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Sample records for cross-sectional prevalence study

  1. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  2. Prevalence and clinical features of celiac disease in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: cross-sectional study

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    Aline Ventura

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder with an average prevalence of 1% in Europe and the United States. Because of strong European ancestry in southern Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of celiac disease among autoimmune thyroiditis patients.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a public university hospital.METHODS: This cross-sectional prevalence study included autoimmune thyroiditis patients who were tested for anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies between August 2010 and July 2011.RESULTS: Fifty-three patients with autoimmune thyroiditis were included; 92.5% were women, with mean age of 49.0 ± 13.5 years. Five patients (9.3% were serologically positive for celiac disease: three of them (5.6% were reactive for anti-endomysial antibodies and two (3.7% for anti-transglutaminase. None of them exhibited anemia and one presented diarrhea. Endoscopy was performed on two patients: one with normal histology and the other with lymphocytic infiltrate and villous atrophy.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease among patients with autoimmune thyroid disease was 9.3%; one patient complained of diarrhea and none presented anemia. Among at-risk populations, like autoimmune thyroiditis patients, the presence of diarrhea or anemia should not be used as a criterion for indicating celiac disease investigation. This must be done for all autoimmune thyroiditis patients because of its high prevalence.

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese psoriasis patients: A hospital-based cross-sectional study.

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    Gui, Xin-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Jin, Hong-Zhong; Zuo, Ya-Gang; Wu, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis, a chronic autoimmune skin disorder, is believed to contribute to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Psoriasis's association with the components of metabolic syndrome has been reported previously. However, large-scale cross-sectional studies about psoriasis and metabolic syndrome are rare in China. We assessed the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese psoriasis patients and controls. A total of 859 psoriasis patients and 1,718 controls were recruited in an age- and sex-matched cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome occurred in 14.3% of the psoriasis patients as opposed to 10.0% of the control participants (P = 0.001). Psoriasis patients had a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia when compared with controls. Meanwhile, psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome were older, and had an older age of onset and a longer disease duration when compared with those without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher in the Chinese psoriatic population, which can favor cardiovascular events. The present study strengthens the value of treating psoriasis patients not only dealing with the skin lesions, and we suggest appropriate screening and relevant health education be carried out in the treatment of psoriasis patients. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents: A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

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    Hu, Jiande; Dong, Yonghai; Chen, Xiaodan; Liu, Yun; Ma, Dongyang; Liu, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Ruizhi; Mao, Xiangqun; Chen, Ting; He, Wei

    2015-08-01

    According to World Health Organization, for every committed suicide there were 20 suicide attempts at least. In the last decade, despite the increasing awareness on suicide attempts among adolescents in China, there has been no comprehensive system reporting vital statistics. Consequently, the prevalence of suicide attempts reported in some studies ranged variedly. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide the first meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies of suicide attempts to fill this gap. Two reviewers independently screened potentially relevant cross-sectional studies of suicide attempts through PubMed-Medline, Embase, Wanfang Data, Chongqing VIP and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases using the core terms 'suicid*'/'suicide attempt*'/'attempted suicide' and 'adolescen*'/'youth'/'child*'/'student*' and 'China'/'Chinese' in the article titles, abstracts and keywords. Chi-square based Q test and I(2) statistic assessed the heterogeneity. Forest plot was used to display results graphically. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot, Begg's and Egger's test. In total, 43 studies with 200,124 participants met the eligibility criteria. The pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents was 2.94% (95% CI: 2.53%-3.41%). Substantial heterogeneity in prevalence estimates was revealed. Subgroup analyses showed that the prevalence for males was 2.50% (95% CI: 2.08%-3.01%), and for females was 3.17% (95% CI: 2.56%-3.91%). In sum, abstracting across the literatures, the prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents was moderate compared with other countries around the world. Necessary measures should be set out prevent them in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Shiraz Male Wushu Players: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Farahnaz Emami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wushu is one of the martial arts that combines explosive strength and speed movements with combat techniques. Most studies to date of wushurelated injuries have been published in Chinese languages. No published studies have reported the prevalence of these injuries in Iran. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in male wushu players in Shiraz. Methods: Male wushu athletes aged 18 to 30 years were included in this cross sectional study if they had been practicing for 2 hours per session, twice a week during the past 3 years. The athletes were recruited by convenience sampling from 30 wushu clubs in Shiraz, Iran. The sample size was 165. The study was conducted from June to September 2016. Each participant was asked to complete an information questionnaire about his musculoskeletal injuries related to wushu during the previous year. Results: About two third (65.45% of wushu players had one or more injuries during the previous year. Severe injuries were most commonly located in the head/neck and knee/tibia areas, and inflammation was more prevalent than the other types of injuries. Conclusion: Wushu players in this study reported a high prevalence of injuries affecting different parts of the body.

  6. Prevalence of depression in mothers of intellectually disabled children: A cross-sectional study

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    Gourav Chandravanshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intellectual disability (ID is a permanent and highly disabling condition. The birth of a disabled child induces complex feelings in mother and other family members. This study was planned to investigate phenomenology of ID and the prevalence of depression in their mothers. Objective: To find prevalence, influence of various sociodemographic variables, and its clinical correlation with depression in mothers of ID children. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients diagnosed as ID were included in the study. Objective data were collected in a special Pro forma, and mothers of these patients were evaluated with the Beck's Anxiety Inventory and Beck's Depression Inventory. Results: The mean age of patients with ID was 11.52 years, had received an average of 3.01 years of schooling, mean age at diagnosis was 6.01 years, mean intelligence quotient was 45.17, and 79% had significant comorbidities. The prevalence of depression in mothers was 79%; it was more in mothers of female ID child, ID child with significant comorbidities, severer forms of retardation, and with higher levels of anxiety in the mother. Conclusions: The prevalence of depression in mothers of ID children in the present study seems to be much greater than those reported from the previous studies. The determination of predictors of depression among mothers of ID children may help health professionals in identifying mothers at risk. Regular screening of mothers of ID children should be included in the protocol for management.

  7. Variation in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis among smokers: a cross-sectional study.

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    Mahesh, P A; Jayaraj, B S; Chaya, S K; Lokesh, K S; McKay, A J; Prabhakar, A K; Pape, U J

    2014-07-01

    Given the wide variations in prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease observed between populations with similar levels of exposure to tobacco smoke, we aimed to investigate the possibility of variations in prevalence of chronic bronchitis (CB) between two geographically distinct smoking populations in rural Karnataka, India. The Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) questionnaire was administered to all men aged >30 years in a cross-sectional survey. The χ(2) and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare CB prevalence in the two populations. Logistic regression was used to analyse the impact of multiple variables on the occurrence of CB. Two samples of 2322 and 2182 subjects were included in the study. In non-smokers, CB prevalence did not differ between the populations. However, it was significantly different between smoking populations (44.79% vs. 2.13%, P < 0.0001). Logistic regression indicated that, in addition to smoking, region, age, occupational dust exposure and type of house were associated with higher likelihood of CB. An interaction between smoking and area of residence was found (P < 0.001) and appeared to explain the effect of region (without interaction). A significant difference in CB prevalence was observed between male populations from two areas of Karnataka state, including when stratified by smoking status. No significant difference was observed between non-smokers.

  8. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Prison Inmates in Ethiopia, a Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Ali, Solomon; Haileamlak, Abraham; Wieser, Andreas; Pritsch, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert; Loscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Rachow, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems in prisons. This study was done to assess the prevalence and determinants of active tuberculosis in Ethiopian prisons. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in 13 zonal prisons. All incarcerated inmates underwent TB symptom screening according to WHO criteria. From identified TB-suspects two sputum samples were analyzed using smear microscopy and solid culture. A standardized questionnaire assessing TB risk factors was completed for each TB suspect. 765 (4.9%) TB suspects were identified among 15,495 inmates. 51 suspects were already on anti-TB treatment (6.67%) and 20 (2.8%) new culture-confirmed TB cases were identified in the study, resulting in an overall TB prevalence of 458.1/100,000 (95%CI: 350-560/100,000). Risk factors for active TB were alcohol consumption, contact with a TB case before incarceration and no window in prison cell. HIV prevalence was not different between TB suspects and active TB cases. Further, the TB burden in prisons increased with advancing distance from the capital Addis Ababa. The overall TB prevalence in Ethiopian prisons was high and extremely variable among different prisons. TB risk factors related to conditions of prison facilities and the impact of implemented TB control measures need to be further studied in order to improve TB control among inmates.

  9. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

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    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  10. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

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    Hae Dong Woo

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016. A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005. The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  11. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Filipino-Americans: a cross-sectional study.

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    Dalusung-Angosta, Alona; Gutierrez, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this study are a) to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Filipino-Americans, b) to compare the rate of metabolic syndrome between Filipino men and women, and c) to examine the prevalence of central adiposity. Filipino-Americans are the second largest Asian subgroup in the United States and their leading cause of death is coronary heart disease (CHD). This study utilized a descriptive correlational, cross-sectional design that included a convenience sample of 300 Filipino-Americans residing in Southern Nevada. Survey questionnaires were used to collect the sample's demographic data and presence of CHD risk factors. Waist circumference measurements were used to examine central adiposity. Metabolic syndrome and central adiposity are highly prevalent among Filipino-Americans residing in Southern Nevada. More men than women had the syndrome, but the rate of central adiposity was significantly higher in women than in men. Intensive lifestyle modifications and treatment are indicated to decrease the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the risk of heart disease in this group. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Prevalence of Postpartum Depression and its Correlation with Breastfeeding: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Wedad Saad Al-Muhaish

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum depression is bidirectional. Breastfeeding improves the maternal and neonatal health. There is now growing evidence that it might play a role in the prevention of postpartum depression. Objective: This study explores the relationship between breastfeeding and maternal postpartum depression. It also estimates the prevalence rate of postpartum depression among Saudi women. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Three-hundred postpartum women were recruited for this study from various hospitals in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Likelihood of depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS. Socio-demographic data were collected as well as data regarding breastfeeding duration and intention to breastfeed. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21, using parametric tests; independent t-test and One-Way ANOVA. Results: Postpartum mothers who intended to breast-feed their babies had a lower EPDS scores compared with those who did not intend to breast-feed. No correlation was found between the duration of breastfeeding and EPDS scores. Prevalence rate of postpartum depression in our sample was 14%. Greater age, having previous babies, intention to breastfeed and vaginal delivery were significantly associated with actual breastfeeding. Conclusion: Screening for mothers in the early postpartum period is essential to detect those who are at risk for postpartum depression. Breastfeeding may help to reduce and prevent the appearance of symptoms of depression. Prevalence rate of postpartum depression in Saudi Arabia, 14%, is similar to the worldwide rate.

  13. Prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity among the elderly in Burkina Faso: cross-sectional study.

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    Hien, Hervé; Berthé, Abdramane; Drabo, Maxime Koiné; Meda, Nicolas; Konaté, Blahima; Tou, Fatoumata; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2014-11-01

    To assess the prevalence and distribution patterns of multimorbidity among urban older adults in Burkina Faso. Cross-sectional study among community-dwelling elderly people aged ≥60 in Bobo-Dioulasso. We performed interviews, clinical examination and medical record review. Multimorbidity was defined as co-occurrence of at least two chronic diseases in one person whether as a coincidence or not. The overall prevalence of multimorbidity among older adults was 65%. Age ≥70 was associated with multimorbidity in multivariate analysis: adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI (1.01-2.68, P = 0.04). The most common chronic diseases were hypertension (82%) 95% CI (78; 86), malnutrition (39%) 95% CI (34; 44), visual impairments (28%) 95% CI (24; 33) and diabetes mellitus (27%) 95% CI (22; 31). Those aged ≥70 had significantly more malnutrition (50% vs. 31%, P = 0.0003) and osteoarthritis (8% vs. 3%, P = 0.01) than those aged 60-69. The high prevalence of multimorbidity requires a reorganization of healthcare systems in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in Burkina Faso. Interventions and care guidelines usually focused on individual diseases should be improved to better reflect this reality. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of equestrian injuries in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study.

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    Majeedkutty, Nizar A; Khairulanuar, Nor A B

    2017-01-01

    Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and above were included in the study. Out of 169 participants, 93 were females and 76 were males. The correlation of injuries to gender, age, level of experience, exercise habits, use of safety measures, and type of equestrian sport were determined. Chi-square test was performed to test for statistical significance. The prevalence was high with 85.8% of the participants reporting symptoms and characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months. The most frequently perceived symptoms reported were in the upper extremities (43.4%) followed by lower extremities (40.7%), head injury (8.3%) and injuries of upper and lower back (3.4%). There was a higher prevalence of injury among female participants (55.03%) than males (42.60%). A significant correlation was found between gender and prevalence of injuries. About 70% of the riders sustained soft tissue injuries. Fifty-five percent of the injured were involved in recreational riding. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall from a horse. Sixty percent of the injured riders did not seek medical attention after being injured, and physiotherapy consultation was even lower with 10.3%. The high prevalence of injuries and low rate of medical consultation emphasize the need for education programs on safety in Malaysia. Sessions should be held to improve coaching for riders and instructors, and their knowledge of the nature of the horse, mechanisms of injuries, horse handling, and riding skills to help them host safe equestrian activities.

  15. Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of equestrian injuries in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study

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    Nizar A Majeedkutty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. Subjects And Methods: A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and above were included in the study. Out of 169 participants, 93 were females and 76 were males. The correlation of injuries to gender, age, level of experience, exercise habits, use of safety measures, and type of equestrian sport were determined. Chi-square test was performed to test for statistical significance. Results: The prevalence was high with 85.8% of the participants reporting symptoms and characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months. The most frequently perceived symptoms reported were in the upper extremities (43.4% followed by lower extremities (40.7%, head injury (8.3% and injuries of upper and lower back (3.4%. There was a higher prevalence of injury among female participants (55.03% than males (42.60%. A significant correlation was found between gender and prevalence of injuries. About 70% of the riders sustained soft tissue injuries. Fifty-five percent of the injured were involved in recreational riding. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall from a horse. Sixty percent of the injured riders did not seek medical attention after being injured, and physiotherapy consultation was even lower with 10.3%. Conclusions: The high prevalence of injuries and low rate of medical consultation emphasize the need for education programs on safety in Malaysia. Sessions should be held to improve coaching for riders and instructors, and their knowledge of the nature of the horse, mechanisms of injuries, horse handling, and riding skills to help them host safe

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence in Lebanon: a cross-sectional descriptive study

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    Waked M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirna Waked1, George Khayat2, Pascale Salameh31Saint George Hospital University Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Faculty of Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Faculties of Pharmacy and Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continues to increase worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of COPD in Lebanese adults.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a multistage cluster sample from all over Lebanon. Residents aged 40 years and over were enrolled. Subjects underwent baseline spirometry and answered a questionnaire. After an albuterol + ipratropium bromide bronchodilator, a posttest was performed.Results: Of 2201 individuals, only 33.3% had never smoked. The prevalence of COPD by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5%–10.9%. According to the 5% lower limit of normal definition of COPD, the prevalence was 12.5% (95% CI: 11.2%–13.9%. A total of 20.2% were already diagnosed by a physician. No differences in symptoms across stages of COPD were found, but there was a significant trend for a higher number of visits to the emergency room and to the doctor (P < 0.001, and a higher number of hospitalizations (P < 0.001. Older individuals had an increased risk of COPD (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 1.05; so did “ever” cigarette smokers (ORa = 4.88 and water-pipe smokers (ORa = 2.53.Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study in Lebanon that determined COPD prevalence and the link with water-pipe smoking.Keywords: COPD, prevalence, water-pipe smoking

  17. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese Yi nationality: a cross-sectional study

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    Gao Yun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are considered a serious health problem. There are little data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Yi ethnic group in China. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiologic features of overweight/obesity among Chinese Yi nationality. Methods A cross-sectional study, including 1255 subjects aged 20-75 years, was carried out in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan province from 2007 to 2008. Overweight/overall obesity was defined by World Health Organization (WHO or the Working Group on Obesity in China. Results Overall, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.0% and 2.9%, respectively, based on the WHO definition, while it was 21.0% and 7.4%, respectively, according to the Working Group on Obesity in China, which is similar to data reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey. Urban residents had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (WHO criteria: 4.3% vs 1.7% p = 0.008; China criteria: 11.4% vs 3.7%, p p p Conclusions The prevalence of overweight/obesity in the Yi nationality is similar to that in Chinese adults 5 years ago. However, urban residents have a much higher prevalence of overweight/obesity than their rural counterparts. Lifestyle and diet patterns associated with socioeconomic status may explain the difference between urban and rural residents. The prevention of overweight/obesity among urban inhabitants deserves more attention in national health education programs.

  18. The prevalence and specific characteristics of hospitalised pressure ulcer patients: A multicentre cross-sectional study.

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    Zhou, Qing; Yu, Ting; Liu, Yuan; Shi, Ruifen; Tian, Suping; Yang, Chaoxia; Gan, Huaxiu; Zhu, Yanying; Liang, Xia; Wang, Ling; Wu, Zhenhua; Huang, Jinping; Hu, Ailing

    2018-02-01

    To ascertain the pressure ulcer prevalence in secondary and tertiary general hospitals in different areas of Guangdong Province in China and explore the possible risk factors that are related to pressure ulcers. Few multicentre studies have been conducted on pressure ulcer prevalence in Chinese hospitals. A cross-sectional study design was used. Data from a total of 25,264 patients were included in the analysis at 25 hospitals in China. The investigators were divided into two groups. The investigators in group 1 examined the patients' skin. When a pressure ulcer was found, a pressure ulcer assessment form was completed. The investigators in group 2 provided guidance to the nurses, who assessed all patients and completed another questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyse the relationship between the possible risk factors and pressure ulcer. The overall prevalence rate of pressure ulcers in the 25 hospitals ranged from 0%-3.49%, with a mean of 1.26%. The most common stage of the pressure ulcers was stage II (41.4%); most common anatomical locations were sacrum (39.5%) and the feet (16.4%). Braden score (p pressure ulcers from the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence rate of pressure ulcers in Chinese hospitals was lower than that reported in previous investigations. Specific characteristics of pressure ulcer patients were as follows: low Braden score, longer expected length of stay, double incontinence, an ICU and a medical ward, hospital location in the Pearl River Delta, a university hospital and an older patient. The survey could make managers know their prevalence level of pressure ulcers and provide priorities for clinical nurses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prevalence of overweight preschool children in public day care centers: a cross-sectional study

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    Viviane Gabriela Nascimento

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Brazil is undergoing a period of epidemiological transition associated with demographic and nutritional changes. The prevalence of obesity is also increasing in children and is causing numerous health problems that are becoming public health issues. The aim here was to evaluate the prevalence of overweight among children of two and three years of age. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in municipal day care centers in Taubaté, state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Weight and height measurements were made on 447 preschool children forming a probabilistic randomized sample. Their body mass index (BMI was calculated. Their nutritional status was classified using the World Health Organization reference cutoff points (2006. Their mean weight, height and BMI were compared according to their age and sex. RESULTS: The mean values for the final sample (n = 447 were as follows: mean age: 38.6 months (± 3.5 and Z scores for: weight/height (W/H: 0.50 (± 1.22; height/age: -0.03 (± 1.07; weight/age (W/A: 0.51 (± 1.23; and BMI: 0.51(± 1.23. The prevalence of overweight children (BMI > 1 z was 28.86%, while the prevalence of underweight children (BMI < -2 z was 0.89%. There were no differences in mean BMI among the two and three-year age groups (P = 0.66. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of overweight was observed in the sample of two and three-year-old children, with practically no malnutrition, thus showing that a significant nutritional transition may already be occurring, even in medium-sized cities of developing countries.

  20. Prevalence of distressing symptoms in hospitalised patients on medical wards: A cross-sectional study

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    Sigurdardottir Katrin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients with advanced, serious, non-malignant disease belong to the population generally seen on medical wards. However, little research has been carried out on palliative care needs in this group. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of distressing symptoms in patients hospitalised in a Department of Internal Medicine, estimate how many of these patients might be regarded as palliative, and describe their main symptoms. Methods Cross-sectional (point prevalence study. All patients hospitalised in the Departments of Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine, and Cardiology were asked to do a symptom assessment by use of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS. Patients were defined as "palliative" if they had an advanced, serious, chronic disease with limited life expectancy and symptom relief as the main goal of treatment. Results 222 patients were registered in all. ESAS was completed for 160 patients. 79 (35.6% were defined as palliative and 43 of them completed ESAS. The patients in the palliative group were older than the rest, and reported more dyspnea (70% and a greater lack of wellbeing (70%. Other symptoms reported by this group were dry mouth (58%, fatigue (56%, depression (41%, anxiety (37%, pain at rest (30%, and pain on movement (42%. Conclusion More than one third of the patients in a Department of Internal Medicine were defined as palliative, and the majority of the patients in this palliative group reported severe symptoms. There is a need for skills in symptom control on medical wards.

