WorldWideScience

Sample records for crystal ball gazing

  1. Crystal Ball at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Bulos, F.; Luke, D.; Peck, C.; Strauch, K.

    1975-01-01

    The modifications to the SPEAR version of the Crystal Ball required by the higher energies at PEP are discussed. Since the hadron multiplicity is expected to rise as log s, their average energy must rise. On the other hand, if the hadrons are produced in jets, the low energy part of their spectrum is not heavily depleted. This implies that modifications for high energy particles should not deteriorate low energy performance. An external iron calorimeter for measuring the high energy hadrons, charged and neutral, is considered. To improve the angular resolution on γ's, an active internal converter has been studied, estimates have been made of its expected performance, and difficulties requiring further study have been outlined

  2. The head tracks and gaze predicts: how the world's best batters hit the ball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, D.L.; Spratford, W.; Abernethy, B.

    2013-01-01

    Hitters in fast ball-sports do not align their gaze with the ball throughout ball-flight; rather, they use predictive eye movement strategies that contribute towards their level of interceptive skill. Existing studies claim that (i) baseball and cricket batters cannot track the ball because it moves

  3. Crystal ball single event display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A.; Allgower, C.; Alyea, J.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1997-01-01

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about π o 's and η's formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer

  4. The head tracks and gaze predicts: how the world's best batters hit a ball.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Mann

    Full Text Available Hitters in fast ball-sports do not align their gaze with the ball throughout ball-flight; rather, they use predictive eye movement strategies that contribute towards their level of interceptive skill. Existing studies claim that (i baseball and cricket batters cannot track the ball because it moves too quickly to be tracked by the eyes, and that consequently (ii batters do not - and possibly cannot - watch the ball at the moment they hit it. However, to date no studies have examined the gaze of truly elite batters. We examined the eye and head movements of two of the world's best cricket batters and found both claims do not apply to these batters. Remarkably, the batters coupled the rotation of their head to the movement of the ball, ensuring the ball remained in a consistent direction relative to their head. To this end, the ball could be followed if the batters simply moved their head and kept their eyes still. Instead of doing so, we show the elite batters used distinctive eye movement strategies, usually relying on two predictive saccades to anticipate (i the location of ball-bounce, and (ii the location of bat-ball contact, ensuring they could direct their gaze towards the ball as they hit it. These specific head and eye movement strategies play important functional roles in contributing towards interceptive expertise.

  5. Crystal ball data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chestnut, R.; Kiesling, C.; Bloom, E.; Bulos, F.; Gaiser, J.; Godfrey, G.; Oreglia, M.; Partridge, R.; Peck, C.; Porter, F.; Aschman, D.; Cavali-Sforza, M.; Coyne, D.; Sadrozinski, H.; Kollmann, W.; Richardson, M.

    1979-01-01

    The data acquisition system for the Crystal Ball project at SLAC is described. A PDP-11/t55 using RSX-11M connected to the SLAC Triplex is the basis of the system. A ''physics pipeline'' allows physicists to write their own equipment-monitoring or physics tasks which require event sampling. As well, an interactive analysis package (MULTI) is in the pipeline. Histogram collection and display on the PDP are implemented using the Triplex histogramming package. Various interactive event displays are also implemented

  6. Neutrons and the crystal ball experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyea, J.; Grosnick, D.; Koetke, D.; Manweiler, R.; Spinka, H.; Stanislaus, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Crystal Ball detector, as originally constructed, consisted of a set of 672 optically-isolated NaI crystals, forming an approximately spherical shell and each crystal viewed by a photomultiplier, a charged-particle tracker within the NaI shell, and two endcaps to cover angles close to two colliding beams. The detector geometry subtends a solid angle of about 93% of 4π st (20 degree le θ le 160degree and 0degree le φ le 360degree) from the center. The Crystal Ball detector was used for two long series of experiments at the e + e - colliding beam accelerators SPEAR [1, 2, 3, 4] at SLAC and DORIS [5, 6, 7, 8] at DESY. A new set of measurements using the Crystal Ball detector is planned at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotrons (BNL AGS). These new experiments will use the 672 NaI crystals from the original detector, but neither the tracker nor endcaps. The ''Crystal Ball'' in this note will refer only to the set of NaI crystals. Initially, the reactions to be studied will include π - pr a rrow neutrals with pion beam momenta approximately400-750 MeV/c and K - pr a rrow neutrals with kaon beam momenta approximately600-750 MeV/c. Each of these reactions will include a neutron in the final state. whereas the fraction of e + e - interactions with neutrons at SLAC or DESY was quite small. Consequently, there is relatively little experience understanding the behavior of neutrons in the Crystal Ball

  7. Crystal Ball results on tau decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.T.

    1987-10-01

    This report reviews measurements and upper limit determinations for a number of exclusive 1-prong tau decay modes using the Crystal Ball detector. These results are important input to the apparent discrepancy between the topological and sum-of-exclusive branching fractions in 1-prong tau decays

  8. A look into the Medical and Veterinary Entomology crystal ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, F; Cameron, M M; Colwell, D D; Otranto, D

    2014-08-01

    Medical and Veterinary Entomology (MVE) represents a leading periodical in its field and covers many aspects of the biology and control of insects, ticks, mites and other arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. Since the first issue of the journal, researchers working in both developed and developing countries have published in MVE, with direct impact on current knowledge in the field. An increasing number of articles dealing with the epidemiology and transmission of vector-borne pathogens have been published in MVE, reflecting rapid changes in vector distribution, pathogen transmission and host-arthropod interactions. This article represents a gaze into the crystal ball in which we identify areas of increasing interest, discuss the main changes that have occurred in the epidemiology of parasitic arthropods since the first issue of MVE, and predict the principal scientific topics that might arise in the next 25 years for scientists working in medical and veterinary entomology. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. Crystal Ball evidence for new states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, D.G.

    1981-09-01

    Evidence for three new particles observed in the Crystal Ball detector is presented. The first particle, at 3592 MeV, is seen inclusively in γ transitions from psi', and is thus a candidate for eta/sub c/'. The other two, at 1440 and 1640 MeV, are best seen in exclusive decays of psi involving a prompt γ, and are thus candidates for bound states of two gluons. Detailed reasons are presented to support the contention that these states are distinct from previously observed candidates such as E(1420). Alternative hypotheses are discussed

  10. Results on charmonium from the Crystal Ball

    CERN Document Server

    Partridge, R; Bloom, Elliott D; Bulos, F; Burnett, T; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Chestnut, R; Coyne, D; Gaiser, J; Godfrey, G; Hofstadter, R; Kiesling, C; Kirkbride, I; Kolanoski, H; Kollmann, W; Liberman, A; O'Reilly, J; Oreglia, M J; Peck, C; Porter, F; Richardson, M; Sadrozinski, H F W; Strauch, K; Tompkins, J; Wacker, K

    1979-01-01

    Results from the Crystal Ball experiment at SPEAR are presented. A preliminary analysis of the 3 photon final state from the J/ psi (3095) and of the cascade decays of the psi '(3684) yield new upper limits on the controversial states X(2820), chi (3455) and the even C- parity state at 3.59 GeV. From inclusive gamma -ray spectra of the J/ psi and psi ' preliminary branching ratios for psi ' to chi states and upper limits for J/ psi , psi ' to eta /sub c/, eta /sub c/' are given. (15 refs).

  11. Recent results from the Crystal Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, F.C.

    1981-09-01

    During the past year, the Crystal Ball experiment has continued the investigation of e + e - interactions at SPEAR. In the course of the year, we have slightly more than doubled the available datasets at the J/psi (to 2.2 x 10 6 produced J/psi) and the psi' (to 1.8 x 10 6 produced psi') resonances, and have increased the data in the 5.2 to 7.4 GeV center-of-mass (E/sub c.m./) region. The present discussion is limited to recent results obtained with the J/psi and psi' datasets, primarily dealing with transitions among the charmonium bound states

  12. Gazes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    , and the different strategies of positioning they utilize are studied and identified. The first strategy is to confront stereotyping prejudices and gazes, thereby attempting to position oneself in a counteracting way. The second is to transform and try to normalise external characteristics, such as clothing...... and other symbols that indicate Muslimness. A third strategy is to play along and allow the prejudice in question to remain unchallenged. A fourth is to join and participate in religious communities and develop an alternate sense of belonging to a wider community of Muslims. The concept of panoptical gazes...

  13. Unexpected Expectations The Curiosities of a Mathematical Crystal Ball

    CERN Document Server

    Wapner, Leonard M

    2012-01-01

    Unexpected Expectations: The Curiosities of a Mathematical Crystal Ball explores how paradoxical challenges involving mathematical expectation often necessitate a reexamination of basic premises. The author takes you through mathematical paradoxes associated with seemingly straightforward applications of mathematical expectation and shows how these unexpected contradictions may push you to reconsider the legitimacy of the applications. The book requires only an understanding of basic algebraic operations and includes supplemental mathematical background in chapter appendices. After a history o

  14. Results from the crystal ball detector at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.D.

    1979-11-01

    The Crystal Ball detector is a device particularly suited to the measurement of photons with energies lower than 1 GeV. The detector has as its principal component a 16 radiation length thick, highly segmented shell of NaI(Tl) surrounding cylindrical, proportional, and magnetostrictive spark chambers. The main Ball and various elements of the central chambers cover 94% of 4π sr. Segmented endcap NaI(Tl) detectors of 20 radiation lengths behind magneto strictive spark chambers supplement the main Ball. The Ball and endcaps close the solid angle for charged particle and photon detection to 98% of 4π sr. In addition, detectors of interspersed iron and proportional tubes provide for μ-π separation over 15% of 4π sr, about theta/sub CM/ = 90 0 . In this report preliminary results are presented from the data obtained. In particular, QED at E/sub CM/ = 6.5 GeV, R/sub hadron/ and related inclusive distributions, eta branching fractions at J/psi and psi'', and a detailed study of the psionium system are discussed

  15. Social Media and Big Data – Cracks in the Crystal Ball?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Westera, W. (2013, 14 October). Social Media and Big Data – Cracks in the Crystal Ball? Invited e-paper at ESOMAR RW Connect. http://rwconnect.esomar.org/using-social-media-for-market-analysis-cracks-in-the-alleged-crystal-ball/

  16. Ball-milling-induced crystallization and ball-milling effect on thermal crystallization kinetics in an amorphous FeMoSiB alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, F.Q.; Lu, K.

    1997-01-01

    Microstructure evolution in a melt-spun amorphous Fe 77.2 Mo 0.8 Si 9 B 13 alloy subjected to high-energy ball milling was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). It was found that during ball milling, crystallization occurs in the amorphous ribbon sample with precipitation of an α-Fe solid solution, and the amorphous sample crystallizes completely into a single α-Fe nanostructure (rather than α-Fe and borides as in the usual thermal crystallization products) when the milling time exceeds 135 hours. The volume fraction of material crystallized was found to be approximately proportional to the milling time. The fully crystallized sample with a single α-Fe nanophase exhibits an intrinsic thermal stability against phase separation upon annealing at high temperatures. The ball-milling effect on the subsequent thermal crystallization of the amorphous phase in an as-milled sample was studied by comparison of the crystallization products and kinetic parameters between the as-quenched amorphous sample and the as-milled sample was studied by comparison of the crystallization products and kinetic parameters between the as-quenched amorphous sample and the as-milled partially crystallized samples. The crystallization temperatures and activation energies for the crystallization processes of the residual amorphous phase were considerably decreased due to ball milling, indicating that ball milling has a significant effect on the depression of thermal stability of the residual amorphous phase

  17. Brief review of recent results from the Crystal Ball detector at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.D.

    1980-11-01

    Performance results are presented for the Crystal Ball detector at SPEAR. Topics covered include: inclusive photon spectra from J/psi and psi' decays; photon cascade decays of the psi'; three-γ decays of J/psi and psi'; and inclusive eta production

  18. Measurement of neutron detection efficiencies in NaI using the Crystal Ball detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Koetke, D.D. E-mail: donald.koetke@valpo.edu; Allgower, C.; Bekrenev, V.; Benslama, K.; Berger, E.; Briscoe, W.J.; Clajus, M.; Comfort, J.R.; Craig, K.; Gibson, A.; Grosnick, D.; Huber, G.M.; Isenhower, D.; Kasprzyk, T.; Knecht, N.; Koulbardis, A.; Kozlenko, N.; Kruglov, S.; Kycia, T.; Lolos, G.J.; Lopatin, I.; Manley, D.M.; Manweiler, R.; Marusic, A.; McDonald, S.; Nefkens, B.M.K.; Olmsted, J.; Papandreou, Z.; Peaslee, D.; Peterson, R.J.; Phaisangittisakul, N.; Pulver, M.; Ramirez, A.F.; Sadler, M.; Shafi, A.; Slaus, I.; Spinka, H.; Starostin, A.; Staudenmaier, H.M.; Supek, I.; Thoms, J.; Tippens, W.B

    2001-04-21

    We report on a measurement of the neutron detection efficiency in NaI crystals in the Crystal Ball (CB) detector obtained from a study of {pi}{sup -}p{yields}{pi} degree sign n reactions at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS. A companion GEANT-based Monte Carlo study has been done to simulate these reactions in the CB, and a comparison with the data is provided.

  19. Crystal ball gazing : chair of foresight takes the long-term view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.

    2010-03-15

    This article focused on Alberta's primary industry, namely oil and gas, and identifying important emerging opportunity needs in the mid to longer term future. The chair of Alberta Innovates Technology Futures (AITF), an agency which supersedes the Alberta Research Council must look well beyond a 5-year timeframe to a more longer-term strategic thinking. This article discussed how the mandate of the Chair position extended to all areas of research relevant to the province and its future prosperity, from communities of the future and economic development to future energy supply and environmental impacts. The article discussed the 3 stages of foresight methodologies that include studying the current situation in terms of underlying forces and trends to produce knowledge; examining where present circumstances will lead if allowed to evolve naturally, or if intervention occurred to alter those outcomes; and translating those insights into action. The article also addressed the issue of trimming carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The chair of AITF has turned his attention to reducing the impact of distributed sources, notably those from the tailpipe and the home furnace. Rather than capturing at source, he is looking to ways of removing it directly from the atmosphere, preferably in a biological way. One way is to take plant matter, which accumulates CO{sub 2} as it grows, and burn it in the absence of oxygen, creating carbon-rich biochar. When added to soil, this biochar improves soil quality when used in connection with farming. This creates the possibility of removing CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and converting it back through plants into carbon, a type of carbon capture and storage (CCS) except for distributed CO{sub 2}. 1 fig.

  20. Nonisothermal nematic liquid crystal flows with the Ball-Majumdar free energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Schimperna, G.; Rocca, E.; Zarnescu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 194, č. 5 (2015), s. 1269-1299 ISSN 0373-3114 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : nematic liquid crystal * Ball-Majumdar free theory * nonisothermal model * existence theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.861, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10231-014-0419-1

  1. Development of a time projection chamber for Crystal Ball at MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Oliver; Wolfes, Martin; Gradl, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: A2-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The Crystal Ball Collaboration uses energy tagged bremstrahlung photons produced from the MAMI electron beam to study photo-induced reactions on nucleons and nuclei. The Crystal Ball/TAPS 4π calorimeter setup is optimized for the detection of neutral final states. Charged particles are identified and measured by the inner detector system including a two layer MWPC. The increased rate of charged particles in current and future experiments exceeds the rate capability of these MWPCs. We are developing a small Time Projection Chamber with triple GEM readout meeting the stringent space requirements of the Crystal Ball experiment. This new tracking detector will feature higher rate capabilities and allows better track reconstruction. We are investigating the use of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) to build light but strong chamber walls. First tests with carbon fiber prepregs show promising results. In addition we are using the PLUTO event generator to study the detector acceptance under our experiment conditions. Similar simulations are done to optimize the number and the shape of the readout pads. This poster gives an overview of the current status of the project and present the latest results.

  2. Development of a time projection chamber for Crystal Ball at MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Oliver; Wolfes, Martin; Gradl, Wolfgang [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Collaboration: A2-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Crystal Ball Collaboration uses energy tagged bremstrahlung photons produced from the MAMI electron beam to study photo-induced reactions on nucleons and nuclei. The Crystal Ball/TAPS 4π calorimeter setup is optimized for the detection of neutral final states. Charged particles are identified and measured by the inner detector system including a two layer MWPC. The increased rate of charged particles in current and future experiments exceeds the rate capability of these MWPCs. We are developing a small Time Projection Chamber with triple GEM readout meeting the stringent space requirements of the Crystal Ball experiment. This new tracking detector will feature higher rate capabilities and allows better track reconstruction. % A small GEM-TPC prototype has successfully been tested in the MAMI electron beam, showing good first results on rate capability and track reconstruction. Additional simulation studies on track resolution, detector geometry and acceptance are done to optimize the design. This poster gives an overview of the current status of the project and present the latest results.

  3. Crystal Ball: On the Future High Energy Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2015-09-20

    High energy particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). A number of next generation collider facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium- and far-future of the accelerator-based high energy physics. In this paper we offer a uniform approach to evaluation of various accelerators based on the feasibility of their energy reach, performance reach and cost range. We briefly review such post-LHC options as linear e+e- colliders in Japan (ILC) or at CERN (CLIC), muon collider, and circular lepton or hadron colliders in China (CepC/SppC) and Europe (FCC). We conclude with a look into ultimate energy reach accelerators based on plasmas and crystals, and some perspectives for the far future of accelerator-based particle physics.

  4. Synthesis of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} crystals using a crank ball mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Suzuka; Noji, Hideki; Akaki, Yoji [Miyakonojo National College of Technology, 473-1 Yoshio, Miyakonojo Miyazaki 885-8567 (Japan); Okamoto, Tomoichiro [Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) crystals were synthesized by a mechanochemical (MC) process using a crank ball mill. The molar ratios of starting materials were Cu:In:Ga:Se=1:1-x:x:2 (0≤x≤1) and Cu:In:Ga:Se=1:0.7:0.3:y (2≤y≤3). The reaction time reduced with decreasing Se and Ga molar ratios. The collection rate decreased with longer reaction times. From XRD patterns, we confirmed that the CuInSe{sub 2} and/or CuGaSe{sub 2}crystals were successfully grown when the powders reacted. Although the crystals grown with a selenium molar ration of 2 were Se-poor, those grown at a molar ratio of 3 were Se-rich. When Se increasing molar ratio, Cu, In, and Ga were away from the stoichiometric. With a molar ratio of Cu:In:Ga:Se=1:0.7:0.3:2.5∝2.7, their composition became stoichiometric. Crystal morphology was varied. CIGS crystals were thus successfully synthesized using a crank ball mill. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Studies of η' (ω) mesons with the crystal ball/TAPS setup at MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlarson, Patrik [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: A2-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Precision studies of light meson decays are used to investigate a wide range of topics related to fundamental aspects of hadron physics. In particular, η' decays allow for tests of such diverse topics as ππ scattering lengths, the SU(3) singlet-octet mixing angle, quark mass differences and light-by-light contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Recently, a large statistics sample of η'(ω) mesons have been produced and collected with the Crystal Ball/TAPS setup at MAMI. An overview of the physics motivation, the experimental setup and preliminary results from the ongoing analyses are presented.

  6. Effect of additional nickel on crystallization degree evolution of expanded graphite during ball-milling and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liqin; Yue Xueqing; Zhang Fucheng; Zhang Ruijun

    2010-01-01

    Expanded graphite (EG) and a mixture of EG and nickel (EG-Ni system) were ball-milled and subsequently annealed, respectively. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After 100 h milling, the average crystallite thickness (L c ) of EG and EG-Ni system deceases from 14.5 to 8.0 and 9.6 nm, respectively, while the interlayer spacing (d 002 ) increases from 0.3341 to 0.3371 and 0.3348 nm, respectively. It can be concluded that ball-milling decreases the crystallization degree of EG, while the additional nickel restrains this process. For the samples ball-milled for 80 h, the disorder parameter I D /(I D + I G ) ratio of EG and EG-Ni system is in the range of 20.7-55.8% and 31.7-45.8%, respectively, implying that the presence of nickel is beneficial to more homogeneous ball-milling of EG. When the samples after ball-milling for 80 h were annealed for 4 h, the average crystallite thickness of EG and EG-Ni system increases from 8.5 to 9.0 nm and from 11.8 to 15.5 nm, respectively. It is deduced that annealing improves the crystallization degree of ball-milled EG, and the additional nickel is helpful for this process.

  7. Design and performance of a modularized NaI(Tl) detector (the crystal ball prototype)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Y.; Partridge, R.A.; Peck, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    A prototype NaI(Tl) detector (the Cluster of 54) of spherical geometry subtending a solid angle of 7.5 percent of 4π at its center, has recently been assembled and tested. This detector consisted of 54 close-packed but optically isolated NaI(Tl) modules and the associated electronic circuitry. The Cluster of 54 is the predecessor of an almost complete spherical detector, the Crystal Ball, which will cover 94 percent of 4π. The latter detector is now under construction and is especially designed for the study of γ-rays produced in electron-positron collisions at colliding beam facilities. The mechanical, optical, and electronic assembly of the prototype system is outlined. Cluster of 54 test data will be presented

  8. Resonance formation in γγ-collisions - as observed with the Crystal Ball detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienlein, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of two-photon reactions with the Crystal Ball detector at the DORIS-II e + e - storage ring (E beam = 5 GeV) resulted in a complete set of data on γγ-formation of mesons. The data are best represented by their helicity matrix elements. For isoscalar mesons the mixing of non-strange and strange quark constituents can be derived. A highly efficient selection of the channel γγ → π 0 π 0 yielded 7000 events with (M(π 0 π 0 ) > 800 MeV/c 2 . A partial wave decomposition became possible and showed under the f 2 (1270) a scalar meson resonance f 0 (1250) with 4.0 standard deviations. In the same analysis 23 events of γγ → ηη have been found. (orig.)

  9. New Crystal Ball data on resonance formation by γγ-collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienlein, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    The Crystal Ball detector at DORIS-II has observed a hitherto unknown (though expected) resonance at 1870 MeV/c 2 in the reaction γγ → ηπ o π o . Decay angular distributions and subsystem invariant masses favor the assignment η 2 (1870), a J PC = 2 -+ resonance. An efficient selection of the reaction γγ → π o π o yielded 7000 events. Angular distributions in narrow mass bins became possible and allowed the decomposition of the cross section into S- and D-wave contributions. Thus an f 0 (1250) resonance was found under the dominating f 2 (1270). The search for the channel γγ →ηη in the same selection yielded only (16 ± 6) events. (orig.)

  10. Recent Crystal Ball results on resonance formation in photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karch, K.H.

    1991-04-01

    The Crystal Ball detector has been used to analyse the formation of resonances in photon-photon collisions. The π 2 (1670) resonance has been observed in the 3π 0 final state, as well as the η' (958) and X (1900) resonances in the ηπ 0 π 0 final state. The X (1900) decay distributions are consistent with the assumption that it is the J PC = 2 -+ η 2 meson. Preliminary analyses of the 8, 10 and 12γ final states are presented. The tensor meson f 2 (1270) is the most prominent structure in the energy dependence of the total cross section σ (γγ → π 0 π 0 ), but close investigation of the differential cross section indicates the presence of a sizeable S wave contribution. This observation is consistent with a broad scalar meson f 0 (1250), degenerate in mass with the f 2 . Indications for the f 0 (975) mesons have been found, too. (orig.)

  11. Compact multiwire proportional chambers and electronics for the crystal ball detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiser, J.E.; Liberman, A.D.; Rolfe, J.

    1978-01-01

    A double gap of cylindrical proportional chambers has been designed and built for use with a large solid angle, modular NaI(Tl) array (The Crystal Ball). The chambers are constructed of three coaxial foam-epoxy shells, covered with an aluminum-mylar laminate. One of the high voltage cathodes in each chamber has been photo-etched to produce a pattern of stripes and precise position measurements of tracks passing transverse to the chamber axis are found by pulse height analyzing the shaped and amplified induced strip signals. Performance of the chamber using both the strip signals and the sense wire readout is presented. The design of both the signal handling electronics and the digital portions of the systems is discussed

  12. Bismuth-ceramic nanocomposites through ball milling and liquid crystal synthetic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Timothy Michael

    Three methods were developed for the synthesis of bismuth-ceramic nanocomposites, which are of interest due to possible use as thermoelectric materials. In the first synthetic method, high energy ball milling of bismuth metal with either MgO or SiO2 was found to produce nanostructured bismuth dispersed on a ceramic material. The morphology of the resulting bismuth depended on its wetting behavior with respect to the ceramic: the metal wet the MgO, but did not wet on the SiO2. Differential Scanning Calorimetry measurements on these composites revealed unusual thermal stability, with nanostructure retained after multiple cycles of heating and cooling through the metal's melting point. The second synthesis methodology was based on the use of lyotropic liquid crystals. These mixtures of water and amphiphilic molecules self-assemble to form periodic structures with nanometer-scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. A novel shear mixing methodology was developed for bringing together reactants which were added to the liquid crystals as dissolved salts. The liquid crystals served to mediate synthesis by acting as nanoreactors to confine chemical reactions within the nanoscale domains of the mesophase, and resulted in the production of nanoparticles. By synthesizing lead sulfide (PbS) and bismuth (Bi) particles as proof-of-concept, it was shown that nanoparticle size could be controlled by controlling the dimensionality of the nanoreactors through control of the liquid crystalline phase. Particle size was shown to decrease upon going from three-dimensionally percolating nanoreactors, to two dimensional sheet-like nanoreactors, to one dimensional rod-like nanoreactors. Additionally, particle size could be controlled by varying the precursor salt concentration. Since the nanoparticles did not agglomerate in the liquid crystal immediately after synthesis, bismuth-ceramic nanocomposites could be prepared by synthesizing Bi nanoparticles and mixing in SiO2 particles which

  13. Measuring the branching fraction of ω→ ηγ with the crystal ball Experiment at MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Oliver; Gradl, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: A2-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Crystal Ball Collaboration uses energy tagged bremstrahlung photons produced from the MAMI electron beam to study photo-induced reactions on nucleons and nuclei. The Crystal Ball/TAPS 4π calorimeter setup is optimized for the detection of neutral final states. Charged particles are identified and measured by the inner detector system. A large data set of photoproduced η{sup p}rime and ω mesons has been obtained during recent data taking periods with the End Point Tagger (E{sub γ}=1.4 to 1.6 GeV) and the liquid hydrogen target. We plan to use this data to measure the branching fraction of the ω→ ηγ decay. Simulation studies for this decay have already started. In this talk we present the current status of the ongoing work and discuss the next steps of the analysis.

  14. Crystal Ball contributions to the 9th international workshop on photon-photon collisions, La Jolla, 23-26 March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienlein, J.K.

    1992-06-01

    This report contains two articles concerning new Crystal Ball data on resonance formation by γγ collisions and the representation of such results by helicity amplitudes. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  15. Effect of ball mill treatment on kinetics of amorphous Ni78Si10B12 alloy crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomilin, I.A.; Mochalova, T.Yu.; Kaloshkin, S.D.; Kostyukovich, T.G.; Lopatina, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the parameters of Ni 78 Si 10 B 12 alloy amorphous strip milling in a ball planetary mill on the stability of powder amorphous state, crytallization kinetics and dispersity is studied by the methods of differential scanning microcaloremetry and X-ray diffraction analysis. Energy intensity of milling conditions is assessed. An increase of input energy results in a decrease of activation energy of powder crystallization. Strip milling parameters which enable to avaintain the amorphous state of the material are determined

  16. The crystallization of amorphous Fe2MnGe powder prepared by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Brueck, E.; Tegus, O.; Buschow, K.H.J.; Boer, F.R. de

    2003-01-01

    We synthesized for the first time the intermetallic compound Fe 2 MnGe. To avoid preferential evaporation of volatile components we exploited mechanical alloying. Amorphous Fe 2 MnGe alloy powder was prepared by planetary ball milling elemental starting materials. The amorphous-to-crystalline transition was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A cubic D0 3 phase is formed at low temperature and transforms to a high-temperature hexagonal D0 19 phase. The apparent activation energy was determined by means of the Kissinger method

  17. Latvijas gaze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    A collection of photocopies of materials (such as overheads etc.) used at a seminar (organized by the Board of Directors of the company designated ''Latvijas Gaze'' in connection with The National Oil and Gas Company of Denmark, DONG) comprising an analysis of training needs with regard to marketing of gas technology and consultancy to countries in Europe, especially with regard to Latvia. (AB)

  18. Between Gazes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2009-01-01

    In the film documentary Zizek! (2006) Astra Taylor, the film’s director, introduces Slavoj Zizek and his central notions of Lacanian psychoanalysis as they tie in with Marxism, ideology, and culture. Apart from following Zizek from New York to his home in Ljubljana, the documentary presents...... delivers his thoughts on philosophy while in bed or in the bathroom. It is clear that one of the devices that the documentary uses in its portrayal of Zizek is the palimpsest, and what is being layered is the gaze. My essay introduces the idea of layering as a case of intermediality between different art...

  19. Ball clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the ball clay industry is provided. In 2000, sales of ball clay reached record levels, with sanitary ware and tile applications accounting for the largest sales. Ball clay production, consumption, prices, foreign trade, and industry news are summarized. The outlook for the ball clay industry is also outlined.

  20. Carbon-based micro-ball and micro-crystal deposition using filamentary pulsed atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Thin plasma filaments are produced by the propagation of ionization waves from a spiked driven electrode in a quartz tube in an argon/methane gas mixture (2400 sccm/2 sccm) at atmospheric pressure. The position of the touch point of filaments on the substrate surface is controlled in our experiment by applying various suitable substrate configurations and geometries of the grounded electrode. The gas conditions at the touch point are varied from argon to ambient air. Based on microphotography and discharge current waveforms, the duration of the filament touching the substrate is estimated to be about one microsecond. Carbon-based materials are deposited during this time at the touch points on the substrate surface. Micro-balls are produced if the filament touch points are saved from ambient air by the argon flow. Under an air admixture, micro-crystals are formed. The dimension of both materials is approximately one micrometre (0.5–2 µm) and corresponds to about 10 10 –10 12 carbon atoms. Neither the diffusion of neutral species nor drift of ions can be reason for the formation of such a big micro-material during this short period of filament–substrate interaction. It is possible that charged carbon-based materials are formed in the plasma channel and transported to the surface of the substrate. The mechanism of this transport and characterization of micro-materials, which are formed under different gas conditions in our experiment, will be studied in the future. (paper)

  1. Conjugate Gaze Palsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version Home Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cranial Nerve Disorders Conjugate Gaze Palsies Horizontal gaze palsy Vertical ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Cranial Nerve Disorders Overview of the Cranial Nerves Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia ...

  2. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...

  3. Single gaze gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Lilholm, Martin; Gail, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gaze gestures and their applicability as a generic selection method for gaze-only controlled interfaces. The method explored here is the Single Gaze Gesture (SGG), i.e. gestures consisting of a single point-to-point eye movement. Horizontal and vertical, long and short SGGs were...

  4. Visual strategies underpinning the development of visual-motor expertise when hitting a ball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarpeshkar, Vishnu; Abernethy, B.; Mann, D.L.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that skilled batters in fast-ball sports do not align their gaze with the ball throughout ball-flight, but instead adopt a unique sequence of eye and head movements that contribute toward their skill. However, much of what we know about visual-motor behavior in hitting is based on

  5. Construction of the Crystal Ball detector system and study of the helicity asymmetry in γp→pπ0π0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krambrich, D.

    2007-01-01

    Since spring 2004 the Crystal Ball Detector has been used for coincidence experiments probing the structure of the nucleons with real photons at the Mainzer Microtron. A major part of the commissioning, which was the first goal of this work, was the development and implementation of a new system for the Crystal Ball electronics. Components were designed or tested and, if necessary, modified to fit the experimental needs. After the commissioning, the set-up was then used successfully in several pion and eta production experiments for more than 2500 hours of beamtime. The second focus of this dissertation is the first measurement of the beam helicity asymmetry I s un in photoproduction of two neutral pions. The understanding of the excitation spectra of the nucleon requires experiments using polarised photons and/or polarised targets. Models based on different assumptions do reproduce the quantities measured without polarisation equally well but differ in the prediction of polarisation observables. The determination of more sensitive quantities is therefore mandatory. In contrast to single meson production, an observable appears in double pion production when using circularly polarized photons incident on an unpolarized target. This observable was determined as a function of energy and angle in the reactions γ p → p π 0 π 0 and in γ p → p π + π - . The results differ significantly from the model predictions. (orig.)

  6. Training for eye contact modulates gaze following in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Lisa J; Range, Friederike; Müller, Corsin A; Serisier, Samuel; Huber, Ludwig; Virányi, Zsófia

    2015-08-01

    Following human gaze in dogs and human infants can be considered a socially facilitated orientation response, which in object choice tasks is modulated by human-given ostensive cues. Despite their similarities to human infants, and extensive skills in reading human cues in foraging contexts, no evidence that dogs follow gaze into distant space has been found. We re-examined this question, and additionally whether dogs' propensity to follow gaze was affected by age and/or training to pay attention to humans. We tested a cross-sectional sample of 145 border collies aged 6 months to 14 years with different amounts of training over their lives. The dogs' gaze-following response in test and control conditions before and after training for initiating eye contact with the experimenter was compared with that of a second group of 13 border collies trained to touch a ball with their paw. Our results provide the first evidence that dogs can follow human gaze into distant space. Although we found no age effect on gaze following, the youngest and oldest age groups were more distractible, which resulted in a higher number of looks in the test and control conditions. Extensive lifelong formal training as well as short-term training for eye contact decreased dogs' tendency to follow gaze and increased their duration of gaze to the face. The reduction in gaze following after training for eye contact cannot be explained by fatigue or short-term habituation, as in the second group gaze following increased after a different training of the same length. Training for eye contact created a competing tendency to fixate the face, which prevented the dogs from following the directional cues. We conclude that following human gaze into distant space in dogs is modulated by training, which may explain why dogs perform poorly in comparison to other species in this task.

  7. Gaze Tracking Through Smartphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Henrik; Hansen, John Paulin; Møllenbach, Emilie

    Mobile gaze trackers embedded in smartphones or tablets provide a powerful personal link to game devices, head-mounted micro-displays, pc´s, and TV’s. This link may offer a main road to the mass market for gaze interaction, we suggest.......Mobile gaze trackers embedded in smartphones or tablets provide a powerful personal link to game devices, head-mounted micro-displays, pc´s, and TV’s. This link may offer a main road to the mass market for gaze interaction, we suggest....

  8. Crystal Gazing into the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Allen

    1978-01-01

    Presents a use study of library materials to emphasize the need for an "access" philosophy of providing library service. Other topics considered in this "forecast" include resource-sharing library networks, network topologies, and library and network functions. (Author/JD)

  9. A new measurement of the rare decay eta -> pi^0 gamma gamma with the Crystal Ball/TAPS detectors at the Mainz Microtron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B M; Prakhov, S; Aguar-Bartolom��, P; Annand, J R; Arends, H J; Bantawa, K; Beck, R; Bekrenev, V; Bergh��user, H; Braghieri, A; Briscoe, W J; Brudvik, J; Cherepnya, S; Codling, R F; Collicott, C; Costanza, S; Danilkin, I V; Denig, A; Demissie, B; Dieterle, M; Downie, E J; Drexler, P; Fil' kov, L V; Fix, A; Garni, S; Glazier, D I; Gregor, R; Hamilton, D; Heid, E; Hornidge, D; Howdle, D; Jahn, O; Jude, T C; Kashevarov, V L; K��ser, A; Keshelashvili, I; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Kotulla, M; Koulbardis, A; Kruglov, S; Krusche, B; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J; Maghrbi, Y; Mancel, J; Manley, D M; McNicoll, E F; Mekterovic, D; Metag, V; Mushkarenkov, A; Nikolaev, A; Novotny, R; Oberle, M; Ortega, H; Ostrick, M; Ott, P; Otte, P B; Oussena, B; Pedroni, P; Polonski, A; Robinson, J; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, T; Schumann, S; Sikora, M H; Starostin, A; Strakovsky, I I; Strub, T; Suarez, I M; Supek, I; Tarbert, C M; Thiel, M; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Watts, D P; Werthmueller, D; Witthauer, L

    2014-08-01

    A new measurement of the rare, doubly radiative decay eta->pi^0 gamma gamma was conducted with the Crystal Ball and TAPS multiphoton spectrometers together with the photon tagging facility at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. New data on the dependence of the partial decay width, Gamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma), on the two-photon invariant mass squared, m^2(gamma gamma), as well as a new, more precise value for the decay width, Gamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma) = (0.33+/-0.03_tot) eV, are based on analysis of 1.2 x 10^3 eta->pi^0 gamma gamma decays from a total of 6 x 10^7 eta mesons produced in the gamma p -> eta p reaction. The present results for dGamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma)/dm^2(gamma gamma) are in good agreement with previous measurements and recent theoretical calculations for this dependence.

  10. Golf Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Ultra 500 Series golf balls, introduced in 1995 by Wilson Sporting Goods Company, has 500 dimples arranged in a pattern of 60 spherical triangles. The design employs NASA's aerodynamics technology analysis of air loads of the tank and Shuttle orbiter that was performed under the Space Shuttle External Tank program. According to Wilson, this technology provides 'the most symmetrical ball surface available, sustaining initial velocity longer and producing the most stable ball flight for unmatched accuracy and distance.' The dimples are in three sizes, shapes and depths mathematically positioned for the best effect. The selection of dimples and their placement optimizes the interaction of opposing forces of lift and drag. Large dimples reduce air drag, enhance lift, and maintain spin for distance. Small dimples prevent excessive lift that destabilizes the ball flight and the medium size dimples blend the other two.

  11. Gaze interaction from bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; San Agustin, Javier; Jensen, Henrik Tomra Skovsgaard Hegner

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost gaze tracking solution for bedbound people composed of free-ware tracking software and commodity hardware. Gaze interaction is done on a large wall-projected image, visible to all people present in the room. The hardware equipment leaves physical space free to assis...

  12. Gazing and Performing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas; Urry, John

    2011-01-01

    The Tourist Gaze [Urry J, 1990 (Sage, London)] is one of the most discussed and cited tourism books (with about 4000 citations on Google scholar). Whilst wide ranging in scope, the book is known for the Foucault-inspired concept of the tourist gaze that brings out the fundamentally visual and image...

  13. Construction of the Crystal Ball detector system and study of the helicity asymmetry in {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}; Aufbau des Crystal Ball-Detektorsystems und Untersuchung der Helizitaetsasymmetrie in {gamma} p {yields} p {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krambrich, D.

    2007-01-15

    Since spring 2004 the Crystal Ball Detector has been used for coincidence experiments probing the structure of the nucleons with real photons at the Mainzer Microtron. A major part of the commissioning, which was the first goal of this work, was the development and implementation of a new system for the Crystal Ball electronics. Components were designed or tested and, if necessary, modified to fit the experimental needs. After the commissioning, the set-up was then used successfully in several pion and eta production experiments for more than 2500 hours of beamtime. The second focus of this dissertation is the first measurement of the beam helicity asymmetry I{sup s}un in photoproduction of two neutral pions. The understanding of the excitation spectra of the nucleon requires experiments using polarised photons and/or polarised targets. Models based on different assumptions do reproduce the quantities measured without polarisation equally well but differ in the prediction of polarisation observables. The determination of more sensitive quantities is therefore mandatory. In contrast to single meson production, an observable appears in double pion production when using circularly polarized photons incident on an unpolarized target. This observable was determined as a function of energy and angle in the reactions {gamma} p {yields} p {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} and in {gamma} p {yields} p {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -}. The results differ significantly from the model predictions. (orig.)

  14. Gaze as a biometric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Carmichael, Tandy R.; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-03-01

    Two people may analyze a visual scene in two completely different ways. Our study sought to determine whether human gaze may be used to establish the identity of an individual. To accomplish this objective we investigated the gaze pattern of twelve individuals viewing still images with different spatial relationships. Specifically, we created 5 visual "dotpattern" tests to be shown on a standard computer monitor. These tests challenged the viewer's capacity to distinguish proximity, alignment, and perceptual organization. Each test included 50 images of varying difficulty (total of 250 images). Eye-tracking data were collected from each individual while taking the tests. The eye-tracking data were converted into gaze velocities and analyzed with Hidden Markov Models to develop personalized gaze profiles. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, we observed that these personalized profiles could differentiate among the 12 users with classification accuracy ranging between 53% and 76%, depending on the test. This was statistically significantly better than random guessing (i.e., 8.3% or 1 out of 12). Classification accuracy was higher for the tests where the users' average gaze velocity per case was lower. The study findings support the feasibility of using gaze as a biometric or personalized biomarker. These findings could have implications in Radiology training and the development of personalized e-learning environments.

  15. Gaze as a biometric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Carmichael, Tandy [Tennessee Technological University; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Two people may analyze a visual scene in two completely different ways. Our study sought to determine whether human gaze may be used to establish the identity of an individual. To accomplish this objective we investigated the gaze pattern of twelve individuals viewing different still images with different spatial relationships. Specifically, we created 5 visual dot-pattern tests to be shown on a standard computer monitor. These tests challenged the viewer s capacity to distinguish proximity, alignment, and perceptual organization. Each test included 50 images of varying difficulty (total of 250 images). Eye-tracking data were collected from each individual while taking the tests. The eye-tracking data were converted into gaze velocities and analyzed with Hidden Markov Models to develop personalized gaze profiles. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, we observed that these personalized profiles could differentiate among the 12 users with classification accuracy ranging between 53% and 76%, depending on the test. This was statistically significantly better than random guessing (i.e., 8.3% or 1 out of 12). Classification accuracy was higher for the tests where the users average gaze velocity per case was lower. The study findings support the feasibility of using gaze as a biometric or personalized biomarker. These findings could have implications in Radiology training and the development of personalized e-learning environments.

  16. E-gaze : create gaze communication for peoplewith visual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, S.; Osawa, H.; Hu, J.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Gaze signals are frequently used by the sighted in social interactions as visual cues. However, these signals and cues are hardly accessible for people with visual disability. A conceptual design of E-Gaze glasses is proposed, assistive to create gaze communication between blind and sighted people

  17. A GazeWatch Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulin Hansen, John; Biermann, Florian; Møllenbach, Emile

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate potentials of adding a gaze tracking unit to a smartwatch, allowing hands-free interaction with the watch itself and control of the environment. Users give commands via gaze gestures, i.e. looking away and back to the GazeWatch. Rapid presentation of single words on the watch displ...... provides a rich and effective textual interface. Finally, we exemplify how the GazeWatch can be used as a ubiquitous pointer on large displays....

  18. Gazes and Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas

    ethnographic studies I spell out the embodied, hybridised, mobile and performative nature of tourist gazing especially with regard to tourist photography. The talk draws on my recent book Tourism, Performance and the Everyday: Consuming the Orient (Routledge, 2009, With M. Haldrup) and the substantially......Abstract: Recent literature has critiqued this notion of the 'tourist gaze' for reducing tourism to visual experiences 'sightseeing' and neglecting other senses and bodily experiences of doing tourism. A so-called 'performance turn' within tourist studies highlights how tourists experience places...... to onceptualise the corporeality of tourist bodies and the embodied actions of and interactions between tourist workers, tourists and 'locals' on various stages. It has been suggested that it is necessary to choose between gazing and performing as the tourism paradigm (Perkin and Thorns 2001). Rather than...

  19. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  20. The Epistemology of the Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Mette

    2007-01-01

    In psycho-semiotic film theory the gaze is often considered to be a straitjacket for the female spectator. If we approach the gaze from an empiric so-called ‘naturalised’ lens, it is possible to regard the gaze as a functional devise through which the spectator can obtain knowledge essential for ...... for her self-preservation....

  1. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  2. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  3. Gaze shifts and fixations dominate gaze behavior of walking cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Trevor J.; Sirota, Mikhail G.; Guttentag, Andrew I.; Ogorodnikov, Dmitri A.; Shah, Neet A.; Beloozerova, Irina N.

    2014-01-01

    Vision is important for locomotion in complex environments. How it is used to guide stepping is not well understood. We used an eye search coil technique combined with an active marker-based head recording system to characterize the gaze patterns of cats walking over terrains of different complexity: (1) on a flat surface in the dark when no visual information was available, (2) on the flat surface in light when visual information was available but not required, (3) along the highly structured but regular and familiar surface of a horizontal ladder, a task for which visual guidance of stepping was required, and (4) along a pathway cluttered with many small stones, an irregularly structured surface that was new each day. Three cats walked in a 2.5 m corridor, and 958 passages were analyzed. Gaze activity during the time when the gaze was directed at the walking surface was subdivided into four behaviors based on speed of gaze movement along the surface: gaze shift (fast movement), gaze fixation (no movement), constant gaze (movement at the body’s speed), and slow gaze (the remainder). We found that gaze shifts and fixations dominated the cats’ gaze behavior during all locomotor tasks, jointly occupying 62–84% of the time when the gaze was directed at the surface. As visual complexity of the surface and demand on visual guidance of stepping increased, cats spent more time looking at the surface, looked closer to them, and switched between gaze behaviors more often. During both visually guided locomotor tasks, gaze behaviors predominantly followed a repeated cycle of forward gaze shift followed by fixation. We call this behavior “gaze stepping”. Each gaze shift took gaze to a site approximately 75–80 cm in front of the cat, which the cat reached in 0.7–1.2 s and 1.1–1.6 strides. Constant gaze occupied only 5–21% of the time cats spent looking at the walking surface. PMID:24973656

  4. Beyond the crystal ball assumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    (programmers hide implementation details behind previously defined interfaces, or alternatively, they refine some pre-defined properties). While practical, this approach is unfortunately not completely satisfactory for Enterprise Resource Planning systems (ERPs). These software products have to be customizable...... quantification. We introduce the Eggther framework for customization of evolvable software products in general and ERP systems in particular. Our approach is based on the concept of code query by example. The technology being developed is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We...

  5. EYE GAZE TRACKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  6. In situ examination of decision-making skills and gaze behaviour of basketball players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maarseveen, Mariëtte J.J.; Savelsbergh, Geert J.P.; Oudejans, Raôul R.D.

    2018-01-01

    In this study we examined in situ decision-making skills and gaze behaviour of skilled female basketball players. Players participated as ball carriers in a specific 3 vs 3 pick-and-roll basketball play. Playing both on the right and left side of the court and facing three types of defensive play,

  7. Determination of the Dalitz-plot parameter {alpha} for the decay {eta}{yields}3{pi}{sup 0} with the Crystal Ball at MAMI; Bestimmung des Dalitz-Plot-Parameters {alpha} fuer den Zerfall {eta} {yields} 3{pi}{sup 0} mit dem Crystal Ball am MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unverzagt, Marc

    2008-05-26

    In order to determine the Dalitz-plot parameter {alpha} experiments were evaluated, Which were performed with the Crystal Ball/TAPS facility at the accelerator MAMI of the Institute for Nuclear Physics at the Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz in the years 2004 and 2005. {eta} mesons wer produced via the reaction {gamma}p{yields}{eta}p. From four different analyses the following four in this thesis determined Dalitz-plot parameters with the given statistics resulted: {eta} without proton: {alpha}=-0.0314{+-}0.0013{sub -0.0014}{sup +0.0017} (1.1.10{sup 6} events), {eta} with proton: {alpha}=-0.0338{+-}0.0020{sub -0.0022}{sup +0.0019} (4.2.10{sup 5} events), {delta}{sup +} magnetic dipole moment without proton: {alpha}=-0.0277{+-}0.0013{sub -0.0019}{sup +0.0014} (7.1.10{sup 5} events), {delta}{sup +} magnetic dipole moment with proton: {alpha}=-0.0272{+-}0.0019{sub -0.0043}{sup +0.0022} (3.1.10{sup 5} events).

  8. Demo of Gaze Controlled Flying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre; Hansen, John Paulin; Scott MacKenzie, I.

    2012-01-01

    Development of a control paradigm for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is a new challenge to HCI. The demo explores how to use gaze as input for locomotion in 3D. A low-cost drone will be controlled by tracking user’s point of regard (gaze) on a live video stream from the UAV.......Development of a control paradigm for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is a new challenge to HCI. The demo explores how to use gaze as input for locomotion in 3D. A low-cost drone will be controlled by tracking user’s point of regard (gaze) on a live video stream from the UAV....

