@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biophysics and Chemical Biology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-02

    We report optically pumped room temperature single mode laser that contains a thin film of hybrid perovskite, an emerging photonic material, as gain medium. Two-dimensional square lattice photonic crystal (PhC) backbone structure enables single mode laser operation via a photonic bandedge mode, while a thin film of methyl-ammonium lead iodide (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) spin-coated atop provides optical gain for lasing. Two kinds of bandedge modes, Γ and M, are employed, and both devices laser in single mode at similar laser thresholds of ∼200 μJ/cm{sup 2} in pulse energy density. Polarization dependence measurements reveal a clear difference between the two kinds of bandedge lasers: isotropic for the Γ-point laser and highly anisotropic for the M-point laser. These observations are consistent with expected modal properties, confirming that the lasing actions indeed originate from the corresponding PhC bandedge modes.

  13. Plasma deposition of polymer composite films incorporating nanocellulose whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samyn, P.; Airoudj, A.; Laborie, M.-P.; Mathew, A. P.; Roucoules, V.

    2011-11-01

    In a trend for sustainable engineering and functionalization of surfaces, we explore the possibilities of gas phase processes to deposit nanocomposite films. From an analysis of pulsed plasma polymerization of maleic anhydride in the presence of nanocellulose whiskers, it seems that thin nanocomposite films can be deposited with various patterns. By specifically modifying plasma parameters such as total power, duty cycle, and monomer gas pressure, the nanocellulose whiskers are either incorporated into a buckled polymer film or single nanocellulose whiskers are deposited on top of a polymeric film. The density of the latter can be controlled by modifying the exact positioning of the substrate in the reactor. The resulting morphologies are evaluated by optical microscopy, AFM, contact angle measurements and ellipsometry.

  14. Chemical composition, crystal size and lattice structural changes after incorporation of strontium into biomimetic apatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z Y; Lam, W M; Yang, C; Xu, B; Ni, G X; Abbah, S A; Cheung, K M C; Luk, K D K; Lu, W W

    2007-03-01

    Recently, strontium (Sr) as ranelate compound has become increasingly popular in the treatment of osteoporosis. However, the lattice structure of bone crystal after Sr incorporation is yet to be extensively reported. In this study, we synthesized strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) with different Sr content (0.3%, 1.5% and 15% Sr-HA in mole ratio) to simulate bone crystals incorporated with Sr. The changes in chemical composition and lattice structure of apetite after synthetic incorporation of Sr were evaluated to gain insight into bone crystal changes after incorporation of Sr. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed that 0.3% and 1.5% Sr-HA exhibited single phase spectrum, which was similar to that of HA. However, 15% Sr-HA induced the incorporation of HPO4(2-) and more CO3(2-), the crystallinity reduced dramatically. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the crystal length and width of 0.3% and 1.5% Sr-HA increased slightly. Meanwhile, the length and width distribution were broadened and the aspect ratio decreased from 10.68+/-4.00 to 7.28+/-2.80. The crystal size and crystallinity of 15% Sr-HA dropped rapidly, which may suggest that the fundamental crystal structure is changed. The findings from this work indicate that current clinical dosage which usually results in Sr incorporation of below 1.5% may not change chemical composition and lattice structure of bone, while it will broaden the bone crystal size distribution and strengthen the bone.

  15. Chitosan-based films composites for wound healing purposes; Filmes compositos de quitosana para aplicacao no revestimento de ferimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Natali de O.; Silva, Gabriela T. da; Schulz, Gracelie A.S.; Fajardo, Andre R., E-mail: natalioliveiraalves@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (LaCoPol/UFPel), Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Quimicas, Farmaceuticas e de Alimentos. Lab. de Tecnologia e Desenvolvimento de Compositos e Materiais Polimericos

    2015-07-01

    Chitosan has been extensively applied in the developing of biomaterials due to its desirable good physico-chemical and biological properties. According to this, here films composite of chitosan, poly(vinyl alcohol) and bovine bone powder were prepared by casting willing to be applied in wound healing purposes. Moreover, the first step was the developing of a suitable method to obtain bovine bone powder, which was utilized here as filler. All the materials and films were fully characterized by FTIR, DRX and thermal analysis. Water uptake capacity was measured by swelling assays. (author)