  1. Keratosis pilaris and prevalence of acne vulgaris: a cross-sectional study.

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    Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Lima, Brunno Zeni de; Souza, Monique Carolina Meira do Rosário de; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris has an important genetic predisposition, as well as keratosis pilaris. Clinical observations suggest that patients with keratosis pilaris have less frequent or less severe acne breakouts; however, we found no studies on this regard To determine if the presence of keratosis pilaris is associated with lower prevalence and severity of acne. A cross-sectional study was conducted with dermatology outpatients aged between 14 and 35 years. We evaluated history and clinical grade of acne, demographic variables, history of atopy, smoking, and use of hormonal contraceptives. Two groups were defined by the presence or absence of moderate to severe keratosis pilaris on the arms and were compared by bivariate analysis and by conditional multiple logistic regression. We included 158 patients (66% women), with a median age of 23 ± 11 years. Twenty-six percent of them had keratosis pilaris, which was associated with a history of atopy (odds ratio [OR]=2.80 [1.36 to 5.75]; pkeratosis pilaris had a less frequent history of acne (OR=0.32 [0.14 to 0.70]; pkeratosis pilaris on the arms was associated with lower prevalence of acne vulgaris and lower severity of facial lesions in adolescents and young adults.

  2. Keratosis pilaris and prevalence of acne vulgaris: a cross-sectional study*

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    Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; de Lima, Brunno Zeni; de Souza, Monique Carolina Meira do Rosário; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acne vulgaris has an important genetic predisposition, as well as keratosis pilaris. Clinical observations suggest that patients with keratosis pilaris have less frequent or less severe acne breakouts; however, we found no studies on this regard OBJECTIVE To determine if the presence of keratosis pilaris is associated with lower prevalence and severity of acne. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with dermatology outpatients aged between 14 and 35 years. We evaluated history and clinical grade of acne, demographic variables, history of atopy, smoking, and use of hormonal contraceptives. Two groups were defined by the presence or absence of moderate to severe keratosis pilaris on the arms and were compared by bivariate analysis and by conditional multiple logistic regression. RESULTS We included 158 patients (66% women), with a median age of 23±11 years. Twenty-six percent of them had keratosis pilaris, which was associated with a history of atopy (odds ratio [OR]=2.80 [1.36 to 5.75]; pkeratosis pilaris had a less frequent history of acne (OR=0.32 [0.14 to 0.70]; pkeratosis pilaris on the arms was associated with lower prevalence of acne vulgaris and lower severity of facial lesions in adolescents and young adults. PMID:24626653

  3. Prevalence and relationship between major depressive disorder and lung cancer: a cross-sectional study

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    Maneeton B

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benchalak Maneeton,1 Narong Maneeton,1 Jirayu Reungyos,1 Suthi Intaprasert,1 Samornsri Leelarphat,1 Sumitra Thongprasert21Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandObjective: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and examine the factors associated with major depressive disorder (MDD in lung cancer patients.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the oncology clinic of the University Hospital, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. Patients with all stages of lung cancer were included in this study. Demographic data of eligible patients were gathered. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Thai version 5.0.0 was used to identify MDD. The Thai version of the Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale was used to assess depression severity.Results: A total of 146 lung cancer patients from the outpatient clinic from July to December 2012 were approached. The 104 patients were included and analyzed in this study. Based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, 14.4% of them were defined as having MDD. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that Chalder Fatigue Scale, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Lung, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were significantly correlated with MDD in lung cancer patients.Conclusion: The results suggest that MDD is more prevalent in lung cancer patients. In addition, fatigue, poor quality of life, and sleep disturbance may increase associated MDD. Because of the small sample size, further studies should be conducted to confirm these results.Keywords: lung cancer, major depressive disorder, prevalence

  4. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Young Female Emirati Adults.

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    Ayesha S Al Dhaheri

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a growing problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Moreover, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing in the UAE especially among young females. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of MetS among young female adults in the UAE. This study determined the prevalence of MetS in Emirati females aged 17-25 years and its relation to overweight and obesity.In total, 555 Emirati female college students were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, conducted during 2013-2014 at United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain, UAE. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were collected. MetS was defined according to the harmonised International Diabetes Federation criteria.Of the 555 participants enrolled, 23.1% were overweight and 10.4% were classified as obese. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.8%. MetS prevalence was highest among obese participants (34.5%, as compared with normal-weight (1.7% and overweight (10.1% participants. MetS was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.15-12.52 and obesity (aOR = 11.2, 95% CI; 3.1-40.9, as compared with normal-weight. Waist-hip ratio ≥ 0.8 (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI; 1.10-8.44 was significantly associated with MetS, as compared with waist-hip ratio <0.8. The odds of MetS were 22 fold higher in participants with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ≥ 6.5% (aOR = 22.5, 95% CI; 6.37-79.42 compared to HbA1c <6.5%. This difference was 9 fold higher when HbA1c between 5.6%-6.4% was compared to HbA1c <5.6% (aOR = 8.9, 95% CI; 3.4-23.5.The prevalence of MetS among obese Emirati female students was significantly higher than overweight and normal weight students. The high prevalence of MetS highlights the importance of regular screening and intervention programmes targeting weight reduction.

  5. Musculoskeletal Injury in Professional Dancers: Prevalence and Associated Factors: An International Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Jacobs, Craig L; Cassidy, J David; Côté, Pierre; Boyle, Eleanor; Ramel, Eva; Ammendolia, Carlo; Hartvigsen, Jan; Schwartz, Isabella

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with injury in professional ballet and modern dancers, and assess if dancers are reporting their injuries and explore reasons for not reporting injuries. Cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited from nine professional ballet and modern dance companies in Canada, Denmark, Israel, and Sweden. Professional ballet and modern dancers. Sociodemographic variables included age, sex, height, weight, and before-tax yearly or monthly income. Dance specific characteristics included number of years in present dance company, number of years dancing professionally, number of years dancing total, and rank in the company. Self-reported injury and Self-Estimated Functional Inability because of Pain. A total of 260 dancers participated in the study with an overall response rate of 81%. The point prevalence of self-reported injury in professional ballet and modern dancers was 54.8% (95% CI, 47.7-62.1) and 46.3% (95% CI, 35.5-57.1), respectively. Number of years dancing professionally (OR = 4.4, 95% CI, 1.6-12.3) and rank (OR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.2-4.8) were associated with injury in ballet dancers. More than 15% of all injured dancers had not reported their injury and their reasons for not reporting injury varied. The prevalence of injury is high in professional dancers with a significant percentage not reporting their injuries for a variety of reasons. Number of years dancing and rank are associated with injury in professional ballet dancers.

  6. Prevalence of factors related to active reproductive health behavior: a cross-sectional study Indonesian adolescent

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    Tantut Susanto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Complex and diverse factors are related to reproductive health (RH behavior among adolescents according to the social and cultural context of each countries. This study examined the prevalence of active RH and factors related to active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the World Health Organization Illustrative Questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance to the Indonesian context. The data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics, as well as logistic regression analyses. RESULTS The prevalence of active RH behavior were more higher in boys (56.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.6% to 62.6% than in girls (43.7%; 95% CI, 37.6% to 49.8%. Negative attitudes towards RH were a factor related to active RH behavior in both boys and girls. Smoking and kind relationship envisioned before marriage (pacaran [courtship] and nikah siri [non-registered marriage] were factors related to active RH behavior in boys; whereas the absence of access to information on substance abuse was an additional factor in girls. Moreover, an interaction was found between access to information on development and smoking (boys and attitudes on RH (girls as independent variables associated with active RH behavior. CONCLUSIONS Sex education for adolescents in Indonesia, particularly in the context of a health promotion program, should be developed based on prevalent social, cultural, and religious values to prevent active RH behavior. Such programs should focus on the kind of relationship envisioned before marriage and smoking for boys and access to information on subtance abuse for girls.

  7. Prevalence of prediabetes and its association with obesity among college students in Kuwait: A cross-sectional study.

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    Ben Haider, Nour Y; Ziyab, Ali H

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional study sought to estimate the prevalence of prediabetes and assess its association with obesity among young adults in Kuwait; a country with a high prevalence of obesity and diabetes. The estimated prevalence of prediabetes was 6.3% (95% CI: 4.8-8.1) and obesity was associated with elevated prediabetes prevalence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dopamine agonists and delusional jealousy in Parkinson's disease: a cross-sectional prevalence study.

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    Poletti, Michele; Perugi, Giulio; Logi, Chiara; Romano, Anna; Del Dotto, Paolo; Ceravolo, Roberto; Rossi, Giuseppe; Pepe, Pasquale; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2012-11-01

    Delusional jealousy (DJ) has been described in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) on dopaminergic therapy, but a role for dopaminergic therapy in DJ has not been established. The current cross-sectional study on DJ investigated its association with dopaminergic therapies compared with their associations with hallucinations and its prevalence in PD patients. Eight hundred five consecutive patients with PD were enrolled between January 2009 and June 2010. DJ was identified in 20 patients (2.48%) and hallucinations in 193 patients (23.98%). In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, dopamine agonists were significantly associated with DJ (odds ratio, 18.1; 95% CI, 3.0-infinity; P = .0002) but not with hallucinations (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.49-1.10; P = .133). These findings suggest that dopamine agonist treatment represents a risk factor for DJ in PD independent of the presence of a dementing disorder, and the presence of this additional nonmotor side effect should be investigated in this clinical population. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Prevalence of functioning and disability in older patients with joint contractures: a cross-sectional study.

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    Fischer, U; Müller, M; Strobl, R; Bartoszek, G; Meyer, G; Grill, E

    2015-06-01

    Joint contractures are a common problem for older, frail people, particularly in rehabilitation, nursing home and homecare settings. Joint contractures are underreported and sparsely empirically investigated despite their high prevalence. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of functional impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions of patients with joint contractures using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework. We also examined contextual factors as potential mediators for functioning and disability. Cross-sectional study- Three acute-geriatric hospitals in and around Munich (Germany). Patients aged 65 and over with confirmed joint contractures requiring rehabilitation care. The patients were asked to answer a questionnaire that comprised 124 categories of the ICF. Patients' problems in functioning were registered separately for each category. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with patients and health professionals and from patients' medical records. One hundred and fifty patients were eligible and agreed to participate. Mean age was 82.5 years (SD: 7.4), 64.8% of the patients were female. Problems in "muscle power functions" (95.9%) and "driving human-powered transportation" (89,6%) were those most frequently identified. 'Health services, systems and policies' (98,6%) was the most frequent environmental facilitator. Aged persons with joint contractures experience high levels of disability. Specifically, mobility, participation restrictions and interactions with the environment emerged as important issues of our study. Mobility and support by others were frequently mentioned as aspects relevant for persons with joint contractures. These aspects have to be considered when assessing the impact of joint contractures.

  10. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dermatologically diseased patients: A cross-sectional study in Meerut

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    Tanushree Keswani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is a noted fact that dermatologic diseases have varied oral manifestations. By far, there have been inordinately few studies focusing on the prevalence of a wide spectrum of oral mucosal lesions (OML in patients with dermatologic diseases. This is significant as oral lesions may be the only or the primary feature of the skin disease, which could be neglected by dentists. This study aimed to estimate the frequency and sociobehavioral correlates of OML in skin disease patients attending outpatient′s facility of Subharti Hospital, Dermatology Clinic, Meerut, India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted in Meerut during the period from August 2013 to October 2013. A total of 500 patients (mean age 37.2 ± 14.11 years, 41.4% females completed an oral examination and a personal interview. OML were recorded using the World Health Organization criteria. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (version 15.0.1. Cross tabulation and Chi-square with Fisher′s exact test were used. Results: At least one kind of OML was registered in 11.8%, males (58.6%: 60.0% versus females (40.0%: 45.6%, P < 0.01 skin disease patients. Thus, a certain number of patients had more than one type of OML. Aphthae were the most frequently diagnosed OML (3.4%, followed in descending order by oral lichen planus (1.8% and geographic tongue (1.6%. Conclusion: OML were frequently diagnosed in skin disease patients (11.80% and varied systematically with the dermatologic disease, age, and gender. The substantial prevalence rates of OML emphasize the importance of routine examination of the oral mucosa in a dermatology clinic.

  11. Prevalence of hypertension in adults in the Šumadija district, Serbia: A cross sectional study

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    Marinković Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO studies on the global level have shown that one of the major problems of the public health is hypertension. Blood pressure level greater than 140/90 mmHg is directly and predictively linked to other cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and the risk groups among the adult population in the Šumadija District, Serbia. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 1.669 elderly population of the Šumadija District, aged 25-74. The study was performed according to the protocol of the Country Wide Integrated Noncommunicable Disease Intervention (CINDI international program. Results. In the Šumadija District more than a half of the population aged 25-74 suffers from hypertension (53%. In the Šumadija District 9% of population has undiagnosed hypertension. In the group of people familiar with their high blood pressure problems, good disease control is achieved in only 46% of them. Statistically, hypertension occurs more frequently in males aged 45-74, of lower education, and in rural population. This is the target group for implementation of the high risk strategy. Statistically, there is a higher prevalence of hypertension in people suffering from myocardial infarction (p = 0.04, angina pectoris (p = 0.00, other cardiac diseases (cardiac insufficiency (p = 0.00 and cerebrovascular crises (p = 0.04. Conclusion. A continuous increase of patients with hypertension, coupled with the developed complications and increase in cardiovascular diseases as a cause of death, points to the lack of effective access to prevention and early detection of these diseases in the primary health care among the risk groups in Šumadija.

  12. Prevalence and Determinants of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study in China

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    Xianglong Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to identify the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and to examine its associations with social and behavioral factors, maternal body mass index (BMI, anemia, and hypertension. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed on data collected from 2345 pregnant women from 16 hospitals in five selected provinces in mainland China. Results: Prevalence of GDM was as follows: overall: 3.7%; pregnant women in the first pregnancy: 3.4%; pregnant women in the second pregnancy: 4.6%. Compared with early pregnancy women, late-stage pregnant women were more likely to have GDM (OR = 4.32, 95% CI (1.82, 10.27. Compared with 18–25 years old pregnant women, women aged 36–45 years were more likely to have GDM (OR = 3.98, 95% CI (1.41, 11.28. Compared with non-hypertensive patients, hypertensive patients were more likely to have GDM (OR = 6.93, 95% CI (1.28, 37.64. However, second pregnancy, high maternal BMI, prolonged screen time (TV-viewing time, computer-using time, and mobile-phone using time, insufficient and excessive sleep duration, poor sleep quality, smoking, and secondhand smoke exposure were not significantly associated with an increased risk of GDM. Conclusions: Women in the second pregnancy do not appear to predict an increased risk for developing GDM than women in the first pregnancy. High-risk groups of GDM included women in their late pregnancy, aged 36–45 years old, and with hypertension. The findings will contribute to an improved understanding of social and behavioral determinants of GDM in Chinese population and contribute to the development of health-prevention promotion interventions to address GDM.

  13. Prevalence of Headache in Patients With Mitochondrial Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Kraya, Torsten; Deschauer, Marcus; Joshi, Pushpa Raj; Zierz, Stephan; Gaul, Charly

    2018-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are a heterogeneous group of diseases with different phenotypes and genotypes. Headache and, particularly migraine, seems to occur often in patients with MELAS and in patients with CPEO phenotypes. The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta) has classified headache as a secondary entity only in MELAS patients. Other headache phenotypes in mitochondrial diseases are not considered in ICHD-3beta. In this study, we analyzed headache phenomenology in a large group of patients with mitochondrial disorders. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study on 85 patients with mitochondrial disease with different genotypes and phenotypes was conducted between 2010 and 2011. A structured headache questionnaire according to ICHD-2 was used followed by a telephone interview by a headache expert. Prevalence and characteristics of headache could be analyzed in 42 patients. Headache diagnosis was correlated with genotypes and phenotypes. In addition, the mtDNA haplotype H was analyzed. Headache was reported in 29/42 (70%; 95% CI, from 55.1 to 83.0%) of the patients. Tension-type headache (TTH) showed the highest prevalence in 16/42 (38%; 95% CI, from 23.4 to 52.8%) patients, followed by migraine and probable migraine in 12/42 (29%; 95% CI, from 14.9 to 42.2%) patients. Nine of the 42 (21%; 95% CI, from 9 to 33.8%) patients reported two different headache types. Patients with the mtDNA mutation m.3243A > G (n = 8) and MELAS (n = 7) showed the highest prevalence of headaches (88% and 85%, respectively). In patients with the CPEO phenotype (n = 32), headache occurred in 14/18 (78%; 95% CI, from 58.6 to 97%) of patients with single deletions, and in 7/13 (54%; 95% CI, from 26.7 to 80.9%) patients with multiple mtDNA deletions. There were no association between the mtDNA haplotype Hand the headache-diagnosis. The prevalence of headache was higher in patients with mitochondrial diseases than reported in the general population

  14. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Obesity among South African Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Owolabi EO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity contributes to the burden of chronic diseases and it is a public health challenge. The rate of overweight and obesity in South Africa is dramatically on the increase and disturbingly high. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of overweight and obesity among adults in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa; which information is lacking. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional survey utilised the WHO STEPwise approach in collecting data on demographic and behavioural factors from 1077 adults attending the three largest out-patient clinics in the Buffalo City Metropolitan municipality, Eastern Cape. Height and weight were measured in accordance with standard procedure. Obesity and overweight were defined according to WHO criteria. We performed bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression analyses to determine the significant predictors of obesity. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 24% and 46%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was higher among female (53.4% compared to males (27.4%. Obesity was strongly associated with pre-diabetes (250/54.7%, RR=2, 95% CI 1.6-2.6, p=0.001, diabetes (145/59.4%, RR=2.1, 95%CI 1.6-2.9, p=0.001 and hypertension (276/56.2%, RR=2.4, 95%CI 1.9-3.1, p=0.0001. In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, only age (AOR= 2.0, 95%CI= 1.3-3.0, sex (AOR= 3.8, 95%CI= 2.7-5.3, being married (AOR=2.3, 95%CI= 1.7-3.2, hypertension (AOR=2.0, 95%CI= 1.5-2.8, diabetes (AOR=1.4, 95%CI=1.0-2.0 and no cigarette smoking (AOR= 2.8, 95%CI= 1.7-4.5 were the independent and significant predictors of obesity among the participants. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of obesity was high and strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Health policies targeting obesity and cardiovascular risk factors should be prioritised by the Eastern Cape and South African government in order to mitigate the burden of non-communicable diseases.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of childhood obesity in suburban area of Odisha: A cross sectional study

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    Sanghamitra Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In India obesity and overweight is increasing among urban adolescents. Both under and over nutrition is grappling the country at faster rate. Present study was an attempt to explore obesity and overweight prevalence among school going children in suburban areas of Cuttack city, Odisha, India and their correlates.Methodology: A cross-sectional study was done among school children in suburban area of Cuttack city, Odisha. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to interview the study participants to elicit information about their age, number of siblings, birth order of the child, working status of parents, television screen viewing time, mode of transport to school and dietary habit of the students. A total of 550 children studying in class five to ten participated in our study.Result: Out of 550 children screened, nearly (14 2.5% students were thin or severely thin, whereas (6712.1% students were overweight or obese. Univariate analysis revealed that girls were almost five times at higher risk of being overweight/obesity compared to boys (OR: 4.78 95%CI: 1.35-16.93. Children who used motorized vehicles for going to school had an unadjusted Odds ratio of 10.08 [95%CI: 2.08-48.77] of being overweight or obese compared to those who walked to school. Having more than one child at home (OR= 0.15, 95%CI: 0.039-0.6 and doing physical activity for more than 30min per day (0.105, 95%CI: 0.015-0.72 were found to be protective against overweight and obesity.Conclusion: Bearing in mind the burden of overweight and obesity among school children there is a need for periodic screening, awareness at school and parent counselling.