  9. Gaze Behavior in a Natural Environment with a Task-Relevant Distractor: How the Presence of a Goalkeeper Distracts the Penalty Taker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kurz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaze behavior in natural scenes has been shown to be influenced not only by top–down factors such as task demands and action goals but also by bottom–up factors such as stimulus salience and scene context. Whereas gaze behavior in the context of static pictures emphasizes spatial accuracy, gazing in natural scenes seems to rely more on where to direct the gaze involving both anticipative components and an evaluation of ongoing actions. Not much is known about gaze behavior in far-aiming tasks in which multiple task-relevant targets and distractors compete for the allocation of visual attention via gaze. In the present study, we examined gaze behavior in the far-aiming task of taking a soccer penalty. This task contains a proximal target, the ball; a distal target, an empty location within the goal; and a salient distractor, the goalkeeper. Our aim was to investigate where participants direct their gaze in a natural environment with multiple potential fixation targets that differ in task relevance and salience. Results showed that the early phase of the run-up seems to be driven by both the salience of the stimulus setting and the need to perform a spatial calibration of the environment. The late run-up, in contrast, seems to be controlled by attentional demands of the task with penalty takers having habitualized a visual routine that is not disrupted by external influences (e.g., the goalkeeper. In addition, when trying to shoot a ball as accurately as possible, penalty takers directed their gaze toward the ball in order to achieve optimal foot-ball contact. These results indicate that whether gaze is driven by salience of the stimulus setting or by attentional demands depends on the phase of the actual task.

  10. Having a Ball with Fitness Balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Fitness programs can be greatly enhanced with the addition of fitness balls. They are a fun, challenging, economical, and safe way to incorporate a cardiovascular, strength, and stretching program for all fitness levels in a physical education setting. The use of these balls has become more popular during the last decade, and their benefits and…

  11. The Goldenrod Ball Gall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1974-01-01

    The paper presents a generalized life history of the goldenrod ball gall, a ball-shaped swelling found almost exclusively on the Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis, and caused by a peacock fly know as Eurosta soldiaginis. (KM)

  12. The incredible shrinking ball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Maurice

    2011-12-15

    In the oil and gas industry, the implementation of fracture systems using ball and seat technology helped make multistage fracturing possible. However, frac balls can obstruct later production flow by staying in the well. Baker Hughes Inc. developed a technology to solve this problem: IN-Tallic frac balls. The unique feature of these frac balls is that they are made of an electrolytic metallic nanostructured material which is light and strong and which melts away with salt water or brine through a decomposition process governed by electrochemical reactions controlled by nanoscale coatings. These balls need to be kept away from moisture in order to prevent degradation. This technology is more expensive than traditional frac balls but it prevents the need to mill out obstructions created by the balls. The IN-Tallic frac balls are a new technology which provides operators with peace of mind.

  13. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Compliant Ball Screw Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An actuator includes a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is adapted to receive an input torque and in response rotates and supplies a drive force. The ball screw extends through the ball nut and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw receives the drive force from the ball nut and in response selectively translates between a retract position and a extend position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw proximate the first end to translate therewith. The ball screw stop engages the ball nut when the ball screw is in the extend position, translates, with compliance, a predetermined distance toward the first end upon engaging the ball nut, and prevents further rotation of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  14. AmbiGaze : direct control of ambient devices by gaze

    OpenAIRE

    Velloso, Eduardo; Wirth, Markus; Weichel, Christian; Abreu Esteves, Augusto Emanuel; Gellersen, Hans-Werner Georg

    2016-01-01

    Eye tracking offers many opportunities for direct device control in smart environments, but issues such as the need for calibration and the Midas touch problem make it impractical. In this paper, we propose AmbiGaze, a smart environment that employs the animation of targets to provide users with direct control of devices by gaze only through smooth pursuit tracking. We propose a design space of means of exposing functionality through movement and illustrate the concept through four prototypes...

  15. The spinning ball spiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupeux, Guillaume; Le Goff, Anne; Quere, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the trajectory of a fast revolving solid ball moving in a fluid of comparable density. As the ball slows down owing to drag, its trajectory follows an exponential spiral as long as the rotation speed remains constant: at the characteristic distance L where the ball speed is significantly affected by the drag, the bending of the trajectory increases, surprisingly. Later, the rotation speed decreases, which makes the ball follow a second kind of spiral, also described in the paper. Finally, the use of these highly curved trajectories is shown to be relevant to sports.

  16. New perspectives in gaze sensitivity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gabrielle L; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-03-01

    Attending to where others are looking is thought to be of great adaptive benefit for animals when avoiding predators and interacting with group members. Many animals have been reported to respond to the gaze of others, by co-orienting their gaze with group members (gaze following) and/or responding fearfully to the gaze of predators or competitors (i.e., gaze aversion). Much of the literature has focused on the cognitive underpinnings of gaze sensitivity, namely whether animals have an understanding of the attention and visual perspectives in others. Yet there remain several unanswered questions regarding how animals learn to follow or avoid gaze and how experience may influence their behavioral responses. Many studies on the ontogeny of gaze sensitivity have shed light on how and when gaze abilities emerge and change across development, indicating the necessity to explore gaze sensitivity when animals are exposed to additional information from their environment as adults. Gaze aversion may be dependent upon experience and proximity to different predator types, other cues of predation risk, and the salience of gaze cues. Gaze following in the context of information transfer within social groups may also be dependent upon experience with group-members; therefore we propose novel means to explore the degree to which animals respond to gaze in a flexible manner, namely by inhibiting or enhancing gaze following responses. We hope this review will stimulate gaze sensitivity research to expand beyond the narrow scope of investigating underlying cognitive mechanisms, and to explore how gaze cues may function to communicate information other than attention.

  17. Creating Gaze Annotations in Head Mounted Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Qvarfordt, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate distributed communication in mobile settings, we developed GazeNote for creating and sharing gaze annotations in head mounted displays (HMDs). With gaze annotations it possible to point out objects of interest within an image and add a verbal description. To create an annota- tion...

  18. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

  19. A Gaze Interactive Textual Smartwatch Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Biermann, Florian; Askø Madsen, Janus

    2015-01-01

    Mobile gaze interaction is challenged by inherent motor noise. We examined the gaze tracking accuracy and precision of twelve subjects wearing a gaze tracker on their wrist while standing and walking. Results suggest that it will be possible to detect whether people are glancing the watch, but no...

  20. TabletGaze: Unconstrained Appearance-based Gaze Estimation in Mobile Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qiong; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Sabharwal, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    We study gaze estimation on tablets, our key design goal is uncalibrated gaze estimation using the front-facing camera during natural use of tablets, where the posture and method of holding the tablet is not constrained. We collected the first large unconstrained gaze dataset of tablet users, labeled Rice TabletGaze dataset. The dataset consists of 51 subjects, each with 4 different postures and 35 gaze locations. Subjects vary in race, gender and in their need for prescription glasses, all o...

  1. Compact Q-balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D., E-mail: bazeia@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Losano, L.; Marques, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58297-000 Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Rocha, R. da [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André (Brazil)

    2016-07-10

    In this work we deal with non-topological solutions of the Q-ball type in two space–time dimensions, in models described by a single complex scalar field that engenders global symmetry. The main novelty is the presence of stable Q-balls solutions that live in a compact interval of the real line and appear from a family of models controlled by two distinct parameters. We find analytical solutions and study their charge and energy, and show how to control the parameters to make the Q-balls classically and quantum mechanically stable.

  2. Gaze-Based Controlling a Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    ) as an example of a complex gaze-based task in environment. This paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of how gaze interaction can be performed for controlling vehicles not only using a remote gaze tracker but also in general challenging situations where the user and robot are mobile...... modality if gaze trackers are embedded into the head- mounted devices. The domain of gaze-based interactive applications increases dramatically as interaction is no longer constrained to 2D displays. This paper proposes a general framework for gaze-based controlling a non- stationary robot (vehicle...... and the movements may be governed by several degrees of freedom (e.g. flying). A case study is also introduced where the mobile gaze tracker is used for controlling a Roomba vacuum cleaner....

  3. The bowling balls

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    10 November 1972: CERN’s Bent Stumpe places an order for 12 bowling balls for a total cost of 95 US dollars. Although not evident at first sight, he is buying the heart of some of the first tracking devices to be used in the SPS control room. Today, Bent Stumpe’s device would be called a desktop mouse…   The first order for 4 bowling balls later changed to 12 balls. The bowling balls became the heart of Bent Stumpe's mouse. Almost 40 years ago, the web, Wikipedia and Google did not exist and it was much more difficult to know whether other people in other parts of the world or even in the same laboratory were facing the same problems or developing the same tools. At that time, Bent Stumpe was an electronics engineer, newly recruited to work on developments for the SPS Central Control room. One of the things his supervisor asked him to build as soon as possible was a device to control a pointer on a screen, also called a tracker ball. The heart of the device was the...

  4. Dysfunctional gaze processing in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Berchio

    2017-01-01

    The present study provides neurophysiological evidence for abnormal gaze processing in BP and suggests dysfunctional processing of direct eye contact as a prominent characteristic of bipolar disorder.

  5. Laboratory demonstration of ball lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Anton I; Stepanov, Sergei I; Shabanov, Gennadii D

    2004-01-01

    A common laboratory facility for creating glowing flying plasmoids akin to a natural ball lightning, allowing a number of experiments to be performed to investigate the main properties of ball lightning, is described. (methodological notes)

  6. Follow My Eyes: The Gaze of Politicians Reflexively Captures the Gaze of Ingroup Voters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Cazzato, Valentina; Vecchione, Michele; Crostella, Filippo; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2011-01-01

    Studies in human and non-human primates indicate that basic socio-cognitive operations are inherently linked to the power of gaze in capturing reflexively the attention of an observer. Although monkey studies indicate that the automatic tendency to follow the gaze of a conspecific is modulated by the leader-follower social status, evidence for such effects in humans is meager. Here, we used a gaze following paradigm where the directional gaze of right- or left-wing Italian political characters could influence the oculomotor behavior of ingroup or outgroup voters. We show that the gaze of Berlusconi, the right-wing leader currently dominating the Italian political landscape, potentiates and inhibits gaze following behavior in ingroup and outgroup voters, respectively. Importantly, the higher the perceived similarity in personality traits between voters and Berlusconi, the stronger the gaze interference effect. Thus, higher-order social variables such as political leadership and affiliation prepotently affect reflexive shifts of attention. PMID:21957479

  7. Culture and Listeners' Gaze Responses to Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianliang; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is frequently observed that listeners demonstrate gaze aversion to stuttering. This response may have profound social/communicative implications for both fluent and stuttering individuals. However, there is a lack of empirical examination of listeners' eye gaze responses to stuttering, and it is unclear whether cultural background…

  8. Adaptive gaze control for object detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Croon, G.C.H.E.; Postma, E.O.; Van den Herik, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel gaze-control model for detecting objects in images. The model, named act-detect, uses the information from local image samples in order to shift its gaze towards object locations. The model constitutes two main contributions. The first contribution is that the model’s setup makes

  9. Reading the mind from eye gaze.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffels, I.; Young, A.W.; Owen, A.M.; Scott, S.K.; Keane, J.; Lawrence, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    S. Baron-Cohen (1997) has suggested that the interpretation of gaze plays an important role in a normal functioning theory of mind (ToM) system. Consistent with this suggestion, functional imaging research has shown that both ToM tasks and eye gaze processing engage a similar region of the posterior

  10. Gaze Cueing by Pareidolia Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Kohske Takahashi; Katsumi Watanabe

    2013-01-01

    Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cuei...

  11. crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu

    2014-07-01

    A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ϕ 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for π-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for σ-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.

  12. Frictional performance of ball screw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Katuhiro; Takafuji, Kazuki

    1985-01-01

    As feed screws, ball screws have become to be adopted in place of trapezoidal threads. The structure of ball screws is complex, but those are the indispensable component of NC machine tools and machining centers, and are frequently used for industrial robots. As the problems in the operation of ball screws, there are damage, life and the performance related to friction. As to the damage and life, though there is the problem of the load distribution on balls, the results of the research on rolling bearings are applied. The friction of ball screws consists of the friction of balls and a spiral groove, the friction of a ball and a ball, the friction in a ball-circulating mechanism and the viscous friction of lubricating oil. It was decided to synthetically examine the frictional performance of ball screws, such as driving torque, the variation of driving torque, efficiency, the formation of oil film and so on, under the working condition of wide range, using the screws with different accuracy and the nuts of various circuit number. The experimental setup and the processing of the experimental data, the driving performance of ball screws and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. A look into the endovascular crystal ball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the highlights of the 15th International Workshop of Endovascular Surgery, held in Ajaccio in June 2008. This is an annual event that attracts leading endovascular therapists from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean as well as a contingency from down-under. The layout of this m...

  14. Ball check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1978-01-01

    A pressurized nuclear reactor having an instrument assembly sheathed in a metallic tube which is extended vertically upward into the reactor core by traversing a metallic guide tube which is welded to the wall of the vessel is described. Sensors in each instrument assembly are connected to instruments outside the vessel to manifest the conditions within the core. Each instrument assembly probe is moved into position within a metallic guide channel. The guide channel penetrates the wall of the vessel and forms part of the barrier to the environment within the pressure vessel. Each channel includes a ball check valve which is opened by the instrument assembly probe when the probe passes through the valve. A ball valve element is moved from its seat by the probe to a position lateral of the bore of the channel and is guided to its seat along a sloped path within the valve body when the probe is removed. 5 claims, 3 figures

  15. Gazes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    2015-01-01

    of passing. The analysis of the young Muslim men and women’s narratives points towards the particular embodied, intersectional and local possibilities for becoming and being visible as a legitimate Muslim subject in a society fraught with stereotypical and often negative images and discourses on Islam...

  16. Measurement of the decay of the Υ(1S) and Υ(2S) resonances to muon pairs and determination of the strong coupling constant using the Crystal Ball detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobel, M.

    1991-07-01

    Using the Crystal ball detector at the e + e - storage ring DORIS II we have measured the branching fraction B μμ to muon pairs of the Υ(1S) and Υ(2S) resonances and for the first time the product of the muonic partial width Γ μμ and the branching fraction B ee to electrons for both resonances. We obtain B μμ (1S)=(2.31±0.12±0.10)%, Γ μμ (1S).B ee (1S)=(31.2±1.6±1.7) eV and B μμ (2S)=(1.22±0.28±0.19)%, Γ μμ (2S).B ee (2S)=(6.5±1.5±1.0) eV, where the errors given are the statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively. Inserting the present world average value of B ee (1S)=(2.52±0.17)% we measure for the first time the muonic partial width Γ μμ (1S)=(1.24±0.06±0.11) keV. In addition we present the first evidence for the expected interference between μ-pair production in the continuum and in Υ(1S) decays. Using our result on B μμ (1S) we derive a value for the scale parameter Λ of the strong interaction from exploiting the ratio of B μμ to the branching fraction B ggg of the Υ(1S) to three gluons. In the anti Manti S renormalization scheme for the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) we find for four flavors Λ 4 sub(anti Manti S)=(210±25 -50 +120 ) MeV. We convert this number into a measurement of the strong coupling constant α s sub(anti Manti S)(μ=5 GeV)=0.184±0.006 -0.013 +0.027 . In both results the experimental and the theoretical errors are listed, respectively. The values for the theoretical uncertainties should be taken as an educated guess. Given today's state of the art in QCD, they are in principle unknown. (orig.) [de

  17. Mobile gaze input system for pervasive interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    feedback to the user in response to the received command input. The unit provides feedback to the user on how to position the mobile unit in front of his eyes. The gaze tracking unit interacts with one or more controlled devices via wireless or wired communications. Example devices include a lock......, a thermostat, a light or a TV. The connection between the gaze tracking unit may be temporary or longer-lasting. The gaze tracking unit may detect features of the eye that provide information about the identity of the user....

  18. Wrist-worn pervasive gaze interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Lund, Haakon; Biermann, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses gaze interaction for smart home control, conducted from a wrist-worn unit. First we asked ten people to enact the gaze movements they would propose for e.g. opening a door or adjusting the room temperature. On basis of their suggestions we built and tested different versions...... selection. Their subjective evaluations were positive with regard to the speed of the interaction. We conclude that gaze gesture input seems feasible for fast and brief remote control of smart home technology provided that robustness of tracking is improved....

  19. Gaze Cueing by Pareidolia Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon. While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process.

  20. Gaze cueing by pareidolia faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process.

  1. BLEACHING NEPTUNE BALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONET Maria Angeles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Posidonia Oceanic is a seaweed from Mediterranean Sea and it is more concentrated at the Balerian SEA. This implies the Valencian Community also. It forms vaste underwater meadows in the sea and are part of the Mediterranean ecosystem. It is a sea-grass specie with fruits and flowers. Leaves are ribbon-like and they grow in winter and at the end of summer some of them are separated and arrive to some sea line. Fuit is separated and can floate, it is known as “the olive of the sea” mainly in Italy, or as the Neptune Balls. As it can be used in different fields, it is is being studied in order ro have the precitice tests. Some authors have reported the manufacturing of fully bio-based comites with a gluten matrix by hot-press molding. And it has been considered as an effective insulator for building industry or even though to determine the presence of mercure in the Mediterranean sea some years ago. As many applications can be designed from that fibers, it has been considered to be bleached in order to used them in fashionable products. Consequently, its original brown color is not the most suitable one and it should be bleached as many other cellulosic fibers. The aim of this paper is to bleache neptune balls however, the inner fibers were not accessible at all and it implied not to bleach the inner fibers in the neptune ball. Further studiesd will consider bleaching the individualized fibers.

  2. Is gaze following purely reflexive or goal-directed instead? Revisiting the automaticity of orienting attention by gaze cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Paola; Carcagno, Samuele; Vallar, Giuseppe; Bricolo, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Distracting gaze has been shown to elicit automatic gaze following. However, it is still debated whether the effects of perceived gaze are a simple automatic spatial orienting response or are instead sensitive to the context (i.e. goals and task demands). In three experiments, we investigated the conditions under which gaze following occurs. Participants were instructed to saccade towards one of two lateral targets. A face distracter, always present in the background, could gaze towards: (a) a task-relevant target--("matching" goal-directed gaze shift)--congruent or incongruent with the instructed direction, (b) a task-irrelevant target, orthogonal to the one instructed ("non-matching" goal-directed gaze shift), or (c) an empty spatial location (no-goal-directed gaze shift). Eye movement recordings showed faster saccadic latencies in correct trials in congruent conditions especially when the distracting gaze shift occurred before the instruction to make a saccade. Interestingly, while participants made a higher proportion of gaze-following errors (i.e. errors in the direction of the distracting gaze) in the incongruent conditions when the distracter's gaze shift preceded the instruction onset indicating an automatic gaze following, they never followed the distracting gaze when it was directed towards an empty location or a stimulus that was never the target. Taken together, these findings suggest that gaze following is likely to be a product of both automatic and goal-driven orienting mechanisms.

  3. Latvijas Gaze buyback likely to flop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Veerandi Läti gaasifirma Latvijas Gaze omanik Itera kavatseb lähiajal lõpule viia üheksa protsendi Läti firma aktsiate müügi ettevõttele Gazprom. Gazprom'i kontrolli all on praegu 25 protsenti, Ruhrgas'il 28,66 ning E.ON Energie AG-l 18,06 protsenti Latvijas Gaze aktsiatest

  4. Dynamics of a Bouncing Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shiuan-Ni; Lan, Boon Leong

    The dynamics of a bouncing ball undergoing repeated inelastic impacts with a table oscillating vertically in a sinusoidal fashion is studied using Newtonian mechanics and general relativistic mechanics. An exact mapping describes the bouncing ball dynamics in each theory. We show, contrary to expectation, that the trajectories predicted by Newtonian mechanics and general relativistic mechanics from the same parameters and initial conditions for the ball bouncing at low speed in a weak gravitational field can rapidly disagree completely. The bouncing ball system could be realized experimentally to test which of the two different predicted trajectories is correct.

  5. Individual ball possession in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Link

    Full Text Available This paper describes models for detecting individual and team ball possession in soccer based on position data. The types of ball possession are classified as Individual Ball Possession (IBC, Individual Ball Action (IBA, Individual Ball Control (IBC, Team Ball Possession (TBP, Team Ball Control (TBC und Team Playmaking (TPM according to different starting points and endpoints and the type of ball control involved. The machine learning approach used is able to determine how long the ball spends in the sphere of influence of a player based on the distance between the players and the ball together with their direction of motion, speed and the acceleration of the ball. The degree of ball control exhibited during this phase is classified based on the spatio-temporal configuration of the player controlling the ball, the ball itself and opposing players using a Bayesian network. The evaluation and application of this approach uses data from 60 matches in the German Bundesliga season of 2013/14, including 69,667 IBA intervals. The identification rate was F = .88 for IBA and F = .83 for IBP, and the classification rate for IBC was κ = .67. Match analysis showed the following mean values per match: TBP 56:04 ± 5:12 min, TPM 50:01 ± 7:05 min and TBC 17:49 ± 8:13 min. There were 836 ± 424 IBC intervals per match and their number was significantly reduced by -5.1% from the 1st to 2nd half. The analysis of ball possession at the player level indicates shortest accumulated IBC times for the central forwards (0:49 ± 0:43 min and the longest for goalkeepers (1:38 ± 0:58 min, central defenders (1:38 ± 1:09 min and central midfielders (1:27 ± 1:08 min. The results could improve performance analysis in soccer, help to detect match events automatically, and allow discernment of higher value tactical structures, which is based on individual ball possession.

  6. Attention to gaze and emotion in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Barbara L; Vaidya, Chandan J; Howard, James H; Deutsch, Stephen I

    2010-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have difficulty interpreting social and emotional cues such as facial expression, gaze direction, body position, and voice intonation. Nonverbal cues are powerful social signals but are often processed implicitly, outside the focus of attention. The aim of this research was to assess implicit processing of social cues in individuals with schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched controls performed a primary task of word classification with social cues in the background. Participants were asked to classify target words (LEFT/RIGHT) by pressing a key that corresponded to the word, in the context of facial expressions with eye gaze averted to the left or right. Although facial expression and gaze direction were irrelevant to the task, these facial cues influenced word classification performance. Participants were slower to classify target words (e.g., LEFT) that were incongruent to gaze direction (e.g., eyes averted to the right) compared to target words (e.g., LEFT) that were congruent to gaze direction (e.g., eyes averted to the left), but this only occurred for expressions of fear. This pattern did not differ for patients and controls. The results showed that threat-related signals capture the attention of individuals with schizophrenia. These data suggest that implicit processing of eye gaze and fearful expressions is intact in schizophrenia. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  7. A 2D eye gaze estimation system with low-resolution webcam images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, a low-cost system for 2D eye gaze estimation with low-resolution webcam images is presented. Two algorithms are proposed for this purpose, one for the eye-ball detection with stable approximate pupil-center and the other one for the eye movements' direction detection. Eyeball is detected using deformable angular integral search by minimum intensity (DAISMI algorithm. Deformable template-based 2D gaze estimation (DTBGE algorithm is employed as a noise filter for deciding the stable movement decisions. While DTBGE employs binary images, DAISMI employs gray-scale images. Right and left eye estimates are evaluated separately. DAISMI finds the stable approximate pupil-center location by calculating the mass-center of eyeball border vertices to be employed for initial deformable template alignment. DTBGE starts running with initial alignment and updates the template alignment with resulting eye movements and eyeball size frame by frame. The horizontal and vertical deviation of eye movements through eyeball size is considered as if it is directly proportional with the deviation of cursor movements in a certain screen size and resolution. The core advantage of the system is that it does not employ the real pupil-center as a reference point for gaze estimation which is more reliable against corneal reflection. Visual angle accuracy is used for the evaluation and benchmarking of the system. Effectiveness of the proposed system is presented and experimental results are shown.

  8. Examining Vision and Attention in Sports Performance Using a Gaze-Contingent Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Ryu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In time-constrained activities, such as competitive sports, the rapid acquisition and comprehension of visual information is vital for successful performance. Currently our understanding of how and what visual information is acquired and how this changes with skill development is quite rudimentary. Interpretation of eye movement behaviour is limited by uncertainties surrounding the relationship between attention, line-of-gaze data, and the mechanism of information pick-up from different sectors of the visual field. We used gaze-contingent display methodology to provide a selective information presentation to the central and peripheral parts of the visual field while performing a decision-making task. Eleven skilled and 11 less-skilled players watched videos of basketball scenarios under three different vision conditions (tunnel, masked, and full vision and in a forced-choice paradigm responded whether it was more appropriate for the ball carrier to pass or drive. In the tunnel and mask conditions vision was selectively restricted to, or occluded from, 5o around the line of gaze respectively. The skilled players showed significantly higher response accuracy and faster response times compared to their lesser skilled counterparts irrespective of the vision condition, demonstrating the skilled players' superiority in information extraction irrespective of the segment of visual field they rely on. Findings suggest that the capability to interpret visual information appears to be the key limiting factor to expert performance rather than the sector of the visual field in which the information is detected.

  9. Experimental research on ball lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofuruton, H.; Ohtsuki, Y.H.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments on producing ball lightning were made with discharge in flammable gas and/or aerosol. A long lifetime (2 s) ball lightning was observed in 2.7 % ethane and 100 cm 3 cotton fibers, and in 1.5 % methane and 1.9 % ethane

  10. Visual Foraging With Fingers and Eye Gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ómar I. Jóhannesson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A popular model of the function of selective visual attention involves search where a single target is to be found among distractors. For many scenarios, a more realistic model involves search for multiple targets of various types, since natural tasks typically do not involve a single target. Here we present results from a novel multiple-target foraging paradigm. We compare finger foraging where observers cancel a set of predesignated targets by tapping them, to gaze foraging where observers cancel items by fixating them for 100 ms. During finger foraging, for most observers, there was a large difference between foraging based on a single feature, where observers switch easily between target types, and foraging based on a conjunction of features where observers tended to stick to one target type. The pattern was notably different during gaze foraging where these condition differences were smaller. Two conclusions follow: (a The fact that a sizeable number of observers (in particular during gaze foraging had little trouble switching between different target types raises challenges for many prominent theoretical accounts of visual attention and working memory. (b While caveats must be noted for the comparison of gaze and finger foraging, the results suggest that selection mechanisms for gaze and pointing have different operational constraints.

  11. Gaze-contingent training enhances perceptual skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Donghyun; Mann, David L; Abernethy, Bruce; Poolton, Jamie M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether decision-making skill in perceptual-cognitive tasks could be enhanced using a training technique that impaired selective areas of the visual field. Recreational basketball players performed perceptual training over 3 days while viewing with a gaze-contingent manipulation that displayed either (a) a moving window (clear central and blurred peripheral vision), (b) a moving mask (blurred central and clear peripheral vision), or (c) full (unrestricted) vision. During the training, participants watched video clips of basketball play and at the conclusion of each clip made a decision about to which teammate the player in possession of the ball should pass. A further control group watched unrelated videos with full vision. The effects of training were assessed using separate tests of decision-making skill conducted in a pretest, posttest, and 2-week retention test. The accuracy of decision making was greater in the posttest than in the pretest for all three intervention groups when compared with the control group. Remarkably, training with blurred peripheral vision resulted in a further improvement in performance from posttest to retention test that was not apparent for the other groups. The type of training had no measurable impact on the visual search strategies of the participants, and so the training improvements appear to be grounded in changes in information pickup. The findings show that learning with impaired peripheral vision offers a promising form of training to support improvements in perceptual skill.

  12. Few crystal balls are crystal clear : eyeballing regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittebrood, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    The theory of regression and statistical analysis as it applies to reservoir analysis was discussed. It was argued that regression lines are not always the final truth. It was suggested that regression lines and eyeballed lines are often equally accurate. The many conditions that must be fulfilled to calculate a proper regression were discussed. Mentioned among these conditions were the distribution of the data, hidden variables, knowledge of how the data was obtained, the need for causal correlation of the variables, and knowledge of the manner in which the regression results are going to be used. 1 tab., 13 figs

  13. Embodied social robots trigger gaze following in real-time

    OpenAIRE

    Wiese, Eva; Weis, Patrick; Lofaro, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    In human-human interaction, we use information from gestures, facial expressions and gaze direction to make inferences about what interaction partners think, feel or intend to do next. Observing changes in gaze direction triggers shifts of attention to gazed-at locations and helps establish shared attention between gazer and observer - a prerequisite for more complex social skills like mentalizing, action understanding and joint action. The ability to follow others’ gaze develops early in lif...

  14. Predictive Gaze Cues and Personality Judgments: Should Eye Trust You?

    OpenAIRE

    Bayliss, Andrew P.; Tipper, Steven P.

    2006-01-01

    Although following another person's gaze is essential in fluent social interactions, the reflexive nature of this gaze-cuing effect means that gaze can be used to deceive. In a gaze-cuing procedure, participants were presented with several faces that looked to the left or right. Some faces always looked to the target (predictive-valid), some never looked to the target (predictive-invalid), and others looked toward and away from the target in equal proportions (nonpredictive). The standard gaz...

  15. Intermediate view synthesis for eye-gazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Eu-Ttuem; Ho, Yo-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication, also known as body language, is an important form of communication. Nonverbal behaviors such as posture, eye contact, and gestures send strong messages. In regard to nonverbal communication, eye contact is one of the most important forms that an individual can use. However, lack of eye contact occurs when we use video conferencing system. The disparity between locations of the eyes and a camera gets in the way of eye contact. The lock of eye gazing can give unapproachable and unpleasant feeling. In this paper, we proposed an eye gazing correction for video conferencing. We use two cameras installed at the top and the bottom of the television. The captured two images are rendered with 2D warping at virtual position. We implement view morphing to the detected face, and synthesize the face and the warped image. Experimental results verify that the proposed system is effective in generating natural gaze-corrected images.

  16. The Gaze as constituent and annihilator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Carlsson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to join the contemporary effort to promote a psychoanalytic renaissance within cinema studies, post Post-Theory. In trying to shake off the burden of the 1970s film theory's distortion of the Lacanian Gaze, rejuvenating it with the strength of the Real and fusing it with Freudian thoughts on the uncanny, hopefully this new dawn can be reached. I aspire to conceptualize the Gaze in a straightforward manner. This in order to obtain an instrument for the identification of certain strategies within the filmic realm aimed at depicting the subjective destabilizing of diegetic characters as well as thwarting techniques directed at the spectorial subject. In setting this capricious Gaze against the uncanny phenomena described by Freud, we find that these two ideas easily intertwine into a draft description of a powerful, potentially reconstitutive force worth being highlighted.

  17. Eye gaze in intelligent user interfaces gaze-based analyses, models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, Yukiko I; Bader, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Remarkable progress in eye-tracking technologies opened the way to design novel attention-based intelligent user interfaces, and highlighted the importance of better understanding of eye-gaze in human-computer interaction and human-human communication. For instance, a user's focus of attention is useful in interpreting the user's intentions, their understanding of the conversation, and their attitude towards the conversation. In human face-to-face communication, eye gaze plays an important role in floor management, grounding, and engagement in conversation.Eye Gaze in Intelligent User Interfac

  18. Estimating the gaze of a virtuality human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David J; Rae, John; Duckworth, Tobias W; Moore, Carl M; Aspin, Rob

    2013-04-01

    The aim of our experiment is to determine if eye-gaze can be estimated from a virtuality human: to within the accuracies that underpin social interaction; and reliably across gaze poses and camera arrangements likely in every day settings. The scene is set by explaining why Immersive Virtuality Telepresence has the potential to meet the grand challenge of faithfully communicating both the appearance and the focus of attention of a remote human participant within a shared 3D computer-supported context. Within the experiment n=22 participants rotated static 3D virtuality humans, reconstructed from surround images, until they felt most looked at. The dependent variable was absolute angular error, which was compared to that underpinning social gaze behaviour in the natural world. Independent variables were 1) relative orientations of eye, head and body of captured subject; and 2) subset of cameras used to texture the form. Analysis looked for statistical and practical significance and qualitative corroborating evidence. The analysed results tell us much about the importance and detail of the relationship between gaze pose, method of video based reconstruction, and camera arrangement. They tell us that virtuality can reproduce gaze to an accuracy useful in social interaction, but with the adopted method of Video Based Reconstruction, this is highly dependent on combination of gaze pose and camera arrangement. This suggests changes in the VBR approach in order to allow more flexible camera arrangements. The work is of interest to those wanting to support expressive meetings that are both socially and spatially situated, and particular those using or building Immersive Virtuality Telepresence to accomplish this. It is also of relevance to the use of virtuality humans in applications ranging from the study of human interactions to gaming and the crossing of the stage line in films and TV.

  19. Design gaze simulation for people with visual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, S.

    2017-01-01

    In face-to-face communication, eye gaze is integral to a conversation to supplement verbal language. The sighted often uses eye gaze to convey nonverbal information in social interactions, which a blind conversation partner cannot access and react. My doctoral research is to design gaze simulation

  20. Towards Wearable Gaze Supported Augmented Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toshiaki Kurauchi, Andrew; Hitoshi Morimoto, Carlos; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    Augmented cognition applications must deal with the problem of how to exhibit information in an orderly, understandable, and timely fashion. Though context have been suggested to control the kind, amount, and timing of the information delivered, we argue that gaze can be a fundamental tool...... by the wearable computing community to develop a gaze supported augmented cognition application with three interaction modes. The application provides information of the person being looked at. The continuous mode updates information every time the user looks at a different face. The key activated discrete mode...

  1. LHC gets the ball rolling

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    A technique involving a small ball with a transmitter embedded inside it has been successfully tested in Sector 7-8. The ball is sent through the LHC beam pipes to check the LHC interconnections. The multidisciplinary team responsible for the RF ball project to check the interconnections. From left to right: Rhodri Jones (AB/BI), Eva Calvo (AB/BI), Francesco Bertinelli (AT/MCS), Sonia Bartolome Jimenez (TS/IC), Sylvain Weisz (TS/IC), Paul Cruikshank (AT/VAC), Willemjan Maan (AT/VAC), Alain Poncet (AT/MCS), Marek Gasior (AB/BI). During the tests the ball is inserted very carefully into the vacuum chamber.A game of ping-pong at the LHC? On 13 September a rather unusual test was carried out in Sector 7-8 of the accelerator. A ball just a bit smaller than a ping-pong ball was carefully introduced into one of the accelerator’s two vacuum pipes, where it travelled 800 metres in the space of a few mi...

  2. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  3. Off-the-Shelf Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    San Agustin, Javier

    People with severe motor-skill disabilities are often unable to use standard input devices such as a mouse or a keyboard to control a computer and they are, therefore, in strong need for alternative input devices. Gaze tracking offers them the possibility to use the movements of their eyes to int...

  4. The Use of Gaze to Control Drones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Alapetite, Alexandre; MacKenzie, I. Scott

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of gaze-based control modes for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or “drones”). Ten participants performed a simple flying task. We gathered empirical measures, including task completion time, and examined the user experience for difficulty, reliabil...

  5. Between Gazes: Feminist, Queer, and 'Other' Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    In this book Camelia Elias introduces key terms in feminist, queer, and postcolonial/diaspora film. Taking her point of departure in the question, "what do you want from me?" she detours through Lacanian theory of the gaze and reframes questions of subjectivity and representation in an entertaining...

  6. Infants' Developing Understanding of Social Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? The authors addressed this question by investigating infants' understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between 2 people in mutual versus…

  7. Gaze interaction with textual user interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulin Hansen, John; Lund, Haakon; Madsen, Janus Askø

    2015-01-01

    ” option for text navigation. People readily understood how to execute RSVP command prompts and a majority of them preferred gaze input to a pen pointer. We present the concept of a smartwatch that can track eye movements and mediate command options whenever in proximity of intelligent devices...

  8. Emotion Unchained: Facial Expression Modulates Gaze Cueing under Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchinenda, Anna; Petrucci, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Direction of eye gaze cues spatial attention, and typically this cueing effect is not modulated by the expression of a face unless top-down processes are explicitly or implicitly involved. To investigate the role of cognitive control on gaze cueing by emotional faces, participants performed a gaze cueing task with happy, angry, or neutral faces under high (i.e., counting backward by 7) or low cognitive load (i.e., counting forward by 2). Results show that high cognitive load enhances gaze cueing effects for angry facial expressions. In addition, cognitive load reduces gaze cueing for neutral faces, whereas happy facial expressions and gaze affected object preferences regardless of load. This evidence clearly indicates a differential role of cognitive control in processing gaze direction and facial expression, suggesting that under typical conditions, when we shift attention based on social cues from another person, cognitive control processes are used to reduce interference from emotional information.

  9. Owners' direct gazes increase dogs' attention-getting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkita, Midori; Nagasawa, Miho; Kazutaka, Mogi; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether dogs gain information about human's attention via their gazes and whether they change their attention-getting behaviors (i.e., whining and whimpering, looking at their owners' faces, pawing, and approaching their owners) in response to their owners' direct gazes. The results showed that when the owners gazed at their dogs, the durations of whining and whimpering and looking at the owners' faces were longer than when the owners averted their gazes. In contrast, there were no differences in duration of pawing and likelihood of approaching the owners between the direct and averted gaze conditions. Therefore, owners' direct gazes increased the behaviors that acted as distant signals and did not necessarily involve touching the owners. We suggest that dogs are sensitive to human gazes, and this sensitivity may act as attachment signals to humans, and may contribute to close relationships between humans and dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring combinations of different color and facial expression stimuli for gaze-independent BCIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Some studies have proven that a conventional visual brain computer interface (BCI based on overt attention cannot be used effectively when eye movement control is not possible. To solve this problem, a novel visual-based BCI system based on covert attention and feature attention had been proposed and was called the gaze-independent BCI. Color and shape difference between stimuli and backgrounds have generally been used in examples of gaze-independent BCIs. Recently, a new paradigm based on facial expression change had been presented, and obtained high performance. However, some facial expressions were so similar that users couldn’t tell them apart. Especially they were presented at the same position in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP paradigm. Consequently, the performance of BCIs is reduced.New Method: In this paper, we combined facial expressions and colors to optimize the stimuli presentation in the gaze-independent BCI. This optimized paradigm was called the colored dummy face pattern. It is suggested that different colors and facial expressions could help subjects to locate the target and evoke larger event-related potentials (ERPs. In order to evaluate the performance of this new paradigm, two other paradigms were presented, called the grey dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Comparison with Existing Method(s: The key point that determined the value of the colored dummy faces stimuli in BCI systems were whether dummy face stimuli could obtain higher performance than grey faces or colored balls stimuli. Ten healthy subjects (7 male, aged 21-26 years, mean 24.5±1.25 participated in our experiment. Online and offline results of four different paradigms were obtained and comparatively analyzed.Results: The results showed that the colored dummy face pattern could evoke higher P300 and N400 ERP amplitudes, compared with the grey dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Online results showed

  11. Crystallite sizes of LiH before and after ball milling and thermal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Angel L.; Osborn, William; Markmaitree, Tippawan; Shaw, Leon L.

    2008-01-01

    The powder characteristics of lithium hydride (LiH) as a function of high-energy ball milling condition are systematically investigated via quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results obtained from the XRD analysis are compared with those attained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and specific surface area (SSA) analyses. The thermal stability of the ball-milled LiH is also investigated in order to provide physical insights into its cyclic stability in hydrogen sorption and desorption cycles. The results indicate that ball milling is effective in obtaining nano-crystalline LiH powder which is relatively stable with retention of nano-crystals after thermal exposure at 285 deg. C (equivalent to 0.58T m ) for 1 h. The good thermal stability observed is attributed to the presence of many pores in the agglomerates at the ball-milled condition. These pores effectively prevent crystal growth during the thermal exposure

  12. Look Together: Analyzing Gaze Coordination with Epistemic Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean eAndrist

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When conversing and collaborating in everyday situations, people naturally and interactively align their behaviors with each other across various communication channels, including speech, gesture, posture, and gaze. Having access to a partner's referential gaze behavior has been shown to be particularly important in achieving collaborative outcomes, but the process in which people's gaze behaviors unfold over the course of an interaction and become tightly coordinated is not well understood. In this paper, we present work to develop a deeper and more nuanced understanding of coordinated referential gaze in collaborating dyads. We recruited 13 dyads to participate in a collaborative sandwich-making task and used dual mobile eye tracking to synchronously record each participant's gaze behavior. We used a relatively new analysis technique—epistemic network analysis—to jointly model the gaze behaviors of both conversational participants. In this analysis, network nodes represent gaze targets for each participant, and edge strengths convey the likelihood of simultaneous gaze to the connected target nodes during a given time-slice. We divided collaborative task sequences into discrete phases to examine how the networks of shared gaze evolved over longer time windows. We conducted three separate analyses of the data to reveal (1 properties and patterns of how gaze coordination unfolds throughout an interaction sequence, (2 optimal time lags of gaze alignment within a dyad at different phases of the interaction, and (3 differences in gaze coordination patterns for interaction sequences that lead to breakdowns and repairs. In addition to contributing to the growing body of knowledge on the coordination of gaze behaviors in joint activities, this work has implications for the design of future technologies that engage in situated interactions with human users.

  13. Berkeley High-Resolution Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    Criteria for a high-resolution γ-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the γ rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus 156 Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features

  14. The “Social Gaze Space”: A Taxonomy for Gaze-Based Communication in Triadic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathis Jording

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans substantially rely on non-verbal cues in their communication and interaction with others. The eyes represent a “simultaneous input-output device”: While we observe others and obtain information about their mental states (including feelings, thoughts, and intentions-to-act, our gaze simultaneously provides information about our own attention and inner experiences. This substantiates its pivotal role for the coordination of communication. The communicative and coordinative capacities – and their phylogenetic and ontogenetic impacts – become fully apparent in triadic interactions constituted in its simplest form by two persons and an object. Technological advances have sparked renewed interest in social gaze and provide new methodological approaches. Here we introduce the ‘Social Gaze Space’ as a new conceptual framework for the systematic study of gaze behavior during social information processing. It covers all possible categorical states, namely ‘partner-oriented,’ ‘object-oriented,’ ‘introspective,’ ‘initiating joint attention,’ and ‘responding joint attention.’ Different combinations of these states explain several interpersonal phenomena. We argue that this taxonomy distinguishes the most relevant interactional states along their distinctive features, and will showcase the implications for prominent social gaze phenomena. The taxonomy allows to identify research desiderates that have been neglected so far. We argue for a systematic investigation of these phenomena and discuss some related methodological issues.

  15. Fearful gaze cueing: gaze direction and facial expression independently influence overt orienting responses in 12-month-olds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Matsunaka

    Full Text Available Gaze direction cues and facial expressions have been shown to influence object processing in infants. For example, infants around 12 months of age utilize others' gaze directions and facial expressions to regulate their own behaviour toward an ambiguous target (i.e., social referencing. However, the mechanism by which social signals influence overt orienting in infants is unclear. The present study examined the effects of static gaze direction cues and facial expressions (neutral vs. fearful on overt orienting using a gaze-cueing paradigm in 6- and 12-month-old infants. Two experiments were conducted: in Experiment 1, a face with a leftward or rightward gaze direction was used as a cue, and a face with a forward gaze direction was added in Experiment 2. In both experiments, an effect of facial expression was found in 12-month-olds; no effect was found in 6-month-olds. Twelve-month-old infants exhibited more rapid overt orienting in response to fearful expressions than neutral expressions, irrespective of gaze direction. These findings suggest that gaze direction information and facial expressions independently influence overt orienting in infants, and the effect of facial expression emerges earlier than that of static gaze direction. Implications for the development of gaze direction and facial expression processing systems are discussed.

  16. Towards gaze-controlled platform games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Jorge; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Mulvey, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of using gaze as a sole modality for fully controlling player characters of fast-paced action computer games. A user experiment is devised to collect gaze and gameplay data from subjects playing a version of the popular Super Mario Bros platform game. The initial...... analysis shows that there is a rather limited grid around Mario where the efficient player focuses her attention the most while playing the game. The useful grid as we name it, projects the amount of meaningful visual information a designer should use towards creating successful player character...... controllers with the use of artificial intelligence for a platform game like Super Mario. Information about the eyes' position on the screen and the state of the game are utilized as inputs of an artificial neural network, which is trained to approximate which keyboard action is to be performed at each game...

  17. Gaze perception in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars eSchulze

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical observations suggest abnormal gaze perception to be an important indicator of social anxiety disorder (SAD. Experimental research has yet paid relatively little attention to the study of gaze perception in SAD. In this article we first discuss gaze perception in healthy human beings before reviewing self-referential and threat-related biases of gaze perception in clinical and non-clinical socially anxious samples. Relative to controls, socially anxious individuals exhibit an enhanced self-directed perception of gaze directions and demonstrate a pronounced fear of direct eye contact, though findings are less consistent regarding the avoidance of mutual gaze in SAD. Prospects for future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  18. Mental state attribution and the gaze cueing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Geoff G; Smith, Daniel T; Atkinson, Mark A

    2015-05-01

    Theory of mind is said to be possessed by an individual if he or she is able to impute mental states to others. Recently, some authors have demonstrated that such mental state attributions can mediate the "gaze cueing" effect, in which observation of another individual shifts an observer's attention. One question that follows from this work is whether such mental state attributions produce mandatory modulations of gaze cueing. Employing the basic gaze cueing paradigm, together with a technique commonly used to assess mental-state attribution in nonhuman animals, we manipulated whether the gazing agent could see the same thing as the participant (i.e., the target) or had this view obstructed by a physical barrier. We found robust gaze cueing effects, even when the observed agent in the display could not see the same thing as the participant. These results suggest that the attribution of "seeing" does not necessarily modulate the gaze cueing effect.

  19. Spotting expertise in the eyes: billiards knowledge as revealed by gaze shifts in a dynamic visual prediction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Sofia; Robino, Carlo; Silva, Ottavia; de'Sperati, Claudio

    2012-10-31

    In sports, as in other activities and knowledge domains, expertise is a highly valuable asset. We assessed whether expertise in billiards is associated with specific patterns of eye movements in a visual prediction task. Professional players and novices were presented a number of simplified billiard shots on a computer screen, previously filmed in a real set, with the last part of the ball trajectory occluded. They had to predict whether or not the ball would have hit the central skittle. Experts performed better than novices, in terms of both accuracy and response time. By analyzing eye movements, we found that during occlusion, experts rarely extrapolated with the gaze the occluded part of the ball trajectory-a behavior that was widely diffused in novices-even when the unseen path was long and with two bounces interposed. Rather, they looked selectively at specific diagnostic points on the cushions along the ball's visible trajectory, in accordance with a formal metrical system used by professional players to calculate the shot coordinates. Thus, the eye movements of expert observers contained a clear signature of billiard expertise and documented empirically a strategy upgrade in visual problem solving from dynamic, analog simulation in imagery to more efficient rule-based, conceptual knowledge.

  20. Clinician's gaze behaviour in simulated paediatric emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughten, Ben; Hart, Caroline; Gallagher, Stephen; Junk, Carol; Coulter, Patricia; Thompson, Andrew; Bourke, Thomas

    2018-03-07

    Differences in the gaze behaviour of experts and novices are described in aviation and surgery. This study sought to describe the gaze behaviour of clinicians from different training backgrounds during a simulated paediatric emergency. Clinicians from four clinical areas undertook a simulated emergency. Participants wore SMI (SensoMotoric Instruments) eye tracking glasses. We measured the fixation count and dwell time on predefined areas of interest and the time taken to key clinical interventions. Paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) consultants performed best and focused longer on the chest and airway. Paediatric consultants and trainees spent longer looking at the defibrillator and algorithm (51 180 ms and 50 551 ms, respectively) than the PICU and paediatric emergency medicine consultants. This study is the first to describe differences in the gaze behaviour between experts and novices in a resuscitation. They mirror those described in aviation and surgery. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential use of eye tracking as an educational tool. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. The impact of visual gaze direction on auditory object tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Pomper, U.; Chait, M.

    2017-01-01

    Subjective experience suggests that we are able to direct our auditory attention independent of our visual gaze, e.g when shadowing a nearby conversation at a cocktail party. But what are the consequences at the behavioural and neural level? While numerous studies have investigated both auditory attention and visual gaze independently, little is known about their interaction during selective listening. In the present EEG study, we manipulated visual gaze independently of auditory attention wh...