  16. The Low-Temperature Crystallization and Interface Characteristics of ZnInSnO/In Films Using a Bias-Crystallization Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K. J.; Chen, K.J.; Hung, F.Y.; Lui, T.S.; Chang, S.J.; Hu, Z.S.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a successful bias crystallization mechanism (BCM) based on an indium/glass substrate and applies it to fabrication of ZnInSnO (ZITO) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films. The effects of bias-crystallization on electrical and structural properties of ZITO/In structure indicate that the current-induced Joule heating and interface diffusion were critical factors for low-temperature crystallization. With biases of 4 V and 0.1 A, the resistivity of the ZITO film was reduced from 3.08x10 -4 Ω * cm to 6.3x10 -5 Ω * cm. This reduction was attributed to the bias-induced energy, which caused indium atoms to diffuse into the ZITO matrix. This effectuated crystallizing the amorphous ZITO (a-ZITO) matrix at a lower temperature (approximately 170 degree C) for a short period (≤20 min) during a bias test. The low-temperature BCM developed for this study obtained an efficient conventional annealed treatment (higher temperature), possessed energy-saving and speed advantages, and can be considered a candidate for application in photoelectric industries.

  17. Monolayer-crystal streptavidin support films provide an internal standard of cryo-EM image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bong-Gyoon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Watson, Zoe [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cate, Jamie H. D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Glaeser, Robert M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of images of biotinylated Escherichia coli 70S ribosome particles, bound to streptavidin affinity grids, demonstrates that the image-quality of particles can be predicted by the image-quality of the monolayer crystalline support film. Also, the quality of the Thon rings is a good predictor of the image-quality of particles, but only when images of the streptavidin crystals extend to relatively high resolution. When the estimated resolution of streptavidin was 5 Å or worse, for example, the ribosomal density map obtained from 22,697 particles went to only 9.5 Å, while the resolution of the map reached 4.0 Å for the same number of particles, when the estimated resolution of streptavidin crystal was 4 Å or better. It thus is easy to tell which images in a data set ought to be retained for further work, based on the highest resolution seen for Bragg peaks in the computed Fourier transforms of the streptavidin component. The refined density map obtained from 57,826 particles obtained in this way extended to 3.6 Å, a marked improvement over the value of 3.9 Å obtained previously from a subset of 52,433 particles obtained from the same initial data set of 101,213 particles after 3-D classification. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that interaction with the air-water interface can damage particles when the sample becomes too thin. Finally, streptavidin monolayer crystals appear to provide a good indication of when that is the case.

  18. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of hemoglobin protein entrapped in graphene and chitosan composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huifeng; Dai, Hong; Chen, Guonan

    2010-04-15

    A novel, biocompatible sensing strategy based on graphene and chitosan composite film for immobilizing the hemoglobin protein was firstly adopted. The direct electron transfer and bioelectrocatalytic activity of hemoglobin after incorporation into the composite film were investigated. A pair of reversible redox waves of hemoglobin was appeared, and hemoglobin could exhibit its bioelectrocatalytic activity toward H(2)O(2) in a long term. Such results indicated that graphene and chitosan composite could be a friendly biocompatible interface for immobilizing biomolecules and keeping their native structure. Furthermore, the appearance of graphene in the composite film could facilitate the electron transfer between matrix and the electroactive center of hemoglobin. Hence, this graphene and chitosan based protocol would be a promising platform for protein immobilization and biosensor preparation. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Structure, Composition, and Micromorphology on the Hydrophobic Property of F-DLC Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorinated diamond-like carbon (F-DLC films were prepared by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique with CF4 and CH4 as source gases under different deposition conditions. The chemical bonding structure and composition of the films were detected by Raman, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrometry (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS characterization. The micromorphology and surface roughness of the film were observed and analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results indicated that all the prepared films presented a diamond-like carbon structure. The relative content of fluorine in the films increased, containing more CF2 groups. The ratio of hybrid structure sp3/sp2 decreased. The surface roughness of the films increased when the gas flow ratio R (R = CF4/[CH4 + CF4] or the deposition power increased. The contact angle of water with the surface of the F-DLC film was measured with a static drop-contact angle/surface tension measuring instrument. The hydrophobic property of the F-DLC films was found to be dependent on the sp2 structure, fluorine content, and surface roughness of the films. The contact angle increased when the relative content of fluorine in the films and sp2 content increased, whereas the contact angle first increased and then decreased with the surface roughness.