  16. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in Myanmar - a nationwide cross-sectional study.

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    Bjertness, Marius B; Htet, Aung Soe; Meyer, Haakon E; Htike, Maung Maung Than; Zaw, Ko Ko; Oo, Win Myint; Latt, Tint Swe; Sherpa, Lhamo Y; Bjertness, Espen

    2016-07-18

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), malaria and tuberculosis dominate the disease pattern in Myanmar. Due to urbanization, westernized lifestyle and economic development, it is likely that NCDs such as cerebrovascular disease and ischemic heart disease are on a rise. The leading behavioral- and metabolic NCDs risk factors are tobacco smoke, dietary risks and alcohol use, and high blood pressure and body mass index, respectively. The study aimed at estimating the prevalence and determinants of hypertension, including metabolic-, behavioral- and socio-demographic risk factors. A nationwide, cross-sectional study of 7429 citizens of Myanmar aged 15-64 years were examined in 2009, using the WHO STEPS methodology. In separate analyses by gender, odds radios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for determinants of hypertension were estimated using logistic regression analyses. Confounders included in analyses were chosen based on Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). The prevalence of hypertension was 30.1 % (95 % CI: 28.4-31.8) in males and 29.8 % (28.5-31.1) in females. The mean BMI was 21.7 (SD 4.3) kg/m(2) for males and 23.0 (5.1) kg/m(2) for females. In fully adjusted analyses, we found in both genders increased OR for hypertension if the participants had high BMI (males: OR = 2.6; 95 % CI 2.1-3.3, females: OR = 2.3; 2.0-2.7) and high waist circumference (males: OR = 3.4; 1.8-6.8, females: OR = 2.7; 2.2-3.3). In both sexes, associations were also found between hypertension and low physical activity at work, or living in urban areas or the delta region. Being underweight and use of sesame oil in cooking was associated with lower odds for hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was high and associated with metabolic-, behavioral- and socio-demographic factors. Due to expected rapid economic growth in Myanmar we recommend similar studies in the future to follow up and describe trends in the risk factors, especially modifiable factors, which will

  17. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in Myanmar - a nationwide cross-sectional study

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    Marius B. Bjertness

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs, malaria and tuberculosis dominate the disease pattern in Myanmar. Due to urbanization, westernized lifestyle and economic development, it is likely that NCDs such as cerebrovascular disease and ischemic heart disease are on a rise. The leading behavioral- and metabolic NCDs risk factors are tobacco smoke, dietary risks and alcohol use, and high blood pressure and body mass index, respectively. The study aimed at estimating the prevalence and determinants of hypertension, including metabolic-, behavioral- and socio-demographic risk factors. Methods A nationwide, cross-sectional study of 7429 citizens of Myanmar aged 15–64 years were examined in 2009, using the WHO STEPS methodology. In separate analyses by gender, odds radios (ORs and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs for determinants of hypertension were estimated using logistic regression analyses. Confounders included in analyses were chosen based on Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 30.1 % (95 % CI: 28.4–31.8 in males and 29.8 % (28.5–31.1 in females. The mean BMI was 21.7 (SD 4.3 kg/m2 for males and 23.0 (5.1 kg/m2 for females. In fully adjusted analyses, we found in both genders increased OR for hypertension if the participants had high BMI (males: OR = 2.6; 95 % CI 2.1–3.3, females: OR = 2.3; 2.0–2.7 and high waist circumference (males: OR = 3.4; 1.8–6.8, females: OR = 2.7; 2.2–3.3. In both sexes, associations were also found between hypertension and low physical activity at work, or living in urban areas or the delta region. Being underweight and use of sesame oil in cooking was associated with lower odds for hypertension. Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension was high and associated with metabolic-, behavioral- and socio-demographic factors. Due to expected rapid economic growth in Myanmar we recommend similar studies in the future to follow up and describe

  18. Prevalence and evolution of intimate partner violence before and during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study.

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    Van Parys, An-Sofie; Deschepper, Ellen; Michielsen, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen; Verstraelen, Hans

    2014-08-28

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) before and during pregnancy is associated with a broad range of adverse health outcomes. Describing the extent and the evolution of IPV is a crucial step in developing interventions to reduce the health impact of IPV.The objectives are to study the prevalence of psychological abuse, as well as physical & sexual violence, and to provide insight into the evolution of IPV 12 months before and during pregnancy. Between June 2010 and October 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 antenatal care clinics in Belgium. Consenting pregnant women were asked to complete a questionnaire (available in Dutch, French and English) in a separate room. Ethical clearance was obtained in all participating hospitals. The overall percentage of IPV was 14.3% (95% CI: 12.7 - 16.0) 12 months before pregnancy and 10.6% (95% CI: 9.2 - 12.1) during pregnancy. Physical partner violence before as well as during pregnancy was reported by 2.5% (95% CI: 1.7 - 3.3) of the respondents (n = 1894), sexual violence by 0.9% (95% CI 0.5 - 1.4), and psychological abuse by 14.9% (95% CI: 13.3 - 16.7). Risk factors identified for IPV were being single or divorced, having a low level of education, and choosing another language than Dutch to fill out the questionnaire. The adjusted analysis showed that physical partner violence (aOR 0.35, 95% CI: 0.22 - 0.56) and psychological partner abuse (aOR 0.7, 95% CI: 0.63 - 0.79) were significantly lower during pregnancy compared to the period of 12 months before pregnancy. The difference between both time periods is greater for physical partner violence (65%) compared to psychological partner abuse (30%). The analysis of the frequency data showed a similarly significant evolution for physical partner violence and psychological partner abuse, but not for sexual violence. The IPV prevalence rates in our study are slightly lower than what can be found in other Western studies, but even so IPV is to be considered a prevalent

  19. Factors Related to Prevalence of Hallux Valgus in Female University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Okuda, Hiroto; Juman, Sachiko; Ueda, Ai; Miki, Tomohiro; Shima, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the prevalence of hallux valgus (HV) and examined its association with various factors in a cross-sectional study of Japanese female university students. Methods A questionnaire survey of foot symptoms, lifestyle, and body mass index (BMI) was administered to 343 women who provided informed consent at a women’s university. Footprints were obtained and bone density was measured. Associations of HV with various factors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Results Big toe pain was reported in 26.5% of the women. HV (HV angle, ≥15°) was present in the left foot in 22.4%, the right foot in 20.7%, and unilaterally or bilaterally in 29.7% of women. Mild HV (HV angle, ≥15° to <20°) was noted in the left foot and right foot in 13.4% and 13.1% of women, respectively; no severe HV (HV angle, ≥40°) was observed. HV was associated with big toe pain (adjusted OR: 3.56, 95% CI: 2.01–6.32), history of HV in the mother or maternal grandmother (adjusted OR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.19–5.02), and history of HV in other family members (adjusted OR: 3.09, 95% CI: 1.35–7.06). Moderate HV was associated with big toe pain (adjusted OR: 4.58, 95% CI: 2.17–9.66) and history of HV in the mother or maternal grandmother (adjusted OR: 3.36, 95% CI: 1.40–8.07). The proportion of women with big toe pain increased significantly with HV severity. Conclusions HV was present in about 30% of female university students. Young women with big toe pain or a family history of HV should be evaluated for HV. PMID:24705646

  20. THE PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG MADRASSA TEACHERS AND STUDENTS A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Fazli Azim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD are the disorders that have been developed due to disadvantageous work settings and work related issues. It may involve different regions of body like upper extremity, lower extremity, cervical, back regions etc. The onset of these problems need to be known where as it is a common belief that it is caused by overuse. Madrassa simply means the school does in the English language where students gathered to learn and acquire knowledge whether Muslim, non-Muslim, or secular. Usually teachers in madrassa adopted to sit in some positions in which musculoskeletal system is placed under load. The objective of the study is to determine “The Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Madrassa Teachers.” Methods: It was a cross sectional study. 109 madrassa teachers participated in the study; the study was conducted in Karachi. Self-assessment questionnaire was use to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: A total of 109 madrassa teachers taken part in this research study almost all participants were male. There were two types of madrassa teachers; one is full time teachers (73.4% and part time (26.6%. (58.7% madrassa teachers were suffering from discomfort during teaching and 41.3 didn’t feel any discomfort, coming to pain regions 37 said they had back pain (33.9%, 35 said they had shoulder pain (35%, 37 said they had knee pain (24.8% and four said they had heel pain (3.7%. Conclusion: The result showed that the madrassa teachers have high prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders. This comprises different regions of body like shoulder, back, knee and heel. This leads to the conclusion that these teachers are not at all aware of the consequences of MSD nor they are aware of the causes of these disorders. Also this was found that the facilities provided to these teachers were not up to the mark. When it comes to the working environment the technology of ergonomics has proved a lot

  1. Racial-Ethnic Differences in Fall Prevalence among Older Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yifan; Lo, Joan C; Brickner, Leslea; Gordon, Nancy P

    2017-03-11

    Falls are the leading cause of hip fracture in older women, with important public health implications. Fall risk increases with age and other clinical factors, and varies by race/ethnicity. International studies suggest that fall risk is lower in Asians, although data are limited in U.S. This study examines racial/ethnic differences in fall prevalence among older U.S. women within a large integrated healthcare delivery system. This cross-sectional study used data from 6277 women ages 65-90 who responded to the 2008 or 2011 Kaiser Permanente Northern California Member Health Survey (KPNC-MHS). The KPNC-MHS is a mailed questionnaire sent to a random sample of adult members stratified by age, gender, and geographic location, representing a population estimate of >200,000 women age ≥65 years. Age, race/ethnicity, self-reported health status, presence of diabetes, arthritis or prior stroke, mobility limitations and number of falls in the past year were obtained from the KPNC-MHS. The independent association of race/ethnicity and recent falls was examined, adjusting for known risk factors. The weighted sample was 76.7% non-Hispanic white, 6.2% Hispanic, 6.8% black and 10.3% Asian. Over 20% reported having fallen during the past year (28.5% non-Hispanic white, 27.8% Hispanic, 23.4% black and 20.1% Asian). Older age was associated with greater fall risk, as was having diabetes (OR 1.24, CI 1.03-1.48), prior stroke (OR 1.51, CI 1.09-2.07), arthritis (OR 1.61, CI 1.39-1.85) and mobility limitations (OR 2.82, CI 2.34-3.39), adjusted for age. Compared to whites, Asian (OR 0.64, CI 0.50-0.81) and black (OR 0.73, CI 0.55-0.95) women were much less likely to have ≥1 fall in the past year, adjusting for age, comorbidities, mobility limitation and poor health status. Asians were also less likely to have ≥2 falls (OR 0.62, CI 0.43-0.88). Among older women, the risk of having a recent fall was substantially lower for black and Asian women when compared to white women. This may

  2. Transfusion transmitted virus prevalence rate in IDU patients: a cross sectional study

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    Soudbakhsh AR, Nami MA, Hadjiabdolbaghi M, Kazemi B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transfusion-Transmitted Virus (TTV is a nonenveloped, single-stranded and circular DNA virus belongs to circuviridae family genus Anellovirus, discovered by Nishizawa in 1997. As the usage of common syringes is the known and most common route of the virus transmission, and because of increasing population of Injection drug users (IDU we decided to study infection rate in IDU population of our Society. "nMethods: In a cross-sectional study at Infectious ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, 60 IDU patients were studied. Blood samples were dispatched to lab in citrated test tube for Genome Virus isolation operation, using boiling method, then PCR assay performed based on their available primers. Patient's information gathered by interview and questionnaire methods."n "nResults: All of our 60 patients were men and their age average was 35.30(SD±9.68 years old. 26(43.3% patients had positive TTV PCR and 24(92.30% of them had prison history. 23(88.50% of these 26 patients had positive HCV Ab, 17(65.40% had positive HIV Ab and 8(30.80% had positive HBS Ag. Of 60 study patients 48(80% had HCV Ab+, 43(71.70% HIV Ab+, 26(43% TTV PCR and 43(26.70% had HBS Ag+ Of 26 patients who had TTV, 34.60% of them had no contemporary sickness and 11.50% of them displayed clear sign of hepatitis (fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, RUQ tenderness and Icter. 34.60% of them had LFT more than Upper limit normal (45u/l. Time average of injection in 26 TTV patient was 9 years (SD±7.16 and the patient's age average was 36.35%(SD±9.2. "nConclusions: One of the most important route of TTV infection is use of common syringes, TTV infection transmission chance is less than HIV and HCV infection and is more than HBV. In regard to high prevalence of TTV infection in IDU population and because there is no comprehensive information about pathogenesis of this virus in addition to another way of transmission of the virus, the fecal-oral way, we must make

  3. Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abate, Abraraw; Kibret, Biniam; Bekalu, Eylachew; Abera, Sendeku; Teklu, Takele; Yalew, Aregawi; Endris, Mengistu; Worku, Ligabaw; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Teda Health Centre from February to April, 2011. Stool samples were collected from 410 study participants and analysed by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration techniques. Furthermore, sociodemographic data were collected by using standardized questionnaire. Result. The overall prevalence of intes...

  4. Smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians: results from cross-sectional studies in 2002 and 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Põld, Mariliis; Pärna, Kersti

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians in 2002 and 2014. Design Two self-administered cross-sectional postal surveys were conducted among practising physicians in Estonia. Participants Initial sample consisted of all practising physicians in Estonia. The corrected response rate was 67.8% in 2002 and 53.1% in 2014. Present study sample was restricted to physicians younger than 65 years (n=2549 in 2002, n=2339 in 2014). Methods Age-stand...

  5. Prevalence of risk factors for stuttering among boys: analytical cross-sectional study

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    Cristiane Moço Canhetti Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:There have been few studies on the risk factors for subgroups of stuttering. The aim of this study was to characterize the risk factors for developmental familial stuttering among boys who stutter and who do not stutter, such as disfluency types, associated quality and communication factors, emotional and physical stress, familial attitudes and personal reactions.DESIGN AND SETTING:Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, performed at the Fluency Studies Laboratory of the Department of Speech and Hearing Disorders of a public university.METHODS: The parents of 40 age-matched stuttering and non-stuttering boys took part in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: stuttering children (SC and non-stuttering children (NSC, with ages between 6 years 0 months and 11 years 11 months. Initially, all of the participants underwent a fluency assessment and then data were gathered using the Protocol for the Risk of Developmental Stuttering.RESULTS:There were no differences in the physical stress distribution factors and personal reactions between the groups. Inappropriate familial attitudes were presented by 95% of the SC and 30% of the NSC. Four risk factors analyzed were not shown by the NSC, namely stuttering-like disfluency, quality factors, physical stress and emotional stresses.CONCLUSIONS:The findings suggest that the presence of stuttering-like disfluency, associated quality and communication factors, emotional stress and inappropriate family attitudes are important risk factors for familial developmental stuttering among boys.

  6. Premenstrual Syndrome: Symptomatic and Diagnosed Prevalence, Dualistic Treatment Approach - A Cross-Sectional Study in Ukraine.

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    Crow, Edith Meszaros; Jeannot, Emilien

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosing and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) still pose a challenge in the routine medical practice which usually focuses on single pharmacological therapy. Recent research suggests that the combination of treatments including complementary alternative medicine (CAM) therapies may be more beneficial. The objective of this study was to assess the percentage of diagnosed and nondiagnosed PMS/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) based on the presence of adequate symptoms and to compare population using hormonal or pharmaceutical agents versus CAM therapies. This is a cross-sectional study targeting sample population of 160 females of potentially reproductive age done in Ukraine between May 2014 and April 2015. According to declared symptoms, 29% females versus 26% previously diagnosed by a medical professional qualify for "moderate/severe PMS," P > 0.05. In 30% persons using pharmacological agents, major side effects, namely, nausea, insomnia, headache was caused by painkillers, contraceptives, and antidepressants. Only 37.5% of study population has been using CAM therapy methods to deal with the symptoms of PMS. Of these, 22% have achieved moderate degree in relief of the symptoms long term. We have concluded that when dealing with the burden of PMS/PMDD, the affected treatment-seeking women should have choice and access to the variety of therapies within integrative medicine (both conventional and nonconventional).

  7. Prevalence of diagnosed temporomandibular disorders: A cross-sectional study in Brazilian adolescents.

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    Fernanda Mara de Paiva Bertoli

    Full Text Available The prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD increases during adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have examined TMD prevalence in Brazilian adolescents.To investigate the prevalence of TMD in Brazilian adolescents.A representative population-based sample of 934 adolescents (10-14-years-old was examined. TMD screening was performed using a questionnaire by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain. TMD diagnoses used research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD-Axis-I. Examinations were performed by a single calibrated examiner (kappa > 0.80.The prevalence of TMD symptoms was 34.9%; the most frequently reported symptoms were headache and neck ache (20.9%, followed by joint sounds (18.5%. Myofascial pain was the most prevalent type (10.3%, followed by disc displacement with reduction (8.0% and arthralgia (3.5%. There was a significant association between sex and TMD symptoms; prevalence was significantly higher in girls (RP = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.14-1.65; p = 0.001. Myofascial pain of TMD and displacement with reduction were more prevalent in girls (RP = 1.76; p = 0.007 and RP = 2.06; p = 0.004, respectively.TMD symptoms were present in 34.9% of adolescents, with myofascial pain being the most prevalent type (10.3%. TMD was significantly more common in girls. Routine pediatric dental care should include a TMD screening.

  8. Prevalence and Characteristics of Work Anxiety in Medical Rehabilitation Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

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    Muschalla, Beate; Jöbges, Michael

    2018-01-01

    To investigate frequency, type, and characteristics of work anxieties in patients with somatic illness. Cross-sectional observation study. Neurology, orthopedic, and cardiology rehabilitation clinics. Patients (N=1610; age, 18-65y) with work anxieties. Not applicable. Patients who scored high on at least 2 of 9 items in the work-anxiety screening questionnaire and who reported impairment were investigated with a differential diagnostic interview on work anxieties and with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview on non-work-related common mental disorders. Patients also filled out a self-rating questionnaire on their subjective symptom load and sociodemographic data. Approximately 20% to 27% of the investigated inpatients in somatic rehabilitation (altogether n=393) received a work-anxiety diagnosis. Patients with orthopedic illness report highest work anxiety and have previous longest sick leave (20.6wk in the past 12mo). Patients with orthopedic illness suffer from work-related adjustment disorder with anxiety, social anxieties, and workplace phobias, whereas patients with cardiac illness are more often affected by hypochondriac anxieties. Anxieties of insufficiency and worrying occur equally in all indications. About a quarter of patients in somatic rehabilitation are in need of additional diagnostic attention owing to work anxieties. Differential diagnostic of work anxiety is needed for initiating adequate therapeutic action. Somatic rehabilitation physicians should be aware of work anxieties in their patients, especially in patients with orthopedic illness with previous long-term sick leave. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Central America: a cross-sectional population-based study

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    Roy A. Wong-McClure

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS as found by the Central American Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI study for five major Central American populations: Belize (national; Costa Rica (San José; Guatemala (Guatemala City; Honduras (Tegucigalpa; and Nicaragua (Managua. METHODS: Study data on 6 185 adults aged 20 years or older with anthropometric and laboratory determination of MetS from population-based surveys were analyzed. Overall, the survey response rate was 82.0%. MetS prevalence was determined according to criteria from the Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program. The study's protocol was reviewed and approved by the bioethical committee of each country studied. RESULTS: The overall standardized prevalence of MetS in the Central American region was 30.3% (95% confidence interval (CI: 27.1-33.4. There was wide variability by gender and work conditions, with higher prevalence among females and unpaid workers. The standardized percentage of the population free of any component of MetS was lowest in Costa Rica (9.0%; CI: 6.5-11.4 and highest in Honduras (21.1%; CI: 16.4-25.9. CONCLUSIONS: Overall prevalence of MetS in Central America is high. Strengthening surveillance of chronic diseases and establishing effective programs for preventing cardiovascular diseases might reduce the risk of MetS in Central America.

  10. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among schoolchildren in Cyprus: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study.