  2. Speaker gaze increases information coupling between infant and adult brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Victoria; Byrne, Elizabeth; Clackson, Kaili; Georgieva, Stanimira; Lam, Sarah; Wass, Sam

    2017-12-12

    When infants and adults communicate, they exchange social signals of availability and communicative intention such as eye gaze. Previous research indicates that when communication is successful, close temporal dependencies arise between adult speakers' and listeners' neural activity. However, it is not known whether similar neural contingencies exist within adult-infant dyads. Here, we used dual-electroencephalography to assess whether direct gaze increases neural coupling between adults and infants during screen-based and live interactions. In experiment 1 ( n = 17), infants viewed videos of an adult who was singing nursery rhymes with ( i ) direct gaze (looking forward), ( ii ) indirect gaze (head and eyes averted by 20°), or ( iii ) direct-oblique gaze (head averted but eyes orientated forward). In experiment 2 ( n = 19), infants viewed the same adult in a live context, singing with direct or indirect gaze. Gaze-related changes in adult-infant neural network connectivity were measured using partial directed coherence. Across both experiments, the adult had a significant (Granger) causal influence on infants' neural activity, which was stronger during direct and direct-oblique gaze relative to indirect gaze. During live interactions, infants also influenced the adult more during direct than indirect gaze. Further, infants vocalized more frequently during live direct gaze, and individual infants who vocalized longer also elicited stronger synchronization from the adult. These results demonstrate that direct gaze strengthens bidirectional adult-infant neural connectivity during communication. Thus, ostensive social signals could act to bring brains into mutual temporal alignment, creating a joint-networked state that is structured to facilitate information transfer during early communication and learning. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  3. LHC gets the ball rolling

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    1. The multidisciplinary team responsible for the RF ball project to check the interconnections. From left to right: Rhodri Jones (AB/BI), Eva Calvo (AB/BI), Francesco Bertinelli (AT/MCS), Sonia Bartolome Jimenez (TS/IC), Sylvain Weisz (TS/IC), Paul Cruikshank (AT/VAC), Willemjan Maan (AT/VAC), Alain Poncet (AT/MCS), Marek Gasior (AB/BI).2. During the tests the ball is inserted very carefully into the vacuum chamber.1. Le groupe pluridisciplinaire qui a mené le projet de balle RF pour vérifier les interconnexions avec, de gauche à droite, Rhodri Jones (AB/BI), Eva Calvo (AB/BI), Francesco Bertinelli (AT/MCS), Sonia Bartolome Jimenez (TS/IC), Sylvain Weisz (TS/IC), Paul Cruikshank (AT/VAC), Willemjan Maan (AT/VAC), Alain Poncet (AT/MCS) et Marek Gasior (AB/BI).2. Lors des tests, la balle est insérée dans la chambre à vide avec beaucoup de précaution.

  4. The correct "ball bearings" data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroni, C

    2002-12-01

    The famous data on fatigue failure times of ball bearings have been quoted incorrectly from Lieblein and Zelen's original paper. The correct data include censored values, as well as non-fatigue failures that must be handled appropriately. They could be described by a mixture of Weibull distributions, corresponding to different modes of failure.

  5. Reflections on a Disco Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2016-01-01

    A disco ball is a spherical object covered with small plane mirrors. When light reflects on these mirrors, it is scattered in many directions, producing a novel effect. The mirror globe is usually set to rotate, creating a profusion of moving spots (Fig. 1). In this article, we present a geometrical description of the movement of these spots and…

  6. Facilitated orienting underlies fearful face-enhanced gaze cueing of spatial location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Carlson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Faces provide a platform for non-verbal communication through emotional expression and eye gaze. Fearful facial expressions are salient indicators of potential threat within the environment, which automatically capture observers’ attention. However, the degree to which fearful facial expressions facilitate attention to others’ gaze is unresolved. Given that fearful gaze indicates the location of potential threat, it was hypothesized that fearful gaze facilitates location processing. To test this hypothesis, a gaze cueing study with fearful and neutral faces assessing target localization was conducted. The task consisted of leftward, rightward, and forward/straight gaze trials. The inclusion of forward gaze trials allowed for the isolation of orienting and disengagement components of gaze-directed attention. The results suggest that both neutral and fearful gaze modulates attention through orienting and disengagement components. Fearful gaze, however, resulted in quicker orienting than neutral gaze. Thus, fearful faces enhance gaze cueing of spatial location through facilitated orienting.

  7. Encapsulated Ball Bearings for Rotary Micro Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    occurrence as well as the overall tribological properties of the bearing mechanism. Firstly, the number of stainless steel balls influences not only the load...stacks.iop.org/JMM/17/S224 Abstract We report on the first encapsulated rotary ball bearing mechanism using silicon microfabrication and stainless steel balls...The method of capturing stainless steel balls within a silicon race to support a silicon rotor both axially and radially is developed for rotary micro

  8. 2012 Problem 15: Frustrating Golf Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Zhu, Zheyuan; Gao, Wenli; Wang, Sihui

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies the condition for a golf ball to escape from a hole. The two determining factors are the ball's initial velocity v0 and its deviation from the center of the hole d. There is a critical escaping velocity vc for every deviation d. The ball's motion is analyzed by calculating the change of velocity whenever the ball collides with the hole. The critical conditions predicted by our theory are verified through experiment.

  9. Gliding and Saccadic Gaze Gesture Recognition in Real Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozado, David; San Agustin, Javier; Rodriguez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    , and their corresponding real-time recognition algorithms, Hierarchical Temporal Memory networks and the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm for sequence alignment. Our results show how a specific combination of gaze gesture modality, namely saccadic gaze gestures, and recognition algorithm, Needleman-Wunsch, allows for reliable...... usage of intentional gaze gestures to interact with a computer with accuracy rates of up to 98% and acceptable completion speed. Furthermore, the gesture recognition engine does not interfere with otherwise standard human-machine gaze interaction generating therefore, very low false positive rates...

  10. Gaze Bias in Preference Judgments by Younger and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Saito

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals’ gaze behavior reflects the choice they will ultimately make. For example, people confronting a choice among multiple stimuli tend to look longer at stimuli that are subsequently chosen than at other stimuli. This tendency, called the gaze bias effect, is a key aspect of visual decision-making. Nevertheless, no study has examined the generality of the gaze bias effect in older adults. Here, we used a two-alternative forced-choice task (2AFC to compare the gaze behavior reflective of different stages of decision processes demonstrated by younger and older adults. Participants who had viewed two faces were instructed to choose the one that they liked/disliked or the one that they judged to be more/less similar to their own face. Their eye movements were tracked while they chose. The results show that the gaze bias effect occurred during the remaining time in both age groups irrespective of the decision type. However, no gaze bias effect was observed for the preference judgment during the first dwell time. Our study demonstrated that the gaze bias during the remaining time occurred regardless of decision-making task and age. Further study using diverse participants, such as clinic patients or infants, may help to generalize the gaze bias effect and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the gaze bias.

  11. Gaze anchoring guides real but not pantomime reach-to-grasp: support for the action-perception theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Jessica R; Karl, Jenni M; Doan, Jon B; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2018-04-01

    Reach-to-grasp movements feature the integration of a reach directed by the extrinsic (location) features of a target and a grasp directed by the intrinsic (size, shape) features of a target. The action-perception theory suggests that integration and scaling of a reach-to-grasp movement, including its trajectory and the concurrent digit shaping, are features that depend upon online action pathways of the dorsal visuomotor stream. Scaling is much less accurate for a pantomime reach-to-grasp movement, a pretend reach with the target object absent. Thus, the action-perception theory proposes that pantomime movement is mediated by perceptual pathways of the ventral visuomotor stream. A distinguishing visual feature of a real reach-to-grasp movement is gaze anchoring, in which a participant visually fixates the target throughout the reach and disengages, often by blinking or looking away/averting the head, at about the time that the target is grasped. The present study examined whether gaze anchoring is associated with pantomime reaching. The eye and hand movements of participants were recorded as they reached for a ball of one of three sizes, located on a pedestal at arms' length, or pantomimed the same reach with the ball and pedestal absent. The kinematic measures for real reach-to-grasp movements were coupled to the location and size of the target, whereas the kinematic measures for pantomime reach-to-grasp, although grossly reflecting target features, were significantly altered. Gaze anchoring was also tightly coupled to the target for real reach-to-grasp movements, but there was no systematic focus for gaze, either in relation with the virtual target, the previous location of the target, or the participant's reaching hand, for pantomime reach-to-grasp. The presence of gaze anchoring during real vs. its absence in pantomime reach-to-grasp supports the action-perception theory that real, but not pantomime, reaches are online visuomotor actions and is discussed in

  12. Ceramic ball grid array package stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, S. H. B. S.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    The ball grid array (BGA), a form of chip scale package (CSP), was developed as one of the most advanced surface mount devices, which may be assembled by an ordinary surface ball bumps are used instead of plated nickel and gold (Ni/Au) bumps. Assembly and reliability of the BGA's printed circuit board (PCB), which is soldered by conventional surface mount technology is considered in this study. The Ceramic Ball Grid Array (CBGA) is a rectangular ceramic package or square-shaped that will use the solder ball for external electrical connections instead of leads or wire for connections. The solder balls will be arranged in an array or grid at the bottom of the ceramic package body. In this study, ANSYS software is used to investigate the stress on the package for 2 balls and 4 balls of the CBGA package with the various force range of 1-3 Newton applied to the top of the die, top of the substrate and side of the substrate. The highest maximum stress was analyzed and the maximum equivalent stress was observed on the solder ball and the die. From the simulation result, the CBGA package with less solder balls experience higher stress compared to the package with many solder balls. Therefore, less number of solder ball on the CBGA package results higher stress and critically affect the reliability of the solder balls itself, substrate and die which can lead to the solder crack and also die crack.

  13. Supersymmetric Q-balls theory and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A

    1999-01-01

    MSSM predicts the existence of Q-balls, some of which can be entirely stable. Both stable and unstable Q-balls can play an important role in cosmology. In particular, Affleck-Dine baryogenesis can result in a copious production of stable baryonic Q-balls, which can presently exist as a form of dark matter.

  14. Ball mounting fixture for a roundness gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauler, Allen L.; Pasieka, Donald F.

    1983-01-01

    A ball mounting fixture for a roundness gage is disclosed. The fixture includes a pair of chuck assemblies oriented substantially transversely with respect to one another and mounted on a common base. Each chuck assembly preferably includes a rotary stage and a wobble plate affixed thereto. A ball chuck affixed to each wobble plate is operable to selectively support a ball to be measured for roundness, with the wobble plate permitting the ball chuck to be tilted to center the ball on the axis of rotation of the rotary stage. In a preferred embodiment, each chuck assembly includes a vacuum chuck operable to selectively support the ball to be measured for roundness. The mounting fixture enables a series of roundness measurements to be taken with a conventional rotating gagehead roundness instrument, which measurements can be utilized to determine the sphericity of the ball.

  15. Ceramic Rail-Race Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Mark A.; Mungas, Greg S.; Peters, Gregory H.

    2010-01-01

    Non-lubricated ball bearings featuring rail races have been proposed for use in mechanisms that are required to function in the presence of mineral dust particles in very low-pressure, dry environments with extended life. Like a conventional ball bearing, the proposed bearing would include an inner and an outer ring separated by balls in rolling contact with the races. However, unlike a conventional ball bearing, the balls would not roll in semi-circular or gothic arch race grooves in the rings: instead, the races would be shaped to form two or more rails (see figure). During operation, the motion of the balls would push dust particles into the spaces between the rails where the particles could not generate rolling resistance for the balls

  16. No need for a social cue! A masked magician can also trick the audience in the vanishing ball illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cyril; Didierjean, André

    2016-01-01

    In the vanishing ball illusion (VBI), a magician throws a ball up in the air twice, after which he pretends to toss it up again, when in fact it remains secretly concealed in his hand. Observers perceive an imaginary ball disappearing into the air. According to Kuhn and Land (2006), the VBI during the fake throw is mediated by the magician's gaze and/or head direction (also called "social cues") as he looks toward the imaginary ball. The aim of this article is to test an alternative interpretation. According to our hypothesis, the magician's social cues are not essential to the VBI. We compared the numbers of participants experiencing the VBI when the magician's social cues were directed toward the illusory ball and when the magician's social cues were either hidden behind a black mask (Exp. 1) or stationary (Exp. 2). The results showed that the number of observers experiencing the VBI was high (almost two-thirds of the participants), regardless of whether the magician's social cueing was directed toward the illusion, hidden behind a mask, or stationary. In a third experiment (Exp. 3), we replicated Kuhn and Land's initial results and attempted to further explain their "anti-illusion" social-cue effect. This study confirms that social cueing is not required in the VBI: Its presence did not increase the number of participants experiencing the illusion.

  17. Wearable Gaze Trackers: Mapping Visual Attention in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Stets, Jonathan Dyssel; Suurmets, Seidi

    2017-01-01

    gaze trackers allows respondents to move freely in any real world 3D environment, removing the previous restrictions. In this paper we propose a novel approach for processing visual attention of respondents using mobile wearable gaze trackers in a 3D environment. The pipeline consists of 3 steps...

  18. Gaze Shift as an Interactional Resource for Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Mardi

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how very young children in a day care center make use of their peers' gaze shifts to differentially locate and prepare for the possibility of a caregiver intervention during situations of their biting, hitting, pushing, and the like. At issue is how the visible character of a gaze shift--that is, the manner in which it is…

  19. Just one look: Direct gaze briefly disrupts visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J Jessica; Apperly, Ian A

    2017-04-01

    Direct gaze is a salient social cue that affords rapid detection. A body of research suggests that direct gaze enhances performance on memory tasks (e.g., Hood, Macrae, Cole-Davies, & Dias, Developmental Science, 1, 67-71, 2003). Nonetheless, other studies highlight the disruptive effect direct gaze has on concurrent cognitive processes (e.g., Conty, Gimmig, Belletier, George, & Huguet, Cognition, 115(1), 133-139, 2010). This discrepancy raises questions about the effects direct gaze may have on concurrent memory tasks. We addressed this topic by employing a change detection paradigm, where participants retained information about the color of small sets of agents. Experiment 1 revealed that, despite the irrelevance of the agents' eye gaze to the memory task at hand, participants were worse at detecting changes when the agents looked directly at them compared to when the agents looked away. Experiment 2 showed that the disruptive effect was relatively short-lived. Prolonged presentation of direct gaze led to recovery from the initial disruption, rather than a sustained disruption on change detection performance. The present study provides the first evidence that direct gaze impairs visual working memory with a rapidly-developing yet short-lived effect even when there is no need to attend to agents' gaze.

  20. Predicting gaze direction from head pose yaw and pitch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, D.O.; Cuijpers, R.H.; Arabnia, H.R.; Deligiannidis, L.; Lu, J.; Tinetti, F.G.; You, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract - Socially assistive robots (SARs) must be able to interpret non-verbal communication from a human. A person’s gaze direction informs the observer where the visual attention is directed to. Therefore it is useful if a robot can interpret the gaze direction, so that it can assess whether a

  1. Face Age and Eye Gaze Influence Older Adults' Emotion Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna; Murray, Janice E; Atkinson, Lianne; Ruffman, Ted

    2017-07-01

    Eye gaze has been shown to influence emotion recognition. In addition, older adults (over 65 years) are not as influenced by gaze direction cues as young adults (18-30 years). Nevertheless, these differences might stem from the use of young to middle-aged faces in emotion recognition research because older adults have an attention bias toward old-age faces. Therefore, using older face stimuli might allow older adults to process gaze direction cues to influence emotion recognition. To investigate this idea, young and older adults completed an emotion recognition task with young and older face stimuli displaying direct and averted gaze, assessing labeling accuracy for angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, and sad faces. Direct gaze rather than averted gaze improved young adults' recognition of emotions in young and older faces, but for older adults this was true only for older faces. The current study highlights the impact of stimulus face age and gaze direction on emotion recognition in young and older adults. The use of young face stimuli with direct gaze in most research might contribute to age-related emotion recognition differences. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Meulemans, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.

    2007-01-01

    The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour

  3. Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.; Meulemans, M.; van Bremen, A.

    2009-01-01

    The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour

  4. Microstructural Evolution, Thermodynamics, and Kinetics of Mo-Tm2O3 Powder Mixtures during Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Luo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural evolution, thermodynamics, and kinetics of Mo (21 wt % Tm2O3 powder mixtures during ball milling were investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Ball milling induced Tm2O3 to be decomposed and then dissolved into Mo crystal. After 96 h of ball milling, Tm2O3 was dissolved completely and the supersaturated nanocrystalline solid solution of Mo (Tm, O was obtained. The Mo lattice parameter increased with increasing ball-milling time, opposite for the Mo grain size. The size and lattice parameter of Mo grains was about 8 nm and 0.31564 nm after 96 h of ball milling, respectively. Ball milling induced the elements of Mo, Tm, and O to be distributed uniformly in the ball-milled particles. Based on the semi-experimental theory of Miedema, a thermodynamic model was developed to calculate the driving force of phase evolution. There was no chemical driving force to form a crystal solid solution of Tm atoms in Mo crystal or an amorphous phase because the Gibbs free energy for both processes was higher than zero. For Mo (21 wt % Tm2O3, it was mechanical work, not the negative heat of mixing, which provided the driving force to form a supersaturated nanocrystalline Mo (Tm, O solid solution.

  5. Differential impact of partial cortical blindness on gaze strategies when sitting and walking - an immersive virtual reality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorizzo, Dana B; Riley, Meghan E; Hayhoe, Mary; Huxlin, Krystel R

    2011-05-25

    The present experiments aimed to characterize the visual performance of subjects with long-standing, unilateral cortical blindness when walking in a naturalistic, virtual environment. Under static, seated testing conditions, cortically blind subjects are known to exhibit compensatory eye movement strategies. However, they still complain of significant impairment in visual detection during navigation. To assess whether this is due to a change in compensatory eye movement strategy between sitting and walking, we measured eye and head movements in subjects asked to detect peripherally-presented, moving basketballs. When seated, cortically blind subjects detected ∼80% of balls, while controls detected almost all balls. Seated blind subjects did not make larger head movements than controls, but they consistently biased their fixation distribution towards their blind hemifield. When walking, head movements were similar in the two groups, but the fixation bias decreased to the point that fixation distribution in cortically blind subjects became similar to that in controls - with one major exception: at the time of basketball appearance, walking controls looked primarily at the far ground, in upper quadrants of the virtual field of view; cortically blind subjects looked significantly more at the near ground, in lower quadrants of the virtual field. Cortically blind subjects detected only 58% of the balls when walking while controls detected ∼90%. Thus, the adaptive gaze strategies adopted by cortically blind individuals as a compensation for their visual loss are strongest and most effective when seated and stationary. Walking significantly alters these gaze strategies in a way that seems to favor walking performance, but impairs peripheral target detection. It is possible that this impairment underlies the experienced difficulty of those with cortical blindness when navigating in real life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology-A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgestig, Maria; Sandqvist, Jan; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with a before and after design was conducted on 10 children (aged 1-15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9-11 months, and after 15-20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15-20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance.

  7. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Stop with an Integral Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Perek, John (Inventor); Geck, Kellan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a housing assembly, a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is rotationally mounted in the housing assembly, is adapted to receive an input torque, and is configured, upon receipt thereof, to rotate and supply a drive force. The ball screw is mounted within the housing assembly and extends through the ball nut. The ball screw has a first end and a second end, and is coupled to receive the drive force from the ball nut. The ball screw is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively translate between a stow position and a deploy position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw to translate therewith and is configured to at selectively engage the housing assembly while the ball screw is translating, and engage the ball nut when the ball screw is in the deploy position.

  8. Text Entry by Gazing and Smiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Tuisku

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested (n=10 to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment (n=12 was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.

  9. Influence of cation disorder on the magnetic properties of ball-milled ilmenite (FeTiO3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Rasmussen, Helge Kildahl; Brok, Erik

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the evolution of crystal structure, cation disorder and magnetic properties of ilmenite (FeTiO3) after increasing time of high-energy ball-milling in an inert atmosphere. Refinement of X-ray diffraction data show that the hexagonal crystal structure of ilmenite is maintained...

  10. Apparatus Would Measure Temperatures Of Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, John C.; Fredricks, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    Rig for testing ball bearings under radial and axial loads and measuring surface temperatures undergoing development. Includes extensible thermocouples: by means of bellows as longitudinal positioners, thermocouples driven into contact with bearing balls to sense temperatures immediately after test run. Not necessary to disassemble rig or to section balls to obtain indirect indications of maximum temperatures reached. Thermocouple measurements indicate temperatures better than temperature-sensitive paints.

  11. Multifractal properties of ball milling dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budroni, M. A., E-mail: mabudroni@uniss.it; Pilosu, V.; Rustici, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, Sassari 07100 (Italy); Delogu, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Chimica, e dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, via Marengo 2, Cagliari 09123 (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    This work focuses on the dynamics of a ball inside the reactor of a ball mill. We show that the distribution of collisions at the reactor walls exhibits multifractal properties in a wide region of the parameter space defining the geometrical characteristics of the reactor and the collision elasticity. This feature points to the presence of restricted self-organized zones of the reactor walls where the ball preferentially collides and the mechanical energy is mainly dissipated.

  12. "The Gaze Heuristic:" Biography of an Adaptively Rational Decision Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Robert P

    2017-04-01

    This article is a case study that describes the natural and human history of the gaze heuristic. The gaze heuristic is an interception heuristic that utilizes a single input (deviation from a constant angle of approach) repeatedly as a task is performed. Its architecture, advantages, and limitations are described in detail. A history of the gaze heuristic is then presented. In natural history, the gaze heuristic is the only known technique used by predators to intercept prey. In human history the gaze heuristic was discovered accidentally by Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter command just prior to World War II. As it was never discovered by the Luftwaffe, the technique conferred a decisive advantage upon the RAF throughout the war. After the end of the war in America, German technology was combined with the British heuristic to create the Sidewinder AIM9 missile, the most successful autonomous weapon ever built. There are no plans to withdraw it or replace its guiding gaze heuristic. The case study demonstrates that the gaze heuristic is a specific heuristic type that takes a single best input at the best time (take the best 2 ). Its use is an adaptively rational response to specific, rapidly evolving decision environments that has allowed those animals/humans/machines who use it to survive, prosper, and multiply relative to those who do not. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Physical applications of homogeneous balls

    CERN Document Server

    Scarr, Tzvi

    2005-01-01

    One of the mathematical challenges of modern physics lies in the development of new tools to efficiently describe different branches of physics within one mathematical framework. This text introduces precisely such a broad mathematical model, one that gives a clear geometric expression of the symmetry of physical laws and is entirely determined by that symmetry. The first three chapters discuss the occurrence of bounded symmetric domains (BSDs) or homogeneous balls and their algebraic structure in physics. The book further provides a discussion of how to obtain a triple algebraic structure ass

  14. The Soccer-Ball Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2014-07-01

    The idea that Lorentz-symmetry in momentum space could be modified but still remain observer-independent has received quite some attention in the recent years. This modified Lorentz-symmetry, which has been argued to arise in Loop Quantum Gravity, is being used as a phenomenological model to test possibly observable effects of quantum gravity. The most pressing problem in these models is the treatment of multi-particle states, known as the 'soccer-ball problem'. This article briefly reviews the problem and the status of existing solution attempts.

  15. Influence of Y2O3 Addition on Crystallization, Thermal, Mechanical, and Electrical Properties of BaO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 Glass-Ceramic for Ceramic Ball Grid Array Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Li, Wei; Zheng, Jingguo

    2018-01-01

    Y2O3 addition has a significant influence on the crystallization, thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties of BaO -Al2O3 -B2O3 -SiO2 (BABS) glass-ceramics. Semi-quantitative calculation based on x-ray diffraction demonstrated that with increasing Y2O3 content, both the crystallinity and the phase content of cristobalite gradually decreased. It is effective for the additive Y2O3 to inhibit the formation of cristobalite phase with a large coefficient of thermal expansion value. The flexural strength and the Young's modulus, thus, are remarkably increased from 140 MPa to 200 MPa and 56.5 GPa to 63.7 GPa, respectively. Also, the sintering kinetics of BABS glass-ceramics with various Y2O3 were investigated using the isothermal sintering shrinkage curve at different sintering temperatures. The sintering activation energy Q sharply decreased from 99.8 kJ/mol to 81.5 kJ/mol when 0.2% Y2O3 was added, which indicated that a small amount of Y2O3 could effectively promote the sintering procedure of BABS glass-ceramics.

  16. Face age modulates gaze following in young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Ciardo; Barbara F. M. Marino; Rossana Actis-Grosso; Angela Rossetti; Paola Ricciardelli

    2014-01-01

    Gaze-following behaviour is considered crucial for social interactions which are influenced by social similarity. We investigated whether the degree of similarity, as indicated by the perceived age of another person, can modulate gaze following. Participants of three different age-groups (18–25; 35–45; over 65) performed an eye movement (a saccade) towards an instructed target while ignoring the gaze-shift of distracters of different age-ranges (6–10; 18–25; 35–45; over 70). The results show ...

  17. Ball Nut Preload Diagnosis of the Hollow Ball Screw through Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Cheng Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the diagnostic results of hollow ball screws with different ball nut preload through the support vector machine (SVM process. The method is testified by considering the use of ball screw pretension and different ball nut preload. SVM was used to discriminate the hollow ball screw preload status through the vibration signals and servo motor current signals. Maximum dynamic preloads of 2%, 4%, and 6% ball screws were predesigned, manufactured, and conducted experimentally. Signal patterns with different preload features are separatedby SVM. The irregularity development of the ball screw driving motion current and rolling balls vibration of the ball screw can be discriminated via SVM based on complexity perception. The experimental results successfully show that the prognostic status of ball nut preload can be envisaged by the proposed methodology. The smart reasoning for the health of the ball screw is available based on classification of SVM. This diagnostic method satisfies the purposes of prognostic effectiveness on knowing the ball nut preload status

  18. Modelling Virtual Camera Behaviour Through Player Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picardi, Andrea; Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    industry and game AI research focus on the devel- opment of increasingly sophisticated systems to automate the control of the virtual camera integrating artificial intel- ligence algorithms within physical simulations. However, in both industry and academia little research has been carried out......In a three-dimensional virtual environment, aspects such as narrative and interaction largely depend on the placement and animation of the virtual camera. Therefore, virtual camera control plays a critical role in player experience and, thereby, in the overall quality of a computer game. Both game...... on the relationship between virtual camera, game-play and player behaviour. We run a game user experiment to shed some light on this relationship and identify relevant dif- ferences between camera behaviours through different game sessions, playing behaviours and player gaze patterns. Re- sults show that users can...

  19. Isolated Horizontal Gaze Palsy: Observations and Explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Ewe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present three cases that we suggest require a novel diagnosis and a reconsideration of current understandings of pontine anatomy. In this case series, we highlight a series of patients with monophasic, fully recovering inflammatory lesions in the pontine tegmentum not due to any of the currently recognized causes of this syndrome. We highlight other similar cases in the literature and suggest there may be a particular epitope for an as-yet-undiscovered antibody underlying the tropism for this area. We highlight the potential harm of misdiagnosis with relapsing inflammatory or other serious diagnoses with significant adverse impact on the patient. In addition, we propose that this would support a reinterpretation of the currently accepted anatomy of the pontine gaze inputs to the median longitudinal fasciculus and paramedian pontine reticular formation.

  20. Response to Thermal Exposure of Ball-Milled Aluminum-Borax Powder Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birol, Yucel

    2013-04-01

    Aluminum-borax powder mixtures were ball milled and heated above 873 K (600 °C) to produce Al-B master alloys. Ball-milled powder blends reveal interpenetrating layers of deformed aluminum and borax grains that are increasingly refined with increasing milling time. Thermal exposure of the ball-milled powder blends facilitates a series of thermite reactions between these layers. Borax, dehydrated during heating, is reduced by Al, and B thus generated reacts with excess Al to produce AlB2 particles dispersed across the aluminum grains starting at 873 K (600 °C). AlB2 particles start to form along the interface of the aluminum and borax layers. Once nucleated, these particles grow readily to become hexagonal-shaped crystals that traverse the aluminum grains with increasing temperatures as evidenced by the increase in the size as well as in the number of the AlB2 particles. Ball milling for 1 hour suffices to achieve a thermite reaction between borax and aluminum. Ball milling further does not impact the response of the powder blend to thermal exposure. The nucleation-reaction sites are multiplied, however, with increasing milling time and thus insure a higher number of smaller AlB2 particles. The size of the AlB2 platelets may be adjusted with the ball milling time.

  1. The Politics of the Gaze Foucault, Lacan and Zizek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Krips

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Joan Copjec accuses orthodox film theory of misrepresenting the Lacanian gaze by assimilating it to Foucauldian panopticon (Copjec 1994: 18-19. Although Copjec is correct that orthodox film theory misrepresents the Lacanian gaze, she, in turn, misrepresents Foucault by choosing to focus exclusively upon those as-pects of his work on the panopticon that have been taken up by orthodox film the-ory (Copjec 1994: 4. In so doing, I argue, Copjec misses key parallels between the Lacanian and Foucauldian concepts of the gaze. More than a narrow academic dispute about how to read Foucault and Lacan, this debate has wider political sig-nificance. In particular, using Slavoj Zizek's work, I show that a correct account of the panoptic gaze leads us to rethink the question of how to oppose modern techniques of surveillance.

  2. The Rethorics of Gaze in Luhrmann's "Postmodern Great Gatsby"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fallerini

    2014-05-01

    Adopting the perspective suggested by the rhetoric of the gaze (Laura Mulvey it is highlighted the metalinguistic and metatextual reflection through which this movie contributes to the critical interpretation of Fitzgerald’s novel.

  3. WOMAN AS OBJECT OF MALE GAZE IN SOME WORKS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nkiruka

    marketing and sale of the product, but also an object of male gaze. ... Edward Manet, whose painting Olympia, thought to be inspired by Titian‟s ... encountered in Western art history, whereas unidentifiable nude males were infrequently.

  4. Interaction between gaze and visual and proprioceptive position judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehler, Katja; Rösler, Frank; Henriques, Denise Y P

    2010-06-01

    There is considerable evidence that targets for action are represented in a dynamic gaze-centered frame of reference, such that each gaze shift requires an internal updating of the target. Here, we investigated the effect of eye movements on the spatial representation of targets used for position judgements. Participants had their hand passively placed to a location, and then judged whether this location was left or right of a remembered visual or remembered proprioceptive target, while gaze direction was varied. Estimates of position of the remembered targets relative to the unseen position of the hand were assessed with an adaptive psychophysical procedure. These positional judgements significantly varied relative to gaze for both remembered visual and remembered proprioceptive targets. Our results suggest that relative target positions may also be represented in eye-centered coordinates. This implies similar spatial reference frames for action control and space perception when positions are coded relative to the hand.

  5. Latvian government in double jeopardy with EU, Latvijas Gaze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Läti soovib saada Euroopa Komisjonilt ajapikendust gaasituru liberaliseerimiseks 2010. aastani ning lubab sel juhul sõlmida Latvijas Gaze'ga kokkuleppe, et viimane loobuks gaasitarnete ainuõigusest Lätis

  6. Structural and dynamical properties of Yukawa balls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, D; Kroll, M; Arp, O; Piel, A; Kaeding, S; Ivanov, Y; Melzer, A; Henning, C; Baumgartner, H; Ludwig, P; Bonitz, M

    2007-01-01

    To study the structural and dynamical properties of finite 3D dust clouds (Yukawa balls) new diagnostic tools have been developed. This contribution describes the progress towards 3D diagnostics for measuring the particle positions. It is shown that these diagnostics are capable of investigating the structural and dynamical properties of Yukawa balls and gaining insight into their basic construction principles

  7. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  8. The sensation of the look: The gazes in Laurence Anyways

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Corey Kai Nelson

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses the gazes, looks, stares and glares in Laurence Anyways (Xavier Dolan, 2012), and examines their affective, interpretive, and symbolic qualities, and their potential to create viewer empathy through affect. The cinematic gaze can produce sensations of shame and fear, by offering a sequence of varied “encounters” to which viewers can react, before we have been given a character onto which we can deflect them, thus bypassing the representational, narrative and even the sym...

  9. Investigating gaze-controlled input in a cognitive selection test

    OpenAIRE

    Gayraud, Katja; Hasse, Catrin; Eißfeldt, Hinnerk; Pannasch, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    In the field of aviation, there is a growing interest in developing more natural forms of interaction between operators and systems to enhance safety and efficiency. These efforts also include eye gaze as an input channel for human-machine interaction. The present study investigates the application of gaze-controlled input in a cognitive selection test called Eye Movement Conflict Detection Test. The test enables eye movements to be studied as an indicator for psychological test performance a...

  10. Segmentation of object-based video of gaze communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Forchhammer, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Aspects of video communication based on gaze interaction are considered. The overall idea is to use gaze interaction to control video, e.g. for video conferencing. Towards this goal, animation of a facial mask is demonstrated. The animation is based on images using Active Appearance Models (AAM......). Good quality reproduction of (low-resolution) coded video of an animated facial mask as low as 10-20 kbit/s using MPEG-4 object based video is demonstated....

  11. CULTURAL DISPLAY RULES DRIVE EYE GAZE DURING THINKING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Anjanie; Lee, Kang; Itakura, Shoji; Muir, Darwin W

    2006-11-01

    The authors measured the eye gaze displays of Canadian, Trinidadian, and Japanese participants as they answered questions for which they either knew, or had to derive, the answers. When they knew the answers, Trinidadians maintained the most eye contact, whereas Japanese maintained the least. When thinking about the answers to questions, Canadians and Trinidadians looked up, whereas Japanese looked down. Thus, for humans, gaze displays while thinking are at least in part culturally determined.

  12. Study of soccer ball flight trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javorova Juliana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the trajectories of a soccer ball for the most important kicks in the football game - a corner kick and a direct free kick are studied. The soccer ball is modelled as an ideal rigid hollow spherical body with six degrees of freedom, which performs a general motion in an immovable air environment with constant parameters. The ball 3D orientation is determined by the three Cardan angles. The aerodynamic forces and moments with which the air environment acts to the ball are taken into account. Two of the most dangerous areas of the football goal are defined. Differential equations which describe the motion of the soccer ball are solved numerically by MatLab-Simulink.

  13. A model for ball lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryberger, D.

    1994-10-01

    A model for ball lightning (BL) is described. It is based upon the vorton model for elementary particles, which exploits the symmetry between electricity and magnetism. The core, or driving engine, of BL in this model is comprised of a vorton-antivorton plasma. The energy of BL, which derives from nucleon decay catalyzed by this plasma, leads, through various mechanisms, to BL luminosity as well as to other BL features. It is argued that this model could also be a suitable explanation for other luminous phenomena, such as the unidentified atmospheric light phenomena seen at Hessdalen. It is predicted that BL and similar atmospheric luminous phenomena should manifest certain features unique to this model, which would be observable with suitable instrumentation

  14. La balle et la plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Marquis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fin octobre 2008, la nouvelle fit l’effet d’une bombe : Barack Obama, alors candidat à la présidence américaine, demanda à la chaîne câblée Fox News de retarder le début du sixième match de la World Series de base-ball afin de diffuser un spot de campagne. Son adversaire, John McCain, soutenu par le camp républicain et une partie de la population, monta aussitôt au créneau pour dénoncer l’hérésie : s’arroger le droit de perturber cette grande finale du championnat au déroulement immuable reve...

  15. The impact of visual gaze direction on auditory object tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Ulrich; Chait, Maria

    2017-07-05

    Subjective experience suggests that we are able to direct our auditory attention independent of our visual gaze, e.g when shadowing a nearby conversation at a cocktail party. But what are the consequences at the behavioural and neural level? While numerous studies have investigated both auditory attention and visual gaze independently, little is known about their interaction during selective listening. In the present EEG study, we manipulated visual gaze independently of auditory attention while participants detected targets presented from one of three loudspeakers. We observed increased response times when gaze was directed away from the locus of auditory attention. Further, we found an increase in occipital alpha-band power contralateral to the direction of gaze, indicative of a suppression of distracting input. Finally, this condition also led to stronger central theta-band power, which correlated with the observed effect in response times, indicative of differences in top-down processing. Our data suggest that a misalignment between gaze and auditory attention both reduce behavioural performance and modulate underlying neural processes. The involvement of central theta-band and occipital alpha-band effects are in line with compensatory neural mechanisms such as increased cognitive control and the suppression of task irrelevant inputs.

  16. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreysa, Helene; Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2016-01-01

    A speaker's gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., "sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins"). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze.

  17. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Kreysa

    Full Text Available A speaker's gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., "sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins". Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze.

  18. Gaze behaviour during space perception and spatial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Jan M; Hölscher, Christoph; Büchner, Simon; Konieczny, Lars

    2012-11-01

    A series of four experiments investigating gaze behavior and decision making in the context of wayfinding is reported. Participants were presented with screenshots of choice points taken in large virtual environments. Each screenshot depicted alternative path options. In Experiment 1, participants had to decide between them to find an object hidden in the environment. In Experiment 2, participants were first informed about which path option to take as if following a guided route. Subsequently, they were presented with the same images in random order and had to indicate which path option they chose during initial exposure. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate (1) that participants have a tendency to choose the path option that featured the longer line of sight, and (2) a robust gaze bias towards the eventually chosen path option. In Experiment 2, systematic differences in gaze behavior towards the alternative path options between encoding and decoding were observed. Based on data from Experiments 1 and 2 and two control experiments ensuring that fixation patterns were specific to the spatial tasks, we develop a tentative model of gaze behavior during wayfinding decision making suggesting that particular attention was paid to image areas depicting changes in the local geometry of the environments such as corners, openings, and occlusions. Together, the results suggest that gaze during a wayfinding tasks is directed toward, and can be predicted by, a subset of environmental features and that gaze bias effects are a general phenomenon of visual decision making.

  19. Visual strategies underpinning the development of visual-motor expertise when hitting a ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, Vishnu; Abernethy, Bruce; Mann, David L

    2017-10-01

    It is well known that skilled batters in fast-ball sports do not align their gaze with the ball throughout ball-flight, but instead adopt a unique sequence of eye and head movements that contribute toward their skill. However, much of what we know about visual-motor behavior in hitting is based on studies that have employed case study designs, and/or used simplified tasks that fall short of replicating the spatiotemporal demands experienced in the natural environment. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive examination of the eye and head movement strategies that underpin the development of visual-motor expertise when intercepting a fast-moving target. Eye and head movements were examined in situ for 4 groups of cricket batters, who were crossed for playing level (elite or club) and age (U19 or adult), when hitting balls that followed either straight or curving ('swinging') trajectories. The results provide support for some widely cited markers of expertise in batting, while questioning the legitimacy of others. Swinging trajectories alter the visual-motor behavior of all batters, though in large part because of the uncertainty generated by the possibility of a variation in trajectory rather than any actual change in trajectory per se. Moreover, curving trajectories influence visual-motor behavior in a nonlinear fashion, with targets that curve away from the observer influencing behavior more than those that curve inward. The findings provide a more comprehensive understanding of the development of visual-motor expertise in interception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Judgments at Gaze Value: Gaze Cuing in Banner Advertisements, Its Effect on Attention Allocation and Product Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Palcu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Banner advertising is a popular means of promoting products and brands online. Although banner advertisements are often designed to be particularly attention grabbing, they frequently go unnoticed. Applying an eye-tracking procedure, the present research aimed to (a determine whether presenting human faces (static or animated in banner advertisements is an adequate tool for capturing consumers’ attention and thus overcoming the frequently observed phenomenon of banner blindness, (b to examine whether the gaze of a featured face possesses the ability to direct consumers’ attention toward specific elements (i.e., the product in an advertisement, and (c to establish whether the gaze direction of an advertised face influences consumers subsequent evaluation of the advertised product. We recorded participants’ eye gaze while they viewed a fictional online shopping page displaying banner advertisements that featured either no human face or a human face that was either static or animated and involved different gaze directions (toward or away from the advertised product. Moreover, we asked participants to subsequently evaluate a set of products, one of which was the product previously featured in the banner advertisement. Results showed that, when advertisements included a human face, participants’ attention was more attracted by and they looked longer at animated compared with static banner advertisements. Moreover, when a face gazed toward the product region, participants’ likelihood of looking at the advertised product increased regardless of whether the face was animated or not. Most important, gaze direction influenced subsequent product evaluations; that is, consumers indicated a higher intention to buy a product when it was previously presented in a banner advertisement that featured a face that gazed toward the product. The results suggest that while animation in banner advertising constitutes a salient feature that captures consumers

  1. Judgments at Gaze Value: Gaze Cuing in Banner Advertisements, Its Effect on Attention Allocation and Product Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palcu, Johanna; Sudkamp, Jennifer; Florack, Arnd

    2017-01-01

    Banner advertising is a popular means of promoting products and brands online. Although banner advertisements are often designed to be particularly attention grabbing, they frequently go unnoticed. Applying an eye-tracking procedure, the present research aimed to (a) determine whether presenting human faces (static or animated) in banner advertisements is an adequate tool for capturing consumers' attention and thus overcoming the frequently observed phenomenon of banner blindness, (b) to examine whether the gaze of a featured face possesses the ability to direct consumers' attention toward specific elements (i.e., the product) in an advertisement, and (c) to establish whether the gaze direction of an advertised face influences consumers subsequent evaluation of the advertised product. We recorded participants' eye gaze while they viewed a fictional online shopping page displaying banner advertisements that featured either no human face or a human face that was either static or animated and involved different gaze directions (toward or away from the advertised product). Moreover, we asked participants to subsequently evaluate a set of products, one of which was the product previously featured in the banner advertisement. Results showed that, when advertisements included a human face, participants' attention was more attracted by and they looked longer at animated compared with static banner advertisements. Moreover, when a face gazed toward the product region, participants' likelihood of looking at the advertised product increased regardless of whether the face was animated or not. Most important, gaze direction influenced subsequent product evaluations; that is, consumers indicated a higher intention to buy a product when it was previously presented in a banner advertisement that featured a face that gazed toward the product. The results suggest that while animation in banner advertising constitutes a salient feature that captures consumers' visual attention, gaze

  2. Perceptual Training in Beach Volleyball Defence: Different Effects of Gaze-Path Cueing on Gaze and Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André eKlostermann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For perceptual-cognitive skill training, a variety of intervention methods has been proposed, including the so-called colour-cueing method which aims on superior gaze-path learning by applying visual markers. However, recent findings challenge this method, especially, with regards to its actual effects on gaze behaviour. Consequently, after a preparatory study on the identification of appropriate visual cues for life-size displays, a perceptual-training experiment on decision-making in beach volleyball was conducted, contrasting two cueing interventions (functional vs. dysfunctional gaze path with a conservative control condition (anticipation-related instructions. Gaze analyses revealed learning effects for the dysfunctional group only. Regarding decision-making, all groups showed enhanced performance with largest improvements for the control group followed by the functional and the dysfunctional group. Hence, the results confirm cueing effects on gaze behaviour, but they also question its benefit for enhancing decision-making. However, before completely denying the method’s value, optimisations should be checked regarding, for instance, cueing-pattern characteristics and gaze-related feedback.

  3. BALL - biochemical algorithms library 1.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöckel Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Biochemical Algorithms Library (BALL is a comprehensive rapid application development framework for structural bioinformatics. It provides an extensive C++ class library of data structures and algorithms for molecular modeling and structural bioinformatics. Using BALL as a programming toolbox does not only allow to greatly reduce application development times but also helps in ensuring stability and correctness by avoiding the error-prone reimplementation of complex algorithms and replacing them with calls into the library that has been well-tested by a large number of developers. In the ten years since its original publication, BALL has seen a substantial increase in functionality and numerous other improvements. Results Here, we discuss BALL's current functionality and highlight the key additions and improvements: support for additional file formats, molecular edit-functionality, new molecular mechanics force fields, novel energy minimization techniques, docking algorithms, and support for cheminformatics. Conclusions BALL is available for all major operating systems, including Linux, Windows, and MacOS X. It is available free of charge under the Lesser GNU Public License (LPGL. Parts of the code are distributed under the GNU Public License (GPL. BALL is available as source code and binary packages from the project web site at http://www.ball-project.org. Recently, it has been accepted into the debian project; integration into further distributions is currently pursued.

  4. Estimating Wear Of Installed Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keba, John E.; Mcvey, Scott E.

    1993-01-01

    Simple inspection and measurement technique makes possible to estimate wear of balls in ball bearing, without removing bearing from shaft on which installed. To perform measurement, one observes bearing cage while turning shaft by hand to obtain integral number of cage rotations and to measure, to nearest 2 degrees, number of shaft rotations producing cage rotations. Ratio between numbers of cages and shaft rotations depends only on internal geometry of bearing and applied load. Changes in turns ratio reflect changes in internal geometry of bearing provided measurements made with similar bearing loads. By assuming all wear occurs on balls, one computes effective value for this wear from change in turns ratio.

  5. Q-balls in flat potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Tsumagari, Mitsuo I.

    2009-01-01

    We study the classical and absolute stability of Q-balls in scalar field theories with flat potentials arising in both gravity-mediated and gauge-mediated models. We show that the associated Q-matter formed in gravity-mediated potentials can be stable against decay into their own free particles as long as the coupling constant of the nonrenormalizable term is small, and that all of the possible three-dimensional Q-ball configurations are classically stable against linear fluctuations. Three-dimensional gauge-mediated Q-balls can be absolutely stable in the thin-wall limit, but are completely unstable in the thick-wall limit.

  6. Eye gazing direction inspection based on image processing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qun; Song, Yong

    2005-02-01

    According to the research result in neural biology, human eyes can obtain high resolution only at the center of view of field. In the research of Virtual Reality helmet, we design to detect the gazing direction of human eyes in real time and feed it back to the control system to improve the resolution of the graph at the center of field of view. In the case of current display instruments, this method can both give attention to the view field of virtual scene and resolution, and improve the immersion of virtual system greatly. Therefore, detecting the gazing direction of human eyes rapidly and exactly is the basis of realizing the design scheme of this novel VR helmet. In this paper, the conventional method of gazing direction detection that based on Purklinje spot is introduced firstly. In order to overcome the disadvantage of the method based on Purklinje spot, this paper proposed a method based on image processing to realize the detection and determination of the gazing direction. The locations of pupils and shapes of eye sockets change with the gazing directions. With the aid of these changes, analyzing the images of eyes captured by the cameras, gazing direction of human eyes can be determined finally. In this paper, experiments have been done to validate the efficiency of this method by analyzing the images. The algorithm can carry out the detection of gazing direction base on normal eye image directly, and it eliminates the need of special hardware. Experiment results show that the method is easy to implement and have high precision.

  7. Anxiety symptoms and children's eye gaze during fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Kalina J; Machlin, Laura; Moroney, Elizabeth; Lowet, Daniel S; Hettema, John M; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Averbeck, Bruno B; Brotman, Melissa A; Nelson, Eric E; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S

    2017-11-01

    The eye region of the face is particularly relevant for decoding threat-related signals, such as fear. However, it is unclear if gaze patterns to the eyes can be influenced by fear learning. Previous studies examining gaze patterns in adults find an association between anxiety and eye gaze avoidance, although no studies to date examine how associations between anxiety symptoms and eye-viewing patterns manifest in children. The current study examined the effects of learning and trait anxiety on eye gaze using a face-based fear conditioning task developed for use in children. Participants were 82 youth from a general population sample of twins (aged 9-13 years), exhibiting a range of anxiety symptoms. Participants underwent a fear conditioning paradigm where the conditioned stimuli (CS+) were two neutral faces, one of which was randomly selected to be paired with an aversive scream. Eye tracking, physiological, and subjective data were acquired. Children and parents reported their child's anxiety using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. Conditioning influenced eye gaze patterns in that children looked longer and more frequently to the eye region of the CS+ than CS- face; this effect was present only during fear acquisition, not at baseline or extinction. Furthermore, consistent with past work in adults, anxiety symptoms were associated with eye gaze avoidance. Finally, gaze duration to the eye region mediated the effect of anxious traits on self-reported fear during acquisition. Anxiety symptoms in children relate to face-viewing strategies deployed in the context of a fear learning experiment. This relationship may inform attempts to understand the relationship between pediatric anxiety symptoms and learning. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  8. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayoko Ueda

    Full Text Available As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear, B-type (only the eye position is clear, and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear. A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.