  20. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline porous TiO2/WO3 composite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.-S.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.; Chang, C.-C.; Tsay, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    TiO 2 materials possessing not only photocatalytic but also electrochromic properties have attracted many research and development interests. Though WO 3 exhibits excellent electrochromic properties, the much higher cost and water-sensitivity of WO 3 as compared with the TiO 2 may restrict the practical application of WO 3 materials. In the present study, the feasibility of preparing nanocrystalline porous TiO 2 /WO 3 composite thin films was investigated. Precursors of sols TiO 2 and/or WO 3 and polystyrene microspheres were used to prepare nanocrystalline pure TiO 2 , WO 3 , and composite TiO 2 /WO 3 thin films by spin coating. The spin-coated thin films were amorphous and, after heat treating at a temperature of 500 o C, nanocrystalline TiO 2 , TiO 2 /WO 3 , and WO 3 thin films with or without pores were prepared successfully. The heat-treated thin films were colorless and coloration-bleaching phenomena can be observed during cyclic voltammetry tests. The heat-treated thin films exhibited good reversible electrochromic behavior while the porous TiO 2 /WO 3 composite film exhibited improved electrochromic properties

  1. Electrochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Diamondlike Carbon-Metal Composite Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORRISON, M. L.; BUCHANAN, R. A.; LIAW, P. K.; BERRY, C. J.; BRIGMON, R.; RIESTER, L.; JIN, C.; NARAYAN, R. J.

    2005-05-11

    Implants containing antimicrobial metals may reduce morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs associated with medical device-related infections. We have deposited diamondlike carbon-silver (DLC-Ag), diamondlike carbon-platinum (DLC-Pt), and diamondlike carbon-silver-platinum (DLC-AgPt) thin films using a multicomponent target pulsed laser deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy of the DLC-silver and DLC-platinum composite films revealed that the silver and platinum self-assemble into nanoparticle arrays within the diamondlike carbon matrix. The diamondlike carbon-silver film possesses hardness and Young's modulus values of 37 GPa and 331 GPa, respectively. The diamondlike carbon-metal composite films exhibited passive behavior at open-circuit potentials. Low corrosion rates were observed during testing in a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) electrolyte. In addition, the diamondlike carbon-metal composite films were found to be immune to localized corrosion below 1000 mV (SCE). DLC-silver-platinum films demonstrated exceptional antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus bacteria. It is believed that a galvanic couple forms between platinum and silver, which accelerates silver ion release and provides more robust antimicrobial activity. Diamondlike carbon-silver-platinum films may provide unique biological functionalities and improved lifetimes for cardiovascular, orthopaedic, biosensor, and implantable microelectromechanical systems.

  2. Performance of high amylose starch-composited gelatin films influenced by gelatinization and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhang; Wang, Kun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana; Liu, Anjun

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the impact of starch in film performance, high amylose corn starch was composited in gelatin films under different gelatinization conditions and, in high and low concentrations (10 and 50wt.%). It was found that hot water gelatinized starch (Gel-Shw) increased film mechanical strength and was dependent upon the starch concentration. The addition of an alkali component to the starch significantly enhanced the swelling of the starch granules and expedited the gelatinization process. Incorporation of starch, especially the alkalized starch (Sha), into the gelatin films decreased film solubility which improved its water resistance and water vapor permeability (WVP). Multiple techniques (DSC, TGA, FT-IR, and XRD) were used to characterize the process and results, including the crosslinking of the dissolved starch molecules and the particles formed from gelatinized starch during retrogradation process, which played an important role in improving the thermal stability of the composited gelatin films. Overall, the starch-gelatin composition provides a potential approach to improve gelatin film performance and benefit its applications in the food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Relation between anchorings of liquid crystals and conformation changes in aligning agents by the Langmuir-Blodgett film technique investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.; Lu, Z.; Wei, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The anchoring direction of liquid crystals on a solid substrate surface depends upon many parameters characterizing the liquid-crystal--substrate interface, a variation of which may change this anchoring direction leading to the so-called anchoring transition. Here, based on the Langmuir-Blodgett film technique, we present two model systems to study the relation between anchoring directions and the conformation changes in aligning agents. A double-armed crown ether liquid crystal and a side chain polymer liquid crystal at an air-water interface both show phase transitions, accompanied by conformation changes. However, when the monolayers in different phases were transferred onto solid substrates to orient liquid crystals, we found that for the crown ether material the conformation change can alter the anchoring of liquid crystals between homeotropic and homogeneous alignments, while for the polymer liquid crystal, despite the conformation changes, the liquid crystals can only be aligned homeotropically. The involved mechanisms were briefly discussed in terms of the Landau-type phenomenological theory