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    Sokratis, Sokratous; Christos, Ζilides; Despo, Panagi; Maria, Karanikola

    2017-01-01

    Depressive symptoms in the young constitute a public health issue. The current study aims to estimate: (a) the frequency of depressive symptoms in a sample of final grade elementary-school children in Cyprus, (b) the association among frequency of depressive symptoms, gender and nationality and, (c) the metric properties of the Greek-Cypriot version of the children's depression inventory (CDI). A descriptive cross-sectional study with internal comparison was performed. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was assessed with the CDI, which includes 5 subscales: depressive mood, interpersonal difficulties, ineffectiveness, anhedonia and negative self-esteem. Clinical depressive symptoms were reported as CDI score ≥19. CDI was anonymously and voluntarily completed by 439 schoolchildren [mean age 12.3 (±0.51) years old] from fifteen public elementary schools (217 boys and 222 girls), yielding a response rate of 58.2%. The metric properties of the CDI were assessed in terms of internal consistency reliability and construct validity via exploratory factor analysis (rotated and unrotated principal component analysis). Descriptive and inferential statistics were explored. 10.25% of Cypriot schoolchildren reported clinical depressive symptoms (CDI score ≥19). Statistically significant differences were reported between boys and girls in all five subscales of the CDI. Girls reported higher scores in "Depressive mood", "Negative self-esteem" and "Anhedonia" subscales, while boys scored higher in "Interpersonal difficulties" and "Ineffectiveness" subscales. There were no statistically significant differences among ethnicity groups regarding the entire CDI or the subscales of it. Concerning the metric properties of the Greek-Cypriot version of the CDI, internal consistency reliability was adequate (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84). Factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in five factors explaining 42% of the variance. The Greek-Cypriot version of the CDI is a reliable

  11. Prevalence of falls among community-dwelling elderly and its associated factors: A cross-sectional study in Perak, Malaysia

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    Yeong Uen Yea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fall is a major cause of injuries and can increase the risk of early mortalityamong elderly. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of falls among community-dwelling elderly in rural Malaysia and its associated factors. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey in five randomly selected districts in the state of Perak, Malaysia. A total of 250 households were randomly selected. A total of 811 individuals aged 60 years or more were recruited and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Information about socio-demographic, history of falls in the past 1 year, medical history, drug history and physical activity level were enquired.

  12. Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs among Health Professional School students: a cross-sectional study

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    Margherita Ferrante

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.

  13. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in adult Indian diabetic patients: A cross sectional study (SOLID

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    Ambrish Mithal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India leads the world with largest number of diabetic patients and is often referred to as the diabetes capital of the world. Diabetic dyslipidemia in India is one of the main cause for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD mortality. Although diabetes continues to be a major lifestyle condition in India, there is a lack of studies in India on whether dyslipidemia in Indian diabetics is being adequately controlled. Our study provides critical insights into the insights into proportion of diabetes patients achieving lipid goal in India. Aims: The primary objective of our study was to assess the control of dyslipidemia in the Indian diabetic population treated with lipid lowering drugs (LLDs, as per American Diabetes Association (ADA 2010 guidelines. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in a real world Indian clinical setting involving 178 sites. This is a multicenter, noninterventional, and cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 5400 adult subjects with established type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and dyslipidemia were recruited for the study. Patients in the study were on LLD at a stable dose for at least last 3 months before the designated study visit. Routine lipid profile tests were conducted for all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics was used to analyze qualitative and discrete variables. Chi-square test and t-test were conducted to assess the existence of statistically significant association between the variables. Results: A total of 5400 patients with T2DM from 178 centers across India were recruited. Out of the total population, 56.75% (N = 3065 of them were males. Primary end-point of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C level below ADA 2010 target was achieved in a total of 48.74% (N = 2632 patients. Gender was significantly associated with lipid levels and age was significantly (P < 0.05 correlated with all lipid levels. Control rates of other lipid parameters like

  14. The prevalence of secondary diseases of the HIV patients in the Omsk region: cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Pasechnik, Oksana; Pitsenko, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of secondary diseases of the HIV infected patients who were under observation in medical organizations of Omsk region in 2013 has been studied. 16, 8% of HIV-infected patients had a wide spectrum of secondary diseases, mainly infectious etiology. In the structure of secondary infections the leading position was occupied by tuberculosis (32, 3%), candidiasis (24,4%), bacterial diseases (23,7%). The average risk of tuberculosis diseases is 24 cases for 1000 HIV-infected patients.

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Domestic Violence against Iranian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadian, Fathola; Hashemian, Ataollah; Bagheri, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background Violence against women in families is the most common form of violence against them. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its effects on married women of Ilam. Methods In this descriptive-sectional research, 334 married women referred to medical health centers in Ilam were selected to participate using a random sampling method. After obtaining their consent to participate in the study, participants responded to a 46 items questionnaire and responses were analyzed using IBM SPSS for Windows ver. 20.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA). Results The majority of the participants reported experiencing domestic violence and emotional violence was more prevalent than other kinds of violence. Logistic regression analysis showed that lower education level, marriage at a younger age, shorter duration of marriage, fewer children, being a housewife, and husband's unemployment had a significant relationship with domestic violence against women. Conclusion The high prevalence of wife abuse in Ilam especially emotional violence due to lower education levels and marriage at younger age could be a serious threat for women's health as well as for other members of the family. This could be a grounding factor for other social harms such as suicide and this issue must be studied from legal, religious, and cultural standpoints. PMID:27468345

  16. Cross-sectional study on prevalence, causes and avoidable causes of visual impairment in Maori children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Cheefoong; Dai, Shuan

    2013-08-02

    To provide information and comparison pertaining to visual impairment of Maori children with other children in New Zealand in particular: prevalence of blindness, causes of visual impairment, and avoidable causes of visual impairment. Retrospective data collection utilising the WHO/PBL eye examination record for children with blindness and low vision at Blind and Low Vision Education Network New Zealand (BLENNZ), Homai. Individuals not of Maori ethnicity or over the age of 16 were excluded from the study. 106 blind and 64 low-vision Maori children were studied. The main cause of blindness in Maori children is cortical visual impairment. Twenty-eight percent of causes of blindness in this population are potentially avoidable with non-accidental injury as the main cause. The prevalence of blindness and low vision in children amounts to 0.05% and 0.03%, respectively. The prevalence and causes of childhood blindness are comparable to the other ethnic groups in New Zealand. The main difference lies in avoidable causes of blindness, which appeared to be much higher in the Maori population. The leading cause of avoidable blindness in Maori children is caused by non-accidental injuries.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms in Argentina: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathisen, Siv Elin; Glavin, Kari; Lien, Lars; Lagerløv, Per

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum depression is a prevalent disorder with negative consequences for women, infants, and the family as a whole. Most studies of this disorder have been conducted in Western countries, and studies from developing countries are few. In this paper, we report the first – as far as we are aware – study of the prevalence and risk factors associated with postpartum depressive symptoms in Argentina. Materials and methods The study participants were 86 women attending 6 week checkups, (range 4–12 weeks) postpartum at a private health care center in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. The women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a questionnaire collecting demographic and obstetric data. Data were described as proportions (percentages). Differences between proportions were assessed with chi-squared tests. To control for possible confounders, we fitted bivariate logistic regression models in which the dependent variable was an EPDS sum score of depressive symptoms. A total of 32 women (37.2%) had an EPDS score of ≥10, 16 (18.6%) had a score between 10 and 12, and 16 (18.6%) had a score of ≥13. In our sample, an EPDS score of ≥10 was significantly associated with multiparity (odds ratio [OR] =3.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–11.30; P=0.030), pregnancy complications (OR =3.40; 95% CI: 1.03–11.26; P=0.045), labor complications (OR =11.43; 95% CI: 1.71–76.61; P=0.012), cesarean section (OR =4.19; 95% CI: 1.10–16.01; P=0.036), and incomplete breast-feeding (OR =5.00; 95% CI: 1.42–17.54; P=0.012). Conclusion Our results indicate that postpartum depression may be prevalent in Argentina, and may be associated with incomplete breast-feeding, cesarean section, perinatal complications and multiparity. The prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depression has not been described previously and is a considerable health-related problem among women. Argentinian health professionals should be aware of the high

  18. Prevalence and predictors of metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with PCOS: a cross- sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition estimated to affect 5.61% of Chinese women of reproductive age, but little is known about the prevalence and predictors in Chinese PCOS patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of the metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with and without PCOS. Methods A large-scale national epidemiological investigation was conducted in reproductive age women (19 to 45 years) across China. 833 reproductive aged PCOS women, who participated in the healthcare screening, were recruited from ten provinces in China. Clinical history, ultrasonographic exam (ovarian follicle), hormonal and metabolic parameters were the main outcome measures. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as compared in PCOS and non-PCOS women from community were 18.2% vs 14.7%, and IR (insulin resistance) were 14.2% vs 9.3% (p PCOS than in non-PCOS groups. Using multivariate logistic regression, central obesity and FAI were risk factors, while SHBG was a protective factor on the occurrence of Mets and IR in PCOS women (OR: 1.132, 1.105 and 0.995). Conclusions The risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance were BMI and FAI for PCOS women, respectively. The decrease of SHBG level was also a risk factor for insulin resistance in both PCOS and metabolic disturbance. PMID:25223276

  19. Prevalence of stress in Casablanca medical students: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Loubir, Dalal; Serhier, Zeineb; Diouny, Samir; Battas, Omar; Agoub, Mohamed; Othmani, Mohammed Bennani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recently, an important literature data has reported that medical students experience stress more than students in other disciplines. In contrast, there is a significant shortage of the stress impact on the academic performance. The primary purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of stress among Casablanca Medical students and to investigate if there is an association between stress and academic skills. Methods A total of 275 participants studying at Casablanca Medical School were included. The study was conducted using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, which included four subscales on academic skills perception (Academic competence, Test competence, Time management and Strategic study habits) and a Test Anxiety scale to assess the degree of stress related to exams among medical students. Results The overall findings showed that 52.7% of respondents were stressed by examinations, and the highest stress prevalence was among the fifth-year medical students. Measures of comparative stress degrees between male and female students did not show any statistical significant differences (p=0.34). Correlation analysis revealed negative association between stress and academic competence (-0.394), test competence (-0.426), time management (-0.240), strategic study (-0.183) respectively (peducators and psychologists have to increase clinical awareness of stress among medical students, by establishing strategies for stress management. PMID:25767668

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of Postpartum Depression symptomatology among Canadian women: a cross-sectional study

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    Kuk Jennifer L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to look at the prevalence and characteristics of postpartum depression symptomatology (PPDS among Canadian women. Studies have found that in developed countries, 10-15% of new mothers were affected by major postpartum depression. Mothers who suffer from postpartum depression may endure difficulties regarding their ability to cope with life events, as well as negative clinical implications for maternal-infant attachment. Methods An analysis based on 6,421 Canadian women, who had a live birth between 2005 and 2006 and were part of the Maternity Experience Survey (MES, was performed. PPDS was measured based on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Various factors that assessed socio-economic status, demographic factors, and maternal characteristics were considered for the multinomial regression model. Results The national prevalence of minor/major and major PPDS was found to be 8.46% and 8.69% respectively. A mother's stress level during pregnancy, the availability of support after pregnancy, and a prior diagnosis of depression were the characteristics that had the strongest significant association with the development of PPDS. Conclusions A significant number of Canadian women experience symptoms of postpartum depression. Findings from this study may be useful to increase both the attainment of treatment and the rate at which it can be obtained among new mothers. Interventions should target those with the greatest risk of experiencing PPDS, specifically immigrant and adolescent mothers.

  1. The Prevalence of Personality Disorders: A Cross Sectional Study in Tabriz

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    Maryam Sepehri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Personality disorders considered as an important health problem are associated with significant consequences in the community. The disorders complicate the treatment process of other diseases and conditions as well. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of personality disorder in Tabriz city, northwest Iran. Material and Methods: The short form of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI, 71 questions was used to measure the personality disorders in a sample of 150 individuals (aged 18-62 years including staff and clients of the primary health care settings in Tabriz, northwest Iran. The clinical profile of the participants was assessed using MMPI questionnaire/software. The patients' test data were then interpreted by the study investigators. Results: The overall prevalence of the personality disorder was 20% (95% Confidence Intervals: 13.5 to 26.4 in the study population. The same rate was calculated 23.7% (95% Confidence Intervals: 15.2 to 32.1 in women, and 20.9% (95% Confidence Intervals: 13.3 to 28.5 for married individuals. Conclusion: According to our findings, personality disorders are common in the community. One in five persons was detected as having personality disorders. Understanding the epidemiology of personality disorders and the relevant comorbidities in general population is important for policy-making in mental health programs at community level.

  2. Prevalence of otitis media with effusion in children with allergic rhinitis, a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Benjamin C; Ng, Daniel K

    2016-05-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) may be caused by various factors including Eustachian tube dysfunction, inflammatory response as well as atopy. Allergic rhinitis (AR), a common chronic disorder in children, is associated with swelling of the mucosa and can therefore result in Eustachian tube dysfunction. This study aims to compare the prevalence of OME in subjects with and without AR. Children aged 4-12 were recruited from the clinics at Kwong Wah Hospital, Hong Kong. Subjects recruited were interviewed and a questionnaire filled in regarding nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, sneezing, itching of the nose and/or post nasal discharge (ARIR document). The children were then examined by a doctor using a pneumatic otoscopy and a portable tympanometer. Children found to have OME were offered a follow-up visit 3 months later. 12 out of 159 (7.5%) of the AR group were found to have OME compared with 3 out of 185 (1.6%) in the non-AR group, p=0.016. During the 2nd visit at 3 months, 85.7% of the AR subjects showed resolution of their OME. Our data showed a significant difference in the prevalence of OME between AR and non-AR subjects. Of the 185 non AR subjects (Control group), 3 was found to have OME, suggesting a point prevalence of OME of 1.6% in the community in Hong Kong. OME is more likely to occur in children with allergic rhinitis and it may be wiser to manage OME in these individuals differently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of postural deviations and associated factors in children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

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    Mariana Vieira Batistão

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Postural deviations are frequent in childhood and may cause pain and functional impairment. Previously, only a few studies have examined the association between body posture and intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Objective: To assess the prevalence of postural changes in school children, and to determine, using multiple logistic regression analysis, whether factors such as age, gender, BMI, handedness and physical activity might explain these deviations. Methods: The posture of 288 students was assessed by observation. Subjects were aged between 6 and 15 years, 59.4% (n = 171 of which were female. The mean age was 10.6 (± 2.4 years. Mean body weight was 38.6 (± 12.7 kg and mean height was 1.5 (± 0.1 m. A digital scale, a tapeline, a plumb line and standardized forms were used to collect data. The data were analyzed descriptively using the chi-square test and logistic regression analysis (significance level of 5%. Results: We found the following deviations to be prevalent among schoolchildren: forward head posture, 53.5%, shoulder elevation, 74.3%, asymmetry of the iliac crests, 51.7%, valgus knees, 43.1%, thoracic hyperkyphosis, 30.2%, lumbar hyperlordosis, 37.2% and winged shoulder blades, 66.3%. The associated factors were age, gender, BMI and physical activity. Discussion: There was a high prevalence of postural deviations and the intrinsic and extrinsic factors partially explain the postural deviations. Conclusion: These findings contribute to the understanding of how and why these deviations develop, and to the implementation of preventive and rehabilitation programs, given that some of the associated factors are modifiable.

  4. Prevalence and predictors of physical exercise among nurses. A cross-sectional study

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    Mohamad A. Al-Tannir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the prevalence and predictors of physical exercise among nurses. Methods: This study was conducted at 2 hospitals selected randomly from tertiary hospitals in King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon in 2014. The study included nurses with at least one year of nursing experience. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was divided into 2 sections, one covering the respondents’ demographics, and the other one assessing the prevalence and the characteristics of physical exercise. Results: A total of 412 participants responded, of whom 248 (60.2% are engaged in physical exercise. On multivariate analysis, normal weight and smoking were independently associated with physical exercise. Most 66.1% of respondents reported practicing walking as the most common type of physical activity. One hundred eighty (72.6% respondents relied on their own motivation to perform physical activity and 64.6% reported the lack of availability of physical activity facilities. Conclusion: Smoking and obesity were the significant predictors associated with physical inactivity. Encouraging nurses to adopt a healthy lifestyle for their role modeling to patients as health promoters is recommended.

  5. A COMMUNITY BASED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY: INCREASING PREVALENCE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES AMONG RURAL ADULT POPULATION OF KARNATAKA, INDIA

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    Tapas Brata Tripathy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A community based cross-sectional study in the age group 25 years and above conducted at the field area of primary health centre Chakenahalli, Hassan district, Karnataka, India. The population was similar in characteristics regarding occupation, socio-economic status and food habits. Total of 626 subjects were included by multi-stage sampling. Information collected by the interviewers through face to face interview, after informed consent. The individuals were assessed on anthropometric parameters and screening was done by Random Blood Glucose (RBG with a standardized technique; diagnosis of type 2 diabetes done by WHO criteria. Prevalence of diabetes was found in 11.3% males and 15% females, altogether the total prevalence was 13.09% with 8.79% self reported cases of diabetes . Hypertension was associated with 25.6% diabetic subjects. It was also observed that 28.1% of study population had BMI ≥ 25.

  6. Effect of sibling number in the household and birth order on prevalence of Helicobacter pylori: a cross-sectional study.

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    Ford, Alexander C; Forman, David; Bailey, Alastair G; Goodman, Karen J; Axon, Anthony T R; Moayyedi, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is acquired mainly in childhood, with studies demonstrating this is related to living conditions. Effects of sibling number and birth order on prevalence of infection have not been extensively studied. The authors performed a cross-sectional survey of adults, aged between 50 and 59 years, previously involved in a community-screening programme for H. pylori in Leeds and Bradford, UK. Prevalence of H. pylori was assessed at baseline with urea breath test. All individuals who were alive, and could be traced, were contacted by postal questionnaire in 2003 obtaining information on number of siblings and birth order. Data concerning childhood socioeconomic conditions were stored on file from the original study. 3928 (47%) of 8407 original participants provided data. Prevalence of infection increased according to sibling number (20% in those with none vs 63% with eight or more). Controlling for childhood socioeconomic conditions and birth order using multivariate logistic regression, infection odds were substantially increased with three siblings compared with none [odds ratio (OR) 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.15], and a gradient of effect continued up to eight or more siblings (OR 5.70; 95% CI 2.92-11.14). Odds of infection also increased substantially with birth order, but the positive gradient disappeared on adjustment for sibling number and childhood socioeconomic conditions. : In this cross section of UK adults, aged 50-59 years, sibling number in the household, but not birth order, was independently associated with prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  7. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS AFFECTING BURNOUT AMONG SECONDARY CARE DOCTORS IN BAHRAIN- A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Husain Isa Hasan, Yusuf Nooh, Adel Salman Alsayyad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burnout isa type of prolonged response to chronic job-related stress appears as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Objectives: The present study investigated level of burnout, compare burnout levels in view of demographic factors and to identify the potential risk factors that lead to high level of burnout among secondary care doctors in Ministry of Health in Bahrain kingdom. Methods: The study was carried out in 230 doctors. A questionnaire survey was administered: The level of “burnout” was evaluated using the Maslach Burnout Inventory; socio-demographic variables were collected as well. Results: the mean response rate was 87.8%. The prevalence of the three dimensions of burn out was 43.1% with high emotional exhaustion, 26.7% with high depersonalization and 51.5% reported low personal accomplishment. In general, the profiles of an individual with high burn out were between 30-40 years old Bahraini married physician with no children. Conclusion: a high level burnout was found among the studied population. The study results underline significant relations that were found to link burn out with various socio-demographic variables.

  8. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study.

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    Nagasu, Miwako; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Kogi, Kazutaka; Ito, Akiyoshi; Feskens, Edith J M; Tomita, Shigeru; Temmyo, Yoshiomi; Ueno, Mitsuo; Miyagi, Shigeji

    2011-05-26

    Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk factors. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of 5,719 subjects (response rate: 81%, 982 men and 4,737 women) was undertaken during September 2003 to February 2004. Finger deformations were found among 11.7% of the men and 35.6% of the women studied, with significant differences among sex, age and sex-age groups. For both men and women the pattern of finger deformations across the hand was similar for the right and the left hand. For women, the deformations were found in about 10% of the distal interphalangeal joints of all fingers. Based on multiple logistic regression analyses, the factors female sex, age, the number of cooked lunches per cook and cooking activities were independently associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. High prevalence odds ratios were found for those frequently carrying or using tools by hands such as delivering containers, distributing meals, preparing dishes, washing equipment, cutting and stirring foods. Among the school lunch workers studied, women had a higher prevalence of finger deformations on all joints of both hands. Various cooking tasks were associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. The results suggest that improvements in working conditions are important for preventing work-related disorders such as finger deformations.