  9. Static Load Distribution in Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Mario

    2010-01-01

    A numerical procedure for computing the internal loading distribution in statically loaded, single-row, angular-contact ball bearings when subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load is presented. The combined radial and thrust load must be applied in order to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings. The numerical procedure requires the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations - where Z is the number of the balls - to yield an exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles. Numerical results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature and show significant differences in the magnitudes of the ball loads, contact angles, and the extent of the loading zone.

  10. On the formation of ball lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberg, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A plasma continuum model for the formation of ball lightning is developed based on a substantial number of reports that the ball is often in the discharge column of a previous lightning stroke. The usual method of setting up the plasma equation for a one-component electron plasma is used. An approximate equation for the plasma is derived from the describing equation which is then solved exactly in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions. The formation of the ball is based on a nonlinearity of the plasma equation which uner certain circumstances permits the field to collapse into a small region. This collapse is interpreted to be ball lightning. The approximate equation derived for the plasma has the same form as a previous equation used to describe the formation of the fireball plasma. (author)

  11. The Cloudy Crystal Ball: Detecting and Disrupting Homegrown Violent Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    investigators that Mateen had been watching videos of the radical cleric Anwar al-Awlaki. This lead to a third interview with Mateen, but there was still...Mateen’s viewing of radical videos online was only confirmed during the follow-up investigation. One official said emphatically, “We don’t have a...change over time, the risk assessment can likewise adapt. The Sexual Violence Risk (SVR-20) instrument is designed to detect a sex offender’s risk

  12. Climatic changes : the planet as a crystal ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forget, D.

    2003-01-01

    Climatology is a science that makes long term climate forecasts based on the intrinsic characteristics of the earth, the atmosphere, and the oceans. Scientists make use of computers to simulate the earth's mechanisms and to make forecasts, thereby creating a virtual planet. A wide variety of parameters are defined using thousands of lines of code, such as the earth's dimensions, oceans distribution, atmospheric composition, and the quantity of energy generated by the sun. When the sun's energy reaches the earth, it interacts with the surface, the oceans, ice, and vegetation, resulting in differential temperature increases. By varying the concentration of carbon dioxide in the virtual atmosphere, scientists can observe the effect of this variation in different regions of the world and predict the influence on precipitation. The manner in which human activity will progress in the next few decades is also being examined in order to estimate the quantities of carbon dioxide that will be emitted. Those numbers are integrated into the climatologists' computerized simulations. To date, there are approximately 15 global climate models, and about the same number of regional models. Scientists from the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis division of Environment Canada, in Victoria have developed one of the most respected global climate models. Quebecers are also recognized for their expertise in developing regional models, such as the one developed at the University of Quebec in Montreal and Ouranos, which simulates the climate in North America over a 25-year period. It can also be used for any region of the planet. The model was validated through a series of exercises which used historical data to predict and confirm the outcome of past events. It is estimated that the temperature could rise by between 1.5 and 6 degrees C by 2100

  13. Investigating gaze of children with ASD in naturalistic settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basilio Noris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual behavior is known to be atypical in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. Monitor-based eye-tracking studies have measured several of these atypicalities in individuals with Autism. While atypical behaviors are known to be accentuated during natural interactions, few studies have been made on gaze behavior in natural interactions. In this study we focused on i whether the findings done in laboratory settings are also visible in a naturalistic interaction; ii whether new atypical elements appear when studying visual behavior across the whole field of view. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten children with ASD and ten typically developing children participated in a dyadic interaction with an experimenter administering items from the Early Social Communication Scale (ESCS. The children wore a novel head-mounted eye-tracker, measuring gaze direction and presence of faces across the child's field of view. The analysis of gaze episodes to faces revealed that children with ASD looked significantly less and for shorter lapses of time at the experimenter. The analysis of gaze patterns across the child's field of view revealed that children with ASD looked downwards and made more extensive use of their lateral field of view when exploring the environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data gathered in naturalistic settings confirm findings previously obtained only in monitor-based studies. Moreover, the study allowed to observe a generalized strategy of lateral gaze in children with ASD when they were looking at the objects in their environment.

  14. Remote gaze tracking system for 3D environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congcong Liu; Herrup, Karl; Shi, Bertram E

    2017-07-01

    Eye tracking systems are typically divided into two categories: remote and mobile. Remote systems, where the eye tracker is located near the object being viewed by the subject, have the advantage of being less intrusive, but are typically used for tracking gaze points on fixed two dimensional (2D) computer screens. Mobile systems such as eye tracking glasses, where the eye tracker are attached to the subject, are more intrusive, but are better suited for cases where subjects are viewing objects in the three dimensional (3D) environment. In this paper, we describe how remote gaze tracking systems developed for 2D computer screens can be used to track gaze points in a 3D environment. The system is non-intrusive. It compensates for small head movements by the user, so that the head need not be stabilized by a chin rest or bite bar. The system maps the 3D gaze points of the user onto 2D images from a scene camera and is also located remotely from the subject. Measurement results from this system indicate that it is able to estimate gaze points in the scene camera to within one degree over a wide range of head positions.

  15. The Effectiveness of Gaze-Contingent Control in Computer Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Paul A; Apraksin, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    Eye-tracking technology and gaze-contingent control in human-computer interaction have become an objective reality. This article reports on a series of eye-tracking experiments, in which we concentrated on one aspect of gaze-contingent interaction: Its effectiveness compared with mouse-based control in a computer strategy game. We propose a measure for evaluating the effectiveness of interaction based on "the time of recognition" the game unit. In this article, we use this measure to compare gaze- and mouse-contingent systems, and we present the analysis of the differences as a function of the number of game units. Our results indicate that performance of gaze-contingent interaction is typically higher than mouse manipulation in a visual searching task. When tested on 60 subjects, the results showed that the effectiveness of gaze-contingent systems over 1.5 times higher. In addition, we obtained that eye behavior stays quite stabile with or without mouse interaction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Face age modulates gaze following in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardo, Francesca; Marino, Barbara F M; Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Rossetti, Angela; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2014-04-22

    Gaze-following behaviour is considered crucial for social interactions which are influenced by social similarity. We investigated whether the degree of similarity, as indicated by the perceived age of another person, can modulate gaze following. Participants of three different age-groups (18-25; 35-45; over 65) performed an eye movement (a saccade) towards an instructed target while ignoring the gaze-shift of distracters of different age-ranges (6-10; 18-25; 35-45; over 70). The results show that gaze following was modulated by the distracter face age only for young adults. Particularly, the over 70 year-old distracters exerted the least interference effect. The distracters of a similar age-range as the young adults (18-25; 35-45) had the most effect, indicating a blurred own-age bias (OAB) only for the young age group. These findings suggest that face age can modulate gaze following, but this modulation could be due to factors other than just OAB (e.g., familiarity).

  17. Dolphin underwater bait-balling behaviors in relation to group and prey ball sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin L; Muzi, Elisa; Richardson, Jessica L; Fox, Gabriella J; Hansen, Lauren N; Salley, Alyce M; Dudzinski, Kathleen M; Würsig, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    We characterized dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) feeding behaviors recorded on underwater video, and related behaviors to variation in prey ball sizes, dolphin group sizes, and study site (Argentina versus New Zealand, NZ). Herding behaviors most often involved dolphins swimming around the side or under prey balls, but dolphins in Argentina more often swam under prey balls (48% of passes) than did dolphins in NZ (34% of passes). This result may have been due to differences in group sizes between sites, since groups are larger in Argentina. Additionally, in NZ, group size was positively correlated with proportion of passes that occurred under prey balls (pdolphins in Argentina more often swam through prey balls (8% of attempts) than did dolphins in NZ (4% of attempts). This result may have been due to differences in prey ball sizes between sites, since dolphins fed on larger prey balls in Argentina (>74m(2)) than in NZ (maximum 33m(2)). Additionally, in NZ, dolphins were more likely to swim through prey balls to capture fish when they fed on larger prey balls (p=0.025). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hermitian harmonic maps into convex balls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenyang; Xi Zhang

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we consider Hermitian harmonic maps from Hermitian manifolds into convex balls. We prove that there exist no non-trivial Hermitian harmonic maps from closed Hermitian manifolds into convex balls, and we use the heat flow method to solve the Dirichlet problem for Hermitian harmonic maps when the domain is compact Hermitian manifold with non-empty boundary. The case where the domain manifold is complete(noncompact) is also studied. (author)

  19. Thermoelastoplastic Deformation of a Multilayer Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashkin, E. V.; Dats, E. P.

    2017-09-01

    The problem of centrally symmetric deformation of a multilayer elastoplastic ball in the process of successive accretion of preheated layers to its outer surface is considered in the framework of small elastoplastic deformations. The problems of residual stress formation in the elastoplastic ball with an inclusion and a cavity are solved under various mechanical boundary conditions on the inner surface and for prescribed thermal compression distributions. The graphs of residual stress and displacement fields are constructed.

  20. Utilizing Gaze Behavior for Inferring Task Transitions Using Abstract Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernando Tello Gamarra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an improved method for utilizing observed gaze behavior and show that it is useful in inferring hand movement intent during goal directed tasks. The task dynamics and the relationship between hand and gaze behavior are learned using an Abstract Hidden Markov Model (AHMM. We show that the predicted hand movement transitions occur consistently earlier in AHMM models with gaze than those models that do not include gaze observations.

  1. Crystallite sizes of LiH before and after ball milling and thermal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Angel L. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Osborn, William; Markmaitree, Tippawan [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, 97 North Eagleville Road, U-3136 Storrs, CT 06269-3136 (United States); Shaw, Leon L. [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, 97 North Eagleville Road, U-3136 Storrs, CT 06269-3136 (United States)], E-mail: leon.shaw@uconn.edu

    2008-04-24

    The powder characteristics of lithium hydride (LiH) as a function of high-energy ball milling condition are systematically investigated via quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results obtained from the XRD analysis are compared with those attained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and specific surface area (SSA) analyses. The thermal stability of the ball-milled LiH is also investigated in order to provide physical insights into its cyclic stability in hydrogen sorption and desorption cycles. The results indicate that ball milling is effective in obtaining nano-crystalline LiH powder which is relatively stable with retention of nano-crystals after thermal exposure at 285 deg. C (equivalent to 0.58T{sub m}) for 1 h. The good thermal stability observed is attributed to the presence of many pores in the agglomerates at the ball-milled condition. These pores effectively prevent crystal growth during the thermal exposure.

  2. Gaze strategy in the free flying zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Eckmeier

    Full Text Available Fast moving animals depend on cues derived from the optic flow on their retina. Optic flow from translational locomotion includes information about the three-dimensional composition of the environment, while optic flow experienced during a rotational self motion does not. Thus, a saccadic gaze strategy that segregates rotations from translational movements during locomotion will facilitate extraction of spatial information from the visual input. We analysed whether birds use such a strategy by highspeed video recording zebra finches from two directions during an obstacle avoidance task. Each frame of the recording was examined to derive position and orientation of the beak in three-dimensional space. The data show that in all flights the head orientation was shifted in a saccadic fashion and was kept straight between saccades. Therefore, birds use a gaze strategy that actively stabilizes their gaze during translation to simplify optic flow based navigation. This is the first evidence of birds actively optimizing optic flow during flight.

  3. COGAIN2009 - "Gaze interaction for those who want it most"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , with substantial amounts of applications to support communication, learning and entertainment already in use. However, there are still some uncertainties about this new technology amongst communication specialists and funding institutions. The 5th COGAIN conference will focus on spreading the experiences of people...... using gaze interaction in their daily life to potential users and specialists who have yet to benefit from it. The theme of the conference is "Gaze interaction for those who want it most". We present a total of 18 papers that have been reviewed and accepted by leading researchers and communication...... specialists. Several papers address gaze-based access to computer applications and several papers focus on environmental control. Previous COGAIN conferences have been a most effective launch pad for original new research ideas. Some of them have since found their way into journals and other conferences...

  4. Investigating social gaze as an action-perception online performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Simonin, Jérôme; Martin, Jean-Claude; Nadel, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Gaze represents a major non-verbal communication channel in social interactions. In this respect, when facing another person, one's gaze should not be examined as a purely perceptive process but also as an action-perception online performance. However, little is known about processes involved in the real-time self-regulation of social gaze. The present study investigates the impact of a gaze-contingent viewing window on fixation patterns and the awareness of being the agent moving the window. In face-to-face scenarios played by a virtual human character, the task for the 18 adult participants was to interpret an equivocal sentence which could be disambiguated by examining the emotional expressions of the character speaking. The virtual character was embedded in naturalistic backgrounds to enhance realism. Eye-tracking data showed that the viewing window induced changes in gaze behavior, notably longer visual fixations. Notwithstanding, only half of the participants ascribed the window displacements to their eye movements. These participants also spent more time looking at the eyes and mouth regions of the virtual human character. The outcomes of the study highlight the dissociation between non-volitional gaze adaptation and the self-ascription of agency. Such dissociation provides support for a two-step account of the sense of agency composed of pre-noetic monitoring mechanisms and reflexive processes, linked by bottom-up and top-down processes. We comment upon these results, which illustrate the relevance of our method for studying online social cognition, in particular concerning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) where the poor pragmatic understanding of oral speech is considered linked to visual peculiarities that impede facial exploration.

  5. Investigating social gaze as an action-perception online performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouriel eGrynszpan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In interpersonal interactions, linguistic information is complemented by non-linguistic information originating largely from facial expressions. The study of online face-to-face social interaction thus entails investigating the multimodal simultaneous processing of oral and visual percepts. Moreover, gaze in and of itself functions as a powerful communicative channel. In this respect, gaze should not be examined as a purely perceptive process but also as an active social performance. We designed a task involving multimodal deciphering of social information based on virtual characters, embedded in naturalistic backgrounds, who directly address the participant with non-literal speech and meaningful facial expressions. Eighteen adult participants were to interpret an equivocal sentence which could be disambiguated by examining the emotional expressions of the character speaking to them face-to-face. To examine self-control and self-awareness of gaze in this context, visual feedback is provided to the participant by a real-time gaze-contingent viewing window centered on the focal point, while the rest of the display is blurred. Eye-tracking data showed that the viewing window induced changes in gaze behaviour, notably longer visual fixations. Notwithstanding, only half the participants ascribed the window displacements to their eye movements. These results highlight the dissociation between non volitional gaze adaptation and self-ascription of agency. Such dissociation provides support for a two-step account of the sense of agency composed of pre-noetic monitoring mechanisms and reflexive processes. We comment upon these results, which illustrate the relevance of our method for studying online social cognition, especially concerning Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD where poor pragmatic understanding of oral speech are considered linked to visual peculiarities that impede face exploration.

  6. Model-driven gaze simulation for the blind person in face-to-face communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, S.; Anas, S.A.B.; Osawa, H.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Hu, J.

    2016-01-01

    In face-to-face communication, eye gaze is integral to a conversation to supplement verbal language. The sighted often uses eye gaze to convey nonverbal information in social interactions, which a blind conversation partner cannot access and react to them. In this paper, we present E-Gaze glasses

  7. Right Hemispheric Dominance in Gaze-Triggered Reflexive Shift of Attention in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2006-01-01

    Recent findings suggest a right hemispheric dominance in gaze-triggered shifts of attention. The aim of this study was to clarify the dominant hemisphere in the gaze processing that mediates attentional shift. A target localization task, with preceding non-predicative gaze cues presented to each visual field, was undertaken by 44 healthy subjects,…

  8. Look together : Using gaze for assisting co-located collaborative search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Pfeuffer, Ken; Chong, Ming Ki; Alexander, Jason; Bulling, Andreas; Gellersen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Gaze information provides indication of users focus which complements remote collaboration tasks, as distant users can see their partner’s focus. In this paper, we apply gaze for co-located collaboration, where users’ gaze locations are presented on the same display, to help collaboration between

  9. Gaze Step Distributions Reflect Fixations and Saccades: A Comment on Stephen and Mirman (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogartz, Richard S.; Staub, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    In three experimental tasks Stephen and Mirman (2010) measured gaze steps, the distance in pixels between gaze positions on successive samples from an eyetracker. They argued that the distribution of gaze steps is best fit by the lognormal distribution, and based on this analysis they concluded that interactive cognitive processes underlie eye…

  10. "Gaze Leading": Initiating Simulated Joint Attention Influences Eye Movements and Choice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Andrew P.; Murphy, Emily; Naughtin, Claire K.; Kritikos, Ada; Schilbach, Leonhard; Becker, Stefanie I.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in adults has made great use of the gaze cuing paradigm to understand the behavior of the follower in joint attention episodes. We implemented a gaze leading task to investigate the initiator--the other person in these triadic interactions. In a series of gaze-contingent eye-tracking studies, we show that fixation dwell time upon…

  11. Revisiting the Relationship between the Processing of Gaze Direction and the Processing of Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganel, Tzvi

    2011-01-01

    There is mixed evidence on the nature of the relationship between the perception of gaze direction and the perception of facial expressions. Major support for shared processing of gaze and expression comes from behavioral studies that showed that observers cannot process expression or gaze and ignore irrelevant variations in the other dimension.…

  12. In the presence of conflicting gaze cues, fearful expression and eye-size guide attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joshua M; Aday, Jacob

    2017-10-19

    Humans are social beings that often interact in multi-individual environments. As such, we are frequently confronted with nonverbal social signals, including eye-gaze direction, from multiple individuals. Yet, the factors that allow for the prioritisation of certain gaze cues over others are poorly understood. Using a modified conflicting gaze paradigm, we tested the hypothesis that fearful gaze would be favoured amongst competing gaze cues. We further hypothesised that this effect is related to the increased sclera exposure, which is characteristic of fearful expressions. Across three experiments, we found that fearful, but not happy, gaze guides observers' attention over competing non-emotional gaze. The guidance of attention by fearful gaze appears to be linked to increased sclera exposure. However, differences in sclera exposure do not prioritise competing gazes of other types. Thus, fearful gaze guides attention among competing cues and this effect is facilitated by increased sclera exposure - but increased sclera exposure per se does not guide attention. The prioritisation of fearful gaze over non-emotional gaze likely represents an adaptive means of selectively attending to survival-relevant spatial locations.

  13. A comprehensive gaze stabilization controller based on cerebellar internal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannucci, Lorenzo; Falotico, Egidio; Tolu, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    . The VOR works in conjunction with the opto-kinetic reflex (OKR), which is a visual feedback mechanism that allows to move the eye at the same speed as the observed scene. Together they keep the image stationary on the retina. In this work we implement on a humanoid robot a model of gaze stabilization...... based on the coordination of VCR and VOR and OKR. The model, inspired by neuroscientific cerebellar theories, is provided with learning and adaptation capabilities based on internal models. We present the results for the gaze stabilization model on three sets of experiments conducted on the SABIAN robot...

  14. Collective flow effects observed with the Plastic Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.

    1984-01-01

    At the Bevalac, collisions of Ca + Ca and Nb + Nb at 400 MeV/nucleon have been studied with the Plastic Ball/Plastic Wall detector. The Plastic Ball covers the angular region between 10 0 and 160 0 . It consists of 815 detectors where each module is a ΔE-E telescope capable of identifying the hydrogen and helium isotopes and positive pions. The ΔE measurement is performed with a 4-mm thick CaF crystal and the E counter is a 36-cm long plastic scintillator. Both signals are read out by a single photomultiplier tube. Due to the different decay times of the two scintillators, ΔE and E information can be separated by gating two different ADC-s at different times. The positive pions are additionally identified by measuring the delayed decay. The Platic Wall, placed 6 m downstream from the target, covers the angular range from 0 0 to 10 0 and measures time of flight, energy loss and position of the reaction products. In addition, the information from the inner counters (0 0 to 2 0 ) is used to produce a trigger signal. Data show two different collection effects

  15. Aerodynamic drag of modern soccer balls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takeshi; Seo, Kazuya

    2013-12-01

    Soccer balls such as the Adidas Roteiro that have been used in soccer tournaments thus far had 32 pentagonal and hexagonal panels. Recently, the Adidas Teamgeist II and Adidas Jabulani, respectively having 14 and 8 panels, have been used at tournaments; the aerodynamic characteristics of these balls have not yet been verified. Now, the Adidas Tango 12, having 32 panels, has been developed for use at tournaments; therefore, it is necessary to understand its aerodynamic characteristics. Through a wind tunnel test and ball trajectory simulations, this study shows that the aerodynamic resistance of the new 32-panel soccer ball is larger in the high-speed region and lower in the middle-speed region than that of the previous 14- and 8-panel balls. The critical Reynolds number of the Roteiro, Teamgeist II, Jabulani, and Tango 12 was ~2.2 × 10(5) (drag coefficient, C d  ≈ 0.12), ~2.8 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.13), ~3.3 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.13), and ~2.4 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.15), respectively. The flight trajectory simulation suggested that the Tango 12, one of the newest soccer balls, has less air resistance in the medium-speed region than the Jabulani and can thus easily acquire large initial velocity in this region. It is considered that the critical Reynolds number of a soccer ball, as considered within the scope of this experiment, depends on the extended total distance of the panel bonds rather than the small designs on the panel surfaces.

  16. Effect of a ball skill intervention on children's ball skills and cognitive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp-Haverdings, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Mombarg, Remo; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of a 16-wk ball skill intervention on the ball skills, executive functioning (in terms of problem solving and cognitive flexibility), and in how far improved executive functioning leads to improved reading and mathematics performance of children with learning

  17. Optical and Acoustic Sensor-Based 3D Ball Motion Estimation for Ball Sport Simulators †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Woo Seo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the motion of ball-shaped objects is essential for the operation of ball sport simulators. In this paper, we propose an estimation system for 3D ball motion, including speed and angle of projection, by using acoustic vector and infrared (IR scanning sensors. Our system is comprised of three steps to estimate a ball motion: sound-based ball firing detection, sound source localization, and IR scanning for motion analysis. First, an impulsive sound classification based on the mel-frequency cepstrum and feed-forward neural network is introduced to detect the ball launch sound. An impulsive sound source localization using a 2D microelectromechanical system (MEMS microphones and delay-and-sum beamforming is presented to estimate the firing position. The time and position of a ball in 3D space is determined from a high-speed infrared scanning method. Our experimental results demonstrate that the estimation of ball motion based on sound allows a wider activity area than similar camera-based methods. Thus, it can be practically applied to various simulations in sports such as soccer and baseball.

  18. Effect of a ball skill intervention on children's ball skills and cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Mombarg, Remo; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the effect of a 16-wk ball skill intervention on the ball skills, executive functioning (in terms of problem solving and cognitive flexibility), and in how far improved executive functioning leads to improved reading and mathematics performance of children with learning disorders. Ninety-one children with learning disorders (age 7-11 yr old) were recruited from six classes in a Dutch special-needs primary school. The six classes were assigned randomly either to the intervention or to the control group. The control group received the school's regular physical education lessons. In the intervention group, ball skills were practiced in relative static, simple settings as well as in more dynamic and cognitive demanding settings. Both groups received two 40-min lessons per week. Children's scores on the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (ball skills), Tower of London (problem solving), Trail Making Test (cognitive flexibility), Dutch Analysis of Individual Word Forms (reading), and the Dutch World in Numbers test (mathematics) at pretest, posttest, and retention test were used to examine intervention effects. The results showed that the intervention group significantly improved their ball skills, whereas the control group did not. No intervention effects were found on the cognitive parameters. However, within the intervention group, a positive relationship (r = 0.41, P = 0.007) was found between the change in ball skill performance and the change in problem solving: the larger children's improvement in ball skills, the larger their improvement in problem solving. The present ball skill intervention is an effective instrument to improve the ball skills of children with learning disorders. Further research is needed to examine the effect of the ball skill intervention on the cognitive parameters in this population.

  19. Laser Sintering Technology and Balling Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyar, Perihan

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate the balling phenomenon which occurs typically in Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). The balling phenomenon is a typical SLS defect, and observed in laser sintered powder, significantly reduces the quality of SLS, and hinders the further development of SLS Technology. Electronic database searches were performed using Google Scholar. The keywords "laser sintering, selective laser sintering, direct metal laser melting, and balling phenomenon" were searched in title/abstract of publications, limited to December 31, 2016. The inclusion criteria were SLS, balling phenomenon, some alloys (such as Cr-Co, iron, stainless steel, and Cu-based alloys) mechanical properties, microstructure and bond strength between metal-ceramic crown, laboratory studies, full text, and in English language. A total of 100 articles were found the initial search and yielded a total of 50 studies, 30 of which did not fulfill the inclusion criteria and were therefore excluded. In addition, 20 studies were found by screening the reference list of all included publications. Finally, 40 studies were selected for this review. The method in question is regulated by powder material characteristics and the conditions of laser processing. The procedure of formation, affecting factors, and the mechanism of the balling effect are very complex.

  20. Flight trajectory of a rotating golf ball with grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Moonheum; Kim, Jooha; Choi, Haecheon

    2014-11-01

    Dimples are known to reduce drag on a sphere by the amount of 50% as compared to a smooth surface. Despite the advantage of reducing drag, dimples deteriorate the putting accuracy owing to their sharp edges. To minimize this putting error but maintain the same flight distance, we have devised a grooved golf ball (called G ball hereafter) for several years. In this study, we modify the shape and pattern of grooves, and investigate the flow characteristics of the G ball by performing wind-tunnel experiments at the Reynolds numbers of 0 . 5 ×105 - 2 . 5 ×105 and the spin ratios (ratio of surface velocity to the free-stream velocity) of 0 - 0.6 that include the real golf-ball velocity and rotational speed. We measure the drag and lift forces on the rotating G ball and compare them with those of a smooth ball and two well-known dimpled balls. The lift-to-drag ratio of the G ball is much higher than that of a smooth ball and is in between those of the two dimpled balls. The trajectories of flying golf balls are computed. The flight distance of G ball is almost the same as that of one dimpled ball but slightly shorter than that of the other dimpled ball. The fluid-dynamic aspects of these differences will be discussed at the talk. Supported by 2011-0028032, 2014M3C1B1033980.

  1. Eye gaze tracking based on the shape of pupil image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Qiu, Jian; Luo, Kaiqing; Peng, Li; Han, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Eye tracker is an important instrument for research in psychology, widely used in attention, visual perception, reading and other fields of research. Because of its potential function in human-computer interaction, the eye gaze tracking has already been a topic of research in many fields over the last decades. Nowadays, with the development of technology, non-intrusive methods are more and more welcomed. In this paper, we will present a method based on the shape of pupil image to estimate the gaze point of human eyes without any other intrusive devices such as a hat, a pair of glasses and so on. After using the ellipse fitting algorithm to deal with the pupil image we get, we can determine the direction of the fixation by the shape of the pupil.The innovative aspect of this method is to utilize the new idea of the shape of the pupil so that we can avoid much complicated algorithm. The performance proposed is very helpful for the study of eye gaze tracking, which just needs one camera without infrared light to know the changes in the shape of the pupil to determine the direction of the eye gazing, no additional condition is required.

  2. Examining the durability of incidentally learned trust from gaze cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, James W A; Tipper, Steven P

    2017-10-01

    In everyday interactions we find our attention follows the eye gaze of faces around us. As this cueing is so powerful and difficult to inhibit, gaze can therefore be used to facilitate or disrupt visual processing of the environment, and when we experience this we infer information about the trustworthiness of the cueing face. However, to date no studies have investigated how long these impressions last. To explore this we used a gaze-cueing paradigm where faces consistently demonstrated either valid or invalid cueing behaviours. Previous experiments show that valid faces are subsequently rated as more trustworthy than invalid faces. We replicate this effect (Experiment 1) and then include a brief interference task in Experiment 2 between gaze cueing and trustworthiness rating, which weakens but does not completely eliminate the effect. In Experiment 3, we explore whether greater familiarity with the faces improves the durability of trust learning and find that the effect is more resilient with familiar faces. Finally, in Experiment 4, we push this further and show that evidence of trust learning can be seen up to an hour after cueing has ended. Taken together, our results suggest that incidentally learned trust can be durable, especially for faces that deceive.

  3. Attention, Exposure Duration, and Gaze Shifting in Naming Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which the role of attribute exposure duration in naming performance was examined by tracking eye movements. Participants were presented with color-word Stroop stimuli and left- or right-pointing arrows on different sides of a computer screen. They named the color attribute and shifted their gaze to the arrow to…

  4. Towards emotion modeling based on gaze dynamics in generic interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2005-01-01

    Gaze detection can be a useful ingredient in generic human computer interfaces if current technical barriers are overcome. We discuss the feasibility of concurrent posture and eye-tracking in the context of single (low cost) camera imagery. The ingredients in the approach are posture and eye region...

  5. Differences in gaze anticipation for locomotion with and without vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authié, Colas N.; Hilt, Pauline M.; N'Guyen, Steve; Berthoz, Alain; Bennequin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Previous experimental studies have shown a spontaneous anticipation of locomotor trajectory by the head and gaze direction during human locomotion. This anticipatory behavior could serve several functions: an optimal selection of visual information, for instance through landmarks and optic flow, as well as trajectory planning and motor control. This would imply that anticipation remains in darkness but with different characteristics. We asked 10 participants to walk along two predefined complex trajectories (limaçon and figure eight) without any cue on the trajectory to follow. Two visual conditions were used: (i) in light and (ii) in complete darkness with eyes open. The whole body kinematics were recorded by motion capture, along with the participant's right eye movements. We showed that in darkness and in light, horizontal gaze anticipates the orientation of the head which itself anticipates the trajectory direction. However, the horizontal angular anticipation decreases by a half in darkness for both gaze and head. In both visual conditions we observed an eye nystagmus with similar properties (frequency and amplitude). The main difference comes from the fact that in light, there is a shift of the orientations of the eye nystagmus and the head in the direction of the trajectory. These results suggest that a fundamental function of gaze is to represent self motion, stabilize the perception of space during locomotion, and to simulate the future trajectory, regardless of the vision condition. PMID:26106313

  6. Gaze-based hints during child-robot gameplay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, E.; Barakova, Emilia I.; Diaz, M.L.Z.; Mallofre, A.C.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Kheddar, A.; Yoshida, E.; Sam Ge, S.; Suzuki, K.; Cabibihan, J.J.; Eyssel, F.; He, H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study that examines whether gaze hints provided by a robot tutor influences the behavior of children in a card matching game. In this regard, we conducted a within-subjects experiment, in which children played a card game “Memory” in the presence of a robot tutor in two

  7. Biasing moral decisions by exploiting the dynamics of eye gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärnamets, Philip; Johansson, Petter; Hall, Lars; Balkenius, Christian; Spivey, Michael J; Richardson, Daniel C

    2015-03-31

    Eye gaze is a window onto cognitive processing in tasks such as spatial memory, linguistic processing, and decision making. We present evidence that information derived from eye gaze can be used to change the course of individuals' decisions, even when they are reasoning about high-level, moral issues. Previous studies have shown that when an experimenter actively controls what an individual sees the experimenter can affect simple decisions with alternatives of almost equal valence. Here we show that if an experimenter passively knows when individuals move their eyes the experimenter can change complex moral decisions. This causal effect is achieved by simply adjusting the timing of the decisions. We monitored participants' eye movements during a two-alternative forced-choice task with moral questions. One option was randomly predetermined as a target. At the moment participants had fixated the target option for a set amount of time we terminated their deliberation and prompted them to choose between the two alternatives. Although participants were unaware of this gaze-contingent manipulation, their choices were systematically biased toward the target option. We conclude that even abstract moral cognition is partly constituted by interactions with the immediate environment and is likely supported by gaze-dependent decision processes. By tracking the interplay between individuals, their sensorimotor systems, and the environment, we can influence the outcome of a decision without directly manipulating the content of the information available to them.

  8. Self-Monitoring of Gaze in High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Nadel, Jacqueline; Martin, Jean-Claude; Simonin, Jerome; Bailleul, Pauline; Wang, Yun; Gepner, Daniel; Le Barillier, Florence; Constant, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Atypical visual behaviour has been recently proposed to account for much of social misunderstanding in autism. Using an eye-tracking system and a gaze-contingent lens display, the present study explores self-monitoring of eye motion in two conditions: free visual exploration and guided exploration via blurring the visual field except for the focal…

  9. The Relationship between Children's Gaze Reporting and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Entremont, Barbara; Seamans, Elizabeth; Boudreau, Elyse

    2012-01-01

    Seventy-nine 3- and 4-year-old children were tested on gaze-reporting ability and Wellman and Liu's (2004) continuous measure of theory of mind (ToM). Children were better able to report where someone was looking when eye and head direction were provided as a cue compared with when only eye direction cues were provided. With the exception of…

  10. Maori in the Kingdom of the Gaze: Subjects or Critics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Carl; Stewart, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    For Maori, a real opportunity exists to flesh out some terms and concepts that Western thinkers have adopted and that precede disciplines but necessarily inform them. In this article, we are intent on describing one of these precursory phenomena--Foucault's Gaze--within a framework that accords with a Maori philosophical framework. Our discussion…

  11. Gaze Embeddings for Zero-Shot Image Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karessli, N.; Akata, Z.; Schiele, B.; Bulling, A.

    2017-01-01

    Zero-shot image classification using auxiliary information, such as attributes describing discriminative object properties, requires time-consuming annotation by domain experts. We instead propose a method that relies on human gaze as auxiliary information, exploiting that even non-expert users have

  12. Strange-face illusions during inter-subjective gazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Giovanni B

    2013-03-01

    In normal observers, gazing at one's own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, triggers the perception of strange faces, a new visual illusion that has been named 'strange-face in the mirror'. Individuals see huge distortions of their own faces, but they often see monstrous beings, archetypal faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and animals. In the experiment described here, strange-face illusions were perceived when two individuals, in a dimly lit room, gazed at each other in the face. Inter-subjective gazing compared to mirror-gazing produced a higher number of different strange-faces. Inter-subjective strange-face illusions were always dissociative of the subject's self and supported moderate feeling of their reality, indicating a temporary lost of self-agency. Unconscious synchronization of event-related responses to illusions was found between members in some pairs. Synchrony of illusions may indicate that unconscious response-coordination is caused by the illusion-conjunction of crossed dissociative strange-faces, which are perceived as projections into each other's visual face of reciprocal embodied representations within the pair. Inter-subjective strange-face illusions may be explained by the subject's embodied representations (somaesthetic, kinaesthetic and motor facial pattern) and the other's visual face binding. Unconscious facial mimicry may promote inter-subjective illusion-conjunction, then unconscious joint-action and response-coordination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Depth Compensation Model for Gaze Estimation in Sport Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batista Narcizo, Fabricio; Hansen, Dan Witzner

    2015-01-01

    is tested in a totally controlled environment with aim to check the influences of eye tracker parameters and ocular biometric parameters on its behavior. We also present a gaze estimation method based on epipolar geometry for binocular eye tracking setups. The depth compensation model has shown very...

  14. Children's Bricolage under the Gaze of Teachers in Sociodramatic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Po Chi

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the theory of dialogism and the literature on children's culture and cultural resistance, this article investigates the contextual and textual features of the cultural making of a group of children in sociodramatic play in a Hong Kong kindergarten. Different from other, similar studies, this study reports that under the gaze of the…

  15. Quality control of geological voxel models using experts' gaze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Busschers, F.S.; Brouwer, A.M.; Meulen, M.J. van der; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2015-01-01

    Due to an expected increase in geological voxel model data-flow and user demands, the development of improved quality control for such models is crucial. This study explores the potential of a new type of quality control that improves the detection of errors by just using gaze behavior of 12

  16. Quality Control of Geological Voxel Models using Experts' Gaze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Peter-Paul; Busschers, Freek S.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van der Meulendijk, Michiel J.; van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus

    Due to an expected increase in geological voxel model data-flow and user demands, the development of improved quality control for such models is crucial. This study explores the potential of a new type of quality control that improves the detection of errors by just using gaze behavior of 12

  17. Learning to interact with a computer by gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoki, Hirotaka; Hansen, John Paulin; Itoh, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    that inefficient eye movements was dramatically reduced after only 15 to 25 sentences of typing, equal to approximately 3-4 hours of practice. The performance data fits a general learning model based on the power law of practice. The learning model can be used to estimate further improvements in gaze typing...

  18. Watch out! Magnetoencephalographic evidence for early modulation of attention orienting by fearful gaze cueing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Lachat

    Full Text Available Others' gaze and emotional facial expression are important cues for the process of attention orienting. Here, we investigated with magnetoencephalography (MEG whether the combination of averted gaze and fearful expression may elicit a selectively early effect of attention orienting on the brain responses to targets. We used the direction of gaze of centrally presented fearful and happy faces as the spatial attention orienting cue in a Posner-like paradigm where the subjects had to detect a target checkerboard presented at gazed-at (valid trials or non gazed-at (invalid trials locations of the screen. We showed that the combination of averted gaze and fearful expression resulted in a very early attention orienting effect in the form of additional parietal activity between 55 and 70 ms for the valid versus invalid targets following fearful gaze cues. No such effect was obtained for the targets following happy gaze cues. This early cue-target validity effect selective of fearful gaze cues involved the left superior parietal region and the left lateral middle occipital region. These findings provide the first evidence for an effect of attention orienting induced by fearful gaze in the time range of C1. In doing so, they demonstrate the selective impact of combined gaze and fearful expression cues in the process of attention orienting.

  19. Electrostatic charge bounds for ball lightning models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, Karl D

    2008-01-01

    Several current theories concerning the nature of ball lightning predict a substantial electrostatic charge in order to account for its observed motion and shape (Turner 1998 Phys. Rep. 293 1; Abrahamson and Dinniss 2000 Nature 403 519). Using charged soap bubbles as a physical model for ball lightning, we show that the magnitude of charge predicted by some of these theories is too high to allow for the types of motion commonly observed in natural ball lightning, which includes horizontal motion above the ground and movement near grounded conductors. Experiments show that at charge levels of only 10-15 nC, 3-cm-diameter soap bubbles tend to be attracted by induced charges to the nearest grounded conductor and rupture. We conclude with a scaling rule that can be used to extrapolate these results to larger objects and surroundings

  20. Ball-and-socket ankle joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistoia, F.; Ozonoff, M.B.; Wintz, P.; Hartford Hospital, CT

    1987-01-01

    The ball-and-socket ankle joint is a malformation of the ankle in which the articular surface of the talus is hemispherical in both the anteroposterior and lateral projections and has a congruent, concave tibial articular surface. Fourteen patients with this condition were identified retrospectively. Thirteen patients were thought to have the congenital type of ball-and-socket ankle joint which in many was associated with tarsal coalition, short limb, and ray fusion and deletion anomalies. One case of the acquired type, demonstrating less geometric rounding of the talar margins, was seen in a patient with myelomeningocele, probably resulting from sensory and motor deficits. Although the exact etiology of the congenital type is unknown, its association with other malformations suggests that the ball-and-socket ankle joint results from an overall maldevelopment of the ankle and foot. (orig.)

  1. Flexible coordination of stationary and mobile conversations with gaze: Resource allocation among multiple joint activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mayor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gaze is instrumental in coordinating face-to-face social interactions. But little is known about gaze use when social interactions co-occur with other joint activities. We investigated the case of walking while talking. We assessed how gaze gets allocated among various targets in mobile conversations, whether allocation of gaze to other targets affects conversational coordination, and whether reduced availability of gaze for conversational coordination affects conversational performance and content. In an experimental study, pairs were videotaped in four conditions of mobility (standing still, talking while walking along a straight-line itinerary, talking while walking along a complex itinerary, or walking along a complex itinerary with no conversational task. Gaze to partners was substantially reduced in mobile conversations, but gaze was still used to coordinate conversation via displays of mutual orientation, and conversational performance and content was not different between stationary and mobile conditions. Results expand the phenomena of multitasking to joint activities.

  2. On longevity of I-ball/oscillon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukaida, Kyohei [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Takimoto, Masahiro [Theory Center, KEK,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Yamada, Masaki [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University,Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)

    2017-03-23

    We study I-balls/oscillons, which are long-lived, quasi-periodic, and spatially localized solutions in real scalar field theories. Contrary to the case of Q-balls, there is no evident conserved charge that stabilizes the localized configuration. Nevertheless, in many classical numerical simulations, it has been shown that they are extremely long-lived. In this paper, we clarify the reason for the longevity, and show how the exponential separation of time scales emerges dynamically. Those solutions are time-periodic with a typical frequency of a mass scale of a scalar field. This observation implies that they can be understood by the effective theory after integrating out relativistic modes. We find that the resulting effective theory has an approximate global U(1) symmetry reflecting an approximate number conservation in the non-relativistic regime. As a result, the profile of those solutions is obtained via the bounce method, just like Q-balls, as long as the breaking of the U(1) symmetry is small enough. We then discuss the decay processes of the I-ball/oscillon by the breaking of the U(1) symmetry, namely the production of relativistic modes via number violating processes. We show that the imaginary part is exponentially suppressed, which explains the extraordinary longevity of I-ball/oscillon. In addition, we find that there are some attractor behaviors during the evolution of I-ball/oscillon that further enhance the lifetime. The validity of our effective theory is confirmed by classical numerical simulations. Our formalism may also be useful to study condensates of ultra light bosonic dark matter, such as fuzzy dark matter, and axion stars, for instance.

  3. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  4. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, John Eric [Department of Physics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Carre, Matt J, E-mail: goff@lynchburg.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  5. From a Ball Game to Incompleteness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a ball game that can be continued as long as wewish. It looks as though the game would never end. But byapplying a result on trees, we show that the game nonethelessends in some finite number of moves. We then point out somedeep results on the natural number system connected withthe game.

  6. 4 π physics with the plastic ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutbrod, H.H.; Loehner, H.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Renner, T.; Riedesel, H.; Ritter, H.G.; Warwick, A.; Weik, F.; Wieman, H.

    1982-10-01

    4 π data taken with the Plastic Ball show that cluster production in relativistic nuclear collisions depends on both the size of the participant volume and the finite size of the cluster. The measurement of the degree of thermalization and the search for collective flow will permit the study of the applicability of macroscopic concepts such as temperature and density

  7. A plasma ball in the Microcosm museum

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Plasma balls, like the one shown here, are displayed in the Microcosm exhibition where families can visit to learn more about the experiments carried out in a research institute like CERN. Hands-on activities allow visitors to get a step closer to the research activities carried out at CERN.

  8. Fractal Aggregates in Tennis Ball Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, J.; Bandin, M.; Prieto, G.; Sarmiento, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new practical exercise to explain the mechanisms of aggregation of some colloids which are otherwise not easy to understand. We have used tennis balls to simulate, in a visual way, the aggregation of colloids under reaction-limited colloid aggregation (RLCA) and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) regimes. We have used the…

  9. Soccer Ball Production for Nike in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper looks at how Nike’s soccer ball suppliers (previous and current) in Sialkot (Pakistan) fare in relation to the company’s code of ethics. While minimum required working conditions are implemented, the criteria for social and environmental compliance are not met with. The

  10. When Two Balls Are Just One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Christopher W.; Biermann, Mark L.; Howard, Timothy; Klingenberg, Kurtis; Ramsey, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A camcorder can be a powerful tool in pedagogical settings, such as in an introductory physics course or in introducing undergraduates to data collection. In this paper, we discuss our experience using a Panasonic PV-GS150 digital camcorder to analyze the motion of a falling steel ball, with the goal of determining the acceleration due to gravity,…

  11. On the dynamics of ball bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This investigation on the dynamic behaviour of ball bearings was motivated by the demand for silent bearings in noise-sensitive applications, especially in the household appliance and automotive industry. The present investigations are intended to provide a clear understanding of the role of the

  12. Comprehensive characterization of ball-milled powders simulating a tribofilm system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Häusler, I., E-mail: ines.haeusler@bam.de; Dörfel, I., E-mail: Ilona.doerfel@bam.de; Peplinski, B., E-mail: Burkhard.peplinski@bam.de; Dietrich, P.M., E-mail: Paul.dietrich@yahoo.de; Unger, W.E.S., E-mail: Wolfgang.Unger@bam.de; Österle, W., E-mail: Werner.Oesterle@bam.de

    2016-01-15

    A model system was used to simulate the properties of tribofilms which form during automotive braking. The model system was prepared by ball milling of a blend of 70 vol.% iron oxides, 15 vol.% molybdenum disulfide and 15 vol.% graphite. The resulting mixture was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and various transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), high resolution investigations (HRTEM) with corresponding simulation of the HRTEM images, diffraction methods such as scanning nano-beam electron diffraction (SNBED) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). It could be shown that the ball milling caused a reduction of the grain size of the initial components to the nanometer range. Sometimes even amorphization or partial break-down of the crystal structure was observed for MoS{sub 2} and graphite. Moreover, chemical reactions lead to a formation of surface coverings of the nanoparticles by amorphous material, molybdenum oxides, and iron sulfates as derived from XPS. - Highlights: • Ball milling of iron oxides, MoS{sub 2}, and graphite to simulate a tribofilm • Increasing coefficient of friction after ball milling of the model blend • Drastically change of the diffraction pattern of the powder mixture • TEM & XPS showed the components of the milled mixture and the process during milling. • MoS{sub 2} and graphite suffered a loss in translation symmetry or became amorphous.

  13. Early Left Parietal Activity Elicited by Direct Gaze: A High-Density EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Nicolas; Kerzel, Dirk; George, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Gaze is one of the most important cues for human communication and social interaction. In particular, gaze contact is the most primary form of social contact and it is thought to capture attention. A very early-differentiated brain response to direct versus averted gaze has been hypothesized. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to test this hypothesis. Topographical analysis allowed us to uncover a very early topographic modulation (40–80 ms) of event-related responses to faces with direct as compared to averted gaze. This modulation was obtained only in the condition where intact broadband faces–as opposed to high-pass or low-pas filtered faces–were presented. Source estimation indicated that this early modulation involved the posterior parietal region, encompassing the left precuneus and inferior parietal lobule. This supports the idea that it reflected an early orienting response to direct versus averted gaze. Accordingly, in a follow-up behavioural experiment, we found faster response times to the direct gaze than to the averted gaze broadband faces. In addition, classical evoked potential analysis showed that the N170 peak amplitude was larger for averted gaze than for direct gaze. Taken together, these results suggest that direct gaze may be detected at a very early processing stage, involving a parallel route to the ventral occipito-temporal route of face perceptual analysis. PMID:27880776

  14. Assessing the precision of gaze following using a stereoscopic 3D virtual reality setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Artin; Marciniak, Karolina; Dicke, Peter W; Thier, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Despite the ecological importance of gaze following, little is known about the underlying neuronal processes, which allow us to extract gaze direction from the geometric features of the eye and head of a conspecific. In order to understand the neuronal mechanisms underlying this ability, a careful description of the capacity and the limitations of gaze following at the behavioral level is needed. Previous studies of gaze following, which relied on naturalistic settings have the disadvantage of allowing only very limited control of potentially relevant visual features guiding gaze following, such as the contrast of iris and sclera, the shape of the eyelids and--in the case of photographs--they lack depth. Hence, in order to get full control of potentially relevant features we decided to study gaze following of human observers guided by the gaze of a human avatar seen stereoscopically. To this end we established a stereoscopic 3D virtual reality setup, in which we tested human subjects' abilities to detect at which target a human avatar was looking at. Following the gaze of the avatar showed all the features of the gaze following of a natural person, namely a substantial degree of precision associated with a consistent pattern of systematic deviations from the target. Poor stereo vision affected performance surprisingly little (only in certain experimental conditions). Only gaze following guided by targets at larger downward eccentricities exhibited a differential effect of the presence or absence of accompanying movements of the avatar's eyelids and eyebrows. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Proximity and Gaze Influences Facial Temperature: A Thermal Infrared Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos eIoannou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct gaze and interpersonal proximity are known to lead to changes in psycho-physiology, behaviour and brain function. We know little, however, about subtler facial reactions such as rise and fall in temperature, which may be sensitive to contextual effects and functional in social interactions. Using thermal infrared imaging cameras 18 female adult participants were filmed at two interpersonal distances (intimate and social and two gaze conditions (averted and direct. The order of variation in distance was counterbalanced: half the participants experienced a female experimenter’s gaze at the social distance first before the intimate distance (a socially ‘normal’ order and half experienced the intimate distance first and then the social distance (an odd social order. At both distances averted gaze always preceded direct gaze. We found strong correlations in thermal changes between six areas of the face (forehead, chin, cheeks, nose, maxilliary and periorbital regions for all experimental conditions and developed a composite measure of thermal shifts for all analyses. Interpersonal proximity led to a thermal rise, but only in the ‘normal’ social order. Direct gaze, compared to averted gaze, led to a thermal increase at both distances with a stronger effect at intimate distance, in both orders of distance variation. Participants reported direct gaze as more intrusive than averted gaze, especially at the intimate distance. These results demonstrate the powerful effects of another person’s gaze on psycho-physiological responses, even at a distance and independent of context.