  4. Study of the structure and phase composition of nanocrystalline silicon oxynitride films synthesized by ICP-CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainer, N.I.; Kosinova, M.L.; Maximovsky, E.A.; Rumyantsev, Yu.M.; Kuznetsov, F.A.; Kesler, V.G.; Kirienko, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    Thin nanocrystalline silicon oxynitride films were synthesized for the first time at low temperatures (373-750 K) by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) using gas mixture of oxygen and hexamethyldisilazane Si 2 NH(CH 3 ) 6 (HMDS) as precursors. Single crystal Si (1 0 0) wafers 100 mm in diameter were used as substrates. Physicochemical properties of the thin films were examined using ellipsometry, IR spectroscopy, Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and XRD using synchrotron radiation (SR). The studies of the phase composition of nanocrystalline films of silicon oxynitride showed that in the case of oxygen excess in the initial gas mixture, they contain a mixture of hexagonal phases: h-SiO 2 and α-Si 3 N 4 . These phases consist of oriented nanocrystals of 2-3 nm size. In case of decrease of oxygen concentration in the initial gas mixture, the fraction of the α-Si 3 N 4 phase increases

  5. Study of the structure and phase composition of nanocrystalline silicon oxynitride films synthesized by ICP-CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fainer, N.I. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, 3, Acad. Lavrentjev Pr., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: nadezhda@che.nsk.su; Kosinova, M.L. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, 3, Acad. Lavrentjev Pr., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Maximovsky, E.A. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, 3, Acad. Lavrentjev Pr., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Rumyantsev, Yu.M. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, 3, Acad. Lavrentjev Pr., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, F.A. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, 3, Acad. Lavrentjev Pr., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kesler, V.G. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Acad. Lavrentjev pr., 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kirienko, V.V. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Acad. Lavrentjev pr., 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2005-05-01

    Thin nanocrystalline silicon oxynitride films were synthesized for the first time at low temperatures (373-750 K) by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) using gas mixture of oxygen and hexamethyldisilazane Si{sub 2}NH(CH{sub 3}){sub 6} (HMDS) as precursors. Single crystal Si (1 0 0) wafers 100 mm in diameter were used as substrates. Physicochemical properties of the thin films were examined using ellipsometry, IR spectroscopy, Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and XRD using synchrotron radiation (SR). The studies of the phase composition of nanocrystalline films of silicon oxynitride showed that in the case of oxygen excess in the initial gas mixture, they contain a mixture of hexagonal phases: h-SiO{sub 2} and {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. These phases consist of oriented nanocrystals of 2-3 nm size. In case of decrease of oxygen concentration in the initial gas mixture, the fraction of the {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} phase increases.

  6. Dye sensitized solar cell applications of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite thin films deposited from single molecular complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali [Nanotechnology and Catalysis Centre (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Khaledi, Hamid [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Huang, Nay Ming [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Arifin, Zainudin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mazhar, Muhammad, E-mail: mazhar42pk@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-10-15

    A heterobimetallic complex [Cd{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}(μ-O){sub 6}(TFA){sub 8}(THF){sub 6}]·1.5THF (1) (TFA=trifluoroacetato, THF=tetrahydrofuran) comprising of Cd:Ti (1:2) ratio was synthesized by a chemical reaction of cadmium (II) acetate with titanium (IV) isopropoxide and triflouroacetic acid in THF. The stoichiometry of (1) was recognized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic and elemental analyses. Thermal studies revealed that (1) neatly decomposes at 450 °C to furnish 1:1 ratio of cadmium titanate:titania composite oxides material. The thin films of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite oxides were deposited at 550 °C on fluorine doped tin oxide coated conducting glass substrate in air ambient. The micro-structure, crystallinity, phase identification and chemical composition of microspherical architectured CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite thin film have been determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The scope of composite thin film having band gap of 3.1 eV was explored as photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell application. - Graphical abstarct: Microspherical designed CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite oxides photoanode film has been fabricated from single source precursor [Cd{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}(μ-O){sub 6}(TFA){sub 8}(THF){sub 6}]·1.5THF via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique for dye sensitized solar cell application. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of a heterobimetallic Cd–Ti complex. • Fabrication of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} thin film photoelectrode. • Application as dye sensitized photoanode for solar application.

  7. Nanoscale compositional analysis of NiTi shape memory alloy films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S. K.; Mohan, S. [Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Bysakh, S. [Central Glass and Ceramics Research Institute, Kolkata-700032 (I