  9. Prevalence of parasitic infections in HIV-positive patients in southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Fekadu, Sintayehu; Taye, Kefyalew; Teshome, Wondu; Asnake, Solomon

    2013-11-15

    Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health burden in tropical countries. Although all HIV/AIDS patients are susceptible to parasitic infections, those having lower immune status are at greater risk. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in patients living with HIV/AIDS. This was a facility-based cross-sectional study. A total of 343 consecutively sampled HIV/AIDS patients from the HIV care clinic of Hawassa University Referral Hospital were included. Subjects were interviewed for demographic variables and diarrheal symptoms using structured questionnaires. Stool examinations and CD4 cells counts were also performed. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.8% among HIV/AIDS patients; single helminthic infection prevalence (22.7%) was higher than that the prevalence of protozoal infections (14.6%). About 54% of study participants had chronic diarrhea while 3.4% had acute diarrhea. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients with chronic diarrhea was significantly higher than in acute diarrhea (p intestinal parasite infections such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia spp., and hookworm were commonly found, regardless of immune status or diarrheal symptoms. Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection were more frequent in patients with a CD4 count of Intestinal parasitic infections should be suspected in HIV/AIDS-infected patients with advanced disease presenting with chronic diarrhea. Patients with low CD4 counts should be examined critically for intestinal parasites, regardless of diarrheal status.

  10. Prevalence and predictors of adolescents' cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia: a school-based cross-sectional study.

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    Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen; Kasim, Khaled

    2015-01-21

    Although the prevalence of adolescents' cigarette smoking has increased in recent decades, little is known regarding its epidemiology in certain Saudi regions, including the Madinah region. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in the Madinah region during 2013. A multistage stratified cluster sample was taken and included 3400 students (11-19 years) from 34 intermediate and secondary schools. Data concerning sociodemographic and smoking-related factors were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of smoking was estimated, and appropriate statistical analyses were performed, including univariate, predictive and multivariate regression analyses. The overall response rate was 97.7%. The prevalence of cigarette smoking in the respondents' 3322 adolescents was 15.17% (95% CI = 13.95-16.39) with significant differences in sociodemographic factors. The most important predictors were most or all friends smoking (OR = 12.5; 95% CI = 9.40-16.8). Other significant less important factors were parental smoking, belief in the harmful effects of smoking, cigarette advertisement in mass media, and pocket money. Cigarette smoking prevalence is a relatively low among adolescents in Madinah region. However, friends and parents smoking play an important role in the increased risk of smoking in the studied adolescents. These predictors must be included in any antismoking education programs targeting to this sector of population in the region.

  11. Prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers - A cross-sectional study

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    Ansari Zaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is a major public health problem globally. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, tobacco is the second most important cause of death in the world. It is currently estimated to be responsible for about 5 million deaths each year worldwide. In India, it is responsible for over 8 lakh deaths every year. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers in Mau Aima Town, District Allahabad, UP. Materials and Methods: Five hundred power loom workers were randomly chosen. Out of them 448 workers were interviewed through a questionnaire survey during May-June 2007. Data on demographics, education, and type of work were collected along with details regarding tobacco use and smoking status, duration of the habit, and daily consumption. Prevalence of tobacco chewing and/or bidi and cigarette smoking, and their sociodemographic correlates, were examined. Results: The overall prevalence of tobacco use was 85.9%; the prevalence of smoking and tobacco chewing were 62.28% and 66.07%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that smoking is more common in the elderly, while chewing gutka (a type of chewing tobacco is popular among the younger age-groups. Conclusion: The prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers is very high compared to that in general population. Immediate intervention programs are warranted to reduce the future burden of tobacco-related morbidity among these workers who are already exposed to the highly polluted environment in power loom factories.

  12. Prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers - a cross-sectional study.

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    Ansari, Zaki Anwar; Bano, S Nafees; Zulkifle, M

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use is a major public health problem globally. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tobacco is the second most important cause of death in the world. It is currently estimated to be responsible for about 5 million deaths each year worldwide. In India, it is responsible for over 8 lakh deaths every year. To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers in Mau Aima Town, District Allahabad, UP. Five hundred power loom workers were randomly chosen. Out of them 448 workers were interviewed through a questionnaire survey during May-June 2007. Data on demographics, education, and type of work were collected along with details regarding tobacco use and smoking status, duration of the habit, and daily consumption. Prevalence of tobacco chewing and/or bidi and cigarette smoking, and their sociodemographic correlates, were examined. The overall prevalence of tobacco use was 85.9%; the prevalence of smoking and tobacco chewing were 62.28% and 66.07%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that smoking is more common in the elderly, while chewing gutka (a type of chewing tobacco) is popular among the younger age-groups. The prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers is very high compared to that in general population. Immediate intervention programs are warranted to reduce the future burden of tobacco-related morbidity among these workers who are already exposed to the highly polluted environment in power loom factories.

  13. Cholesterol lipoproteins and prevalence of dyslipidemias in urban Asian Indians: A cross sectional study

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    Soneil Guptha

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Mean cholesterol and LDL cholesterol are low and triglycerides were high in urban Asian Indians. Most prevalent dyslipidemias are borderline high LDL, low HDL and high triglycerides. Subjects with high socioeconomic status, high fat intake and greater adiposity have higher total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol.

  14. Cross-sectional studies of tuberculosis prevalence in Cambodia between 2002 and 2011.

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    Mao, Tan Eang; Okada, Kosuke; Yamada, Norio; Peou, Satha; Ota, Masaki; Saint, Saly; Kouet, Pichenda; Chea, Manith; Keo, Sokonth; Pheng, Sok Heng; Tieng, Sivanna; Khun, Kim Eam; Sugamoto, Tetsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Ito, Kunihiko; Onozaki, Ikushi

    2014-08-01

    To measure trends in the pulmonary tuberculosis burden between 2002 and 2011 and to assess the impact of the DOTS (directly observed treatment, short-course) strategy in Cambodia. Cambodia's first population-based nationwide tuberculosis survey, based on multistage cluster sampling, was conducted in 2002. The second tuberculosis survey, encompassing 62 clusters, followed in 2011. Participants aged 15 years or older were screened for active pulmonary tuberculosis with chest radiography and/or for tuberculosis symptoms. For diagnostic confirmation, sputum smear and culture were conducted on those whose screening results were positive. Of the 40,423 eligible subjects, 37,417 (92.6%) participated in the survey; 103 smear-positive cases and 211 smear-negative, culture-positive cases were identified. The weighted prevalences of smear-positive tuberculosis and bacteriologically-positive tuberculosis were 271 (95% confidence interval, CI: 212-348) and 831 (95% CI: 707-977) per 100,000 population, respectively. Tuberculosis prevalence was higher in men than women and increased with age. A 38% decline in smear-positive tuberculosis (P = 0.0085) was observed with respect to the 2002 survey, after participants were matched by demographic and geographical characteristics. The prevalence of symptomatic, smear-positive tuberculosis decreased by 56% (P = 0.001), whereas the prevalence of asymptomatic, smear-positive tuberculosis decreased by only 7% (P = 0.7249). The tuberculosis burden in Cambodia has declined significantly, most probably because of the decentralization of DOTS to health centres. To further reduce the tuberculosis burden in Cambodia, tuberculosis control should be strengthened and should focus on identifying cases without symptoms and in the middle-aged and elderly population.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of contact dermatitis among clothing manufacturing employees in Beijing: A cross-sectional study.

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    Chen, Yu-Xin; Cheng, Hai-Yan; Li, Lin-Feng

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of contact dermatitis (CD) in the Chinese clothing industry. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and some risk factors of contact dermatitis among clothing manufacturing employees in Beijing.This cross-sectional study was conducted by interview using self-administered questionnaires and skin examination between May and August in 2016. Five-hundred twenty-nine employees who had worked at sewing, ironing, and as managers at 12 clothing manufacturing factories were studied.The overall 1-year prevalence of CD among the clothing employees was 28.5% (151/529 employees), with significantly higher prevalence among ironing workers (50%) and sewers (31.7%) compared with managers (12.7%; P garment materials (leather and feather), dry skin, allergic rhinitis, age, and smoking.Among employees in Chinese clothing industry, sewers and ironing workers had a higher 1-year prevalence of CD than managers. It is noteworthy that exposure to leather and feather materials and the types of manual work are associated with CD, as well as dry skin and allergic rhinitis.

  16. Does first line antiretroviral therapy increase the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Indian patients?: A cross sectional study.

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    Carey, R A B; Rupali, P; Abraham, O C; Kattula, D

    2013-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with a myriad of metabolic complications which are potential cardiovascular risk factors. Early detection of these risk factors could help in alleviating morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients on ART. To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients on a combination of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-NRTIs (NNRTIs) - the standard combination first line ART regimen used in tertiary referral center. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in HIV infected subjects with stage 1t disease on standard first line ART for at least 1 year, HIV infected subjects with stage 1 disease and not on ART and HIV negative subjects was assessed. The study was a cross-sectional study design. Basic demographic data was collected and patients were examined for anthropometric data and blood was collected for analysis of blood glucose, serum lipids, and fasting insulin levels. Chi-square test was used to calculate significance. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16.0 was used for data analysis. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia was higher in the patients on ART when compared to patients not on ART (PART and those not on ART. First line ART is associated with increased prevalence of dyslipidemia. Early detection and treatment of dyslipidemia should help in reducing the cardiovascular morbidity in patients on ART.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of varicose veins among female hairdressers: a cross sectional study in north-east of Iran.

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    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Amanpour, Farzaneh; Bolbol Haghighi, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Venous diseases including varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency are one of the most important pathogenic factors worldwide. High prevalence of varicose veins and its complications is an emerging problem in the twenty-first century. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of varicose veins in female hairdressers in Shahroud, north of Iran in 2012. In this cross-sectional study, 197 employed hairdressers, licensed by the Health Department of Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Iran, were studied. Standard physical examination was used to check the condition of varicose veins of the lower extremities of participants. Data were collected by demographic information form. Proportional odds model for ordinal logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between risk factors and status of varicose disease in subjects. Prevalence of varicose veins was 47.7%. Varicose veins were significantly associated with age (OR=1.08; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.13); family history of varicose disease (OR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.82), blood pressure (OR=4.41; 95% CI: 1.63, 11.90); and duration of standing (OR=2.34; 95% CI: 1.05, 5.22). Varicose veins in the legs of female hairdressers had a high prevalence, and it was associated with increasing age, family history of varicose disease, high blood Pressure, and prolonged standing.

  18. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries: a cross-sectional study.

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    Diepgen, T L; Ofenloch, R; Bruze, M; Cazzaniga, S; Coenraads, P J; Elsner, P; Goncalo, M; Svensson, Å; Naldi, L

    2015-12-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to assess the clinical relevance of positive patch test reactions to different fragrances. In five European countries (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden) a random sample from the general population aged 18-74 years was drawn. In total, 12 377 subjects were interviewed in this cross-sectional study and a random sample (n = 3119) was patch tested using the TRUE Test and Finn Chamber techniques. Patch test procedures were harmonized by mandatory training before the study and monitoring during the study. The highest prevalence for contact allergy of 2·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·1-3·2] was found for fragrance mix (FM) I in petrolatum, with a high content of atranol and chloratranol, followed by 1·9% (95% CI 1·5-2·4) for FM II in petrolatum. The conservatively estimated prevalence of fragrance contact allergy was 1·9% (95% CI 1·5-2·5). This is defined as the existence of a positive patch test to FM I or FM II; any of their individual materials; Myroxylon pereirae; sesquiterpene lactones or 3- and 4-hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde that show clinical relevance, defined conservatively as lifetime avoidance of scented products and an itchy skin rash lasting > 3 days in a lifetime. Using the reported lifetime prevalence of any contact dermatitis instead of the lifetime prevalence of any itchy skin rash, the prevalence is 0·8% (95% CI 0·5-1·2). The prevalence rates of contact allergy to fragrances in women are about twice those in men. This study helps to identify targets for prevention of fragrance allergy. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. A single-center, cross-sectional prevalence study of impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: association with dopaminergic drugs.

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    Poletti, Michele; Logi, Chiara; Lucetti, Claudio; Del Dotto, Paolo; Baldacci, Filippo; Vergallo, Andrea; Ulivi, Martina; Del Sarto, Simone; Rossi, Giuseppe; Ceravolo, Roberto; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2013-10-01

    The current study aimed at establishing the prevalence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and their association with demographic, drug-related, and disease-related characteristics. We performed a single-center cross-sectional study of 805 PD patients. Impulse control disorders were investigated with the Questionnaire for Impulsive Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease; also comorbid neuropsychiatric complications (dementia, delusions, visual hallucinations) were investigated with clinical interviews and ad hoc instruments (Parkinson Psychosis Questionnaire and Neuropsychiatry Inventory). Impulse control disorders were identified in 65 patients (prevalence, 8.1%), with pathological gambling and hypersexuality the most frequent. Impulse control disorders were present in 57 of 593 cognitively preserved patients (prevalence, 9.6%) and in 8 of 212 demented patients (prevalence, 3.8%). Impulse control disorders were significantly associated with dopamine agonists (odds ratio [OR], 5.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.60-12.46; P Impulse control disorders frequency was similar for pramipexole and ropinirole (16.6% vs 12.5%; OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.79-2.74; P = 0.227). Additional variables associated with ICDs were male sex and younger age. These findings suggested that dopaminergic treatments in PD are associated with increased odds of having an ICD, but also other demographic and clinical variables are associated with ICDs, suggesting the multifactorial nature of the ICD phenomenon in PD.

  20. Smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians: results from cross-sectional studies in 2002 and 2014.

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    Põld, Mariliis; Pärna, Kersti

    2017-11-25

    To explore smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians in 2002 and 2014. Two self-administered cross-sectional postal surveys were conducted among practising physicians in Estonia. Initial sample consisted of all practising physicians in Estonia. The corrected response rate was 67.8% in 2002 and 53.1% in 2014. Present study sample was restricted to physicians younger than 65 years (n=2549 in 2002, n=2339 in 2014). Age-standardised prevalence of smoking and prevalence of agreement with seven statements concerning attitudes towards smoking was determined. To analyse association of physicians' attitudes towards smoking with study year and smoking status, logistic regression analysis was used. Adjusted ORs of agreement with the seven statements were determined. Corresponding 95% CIs were calculated. The age-standardised prevalence of current smoking among men was 26.8% in 2002 and 15.3% in 2014, among women 10.4% and 5.8%, respectively. Compared with the year 2002, in 2014, prevalence of agreement with statements declaring harmfulness of smoking was higher and prevalence of agreement with statements approving smoking was lower. Adjusted ORs showed that compared with 2002, physicians' attitudes towards smoking were less favourable in 2014, and physicians' attitudes towards smoking were associated with their smoking status. Compared with 2002, the age-standardised smoking prevalence among male and female physicians was lower, and attitudes towards smoking were less approving in 2014. The smoking physicians had more approving attitudes towards smoking than their non-smoking colleagues. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among school teachers from urban and rural areas in Chuquisaca, Bolivia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Solis-Soto, María Teresa; Schön, Anabel; Solis-Soto, Angel; Parra, Manuel; Radon, Katja

    2017-10-27

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are important health problems in working populations. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of MSD among school teachers from urban and rural areas in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 60 randomly selected schools. In total, 1062 teachers were invited to participate (response 58%). The Spanish version of the Standardized Nordic questionnaire was used assessing the 12-months and 7-days prevalence of MSD as well as the 12-months prevalence of work limiting pain. Prevalence were calculated for the different parts of the body; as summary measures, MSD in any part of the body and in ≥3 parts of the body were assessed. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, teaching level and school type. Prevalence of MSD in any part of the body was 86% during the last 12 months, 63% during the last 7 days and 15% for work limiting pain. MSD was most common in the neck (12-months prevalence 47%) and least common in the wrist/hands (26%). In the adjusted model, teachers working in rural areas presented significantly higher odds than teachers from urban schools for work-limiting pain during the last 12-months considering any part of the body (aOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1-4.1), and for ≥3 parts of the body (aOR 3.7; 95% CI 1.3-10.6). The prevalence of MSD is high in School teachers, even more in teachers working in rural areas. It is needed to identify risk factors for MSD in teachers in order to propose appropriate strategies to control and reduce it.

  2. Prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk Ghanaian newborns: a cross-sectional study

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    Enweronu-Laryea Christabel C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital malaria is defined as malaria parasitaemia in the first week of life. The reported prevalence of congenital malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is variable (0 - 46%. Even though the clinical significance of congenital malaria parasitaemia is uncertain, anti-malarial drugs are empirically prescribed for sick newborns by frontline health care workers. Data on prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk newborns will inform appropriate drug use and timely referral of sick newborns. Methods Blood samples of untreated newborns less than 1 week of age at the time of referral to Korle Bu Teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana during the peak malaria seasons (April to July of 2008 and 2010 were examined for malaria parasites by, i Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears for parasite count and species identification, ii histidine-rich protein- and lactic dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnosis tests, or iii polymerase chain reaction amplification of the merozoite surface protein 2 gene, for identification of sub-microscopic parasitaemia. Other investigations were also done as clinically indicated. Results In 2008, nine cases of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were diagnosed by microscopy in 405 (2.2% newborns. All the nine newborns had low parasite densities (≤50 per microlitre. In 2010, there was no case of parasitaemia by either microscopy or rapid diagnosis tests in 522 newborns; however, 56/467 (12% cases of P. falciparum were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion Congenital malaria is an uncommon cause of clinical illness in high-risk untreated newborns referred to a tertiary hospital in the first week of life. Empirical anti-malarial drug treatment for sick newborns without laboratory confirmation of parasitaemia is imprudent. Early referral of sick newborns to hospitals with resources and skills for appropriate care is recommended.

  3. Prevalence of depression in students of a medical college in New Delhi: A cross-sectional study

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    Surbhi Sidana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMedical education is associated with various pressures andstresses which can lead to depression. This study wasundertaken to discover the prevalence of depression inmedical students and various factors contributing todepression.MethodThis is a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study. Usingstratified random sampling, 237 students were selectedaccording to year of study. Patient Health Questionnaire(PHQ-9, based on PRIME-MD Today, was used to make aprovisional diagnosis of depression.ResultsThe overall prevalence of provisionally diagnosed depressiveand major depressive disorder using PHQ-9 was 21.5% and7.6%, respectively. Year of study and academic performanceof students had a statistically significant association withdepression. Other factors, including gender, self-reported pasthistory of depression, family history of psychiatric disorders,type of social support, family structure, number of siblings andeducation of parents were not found to have any significantassociation with prevalence of depression in the study. It wasalso observed that students were reluctant to seek help fordepressive symptoms.

  4. Prevalence and factors of burnout among Australian orthopaedic trainees: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manit; Diwan, Ashish D; Harris, Ian A

    2014-12-01

    To assess the prevalence and factors of burnout among Australian orthopaedic trainees. 236 orthopaedic registrars of the Australian Orthopaedic Association were invited to participate in a 32-item survey by email. The questionnaire assessed potential factors associated with burnout, satisfaction with the choice of orthopaedics as a career and work-life balance, and subjective overall health, as well as 3 subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey for assessing burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and personal accomplishment. Participants with high levels of either emotional exhaustion or depersonalisation were defined as having burnout. Those with and without burnout were compared. 51 (22%) of the 236 trainees completed the questionnaire. Of whom, 88% were satisfied with their choice of orthopaedics as a career, whereas 27% were satisfied with their work-life balance. 27 (53%) respondents were considered burned out. Compared with those who did not burn out, those who burned out were less satisfied with their careers (p=0.004) and work-life balance (p=0.021). 53% of Australian orthopaedic trainees were burned out. Burnout trainees were more likely to be dissatisfied with their career choice and worklife balance. Active interventions to combat burnout and improve work-life balance are needed.