  16. Validity and Reliability of a Medicine Ball Explosive Power Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbrugger, Barry A.; Haennel, Robert G.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the validity and reliability of a medicine ball throw test to evaluate explosive power. Data on competitive sand volleyball players who performed a medicine ball throw and a standard countermovement jump indicated that the medicine ball throw test was a valid and reliable way to assess explosive power for an analogous total-body movement…

  17. The Eyes Are the Windows to the Mind: Direct Eye Gaze Triggers the Ascription of Others' Minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Saara; Deska, Jason C; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2016-12-01

    Eye gaze is a potent source of social information with direct eye gaze signaling the desire to approach and averted eye gaze signaling avoidance. In the current work, we proposed that eye gaze signals whether or not to impute minds into others. Across four studies, we manipulated targets' eye gaze (i.e., direct vs. averted eye gaze) and measured explicit mind ascriptions (Study 1a, Study 1b, and Study 2) and beliefs about the likelihood of targets having mind (Study 3). In all four studies, we find novel evidence that the ascription of sophisticated humanlike minds to others is signaled by the display of direct eye gaze relative to averted eye gaze. Moreover, we provide evidence suggesting that this differential mentalization is due, at least in part, to beliefs that direct gaze targets are more likely to instigate social interaction. In short, eye contact triggers mind perception. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Influence of Gaze Direction on Face Recognition: A Sensitive Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémy Daury

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the conditions in which eye-contact may improve recognition memory for faces. Different stimuli and procedures were tested in four experiments. The effect of gaze direction on memory was found when a simple “yes-no” recognition task was used but not when the recognition task was more complex (e.g., including “Remember-Know” judgements, cf. Experiment 2, or confidence ratings, cf. Experiment 4. Moreover, even when a “yes-no” recognition paradigm was used, the effect occurred with one series of stimuli (cf. Experiment 1 but not with another one (cf. Experiment 3. The difficulty to produce the positive effect of gaze direction on memory is discussed.

  19. Wolves (Canis lupus) and Dogs (Canis familiaris) Differ in Following Human Gaze Into Distant Space But Respond Similar to Their Packmates’ Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werhahn, Geraldine; Virányi, Zsófia; Barrera, Gabriela; Sommese, Andrea; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following into distant space is defined as visual co-orientation with another individual’s head direction allowing the gaze follower to gain information on its environment. Human and nonhuman animals share this basic gaze following behavior, suggested to rely on a simple reflexive mechanism and believed to be an important prerequisite for complex forms of social cognition. Pet dogs differ from other species in that they follow only communicative human gaze clearly addressed to them. However, in an earlier experiment we showed that wolves follow human gaze into distant space. Here we set out to investigate whether domestication has affected gaze following in dogs by comparing pack-living dogs and wolves raised and kept under the same conditions. In Study 1 we found that in contrast to the wolves, these dogs did not follow minimally communicative human gaze into distant space in the same test paradigm. In the observational Study 2 we found that pack-living dogs and wolves, similarly vigilant to environmental stimuli, follow the spontaneous gaze of their conspecifics similarly often. Our findings suggest that domestication did not affect the gaze following ability of dogs itself. The results raise hypotheses about which other dog skills might have been altered through domestication that may have influenced their performance in Study 1. Because following human gaze in dogs might be influenced by special evolutionary as well as developmental adaptations to interactions with humans, we suggest that comparing dogs to other animal species might be more informative when done in intraspecific social contexts. PMID:27244538

  20. Wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werhahn, Geraldine; Virányi, Zsófia; Barrera, Gabriela; Sommese, Andrea; Range, Friederike

    2016-08-01

    Gaze following into distant space is defined as visual co-orientation with another individual's head direction allowing the gaze follower to gain information on its environment. Human and nonhuman animals share this basic gaze following behavior, suggested to rely on a simple reflexive mechanism and believed to be an important prerequisite for complex forms of social cognition. Pet dogs differ from other species in that they follow only communicative human gaze clearly addressed to them. However, in an earlier experiment we showed that wolves follow human gaze into distant space. Here we set out to investigate whether domestication has affected gaze following in dogs by comparing pack-living dogs and wolves raised and kept under the same conditions. In Study 1 we found that in contrast to the wolves, these dogs did not follow minimally communicative human gaze into distant space in the same test paradigm. In the observational Study 2 we found that pack-living dogs and wolves, similarly vigilant to environmental stimuli, follow the spontaneous gaze of their conspecifics similarly often. Our findings suggest that domestication did not affect the gaze following ability of dogs itself. The results raise hypotheses about which other dog skills might have been altered through domestication that may have influenced their performance in Study 1. Because following human gaze in dogs might be influenced by special evolutionary as well as developmental adaptations to interactions with humans, we suggest that comparing dogs to other animal species might be more informative when done in intraspecific social contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomfim, Rodrigo C.; Tavora, Daniel G.F.; Nakayama, Mauro; Gama, Romulo L. [Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Ceara (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements and progressive scoliosis developing in childhood and adolescence. We present a child with clinical and neuroimaging findings typical of HGPPS. CT and MRI of the brain demonstrated pons hypoplasia, absence of the facial colliculi, butterfly configuration of the medulla and a deep midline pontine cleft. We briefly discuss the imaging aspects of this rare entity in light of the current literature. (orig.)

  2. Does the 'P300' speller depend on eye gaze?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, P.; Joshi, S.; Briskin, S.; Wolpaw, J. R.; Bischof, H.; Schalk, G.

    2010-10-01

    Many people affected by debilitating neuromuscular disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brainstem stroke or spinal cord injury are impaired in their ability to, or are even unable to, communicate. A brain-computer interface (BCI) uses brain signals, rather than muscles, to re-establish communication with the outside world. One particular BCI approach is the so-called 'P300 matrix speller' that was first described by Farwell and Donchin (1988 Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 70 510-23). It has been widely assumed that this method does not depend on the ability to focus on the desired character, because it was thought that it relies primarily on the P300-evoked potential and minimally, if at all, on other EEG features such as the visual-evoked potential (VEP). This issue is highly relevant for the clinical application of this BCI method, because eye movements may be impaired or lost in the relevant user population. This study investigated the extent to which the performance in a 'P300' speller BCI depends on eye gaze. We evaluated the performance of 17 healthy subjects using a 'P300' matrix speller under two conditions. Under one condition ('letter'), the subjects focused their eye gaze on the intended letter, while under the second condition ('center'), the subjects focused their eye gaze on a fixation cross that was located in the center of the matrix. The results show that the performance of the 'P300' matrix speller in normal subjects depends in considerable measure on gaze direction. They thereby disprove a widespread assumption in BCI research, and suggest that this BCI might function more effectively for people who retain some eye-movement control. The applicability of these findings to people with severe neuromuscular disabilities (particularly in eye-movements) remains to be determined.

  3. Eye blinking in an avian species is associated with gaze shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L

    2016-08-30

    Even when animals are actively monitoring their environment, they lose access to visual information whenever they blink. They can strategically time their blinks to minimize information loss and improve visual functioning but we have little understanding of how this process operates in birds. This study therefore examined blinking in freely-moving peacocks (Pavo cristatus) to determine the relationship between their blinks, gaze shifts, and context. Peacocks wearing a telemetric eye-tracker were exposed to a taxidermy predator (Vulpes vulpes) and their blinks and gaze shifts were recorded. Peacocks blinked during the majority of their gaze shifts, especially when gaze shifts were large, thereby timing their blinks to coincide with periods when visual information is already suppressed. They inhibited their blinks the most when they exhibited high rates of gaze shifts and were thus highly alert. Alternative hypotheses explaining the link between blinks and gaze shifts are discussed.

  4. Eye and head movements shape gaze shifts in Indian peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Platt, Michael L; Land, Michael F

    2015-12-01

    Animals selectively direct their visual attention toward relevant aspects of their environments. They can shift their attention using a combination of eye, head and body movements. While we have a growing understanding of eye and head movements in mammals, we know little about these processes in birds. We therefore measured the eye and head movements of freely behaving Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) using a telemetric eye-tracker. Both eye and head movements contributed to gaze changes in peafowl. When gaze shifts were smaller, eye movements played a larger role than when gaze shifts were larger. The duration and velocity of eye and head movements were positively related to the size of the eye and head movements, respectively. In addition, the coordination of eye and head movements in peafowl differed from that in mammals; peafowl exhibited a near-absence of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which may partly result from the peafowl's ability to move their heads as quickly as their eyes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Gazes and Bodies in the Pornographies of Desire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Lino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio propone una lettura sociale della pornografia cinematografica usando la categoria dello sguardo e le sue declinazioni di genere. Partendo dal famoso saggio di Laura Mulvey, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema (1975, si sposterà il centro dell’analisi dal cinema narrativo tradizionale al cinema pornografico, considerando quest’ultimo un modello che fa contrappunto al voyeurismo dello sguardo maschile (male gaze che la Mulvey riscontrava in alcuni film di Sternberg e di Hitckcock. Per dimostrare la natura contrappuntistica del cinema pornografico si metterà a confronto la medesima messa in scena di uno sguardo che desidera in due film molto differenti tra loro, Rear Window (1954 di Hitchcock e Behind the Green Door (1972 dei fratelli Mitchell. La natura contrappuntistica del porn movie si rintraccia anche nel dialogo che instaura con il cinema mainstream riguardo ai limiti del visibile in materia sessuale. Infine, la pornografia soddisfa la rappresentazione del desiderio delle altre identità di genere, mettendo in scena tipologie di sguardo adeguate – female gaze e queer gaze –, che diventano presto strumenti per una affermazione sociale della diversità sessuali.

  6. Real-time gaze estimation via pupil center tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cazzato Dario

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Automatic gaze estimation not based on commercial and expensive eye tracking hardware solutions can enable several applications in the fields of human computer interaction (HCI and human behavior analysis. It is therefore not surprising that several related techniques and methods have been investigated in recent years. However, very few camera-based systems proposed in the literature are both real-time and robust. In this work, we propose a real-time user-calibration-free gaze estimation system that does not need person-dependent calibration, can deal with illumination changes and head pose variations, and can work with a wide range of distances from the camera. Our solution is based on a 3-D appearance-based method that processes the images from a built-in laptop camera. Real-time performance is obtained by combining head pose information with geometrical eye features to train a machine learning algorithm. Our method has been validated on a data set of images of users in natural environments, and shows promising results. The possibility of a real-time implementation, combined with the good quality of gaze tracking, make this system suitable for various HCI applications.

  7. Subjects and Objects of the Embodied Gaze: Abbas Kiarostami and the Real of the Individual Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenge Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that Abbas Kiarostami’s cinema revolves around the representation of the gaze. Many critics argue that he should be considered a late modernist who repeats the self-reflexive gestures of modernist European cinema decades after they were first introduced. The present paper will contradict this assertion by investigating the problematic of the Kiarostamian gaze and analyzing the perceptual side of the act of looking. I will argue that instead of focusing on the gaze of the...

  8. Robot Faces that Follow Gaze Facilitate Attentional Engagement and Increase Their Likeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Cesco; Marchesi, Serena; Wykowska, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Gaze behavior of humanoid robots is an efficient mechanism for cueing our spatial orienting, but less is known about the cognitive–affective consequences of robots responding to human directional cues. Here, we examined how the extent to which a humanoid robot (iCub) avatar directed its gaze to the same objects as our participants affected engagement with the robot, subsequent gaze-cueing, and subjective ratings of the robot’s characteristic traits. In a gaze-contingent eyetracking task, participants were asked to indicate a preference for one of two objects with their gaze while an iCub avatar was presented between the object photographs. In one condition, the iCub then shifted its gaze toward the object chosen by a participant in 80% of the trials (joint condition) and in the other condition it looked at the opposite object 80% of the time (disjoint condition). Based on the literature in human–human social cognition, we took the speed with which the participants looked back at the robot as a measure of facilitated reorienting and robot-preference, and found these return saccade onset times to be quicker in the joint condition than in the disjoint condition. As indicated by results from a subsequent gaze-cueing tasks, the gaze-following behavior of the robot had little effect on how our participants responded to gaze cues. Nevertheless, subjective reports suggested that our participants preferred the iCub following participants’ gaze to the one with a disjoint attention behavior, rated it as more human-like and as more likeable. Taken together, our findings show a preference for robots who follow our gaze. Importantly, such subtle differences in gaze behavior are sufficient to influence our perception of humanoid agents, which clearly provides hints about the design of behavioral characteristics of humanoid robots in more naturalistic settings. PMID:29459842

  9. Robot Faces that Follow Gaze Facilitate Attentional Engagement and Increase Their Likeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesco Willemse

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gaze behavior of humanoid robots is an efficient mechanism for cueing our spatial orienting, but less is known about the cognitive–affective consequences of robots responding to human directional cues. Here, we examined how the extent to which a humanoid robot (iCub avatar directed its gaze to the same objects as our participants affected engagement with the robot, subsequent gaze-cueing, and subjective ratings of the robot’s characteristic traits. In a gaze-contingent eyetracking task, participants were asked to indicate a preference for one of two objects with their gaze while an iCub avatar was presented between the object photographs. In one condition, the iCub then shifted its gaze toward the object chosen by a participant in 80% of the trials (joint condition and in the other condition it looked at the opposite object 80% of the time (disjoint condition. Based on the literature in human–human social cognition, we took the speed with which the participants looked back at the robot as a measure of facilitated reorienting and robot-preference, and found these return saccade onset times to be quicker in the joint condition than in the disjoint condition. As indicated by results from a subsequent gaze-cueing tasks, the gaze-following behavior of the robot had little effect on how our participants responded to gaze cues. Nevertheless, subjective reports suggested that our participants preferred the iCub following participants’ gaze to the one with a disjoint attention behavior, rated it as more human-like and as more likeable. Taken together, our findings show a preference for robots who follow our gaze. Importantly, such subtle differences in gaze behavior are sufficient to influence our perception of humanoid agents, which clearly provides hints about the design of behavioral characteristics of humanoid robots in more naturalistic settings.

  10. Assessing the Usability of Gaze-Adapted Interface against Conventional Eye-based Input Emulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Chandan; Menges, Raphael; Staab, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, eye tracking systems have greatly improved, beginning to play a promising role as an input medium. Eye trackers can be used for application control either by simply emulating the mouse and keyboard devices in the traditional graphical user interface, or by customized interfaces for eye gaze events. In this work, we evaluate these two approaches to assess their impact in usability. We present a gaze-adapted Twitter application interface with direct interaction of eye gaze inpu...

  11. Robot Faces that Follow Gaze Facilitate Attentional Engagement and Increase Their Likeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Cesco; Marchesi, Serena; Wykowska, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Gaze behavior of humanoid robots is an efficient mechanism for cueing our spatial orienting, but less is known about the cognitive-affective consequences of robots responding to human directional cues. Here, we examined how the extent to which a humanoid robot (iCub) avatar directed its gaze to the same objects as our participants affected engagement with the robot, subsequent gaze-cueing, and subjective ratings of the robot's characteristic traits. In a gaze-contingent eyetracking task, participants were asked to indicate a preference for one of two objects with their gaze while an iCub avatar was presented between the object photographs. In one condition, the iCub then shifted its gaze toward the object chosen by a participant in 80% of the trials (joint condition) and in the other condition it looked at the opposite object 80% of the time (disjoint condition). Based on the literature in human-human social cognition, we took the speed with which the participants looked back at the robot as a measure of facilitated reorienting and robot-preference, and found these return saccade onset times to be quicker in the joint condition than in the disjoint condition. As indicated by results from a subsequent gaze-cueing tasks, the gaze-following behavior of the robot had little effect on how our participants responded to gaze cues. Nevertheless, subjective reports suggested that our participants preferred the iCub following participants' gaze to the one with a disjoint attention behavior, rated it as more human-like and as more likeable. Taken together, our findings show a preference for robots who follow our gaze. Importantly, such subtle differences in gaze behavior are sufficient to influence our perception of humanoid agents, which clearly provides hints about the design of behavioral characteristics of humanoid robots in more naturalistic settings.

  12. How Do We Update Faces? Effects of Gaze Direction and Facial Expressions on Working Memory Updating

    OpenAIRE

    Artuso, Caterina; Palladino, Paola; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how the biological binding between different facial dimensions, and their social and communicative relevance, may impact updating processes in working memory (WM). We focused on WM updating because it plays a key role in ongoing processing. Gaze direction and facial expression are crucial and changeable components of face processing. Direct gaze enhances the processing of approach-oriented facial emotional expressions (e.g., joy), while averted gaze enh...

  13. How does gravity save or kill Q-balls?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    We explore stability of gravitating Q-balls with potential V 4 (φ)=(m 2 /2)φ 2 -λφ 4 +(φ 6 /M 2 ) via catastrophe theory, as an extension of our previous work on Q-balls with potential V 3 (φ)=(m 2 /2)φ 2 -μφ 3 +λφ 4 . In flat spacetime Q-balls with V 4 in the thick-wall limit are unstable and there is a minimum charge Q min , where Q-balls with Q min are nonexistent. If we take self-gravity into account, on the other hand, there exist stable Q-balls with arbitrarily small charge, no matter how weak gravity is. That is, gravity saves Q-balls with small charge. We also show how stability of Q-balls changes as gravity becomes strong.

  14. Synthesis of free standing nanocrystalline Cu by ball milling at cryogenic temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barai, K. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering College, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Tiwary, C.S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Chattopadhyay, P.P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering College, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Chattopadhyay, K., E-mail: kamanio@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2012-12-15

    This paper reports for the first time synthesis of free standing nano-crystalline copper crystals of a {approx}30-40 nm by ball milling of copper powder at 150 K under Argon atmosphere in a specially designed cryomill. The detailed characterization of these particles using multiple techniques that includes transmission electron microscopy confirms our conclusion. Careful analysis of the chemistry of these particles indicates that these particles are essentially contamination free. Through the analysis of existing models of grain size refinements during ball milling and low temperature deformation, we argue that the suppression of thermal processes and low temperature leads to formation of free nanoparticles as the process of fracture dominates over possible cold welding at low temperatures.

  15. Charged Q-ball dark matter from B and L direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jeong-Pyong; Kawasaki, Masahiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo,5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo,5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Yamada, Masaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo,5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo,5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)

    2016-08-24

    We consider nearly equal number of gauge mediation type charged (anti-) Q-balls with charge of ±α{sup −1}≃±137 well before the BBN epoch and discussed how they evolve in time. We found that ion-like objects with electric charges of +O(1) are likely to become relics in the present universe, which we expect to be the dark matter. These are constrained by MICA experiment, where the trail of heavy atom-like or ion-like object in 10{sup 9} years old ancient mica crystals is not observed. We found that the allowed region for gauge mediation model parameter and reheating temperature have to be smaller than the case of the neutral Q-ball dark matter.

  16. Effect of ball milling time on thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khade, Poonam; Bagwaiya, Toshi; Bhattacharaya, Shovit; Singh, Ajay; Jha, Purushottam; Shelke, Vilas

    2018-04-01

    The effect of different milling time on thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) was investigated. The nanomaterial was prepared by varying the ball milling time and followed by hot press sintering. The crystal structure and phase formation were verified by X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy. The experimental results show that electrical conductivity increases whereas thermal conductivity decreases with increasing milling time. The negative sign of seebeck coefficient indicate the n-type nature with majority charge carriers of electrons. A maximum figure of merit about 0.55 is achieved for l5hr ball milled Bi2Te3 sample. The present study demonstrates the simple and cost-effective method for synthesis of Bi2Te3 thermoelectric material at large scale thermoelectric applications.

  17. Casimir Energies for Isorefractive or Diaphanous Balls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimball A. Milton

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the Casimir self-energy of a homogeneous dielectric ball is divergent, although a finite self-energy can be extracted through second order in the deviation of the permittivity from the vacuum value. The exception occurs when the speed of light inside the spherical boundary is the same as that outside, so the self-energy of a perfectly conducting spherical shell is finite, as is the energy of a dielectric-diamagnetic sphere with ε μ = 1 , a so-called isorefractive or diaphanous ball. Here we re-examine that example and attempt to extend it to an electromagnetic δ -function sphere, where the electric and magnetic couplings are equal and opposite. Unfortunately, although the energy expression is superficially ultraviolet finite, additional divergences appear that render it difficult to extract a meaningful result in general, but some limited results are presented.

  18. Relative locality and the soccer ball problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    We consider the behavior of macroscopic bodies within the framework of relative locality [G. Amelino-Camelia, L. Freidel, J. Kowalski-Glikman, and L. Smolin, arXiv:1101.0931]. This is a recent proposal for Planck scale modifications of the relativistic dynamics of particles which are described as arising from deformations in the geometry of momentum space. We consider and resolve a common objection against such proposals, which is that, even if the corrections are small for elementary particles in current experiments, they are huge when applied to composite systems such as soccer balls, planets, and stars, with energies E macro much larger than M P . We show that this soccer ball problem does not arise within the framework of relative locality because the nonlinear effects for the dynamics of a composite system with N elementary particles appear at most of order E macro /N·M P .

  19. Fusing Eye-gaze and Speech Recognition for Tracking in an Automatic Reading Tutor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Højfeldt; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach for automatically tracking the reading progress using a combination of eye-gaze tracking and speech recognition. The two are fused by first generating word probabilities based on eye-gaze information and then using these probabilities to augment the langu......In this paper we present a novel approach for automatically tracking the reading progress using a combination of eye-gaze tracking and speech recognition. The two are fused by first generating word probabilities based on eye-gaze information and then using these probabilities to augment...

  20. Conflict Tasks of Different Types Divergently Affect the Attentional Processing of Gaze and Arrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lingxia; Yu, Huan; Zhang, Xuemin; Feng, Qing; Sun, Mengdan; Xu, Mengsi

    2018-01-01

    The present study explored the attentional processing mechanisms of gaze and arrow cues in two different types of conflict tasks. In Experiment 1, participants performed a flanker task in which gaze and arrow cues were presented as central targets or bilateral distractors. The congruency between the direction of the target and the distractors was manipulated. Results showed that arrow distractors greatly interfered with the attentional processing of gaze, while the processing of arrow direction was immune to conflict from gaze distractors. Using a spatial compatibility task, Experiment 2 explored the conflict effects exerted on gaze and arrow processing by their relative spatial locations. When the direction of the arrow was in conflict with its spatial layout on screen, response times were slowed; however, the encoding of gaze was unaffected by spatial location. In general, processing to an arrow cue is less influenced by bilateral gaze cues but is affected by irrelevant spatial information, while processing to a gaze cue is greatly disturbed by bilateral arrows but is unaffected by irrelevant spatial information. Different effects on gaze and arrow cues by different types of conflicts may reflect two relatively distinct specific modes of the attentional process.

  1. Direct gaze elicits atypical activation of the theory-of-mind network in autism spectrum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von dem Hagen, Elisabeth A H; Stoyanova, Raliza S; Rowe, James B; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Calder, Andrew J

    2014-06-01

    Eye contact plays a key role in social interaction and is frequently reported to be atypical in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASCs). Despite the importance of direct gaze, previous functional magnetic resonance imaging in ASC has generally focused on paradigms using averted gaze. The current study sought to determine the neural processing of faces displaying direct and averted gaze in 18 males with ASC and 23 matched controls. Controls showed an increased response to direct gaze in brain areas implicated in theory-of-mind and gaze perception, including medial prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal junction, posterior superior temporal sulcus region, and amygdala. In contrast, the same regions showed an increased response to averted gaze in individuals with an ASC. This difference was confirmed by a significant gaze direction × group interaction. Relative to controls, participants with ASC also showed reduced functional connectivity between these regions. We suggest that, in the typical brain, perceiving another person gazing directly at you triggers spontaneous attributions of mental states (e.g. he is "interested" in me), and that such mental state attributions to direct gaze may be reduced or absent in the autistic brain.

  2. Simple gaze-contingent cues guide eye movements in a realistic driving simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomarjanschi, Laura; Dorr, Michael; Bex, Peter J.; Barth, Erhardt

    2013-03-01

    Looking at the right place at the right time is a critical component of driving skill. Therefore, gaze guidance has the potential to become a valuable driving assistance system. In previous work, we have already shown that complex gaze-contingent stimuli can guide attention and reduce the number of accidents in a simple driving simulator. We here set out to investigate whether cues that are simple enough to be implemented in a real car can also capture gaze during a more realistic driving task in a high-fidelity driving simulator. We used a state-of-the-art, wide-field-of-view driving simulator with an integrated eye tracker. Gaze-contingent warnings were implemented using two arrays of light-emitting diodes horizontally fitted below and above the simulated windshield. Thirteen volunteering subjects drove along predetermined routes in a simulated environment popu­ lated with autonomous traffic. Warnings were triggered during the approach to half of the intersections, cueing either towards the right or to the left. The remaining intersections were not cued, and served as controls. The analysis of the recorded gaze data revealed that the gaze-contingent cues did indeed have a gaze guiding effect, triggering a significant shift in gaze position towards the highlighted direction. This gaze shift was not accompanied by changes in driving behaviour, suggesting that the cues do not interfere with the driving task itself.

  3. Social evolution. Oxytocin-gaze positive loop and the coevolution of human-dog bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mitsui, Shouhei; En, Shiori; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Sakuma, Yasuo; Onaka, Tatsushi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2015-04-17

    Human-like modes of communication, including mutual gaze, in dogs may have been acquired during domestication with humans. We show that gazing behavior from dogs, but not wolves, increased urinary oxytocin concentrations in owners, which consequently facilitated owners' affiliation and increased oxytocin concentration in dogs. Further, nasally administered oxytocin increased gazing behavior in dogs, which in turn increased urinary oxytocin concentrations in owners. These findings support the existence of an interspecies oxytocin-mediated positive loop facilitated and modulated by gazing, which may have supported the coevolution of human-dog bonding by engaging common modes of communicating social attachment. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Ball-thrower's fracture of the humerus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaghan, Eric B.; Bennett, D. Lee; El-Khoury, Georges Y.; Ohashi, Kenjirou

    2004-01-01

    A relatively rare case of ball-thrower's fracture of the humerus is presented. Severe muscular action is an uncommon cause of humeral fractures but has been well documented in the orthopedic literature. To our knowledge, this fracture has not been described in the radiology literature, and awareness of this entity could preclude further unnecessary workup. The mechanism of injury and its typical radiographic appearance is described. (orig.)

  5. From a Ball Game to Incompleteness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tree is a tree in which each node has a finite number of children. In a rooted tree, the sequence of nodes from the root to a leaf, where the (j + 1)th node is a child of the jth node, is called a. 'path'. For instance, in the above tree, the root contains 2, and all leafs are the nodes that contain 0. Since any ball is replaced with a fi-.

  6. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  7. 3D Printing of Ball Grid Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Hines, Daniel; Dasgupta, Abhijit; Das, Siddhartha

    Ball grid arrays (BGA) are interconnects between an integrated circuit (IC) and a printed circuit board (PCB), that are used for surface mounting electronic components. Typically, lead free alloys are used to make solder balls which, after a reflow process, establish a mechanical and electrical connection between the IC and the PCB. High temperature processing is required for most of these alloys leading to thermal shock causing damage to ICs. For producing flexible circuits on a polymer substrate, there is a requirement for low temperature processing capabilities (around 150 C) and for reducing strain from mechanical stresses. Additive manufacturing techniques can provide an alternative methodology for fabricating BGAs as a direct replacement for standard solder bumped BGAs. We have developed aerosol jet (AJ) printing methods to fabricate a polymer bumped BGA. As a demonstration of the process developed, a daisy chain test chip was polymer bumped using an AJ printed ultra violet (UV) curable polymer ink that was then coated with an AJ printed silver nanoparticle laden ink as a conducting layer printed over the polymer bump. The structure for the balls were achieved by printing the polymer ink using a specific toolpath coupled with in-situ UV curing of the polymer which provided good control over the shape, resulting in well-formed spherical bumps on the order of 200 um wide by 200 um tall for this initial demonstration. A detailed discussion of the AJ printing method and results from accelerated life-time testing will be presented

  8. Relation Between Hertz Stress-Life Exponent, Ball-Race Conformity, and Ball Bearing Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.; Root, Lawrence E.

    2008-01-01

    ANSI/ABMA and ISO standards based on Lundberg-Palmgren bearing life theory are normalized for ball bearings having inner- and outerrace conformities of 52 percent (0.52) and made from pre-1940 bearing steel. The Lundberg-Palmgren theory incorporates an inverse 9th power relation between Hertz stress and fatigue life for ball bearings. The effect of race conformity on ball set life independent of race life is not incorporated into the Lundberg-Palmgren theory. In addition, post-1960 vacuum-processed bearing steel exhibits a 12th power relation between Hertz stress and life. The work reported extends the previous work of Zaretsky, Poplawski, and Root to calculate changes in bearing life--that includes the life of the ball set--caused by race conformity, Hertz stress-life exponent, ball bearing type and bearing series. The bearing fatigue life in actual application will usually be equal to or greater than that calculated using the ANSI/ABMA and ISO standards that incorporate the Lundberg-Palmgren theory. The relative fatigue life of an individual race is more sensitive to changes in race conformity for Hertz stress-life exponent n of 12 than where n = 9. However, when the effects are combined to predict actual bearing life for a specified set of conditions and bearing geometry, the predicted life of the bearing will be greater for a value of n = 12 than n = 9.

  9. "Wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze": Correction to Werhahn et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Reports an error in "Wolves ( Canis lupus ) and dogs ( Canis familiaris ) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze" by Geraldine Werhahn, Zsófia Virányi, Gabriela Barrera, Andrea Sommese and Friederike Range ( Journal of Comparative Psychology , 2016[Aug], Vol 130[3], 288-298). In the article, the affiliations for the second and fifth authors should be Wolf Science Center, Ernstbrunn, Austria, and Comparative Cognition, Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna/ Medical University of Vienna/University of Vienna. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-26311-001.) Gaze following into distant space is defined as visual co-orientation with another individual's head direction allowing the gaze follower to gain information on its environment. Human and nonhuman animals share this basic gaze following behavior, suggested to rely on a simple reflexive mechanism and believed to be an important prerequisite for complex forms of social cognition. Pet dogs differ from other species in that they follow only communicative human gaze clearly addressed to them. However, in an earlier experiment we showed that wolves follow human gaze into distant space. Here we set out to investigate whether domestication has affected gaze following in dogs by comparing pack-living dogs and wolves raised and kept under the same conditions. In Study 1 we found that in contrast to the wolves, these dogs did not follow minimally communicative human gaze into distant space in the same test paradigm. In the observational Study 2 we found that pack-living dogs and wolves, similarly vigilant to environmental stimuli, follow the spontaneous gaze of their conspecifics similarly often. Our findings suggest that domestication did not affect the gaze following ability of dogs itself. The results raise hypotheses about which other dog skills

  10. Aerodynamics in the classroom and at the ball park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2012-04-01

    Experiments suitable for classroom projects or demonstrations are described concerning the aerodynamics of polystyrene balls. A light ball with sufficient backspin can curve vertically upward through the air, defying gravity and providing a dramatic visual demonstration of the Magnus effect. A ball projected with backspin can also curve downward with a vertical acceleration greater than that due to gravity if the Magnus force is negative. These effects were investigated by filming the flight of balls projected in an approximately horizontal direction so that the lift and drag forces could be easily measured. The balls were also fitted with artificial raised seams and projected with backspin toward a vertical target in order to measure the sideways deflection over a known horizontal distance. It was found that (a) a ball with a seam on one side can deflect either left or right depending on its launch speed and (b) a ball with a baseball seam can also deflect sideways even when there is no sideways component of the drag or lift forces acting on the ball. Depending on the orientations of the seam and the spin axis, a sideways force on a baseball can arise either if there is rough patch on one side of the ball or if there is a smooth patch. A scuff ball with a rough patch on one side is illegal in baseball. The effect of a smooth patch is a surprising new observation.

  11. Biomechanics of Heading a Soccer Ball: Implications for Player Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Babbs

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the risk and safety of heading a soccer ball, the author created a set of simple mathematical models based upon Newton�s second law of motion to describe the physics of heading. These models describe the player, the ball, the flight of the ball before impact, the motion of the head and ball during impact, and the effects of all of these upon the intensity and the duration of acceleration of the head. The calculated head accelerations were compared to those during presumably safe daily activities of jumping, dancing, and head nodding and also were related to established criteria for serious head injury from the motor vehicle crash literature. The results suggest heading is usually safe but occasionally dangerous, depending on key characteristics of both the player and the ball. Safety is greatly improved when players head the ball with greater effective body mass, which is determined by a player�s size, strength, and technique. Smaller youth players, because of their lesser body mass, are more at risk of potentially dangerous headers than are adults, even when using current youth size balls. Lower ball inflation pressure reduces risk of dangerous head accelerations. Lower pressure balls also have greater “touch” and “playability”, measured in terms of contact time and contact area between foot and ball during a kick. Focus on teaching proper technique, the re-design of age-appropriate balls for young players with reduced weight and inflation pressure, and avoidance of head contact with fast, rising balls kicked at close range can substantially reduce risk of subtle brain injury in players who head soccer balls.

  12. A general theory for ball lightning structure and light output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R.

    2018-03-01

    A general theory for free-floating ball lightning is presented which unifies the phantom plasma ball theory involving the production of very little light, with theories for ball lightning involving light output produced by burning particles from the soil. The mechanism for the formation of plasma balls is shown to be quite general, producing very similar plasma balls independent of initial ion densities over four orders of magnitude. All that is required is an excess of positive ions in the initial ball of ions. The central plasma density after 1 s is shown to be the reciprocal of the ion neutralization coefficient for all cases, both analytically and computationally. Further, the plasma region has zero electric field in all cases. Surrounding the plasma ball is a sphere of positive ions moving away from the centre via their own space-charge field; this space-charge field, which is the same in all cases near the plasma ball, drives negative ions and negative particles towards the plasma centre. The connection with burning particle theories is the proposition that the burning particles are highly-charged which is very likely after a lightning strike. Burning negatively charged particles would be driven into the plasma ball region and trapped while any positively charged particles would be driven away. The plasma ball structure is shown to last more than 10 s and the ‘burnout time’ for a typical coal particle (as an example) has been measured at 5-10 s this is comparable with the lifetimes observed for ball lightning. The light output from a few hundred particles is estimated to be ~1 W, a typical output for ball lightning. Finally, suggestions are made for the generation of ball lightning in the laboratory.

  13. Experimental test of spatial updating models for monkey eye-head gaze shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J Van Grootel

    Full Text Available How the brain maintains an accurate and stable representation of visual target locations despite the occurrence of saccadic gaze shifts is a classical problem in oculomotor research. Here we test and dissociate the predictions of different conceptual models for head-unrestrained gaze-localization behavior of macaque monkeys. We adopted the double-step paradigm with rapid eye-head gaze shifts to measure localization accuracy in response to flashed visual stimuli in darkness. We presented the second target flash either before (static, or during (dynamic the first gaze displacement. In the dynamic case the brief visual flash induced a small retinal streak of up to about 20 deg at an unpredictable moment and retinal location during the eye-head gaze shift, which provides serious challenges for the gaze-control system. However, for both stimulus conditions, monkeys localized the flashed targets with accurate gaze shifts, which rules out several models of visuomotor control. First, these findings exclude the possibility that gaze-shift programming relies on retinal inputs only. Instead, they support the notion that accurate eye-head motor feedback updates the gaze-saccade coordinates. Second, in dynamic trials the visuomotor system cannot rely on the coordinates of the planned first eye-head saccade either, which rules out remapping on the basis of a predictive corollary gaze-displacement signal. Finally, because gaze-related head movements were also goal-directed, requiring continuous access to eye-in-head position, we propose that our results best support a dynamic feedback scheme for spatial updating in which visuomotor control incorporates accurate signals about instantaneous eye- and head positions rather than relative eye- and head displacements.

  14. Gaze training enhances laparoscopic technical skill acquisition and multi-tasking performance: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark R; Vine, Samuel J; Bright, Elizabeth; Masters, Rich S W; Defriend, David; McGrath, John S

    2011-12-01

    The operating room environment is replete with stressors and distractions that increase the attention demands of what are already complex psychomotor procedures. Contemporary research in other fields (e.g., sport) has revealed that gaze training interventions may support the development of robust movement skills. This current study was designed to examine the utility of gaze training for technical laparoscopic skills and to test performance under multitasking conditions. Thirty medical trainees with no laparoscopic experience were divided randomly into one of three treatment groups: gaze trained (GAZE), movement trained (MOVE), and discovery learning/control (DISCOVERY). Participants were fitted with a Mobile Eye gaze registration system, which measures eye-line of gaze at 25 Hz. Training consisted of ten repetitions of the "eye-hand coordination" task from the LAP Mentor VR laparoscopic surgical simulator while receiving instruction and video feedback (specific to each treatment condition). After training, all participants completed a control test (designed to assess learning) and a multitasking transfer test, in which they completed the procedure while performing a concurrent tone counting task. Not only did the GAZE group learn more quickly than the MOVE and DISCOVERY groups (faster completion times in the control test), but the performance difference was even more pronounced when multitasking. Differences in gaze control (target locking fixations), rather than tool movement measures (tool path length), underpinned this performance advantage for GAZE training. These results suggest that although the GAZE intervention focused on training gaze behavior only, there were indirect benefits for movement behaviors and performance efficiency. Additionally, focusing on a single external target when learning, rather than on complex movement patterns, may have freed-up attentional resources that could be applied to concurrent cognitive tasks.

  15. Adaptive Gaze Strategies for Locomotion with Constricted Visual Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colas N. Authié

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In retinitis pigmentosa (RP, loss of peripheral visual field accounts for most difficulties encountered in visuo-motor coordination during locomotion. The purpose of this study was to accurately assess the impact of peripheral visual field loss on gaze strategies during locomotion, and identify compensatory mechanisms. Nine RP subjects presenting a central visual field limited to 10–25° in diameter, and nine healthy subjects were asked to walk in one of three directions—straight ahead to a visual target, leftward and rightward through a door frame, with or without obstacle on the way. Whole body kinematics were recorded by motion capture, and gaze direction in space was reconstructed using an eye-tracker. Changes in gaze strategies were identified in RP subjects, including extensive exploration prior to walking, frequent fixations of the ground (even knowing no obstacle was present, of door edges, essentially of the proximal one, of obstacle edge/corner, and alternating door edges fixations when approaching the door. This was associated with more frequent, sometimes larger rapid-eye-movements, larger movements, and forward tilting of the head. Despite the visual handicap, the trajectory geometry was identical between groups, with a small decrease in walking speed in RPs. These findings identify the adaptive changes in sensory-motor coordination, in order to ensure visual awareness of the surrounding, detect changes in spatial configuration, collect information for self-motion, update the postural reference frame, and update egocentric distances to environmental objects. They are of crucial importance for the design of optimized rehabilitation procedures.

  16. Adaptive Gaze Strategies for Locomotion with Constricted Visual Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authié, Colas N.; Berthoz, Alain; Sahel, José-Alain; Safran, Avinoam B.

    2017-01-01

    In retinitis pigmentosa (RP), loss of peripheral visual field accounts for most difficulties encountered in visuo-motor coordination during locomotion. The purpose of this study was to accurately assess the impact of peripheral visual field loss on gaze strategies during locomotion, and identify compensatory mechanisms. Nine RP subjects presenting a central visual field limited to 10–25° in diameter, and nine healthy subjects were asked to walk in one of three directions—straight ahead to a visual target, leftward and rightward through a door frame, with or without obstacle on the way. Whole body kinematics were recorded by motion capture, and gaze direction in space was reconstructed using an eye-tracker. Changes in gaze strategies were identified in RP subjects, including extensive exploration prior to walking, frequent fixations of the ground (even knowing no obstacle was present), of door edges, essentially of the proximal one, of obstacle edge/corner, and alternating door edges fixations when approaching the door. This was associated with more frequent, sometimes larger rapid-eye-movements, larger movements, and forward tilting of the head. Despite the visual handicap, the trajectory geometry was identical between groups, with a small decrease in walking speed in RPs. These findings identify the adaptive changes in sensory-motor coordination, in order to ensure visual awareness of the surrounding, detect changes in spatial configuration, collect information for self-motion, update the postural reference frame, and update egocentric distances to environmental objects. They are of crucial importance for the design of optimized rehabilitation procedures. PMID:28798674

  17. Gaze stability of observers watching Op Art pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanker, Johannes M; Doyle, Melanie; Robin, Walker

    2003-01-01

    It has been the matter of some debate why we can experience vivid dynamic illusions when looking at static pictures composed from simple black and white patterns. The impression of illusory motion is particularly strong when viewing some of the works of 'Op Artists, such as Bridget Riley's painting Fall. Explanations of the illusory motion have ranged from retinal to cortical mechanisms, and an important role has been attributed to eye movements. To assess the possible contribution of eye movements to the illusory-motion percept we studied the strength of the illusion under different viewing conditions, and analysed the gaze stability of observers viewing the Riley painting and control patterns that do not produce the illusion. Whereas the illusion was reduced, but not abolished, when watching the painting through a pinhole, which reduces the effects of accommodation, it was not perceived in flash afterimages, suggesting an important role for eye movements in generating the illusion for this image. Recordings of eye movements revealed an abundance of small involuntary saccades when looking at the Riley pattern, despite the fact that gaze was kept within the dedicated fixation region. The frequency and particular characteristics of these rapid eye movements can vary considerably between different observers, but, although there was a tendency for gaze stability to deteriorate while viewing a Riley painting, there was no significant difference in saccade frequency between the stimulus and control patterns. Theoretical considerations indicate that such small image displacements can generate patterns of motion signals in a motion-detector network, which may serve as a simple and sufficient, but not necessarily exclusive, explanation for the illusion. Why such image displacements lead to perceptual results with a group of Op Art and similar patterns, but remain invisible for other stimuli, is discussed.

  18. Mucormycosis (Mucor fungus ball) of the maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hang Sun; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2014-01-01

    A fungus ball is an extramucosal fungal proliferation that completely fills one or more paranasal sinuses and usually occurs as a unilateral infection. It is mainly caused by Aspergillus spp in an immunocompetent host, but some cases of paranasal fungal balls reportedly have been caused by Mucor spp. A Mucor fungus ball is usually found in the maxillary sinus and/or the sphenoid sinus and may be black in color. Patients with mucormycosis, or a Mucor fungal ball infection, usually present with facial pain or headache. On computed tomography, there are no pathognomonic findings that are conclusive for a diagnosis of mucormycosis. In this article we report a case of mucormycosis in a 56-year-old woman and provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the "Mucor fungus ball." To the best of our knowledge, 5 case reports (8 patients) have been published in which the fungus ball was thought to be caused by Mucor spp.

  19. Micro structrual characterization and analysis of ball milled silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudan, B. M.; Raju, H. P.; Ghanaraja., S.

    2018-04-01

    Mechanical alloying has been one of the prominent methods of powder synthesis technique in solid state involving cyclic deformation, cold welding and fracturing of powder particles. Powder particles in this method are subjected to greater mechanical deformation due to the impact of ball-powder-ball and ball-powder-container collisions that occurs during mechanical alloying. Strain hardening and fracture of particles decreases the size of the particles and creates new surfaces. The objective of this Present work is to use ball milling of SiC powder for different duration of 5, 10, 15 and 20 hours by High energy planetary ball milling machine and to evaluate the effect of ball milling on SiC powder. Micro structural Studies using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and EDAX has been investigated.

  20. Mutual Disambiguation of Eye Gaze and Speech for Sight Translation and Reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkarni, Rucha; Jain, Kritika; Bansal, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    and composition of the two modalities was used for integration. F-measure for Eye-Gaze and Word Accuracy for ASR were used as metrics to evaluate our results. In reading task, we demonstrated a significant improvement in both Eye-Gaze f-measure and speech Word Accuracy. In sight translation task, significant...

  1. Tactile band : accessing gaze signals from the sighted in face-to-face communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, S.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Hu, J.

    2016-01-01

    Gaze signals, frequently used by the sighted in social interactions as visual cues, are hardly accessible for low-vision and blind people. A concept is proposed to help the blind people access and react to gaze signals in face-to-face communication. 20 blind and low-vision participants were

  2. The Role of Global and Local Visual Information during Gaze-Cued Orienting of Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, Nicolette M; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Hooge, Ignace T C; Kemner, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Gaze direction is an important social communication tool. Global and local visual information are known to play specific roles in processing socially relevant information from a face. The current study investigated whether global visual information has a primary role during gaze-cued orienting of attention and, as such, may influence quality of interaction. Adults performed a gaze-cueing task in which a centrally presented face cued (valid or invalid) the location of a peripheral target through a gaze shift. We measured brain activity (electroencephalography) towards the cue and target and behavioral responses (manual and saccadic reaction times) towards the target. The faces contained global (i.e. lower spatial frequencies), local (i.e. higher spatial frequencies), or a selection of both global and local (i.e. mid-band spatial frequencies) visual information. We found a gaze cue-validity effect (i.e. valid versus invalid), but no interaction effects with spatial frequency content. Furthermore, behavioral responses towards the target were in all cue conditions slower when lower spatial frequencies were not present in the gaze cue. These results suggest that whereas gaze-cued orienting of attention can be driven by both global and local visual information, global visual information determines the speed of behavioral responses towards other entities appearing in the surrounding of gaze cue stimuli.

  3. Attention and Gaze Control in Picture Naming, Word Reading, and Word Categorizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2007-01-01

    The trigger for shifting gaze between stimuli requiring vocal and manual responses was examined. Participants were presented with picture-word stimuli and left- or right-pointing arrows. They vocally named the picture (Experiment 1), read the word (Experiment 2), or categorized the word (Experiment 3) and shifted their gaze to the arrow to…

  4. Gaze-based interaction with public displays using off-the-shelf components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin; Tall, Martin Henrik

    Eye gaze can be used to interact with high-density information presented on large displays. We have built a system employing off-the-shelf hardware components and open-source gaze tracking software that enables users to interact with an interface displayed on a 55” screen using their eye movement...

  5. Deep Learning-Based Gaze Detection System for Automobile Drivers Using a NIR Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ali Naqvi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm shift is required to prevent the increasing automobile accident deaths that are mostly due to the inattentive behavior of drivers. Knowledge of gaze region can provide valuable information regarding a driver’s point of attention. Accurate and inexpensive gaze classification systems in cars can improve safe driving. However, monitoring real-time driving behaviors and conditions presents some challenges: dizziness due to long drives, extreme lighting variations, glasses reflections, and occlusions. Past studies on gaze detection in cars have been chiefly based on head movements. The margin of error in gaze detection increases when drivers gaze at objects by moving their eyes without moving their heads. To solve this problem, a pupil center corneal reflection (PCCR-based method has been considered. However, the error of accurately detecting the pupil center and corneal reflection center is increased in a car environment due to various environment light changes, reflections on glasses surface, and motion and optical blurring of captured eye image. In addition, existing PCCR-based methods require initial user calibration, which is difficult to perform in a car environment. To address this issue, we propose a deep learning-based gaze detection method using a near-infrared (NIR camera sensor considering driver head and eye movement that does not require any initial user calibration. The proposed system is evaluated on our self-constructed database as well as on open Columbia gaze dataset (CAVE-DB. The proposed method demonstrated greater accuracy than the previous gaze classification methods.