  5. Prevalence of malnutrition and associated risk factors among adult visceral leishmaniasis patients in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

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    Mengesha, Bewketu; Endris, Mengistu; Takele, Yegnasew; Mekonnen, Kalehiwot; Tadesse, Takele; Feleke, Amsalu; Diro, Ermias

    2014-02-04

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes considerable morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. Data on the prevalence and associated risk factors on malnutrition among VL patients in Ethiopia are scarce. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and its associated risk factor among VL patients in Northwest Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2012 at four leishmaniasis treatment sites in Northwest Ethiopia. Four hundred and three adult VL patients were enrolled in the study. Malnutrition was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18.5 kg/m2. The data collected from the VL patients included sex, age, residence, occupation, weight, height, laboratory results (HIV, hemoglobin, intestinal parasites). Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the strength of association between malnutrition and associated risk factors. Among 403 adult VL patients 385 (95.5%) were malnourished. Twenty eight percent (n = 113), 30.3% (n = 122), and 37.2% (n = 150) were mildly, moderately and severely malnourished, respectively. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.6% (n = 192) and it was associated with malnutrition (P = 0.01). The prevalence of VL-HIV co-infection was 10.4% (n = 42). Hook worm, Giardia intestinalis and Ascaris lumbircoides were the leading prevalent intestinal parasites. Factors such as age, sex, residence, occupation, HIV status and anemia were not associated with severe malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition in VL patients was very high and it was associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Therefore, screening of severely malnourished VL patients for intestinal parasitic infections during admission is recommended.

  6. Prevalence of restless legs symptoms according to depressive symptoms and depression type: a cross-sectional study.

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    Auvinen, Piritta; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Koponen, Hannu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Korniloff, Katariina; Ahonen, Tiina; Vanhala, Mauno

    2018-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor disorder and it is associated with several other diseases especially mental illnesses. To analyze the relationship between the symptoms of restless legs syndrome and the severity of depressive symptoms and the prevalence of restless legs symptoms in depression subtypes. A cross-sectional study of primary care patients in the Central Finland Hospital District. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms was studied in 706 patients with increased depressive symptoms and 426 controls without a psychiatric diagnosis by using a structured questionnaire. The depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the psychiatric diagnosis was confirmed by means of a diagnostic interview (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview). The subjects with increased depressive symptoms were divided into three groups (subjects with depressive symptoms without a depression diagnosis, melancholic depression and non-melancholic depression). In the whole study population, the prevalence of restless legs symptoms increased with the severity of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms was highest in the melancholic and non-melancholic depressive patients (52 and 46%, respectively) and then in subjects with depressive symptoms without a depression diagnosis (43.4%), but the prevalence was also substantial (24.6%) in subjects without a psychiatric diagnosis. Restless legs symptoms are very common in primary care among subjects with depression, regardless of the depression type. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms increased with increasing severity of depressive symptoms, regardless of the diagnosis. These findings should be considered in clinical evaluation and treatment of patients visiting their physician due to restless legs or depressive symptoms.

  7. Electronic Cigarette Use among Irish Youth: A Cross Sectional Study of Prevalence and Associated Factors.

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    Kate Babineau

    Full Text Available To examine prevalence of, and factors associated with, e-cigarette use among young people aged 16-17 in Ireland.In 2014, a representative sample of 821 young people aged 16-17 recruited from secondary schools completed a pen and paper survey on e-cigarette use, tobacco use, and socio-demographic items.A total of 23.8% of respondents had used e-cigarettes at least once. Dual trial of tobacco and e-cigarettes was common with 69.5% of regular smokers and 30.4% of 'ever' smokers having tried e-cigarettes and 10.6% of current smokers using e-cigarettes regularly. 4.2% of never smokers have tried e-cigarettes. Overall, current e-cigarette use (once a month or more was low (3.2%. Binary logistic regression conducted through generalized estimating equations (GEE determined that controlling for other variables, current tobacco use and 'ever' tobacco use predicted ever e-cigarette use. Gender and school-level socioeconomic status were also independent predictors of ever e-cigarette use. Gender stood as the only predictor of on-going e-cigarette use, with males being more likely to regularly use e-cigarettes at least once a month.E-cigarette use among 16-17 year olds in Ireland is of note, with nearly a quarter of students having tried them. Concurrent or experimental use of e-cigarettes and tobacco is more common than sole use, while a small number have tried e-cigarettes without having tried tobacco.

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus in patients with diabetes mellitus: a comparative cross sectional study at Woldiya General Hospital, Ethiopia.

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    Mekonnen, Daniel; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Fantaw, Surafel; Hunegnaw, Andualem; Mihret, Adane

    2014-01-01

    The overall prevalence of HBV in Ethiopia varies from 4.7-16.8% for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 70-76.38% for at least one marker positive. Patients suffering from type I Diabetes Mellitus (DM) incur high risk of infection with hepatotropic viruses because of frequent hospitalization and blood tests. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at Woldiya General Hospital using 108 consented study populations from Diabetes and 108 non diabetes control groups during the period November 2010 - January 2011. VISITECT HBsAg rapid test kit and Humastat 80 chemistry analyzer were used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to see the association of HBV with clinical history of participants and Sociodemographic variables. All tests were two-sided with α-level of 0.05 and 80% power. Prevalence of HBsAg was equal between diabetic and non diabetic individuals, 3.7% indicating that there was no difference between the two groups. Only history of invasive procedures and chronic liver disease showed association with HBsAg seropositivity. In this study a positive relation was not indicated between HBV and Diabetes and the prevalence of HBsAg was equal between diabetic and non diabetic individuals.

  9. [Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from Cochabamba (Bolivia); a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuet-Aumatell, Cristina; Ramon-Torrell, Josep Maria; Banqué-Navarro, Marta; Dávalos-Gamboa, María del Rosario; Montaño-Rodríguez, Sandra Lucía

    2013-11-01

    The anthropometric status of school age children and young adolescents in Andean countries is not well known. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents in the Cochabamba region (Bolivia), and their association with different variables, as well as to determine the agreement between two classifications (BAP, IOTF) of obesity and overweight. A school-based cross-sectional survey (n=441) was carried out in 2010 in pupils, aged 5 to 16 years old, living in the Cochabamba region (Bolivia). Evaluations were based on parent-administered questionnaires and a physical examination based on anthropometric measures. Descriptive, bivariate, and concordance analyses were performed. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity were 20.9% (CI95% 17.1-24.7) and 3.2% (CI 95% 1.6-4.8) respectively, with higher incidences in younger birth cohorts from rural areas. No differences were observed according to gender, parent's educational level, nutritional patterns, or physical activity. There was a moderate agreement globally and on overweight, and excellent on obesity. This study determined that the prevalence of overweight and obese Bolivian school children is increasing, mainly in younger birth cohorts from rural areas, independently from physical activity and energy intake. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: An Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, Meseret; Enawgaw, Bamlaku

    2014-01-01

    Background. Anaemia is a global public health problem which has an eminence impact on pregnant mother. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of maternal anemia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2012, on 302 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at Gondar University Hospital. Interview-based questionnaire, clinical history, and laboratory tests were used to obtain data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.6%. Majority were mild type (64%) and morphologically normocytic normochromic (76%) anemia. Anemia was high at third trimester (18.9%). Low family income (AOR [95% CI] = 3.1 [1.19, 8.33]), large family size (AOR [95% CI] = 4.14 [4.13, 10.52]), hookworm infection (AOR [95% CI] = 2.72 [1.04, 7.25]), and HIV infection (AOR [95% CI] = 5.75 [2.40, 13.69]) were independent predictors of anemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia was high; mild type and normocytic normochromic anemia was dominant. Low income, large family size, hookworm infection, and HIV infection were associated with anemia. Hence, efforts should be made for early diagnosis and management of HIV and hookworm infection with special emphasis on those having low income and large family size. PMID:24669317

  11. Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: An Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Mulugeta Melku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anaemia is a global public health problem which has an eminence impact on pregnant mother. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of maternal anemia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2012, on 302 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at Gondar University Hospital. Interview-based questionnaire, clinical history, and laboratory tests were used to obtain data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.6%. Majority were mild type (64% and morphologically normocytic normochromic (76% anemia. Anemia was high at third trimester (18.9%. Low family income (AOR [95% CI] = 3.1 [1.19, 8.33], large family size (AOR [95% CI] = 4.14 [4.13, 10.52], hookworm infection (AOR [95% CI] = 2.72 [1.04, 7.25], and HIV infection (AOR [95% CI] = 5.75 [2.40, 13.69] were independent predictors of anemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia was high; mild type and normocytic normochromic anemia was dominant. Low income, large family size, hookworm infection, and HIV infection were associated with anemia. Hence, efforts should be made for early diagnosis and management of HIV and hookworm infection with special emphasis on those having low income and large family size.

  12. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study

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    Tomita Shigeru

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study of 5,719 subjects (response rate: 81%, 982 men and 4,737 women was undertaken during September 2003 to February 2004. Results Finger deformations were found among 11.7% of the men and 35.6% of the women studied, with significant differences among sex, age and sex-age groups. For both men and women the pattern of finger deformations across the hand was similar for the right and the left hand. For women, the deformations were found in about 10% of the distal interphalangeal joints of all fingers. Based on multiple logistic regression analyses, the factors female sex, age, the number of cooked lunches per cook and cooking activities were independently associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. High prevalence odds ratios were found for those frequently carrying or using tools by hands such as delivering containers, distributing meals, preparing dishes, washing equipment, cutting and stirring foods. Conclusions Among the school lunch workers studied, women had a higher prevalence of finger deformations on all joints of both hands. Various cooking tasks were associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. The results suggest that improvements in working conditions are important for preventing work-related disorders such as finger deformations.

  13. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection and protozoan load in South African women: a cross-sectional study

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    de Waaij, Dewi J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Trichomonas vaginalis is thought to be the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors and protozoan load of T. vaginalis infection in South African women. Methods A cross-sectional study of 604 women was conducted at 25 primary healthcare facilities in rural South Africa (Mopani district). T. vaginalis DNA was detected in vaginal and rectal swabs. In univariate and multivariate analyses, the T. vaginalis infection was investigated in relation to demographic characteristics, medical history and behavioural factors. The T. vaginalis load was determined as the logarithm of DNA copies per microlitre sample solution. Results Collected vaginal and rectal swabs were tested for T. vaginalis DNA. Prevalence of vaginal T. vaginalis was 20% (95% CI 17.0% to 23.4%) and rectal 1.2% (95% CI 0.6% to 2.4%). Most women (66%) with a vaginal infection were asymptomatic. Factors associated with T. vaginalis infection were a relationship status of single (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.5 to 4.0; pvaginalis infection were more likely to have concurrent Chlamydia trachomatis rectal infection than those without vaginal infection (12%vs3%; pvaginalis load was observed among women with observed vaginal discharge compared with those without vaginal discharge (p=0.025). Conclusions Vaginal trichomoniasis is highly prevalent in rural South Africa, especially among single women and those with HIV infection, and often presents without symptoms. PMID:28993385

  14. Increased Prevalence of Cardiovascular and Autoimmune Diseases in Periodontitis Patients : A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Abbas, Frank; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Stijger, Astrid; Tromp, Jan A. H.; van Dijk, Johan L.; Vissink, Arjan

    Background: Associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are most often assessed in patients with a particular cardiovascular or autoimmune disease. To prevent selection bias, this study assesses the existence of associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular

  15. Increased Prevalence of Cardiovascular and Autoimmune Diseases in Periodontitis Patients : A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Abbas, Frank; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Stijger, Astrid; Tromp, Jan A. H.; van Dijk, Johan L.; Vissink, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are most often assessed in patients with a particular cardiovascular or autoimmune disease. To prevent selection bias, this study assesses the existence of associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular

  16. Depression: point-prevalence and risk factors in a North Cyprus household adult cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakıcı, Mehmet; Gökçe, Özlem; Babayiğit, Asra; Çakıcı, Ebru; Eş, Ayhan

    2017-12-04

    Depression is one of the most common diagnosed psychiatric disorders in the world. Besides individual risk factors, it is also found that environment and socio-cultural factors are the other main risk factors for depression. In this article, the results of the 2016 national household survey of depression in North Cyprus (NC) are presented. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors of depression in NC households. The study was conducted between April and June 2016, the sample consisting of Turkish-speaking individuals between 18 and 88 years of age living permanently in NC. A multi-stage stratified (randomized) quota was used in the survey, and 978 people were selected according to the 2011 census. A 21 item questionnaire prepared by the researchers and a Turkish version of the Beck Depression Inventory scales were used for obtaining data. This cross-sectional study found a point prevalence of 23.4% for relatively high BDI scores (≥17) suggesting clinical depression. Being female, a widow, unemployed, having a limited education and low income level, having a physical illness, living alone, and using illicit substances were defined as possible risk factors for depression. When we consider the world prevalence, NC has one of the higher depression prevalence. NC has environmental and socio-cultural characteristics such as a history of war, migration and colonization, high unemployment rates, socioeconomic problems, similar to other extremely high prevalence depression countries and regions, which give a strong indication of the importance of socio-cultural factors on depression.

  17. Prevalence of abnormal serum liver enzymes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Chen, Yintao; Dong, Siyuan; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients and identify contributing risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in rural areas of China, and 1,198 type 2 diabetic patients with complete data were recruited. Elevated ALT and AST levels were defined as >40 U/L. Prevalence of abnormal liver enzymes was analyzed and multivariable analysis was used to identify independent risk factors. 10.3% and 6.1% diabetic patients had elevated ALT and elevated AST, respectively. The prevalence of elevated liver enzymes was gender-related; it was 13.8% in men and 7.5% in women for elevated ALT, and 7.4% in men and 3.1% in women for elevated AST. High triglyceride was positively associated with both elevated ALT (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.08-3.01, p = 0.024) and elevated AST (OR 2.24, 95%CI 1.08-4.65, p = 0.031), while taking anti-diabetes medicine was inversely related to both elevated ALT (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.80, p = 0.005) and elevated AST (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.17-0.82, p = 0.014). The risk of elevated ALT in diabetic patients increased with the presence of obesity (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.07-6.01, p = 0.034), and was lower in women (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72, p = 0.003). Hypertension (OR 4.33, 95% CI 1.41-13.30, p = 0.011), current drinking status (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.21-6.96, p = 0.017) and national minority (OR 3.26, 95%CI 1.31-8.12, p = 0.011) were risk factors for elevated AST. A relatively high prevalence of abnormal serum liver enzymes in diabetic patients was demonstrated in China, especially in males. More attention should be paid to preventing liver injuries in diabetic patients.

  18. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among chewing tobacco users: A cross-sectional study

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    Sujatha S Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square and Fisher′s exact tests were used to assess the statistical significance. Results: Of the 901 subjects with CT habits, 55.8% revealed no clinically detectable oral mucosal changes and 44.1% showed mucosal changes of which 63.8% were males and 36.1% were females. The most common finding was chewers mucositis (59.5% followed by submucous fibrosis (22.8%, leukoplakia (8%, lichenoid reaction (6.5%, oral cancer (2.7%, and lichen planus (0.5%. Conclusion: This study provides information about different CT habits and associated mucosal lesions among this population.

  19. A STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY IN PATIENTS WITH PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS- A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Periyar Rani Selvaraj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Psychiatric disorders in pemphigus vulgaris may occur due to long term course, impact of body image, unlikelihood of complete recovery and frequent recurrences. These are the major predisposing factors towards depression and anxiety. Although, investigators have evaluated psychiatric aspects of the patients suffering from skin diseases, there are rare studies in India concerning mental health in pemphigus patients. Aim- The aim and objectives of the study is to estimate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with pemphigus vulgaris, to assess the socio demographic profile and quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS Between august 2017 and September 2017, a cross sectional study of 105 patients diagnosed as pemphigus vulgaris attending pemphigus clinic of dermatology department, Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, Chennai were assessed using semi structured proforma and following questionnaires GHQ-12, HAMA, HAMD, DLQI. RESULTS 105 patients were evaluated; 55% presented depression (58/120; 46 women and 12 men; 45 patients (43% with mild depression, 13 patients (12% with moderate depression. Duration of illness and social support presented statistical significance (P = 0.039 and (P <0.001 respectively. 32% presented anxiety (34/105; 25 women and 9 men; 32 patients (30% with mild anxiety, 2 patients (2% with moderate anxiety. Social support showed statistical significance (P<0.001. In DLQI, 32 patients had no effect, 24 patients (23% had small effect, 33 patients (31% had moderate effect, 16 patients (15% had very large effect. QOL was significantly impaired, particularly with poor social support (P<0.001, low education (P=0.010, duration of illness (P = 0.003 and number of episodes (P = 0.017. CONCLUSIONS Prevalence of depression and anxiety were higher in patients with pemphigus vulgaris and depression was found to be higher among females and anxiety was higher among male patients. Also increased duration of illness

  20. A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals

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    Geane L. Flores

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2 Methods: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+ referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3 Results: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283. Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married, tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married, anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4 Conclusion: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals.

  1. Prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure in asthmatic children at home and in the car: A cross-sectional study

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    H. Antunes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe prevalence at home and inside the car between asthmatic and non-asthmatic Portuguese children. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study that assessed children's SHSe in a representative sample of nine Portuguese cities. A validated self-reported questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 4th grade students during the school year of 2010/2011. The asthma prevalence was defined by the answers to three questions regarding asthma symptoms, medication and inhaler use. We performed chi-square tests and analysed frequencies, contingency tables, confidence intervals, and odd-ratios. Results: The self-reported questionnaire was administered to 3187 students. Asthma prevalence was 14.8% (472 students. Results showed that 32.3% of non-asthmatic children and 32.4% of asthmatic children were exposed to secondhand smoke as at least one of their household members smoked at home. The prevalence of parental smoking, smoking among fathers and smoking among mothers at home was also similar in both groups (asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. SHSe inside the car was 18.6% among non-asthmatic children and 17.9% among asthmatic children. Conclusions: Asthmatic and non-asthmatic children were equally exposed to secondhand smoke, because no significant differences were found between the two groups concerning the prevalence of SHSe at home and inside the car. These findings highlight the need to include SHSe brief advice in paediatric asthma management. Keywords: Secondhand smoke, Children, Asthma

  2. Prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure in asthmatic children at home and in the car: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, H; Precioso, J; Araújo, A C; Machado, J C; Samorinha, C; Rocha, V; Gaspar, Â; Becoña, E; Belo-Ravara, S; Vitória, P; Rosas, M; Fernandez, E

    2016-01-01

    To compare secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) prevalence at home and inside the car between asthmatic and non-asthmatic Portuguese children. This is a cross-sectional study that assessed children's SHSe in a representative sample of nine Portuguese cities. A validated self-reported questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 4th grade students during the school year of 2010/2011. The asthma prevalence was defined by the answers to three questions regarding asthma symptoms, medication and inhaler use. We performed chi-square tests and analysed frequencies, contingency tables, confidence intervals, and odd-ratios. The self-reported questionnaire was administered to 3187 students. Asthma prevalence was 14.8% (472 students). Results showed that 32.3% of non-asthmatic children and 32.4% of asthmatic children were exposed to secondhand smoke as at least one of their household members smoked at home. The prevalence of parental smoking, smoking among fathers and smoking among mothers at home was also similar in both groups (asthmatic and non-asthmatic children). SHSe inside the car was 18.6% among non-asthmatic children and 17.9% among asthmatic children. Asthmatic and non-asthmatic children were equally exposed to secondhand smoke, because no significant differences were found between the two groups concerning the prevalence of SHSe at home and inside the car. These findings highlight the need to include SHSe brief advice in paediatric asthma management. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence, Impact, and Management Practice of Dysmenorrhea among University of Gondar Students, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Gebeyehu, Minaleshewa Biruk; Andarge, Dagmawi Abate; Debay, Yabsira Belayneh; Bejiga, Geremew Sokile

    2017-01-01

    Background Dysmenorrhea is an important health problem of adolescents in school, as well as health practitioners, that badly affects the daily activities and quality of life. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dysmenorrhea and assess its management practice among University of Gondar students. Methods A cross-sectional study was done from April 06 to May 08, 2016, on female students of University of Gondar. Descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used to describe and assess the association between different variables. Results More than two-thirds (75.3%) of the respondents were nonmedical students and the prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 77.6%. About half (50.6%) of the participants reported that they have a family history of dysmenorrhea and experienced continuous type of pain (53%) which lasts 1-2 days (47.8%). Abdominal spasm (70.4%), back pain (69.7%) fatigue, and weakness (63.5%) were the most commonly experienced dysmenorrhea symptoms. More than half (63%) of the respondents had encountered social withdrawal and decrease in academic performance (51.4%). More than two-thirds (63.8%) of the respondents use home remedies as a primary management option. Ibuprofen and diclofenac were the most commonly used medications to manage dysmenorrhea. Conclusions The present study revealed that high proportion of University of Gondar female students had dysmenorrhea. Findings suggest the need for educating adolescent girls on appropriate and effective management of dysmenorrhea. PMID:28589173

  4. Prevalence of xenobiotic substances in first-trimester blood samples from Danish pregnant women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Sissel Kramer; Larsen, Agnete; Andreasen, Mette Findal; Lesnikova, Iana; Telving, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Anna Louise; Tørring, Niels; Uldbjerg, Niels; Bor, Pinar

    2018-03-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of xenobiotic substances, such as caffeine, nicotine and illicit drugs (eg, cannabis and cocaine), in blood samples from first-trimester Danish pregnant women unaware of the screening. A cross - sectional study examined 436 anonymised residual blood samples obtained during 2014 as part of the nationwide prenatal first-trimester screening programme. The samples were analysed by ultra performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. An antenatal clinic in a Danish city with 62 000 inhabitants, where >95% of pregnant women joined the screening programme. The prevalence and patterns of caffeine, nicotine, medication and illicit drug intake during the first trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of prescription and over-the-counter drug detection was 17.9%, including acetaminophen (8.9%) and antidepressants (3.0%), of which citalopram (0.9%) was the most frequent. The prevalence of illegal drugs, indicators of smoking (nicotine/cotinine) and caffeine was 0.9%, 9.9%, and 76.4%, respectively. Only 17.4% of women had no substance identified in their sample. This study emphasises the need for further translational studies investigating lifestyle habits during pregnancy, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms through which xenobiotic substances may affect placental function and fetal development. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. The prevalence, prevention and multilevel variance of pressure ulcers in Norwegian hospitals: a cross-sectional study.

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    Bredesen, Ida Marie; Bjøro, Karen; Gunningberg, Lena; Hofoss, Dag

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are preventable adverse events. Organizational differences may influence the quality of prevention across wards and hospitals. To investigate the prevalence of pressure ulcers, patient-related risk factors, the use of preventive measures and how much of the pressure ulcer variance is at patient, ward and hospital level. A cross-sectional study. Six of the 11 invited hospitals in South-Eastern Norway agreed to participate. Inpatients ≥18 years at 88 somatic hospital wards (N=1209). Patients in paediatric and maternity wards and day surgery patients were excluded. The methodology for pressure ulcer prevalence studies developed by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel was used, including demographic data, the Braden scale, skin assessment, the location and severity of pressure ulcers and preventive measures. Multilevel analysis was used to investigate variance across hierarchical levels. The prevalence was 18.2% for pressure ulcer category I-IV, 7.2% when category I was excluded. Among patients at risk of pressure ulcers, 44.3% had pressure redistributing support surfaces in bed and only 22.3% received planned repositioning in bed. Multilevel analysis showed that although the dominant part of the variance in the occurrence of pressure ulcers was at patient level there was also a significant amount of variance at ward level. There was, however, no significant variance at hospital level. Pressure ulcer prevalence in this Norwegian sample is similar to comparable European studies. At-risk patients were less likely to receive preventive measures than patients in earlier studies. There was significant variance in the occurrence of pressure ulcers at ward level but not at hospital level, indicating that although interventions for improvement are basically patient related, improvement of procedures and organization at ward level may also be important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of Primary Dysmenorrhea and Factors Associated with Its Intensity Among Undergraduate Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Habibi, Nahal; Huang, Mary Soo Lee; Gan, Wan Ying; Zulida, Rejali; Safavi, Sayyed Morteza

    2015-12-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a womanhood problem around the world and negatively affects quality of life. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea and to determine the factors associated with its intensity. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 311 undergraduate female students aged 18 to 27 years in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Socio-demographic characteristics and menstrual factors were obtained through interviews with the help of a pretested questionnaire. The prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea was 89.1%. Residing at home, younger age, lower number of years of formal education for the mother, positive family history of dysmenorrhea, higher severity of bleeding, and shorter menstrual period intervals were significantly associated with the higher intensity of primary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea is a common health concern among young women. Being aware of the factors that are associated with its intensity makes it possible for health professionals to organize better focused programs to reduce the adverse effects of dysmenorrhea. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction in primiparae two years after cesarean section: cross-sectional study.

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    Barbosa, Angélica Mércia Pascon; Marini, Gabriela; Piculo, Fernanda; Rudge, Cibele Vieira Cunha; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha

    2013-01-01

    There is uncertainty in the literature regarding the theory that obstetric events and pelvic floor injuries give rise to lower risk of subsequent urinary incontinence among women delivering via cesarean section than among women delivering vaginally. The objective of this study was to assess the two-year postpartum prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction and the factors responsible for them. Cross-sectional study, conducted in a public university. 220 women who had undergone elective cesarean section or vaginal childbirth two years earlier were selected. Their urinary incontinence symptoms were investigated, and their pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was assessed using digital palpation and a perineometer. The two-year urinary incontinence prevalences following vaginal childbirth and cesarean section were 17% and 18.9%, respectively. The only risk factor for pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was weight gain during pregnancy. Body mass index less than 25 kg/m 2 and normal pelvic floor muscle function protected against urinary incontinence. Gestational urinary incontinence increased the risk of two-year postpartum urinary incontinence. Gestational urinary incontinence was a crucial precursor of postpartum urinary incontinence. Weight gain during pregnancy increased the subsequent risk of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, and elective cesarean section did not prevent urinary incontinence.

  8. Prevalence of mental illness among inmates at Mukobeko maximum security prison in Zambia: A cross-sectional study

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    Mweene T Mweene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates for mental illness among inmates at Mukobeko Maximum Security Prison, Zambia. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to assess psychiatric disturbance using a Self-Reported Questionnaire (SRQ20. A cut off point of 7/8 was used. The Chi-square test and Fishers′ exact test were used to determine associations at the 5% significance level, and magnitude of association was estimated using the odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval. Results: Of the 394 inmates in prison, 29.2% had a current mental illness. Gender status was significantly associated with mental illness. Male participants were 35% (odds ratio = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [0.51, 0.82] less likely to have mental illness compared to female participants. Conclusions: The prevalence of mental illness is high in Mukobeko Maximum Security Prison in Zambia. Gender-specific interventions should be designed to reduce the level of mental illness in this prison.

  9. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction in primiparae two years after cesarean section: cross-sectional study

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    Angélica Mércia Pascon Barbosa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE There is uncertainty in the literature regarding the theory that obstetric events and pelvic floor injuries give rise to lower risk of subsequent urinary incontinence among women delivering via cesarean section than among women delivering vaginally. The objective of this study was to assess the two-year postpartum prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction and the factors responsible for them. DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional study, conducted in a public university. METHODS 220 women who had undergone elective cesarean section or vaginal childbirth two years earlier were selected. Their urinary incontinence symptoms were investigated, and their pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was assessed using digital palpation and a perineometer. RESULTS The two-year urinary incontinence prevalences following vaginal childbirth and cesarean section were 17% and 18.9%, respectively. The only risk factor for pelvic floor muscle dysfunction was weight gain during pregnancy. Body mass index less than 25 kg/m 2 and normal pelvic floor muscle function protected against urinary incontinence. Gestational urinary incontinence increased the risk of two-year postpartum urinary incontinence. CONCLUSION Gestational urinary incontinence was a crucial precursor of postpartum urinary incontinence. Weight gain during pregnancy increased the subsequent risk of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, and elective cesarean section did not prevent urinary incontinence.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of burnout among collegiate cycle students in Sri Lanka: a school-based cross-sectional study.

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    Wickramasinghe, Nuwan Darshana; Dissanayake, Devani Sakunthala; Abeywardena, Gihan Sajiwa

    2018-01-01

    Even though the concept of burnout has been widely explored across the globe, the evidence base on burnout among high school students in the South Asian context is scanty. Against the backdrop of ever-increasing educational demands and expectations, the present study was designed to determine the prevalence and correlates of burnout among collegiate cycle students in Sri Lanka. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 872 grade thirteen students in 15 government schools in an educational zone, Kegalle district, Sri Lanka selected by a stratified cluster sampling technique. The validated Sinhala version of the 15-item Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) was used to assess burnout. The adjusted prevalence of burnout was computed based on the clinically validated cut-off values using the "exhaustion + 1" criterion. Multivariable logistic regression was carried out using backward elimination method to quantify the association between burnout and selected correlates identified at bivariate analysis at p value less than 0.05. The response rate was 91.3% (n = 796). The adjusted prevalence of burnout among grade thirteen students was 28.8% (95% CI = 25.0-32.7%). Multivariable analysis elicited a multitude of statistically significant associations with burnout when controlled for other factors included in the model (p burnout, whereas having to encounter disturbances while studying and being subjected to bullying at school emerged as statistically significant positive associations with burnout. The burnout prevalence among grade thirteen students in the selected educational zone, Sri Lanka is high. Most of the significant correlates of burnout are directly related to the academic endeavours. It is recommended to strengthen the counseling services at the school level to rectify the problems related to burnout among collegiate cycle students in Sri Lanka.

  11. Prevalence of self-medication among university students in Baghdad: a cross-sectional study from Iraq.

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    Al-Ameri, Rawa J K; Abd Al-Badri, Husham J; Lafta, Riyadh K

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study is to find out the prevalence and determinants of self-medication among college students in Baghdad, Iraq. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Al-Mustansiriyah and Al-Nahrain universities, Baghdad, from January to April 2015. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted to collect data from 1435 college students using a questionnaire form. The mean age of the joining students was 19.8 years. Females form 53% of the sample. Self-medications use was prevalent among 92.4% of students. Antipyretics and antibiotics were the most used medicines. Self-medication was higher among urban residents (OR= 7.99, P resilience to self-medication (OR=0.455, P = 0.001). Despite free access to healthcare institutions, nine out of ten college students from Baghdad universities have practiced self-medication. Education of students about the safe use of medications and supervision of pharmacies are effective ways to control this malpractice.

  12. Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety amongst Cancer Patients in a Hospital Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Anish Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The biomedical care for cancer has not been complemented by psychosocial progressions in cancer care. Objectives. To find the prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients in a hospital setting. Design and Setting. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the tertiary care hospitals Shifa International Hospital Islamabad and Nuclear Medicine, Oncology, and Radiotherapy Institute [NORI]. Patients and Methods. 300 patients were interviewed from both the outpatient and inpatient department using The Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS. Main Outcome Measures. Using a score of 20 and above on the AKUADS, 146 (48.7% patients were suffering from anxiety and depression. Results. When cross tabulation was done between different factors and the cancer patients with anxiety and depression, the following factors were found out to be significant with associated p value < 0.05: education of the patient, presence of cancer in the family, the severity of pain, and the patient’s awareness of his anxiety and depression. Out of 143 (47.7% uneducated patients, 85 (59.4% were depressed, hence making it the highest educational category suffering from depression and anxiety. Conclusion. The prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients was high showing that importance should be given to screening and counseling cancer patients for anxiety and depression, to help them cope with cancer as a disease and its impact on their mental wellbeing. Limitations. The frequency of female patients in our research was higher than those of male patients.

  13. Prevalence of falls among community-dwelling elderly and its associated factors: A cross-sectional study in Perak, Malaysia.

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    Yeong, U Y; Tan, S Y; Yap, J F; Choo, W Y

    2016-01-01

    Fall is a major cause of injuries and can increase the risk of early mortality among elderly. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of falls among community-dwelling elderly in rural Malaysia and its associated factors. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey in five randomly selected districts in the state of Perak, Malaysia. A total of 250 households were randomly selected. A total of 811 individuals aged 60 years or more were recruited and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Information about socio-demographic, history of falls in the past 1 year, medical history, drug history and physical activity level were enquired. The prevalence of falls in the past 1 year among community-dwelling elderly was reported to be 4.07%. Indigenous elderly (Adjusted odd ratio, AOR = 6.06, 95% CI = 1.10-33.55, p = 0.039) and living alone (AOR = 2.60, 95% CI = 1.04-6.50, p = 0.042) were shown to be factors associated with falls. Physical activity level, number of co-morbidities and number of medications used were not associated with falls. Elderly of indigenous ethnicity and living alone are the main factors associated with falls in this population. Indigenous people may be at higher risk, which warrant further investigation with a larger sample to improve the precision of estimates.

  14. Burnout prevalence in New Zealand's public hospital senior medical workforce: a cross-sectional mixed methods study

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    Frampton, Christopher M A; Barclay, Murray; McKee, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the prevalence of, and associated factors contributing to burnout among senior doctors and dentists working in the New Zealand's public health system. Design Cross-sectional, mixed methods study. Setting New Zealand's 20 district health boards (DHBs). Participants A total of 1487 of 3740 senior doctors and dentists who are members of the Association of Salaried Medical Specialists working in DHBs were recruited (response rate 40%). Primary and secondary outcome measures Gender, age, self-rated health status, vocation and hours of work per week were obtained from an electronic questionnaire. Burnout was measured using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Qualitative data taken from an open-ended comments section was coded using grounded theory and used for contextual data. Results The overall prevalence of high personal burnout was 50%. Women aged burnout. Prevalence of high work-related burnout and patient-related burnout was 42% and 16%, respectively. Those working in emergency medicine and psychiatry had significantly higher mean work-related burnout than other specialties (pburnout. Personal burnout rates decreased with age (age 30–39 OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.78 to 4.59, age 40–49 OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.70 to 3.55, age 50–59 OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.46, compared with age>60). Qualitative data emphasised intense and unrelenting workloads, under-staffing, onerous on-call duties and frustrations with management as factors contributing to burnout. Conclusions High burnout appears prevalent in New Zealand's senior doctors and dentists. Many attribute their feelings of burnout to work conditions. These findings may assist with understanding contributors to burnout and with developing strategies to ameliorate the high burnout found across this cohort. PMID:27881531

  15. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Morocco: a cross-sectional study of 179 cases.

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    Abourazzak, Fatima Ezzahra; Mansouri, Samia; Najdi, Adil; Tahiri, Latifa; Nejjari, Chakib; Harzy, Taoufik

    2014-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS)-a major contributor to CVD-in RA seems to be increased, suggesting that systemic inflammation and antirheumatic therapy may contribute to its presence. We aimed to determine the prevalence of MetS in RA, to identify the potential factors associated with its presence, and to evaluate the influence of antirheumatic drugs on the occurrence of MetS in a cohort of Moroccan patients with RA. The prevalence of MetS was assessed cross-sectionally in 179 patients with RA over a period of 17 months (July 2011-December 2012). Three definitions of MetS were used (National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III 2005, International Diabetes Federation 2005, and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists 2003). All statistical analyses were done using the SPSS software version 18.0. Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to identify independent predictors of MetS in patients with RA. The prevalence of MetS in RA varied from 24.6 to 30.7 % according to the definitions used. In a multivariate logistic regression model, the severity of RA and less methotrexate use were identified as significant independent predictors of the presence of MetS in RA patients. Our study suggests that MetS is common among Moroccan patients with severe RA. Methotrexate therapy was identified as an independent factor associated with a reduced risk of having MetS in these patients, suggesting a drug-specific mechanism and making methotrexate a first-line disease-modifying antirheumatic drug in RA patients who are at high risk of developing MetS.

  16. Evidence of a higher prevalence of HPV infection in HTLV-1-infected women: a cross-sectional study

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    Sônia Sampaio Lôpo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:HTLV-1 infection increases susceptibility to other infections. Few studies have addressed the co-infection between HPV and HTLV-1 and the immune response involved in this interaction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical HPV infection in HTLV-1-infected women and to establish the risk factors involved in this co-infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Salvador, Brazil, between September 2005 and December 2008, involving 50 HTLV-1-infected women from the HTLV Reference Center and 40 uninfected patients from gynecological clinic, both at the Bahiana School of Medicine. HPV infection was assessed using hybrid capture. HTLV-1 proviral load was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: The mean age of HTLV-1-infected women (38 ± 10 years was similar to that of the control group (36 ± 13 years. The prevalence of HPV infection was 44% in the HTLV-1-infected group and 22.5% in uninfected women (p = 0.03. HTLV-1-infected women had lower mean age at onset of sexual life (17 ± 3 years versus 19 ± 3 years; p = 0.03 and greater number of lifetime partners compared with the control group (4 ± 3 versus 2 ± 1; p < 0.01. In the group of HTLV-1-infected patients, there was neither difference in HTLV-1 proviral load between HPV-infected women and the uninfected. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HPV infection was higher in HTLV-1-infected women. Further studies should be performed to evaluate the progression of this co-infection.

  17. Prevalence of low testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

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    Ayman A Al Hayek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of low serum testosterone (LST in men with type 2 diabetes have been reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of LST in men with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted among 1,089 men (aged 30-70 years with type 2 diabetes who consecutively attended a major diabetes center in Amman, Jordan, between August 2008 and February 2009. The patients′ demographic characteristics were collected using a prestructured questionnaire. Duration of diabetes, smoking habits, presence of retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy were collected from the medical records. All participants were asked to complete the Androgen Deficiency in Ageing Male (ADAM questionnaire. Venous blood sample was collected to test for total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin (PRL, serum lipids, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. LST was defined as TT <3 ng/ml. Results: Overall, 36.5% of patients with diabetes had TT level <3 ng/ml and 29% had symptoms of androgen deficiency. Of those with serum testosterone level <3 ng/ml, 80.2% had symptoms of androgen deficiency, 16.9% had primary hypogonadism (HG, and 83.1% had secondary HG. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between age, income, education, body mass index (BMI, smoking, duration of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and HbA1c. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated age, income, BMI, and diabetic neuropathy as the independent risk factors of LST. Conclusions: The prevalence of LST among men with type 2 diabetes is high. Age, income, BMI, and diabetic neuropathy were found to be the independent risk factors for LST.

  18. Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Abate, Abraraw; Kibret, Biniam; Bekalu, Eylachew; Abera, Sendeku; Teklu, Takele; Yalew, Aregawi; Endris, Mengistu; Worku, Ligabaw; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Teda Health Centre from February to April, 2011. Stool samples were collected from 410 study participants and analysed by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration techniques. Furthermore, sociodemographic data were collected by using standardized questionnaire. Result. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in this study was 62.3%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite (23.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (12.4%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.6%), Schistosoma mansoni (8.9%), hookworm (6.6%), Hymenolepis nana (1.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.2%). Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was shown to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection (P intestinal parasitic infection in the study area. Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was found to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Therefore, there is a need for integrated control programme to have a lasting impact on transmission of intestinal parasitic infection.

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Low Back Pain in 1,355 Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Ganesan, Sudhir; Acharya, Anita Shankar; Chauhan, Ravi; Acharya, Shankar

    2017-08-01

    Cross-sectional study. To evaluate the prevalence and various risk factors for low back pain (LBP) in young adults in India. LBP is an emerging problem in adolescents, with an incidence that is the highest in the third decade of life worldwide. Various risk factors such as obesity, smoking, family history, stress, and exercise have been described in the literature. This study was conducted because of paucity of data in the Indian literature. A total of 1,355 (741 males and 641 females) young Indian Administrative Service aspirants and medical postgraduate aspirants aged 18-35 years were enrolled in the study. The subjects completed a detailed, semi-structured questionnaire that gathered data regarding their sociodemographic profile and factors considered to be risk factors for LBP. Anthropometric measurements, including height and weight, were measured and body mass index was calculated. Most subjects (90.6%) were aged 20-29 years (mean, 24.49; range, 18-35 years). Results indicated that the following factors were associated with LBP in young adults: marital status, previous history of spine problems, strenuous exercise, job satisfaction, monotony, stress, daily number of studying hours, and family history of spine problems ( p productivity.

  20. Slaughter of pregnant cattle in German abattoirs--current situation and prevalence: a cross-sectional study.

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    Maurer, Patric; Lücker, Ernst; Riehn, Katharina

    2016-06-07

    The slaughter of pregnant cattle and the fate of the foetuses are relatively new subjects in the field of animal welfare. The Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures relating to Public Health (SCVPH), however, does not believe this topic to be a critical issue because of the hitherto supposed rare occurrence of this practice. Some previous studies though, contradict this assessment, emphasising its relevance to animal welfare. With regard to the heterogeneous study design of previous investigations, the objective of this study is to evaluate the current situation concerning the slaughter of pregnant cattle in different German abattoirs. Additionally, the prevalence was assessed semi-quantitatively on the basis of a cross-sectional, voluntary and anonymous survey that was conducted amongst senior veterinary students of the University of Leipzig from 2010 until 2013. Of 255 evaluable questionnaires, 157 (63.6%) mention the slaughter of pregnant cattle, corresponding to 76.9% of all visited abattoirs. Slaughter of pregnant cattle is reported often (>10% of females) in 6 (3.8%), frequently (1-10% of females) in 56 (35.7%), and rarely (current situation is indispensable to ensure the high standards in animal welfare in Germany and Europe.