  6. Deep Learning-Based Gaze Detection System for Automobile Drivers Using a NIR Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Rizwan Ali; Arsalan, Muhammad; Batchuluun, Ganbayar; Yoon, Hyo Sik; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-02-03

    A paradigm shift is required to prevent the increasing automobile accident deaths that are mostly due to the inattentive behavior of drivers. Knowledge of gaze region can provide valuable information regarding a driver's point of attention. Accurate and inexpensive gaze classification systems in cars can improve safe driving. However, monitoring real-time driving behaviors and conditions presents some challenges: dizziness due to long drives, extreme lighting variations, glasses reflections, and occlusions. Past studies on gaze detection in cars have been chiefly based on head movements. The margin of error in gaze detection increases when drivers gaze at objects by moving their eyes without moving their heads. To solve this problem, a pupil center corneal reflection (PCCR)-based method has been considered. However, the error of accurately detecting the pupil center and corneal reflection center is increased in a car environment due to various environment light changes, reflections on glasses surface, and motion and optical blurring of captured eye image. In addition, existing PCCR-based methods require initial user calibration, which is difficult to perform in a car environment. To address this issue, we propose a deep learning-based gaze detection method using a near-infrared (NIR) camera sensor considering driver head and eye movement that does not require any initial user calibration. The proposed system is evaluated on our self-constructed database as well as on open Columbia gaze dataset (CAVE-DB). The proposed method demonstrated greater accuracy than the previous gaze classification methods.

  7. Face and gaze perception in borderline personality disorder: An electrical neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchio, Cristina; Piguet, Camille; Gentsch, Kornelia; Küng, Anne-Lise; Rihs, Tonia A; Hasler, Roland; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Dayer, Alexandre; Michel, Christoph M; Perroud, Nader

    2017-11-30

    Humans are sensitive to gaze direction from early life, and gaze has social and affective values. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a clinical condition characterized by emotional dysregulation and enhanced sensitivity to affective and social cues. In this study we wanted to investigate the temporal-spatial dynamics of spontaneous gaze processing in BPD. We used a 2-back-working-memory task, in which neutral faces with direct and averted gaze were presented. Gaze was used as an emotional modulator of event-related-potentials to faces. High density EEG data were acquired in 19 females with BPD and 19 healthy women, and analyzed with a spatio-temporal microstates analysis approach. Independently of gaze direction, BPD patients showed altered N170 and P200 topographies for neutral faces. Source localization revealed that the anterior cingulate and other prefrontal regions were abnormally activated during the N170 component related to face encoding, while middle temporal deactivations were observed during the P200 component. Post-task affective ratings showed that BPD patients had difficulty to disambiguate neutral gaze. This study provides first evidence for an early neural bias toward neutral faces in BPD independent of gaze direction and also suggests the importance of considering basic aspects of social cognition in identifying biological risk factors of BPD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. It Takes Time and Experience to Learn How to Interpret Gaze in Mentalistic Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, David A.

    2006-01-01

    What capabilities are required for an organism to evince an "explicit" understanding of gaze as a mentalistic phenomenon? One possibility is that mentalistic interpretations of gaze, like concepts of unseen, supernatural beings, are culturally-specific concepts, acquired through cultural learning. These abstract concepts may either require a…

  9. Coding gaze tracking data with chromatic gradients for VR Exposure Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Grillon, Helena; De Heras Ciechomski, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a simple and intuitive way to represent the eye-tracking data gathered during immersive virtual reality exposure therapy sessions. Eye-tracking technology is used to observe gaze movements during vir- tual reality sessions and the gaze-map chromatic gradient coding allows to...... is fully compatible with different VR exposure systems and provides clinically meaningful data....

  10. Gaze Strategies in Skateboard Trick Jumps: Spatiotemporal Constraints in Complex Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klostermann, André; Küng, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to further the knowledge on gaze behavior in locomotion by studying gaze strategies in skateboard jumps of different difficulty that had to be performed either with or without an obstacle. Method: Nine experienced skateboarders performed "Ollie" and "Kickflip" jumps either over an obstacle or over a…

  11. Reading pleasure : Light in August and the theory of the gendered gaze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses various components of the theory of the gendered gaze, in order to construct a framework for an analysis of how William Faulkner understood and fictionally presented the mechanism of the gaze in Light in August. Linking theory and praxis, this article explores the relationship

  12. Gaze3DFix: Detecting 3D fixations with an ellipsoidal bounding volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Sascha; Schubert, Rebekka S; Vogt, Stefan; Velichkovsky, Boris M; Pannasch, Sebastian

    2017-10-26

    Nowadays, the use of eyetracking to determine 2-D gaze positions is common practice, and several approaches to the detection of 2-D fixations exist, but ready-to-use algorithms to determine eye movements in three dimensions are still missing. Here we present a dispersion-based algorithm with an ellipsoidal bounding volume that estimates 3D fixations. Therefore, 3D gaze points are obtained using a vector-based approach and are further processed with our algorithm. To evaluate the accuracy of our method, we performed experimental studies with real and virtual stimuli. We obtained good congruence between stimulus position and both the 3D gaze points and the 3D fixation locations within the tested range of 200-600 mm. The mean deviation of the 3D fixations from the stimulus positions was 17 mm for the real as well as for the virtual stimuli, with larger variances at increasing stimulus distances. The described algorithms are implemented in two dynamic linked libraries (Gaze3D.dll and Fixation3D.dll), and we provide a graphical user interface (Gaze3DFixGUI.exe) that is designed for importing 2-D binocular eyetracking data and calculating both 3D gaze points and 3D fixations using the libraries. The Gaze3DFix toolkit, including both libraries and the graphical user interface, is available as open-source software at https://github.com/applied-cognition-research/Gaze3DFix .

  13. Facial Expressions Modulate the Ontogenetic Trajectory of Gaze-Following among Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Christoph; Gutmann, Anke; Pirow, Ralph; Fischer, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Gaze-following, the tendency to direct one's attention to locations looked at by others, is a crucial aspect of social cognition in human and nonhuman primates. Whereas the development of gaze-following has been intensely studied in human infants, its early ontogeny in nonhuman primates has received little attention. Combining longitudinal and…

  14. Does Gaze Direction Modulate Facial Expression Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akechi, Hironori; Senju, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) integrate relevant communicative signals, such as gaze direction, when decoding a facial expression. In Experiment 1, typically developing children (9-14 years old; n = 14) were faster at detecting a facial expression accompanying a gaze direction with a congruent…

  15. Gender and facial dominance in gaze cuing: Emotional context matters in the eyes that we follow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohlsen, G.; van Zoest, W.; van Vugt, M.

    2013-01-01

    Gaze following is a socio-cognitive process that provides adaptive information about potential threats and opportunities in the individual's environment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential interaction between emotional context and facial dominance in gaze following. We

  16. On uniform resampling and gaze analysis of bidirectional texture functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Chantler, M.J.; Haindl, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2009), s. 1-15 ISSN 1544-3558 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant - others:EC Marie Curie(BE) 41358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : BTF * texture * eye tracking Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.447, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/RO/haindl-on uniform resampling and gaze analysis of bidirectional texture functions.pdf

  17. Refracted Gazes: A Woman Photographer during Mandate Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Nachabe

    2012-11-01

    This paper explores the relationship between modernity and femininity as manifest through the women’s activity, gaze and attire in Marie al-Khazen as well as other photographs taken in the Middle East region between the 1930s and the 1940s. Al-Khazen and the women represented in the photographs of this period were part of a cosmopolitan sensibility that reveals the Middle East region to be far more international than one might have imagined. Caught between projecting a self-image of the cosmopolitan woman and one of the traditional bedouin, these photographs provide a rich field for tracking the ambiguities of the modern.

  18. Sexualized Branded Entertainment and the Male Consumer Gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. McAllister

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article applies the “male consumer gaze” – integrating work influenced by Erving Goffman and Laura Mulvey – to two branded televised events: the 2011 Victoria’s Secret Fashion Show and the 2012 Hooters International Swimsuit Pageant. Critiqued elements include gendered body positioning, televisual and narrativizing techniques, social and integrated media, and branding strategies that combine to create a flow of consumption-based male gazing. Such trends may intensify with changes in media economics and niche marketing.

  19. LOW COMPRESSION TENNIS BALLS AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hammond

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Coaching aims to improve player performance and coaches have a number of coaching methods and strategies they use to enhance this process. If new methods and ideas can be determined to improve player performance they will change coaching practices and processes. This study investigated the effects of using low compression balls (LCBs during coaching sessions with beginning tennis players. In order to assess the effectiveness of LCBs on skill learning the study employed a quasi-experimental design supported by qualitative and descriptive data. Beginner tennis players took part in coaching sessions, one group using the LCBs while the other group used standard tennis balls. Both groups were administered a skills at the beginning of a series of coaching sessions and again at the end. A statistical investigation of the difference between pre and post-test results was carried out to determine the effect of LCBs on skill learning. Additional qualitative data was obtained through interviews, video capture and the use of performance analysis of typical coaching sessions for each group. The skill test results indicated no difference in skill learning when comparing beginners using the LCBs to those using the standard balls. Coaches reported that the LCBs appeared to have a positive effect on technique development, including aspects of technique that are related to improving power of the shot. Additional benefits were that rallies went on longer and more opportunity for positive reinforcement. In order to provide a more conclusive answer to the effects of LCBs on skill learning and technique development recommendations for future research were established including a more controlled experimental environment and larger sample sizes across a longer period of time

  20. The methodology of composing the exercises system with fit balls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov N.P.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The original methodology of composing the exercises system with fit balls was considered. More than 10 publications were analysed. On the lesson with fit balls the problem was revealed. In the experiment took part 30 students at the age from 18 till 21. All the famous exercises were systematized. As a result, a big attractiveness and assimilability of the proposed complex was revealed. The effectiveness of the complex of physical exercises with fit balls for students was proved.

  1. Random power series in the unit ball of Cn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jihuai.

    1989-07-01

    The random power series in the unit disc has been studied by many authors. In this paper, we studied the random power series in the unit ball of C n and generalized some results in the unit disc to the unit ball, in particular, the result obtained recently by Duren has been generalized to the unit ball. The main tool used here is the generalized Salem-Zygmund's theorem. (author). 12 refs

  2. Role of Gaze Cues in Interpersonal Motor Coordination: Towards Higher Affiliation in Human-Robot Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Khoramshahi

    Full Text Available The ability to follow one another's gaze plays an important role in our social cognition; especially when we synchronously perform tasks together. We investigate how gaze cues can improve performance in a simple coordination task (i.e., the mirror game, whereby two players mirror each other's hand motions. In this game, each player is either a leader or follower. To study the effect of gaze in a systematic manner, the leader's role is played by a robotic avatar. We contrast two conditions, in which the avatar provides or not explicit gaze cues that indicate the next location of its hand. Specifically, we investigated (a whether participants are able to exploit these gaze cues to improve their coordination, (b how gaze cues affect action prediction and temporal coordination, and (c whether introducing active gaze behavior for avatars makes them more realistic and human-like (from the user point of view.43 subjects participated in 8 trials of the mirror game. Each subject performed the game in the two conditions (with and without gaze cues. In this within-subject study, the order of the conditions was randomized across participants, and subjective assessment of the avatar's realism was assessed by administering a post-hoc questionnaire. When gaze cues were provided, a quantitative assessment of synchrony between participants and the avatar revealed a significant improvement in subject reaction-time (RT. This confirms our hypothesis that gaze cues improve the follower's ability to predict the avatar's action. An analysis of the pattern of frequency across the two players' hand movements reveals that the gaze cues improve the overall temporal coordination across the two players. Finally, analysis of the subjective evaluations from the questionnaires reveals that, in the presence of gaze cues, participants found it not only more human-like/realistic, but also easier to interact with the avatar.This work confirms that people can exploit gaze cues to

  3. Amebiasis in four ball pythons, Python reginus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojimoto, A; Uchida, K; Horii, Y; Okumura, S; Yamaguch, R; Tateyama, S

    2001-12-01

    Between September 13th and November 18th in 1999, four ball pythons, Python reginus kept in the same display, showed anorexia and died one after another. At necropsy, all four snakes had severe hemorrhagic colitis. Microscopically, all snakes had severe necrotizing hemorrhagic colitis, in association with ameba-like protozoa. Some of the protozoa had macrophage-like morphology and others formed protozoal cysts with thickened walls. These protozoa were distributed throughout the wall in the large intestine. Based on the pathological findings, these snakes were infested with a member of Entamoeba sp., presumably with infection by Entamoeba invadens, the most prevalent type of reptilian amoebae.

  4. Collective flow measured with the Plastic Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, H.G.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kampert, K.H.; Kolb, B.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, H.R.; Siemiarczuk, T.

    1989-08-01

    The experimental results from the Plastic Ball detector have contributed vastly to the understanding of the reaction mechanism of nuclear collisions at several hundred MeV per nucleon. The discovery of the collective flow phenomena (bounce-off of spectator fragments, side-splash in the reaction plane, and squeeze-out out of the reaction plane), as they were predicted by hydrodynamical models, has led to the experimental observation of compressed nuclear matter, which is a necessary condition before one can study the equation of state in detail and search for phase transitions at higher energies. 39 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  5. A proposed experiment on ball lightning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatovich, Vladimir K.; Ignatovich, Filipp V.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We propose to put a glass sphere inside an excited gas. → Then to put a light ray inside the glass in a whispering gallery mode. → If the light is resonant to gas excitation, it will be amplified at every reflection. → In ms time the light in the glass will be amplified, and will melt the glass. → A liquid shell kept integer by electrostriction forces is the ball lightning model. -- Abstract: We propose an experiment for strong light amplification at multiple total reflections from active gaseous media.

  6. Quenching simulation of steel grinding balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Hernandez, O.; Reyes, L. A.; Camurri, C.; Carrasco, C.; Garza-Monte-de-Oca, F.; Colas, R.

    2015-07-01

    The phase transformations of high carbon steel during quenching and equalizing were modelled using commercial computer packages based on the finite element method and the kinetic transformation of steel. The model was used to predict the temperature and microstructural changes taking place within balls of two different sizes that are used for grinding mineral ores. A good correlation between the temperatures measured by inserted thermocouples and those predicted by the model was obtained after modifying the thermal conductivity of the steel within the temperature domain at which mixed phases are present. The phase transformations predicted were confirmed by metallographic analyses. (Author)

  7. Ball Bearing Analysis with the ORBIS Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Ball bearing design is critical to the success of aerospace mechanisms. Key bearing performance parameters, such as load capability, stiffness, torque, and life all depend on accurate determination of the internal load distribution. Hence, a good analytical bearing tool that provides both comprehensive capabilities and reliable results becomes a significant asset to the engineer. This paper introduces the ORBIS bearing tool. A discussion of key modeling assumptions and a technical overview is provided. Numerous validation studies and case studies using the ORBIS tool are presented. All results suggest the ORBIS code closely correlates to predictions on bearing internal load distributions, stiffness, deflection and stresses.

  8. The effects of social pressure and emotional expression on the cone of gaze in patients with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbort, Johannes; Spiegel, Julia; Witthöft, Michael; Hecht, Heiko

    2017-06-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder suffer from pronounced fears in social situations. As gaze perception is crucial in these situations, we examined which factors influence the range of gaze directions where mutual gaze is experienced (the cone of gaze). The social stimulus was modified by changing the number of people (heads) present and the emotional expression of their faces. Participants completed a psychophysical task, in which they had to adjust the eyes of a virtual head to gaze at the edge of the range where mutual eye-contact was experienced. The number of heads affected the width of the gaze cone: the more heads, the wider the gaze cone. The emotional expression of the virtual head had no consistent effect on the width of the gaze cone, it did however affect the emotional state of the participants. Angry expressions produced the highest arousal values. Highest valence emerged from happy faces, lowest valence from angry faces. These results suggest that the widening of the gaze cone in social anxiety disorder is not primarily mediated by their altered emotional reactivity. Implications for gaze assessment and gaze training in therapeutic contexts are discussed. Due to interindividual variability, enlarged gaze cones are not necessarily indicative of social anxiety disorder, they merely constitute a correlate at the group level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Looking at Eye Gaze Processing and Its Neural Correlates in Infancy--Implications for Social Development and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Stefanie; Reid, Vincent M.; Parise, Eugenio; Handl, Andrea; Palumbo, Letizia; Striano, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    The importance of eye gaze as a means of communication is indisputable. However, there is debate about whether there is a dedicated neural module, which functions as an eye gaze detector and when infants are able to use eye gaze cues in a referential way. The application of neuroscience methodologies to developmental psychology has provided new…

  10. Partial amorphization of an α-FeCr alloy by ball-milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, J. M.; Costa, B. F. O.; Caer, G. Le; Delcroix, P.

    2008-01-01

    The structural changes of near-equiatomic α-FeCr alloys, ground in a vibratory mill in vacuum and in argon, were followed as a function of milling time. An amorphous phase forms in both cases but at a much faster rate when milling in argon than when milling in vacuum. Amorphisation by ball-milling of α-FeCr alloys is deduced to be an intrinsic phenomenon which is however speeded-up by oxygen. The amorphous phase crystallizes into a bcc Cr-rich phase and a bcc Fe-rich phase when annealed for short times.

  11. Subjects and Objects of the Embodied Gaze: Abbas Kiarostami and the Real of the Individual Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyenge Zsolt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that Abbas Kiarostami’s cinema revolves around the representation of the gaze. Many critics argue that he should be considered a late modernist who repeats the self-reflexive gestures of modernist European cinema decades after they were first introduced. The present paper will contradict this assertion by investigating the problematic of the Kiarostamian gaze and analyzing the perceptual side of the act of looking. I will argue that instead of focusing on the gaze of the spectator directed towards the filmic image, he exposes a gaze that is fully integrated into the reality to be captured on film. The second part of the paper will explain this by linking the concept of gaze to the Lacanian concept of the order of the Real. Finally, I will contextualize all this by discussing the Iranian director’s position between Eastern and Western traditions of representation.

  12. A testimony to Muzil: Hervé Guibert, Foucault, and the medical gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    Testimony to Muzil: Hervé Guibert, Michel Foucault, and the "Medical Gaze" examines the fictional/autobiographical AIDS writings of the French writer Hervé Guibert. Locating Guibert's writings alongside the work of his friend Michel Foucault, the article explores how they echo Foucault's evolving notions of the "medical gaze." The article also explores how Guilbert's narrators and Guibert himself (as writer) resist and challenge the medical gaze; a gaze which particularly in the era of AIDS has subjected, objectified, and even sometimes punished the body of the gay man. It is argued that these resistances to the gaze offer a literary extension to Foucault's later work on power and resistance strategies.

  13. Simulation of ball motion and energy transfer in a planetary ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Sheng-Yong; Mao Qiong-Jing; Li Xiao-Dong; Yan Jian-Hua; Peng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    A kinetic model is proposed for simulating the trajectory of a single milling ball in a planetary ball mill, and a model is also proposed for simulating the local energy transfer during the ball milling process under no-slip conditions. Based on the kinematics of ball motion, the collision frequency and power are described, and the normal impact forces and effective power are derived from analyses of collision geometry. The Hertzian impact theory is applied to formulate these models after having established some relationships among the geometric, dynamic, and thermophysical parameters. Simulation is carried out based on two models, and the effects of the rotation velocity of the planetary disk Ω and the vial-to-disk speed ratio ω/Ω on other kinetic parameters is investigated. As a result, the optimal ratio ω/Ω to obtain high impact energy in the standard operating condition at Ω = 800 rpm is estimated, and is equal to 1.15. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  14. Respiratory disease in ball pythons (Python regius) experimentally infected with ball python nidovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Layton, Marylee L; Ossiboff, Robert J; Parker, John S L; Dubovi, Edward J; Stenglein, Mark D

    2018-04-01

    Circumstantial evidence has linked a new group of nidoviruses with respiratory disease in pythons, lizards, and cattle. We conducted experimental infections in ball pythons (Python regius) to test the hypothesis that ball python nidovirus (BPNV) infection results in respiratory disease. Three ball pythons were inoculated orally and intratracheally with cell culture isolated BPNV and two were sham inoculated. Antemortem choanal, oroesophageal, and cloacal swabs and postmortem tissues of infected snakes were positive for viral RNA, protein, and infectious virus by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot and virus isolation. Clinical signs included oral mucosal reddening, abundant mucus secretions, open-mouthed breathing, and anorexia. Histologic lesions included chronic-active mucinous rhinitis, stomatitis, tracheitis, esophagitis and proliferative interstitial pneumonia. Control snakes remained negative and free of clinical signs throughout the experiment. Our findings establish a causal relationship between nidovirus infection and respiratory disease in ball pythons and shed light on disease progression and transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CFD Analysis of Swing of Cricket Ball and Trajectory Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Jithin; Tom, Josin; Ruishikesh, Kamat; Jose, Jyothish; Kumar, Sanjay

    2013-11-01

    This work aims to understand the aerodynamics associated with the flight and swing of a cricket ball and predict its flight trajectory over the course of the game: at start (smooth ball) and as the game progresses (rough ball). Asymmetric airflow over the ball due to seam orientation and surface roughness can cause flight deviation (swing). The values of Drag, Lift and Side forces which are crucial for determining the trajectory of the ball were found with the help of FLUENT using the standard K- ɛ model. Analysis was done to study how the ball velocity, spin imparted to be ball and the tilt of the seam affects the movement of the ball through air. The governing force balance equations in 3 dimensions in combination a MATLAB code which used Heun's method was used for obtaining the trajectory of the ball. The conditions for the conventional swing and reverse swing to occur were deduced from the analysis and found to be in alignment with the real life situation. Critical seam angle for maximum swing and transition speed for normal to reverse swing were found out. The obtained trajectories were compared to real life hawk eye trajectories for validation. The analysis results were in good agreement with the real life situation.

  16. Two Balls' Collision of Mass Ratio 3:1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawara, Yasuo; Hull, Michael M.

    2018-04-01

    Students will sometimes ask why momentum and kinetic energy concepts are both necessary. When physics teachers demonstrate situations that require both an understanding of kinetic energy and momentum, a favorite is Newton's cradle, or a comparable demonstration of two balls of equal mass hitting each other. However, in addition to the case of two balls of equal mass, if a ball hits another ball of three times the mass with equal speed, the results are also interesting, and, like the equal-mass demonstration, both kinetic energy and momentum are critical for understanding the motion.

  17. An early record of ball lightning: Oliva (Spain), 1619

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando

    2018-05-01

    In a primary documentary source we found an early record of ball lightning (BL), which was observed in the monastery of Pi (Oliva, southeastern Spain) on 18 October 1619. The ball lightning was observed by at least three people and was described as a rolling burning vessel and a ball of fire. The ball lightning appeared following a lightning flash, showed a mainly horizontal motion, crossed a wall, smudged an image of the Lady of Rebollet (then known as Lady of Pi) and burnt her ruff, and overturned a cross.

  18. How does gravity save or kill Q-balls?

    OpenAIRE

    Tamaki, Takashi; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    We explore stability of gravitating Q-balls with potential $V_4(\\phi)={m^2\\over2}\\phi^2-\\lambda\\phi^4+\\frac{\\phi^6}{M^2}$ via catastrophe theory, as an extension of our previous work on Q-balls with potential $V_3(\\phi)={m^2\\over2}\\phi^2-\\mu\\phi^3+\\lambda\\phi^4$. In flat spacetime Q-balls with $V_4$ in the thick-wall limit are unstable and there is a minimum charge $Q_{{\\rm min}}$, where Q-balls with $Q

  19. James Moores Ball: Ophthalmologist, medical historian, bibliophile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feibel, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    James Moores Ball (1862-1929) was an ophthalmologist in St. Louis, Missouri, who excelled as a medical historian and collector of rare and historic books about the history of anatomy. During his lifetime, he was best known as the author of a comprehensive, authoritative, and popular textbook titled Modern Ophthalmology First published in 1904, there were five further editions. Ball was very interested in the history of anatomy and wrote two books on this subject, the first being a biography of Andreas Vesalius, one of the earliest in English, and the second a history of the resurrection men or grave robbers who sold corpses to professors of anatomy and surgery for teaching purposes. His legacy today is the 470 volumes of his personal library, which are now in the Archives and Rare Books department of the Becker Medical Library of the Washington University School of Medicine. These texts are one of their major collections, concentrating on the history of anatomy, beginning with a first edition of Vesalius's De Humani Corporis Fabrica and holding many important and beautiful landmark volumes of anatomical atlases. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Crises in a dissipative bouncing ball model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livorati, André L.P., E-mail: livorati@usp.br [Departamento de Física, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Instituto de Física, IFUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, USP, Rua do Matão, Tr.R 187, Cidade Universitária, 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Caldas, Iberê L. [Instituto de Física, IFUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, USP, Rua do Matão, Tr.R 187, Cidade Universitária, 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Dettmann, Carl P. [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Leonel, Edson D. [Departamento de Física, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2015-11-06

    Highlights: • We studied a dissipative bouncing ball dynamics. • A two-dimensional nonlinear mapping describes the dynamics. • Crises between attractors and its manifolds were characterized. • A new physical crisis between vibrating platform and an attractor was characterized. • The existence of a ‘robust’ chaotic attractor was set. - Abstract: The dynamics of a bouncing ball model under the influence of dissipation is investigated by using a two-dimensional nonlinear mapping. When high dissipation is considered, the dynamics evolves to different attractors. The evolution of the basins of the attracting fixed points is characterized, as we vary the control parameters. Crises between the attractors and their boundaries are observed. We found that the multiple attractors are intertwined, and when the boundary crisis between their stable and unstable manifolds occurs, it creates a successive mechanism of destruction for all attractors originated by the sinks. Also, a physical impact crisis is described, an important mechanism in the reduction of the number of attractors.

  1. DIAGNOSIS OF MYASTHENIA GRAVIS USING FUZZY GAZE TRACKING SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Rasti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia Gravis (MG is an autoimmune disorder, which may lead to paralysis and even death if not treated on time. One of its primary symptoms is severe muscular weakness, initially arising in the eye muscles. Testing the mobility of the eyeball can help in early detection of MG. In this study, software was designed to analyze the ability of the eye muscles to focus in various directions, thus estimating the MG risk. Progressive weakness in gazing at the directions prompted by the software can reveal abnormal fatigue of the eye muscles, which is an alert sign for MG. To assess the user’s ability to keep gazing at a specified direction, a fuzzy algorithm was applied to images of the user’s eyes to determine the position of the iris in relation to the sclera. The results of the tests performed on 18 healthy volunteers and 18 volunteers in early stages of MG confirmed the validity of the suggested software.

  2. Vicarious Social Touch Biases Gazing at Faces and Facial Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Annett; Ng, Tabitha; Ebstein, Richard P

    2018-02-01

    Research has suggested that interpersonal touch promotes social processing and other-concern, and that women may respond to it more sensitively than men. In this study, we asked whether this phenomenon would extend to third-party observers who experience touch vicariously. In an eye-tracking experiment, participants (N = 64, 32 men and 32 women) viewed prime and target images with the intention of remembering them. Primes comprised line drawings of dyadic interactions with and without touch. Targets comprised two faces shown side-by-side, with one being neutral and the other being happy or sad. Analysis of prime fixations revealed that faces in touch interactions attracted longer gazing than faces in no-touch interactions. In addition, touch enhanced gazing at the area of touch in women but not men. Analysis of target fixations revealed that touch priming increased looking at both faces immediately after target onset, and subsequently, at the emotional face in the pair. Sex differences in target processing were nonsignificant. Together, the present results imply that vicarious touch biases visual attention to faces and promotes emotion sensitivity. In addition, they suggest that, compared with men, women are more aware of tactile exchanges in their environment. As such, vicarious touch appears to share important qualities with actual physical touch. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Trait Anxiety Impacts the Perceived Gaze Direction of Fearful But Not Angry Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression and gaze direction play an important role in social communication. Previous research has demonstrated the perception of anger is enhanced by direct gaze, whereas, it is unclear whether perception of fear is enhanced by averted gaze. In addition, previous research has shown the anxiety affects the processing of facial expression and gaze direction, but hasn’t measured or controlled for depression. As a result, firm conclusions cannot be made regarding the impact of individual differences in anxiety and depression on perceptions of face expressions and gaze direction. The current study attempted to reexamine the effect of the anxiety level on the processing of facial expressions and gaze direction by matching participants on depression scores. A reliable psychophysical index of the range of eye gaze angles judged as being directed at oneself [the cone of direct gaze (CoDG] was used as the dependent variable in this study. Participants were stratified into high/low trait anxiety groups and asked to judge the gaze of angry, fearful, and neutral faces across a range of gaze directions. The result showed: (1 the perception of gaze direction was influenced by facial expression and this was modulated by trait anxiety. For the high trait anxiety group, the CoDG for angry expressions was wider than for fearful and neutral expressions, and no significant difference emerged between fearful and neutral expressions; For the low trait anxiety group, the CoDG for both angry and fearful expressions was wider than for neutral, and no significant difference emerged between angry and fearful expressions. (2 Trait anxiety modulated the perception of gaze direction only in the fearful condition, such that the fearful CoDG for the high trait anxiety group was narrower than the low trait anxiety group. This demonstrated that anxiety distinctly affected gaze perception in expressions that convey threat (angry, fearful, such that a high trait anxiety

  4. P2-23: Deficits on Preference but Not Attention in Patients with Depression: Evidence from Gaze Cue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingling Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gaze is an important social cue and can easily capture attention. Our preference judgment is biased by others' gaze; that is, we prefer objects gazed by happy or neutral faces and dislike objects gazed by disgust faces. Since patients with depression have a negative bias in emotional perception, we hypothesized that they may have different preference judgment on the gazed objects than healthy controls. Twenty-one patients with major depressive disorder and 21 healthy age-matched controls completed an object categorization task and then rated their preference on those objects. In the categorization task, a schematic face either gazed toward or away from the to-be-categorized object. The results showed that both groups categorized faster for gazed objects than non-gazed objects, suggesting that patients did not have deficits on their attention to gaze cues. Nevertheless, healthy controls preferred gazed objects more than non-gazed objects, while patients did not have significant preference. Our result indicated that patients with depression have deficits on their social cognition rather than basic attentional mechanism.

  5. Modeling and Analyzing the Slipping of the Ball Screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Xu

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper aims to set up the ball systematic slipping model and analyze the slipping characteristics caused by different factors for a ball screw operating at high speeds. To investigate the ball screw slipping mechanism, transformed coordinate system should be established firstly. Then it is used to set up mathematical modeling for the ball slipping caused by the three main reasons and the speed of slipping can be calculated. Later, the influence of the contact angle, helix angle and screw diameter for ball screw slipping will be analyzed according to the ball slipping model and slipping speeds equation and the slipping analysis will be obtained. Finally, curve of slipping analysis and that of mechanical efficiency of the ball screw analysis by Lin are compared, which will indirectly verify the correctness of the slipping model. The slipping model and the curve of slipping analysis established in this paper will provide theory basis for reducing slipping and improving the mechanical efficiency of a ball screw operating at high speeds.

  6. Linearly convergent stochastic heavy ball method for minimizing generalization error

    KAUST Repository

    Loizou, Nicolas; Richtarik, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this work we establish the first linear convergence result for the stochastic heavy ball method. The method performs SGD steps with a fixed stepsize, amended by a heavy ball momentum term. In the analysis, we focus on minimizing the expected loss

  7. Exact solutions, energy, and charge of stable Q-balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Marques, M.A. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    In this work we deal with nontopological solutions of the Q-ball type in two spacetime dimensions. We study models of current interest, described by a Higgs-like and other, similar potentials which unveil the presence of exact solutions. We use the analytic results to investigate how to control the energy and charge to make the Q-balls stable. (orig.)

  8. Attempted - to -Phase Conversion of Croconic Acid via Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-18

    ARL-TN-0824 MAY 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Attempted α- to β-Phase Conversion of Croconic Acid via Ball Milling by...Laboratory Attempted α- to β-Phase Conversion of Croconic Acid via Ball Milling by Steven W Dean, Rose A Pesce-Rodriguez, and Jennifer A Ciezak...

  9. Wear numbers for ball cup and journal bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, D.J.; Moes, H.

    1980-01-01

    A wear number is defined for ball cup bearings and for journal bearings where the cup and the cylindrical bearing are made of soft material. This dimensionless wear number provides a relation between the following five quantities: the radius of the ball or the length of the journal bearing in

  10. Between Traditions: Stephen Ball and the Critical Sociology of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Ball's work has deservedly received a good deal of attention. In this article, I detail a number of tasks in which the critical sociologist of education--as a "public intellectual"--should engage. I then place Ball's work within these tasks and evaluate his contributions to them. In the process, I show that one of the…

  11. Launch Creativity with Ping-Pong Ball Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornoelje, Joanne; Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Educators at Thomas A. Edison Middle School have worked together to bring invention information and activities to life. One activity in particular, Ping-Pong Ball Invention Challenge, has proven a great success. The Ping-Pong Ball Invention Challenge was inspired by the basic rules for PBS's "Design Squad"'s "Pop Fly" activity. In this article,…

  12. Structure and magnetism of SmCo5 nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling with different ball sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Junwu; Han, Xianghua; Du, Juan; Xia, Weixing; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Zhaohui; Yan, Aru; Li, Wei; Ping Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Anisotropic magnetic SmCo 5 nanoflakes have been fabricated by surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM) using hardened steel balls of one of the following sizes: 4, 6.5, 9.5 and 12.7 mm in diameters. The magnetic properties of SmCo 5 particles prepared by SABM with different milling ball sizes in diameters were investigated systematically. It was showed that the nanoflakes milled by amount of small size balls had a higher coercivity and lower anisotropy, i.e., worse grain orientation although in a short milling time while the nanoflakes prepared with same weight of big balls tend to have a lower coercivity, better grain orientation. The coercivity mechanism of the nanoflake was studied and it was mainly dominated with the domain-wall pinning. The SEM analysis shows that the morphology of nanoflakes prepared with different ball sizes are almost the same when the balls to powder weight ratio is fixed. The different magnetic properties caused by different ball sizes are mainly due to the different microstructure changes, i.e, grain refinement and c-axis orientation, which are demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Based on the experiments above, a combined milling process was suggested and done to improve magnetic properties as your need. - Highlights: • We fabricated anisotropic magnetic SmCo 5 nanoflakes by surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM). • We investigated the magnetic properties of SmCo 5 particles systematically. It was showed that the coercivity, high or low, and grain orientation, good or bad, were influenced strongly by balls size. The different magnetisms caused by different ball sizes is mainly due to the different microstructure changes. • The coercivity mechanism of the nanoflake was studied and it was mainly dominated with the domain-wall pinning

  13. A systematic study of ball passing frequencies based on dynamic modeling of rolling ball bearings with localized surface defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Linkai; Cao, Hongrui; He, Zhengjia; Li, Yamin

    2015-11-01

    Ball passing frequencies (BPFs) are very important features for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling ball bearings. The ball passing frequency on outer raceway (BPFO) and the ball passing frequency on inner raceway (BPFI) are usually calculated by two well-known kinematics equations. In this paper, a systematic study of BPFs of rolling ball bearings is carried out. A novel method for accurately calculating BPFs based on a complete dynamic model of rolling ball bearings with localized surface defects is proposed. In the used dynamic model, three-dimensional motions, relative slippage, cage effects and localized surface defects are all considered. Moreover, localized surface defects are modeled accurately with consideration of the finite size of the ball, the additional clearance due to material absence, and changes of contact force directions. The reasonability of the proposed method for the prediction of dynamic behaviors of actual ball bearings with localized surface defects and for the calculation of BPFs is discussed by investigating the motion characteristics of a ball when it rolls through a defect. Parametric investigation shows that the shaft speed, external loads, the friction coefficient, raceway groove curvature factors, the initial contact angle, and defect sizes have great effects on BPFs. For a loaded ball bearing, the combination of rolling and sliding in contact region occurs, and the BPFs calculated by simple kinematical relationships are inaccurate, especially for high speed, low external load, and large initial contact angle conditions where severe skidding occurs. The hypothesis that the percentage variation of the spacing between impulses in a defective ball bearing was about 1-2% reported in previous investigations can be satisfied only for the conditions where the skidding effect in a bearing is slight. Finally, the proposed method is verified with two experiments.

  14. A closer look at the size of the gaze-liking effect: a preregistered replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipples, Jason; Pecchinenda, Anna

    2018-04-30

    This study is a direct replication of gaze-liking effect using the same design, stimuli and procedure. The gaze-liking effect describes the tendency for people to rate objects as more likeable when they have recently seen a person repeatedly gaze toward rather than away from the object. However, as subsequent studies show considerable variability in the size of this effect, we sampled a larger number of participants (N = 98) than the original study (N = 24) to gain a more precise estimate of the gaze-liking effect size. Our results indicate a much smaller standardised effect size (d z  = 0.02) than that of the original study (d z  = 0.94). Our smaller effect size was not due to general insensitivity to eye-gaze effects because the same sample showed a clear (d z  = 1.09) gaze-cuing effect - faster reaction times when eyes looked toward vs away from target objects. We discuss the implications of our findings for future studies wishing to study the gaze-liking effect.

  15. Investigating the Link Between Radiologists Gaze, Diagnostic Decision, and Image Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Paquit, Vincent C [ORNL; Krupinski, Elizabeth [University of Arizona

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate machine learning for linking image content, human perception, cognition, and error in the diagnostic interpretation of mammograms. Methods: Gaze data and diagnostic decisions were collected from six radiologists who reviewed 20 screening mammograms while wearing a head-mounted eye-tracker. Texture analysis was performed in mammographic regions that attracted radiologists attention and in all abnormal regions. Machine learning algorithms were investigated to develop predictive models that link: (i) image content with gaze, (ii) image content and gaze with cognition, and (iii) image content, gaze, and cognition with diagnostic error. Both group-based and individualized models were explored. Results: By pooling the data from all radiologists machine learning produced highly accurate predictive models linking image content, gaze, cognition, and error. Merging radiologists gaze metrics and cognitive opinions with computer-extracted image features identified 59% of the radiologists diagnostic errors while confirming 96.2% of their correct diagnoses. The radiologists individual errors could be adequately predicted by modeling the behavior of their peers. However, personalized tuning appears to be beneficial in many cases to capture more accurately individual behavior. Conclusions: Machine learning algorithms combining image features with radiologists gaze data and diagnostic decisions can be effectively developed to recognize cognitive and perceptual errors associated with the diagnostic interpretation of mammograms.

  16. Investigating the link between radiologists’ gaze, diagnostic decision, and image content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourassi, Georgia; Voisin, Sophie; Paquit, Vincent; Krupinski, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate machine learning for linking image content, human perception, cognition, and error in the diagnostic interpretation of mammograms. Methods Gaze data and diagnostic decisions were collected from three breast imaging radiologists and three radiology residents who reviewed 20 screening mammograms while wearing a head-mounted eye-tracker. Image analysis was performed in mammographic regions that attracted radiologists’ attention and in all abnormal regions. Machine learning algorithms were investigated to develop predictive models that link: (i) image content with gaze, (ii) image content and gaze with cognition, and (iii) image content, gaze, and cognition with diagnostic error. Both group-based and individualized models were explored. Results By pooling the data from all readers, machine learning produced highly accurate predictive models linking image content, gaze, and cognition. Potential linking of those with diagnostic error was also supported to some extent. Merging readers’ gaze metrics and cognitive opinions with computer-extracted image features identified 59% of the readers’ diagnostic errors while confirming 97.3% of their correct diagnoses. The readers’ individual perceptual and cognitive behaviors could be adequately predicted by modeling the behavior of others. However, personalized tuning was in many cases beneficial for capturing more accurately individual behavior. Conclusions There is clearly an interaction between radiologists’ gaze, diagnostic decision, and image content which can be modeled with machine learning algorithms. PMID:23788627

  17. Gaze-Contingent Music Reward Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarov, Amit; Pine, Daniel S; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2017-07-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder exhibit increased attentional dwelling on social threats, providing a viable target for therapeutics. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a novel gaze-contingent music reward therapy for social anxiety disorder designed to reduce attention dwelling on threats. Forty patients with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to eight sessions of either gaze-contingent music reward therapy, designed to divert patients' gaze toward neutral stimuli rather than threat stimuli, or to a control condition. Clinician and self-report measures of social anxiety were acquired pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Dwell time on socially threatening faces was assessed during the training sessions and at pre- and posttreatment. Gaze-contingent music reward therapy yielded greater reductions of symptoms of social anxiety disorder than the control condition on both clinician-rated and self-reported measures. Therapeutic effects were maintained at follow-up. Gaze-contingent music reward therapy, but not the control condition, also reduced dwell time on threat, which partially mediated clinical effects. Finally, gaze-contingent music reward therapy, but not the control condition, also altered dwell time on socially threatening faces not used in training, reflecting near-transfer training generalization. This is the first randomized controlled trial to examine a gaze-contingent intervention in social anxiety disorder. The results demonstrate target engagement and clinical effects. This study sets the stage for larger randomized controlled trials and testing in other emotional disorders.

  18. Aversive eye gaze during a speech in virtual environment in patients with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haena; Shin, Jung Eun; Hong, Yeon-Ju; Shin, Yu-Bin; Shin, Young Seok; Han, Kiwan; Kim, Jae-Jin; Choi, Soo-Hee

    2018-03-01

    One of the main characteristics of social anxiety disorder is excessive fear of social evaluation. In such situations, anxiety can influence gaze behaviour. Thus, the current study adopted virtual reality to examine eye gaze pattern of social anxiety disorder patients while presenting different types of speeches. A total of 79 social anxiety disorder patients and 51 healthy controls presented prepared speeches on general topics and impromptu speeches on self-related topics to a virtual audience while their eye gaze was recorded. Their presentation performance was also evaluated. Overall, social anxiety disorder patients showed less eye gaze towards the audience than healthy controls. Types of speech did not influence social anxiety disorder patients' gaze allocation towards the audience. However, patients with social anxiety disorder showed significant correlations between the amount of eye gaze towards the audience while presenting self-related speeches and social anxiety cognitions. The current study confirms that eye gaze behaviour of social anxiety disorder patients is aversive and that their anxiety symptoms are more dependent on the nature of topic.

  19. Gaze Behavior of Children with ASD toward Pictures of Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Soichiro; Minagawa, Yasuyo; Yamamoto, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Atypical gaze behavior in response to a face has been well documented in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Children with ASD appear to differ from typically developing (TD) children in gaze behavior for spoken and dynamic face stimuli but not for nonspeaking, static face stimuli. Furthermore, children with ASD and TD children show a difference in their gaze behavior for certain expressions. However, few studies have examined the relationship between autism severity and gaze behavior toward certain facial expressions. The present study replicated and extended previous studies by examining gaze behavior towards pictures of facial expressions. We presented ASD and TD children with pictures of surprised, happy, neutral, angry, and sad facial expressions. Autism severity was assessed using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The results showed that there was no group difference in gaze behavior when looking at pictures of facial expressions. Conversely, the children with ASD who had more severe autistic symptomatology had a tendency to gaze at angry facial expressions for a shorter duration in comparison to other facial expressions. These findings suggest that autism severity should be considered when examining atypical responses to certain facial expressions.

  20. Gender and facial dominance in gaze cuing: emotional context matters in the eyes that we follow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garian Ohlsen

    Full Text Available Gaze following is a socio-cognitive process that provides adaptive information about potential threats and opportunities in the individual's environment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential interaction between emotional context and facial dominance in gaze following. We used the gaze cue task to induce attention to or away from the location of a target stimulus. In the experiment, the gaze cue either belonged to a (dominant looking male face or a (non-dominant looking female face. Critically, prior to the task, individuals were primed with pictures of threat or no threat to induce either a dangerous or safe environment. Findings revealed that the primed emotional context critically influenced the gaze cuing effect. While a gaze cue of the dominant male face influenced performance in both the threat and no-threat conditions, the gaze cue of the non-dominant female face only influenced performance in the no-threat condition. This research suggests an implicit, context-dependent follower bias, which carries implications for research on visual attention, social cognition, and leadership.

  1. Improved hydrogen sorption kinetics in wet ball milled Mg hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Li

    2011-05-04

    In this work, wet ball milling method is used in order to improve hydrogen sorption behaviour due to its improved microstructure of solid hydrogen materials. Compared to traditional ball milling method, wet ball milling has benefits on improvement of MgH{sub 2} microstructure and further influences on its hydrogen sorption behavior. With the help of solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF), wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder has much smaller particle size and its specific surface area is 7 times as large as that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder. Although after ball milling the grain size is decreased a lot compared to as-received MgH{sub 2} powder, the grain size of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is larger than that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder due to the lubricant effect of solvent THF during wet ball milling. The improved particle size and specific surface area of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is found to be determining its hydrogen sorption kinetics especially at relatively low temperatures. And it also shows good cycling sorption behavior, which decides on its industrial applicability. With three different catalysts MgH{sub 2} powder shows improved hydrogen sorption behavior as well as the cyclic sorption behavior. Among them, the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst is found to be the most effective one in this work. Compared to the wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder, the particle size and specific surface area of the MgH{sub 2} powder with catalysts are similar to the previous ones, while the grain size of the MgH{sub 2} with catalysts is much finer. In this case, two reasons for hydrogen sorption improvement are suggested: one is the reduction of the grain size. The other may be as pointed out in some literatures that formation of new oxidation could enhance the hydrogen sorption kinetics, which is also the reason why its hydrogen capacity is decreased compared to without catalysts. After further ball milling, the specific surface area of wet ball milled Mg

  2. Two balls and a string: from ordered motion to chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacks, William; Mauger, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Two spherical balls are connected by a taught string passing through a small hole in a perfectly planar table: the first ball, subject to a central force, moves without friction on a two-dimensional plane, while the second ball moves only along the vertical axis directly below the hole. The pedagogical aspects of this novel two-body problem are given particular attention: Newton’s laws, central force motion, conservation laws, angular momentum, constraints, etc. The dynamics of the system is considered under various initial conditions wherein the ball on the table moves qualitatively in rotating ellipses or hypotrochoids. The conditions for closed or periodic orbits are examined. The more complex case of the inclined plane is then considered, revealing a rich variety of periodic, aperiodic and chaotic solutions as a function of the ball mass ratio and the plane inclination angle. The associated Poincaré phase-space maps are discussed. (paper)

  3. Friction torque in thrust ball bearings grease lubricated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianuş, G.; Dumitraşcu, A. C.; Cârlescu, V.; Olaru, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    The authors investigated experimentally and theoretically the friction torque in a modified thrust ball bearing having only 3 balls operating at low axial load and lubricated with NGLI-00 and NGLI-2 greases. The experiments were made by using spin-down methodology and the results were compared with the theoretical values based on Biboulet&Houpert's rolling friction equations. Also, the results were compared with the theoretical values obtained with SKF friction model adapted for 3 balls. A very good correlation between experiments and Biboulet_&_Houpert's predicted results was obtained for the two greases. Also was observed that the theoretical values for the friction torque calculated with SKF model adapted for a thrust ball bearing having only 3 balls are smaller that the experimental values.

  4. Ball Screw Actuator Including an Axial Soft Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Forrest, Steven Talbert (Inventor); Abel, Steve (Inventor); Woessner, George (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An actuator includes an actuator housing, a ball screw, and an axial soft stop assembly. The ball screw extends through the actuator housing and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw is coupled to receive a drive force and is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively move in a retract direction and an extend direction. The axial soft stop assembly is disposed within the actuator housing. The axial soft stop assembly is configured to be selectively engaged by the ball screw and, upon being engaged thereby, to translate, with compliance, a predetermined distance in the extend direction, and to prevent further movement of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  5. Stability of a Fermi ball against deformation from spherical shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.; Ogure, K.; Arafune, J.

    2003-01-01

    The stability of a Fermi ball (F ball), which is a kind of nontopological soliton accompanying the breakdown of the approximate Z 2 symmetry, is investigated in three situations: when it is electrically neutral, when it is electrically charged and unscreened, and when it is electrically charged and screened. We argue only that the third case is physically meaningful since the neutral F ball is unstable and the case of an unscreened charged F ball is observationally excluded when it has a sizable contribution to CDM. We find that the energy scale of the breakdown of the approximate Z 2 symmetry v should satisfy v 6 GeV if the F ball is the main component of CDM

  6. Speaking and Listening with the Eyes: Gaze Signaling during Dyadic Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Simon; Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive scientists have long been interested in the role that eye gaze plays in social interactions. Previous research suggests that gaze acts as a signaling mechanism and can be used to control turn-taking behaviour. However, early research on this topic employed methods of analysis that aggregated gaze information across an entire trial (or trials), which masks any temporal dynamics that may exist in social interactions. More recently, attempts have been made to understand the temporal characteristics of social gaze but little research has been conducted in a natural setting with two interacting participants. The present study combines a temporally sensitive analysis technique with modern eye tracking technology to 1) validate the overall results from earlier aggregated analyses and 2) provide insight into the specific moment-to-moment temporal characteristics of turn-taking behaviour in a natural setting. Dyads played two social guessing games (20 Questions and Heads Up) while their eyes were tracked. Our general results are in line with past aggregated data, and using cross-correlational analysis on the specific gaze and speech signals of both participants we found that 1) speakers end their turn with direct gaze at the listener and 2) the listener in turn begins to speak with averted gaze. Convergent with theoretical models of social interaction, our data suggest that eye gaze can be used to signal both the end and the beginning of a speaking turn during a social interaction. The present study offers insight into the temporal dynamics of live dyadic interactions and also provides a new method of analysis for eye gaze data when temporal relationships are of interest.

  7. Photographic but not line-drawn faces show early perceptual neural sensitivity to eye gaze direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra eRossi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Our brains readily decode facial movements and changes in social attention, reflected in earlier and larger N170 event-related potentials (ERPs to viewing gaze aversions vs. direct gaze in real faces (Puce et al. 2000. In contrast, gaze aversions in line-drawn faces do not produce these N170 differences (Rossi et al., 2014, suggesting that physical stimulus properties or experimental context may drive these effects. Here we investigated the role of stimulus-induced context on neurophysiological responses to dynamic gaze. Sixteen healthy adults viewed line-drawn and real faces, with dynamic eye aversion and direct gaze transitions, and control stimuli (scrambled arrays and checkerboards while continuous electroencephalographic (EEG activity was recorded. EEG data from 2 temporo-occipital clusters of 9 electrodes in each hemisphere where N170 activity is known to be maximal were selected for analysis. N170 peak amplitude and latency, and temporal dynamics from event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs were measured in 16 healthy subjects. Real faces generated larger N170s for averted vs. direct gaze motion, however, N170s to real and direct gaze were as large as those to respective controls. N170 amplitude did not differ across line-drawn gaze changes. Overall, bilateral mean gamma power changes for faces relative to control stimuli occurred between 150-350 ms, potentially reflecting signal detection of facial motion.Our data indicate that experimental context does not drive N170 differences to viewed gaze changes. Low-level stimulus properties, such as the high sclera/iris contrast change in real eyes likely drive the N170 changes to viewed aversive movements.

  8. Speaking and Listening with the Eyes: Gaze Signaling during Dyadic Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ho

    Full Text Available Cognitive scientists have long been interested in the role that eye gaze plays in social interactions. Previous research suggests that gaze acts as a signaling mechanism and can be used to control turn-taking behaviour. However, early research on this topic employed methods of analysis that aggregated gaze information across an entire trial (or trials, which masks any temporal dynamics that may exist in social interactions. More recently, attempts have been made to understand the temporal characteristics of social gaze but little research has been conducted in a natural setting with two interacting participants. The present study combines a temporally sensitive analysis technique with modern eye tracking technology to 1 validate the overall results from earlier aggregated analyses and 2 provide insight into the specific moment-to-moment temporal characteristics of turn-taking behaviour in a natural setting. Dyads played two social guessing games (20 Questions and Heads Up while their eyes were tracked. Our general results are in line with past aggregated data, and using cross-correlational analysis on the specific gaze and speech signals of both participants we found that 1 speakers end their turn with direct gaze at the listener and 2 the listener in turn begins to speak with averted gaze. Convergent with theoretical models of social interaction, our data suggest that eye gaze can be used to signal both the end and the beginning of a speaking turn during a social interaction. The present study offers insight into the temporal dynamics of live dyadic interactions and also provides a new method of analysis for eye gaze data when temporal relationships are of interest.

  9. Animating Flames: Recovering Fire-Gazing as a Moving-Image Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sullivan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In nineteenth-century England, the industrialization of heat and light rendered fire-gazing increasingly obsolete. Fire-gazing is a form of flame-based reverie that typically involves a solitary viewer who perceives animated, moving images dissolving into and out of view in a wood or coal fire. When fire-gazing, the viewer may perceive arbitrary pictures, fantastic landscapes, or more familiar forms, such as the faces of friends and family. This article recovers fire-gazing as an early and more intimate animation technology by examining remediations of fire-gazing in print. After reviewing why an analysis of fire-gazing requires a joint literary and media history approach, I build from Michael Faraday’s mid-nineteenth-century theorization of flame as a moving image to argue that fire-gazing must be included in the history of animation technologies. I then demonstrate the uneasy connections that form between automatism, mechanical reproduction, and creativity in Leigh Hunt’s description of fire-gazing in his 1811 essay ‘A Day by the Fire’. The tension between conscious and unconscious modes of production culminates in a discussion of fireside scenes of (reanimation in Charles Dickens’s 'Our Mutual Friend' (1864–65, including those featuring one of his more famous fire-gazers, Lizzie Hexam. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the 1908 silent film 'Fireside Reminiscences' as an example of the continued remediations of fire-gazing beyond the nineteenth century.

  10. Unpredictable Property of a Kicked Billiard Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Ying; Dai Jun; Jiang Yumei; He Yue; He Daren

    2006-01-01

    A simultaneous change in the systemic property of a kicked billiard ball is observed from an entirely smooth and conservative state to a piecewise smooth and quasi-dissipative state when a single controlling parameter has been adjusted. The transition induces a sudden change of a typical conservative stochastic web into a transient web. The iterations on the transient web eventually escape to some elliptic islands. In the meantime, a fat fractal forbidden web, which appears also at the threshold, grows up and cuts away increasingly more parts from the original conservative stochastic web. We numerically show that the initial conditions that generated different attractors are mixed in a random manner and the pattern remains unchanged even when smaller and smaller scales are used for examination, indicating a riddle-like basin structure that practically rules out the possibility of predicting the attractors from a given initial condition

  11. Poincare ball embeddings of the optical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M A; Bengtsson, I; Karas, V; Rosquist, K

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the optical geometry of the Reissner-Nordstroem exterior metric can be embedded in a hyperbolic space all the way down to its outer horizon. The adopted embedding procedure removes a breakdown of flat-space embeddings which occurs outside the horizon, at and below the Buchdahl-Bondi limit (R/M=9/4 in the Schwarzschild case). In particular, the horizon can be captured in the optical geometry embedding diagram. Moreover, by using the compact Poincare ball representation of the hyperbolic space, the embedding diagram can cover the whole extent of radius from spatial infinity down to the horizon. Attention is drawn to the advantages of such embeddings in an appropriately curved space: this approach gives compact embeddings and it clearly distinguishes the case of an extremal black hole from a non-extremal one in terms of the topology of the embedded horizon

  12. Grinding arrangement for ball nose milling cutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, C. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A grinding arrangement for spiral fluted ball nose end mills and like tools includes a tool holder for positioning the tool relative to a grinding wheel. The tool is mounted in a spindle within the tool holder for rotation about its centerline and the tool holder is pivotably mounted for angular movement about an axis which intersects that centerline. A follower arm of a cam follower secured to the spindle cooperates with a specially shaped cam to provide rotation of the tool during the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle, by an amount determined by the cam profile. In this way the surface of the cutting edge in contact with the grinding wheel is maintained at the same height on the grinding wheel throughout the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle.

  13. Gaze and power. A post-structuralist interpretation on Perseus’ myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaya Fernández Guerrero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaze hierarchizes, manages and labels reality. Then, according to Foucault, gaze can be understood as a practice of power. This paper is inspired by his theories, and it applies them to one of the most powerful symbolic spheres of Western culture: Greek Myths. Notions such as visibility, invisibility and panopticism bring new light into the story of Perseus and Medusa, and they enable a re-reading of this Myth focused on the different ways of power that emerge from the gaze.

  14. The relationships between impact location and post-impact ball speed, bat torsion, and ball direction in cricket batting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peploe, C; McErlain-Naylor, S A; Harland, A R; King, M A

    2018-06-01

    Three-dimensional kinematic data of bat and ball were recorded for 239 individual shots performed by twenty batsmen ranging from club to international standard. The impact location of the ball on the bat face was determined and assessed against the resultant instantaneous post-impact ball speed and measures of post-impact bat torsion and ball direction. Significant negative linear relationships were found between post-impact ball speed and the absolute distance of impact from the midline medio-laterally and sweetspot longitudinally. Significant cubic relationships were found between the distance of impact from the midline of the bat medio-laterally and both a measure of bat torsion and the post-impact ball direction. A "sweet region" on the bat face was identified whereby impacts within 2 cm of the sweetspot in the medio-lateral direction, and 4.5 cm in the longitudinal direction, caused reductions in ball speed of less than 6% from the optimal value, and deviations in ball direction of less than 10° from the intended target. This study provides a greater understanding of the margin for error afforded to batsmen, allowing researchers to assess shot success in more detail, and highlights the importance of players generating consistently central impact locations when hitting for optimal performance.

  15. Clinical Approach to Supranuclear Brainstem Saccadic Gaze Palsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lloyd-Smith Sequeira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Failure of brainstem supranuclear centers for saccadic eye movements results in the clinical presence of a brainstem-mediated supranuclear saccadic gaze palsy (SGP, which is manifested as slowing of saccades with or without range of motion limitation of eye movements and as loss of quick phases of optokinetic nystagmus. Limitation in the range of motion of eye movements is typically worse with saccades than with smooth pursuit and is overcome with vestibular–ocular reflexive eye movements. The differential diagnosis of SGPs is broad, although acute-onset SGP is most often from brainstem infarction and chronic vertical SGP is most commonly caused by the neurodegenerative condition progressive supranuclear palsy. In this review, we discuss the brainstem anatomy and physiology of the brainstem saccade-generating network; we discuss the clinical features of SGPs, with an emphasis on insights from quantitative ocular motor recordings; and we consider the broad differential diagnosis of SGPs.

  16. Gaze inspired subtitle position evaluation for MOOCs videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongli; Yan, Mengzhen; Liu, Sijiang; Jiang, Bo

    2017-06-01

    Online educational resources, such as MOOCs, is becoming increasingly popular, especially in higher education field. One most important media type for MOOCs is course video. Besides traditional bottom-position subtitle accompany to the videos, in recent years, researchers try to develop more advanced algorithms to generate speaker-following style subtitles. However, the effectiveness of such subtitle is still unclear. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between subtitle position and the learning effect after watching the video on tablet devices. Inspired with image based human eye tracking technique, this work combines the objective gaze estimation statistics with subjective user study to achieve a convincing conclusion - speaker-following subtitles are more suitable for online educational videos.

  17. Tracking of ball and players in beach volleyball videos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gomez

    Full Text Available This paper presents methods for the determination of players' positions and contact time points by tracking the players and the ball in beach volleyball videos. Two player tracking methods are compared, a classical particle filter and a rigid grid integral histogram tracker. Due to mutual occlusion of the players and the camera perspective, results are best for the front players, with 74,6% and 82,6% of correctly tracked frames for the particle method and the integral histogram method, respectively. Results suggest an improved robustness against player confusion between different particle sets when tracking with a rigid grid approach. Faster processing and less player confusions make this method superior to the classical particle filter. Two different ball tracking methods are used that detect ball candidates from movement difference images using a background subtraction algorithm. Ball trajectories are estimated and interpolated from parabolic flight equations. The tracking accuracy of the ball is 54,2% for the trajectory growth method and 42,1% for the Hough line detection method. Tracking results of over 90% from the literature could not be confirmed. Ball contact frames were estimated from parabolic trajectory intersection, resulting in 48,9% of correctly estimated ball contact points.

  18. Tracking of Ball and Players in Beach Volleyball Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Gabriel; Herrera López, Patricia; Link, Daniel; Eskofier, Bjoern

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents methods for the determination of players' positions and contact time points by tracking the players and the ball in beach volleyball videos. Two player tracking methods are compared, a classical particle filter and a rigid grid integral histogram tracker. Due to mutual occlusion of the players and the camera perspective, results are best for the front players, with 74,6% and 82,6% of correctly tracked frames for the particle method and the integral histogram method, respectively. Results suggest an improved robustness against player confusion between different particle sets when tracking with a rigid grid approach. Faster processing and less player confusions make this method superior to the classical particle filter. Two different ball tracking methods are used that detect ball candidates from movement difference images using a background subtraction algorithm. Ball trajectories are estimated and interpolated from parabolic flight equations. The tracking accuracy of the ball is 54,2% for the trajectory growth method and 42,1% for the Hough line detection method. Tracking results of over 90% from the literature could not be confirmed. Ball contact frames were estimated from parabolic trajectory intersection, resulting in 48,9% of correctly estimated ball contact points. PMID:25426936

  19. Blickverhalten bei Abseitsentscheidungen im Fußball : Eine Feldstudie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnyder, Urs; Koedijker, Johan M.; Kredel, Ralf; Hossner, Ernst Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to determine the relationship between gaze characteristics and decision-making of expert and near-expert assistant referees in judging offside in football. Six assistant referees with different levels of expertise judged set-played offside scenes on the football field, while

  20. Water Bouncing Balls: how material stiffness affects water entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Tadd

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that one can skip a stone across the water surface, but less well known that a ball can also be skipped on water. Even though 17th century ship gunners were aware that cannonballs could be skipped on the water surface, they did not know that using elastic spheres rather than rigid ones could greatly improve skipping performance (yet would have made for more peaceful volleys). The water bouncing ball (Waboba®) is an elastic ball used in a game of aquatic keep away in which players pass the ball by skipping it along the water surface. The ball skips easily along the surface creating a sense that breaking the world record for number of skips could easily be achieved (51 rock skips Russell Byers 2007). We investigate the physics of skipping elastic balls to elucidate the mechanisms by which they bounce off of the water. High-speed video reveals that, upon impact with the water, the balls create a cavity and deform significantly due to the extreme elasticity; the flattened spheres resemble skipping stones. With an increased wetted surface area, a large hydrodynamic lift force is generated causing the ball to launch back into the air. Unlike stone skipping, the elasticity of the ball plays an important roll in determining the success of the skip. Through experimentation, we demonstrate that the deformation timescale during impact must be longer than the collision time in order to achieve a successful skip. Further, several material deformation modes can be excited upon free surface impact. The effect of impact velocity and angle on the two governing timescales and material wave modes are also experimentally investigated. Scaling for the deformation and collision times are derived and used to establish criteria for skipping in terms of relevant physical parameters.

  1. Real-time estimation of horizontal gaze angle by saccade integration using in-ear electrooculography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hládek, Ľuboš; Porr, Bernd; Brimijoin, W Owen

    2018-01-01

    The manuscript proposes and evaluates a real-time algorithm for estimating eye gaze angle based solely on single-channel electrooculography (EOG), which can be obtained directly from the ear canal using conductive ear moulds. In contrast to conventional high-pass filtering, we used an algorithm that calculates absolute eye gaze angle via statistical analysis of detected saccades. The estimated eye positions of the new algorithm were still noisy. However, the performance in terms of Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients was significantly better than the conventional approach in some instances. The results suggest that in-ear EOG signals captured with conductive ear moulds could serve as a basis for light-weight and portable horizontal eye gaze angle estimation suitable for a broad range of applications. For instance, for hearing aids to steer the directivity of microphones in the direction of the user's eye gaze.

  2. Gaze recognition in high-functioning autistic patients. Evidence from functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takebayashi, Hiroko; Ogai, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    We examined whether patients with high-functioning autistic disorder (AD) would exhibit abnormal activation in brain regions implicated in the functioning of theory of mind (TOM) during gaze recognition. We investigated brain activity during gaze recognition in 5 patients with high-functioning AD and 9 normal subjects, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. On the gaze task, more activation was found in the left middle frontal gyrus, the right intraparietal sulcus, and the precentral and inferior parietal gyri bilaterally in controls than in AD patients, whereas the patient group showed more powerful signal changes in the left superior temporal gyrus, the right insula, and the right medial frontal gyrus. These results suggest that high-functioning AD patients have functional abnormalities not only in TOM-related brain regions, but also in widely distributed brain regions that are not normally activated upon the processing of information from another person's gaze. (author)

  3. Children with ASD Can Use Gaze in Support of Word Recognition and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Karla K.; Rost, Gwyneth; Arenas, Rick; Farris-Trimble, Ashley; Stiles, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) struggle to understand familiar words and learn unfamiliar words. We explored the extent to which these problems reflect deficient use of probabilistic gaze in the

  4. A neural-based remote eye gaze tracker under natural head motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Diego; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2008-10-01

    A novel approach to view-based eye gaze tracking for human computer interface (HCI) is presented. The proposed method combines different techniques to address the problems of head motion, illumination and usability in the framework of low cost applications. Feature detection and tracking algorithms have been designed to obtain an automatic setup and strengthen the robustness to light conditions. An extensive analysis of neural solutions has been performed to deal with the non-linearity associated with gaze mapping under free-head conditions. No specific hardware, such as infrared illumination or high-resolution cameras, is needed, rather a simple commercial webcam working in visible light spectrum suffices. The system is able to classify the gaze direction of the user over a 15-zone graphical interface, with a success rate of 95% and a global accuracy of around 2 degrees , comparable with the vast majority of existing remote gaze trackers.

  5. Real-time estimation of horizontal gaze angle by saccade integration using in-ear electrooculography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Hládek

    Full Text Available The manuscript proposes and evaluates a real-time algorithm for estimating eye gaze angle based solely on single-channel electrooculography (EOG, which can be obtained directly from the ear canal using conductive ear moulds. In contrast to conventional high-pass filtering, we used an algorithm that calculates absolute eye gaze angle via statistical analysis of detected saccades. The estimated eye positions of the new algorithm were still noisy. However, the performance in terms of Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients was significantly better than the conventional approach in some instances. The results suggest that in-ear EOG signals captured with conductive ear moulds could serve as a basis for light-weight and portable horizontal eye gaze angle estimation suitable for a broad range of applications. For instance, for hearing aids to steer the directivity of microphones in the direction of the user's eye gaze.

  6. Gaze stabilization reflexes in the mouse: New tools to study vision and sensorimotor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Alphen (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__abstract__ Gaze stabilization reflexes are a popular model system in neuroscience for connecting neurophysiology and behavior as well as studying the neural correlates of behavioral plasticity. These compensatory eye movements are one of the simplest motor behaviors,

  7. The duality of gaze: Eyes extract and signal social information during sustained cooperative and competitive dyadic gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eJarick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to nonhuman primate eyes, which have a dark sclera surrounding a dark iris, human eyes have a white sclera that surrounds a dark iris. This high contrast morphology allows humans to determine quickly and easily where others are looking and infer what they are attending to. In recent years an enormous body of work has used photos and schematic images of faces to study these aspects of social attention, e.g., the selection of the eyes of others and the shift of attention to where those eyes are directed. However, evolutionary theory holds that humans did not develop a high contrast morphology simply to use the eyes of others as attentional cues; rather they sacrificed camouflage for communication, that is, to signal their thoughts and intentions to others. In the present study we demonstrate the importance of this by taking as our starting point the hypothesis that a cornerstone of nonverbal communication is the eye contact between individuals and the time that it is held. In a single simple study we show experimentally that the effect of eye contact can be quickly and profoundly altered merely by having participants, who had never met before, play a game in a cooperative or competitive manner. After the game participants were asked to make eye contact for a prolonged period of time (10 minutes. Those who had played the game cooperatively found this terribly difficult to do, repeatedly talking and breaking gaze. In contrast, those who had played the game competitively were able to stare quietly at each other for a sustained period. Collectively these data demonstrate that when looking at the eyes of a real person one both acquires and signals information to the other person. This duality of gaze is critical to nonverbal communication, with the nature of that communication shaped by the relationship between individuals, e.g., cooperative or competitive.

  8. Dry grinding of talc in a stirred ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayirli Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate micro fine size dry grindability of talc in a stirred ball mill. The effects of various parameters such as grinding time, stirrer speed, powder filling ratio and ball filling ratio were investigated. Alumina balls were used as grinding media. Experiments were carried out using the 24 full factorial design. The main and interaction effects were evaluated using the Yates method. Test results were evaluated on the basis of product size and surface area.

  9. Gas-discharge particle detector with ball-tipped anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travkin, V.I.; Khazins, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    A new gas-discharge particle detector, whose anode is a set of balls 2mm in diameter is investigated. The chamber is blowing down by the argon-methane-methylal gas mixture with the ratio 3:1:1. The detector operates in the self-quenching streamer mode, has high efficiency and a wide counting characteristic plateau. The maximum counting rate of particles at one ball is ∼ 2.5x10 4 s -1 . The ball-tipped anodes allow making reliable complex-shaped detectors. Two-coordinate detection of multiparticle events can be naturally organized in detectors like that

  10. Numerical study of Q-ball formation in gravity mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2010-01-01

    We study Q-ball formation in the expanding universe on 1D, 2D and 3D lattice simulations. We obtain detailed Q-ball charge distributions, and find that the distribution is peaked at Q 3D peak ≅ 1.9 × 10 −2 (|Φ in |/m) 2 , which is greater than the existing result by about 60%. Based on the numerical simulations, we discuss how the Q-ball formation proceeds. Also we make a comment on possible deviation of the charge distributions from what was conjectured in the past

  11. The development of cobalt-base alloy ball bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xinshui; Chen Jianting; Wang Zaishu; Wang Ximei; Huang Chongming.

    1986-01-01

    The main technologies and experiences in developing a Cobalt-base alloy ball bearing are described. In the hardfacing of bearing races, a lower-hardness alloy of type St-6 is used rather than an alloy with hardness similar to that of the ball and finally the hardness of race is increased to match that of the ball by heat treatment. This improvement has certain advantages. The experience of whole developing technology indicates that strict control of the technology in the bearing-race hardfacing is the key problem in the quality assurance of bearings

  12. Autonomous social gaze model for an interactive virtual character in real-life settings

    OpenAIRE

    Yumak, Zerrin; van den Brink, Bram; Egges, Arjan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a gaze behavior model for an interactive virtual character situated in the real world. We are interested in estimating which user has an intention to interact, in other words which user is engaged with the virtual character. The model takes into account behavioral cues such as proximity, velocity, posture and sound, estimates an engagement score and drives the gaze behavior of the virtual character. Initially, we assign equal weights to these fea...

  13. Eye Pull, Eye Push: Moving Objects between Large Screens and Personal Devices with Gaze and Touch

    OpenAIRE

    Turner , Jayson; Alexander , Jason; Bulling , Andreas; Schmidt , Dominik; Gellersen , Hans

    2013-01-01

    Part 4: Gaze-Enabled Interaction Design; International audience; Previous work has validated the eyes and mobile input as a viable approach for pointing at, and selecting out of reach objects. This work presents Eye Pull, Eye Push, a novel interaction concept for content transfer between public and personal devices using gaze and touch. We present three techniques that enable this interaction: Eye Cut & Paste, Eye Drag & Drop, and Eye Summon & Cast. We outline and discuss several scenarios in...

  14. Quartz crystal fabrication facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, R. J.

    1980-05-01

    The report describes the design and operation of a five chamber, interconnected vacuum system, which is capable of cleaning, plating, and sealing precision quartz crystal units in ceramic flatpack enclosures continuously in a high vacuum environment. The production rate design goal was 200 units per eight hour day. A unique nozzle beam gold deposition source was developed to operate for extended periods of time without reloading. The source puts out a narrow beam of gold typically in the order of 2 1/2 deg included cone angle. Maximum deposition rates are in the order of 400 a/min at 5.5 in. 'throw' distance used. Entrance and exit air lock chambers expedite the material throughput, so that the processing chambers are at high vacuum for extended periods of time. A stainless steel conveyor belt, in conjunction with three vacuum manipulators, transport the resonator components to the various work stations. Individual chambers are normally separated from each other by gate valves. The crystal resonators, mounted in flatpack frames but unplated, are loaded into transport trays in a lid-frame-lid sequency for insertion into the system and exit as completed crystal units. The system utilizes molybdenum coated ball bearings at essentially all friction surfaces. The gold sources and plating mask heads are equipped with elevators and gate valves, so that they can be removed from the system for maintenance without exposing the chambers to atmosphere.

  15. Human-like object tracking and gaze estimation with PKD android.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayasinghe, Indika B; Miller, Haylie L; Das, Sumit K; Bugnariu, Nicoleta L; Popa, Dan O

    2016-05-01

    As the use of robots increases for tasks that require human-robot interactions, it is vital that robots exhibit and understand human-like cues for effective communication. In this paper, we describe the implementation of object tracking capability on Philip K. Dick (PKD) android and a gaze tracking algorithm, both of which further robot capabilities with regard to human communication. PKD's ability to track objects with human-like head postures is achieved with visual feedback from a Kinect system and an eye camera. The goal of object tracking with human-like gestures is twofold : to facilitate better human-robot interactions and to enable PKD as a human gaze emulator for future studies. The gaze tracking system employs a mobile eye tracking system (ETG; SensoMotoric Instruments) and a motion capture system (Cortex; Motion Analysis Corp.) for tracking the head orientations. Objects to be tracked are displayed by a virtual reality system, the Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN; MotekForce Link). The gaze tracking algorithm converts eye tracking data and head orientations to gaze information facilitating two objectives: to evaluate the performance of the object tracking system for PKD and to use the gaze information to predict the intentions of the user, enabling the robot to understand physical cues by humans.

  16. Orienting of attention via observed eye gaze is head-centred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Andrew P; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Tipper, Steven P

    2004-11-01

    Observing averted eye gaze results in the automatic allocation of attention to the gazed-at location. The role of the orientation of the face that produces the gaze cue was investigated. The eyes in the face could look left or right in a head-centred frame, but the face itself could be oriented 90 degrees clockwise or anticlockwise such that the eyes were gazing up or down. Significant cueing effects to targets presented to the left or right of the screen were found in these head orientation conditions. This suggests that attention was directed to the side to which the eyes would have been looking towards, had the face been presented upright. This finding provides evidence that head orientation can affect gaze following, even when the head orientation alone is not a social cue. It also shows that the mechanism responsible for the allocation of attention following a gaze cue can be influenced by intrinsic object-based (i.e. head-centred) properties of the task-irrelevant cue.

  17. Human-like object tracking and gaze estimation with PKD android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayasinghe, Indika B.; Miller, Haylie L.; Das, Sumit K.; Bugnariu, Nicoleta L.; Popa, Dan O.

    2016-05-01

    As the use of robots increases for tasks that require human-robot interactions, it is vital that robots exhibit and understand human-like cues for effective communication. In this paper, we describe the implementation of object tracking capability on Philip K. Dick (PKD) android and a gaze tracking algorithm, both of which further robot capabilities with regard to human communication. PKD's ability to track objects with human-like head postures is achieved with visual feedback from a Kinect system and an eye camera. The goal of object tracking with human-like gestures is twofold: to facilitate better human-robot interactions and to enable PKD as a human gaze emulator for future studies. The gaze tracking system employs a mobile eye tracking system (ETG; SensoMotoric Instruments) and a motion capture system (Cortex; Motion Analysis Corp.) for tracking the head orientations. Objects to be tracked are displayed by a virtual reality system, the Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN; MotekForce Link). The gaze tracking algorithm converts eye tracking data and head orientations to gaze information facilitating two objectives: to evaluate the performance of the object tracking system for PKD and to use the gaze information to predict the intentions of the user, enabling the robot to understand physical cues by humans.

  18. Holistic integration of gaze cues in visual face and body perception: Evidence from the composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, Leia; Germeys, Filip; Verfaillie, Karl

    2017-01-01

    A considerable amount of research on identity recognition and emotion identification with the composite design points to the holistic processing of these aspects in faces and bodies. In this paradigm, the interference from a nonattended face half on the perception of the attended half is taken as evidence for holistic processing (i.e., a composite effect). Far less research, however, has been dedicated to the concept of gaze. Nonetheless, gaze perception is a substantial component of face and body perception, and holds critical information for everyday communicative interactions. Furthermore, the ability of human observers to detect direct versus averted eye gaze is effortless, perhaps similar to identity perception and emotion recognition. However, the hypothesis of holistic perception of eye gaze has never been tested directly. Research on gaze perception with the composite design could facilitate further systematic comparison with other aspects of face and body perception that have been investigated using the composite design (i.e., identity and emotion). In the present research, a composite design was administered to assess holistic processing of gaze cues in faces (Experiment 1) and bodies (Experiment 2). Results confirmed that eye and head orientation (Experiment 1A) and head and body orientation (Experiment 2A) are integrated in a holistic manner. However, the composite effect was not completely disrupted by inversion (Experiments 1B and 2B), a finding that will be discussed together with implications for future research.

  19. Cerebellar inactivation impairs memory of learned prism gaze-reach calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Scott A; Hathaway, Emily N; Taylor, Jordan A; Thach, W Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Three monkeys performed a visually guided reach-touch task with and without laterally displacing prisms. The prisms offset the normally aligned gaze/reach and subsequent touch. Naive monkeys showed adaptation, such that on repeated prism trials the gaze-reach angle widened and touches hit nearer the target. On the first subsequent no-prism trial the monkeys exhibited an aftereffect, such that the widened gaze-reach angle persisted and touches missed the target in the direction opposite that of initial prism-induced error. After 20-30 days of training, monkeys showed long-term learning and storage of the prism gaze-reach calibration: they switched between prism and no-prism and touched the target on the first trials without adaptation or aftereffect. Injections of lidocaine into posterolateral cerebellar cortex or muscimol or lidocaine into dentate nucleus temporarily inactivated these structures. Immediately after injections into cortex or dentate, reaches were displaced in the direction of prism-displaced gaze, but no-prism reaches were relatively unimpaired. There was little or no adaptation on the day of injection. On days after injection, there was no adaptation and both prism and no-prism reaches were horizontally, and often vertically, displaced. A single permanent lesion (kainic acid) in the lateral dentate nucleus of one monkey immediately impaired only the learned prism gaze-reach calibration and in subsequent days disrupted both learning and performance. This effect persisted for the 18 days of observation, with little or no adaptation.

  20. Sources and components of ball lightning theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, A. I.; Bychkov, V. L.; Nikitina, T. F.; Velichko, A. M.; Abakumov, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    The article describes the cases when ball lightning (BL) exhibited an extremely high specific energy store (up to 1010 J/m3), a presence of uncompensated electric charge (up to 10‑3 C) and an ability to generate high frequency pulses (up to 10 MW). It is shown that the realization of a combination of these properties of BL is possible if to consider it as a heterogeneous system consisting of a unipolarly charged core and a dielectric shell. In the electric field of the core charge, arises a force owing to the polarization of the shell that opposes the Coulomb repulsion force of the charges. BL models constructed according to the indicated principle are described: the electrodynamic model and the chemical-thermal model, which treats BL as a hollow sphere filled with steam. The requirement to take into account the main three properties of BL makes it possible to reduce the number of models of this natural phenomenon. Detailed cases of observations of high-energy lightning are analyzed.

  1. Training simulator for teaching a technique to the long transmission of ball in basket-ball by a method by an arcuated hand from above with threaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikova K.M.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Technical devices which used in basket-ball are considered. The features of constructing of trainers and method of their application are selected in a training process. A trainer is offered for teaching a technique to the long transmission of ball in basket-ball. A trainer is a moving on a rope imitator of basket-ball ball. This construction allows to design initial position, замах for implementation of transmission and line of acceleration of ball in the final phase of motion. The method of the use of trainer is developed in an educational process.

  2. Ball lightning as a route to fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The reality of ball lightning is attested to by observations reported in surveys of large populations, which are the subject of several books. These observations indicate that its characteristics may be relevant to fusion energy applications. Ball lightning can have a diameter up to several meters, a lifetime of over 100 seconds, an energy content in excess of 10 megajoules, and an energy density and a kinetic pressure greater than that of a reacting DT plasma. This paper reviews some of the properties of ball lightning which commend it to the attention of the fusion community, and it discusses some potential advantages and applications of ball lightning fusion reactors. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. An experiment on a ball-lightning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatovich, F.V.; Ignatovich, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss total internal reflection (TIR) from an interface between glass and gainy gaseous media and propose an experiment for strong light amplification related to investigation of a ball-lightning model

  4. An aerodynamic analysis of recent FIFA world cup balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratidis, Adrian L.; Leinweber, Derek B.

    2018-05-01

    Drag and lift coefficients of recent FIFA world cup balls are examined. We fit a novel functional form to drag coefficient curves and in the absence of empirical data provide estimates of lift coefficient behaviour via a consideration of the physics of the boundary layer. Differences in both these coefficients for recent balls, which result from surface texture modification, can significantly alter trajectories. Numerical simulations are used to quantify the effect these changes have on the flight paths of various balls. Altitude and temperature variations at recent world cup events are also discussed. We conclude by quantifying the influence these variations have on the three most recent world cup balls, the Brazuca, the Jabulani and the Teamgeist. While our paper presents findings of interest to the professional sports scientist, it remains accessible to students at the undergraduate level.

  5. On the isoperimetric rigidity of extrinsic minimal balls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, V.

    2003-01-01

    We consider an m-dimensional minimal submanifold P and a metric R-sphere in the Euclidean space R-n. If the sphere has its center p on P, then it will cut out a well defined connected component of P which contains this center point. We call this connected component an extrinsic minimal R-ball of P....... The quotient of the volume of the extrinsic ball and the volume of its boundary is not larger than the corresponding quotient obtained in the space form standard situation, where the minimal submanifold is the totally geodesic linear subspace R-m. Here we show that if the minimal submanifold has dimension...... larger than 3, if P is not too curved along the boundary of an extrinsic minimal R-ball, and if the inequality alluded to above is an equality for the extrinsic minimal ball, then the minimal submanifold is totally geodesic....

  6. An overview of Ball Aerospace cryogen storage and delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquardt, J; Keller, J; Mills, G; Schmidt, J

    2015-01-01

    Starting on the Gemini program in the 1960s, Beech Aircraft (now Ball Aerospace) has been designing and manufacturing dewars for a variety of cryogens including liquid hydrogen and oxygen. These dewars flew on the Apollo, Skylab and Space Shuttle spacecraft providing fuel cell reactants resulting in over 150 manned spaceflights. Since Space Shuttle, Ball has also built the liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for the Boeing Phantom Eye unmanned aerial vehicle. Returning back to its fuel cell days, Ball has designed, built and tested a volume-constrained liquid hydrogen and oxygen tank system for reactant delivery to fuel cells on unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs). Herein past history of Ball technology is described. Testing has been completed on the UUV specific design, which will be described. (paper)

  7. Severe wear behaviour of alumina balls sliding against diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    study, alumina ball was chosen as the counter body material to show better performance of the ... Tribology is a relatively new science that considers ... The science is applied in ... for example, in hip prosthesis, instead of existing alumina.

  8. Gaze-based assistive technology used in daily life by children with severe physical impairments - parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgestig, Maria; Rytterström, Patrik; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2017-07-01

    To describe and explore parents' experiences when their children with severe physical impairments receive gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based assistive technology (AT)) for use in daily life. Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice, with one year in between, with parents of eight children with cerebral palsy that used gaze-based AT in their daily activities. To understand the parents' experiences, hermeneutical interpretations were used during data analysis. The findings demonstrate that for parents, children's gaze-based AT usage meant that children demonstrated agency, provided them with opportunities to show personality and competencies, and gave children possibilities to develop. Overall, children's gaze-based AT provides hope for a better future for their children with severe physical impairments; a future in which the children can develop and gain influence in life. Gaze-based AT provides children with new opportunities to perform activities and take initiatives to communicate, giving parents hope about the children's future.

  9. The dialogue between data and model: passive stability and relaxation behavior in a ball bouncing task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.M.H.; Katsumata, H.; Rugy, A. de; Sternad, D.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the skill of rhythmically bouncing a ball on a racket with a focus on the mathematical modeling of the stability of performance. As a first step we derive the deterministic ball bouncing map as a Poincar´e section of a sinusoidally driven bouncing ball. Subsequently, we show the ball

  10. Kicking velocity and effect on match performance when using a smaller, lighter ball in women's football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas B.; Krustrup, Peter; Bendiksen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of a smaller, lighter ball on kicking speed and technical-tactical and physical match performance in high-level adult female footballers. In the laboratory test setting, the peak ball velocity was 6% higher with the new ball (NB) than the standard ball (SB...

  11. Comparison of exit time moment spectra for extrinsic metric balls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurtado, Ana; Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    We prove explicit upper and lower bounds for the $L^1$-moment spectra for the Brownian motion exit time from extrinsic metric balls of submanifolds $P^m$ in ambient Riemannian spaces $N^n$. We assume that $P$ and $N$ both have controlled radial curvatures (mean curvature and sectional curvature...... obtain new intrinsic comparison results for the exit time spectra for metric balls in the ambient manifolds $N^n$ themselves....

  12. Patient satisfaction of tooth supported overdentures utilizing ball attachments

    OpenAIRE

    Nassar, Hossam I.

    2016-01-01

    Statement of problem: Teeth retained overdenture therapy is an alternative treatment rarely used in cases with few remaining teeth. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the patient satisfaction associated with teeth retained maxillary and mandibular overdentures utilizing ready made ball attachment. Materials and methods: Thirty patients treated with teeth retained overdenture utilizing ready made ball attachment. Participants completed a series of questionnaires (OHIP-14 ques...

  13. Linearly convergent stochastic heavy ball method for minimizing generalization error

    KAUST Repository

    Loizou, Nicolas

    2017-10-30

    In this work we establish the first linear convergence result for the stochastic heavy ball method. The method performs SGD steps with a fixed stepsize, amended by a heavy ball momentum term. In the analysis, we focus on minimizing the expected loss and not on finite-sum minimization, which is typically a much harder problem. While in the analysis we constrain ourselves to quadratic loss, the overall objective is not necessarily strongly convex.

  14. Gaze direction effects on perceptions of upper limb kinesthetic coordinate system axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, W G; Hondzinski, J M; Harper, J G

    2000-12-01

    The effects of varying gaze direction on perceptions of the upper limb kinesthetic coordinate system axes and of the median plane location were studied in nine subjects with no history of neuromuscular disorders. In two experiments, six subjects aligned the unseen forearm to the trunk-fixed anterior-posterior (a/p) axis and earth-fixed vertical while gazing at different visual targets using either head or eye motion to vary gaze direction in different conditions. Effects of support of the upper limb on perceptual errors were also tested in different conditions. Absolute constant errors and variable errors associated with forearm alignment to the trunk-fixed a/p axis and earth-fixed vertical were similar for different gaze directions whether the head or eyes were moved to control gaze direction. Such errors were decreased by support of the upper limb when aligning to the vertical but not when aligning to the a/p axis. Regression analysis showed that single trial errors in individual subjects were poorly correlated with gaze direction, but showed a dependence on shoulder angles for alignment to both axes. Thus, changes in position of the head and eyes do not influence perceptions of upper limb kinesthetic coordinate system axes. However, dependence of the errors on arm configuration suggests that such perceptions are generated from sensations of shoulder and elbow joint angle information. In a third experiment, perceptions of median plane location were tested by instructing four subjects to place the unseen right index fingertip directly in front of the sternum either by motion of the straight arm at the shoulder or by elbow flexion/extension with shoulder angle varied. Gaze angles were varied to the right and left by 0.5 radians to determine effects of gaze direction on such perceptions. These tasks were also carried out with subjects blind-folded and head orientation varied to test for effects of head orientation on perceptions of median plane location. Constant

  15. Age differences in conscious versus subconscious social perception: The influence of face age and valence on gaze following.

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, P.E.; Slessor, G.; Rendell, P.G.; Bennetts, Rachel; Campbell, A.; Ruffman, T.

    2014-01-01

    Gaze following is the primary means of establishing joint attention with others and is subject to age-related decline. In addition, young but not older adults experience an own-age bias in gaze following. The current research assessed the effects of subconscious processing on these age-related differences. Participants responded to targets that were either congruent or incongruent with the direction of gaze displayed in supraliminal and subliminal images of young and older faces. These faces ...

  16. Gaze-based assistive technology used in daily life by children with severe physical impairments - parents' experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Borgestig, Maria; Rytterstrom, Patrik; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe and explore parents' experiences when their children with severe physical impairments receive gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based assistive technology (AT)) for use in daily life. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice, with one year in between, with parents of eight children with cerebral palsy that used gaze-based AT in their daily activities. To understand the parents' experiences, hermeneutical interpretations were used during data analysis...

  17. Biaxial testing for nuclear grade graphite by ball on three balls assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Yusof Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear grade (high-purity) graphite for fuel element and moderator material in Advanced Gas Cooling Reactors (AGR) displays large scatter in strength and a non-linear stress-strain response from the damage accumulation. These responses can be characterized as quasi-brittle behaviour. Current assessments of fracture in core graphite components are based on the linear elastic approximation and thus represent a major assumption. The quasi-brittle behaviour gives challenge to assess the real nuclear graphite component. The selected test method would help to bridge the gap between microscale to macro-scale in real reactor component. The small scale tests presented here can contribute some statistical data to manifests the failure in real component. The evaluation and choice of different solution design of biaxial test will be discussed in this paper. The ball on-three ball test method was used for assessment test follows by numerous of analytical method. The results shown that biaxial strength of the EY9 grade graphite depends on the method used for evaluation. Some of the analytical methods use to calculate biaxial strength were found not to be valid and therefore should not be used to assess the mechanical properties of nuclear graphite. (author)

  18. Race perception and gaze direction differently impair visual working memory for faces: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Paola; Dalmaso, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Humans are amazingly experts at processing and recognizing faces, however there are moderating factors of this ability. In the present study, we used the event-related potential technique to investigate the influence of both race and gaze direction on visual working memory (i.e., VWM) face representations. In a change detection task, we orthogonally manipulated race (own-race vs. other-race faces) and eye-gaze direction (direct gaze vs. averted gaze). Participants were required to encode identities of these faces. We quantified the amount of information encoded in VWM by monitoring the amplitude of the sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN) time-locked to the faces. Notably, race and eye-gaze direction differently modulated SPCN amplitude such that other-race faces elicited reduced SPCN amplitudes compared with own-race faces only when displaying a direct gaze. On the other hand, faces displaying averted gaze, independently of their race, elicited increased SPCN amplitudes compared with faces displaying direct gaze. We interpret these findings as denoting that race and eye-gaze direction affect different face processing stages.

  19. Quenching simulation of steel grinding balls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapata-Hernández, Oscar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The phase transformations of high carbon steel during quenching and equalizing were modelled using commercial computer packages based on the finite element method and the kinetic transformation of steel. The model was used to predict the temperature and microstructural changes taking place within balls of two different sizes that are used for grinding mineral ores. A good correlation between the temperatures measured by inserted thermocouples and those predicted by the model was obtained after modifying the thermal conductivity of the steel within the temperature domain at which mixed phases are present. The phase transformations predicted were confirmed by metallographic analyses.Las transformaciones de fase en aceros de alto carbono durante su temple y un posterior periodo de estabilización fueron modelizadas por medio del uso de paquetes computacionales basados en el método del elemento finito y de la transformación cinética de los aceros. El modelo se usó para predecir los cambios de temperatura y microestructura que se presentan en bolas de dos diferentes tamaños empleadas en estaciones de molienda de minerales. Se encontró una buena correlación entre las temperaturas medidas mediante la inserción de termopares y aquellas predichas por el modelo una vez que se modificó la conductividad térmica del acero en el intervalo mixto de fases. La predicción de las transformaciones de fase se confirmó a través del análisis metalográfico.

  20. Ezra Pound and Du Fu: Gazing at Mt. Tai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Su

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Confined to a six-by-six-foot outdoor steel cage, Ezra Pound saw a series of mountain hills from a few miles to the east of Pisa. The poet compared one of these small 800-metre hills to the sacred Chinese Mt. Tai, which becomes the most common geographical name in The Pisan Cantos. Pound’s poetic summoning of this particular mountain is related to the fact that Mt. Tai is historically and culturally connected to the philosophy of Confucius, who personally ascended the mountain several times. Pound, as a devout Confucian disciple, closely follows the philosophical doctrines and attempts to mentally trace the footsteps of Confucius. This paper will argue how Pound’s poetic evocation of the mountain shares a striking similarity to an eighth-century Chinese poem called “Gazing at Mt. Tai,” which was written by the famous literatus - Du Fu 杜甫(712 – 770 . In spite of living in two completely different eras and countries, Pound’s and Du Fu’s reference to Mt. Tai demonstrates the confluence of their poetic spirits. Neither of them ascended mountain personally. They instead made use of their poetic imagination to follow the paths of Confucius and perceived the mountain as an earthly paradise, one which represents tranquillity and serenity away from the moral and physical corruption of the external world.

  1. 3D recovery of human gaze in natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletta, Lucas; Santner, Katrin; Fritz, Gerald; Mayer, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of human attention has recently been addressed in the context of human robot interaction. Today, joint work spaces already exist and challenge cooperating systems to jointly focus on common objects, scenes and work niches. With the advent of Google glasses and increasingly affordable wearable eye-tracking, monitoring of human attention will soon become ubiquitous. The presented work describes for the first time a method for the estimation of human fixations in 3D environments that does not require any artificial landmarks in the field of view and enables attention mapping in 3D models. It enables full 3D recovery of the human view frustum and the gaze pointer in a previously acquired 3D model of the environment in real time. The study on the precision of this method reports a mean projection error ≈1.1 cm and a mean angle error ≈0.6° within the chosen 3D model - the precision does not go below the one of the technical instrument (≈1°). This innovative methodology will open new opportunities for joint attention studies as well as for bringing new potential into automated processing for human factors technologies.

  2. Gaze Dynamics in the Recognition of Facial Expressions of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabanschikov, Vladimir A

    2015-01-01

    We studied preferably fixated parts and features of human face in the process of recognition of facial expressions of emotion. Photographs of facial expressions were used. Participants were to categorize these as basic emotions; during this process, eye movements were registered. It was found that variation in the intensity of an expression is mirrored in accuracy of emotion recognition; it was also reflected by several indices of oculomotor function: duration of inspection of certain areas of the face, its upper and bottom or right parts, right and left sides; location, number and duration of fixations, viewing trajectory. In particular, for low-intensity expressions, right side of the face was found to be attended predominantly (right-side dominance); the right-side dominance effect, was, however, absent for expressions of high intensity. For both low- and high-intensity expressions, upper face part was predominantly fixated, though with greater fixation of high-intensity expressions. The majority of trials (70%), in line with findings in previous studies, revealed a V-shaped pattern of inspection trajectory. No relationship, between accuracy of recognition of emotional expressions, was found, though, with either location and duration of fixations or pattern of gaze directedness in the face. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Quantifying the cognitive cost of laparo-endoscopic single-site surgeries: Gaze-based indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Ruiz-Rabelo, Juan Francisco; Rieiro, Héctor; Sanchez Carrion, Jose M; Catena, Andrés

    2017-11-01

    Despite the growing interest concerning the laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) procedure, LESS presents multiple difficulties and challenges that are likely to increase the surgeon's cognitive cost, in terms of both cognitive load and performance. Nevertheless, there is currently no objective index capable of assessing the surgeon cognitive cost while performing LESS. We assessed if gaze-based indices might offer unique and unbiased measures to quantify LESS complexity and its cognitive cost. We expect that the assessment of surgeon's cognitive cost to improve patient safety by measuring fitness-for-duty and reducing surgeons overload. Using a wearable eye tracker device, we measured gaze entropy and velocity of surgical trainees and attending surgeons during two surgical procedures (LESS vs. multiport laparoscopy surgery [MPS]). None of the participants had previous experience with LESS. They performed two exercises with different complexity levels (Low: Pattern Cut vs. High: Peg Transfer). We also collected performance and subjective data. LESS caused higher cognitive demand than MPS, as indicated by increased gaze entropy in both surgical trainees and attending surgeons (exploration pattern became more random). Furthermore, gaze velocity was higher (exploration pattern became more rapid) for the LESS procedure independently of the surgeon's expertise. Perceived task complexity and laparoscopic accuracy confirmed gaze-based results. Gaze-based indices have great potential as objective and non-intrusive measures to assess surgeons' cognitive cost and fitness-for-duty. Furthermore, gaze-based indices might play a relevant role in defining future guidelines on surgeons' examinations to mark their achievements during the entire training (e.g. analyzing surgical learning curves). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior in children with hearing impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof eSandgren

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore verbal-nonverbal integration, we investigated the influence of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior during spoken language conversation between children with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment (HI and normal-hearing (NH peers. Ten HI-NH and ten NH-NH dyads performed a referential communication task requiring description of faces. During task performance, eye movements and speech were tracked. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model associations between performance on cognitive and linguistic tasks and the probability of gaze to the conversational partner’s face. Analyses compare the listeners in each dyad (HI: n = 10, mean age = 12;6 years, SD = 2;0, mean better ear pure-tone average 33.0 dB HL, SD = 7.8; NH: n = 10, mean age = 13;7 years, SD = 1;11. Group differences in gaze behavior – with HI gazing more to the conversational partner than NH – remained significant despite adjustment for ability on receptive grammar, expressive vocabulary, and complex working memory. Adjustment for phonological short term memory, as measured by nonword repetition, removed group differences, revealing an interaction between group membership and nonword repetition ability. Stratified analysis showed a twofold increase of the probability of gaze-to-partner for HI with low phonological short term memory capacity, and a decreased probability for HI with high capacity, as compared to NH peers. The results revealed differences in gaze behavior attributable to performance on a phonological short term memory task. Participants with hearing impairment and low phonological short term memory capacity showed a doubled probability of gaze to the conversational partner, indicative of a visual bias. The results stress the need to look beyond the hearing impairment in diagnostics and intervention. Acknowledgment of the finding requires clinical assessment of children with hearing impairment to be supported by tasks tapping

  5. THE BEHAVIOURAL REACTION OF WEANERS TO HANGING TOYS: WOODEN BALL AND AROMATIZED WOODEN BALL – WAY TO REDUCE AGGRESSION AFTER MIXING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek NOWICKI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of weaners after mixing housed in pens equipped with hanging wooden ball, aromatized with vanilla fluid hanging wooden ball and without enrichment was evaluated. It was found that both enrichments reduced aggression, however the most interesting for weaners was the aromatized wooden ball.

  6. Gaze Estimation for Off-Angle Iris Recognition Based on the Biometric Eye Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ANONYMIZED biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  7. Modeling eye gaze patterns in clinician-patient interaction with lag sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Enid; Xu, Jie; Chen, Ping-Yu; Asan, Onur; Barrett, Bruce P; Chewning, Betty

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether lag sequential analysis could be used to describe eye gaze orientation between clinicians and patients in the medical encounter. This topic is particularly important as new technologies are implemented into multiuser health care settings in which trust is critical and nonverbal cues are integral to achieving trust. This analysis method could lead to design guidelines for technologies and more effective assessments of interventions. Nonverbal communication patterns are important aspects of clinician-patient interactions and may affect patient outcomes. The eye gaze behaviors of clinicians and patients in 110 videotaped medical encounters were analyzed using the lag sequential method to identify significant behavior sequences. Lag sequential analysis included both event-based lag and time-based lag. Results from event-based lag analysis showed that the patient's gaze followed that of the clinician, whereas the clinician's gaze did not follow the patient's. Time-based sequential analysis showed that responses from the patient usually occurred within 2 s after the initial behavior of the clinician. Our data suggest that the clinician's gaze significantly affects the medical encounter but that the converse is not true. Findings from this research have implications for the design of clinical work systems and modeling interactions. Similar research methods could be used to identify different behavior patterns in clinical settings (physical layout, technology, etc.) to facilitate and evaluate clinical work system designs.

  8. Right hemispheric dominance and interhemispheric cooperation in gaze-triggered reflexive shift of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi; Murai, Toshiya

    2012-03-01

    The neural substrate for the processing of gaze remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to clarify which hemisphere dominantly processes and whether bilateral hemispheres cooperate with each other in gaze-triggered reflexive shift of attention. Twenty-eight normal subjects were tested. The non-predictive gaze cues were presented either in unilateral or bilateral visual fields. The subjects localized the target as soon as possible. Reaction times (RT) were shorter when gaze-cues were congruent toward than away from targets, whichever visual field they were presented in. RT were shorter in left than right visual field presentations. RT in mono-directional bilateral presentations were shorter than both of those in left and right presentations. When bi-directional bilateral cues were presented, RT were faster when valid cues were presented in the left than right visual fields. The right hemisphere appears to be dominant, and there is interhemispheric cooperation in gaze-triggered reflexive shift of attention. © 2012 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2012 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  9. Gazing toward humans: a study on water rescue dogs using the impossible task paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aniello, Biagio; Scandurra, Anna; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Valsecchi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have assessed the role of life experiences, including learning opportunities, living conditions and the quality of dog-human relationships, in the use of human cues and problem-solving ability. The current study investigates how and to what extent training affects the behaviour of dogs and the communication of dogs with humans by comparing dogs trained for a water rescue service and untrained pet dogs in the impossible task paradigm. Twenty-three certified water rescue dogs (the water rescue group) and 17 dogs with no training experience (the untrained group) were tested using a modified version of the impossible task described by Marshall-Pescini et al. in 2009. The results demonstrated that the water rescue dogs directed their first gaze significantly more often towards the owner and spent more time gazing toward two people compared to the untrained pet dogs. There was no difference between the dogs of the two groups as far as in the amount of time spent gazing at the owner or the stranger; neither in the interaction with the apparatus attempting to obtain food. The specific training regime, aimed at promoting cooperation during the performance of water rescue, could account for the longer gazing behaviour shown toward people by the water rescue dogs and the priority of gazing toward the owner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transformation of Goethite to Hematite Nanocrystallines by High Energy Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Lemine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Fe2O3 nanocrystallines were prepared by direct transformation via high energy ball milling treatment for α-FeOOH powder. X-ray diffraction, Rietveld analysis, TEM, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM are used to characterize the samples obtained after several milling times. Phase identification using Rietveld analysis showed that the goethite is transformed to hematite nanocrystalline after 40 hours of milling. HRTEM confirm that the obtained phase is mostly a single-crystal structure. This result suggested that the mechanochemical reaction is an efficient way to prepare some iron oxides nanocrystallines from raw materials which are abundant in the nature. The mechanism of the formation of hematite is discussed in text.

  11. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion....... As representative examples, a metal (Pt), an alloy (PtSn), and a metal carbide (beta-Mo2C) were supported on conventional and mesoporous zeolite carriers, respectively, and the degree of particle dispersion was compared by TEM imaging. On conventional zeolites, the supported material aggregated on the outer surface...

  12. The coefficient of restitution of pressurized balls: a mechanistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgallas, Alex; Landry, Gaëtan

    2016-01-01

    Pressurized, inflated balls used in professional sports are regulated so that their behaviour upon impact can be anticipated and allow the game to have its distinctive character. However, the dynamics governing the impacts of such balls, even on stationary hard surfaces, can be extremely complex. The energy transformations, which arise from the compression of the gas within the ball and from the shear forces associated with the deformation of the wall, are examined in this paper. We develop a simple mechanistic model of the dependence of the coefficient of restitution, e, upon both the gauge pressure, P_G, of the gas and the shear modulus, G, of the wall. The model is validated using the results from a simple series of experiments using three different sports balls. The fits to the data are extremely good for P_G > 25 kPa and consistent values are obtained for the value of G for the wall material. As far as the authors can tell, this simple, mechanistic model of the pressure dependence of the coefficient of restitution is the first in the literature. *%K Coefficient of Restitution, Dynamics, Inflated Balls, Pressure, Impact Model

  13. The goalkeeper influence on ball possession effectiveness in futsal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente-Vila Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify which variables were the best predictors of success in futsal ball possession when controlling for space and task related indicators, situational variables and the participation of the goalkeeper as a regular field player or not (5 vs. 4 or 4 vs. 4. The sample consisted of 326 situations of ball possession corresponding to 31 matches played by a team from the Spanish Futsal League during the 2010–2011, 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 seasons. Multidimensional qualitative data obtained from 10 ordered categorical variables were used. Data were analysed using chi-square analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis. Overall, the highest ball possession effectiveness was achieved when the goalkeeper participated as a regular field player (p<0.01, the duration of the ball possession was less than 10 s (p<0.01, the ball possession ended in the penalty area (p<0.01 and the defensive pressure was low (p<0.01. The information obtained on the relative effectiveness of offensive playing tactics can be used to improve team’s goal-scoring and goal preventing abilities.

  14. Virtual Crystallizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T A; Dylla-Spears, R; Thorsness, C B

    2006-08-29

    Large dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are grown in large crystallizers to provide raw material for the manufacture of optical components for large laser systems. It is a challenge to grow crystal with sufficient mass and geometric properties to allow large optical plates to be cut from them. In addition, KDP has long been the canonical solution crystal for study of growth processes. To assist in the production of the crystals and the understanding of crystal growth phenomena, analysis of growth habits of large KDP crystals has been studied, small scale kinetic experiments have been performed, mass transfer rates in model systems have been measured, and computational-fluid-mechanics tools have been used to develop an engineering model of the crystal growth process. The model has been tested by looking at its ability to simulate the growth of nine KDP boules that all weighed more than 200 kg.

  15. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  16. Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  17. Gaze differences in processing pictures with emotional content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimir, Sanja; Palmović, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a set of standardized emotionally evocative color photographs developed by NIMH Center for Emotion and Attention at the University of Florida. It contains more than 900 emotional pictures indexed by emotional valence, arousal and dominance. However, when IAPS pictures were used in studying emotions with the event-related potentials, the results have shown a great deal of variation and inconsistency. In this research arousal and dominance of pictures were controlled while emotional valence was manipulated as 3 categories, pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. Two experiments were conducted with an eye-tracker in order to determine to what the participants turn their gaze. Participants were 25 psychology students with normal vision. Every participant saw all pictures in color and same pictures in black/white version. This makes 200 analyzed units for color pictures and 200 for black and white pictures. Every picture was divided into figure and ground. Considering that perception can be influenced by color, edges, luminosity and contrast and since all those factors are collapsed on the pictures in IAPS, we compared color pictures with same black and white pictures. In first eye-tracking IAPS research we analyzed 12 emotional pictures and showed that participants have higher number of fixations for ground on neutral and unpleasant pictures and for figure on pleasant pictures. Second experiment was conducted with 4 sets of emotional complementary pictures (pleasant/unpleasant) which differ only on the content in the figure area and it was shown that participants were more focused on the figure area than on the ground area. Future ERP (event related potential) research with IAPS pictures should take into consideration these findings and to either choose pictures with blank ground or adjust pictures in the way that ground is blank. For the following experiments suggestion is to put emotional content in the figure

  18. Effect of soccer shoe upper on ball behaviour in curve kicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hideyuki; Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-08-01

    New soccer shoes have been developed by considering various concepts related to kicking, such as curving a soccer ball. However, the effects of shoes on ball behaviour remain unclear. In this study, by using a finite element simulation, we investigated the factors that affect ball behaviour immediately after impact in a curve kick. Five experienced male university soccer players performed one curve kick. We developed a finite element model of the foot and ball and evaluated the validity of the model by comparing the finite element results for the ball behaviour immediately after impact with the experimental results. The launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation in the finite element analysis were all in general agreement with the experimental results. Using the validated finite element model, we simulated the ball behaviour. The simulation results indicated that the larger the foot velocity immediately before impact, the larger the ball velocity and ball rotation. Furthermore, the Young's modulus of the shoe upper and the coefficient of friction between the shoe upper and the ball had little effect on the launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation. The results of this study suggest that the shoe upper does not significantly influence ball behaviour.

  19. Effect of Ball Weight on Speed, Accuracy, and Mechanics in Cricket Fast Bowling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine L. Wickington

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were: (1 to quantify the acute effects of ball weight on ball release speed, accuracy, and mechanics in cricket fast bowling; and (2 to test whether a period of sustained training with underweight and overweight balls is effective in increasing a player’s ball release speed. Ten well-trained adult male cricket players performed maximum-effort deliveries using balls ranging in weight from 46% to 137% of the standard ball weight (156 g. A radar gun, bowling target, and 2D video analysis were used to obtain measures of ball speed, accuracy, and mechanics. The participants were assigned to either an intervention group, who trained with underweight and overweight balls, or to a control group, who trained with standard-weight balls. We found that ball speed decreased at a rate of about 1.1 m/s per 100 g increase in ball weight. Accuracy and bowling mechanics were not adversely affected by changes in ball weight. There was evidence that training with underweight and overweight balls might have produced a practically meaningful increase in bowling speed (>1.5 m/s in some players without compromising accuracy or increasing their risk of injury through inducing poor bowling mechanics. In cricket fast bowling, a wide range of ball weight might be necessary to produce an effective modified-implement training program.

  20. The Gaze-Cueing Effect in the United States and Japan: Influence of Cultural Differences in Cognitive Strategies on Control of Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Saki Takao; Yusuke Yamani; Atsunori Ariga

    2018-01-01

    The direction of gaze automatically and exogenously guides visual spatial attention, a phenomenon termed as the gaze-cueing effect. Although this effect arises when the duration of stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between a non-predictive gaze cue and the target is relatively long, no empirical research has examined the factors underlying this extended cueing effect. Two experiments compared the gaze-cueing effect at longer SOAs (700 ms) in Japanese and American participants. Cross-cultural st...

  1. The neurophysiology of human touch and eye gaze and its effects on therapeutic relationships and healing: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Fiona; Wiechula, Rick; Feo, Rebecca; Schultz, Tim; Kitson, Alison

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this scoping review is to examine and map the range of neurophysiological impacts of human touch and eye gaze, and better understand their possible links to the therapeutic relationship and the process of healing. The specific question is "what neurophysiological impacts of human touch and eye gaze have been reported in relation to therapeutic relationships and healing?"

  2. When What You See Is What You Get: The Consequences of the Objectifying Gaze for Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Sarah J.; Vescio, Theresa K.; Allen, Jill

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the effects of the objectifying gaze on math performance, interaction motivation, body surveillance, body shame, and body dissatisfaction. In an experiment, undergraduate participants (67 women and 83 men) received an objectifying gaze during an interaction with a trained confederate of the other sex. As hypothesized, the…

  3. The Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) and gazing behavior during social interaction: An observational study in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Roekel, G.H. van

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the present study, the relation between a polymorphic marker within the OXTR gene (rs53576) and gazing behavior during two separate social interaction tasks was examined. Gazing behavior was considered to be an integral part of belonging regulation processes. Methods: We conducted an

  4. Attention and gaze shifting in dual-task and go/no-go performance with vocal responding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.J.M.; Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from go/no-go performance on the Eriksen flanker task with manual responding suggests that individuals gaze at stimuli just as long as needed to identify them (e.g.. Sanders, 1998). In contrast, evidence from dual-task performance with vocal responding suggests that gaze shifts occur after

  5. There is more to gaze than meets the eye: How animals perceive the visual behaviour of others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, B.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Gaze following and the ability to understand that another individual sees something different from oneself are considered important components of human and animal social cognition. In animals, gaze following has been documented in various species, however, the underlying cognitive mechanisms and the

  6. Can gaze-contingent mirror-feedback from unfamiliar faces alter self-recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estudillo, Alejandro J; Bindemann, Markus

    2017-05-01

    This study focuses on learning of the self, by examining how human observers update internal representations of their own face. For this purpose, we present a novel gaze-contingent paradigm, in which an onscreen face mimics observers' own eye-gaze behaviour (in the congruent condition), moves its eyes in different directions to that of the observers (incongruent condition), or remains static and unresponsive (neutral condition). Across three experiments, the mimicry of the onscreen face did not affect observers' perceptual self-representations. However, this paradigm influenced observers' reports of their own face. This effect was such that observers felt the onscreen face to be their own and that, if the onscreen gaze had moved on its own accord, observers expected their own eyes to move too. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Seeing to hear? Patterns of gaze to speaking faces in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eIrwin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using eye-tracking methodology, gaze to a speaking face was compared in a group of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and those with typical development (TD. Patterns of gaze were observed under three conditions: audiovisual (AV speech in auditory noise, visual only speech and an AV non-face, non-speech control. Children with ASD looked less to the face of the speaker and fixated less on the speakers’ mouth than TD controls. No differences in gaze were reported for the non-face, non-speech control task. Since the mouth holds much of the articulatory information available on the face, these findings suggest that children with ASD may have reduced access to critical linguistic information. This reduced access to visible articulatory information could be a contributor to the communication and language problems exhibited by children with ASD.

  8. Gaze-informed, task-situated representation of space in primate hippocampus during virtual navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Sylvia; Baraduc, Pierre; Planté, Aurélie; Pinède, Serge; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate how gaze informs the construction of mental space during wayfinding in visual species like primates, we jointly examined navigation behavior, visual exploration, and hippocampal activity as macaque monkeys searched a virtual reality maze for a reward. Cells sensitive to place also responded to one or more variables like head direction, point of gaze, or task context. Many cells fired at the sight (and in anticipation) of a single landmark in a viewpoint- or task-dependent manner, simultaneously encoding the animal’s logical situation within a set of actions leading to the goal. Overall, hippocampal activity was best fit by a fine-grained state space comprising current position, view, and action contexts. Our findings indicate that counterparts of rodent place cells in primates embody multidimensional, task-situated knowledge pertaining to the target of gaze, therein supporting self-awareness in the construction of space. PMID:28241007

  9. The influence of social and symbolic cues on observers' gaze behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermens, Frouke; Walker, Robin

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that social and symbolic cues presented in isolation and at fixation have strong effects on observers, but it is unclear how cues compare when they are presented away from fixation and embedded in natural scenes. We here compare the effects of two types of social cue (gaze and pointing gestures) and one type of symbolic cue (arrow signs) on eye movements of observers under two viewing conditions (free viewing vs. a memory task). The results suggest that social cues are looked at more quickly, for longer and more frequently than the symbolic arrow cues. An analysis of saccades initiated from the cue suggests that the pointing cue leads to stronger cueing than the gaze and the arrow cue. While the task had only a weak influence on gaze orienting to the cues, stronger cue following was found for free viewing compared to the memory task. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Automatic and strategic measures as predictors of mirror gazing among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Teachman, Bethany A

    2009-08-01

    The current study tests cognitive-behavioral models of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) by examining the relationship between cognitive biases and correlates of mirror gazing. To provide a more comprehensive picture, we investigated both relatively strategic (i.e., available for conscious introspection) and automatic (i.e., outside conscious control) measures of cognitive biases in a sample with either high (n = 32) or low (n = 31) BDD symptoms. Specifically, we examined the extent that (1) explicit interpretations tied to appearance, as well as (2) automatic associations and (3) strategic evaluations of the importance of attractiveness predict anxiety and avoidance associated with mirror gazing. Results indicated that interpretations tied to appearance uniquely predicted self-reported desire to avoid, whereas strategic evaluations of appearance uniquely predicted peak anxiety associated with mirror gazing, and automatic appearance associations uniquely predicted behavioral avoidance. These results offer considerable support for cognitive models of BDD, and suggest a dissociation between automatic and strategic measures.

  11. Automatic and Strategic Measures as Predictors of Mirror Gazing Among Individuals with Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study tests cognitive-behavioral models of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) by examining the relationship between cognitive biases and correlates of mirror gazing. To provide a more comprehensive picture, we investigated both relatively strategic (i.e., available for conscious introspection) and automatic (i.e., outside conscious control) measures of cognitive biases in a sample with either high (n=32) or low (n=31) BDD symptoms. Specifically, we examined the extent that 1) explicit interpretations tied to appearance, as well as 2) automatic associations and 3) strategic evaluations of the importance of attractiveness predict anxiety and avoidance associated with mirror gazing. Results indicated that interpretations tied to appearance uniquely predicted self-reported desire to avoid, while strategic evaluations of appearance uniquely predicted peak anxiety associated with mirror gazing, and automatic appearance associations uniquely predicted behavioral avoidance. These results offer considerable support for cognitive models of BDD, and suggest a dissociation between automatic and strategic measures. PMID:19684496

  12. Acoustic monitoring of a ball sinking in vibrated granular sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wildenberg, Siet; Léopoldès, Julien; Tourin, Arnaud; Jia, Xiaoping

    2017-06-01

    We develop an ultrasound probing to investigate the dynamics of a high density ball sinking in 3D opaque dense granular suspensions under horizontal weak vibrations. We show that the motion of the ball in these horizontally vibrated glass bead packings saturated by water is consistent with the frictional rheology. The extracted stress-strain relation evidences an evolution of flow behaviour from frictional creep to inertial regimes. Our main finding is that weak external vibration primarily affects the yield stress and controls the depth of sinking via vibration-induced sliding at the grain contact. Also, we observe that the extracted rheological parameters depend on the size of the probing ball, suggesting thus a non-local rheology.

  13. Durability Tests of Ball Valve Prototype with Flowmeter Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogula, J.; Romanik, G.

    2018-02-01

    The results of the investigation of the prototypical ball valve are presented in this article. The innovation of the tested valve is a ball with a built-in measuring orifice. The valve has been subjected to durability tests. Leakage under three temperatures: ambient, -30°C and +100°C was analyzed. Sealing elements of the valve were tested for roughness and deviation of shape before and after the cycles of operation. Ball valve operation means cycles of open/close. It was planned to perform 1000 cycles at each temperature condition accordingly. Tests of the valve were performed under gas pressure equal to 10 MPa. The research was carried out under the Operational Program "Intelligent Development" (POIR 01.01.01-00-0013 / 15 "Development of devices for measurement of media flow on industrial trunk-lines".

  14. Geometric modeling in the problem of ball bearing accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhov, V. I.; Pushkarev, V. V.; Khomchenko, V. G.

    2017-06-01

    The manufacturing quality of ball bearings is an urgent problem for machine-building industry. The aim of the research is to improve the geometric specifications accuracy of bearings based on evidence-based systematic approach and the method of adequate size, location and form deviations modeling of the rings and assembled ball bearings. The present work addressed the problem of bearing geometric specifications identification and the study of these specifications. The deviation from symmetric planar of rings and bearings assembly and mounting width are among these specifications. A systematic approach to geometric specifications values and ball bearings tolerances normalization in coordinate systems will improve the quality of bearings by optimizing and minimizing the number of specifications. The introduction of systematic approach to the international standards on rolling bearings is a guarantee of a significant increase in accuracy of bearings and the quality of products where they are applied.

  15. A Case of Lung Lesions Induced by a soccer Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Takemoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old youth soccer forward received a direct hit from a kicked soccer ball on the anterior right chest when the goal keeper kicked the ball from a distance of 1 meter. Immediately following the hit, the subject experienced dypnea, chest pain and had a cough, with several milliliters of hemoptysis. His symptoms subsided after 20 minutes of rest. However, he still felt mild discomfort and was taken to our department for evaluation. On examination, all vital signs were normal. A computed tomography scan of the chest was obtained, and revealed a small area of opacification in the right lung field suggesting a pulmonary contusion or traumatic lung edema. Ten days after the initial injury, he was cleared for full participation. We herein reported the first case of a lung lesion induced by a soccer ball. Conservative treatment resulted in a favorable outcome.

  16. Geometrical origin of chaoticity in the bouncing ball billiard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mátyás, L.; Barna, I.F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study the possible separation of neighouring trajectories in the bouncing ball billiard. ► In a certain interval of frequencies semianalitical evaluations are possible. ► One may find a lower bound for the maximal Lyapunov exponent in case of a resonance. - Abstract: We present a study of the chaotic behaviour of the bouncing ball billiard. The work is realised on the purpose of finding at least certain causes of separation of the neighbouring trajectories. Having in view the geometrical construction of the system, we report a clear origin of chaoticity of the bouncing ball billiard. By this we claim that in case when the floor is made of arc of circles – in a certain interval of frequencies – one can give semi-analytical estimates on chaotic behaviour.

  17. Stimulated leaks found with SmartBall tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-05-15

    Pure Technologies has developed a SmartBall leak detection tool which can be used in oil and gas pipelines. This tool contains acoustic sensors which listen for leaks and other problems in pipelines. Pig tracking units are used to track the tool along with receivers positioned on the pipe. With these technologies, SmartBall is able to detect small leaks that conventional methods would not detect and to assess their location accurately. Two runs on a Petrobras pipeline in Brazil highlighted the effectiveness of this technology, detecting three simulated leaks as small as 240mL/min. In addition, this system can give an estimation of the leak rate and traverse non piggable pipelines. Software is then used to analyze data and generate a report giving the size and location of the leaks identified. SmartBall is a technology capable of detecting small leaks and locating them in all sorts of oil and gas pipelines.

  18. Study on the luminous characteristics of a natural ball lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Yuan, Ping; Cen, Jianyong; Liu, Guorong

    2018-02-01

    According to the optical images of the whole process of a natural ball lightning recorded by two slit-less spectrographs in the Qinghai plateau of China, the simulated observation experiment on the luminous intensity of the spherical light source was carried out. The luminous intensity and the optical power of the natural ball lightning in the wavelength range of 400-690 nm were estimated based on the experimental data and the Lambert-Beer Law. The results show that the maximum luminous intensity was about 1.24 × 105 cd in the initial stage of the natural ball lightning, and the maximum luminous intensity and the maximum optical power in most time of its life were about 5.9 × 104 cd and 4.2 × 103 W, respectively.

  19. Validation of single ball rolling contact fatigue machine dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Bryan [SKF Aeroengine, Falconer (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Single ball test machines are a common method for accelerated rolling contact fatigue testing of bearing materials. Historically, it has always been assumed that the force applied by the retaining bars is negligible, without any data to support this claim. In this study, strain gauges were placed on the retaining bars to determine the load experienced by the retaining bars. This value was then compared to the applied load. It was found that a load of approximately 4 N was transferred to the retainer by the test ball during steady state operation, when a 8385 N load was applied to the ball via the rings. A simulation of the system was also created and successfully predicted the expected loads with reasonable accuracy. This information, as well as the technique of strain gauging the retaining bars, may be useful in the development of similar testing machinery.

  20. Supermassive dark-matter Q-balls in galactic centers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troitsky, Sergey [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology,Institutskii per. 9, 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-11

    Though widely accepted, it is not proven that supermassive compact objects (SMCOs) residing in galactic centers are black holes. In particular, the Milky Way’s SMCO can be a giant nontopological soliton, Q-ball, made of a scalar field: this fits perfectly all observational data. Similar but tiny Q-balls produced in the early Universe may constitute, partly or fully, the dark matter. This picture explains in a natural way, why our SMCO has very low accretion rate and why the observed angular size of the corresponding radio source is much smaller than expected. Interactions between dark-matter Q-balls may explain how SMCOs were seeded in galaxies and resolve well-known problems of standard (non-interacting) dark matter.

  1. Simulating fullerene ball bearings of ultra-low friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyan; Yang Wei

    2007-01-01

    We report the direct molecular dynamics simulations for molecular ball bearings composed of fullerene molecules (C 60 and C 20 ) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The comparison of friction levels indicates that fullerene ball bearings have extremely low friction (with minimal frictional forces of 5.283 x 10 -7 and 6.768 x 10 -7 nN/atom for C 60 and C 20 bearings) and energy dissipation (lowest dissipation per cycle of 0.013 and 0.016 meV/atom for C 60 and C 20 bearings). A single fullerene inside the ball bearings exhibits various motion statuses of mixed translation and rotation. The influences of the shaft's distortion on the long-ranged potential energy and normal force are discussed. The phonic dissipation mechanism leads to a non-monotonic function between the friction and the load rate for the molecular bearings

  2. Toward a reliable gaze-independent hybrid BCI combining visual and natural auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Sara; Pires, Gabriel; Nunes, Urbano

    2016-03-01

    Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) are one of the last communication options for patients in the locked-in state (LIS). For complete LIS patients, interfaces must be gaze-independent due to their eye impairment. However, unimodal gaze-independent approaches typically present levels of performance substantially lower than gaze-dependent approaches. The combination of multimodal stimuli has been pointed as a viable way to increase users' performance. A hybrid visual and auditory (HVA) P300-based BCI combining simultaneously visual and auditory stimulation is proposed. Auditory stimuli are based on natural meaningful spoken words, increasing stimuli discrimination and decreasing user's mental effort in associating stimuli to the symbols. The visual part of the interface is covertly controlled ensuring gaze-independency. Four conditions were experimentally tested by 10 healthy participants: visual overt (VO), visual covert (VC), auditory (AU) and covert HVA. Average online accuracy for the hybrid approach was 85.3%, which is more than 32% over VC and AU approaches. Questionnaires' results indicate that the HVA approach was the less demanding gaze-independent interface. Interestingly, the P300 grand average for HVA approach coincides with an almost perfect sum of P300 evoked separately by VC and AU tasks. The proposed HVA-BCI is the first solution simultaneously embedding natural spoken words and visual words to provide a communication lexicon. Online accuracy and task demand of the approach compare favorably with state-of-the-art. The proposed approach shows that the simultaneous combination of visual covert control and auditory modalities can effectively improve the performance of gaze-independent BCIs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatiotemporal characteristics of gaze of children with autism spectrum disorders while looking at classroom scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Higuchi

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD who have neurodevelopmental impairments in social communication often refuse to go to school because of difficulties in learning in class. The exact cause of maladaptation to school in such children is unknown. We hypothesized that these children have difficulty in paying attention to objects at which teachers are pointing. We performed gaze behavior analysis of children with ASD to understand their difficulties in the classroom. The subjects were 26 children with ASD (19 boys and 7 girls; mean age, 8.6 years and 27 age-matched children with typical development (TD (14 boys and 13 girls; mean age, 8.2 years. We measured eye movements of the children while they performed free viewing of two movies depicting actual classes: a Japanese class in which a teacher pointed at cartoon characters and an arithmetic class in which the teacher pointed at geometric figures. In the analysis, we defined the regions of interest (ROIs as the teacher's face and finger, the cartoon characters and geometric figures at which the teacher pointed, and the classroom wall that contained no objects. We then compared total gaze time for each ROI between the children with ASD and TD by two-way ANOVA. Children with ASD spent less gaze time on the cartoon characters pointed at by the teacher; they spent more gaze time on the wall in both classroom scenes. We could differentiate children with ASD from those with TD almost perfectly by the proportion of total gaze time that children with ASD spent looking at the wall. These results suggest that children with ASD do not follow the teacher's instructions in class and persist in gazing at inappropriate visual areas such as walls. Thus, they may have difficulties in understanding content in class, leading to maladaptation to school.

  4. How does image noise affect actual and predicted human gaze allocation in assessing image quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrbein, Florian; Goddard, Peter; Schneider, Michael; James, Georgina; Guo, Kun

    2015-07-01

    A central research question in natural vision is how to allocate fixation to extract informative cues for scene perception. With high quality images, psychological and computational studies have made significant progress to understand and predict human gaze allocation in scene exploration. However, it is unclear whether these findings can be generalised to degraded naturalistic visual inputs. In this eye-tracking and computational study, we methodically distorted both man-made and natural scenes with Gaussian low-pass filter, circular averaging filter and Additive Gaussian white noise, and monitored participants' gaze behaviour in assessing perceived image qualities. Compared with original high quality images, distorted images attracted fewer numbers of fixations but longer fixation durations, shorter saccade distance and stronger central fixation bias. This impact of image noise manipulation on gaze distribution was mainly determined by noise intensity rather than noise type, and was more pronounced for natural scenes than for man-made scenes. We furthered compared four high performing visual attention models in predicting human gaze allocation in degraded scenes, and found that model performance lacked human-like sensitivity to noise type and intensity, and was considerably worse than human performance measured as inter-observer variance. Furthermore, the central fixation bias is a major predictor for human gaze allocation, which becomes more prominent with increased noise intensity. Our results indicate a crucial role of external noise intensity in determining scene-viewing gaze behaviour, which should be considered in the development of realistic human-vision-inspired attention models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gaze stability, dynamic balance and participation deficits in people with multiple sclerosis at fall-risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Hina; Dibble, Leland E; Schubert, Michael C; Sibthorp, Jim; Foreman, K Bo; Gappmaier, Eduard

    2018-05-05

    Despite the common complaints of dizziness and demyelination of afferent or efferent pathways to and from the vestibular nuclei which may adversely affect the angular Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (aVOR) and vestibulo-spinal function in persons with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS), few studies have examined gaze and dynamic balance function in PwMS. 1) Determine the differences in gaze stability, dynamic balance and participation measures between PwMS and controls, 2) Examine the relationships between gaze stability, dynamic balance and participation. Nineteen ambulatory PwMS at fall-risk and 14 age-matched controls were recruited. Outcomes included (a) gaze stability [angular Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (aVOR) gain (ratio of eye to head velocity); number of Compensatory Saccades (CS) per head rotation; CS latency; gaze position error; Coefficient of Variation (CV) of aVOR gain], (b) dynamic balance [Functional Gait Assessment, FGA; four square step test], and (c) participation [dizziness handicap inventory; activities-specific balance confidence scale]. Separate independent t-tests and Pearson's correlations were calculated. PwMS were age = 53 ± 11.7yrs and had 4.2 ± 3.3 falls/yr. PwMS demonstrated significant (pbalance and participation measures compared to controls. CV of aVOR gain and CS latency were significantly correlated with FGA. Deficits and correlations across a spectrum of disability measures highlight the relevance of gaze and dynamic balance assessment in PwMS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. How do we update faces? Effects of gaze direction and facial expressions on working memory updating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina eArtuso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate how the biological binding between different facial dimensions, and their social and communicative relevance, may impact updating processes in working memory (WM. We focused on WM updating because it plays a key role in ongoing processing. Gaze direction and facial expression are crucial and changeable components of face processing. Direct gaze enhances the processing of approach-oriented facial emotional expressions (e.g. joy, while averted gaze enhances the processing of avoidance-oriented facial emotional expressions (e.g. fear. Thus, the way in which these two facial dimensions are combined communicates to the observer important behavioral and social information. Updating of these two facial dimensions and their bindings has not been investigated before, despite the fact that they provide a piece of social information essential for building and maintaining an internal ongoing representation of our social environment. In Experiment 1 we created a task in which the binding between gaze direction and facial expression was manipulated: high binding conditions (e.g. joy-direct gaze were compared to low binding conditions (e.g. joy-averted gaze. Participants had to study and update continuously a number of faces, displaying different bindings between the two dimensions. In Experiment 2 we tested whether updating was affected by the social and communicative value of the facial dimension binding; to this end, we manipulated bindings between eye and hair color, two less communicative facial dimensions. Two new results emerged. First, faster response times were found in updating combinations of facial dimensions highly bound together. Second, our data showed that the ease of the ongoing updating processing varied depending on the communicative meaning of the binding that had to be updated. The results are discussed with reference to the role of WM updating in social cognition and appraisal processes.

  7. iShadow: Design of a Wearable, Real-Time Mobile Gaze Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Addison; Hu, Pan; Marlin, Benjamin; Salthouse, Christopher; Ganesan, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Continuous, real-time tracking of eye gaze is valuable in a variety of scenarios including hands-free interaction with the physical world, detection of unsafe behaviors, leveraging visual context for advertising, life logging, and others. While eye tracking is commonly used in clinical trials and user studies, it has not bridged the gap to everyday consumer use. The challenge is that a real-time eye tracker is a power-hungry and computation-intensive device which requires continuous sensing of the eye using an imager running at many tens of frames per second, and continuous processing of the image stream using sophisticated gaze estimation algorithms. Our key contribution is the design of an eye tracker that dramatically reduces the sensing and computation needs for eye tracking, thereby achieving orders of magnitude reductions in power consumption and form-factor. The key idea is that eye images are extremely redundant, therefore we can estimate gaze by using a small subset of carefully chosen pixels per frame. We instantiate this idea in a prototype hardware platform equipped with a low-power image sensor that provides random access to pixel values, a low-power ARM Cortex M3 microcontroller, and a bluetooth radio to communicate with a mobile phone. The sparse pixel-based gaze estimation algorithm is a multi-layer neural network learned using a state-of-the-art sparsity-inducing regularization function that minimizes the gaze prediction error while simultaneously minimizing the number of pixels used. Our results show that we can operate at roughly 70mW of power, while continuously estimating eye gaze at the rate of 30 Hz with errors of roughly 3 degrees. PMID:26539565

  8. iShadow: Design of a Wearable, Real-Time Mobile Gaze Tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Addison; Hu, Pan; Marlin, Benjamin; Salthouse, Christopher; Ganesan, Deepak

    2014-06-01

    Continuous, real-time tracking of eye gaze is valuable in a variety of scenarios including hands-free interaction with the physical world, detection of unsafe behaviors, leveraging visual context for advertising, life logging, and others. While eye tracking is commonly used in clinical trials and user studies, it has not bridged the gap to everyday consumer use. The challenge is that a real-time eye tracker is a power-hungry and computation-intensive device which requires continuous sensing of the eye using an imager running at many tens of frames per second, and continuous processing of the image stream using sophisticated gaze estimation algorithms. Our key contribution is the design of an eye tracker that dramatically reduces the sensing and computation needs for eye tracking, thereby achieving orders of magnitude reductions in power consumption and form-factor. The key idea is that eye images are extremely redundant, therefore we can estimate gaze by using a small subset of carefully chosen pixels per frame. We instantiate this idea in a prototype hardware platform equipped with a low-power image sensor that provides random access to pixel values, a low-power ARM Cortex M3 microcontroller, and a bluetooth radio to communicate with a mobile phone. The sparse pixel-based gaze estimation algorithm is a multi-layer neural network learned using a state-of-the-art sparsity-inducing regularization function that minimizes the gaze prediction error while simultaneously minimizing the number of pixels used. Our results show that we can operate at roughly 70mW of power, while continuously estimating eye gaze at the rate of 30 Hz with errors of roughly 3 degrees.

  9. Eye Contact and Fear of Being Laughed at in a Gaze Discrimination Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Torres-Marín

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches conceptualize gelotophobia as a personality trait characterized by a disproportionate fear of being laughed at by others. Consistently with this perspective, gelotophobes are also described as neurotic and introverted and as having a paranoid tendency to anticipate derision and mockery situations. Although research on gelotophobia has significantly progressed over the past two decades, no evidence exists concerning the potential effects of gelotophobia in reaction to eye contact. Previous research has pointed to difficulties in discriminating gaze direction as the basis of possible misinterpretations of others’ intentions or mental states. The aim of the present research was to examine whether gelotophobia predisposition modulates the effects of eye contact (i.e., gaze discrimination when processing faces portraying several emotional expressions. In two different experiments, participants performed an experimental gaze discrimination task in which they responded, as quickly and accurately as possible, to the eyes’ directions on faces displaying either a happy, angry, fear, neutral, or sad emotional expression. In particular, we expected trait-gelotophobia to modulate the eye contact effect, showing specific group differences in the happiness condition. The results of Study 1 (N = 40 indicated that gelotophobes made more errors than non-gelotophobes did in the gaze discrimination task. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, the happiness expression did not have any special role in the observed differences between individuals with high vs. low trait-gelotophobia. In Study 2 (N = 40, we replicated the pattern of data concerning gaze discrimination ability, even after controlling for individuals’ scores on social anxiety. Furthermore, in our second experiment, we found that gelotophobes did not exhibit any problem with identifying others’ emotions, or a general incorrect attribution of affective features, such as valence

  10. Spatiotemporal characteristics of gaze of children with autism spectrum disorders while looking at classroom scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Takahiro; Ishizaki, Yuko; Noritake, Atsushi; Yanagimoto, Yoshitoki; Kobayashi, Hodaka; Nakamura, Kae; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who have neurodevelopmental impairments in social communication often refuse to go to school because of difficulties in learning in class. The exact cause of maladaptation to school in such children is unknown. We hypothesized that these children have difficulty in paying attention to objects at which teachers are pointing. We performed gaze behavior analysis of children with ASD to understand their difficulties in the classroom. The subjects were 26 children with ASD (19 boys and 7 girls; mean age, 8.6 years) and 27 age-matched children with typical development (TD) (14 boys and 13 girls; mean age, 8.2 years). We measured eye movements of the children while they performed free viewing of two movies depicting actual classes: a Japanese class in which a teacher pointed at cartoon characters and an arithmetic class in which the teacher pointed at geometric figures. In the analysis, we defined the regions of interest (ROIs) as the teacher's face and finger, the cartoon characters and geometric figures at which the teacher pointed, and the classroom wall that contained no objects. We then compared total gaze time for each ROI between the children with ASD and TD by two-way ANOVA. Children with ASD spent less gaze time on the cartoon characters pointed at by the teacher; they spent more gaze time on the wall in both classroom scenes. We could differentiate children with ASD from those with TD almost perfectly by the proportion of total gaze time that children with ASD spent looking at the wall. These results suggest that children with ASD do not follow the teacher's instructions in class and persist in gazing at inappropriate visual areas such as walls. Thus, they may have difficulties in understanding content in class, leading to maladaptation to school.

  11. How do we update faces? Effects of gaze direction and facial expressions on working memory updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuso, Caterina; Palladino, Paola; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how the biological binding between different facial dimensions, and their social and communicative relevance, may impact updating processes in working memory (WM). We focused on WM updating because it plays a key role in ongoing processing. Gaze direction and facial expression are crucial and changeable components of face processing. Direct gaze enhances the processing of approach-oriented facial emotional expressions (e.g., joy), while averted gaze enhances the processing of avoidance-oriented facial emotional expressions (e.g., fear). Thus, the way in which these two facial dimensions are combined communicates to the observer important behavioral and social information. Updating of these two facial dimensions and their bindings has not been investigated before, despite the fact that they provide a piece of social information essential for building and maintaining an internal ongoing representation of our social environment. In Experiment 1 we created a task in which the binding between gaze direction and facial expression was manipulated: high binding conditions (e.g., joy-direct gaze) were compared to low binding conditions (e.g., joy-averted gaze). Participants had to study and update continuously a number of faces, displaying different bindings between the two dimensions. In Experiment 2 we tested whether updating was affected by the social and communicative value of the facial dimension binding; to this end, we manipulated bindings between eye and hair color, two less communicative facial dimensions. Two new results emerged. First, faster response times were found in updating combinations of facial dimensions highly bound together. Second, our data showed that the ease of the ongoing updating processing varied depending on the communicative meaning of the binding that had to be updated. The results are discussed with reference to the role of WM updating in social cognition and appraisal processes.

  12. Conceptual design of ball-screw type control element drive mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Ho; Kim, Jong In; Huh, Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    In this report, the design features of ball-screw type CEDM with fine-step movement capability are described. The contents of this report are as follows: -Review of Design Requirements for Ball-screw type CEDM -System Description for Ball-screw type CEDM -Design of Ball Bearing and Ball-screw Assembly -Detail Design of Rotary Step Motor -Detail Design of Angular Position Indicator -Materials. The Ball-screw type CEDM described in this report is to be utilized as the starting point for design development of CEDM for SMART. 11 refs., 43 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  13. A self-similar magnetohydrodynamic model for ball lightnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, K. H.

    2006-01-01

    Ball lightning is modeled by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in two-dimensional spherical geometry with azimuthal symmetry. Dynamic evolutions in the radial direction are described by the self-similar evolution function y(t). The plasma pressure, mass density, and magnetic fields are solved in terms of the radial label η. This model gives spherical MHD plasmoids with axisymmetric force-free magnetic field, and spherically symmetric plasma pressure and mass density, which self-consistently determine the polytropic index γ. The spatially oscillating nature of the radial and meridional field structures indicate embedded regions of closed field lines. These regions are named secondary plasmoids, whereas the overall self-similar spherical structure is named the primary plasmoid. According to this model, the time evolution function allows the primary plasmoid expand outward in two modes. The corresponding ejection of the embedded secondary plasmoids results in ball lightning offering an answer as how they come into being. The first is an accelerated expanding mode. This mode appears to fit plasmoids ejected from thundercloud tops with acceleration to ionosphere seen in high altitude atmospheric observations of sprites and blue jets. It also appears to account for midair high-speed ball lightning overtaking airplanes, and ground level high-speed energetic ball lightning. The second is a decelerated expanding mode, and it appears to be compatible to slowly moving ball lightning seen near ground level. The inverse of this second mode corresponds to an accelerated inward collapse, which could bring ball lightning to an end sometimes with a cracking sound

  14. The Energy Cost of Running with the Ball in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Alessandro; Raffi, Milena; Atmatzidis, Charalampos; Merni, Franco; Di Michele, Rocco

    2017-11-01

    Running with the ball is a soccer-specific activity frequently used by players during match play and training drills. Nevertheless, the energy cost (EC) of on-grass running with the ball has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the EC of constant-speed running with the ball, and to compare it with the EC of normal running. Eight amateur soccer players performed two 6- min runs at 10 km/h on artificial turf, respectively with and without the ball. EC was measured with indirect calorimetry and, furthermore, estimated with a method based on players' accelerations measured with a GPS receiver. The EC measured with indirect calorimetry was higher in running with the ball (4.60±0.42 J/kg/m) than in normal running (4.19±0.33 J/kg/m), with a very likely moderate difference between conditions. Instead, a likely small difference was observed between conditions for EC estimated from GPS data (4.87±0.07 vs. 4.83±0.08 J/kg/m). This study sheds light on the energy expenditure of playing soccer, providing relevant data about the EC of a typical soccer-specific activity. These findings may be a reference for coaches to precisely determine the training load in drills with the ball, such as soccer-specific circuits or small-sided games. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Synergistic convergence and split pons in horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis in two sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nitin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic convergence is an ocular motor anomaly where on attempted abduction or on attempted horizontal gaze, both the eyes converge. It has been related to peripheral causes such as congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (CFEOM, congenital cranial dysinnervation syndrome, ocular misinnervation or rarely central causes like horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, brain stem dysplasia. We hereby report the occurrence of synergistic convergence in two sisters. Both of them also had kyphoscoliosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI brain and spine in both the patients showed signs of brain stem dysplasia (split pons sign differing in degree (younger sister had more marked changes.

  16. Head mounted device for point-of-gaze estimation in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Lidegaard, Morten; Krüger, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fully calibrated extended geometric approach for gaze estimation in three dimensions (3D). The methodology is based on a geometric approach utilising a fully calibrated binocular setup constructed as a head-mounted system. The approach is based on utilisation of two ordinary...... in the horizontal and vertical dimensions regarding fixations. However, even though the workspace is limited, the fact that the system is designed as a head-mounted device, the workspace volume is relatively positioned to the pose of the device. Hence gaze can be estimated in 3D with relatively free head...

  17. Evaluation of a low-cost open-source gaze tracker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    San Agustin, Javier; Jensen, Henrik Tomra Skovsgaard Hegner; Møllenbach, Emilie

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost gaze tracking system that is based on a webcam mounted close to the user's eye. The performance of the gaze tracker was evaluated in an eye-typing task using two different typing applications. Participants could type between 3.56 and 6.78 words per minute, depending...... on the typing system used. A pilot study to assess the usability of the system was also carried out in the home of a user with severe motor impairments. The user successfully typed on a wall-projected interface using his eye movements....

  18. Using Variable Dwell Time to Accelerate Gaze-based Web Browsing with Two-step Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhaokang; Shi, Bertram E.

    2017-01-01

    In order to avoid the "Midas Touch" problem, gaze-based interfaces for selection often introduce a dwell time: a fixed amount of time the user must fixate upon an object before it is selected. Past interfaces have used a uniform dwell time across all objects. Here, we propose an algorithm for adjusting the dwell times of different objects based on the inferred probability that the user intends to select them. In particular, we introduce a probabilistic model of natural gaze behavior while sur...

  19. EyeDroid: An Open Source Mobile Gaze Tracker on Android for Eyewear Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbeigi, Diako; Sintos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on development and evaluation of a video-based mobile gaze tracker for eyewear computers. Unlike most of the previous work, our system performs all its processing workload on an Android device and sends the coordinates of the gaze point to an eyewear device through wireless...... connection. We propose a lightweight software architecture for Android to increase the efficiency of image processing needed for eye tracking. The evaluation of the system indicated an accuracy of 1:06 and a battery lifetime of approximate 4.5 hours....

  20. Look at my poster! Active gaze, preference and memory during a poster session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2011-01-01

    In science, as in advertising, people often present information on a poster, yet little is known about attention during a poster session. A mobile eye-tracker was used to record participants' gaze during a mock poster session featuring a range of academic psychology posters. Participants spent the most time looking at introductions and conclusions. Larger posters were looked at for longer, as were posters rated more interesting (but not necessarily more aesthetically pleasing). Interestingly, gaze did not correlate with memory for poster details or liking, suggesting that attracting someone towards your poster may not be enough.