  1. Prevalence and Determinants of Mucous Membrane Irritations in a Community Near a Cement Factory in Zambia: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Emmy Nkhama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to cement dust has been associated with deleterious health effects in humans. This study investigated whether residing near a cement factory increases the risk of irritations to the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory system. A cross sectional study was conducted in Freedom Compound, a community bordering a cement factory in Chilanga, Zambia and a control community, Bauleni, located 18 km from the cement plant. A modified American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administered to 225 and 198 respondents aged 15–59 years from Freedom and Bauleni, respectively, to capture symptoms of the irritations. Respondents from Freedom Compound, were more likely to experience the irritations; adjusted ORs 2.50 (95% CI: 1.65, 3.79, 4.36 (95% CI (2.96, 6.55 and 1.94 (95% CI (1.19, 3.18 for eye, nose and sinus membrane irritations respectively. Cohort panel studies to determine associations of cement emissions to mucous membrane irritations and respiratory symptoms, coupled with field characterization of the exposure are needed to assess whether the excess prevalence of symptoms of mucous membrane irritations observed in Freedom compound are due to emissions from the cement factory.

  2. Prevalence and risk of sport types to stress urinary incontinence in sportswomen: A cross-sectional study.

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    Hagovska, Magdaléna; Švihra, Ján; Buková, Alena; Dračková, Dana; Švihrová, Viera

    2018-02-21

    The objective of our study was to investigate the prevalence and risk of developing stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in each type of high-intensity sport, and the associated impact on quality of life in sportswomen. This cross-sectional study was conducted between March and November 2016. The study included 278 sportswomen. The basic inclusion criteria were being nulliparous and engaging in high-intensity physical activity. The exclusion criteria were childbirth, surgical treatment of gynecological and urological illnesses and urinary tract infection. For evaluation were used: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence (ICIQ-UISF), the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q), the Urinary Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (I-QOL). The highest percentage of SUI was found in athletes (23.8%), followed by volleyball players (19.6%). We found that cumulative metabolic equivalent (MET) did not affect SUI, but the type of sport did. The risk of SUI was highest in volleyball sportswomen (odds ratio[OR] = 2.16,95% confidence interval[CI] = 0.96-4.89, P physiotherapy for strengthening pelvic floor muscles. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia: A community based cross-sectional study

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    Lebso, Meaza; Loha, Eskindir

    2017-01-01

    Background Anemia is defined as a condition in which there is less than the normal hemoglobin (Hb) level in the body. During pregnancy; iron deficiency is associated with multiple adverse outcomes for both mother and infant. Most of the studies conducted in Ethiopia on anemia during pregnancy were conducted at institution level and associated factors are not well studied and documented. Independent factors like, food security status, dietary diversity and intestinal parasites infection were considered by only a few of them. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women in Lemo District, Southern Ethiopia. Methods Community based cross- sectional study was conducted from May-June 2015. Multistage sampling was used to include 507 study participants. Anaemia was diagnosed using HemoCue HB 301 and haemoglobin concentration anemia. Results The prevalence of anemia was 23.2% (95% CI: 19.5%-26.9%). Factors associated with anemia were: low socio-economic status (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.11–3.69), trimester second (AOR = 3.09, 95%CI: 1.41–6.79) and third (AOR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.67–8.08), gravidity three to five (AOR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.03–3.07) and six and above (AOR = 2.59, 95%CI: 1.37–4.92), not supplemented with iron (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.02–2.91), low dietary diversity score (AOR = 3.18, 95% CI: 1.37–7.37) and hookworm infection (AOR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.34–5.39). Conclusion Anemia has moderate public health significance in the area. Community-based interventions should be enhanced considering the identified associated factors. PMID:29228009

  4. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia: A community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebso, Meaza; Anato, Anchamo; Loha, Eskindir

    2017-01-01

    Anemia is defined as a condition in which there is less than the normal hemoglobin (Hb) level in the body. During pregnancy; iron deficiency is associated with multiple adverse outcomes for both mother and infant. Most of the studies conducted in Ethiopia on anemia during pregnancy were conducted at institution level and associated factors are not well studied and documented. Independent factors like, food security status, dietary diversity and intestinal parasites infection were considered by only a few of them. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women in Lemo District, Southern Ethiopia. Community based cross- sectional study was conducted from May-June 2015. Multistage sampling was used to include 507 study participants. Anaemia was diagnosed using HemoCue HB 301 and haemoglobin concentration pregnancy, family planning before pregnancy, deworming, gravidity, iron intake in current pregnancy and soil transmitted helminthes on dependent variable anemia. The prevalence of anemia was 23.2% (95% CI: 19.5%-26.9%). Factors associated with anemia were: low socio-economic status (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.11-3.69), trimester second (AOR = 3.09, 95%CI: 1.41-6.79) and third (AOR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.67-8.08), gravidity three to five (AOR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.03-3.07) and six and above (AOR = 2.59, 95%CI: 1.37-4.92), not supplemented with iron (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.02-2.91), low dietary diversity score (AOR = 3.18, 95% CI: 1.37-7.37) and hookworm infection (AOR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.34-5.39). Anemia has moderate public health significance in the area. Community-based interventions should be enhanced considering the identified associated factors.

  5. Prevalence of Diabetes among Migrant Women and Duration of Residence in the United Arab Emirates: A Cross Sectional Study.

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    Shah, Syed M; Ali, Raghib; Loney, Tom; Aziz, Faisal; ElBarazi, Iffat; Al Dhaheri, Salma; Farooqi, M Hamed; Blair, Iain

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the highest in United Arab Emirates (UAE), however data for the expatriate population is limited. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of T2DM amongst migrant women and test the hypothesis that acculturation (measured by years of residency) is associated with an increased risk of T2DM. This was a cross-sectional study and we recruited a representative sample (n = 599, 75% participation rate) of migrant women aged 18 years and over in Al Ain, UAE. The American Diabetes Association criteria were used to diagnose T2DM. An adapted WHO STEPS questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical data. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify correlates of T2DM including length of UAE residence. The mean age of participants was 34.1 (± 9.5) years. Of the study participants, based on HbA1C levels, 18.6% (95% CI: 13.9-24.4) had prediabetes and 10.7% (95% CI: 7.2-15.6) had T2DM. Prevalence of prediabetes was 8.5% for Filipinos, 16.7% for Arabs and 30.3% for South Asians. Similarly the prevalence of T2DM was 1.7% for Filipinos, 12.2% for Arabs and 16.7% for South Asians. Significant correlates of overall T2DM (measured and known diabetes) included length of UAE residence for more than 10 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.74, 95% CI: 1.21-6.20), age ≥40 years (AOR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.53-7.87) and South Asian nationality (AOR 2.10, 95% CI: 0.94-4.70). Diabetes is a significant public health problem among migrant women in the UAE, particularly for South Asians. Longer length of residence in the UAE is associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes.

  6. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Alcoholism among Tuberculosis Patients in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka, India: A Cross Sectional Study.

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    Thapa, P; Kamath, R; Shetty, B K; Monteiro, A; Sekaran, V C

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in India. Several studies carried out in India have shown alcoholism as a risk factor for tuberculosis mortality, factor for default in TB and reason for non-compliance under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, pattern and associated factors of alcohol use among tuberculosis patients in Udupi taluk, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted with the complete enumeration of all the cases undergoing Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) treatment in Primary Health Centre and Community Health Centre of Udupi taluk from March to April 2013. Interview was conducted to obtain the socio-demographic and health information and participants were screened using WHO developed Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) for alcohol use. Out of 123 participants, 78% were males, 86.2% were Hindu, 79.7% were married and 88.6% were from low socio-economic status. About 20.3% (n=25) participants were alcoholic. Among them, 44% were low risk drinkers, 32% were hazardous drinkers, 4% were harmful drinkers and 20% were alcohol dependent. Age, sex, occupation, tobacco use, perceived health status and discrimination due to tuberculosis positive status were significantly associated with alcohol use. On logistic regression sex, tobacco use, perceived health status and facing discrimination due infection with tuberculosis were found to be factors associated with alcohol use. This study found a high prevalence of alcoholism among tuberculosis patients which is of concern and has to be addressed.

  7. Prevalence and type of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in an apparently healthy Nigerian population: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwah, A Lawretta; Adeyemo, Titilope A; Adediran, Adewumi; Ajibola, Sarah O; Akanmu, Alani S

    2012-06-28

    The prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a premalignant plasma-cell disorder has not been determined in our geographic area Nigeria. A cross sectional survey was carried on apparently healthy Nigerians selected by multistage sampling technique from the cosmopolitan city of Lagos, Nigeria. Subjects enrolled into the study had 2-step screening for the presence, type and concentration of monoclonal band. Agarose-gel electrophoresis was performed on all serum samples, and any serum sample with a discrete band of monoclonal protein or thought to have a localized band was subjected to Immunofixation. Subjects were also evaluated for Bence jones proteinuria, haematological and biochemical parameters. Four hundred and ten subjects with a mean age of 45.68 ± 10.3 years, a median of 45.00 years and a range of 20 to 80 years were enrolled into the study. MGUS was identified in only one (0.24 percent) of the 410 study subject. This subject was demonstrated to have a double monoclonal gammopathy; IgGλ at 16.9 g/L and IgAκ at 8.5 g/L. None of them including the sole subject with MGUS had a monoclonal urinary light chain. Among residents of Lagos, Nigeria, MGUS was found in only 0.24% percent of apparently normal persons with a median age of 45 years. This suggests that MGUS which represents the earliest stage of monoclonal plasma/lymphoid cell proliferation is not a common finding in the relatively young population of Nigeria. Future epidemiologic studies dealing with plasma cell disorders in older people are required to carefully examine the relationship between environmental factors and prevalence of MGUS and its ultimate progression to MM.

  8. Prevalence and type of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in an apparently healthy Nigerian population: a cross sectional study

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    Onwah A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS, a premalignant plasma-cell disorder has not been determined in our geographic area Nigeria. Methods A cross sectional survey was carried on apparently healthy Nigerians selected by multistage sampling technique from the cosmopolitan city of Lagos, Nigeria. Subjects enrolled into the study had 2-step screening for the presence, type and concentration of monoclonal band. Agarose-gel electrophoresis was performed on all serum samples, and any serum sample with a discrete band of monoclonal protein or thought to have a localized band was subjected to Immunofixation. Subjects were also evaluated for Bence jones proteinuria, haematological and biochemical parameters. Results Four hundred and ten subjects with a mean age of 45.68 ± 10.3 years, a median of 45.00 years and a range of 20 to 80 years were enrolled into the study. MGUS was identified in only one (0.24 percent of the 410 study subject. This subject was demonstrated to have a double monoclonal gammopathy; IgGλ at 16.9 g/L and IgAκ at 8.5 g/L. None of them including the sole subject with MGUS had a monoclonal urinary light chain. Conclusion Among residents of Lagos, Nigeria, MGUS was found in only 0.24% percent of apparently normal persons with a median age of 45 years. This suggests that MGUS which represents the earliest stage of monoclonal plasma/lymphoid cell proliferation is not a common finding in the relatively young population of Nigeria. Future epidemiologic studies dealing with plasma cell disorders in older people are required to carefully examine the relationship between environmental factors and prevalence of MGUS and its ultimate progression to MM.

  9. Prevalence and incidence of neurological disorders among adult Ugandans in rural and urban Mukono district; a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddumukasa, Mark; Mugenyi, Leviticus; Kaddumukasa, Martin N; Ddumba, Edward; Devereaux, Michael; Furlan, Anthony; Sajatovic, Martha; Katabira, Elly

    2016-11-17

    The burden of neurological diseases is increasing in developing countries. However, there is a prominent scarcity of literature on the incidence of neurological diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the prevalence and incidence of neurological diseases in this setting to serve as a baseline for planning and care for neurological disorders in Uganda. The study was conducted within rural and urban Mukono district, east of Kampala city of Uganda, central region. Over a period of six months, a cross sectional survey was conducted and screening was performed using a standardized questionnaire. All subjects with neurological symptoms and signs were reviewed by a team of neurologists and neurological diagnoses made. Of the 3000 study subjects, 50.3% (1510/3000) were from the rural setting. Out of the participants screened, 67.4% were female, with a median age of 33 years. Among the 98 subjects with confirmed neurological disorders, the frequency of diseases was as follows; peripheral neuropathy (46.2%), chronic headaches (26.4%), and epilepsy (8.5%), followed by pain syndromes (7.5%), stroke (6.6%) and tremors/Parkinson disease (3.8%). The crude prevalence rates of these disorders (95% CI) were 14.3% (8.5-24.1); 13.3% (7.7-22.8); 33.7% (23.9-47.4) for stroke, epilepsy and peripheral neuropathy respectively. Peripheral neuropathy followed by chronic headaches had the highest estimated incidence/1000 years. Stroke had an estimated incidence of 3.6 new cases with 95% CI of (2.1-6.1)/1000 years. Peripheral neuropathy, chronic headaches and epilepsy disorders are major causes of morbidity in Sub-Saharan settings. There is an urgent need of more robust and powered studies to determine the incidence of these diseases.

  10. Changing prevalence patterns in endoscopic and histological diagnosis of gastritis? Data from a cross-sectional Central European multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Eva-Maria; Plieschnegger, Wolfgang; Geppert, Michael; Wigginghaus, Bernd; Höss, Gabriele M; Eherer, Andreas; Schneider, Nora I; Hauer, Almuthe; Rehak, Peter; Vieth, Michael; Langner, Cord

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, Helicobacter infection is considered to be the most common cause of gastritis. In the cross-sectional Central European histoGERD trial, we assessed the prevalence of different types of gastritis, correlating histological and endoscopic diagnoses. A total of 1123 individuals participated in an observational multicentre study. Endoscopists classified individuals as positive or negative for gastritis and rendered the putative cause. Pathologists evaluated biopsy specimens based upon the Updated Sydney System. Histological diagnosis of gastritis was made in 639 (56.9%) participants. In all, 210 (18.7%) individuals were diagnosed with Helicobacter gastritis, 215 (19.1%) with post Helicobacter gastritis, 234 (20.8%) with reactive gastropathy, 26 (2.3%) with autoimmune gastritis, and 6 (0.5%) with focally enhanced gastritis related to Crohn's disease. In 46 out of 639 (7.2%) individuals diagnosed with gastritis, combinations of different histological subtypes were noted the most common being reactive gastropathy and post Helicobacter gastritis. Endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis was made in 534 (47.6%) individuals. Reactive gastropathy was more common than active Helicobacter gastritis, and the majority of cases attributable to Helicobacter infection were no longer ongoing, i.e. post Helicobacter gastritis. Agreement between histological and endoscopic diagnoses was better in reactive gastropathy than in Helicobacter gastritis. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of nicotine dependence among construction site workers: A cross-sectional study in Delhi

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    Mamta Parashar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Workers represent half the world′s population and are major contributors to economic and social development. Tobacco consumption in construction site workers has been considered a big challenge. Objectives: (1 To assess the prevalence of nicotine dependence among tobacco users. (2 To study the correlates of nicotine dependence among the construction site workers. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted using a predesigned and pretested structured proforma. The study was conducted among all construction site workers aged 18yrs and above in campus of Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research and associated HAH centenary hospital, New Delhi.Karl Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Questionnaire was used to assess dependence on nicotine. Results: The mean age of construction site workers was 32.04±11.6 years. Among the workers, majority (91% were tobacco user. Among the users, 60% found it difficult to refrain from smoking/chewing in places where use of tobacco is not allowed (e.g. hospitals, government offices, cinemas, Libraries etc. 55% of the users smoked or chewed tobacco during the first hours after waking than during the rest of the day. On multivariate analysis, the factors which were found to be significantly associated with nicotine dependence were lower income group (OR 2.57, CI:1.66-3.99, smokeless tobacco use (OR 2.36,CI:1.30-4.27 and lower education (OR = 2.86 (95% CI 1.97-4.16 for illiterate. Discussion: The prevalence of tobacco use (91% among construction workers is very high compared to that in the general population. Recognition of construction sites as work places and proper implementation of law is needed.

  12. Prevalence of Nutritional Deficiencies in Hair Loss among Indian Participants: Results of a Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Dinesh; Premalatha, V; Imtiyaz, D B

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional deficiencies are known to be associated with hair loss; however, the exact prevalence is not known. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies in participants with hair loss. In this cross-sectional study, 100 enrolled participants were divided into telogen effluvium (TE), male-pattern hair loss (MPHL), and female-pattern hair loss (FPHL) based on the type of hair loss. All participants underwent laboratory estimation for micronutrients and amino acid levels. Participants with hair loss showed varied amino acid and micronutrient deficiencies across all types of hair loss. Nutritional status did not vary much between the types of hair loss. Among the essential amino acids, histidine deficiency was seen in >90% of participants with androgenic alopecia and 77.78% of participants with TE while leucine deficiency was seen 98.15% of participants with TE and 100% with FPHL. Valine deficiency was also very common across alopecia subtypes. Among the nonessential amino acids, alanine deficiency was observed in 91.67% FPHL, 91.18% MPHL, and 90.74% TE. Cysteine deficiency was present in 55.58% and 50% of participants with MPHL and TE, respectively. A relatively higher proportion of participants with TE had iron deficiency compared to androgenic alopecia ( P = 0.069). Zinc deficiency was seen in 11.76% of participants with MPHL while copper deficiency was seen in 29.41% and 31.48% of participants with MPHL and TE, respectively. Nutritional deficiency is a common problem in participants with hair loss irrespective of the type of alopecia. The findings of our study suggest need for identification and correction of nutritional deficiencies in patients with hair loss.

  13. Prevalence and determinants of visual impairment in Canada: cross-sectional data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

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    Aljied, Rumaisa; Aubin, Marie-Josée; Buhrmann, Ralf; Sabeti, Saama; Freeman, Ellen E

    2018-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and determinants of visual impairment in Canada. Cross-sectional population-based study. 30,097 people in the Comprehensive Cohort of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging METHODS: Inclusion criteria included being between the ages of 45 and 85 years old, community-dwelling, and living near one of the 11 data collection sites across 7 Canadian provinces. People were excluded if they were in an institution, living on a First Nations reserve, were a full-time member of the Canadian Armed Forces, did not speak French or English, or had cognitive impairment. Visual acuity was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart while participants wore their usual prescription for distance, if any. Visual impairment was defined as presenting binocular acuity worse than 20/40. Of Canadian adults, 5.7% (95% CI 5.4-6.0) had visual impairment. A wide variation in the provincial prevalence of visual impairment was observed ranging from a low of 2.4% (95% CI 2.0-3.0) in Manitoba to a high of 10.9% (95% CI 9.6-12.2) in Newfoundland and Labrador. Factors associated with a higher odds of visual impairment included older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.08), lower income (OR = 2.07 for those earning less than $20 000 per year, 95% CI 1.65-2.59), current smoking (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.25-1.85), type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.03-1.41), and memory problems (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.04-2.01). Refractive error was the leading cause of visual impairment. Older age, lower income, province, smoking, diabetes, and memory problems were associated with visual impairment. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and patterns of prenatal use of traditional medicine among women at selected harare clinics: a cross-sectional study

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    Mureyi Dudzai D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal use of traditional medicine or complementary and alternative medicine is widespread globally despite the lack of evidence of the effectiveness of these therapeutic options. Documentation on the prevalence and patterns of this maternal practice in the Zimbabwean setting was also lacking. Methods A cross sectional survey of 248 women at selected health centres in Harare was carried out to address the need for such data using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results Fifty-two (52% (95% C.I. 44%-60% of the participants reported to have used at least one traditional medicine intervention during the third trimester of their most recent pregnancy to induce labour, avoid perineal tearing and improve the safety of their delivery process. The study found prenatal use of traditional medicine to be significantly associated with nulliparity and nulligravidity. Such practice was also significant among participants residing in a particular high density suburb located in close proximity to informal traders of traditional medicines. Prenatal traditional medicine use was not significantly linked to experiencing an obstetrics-related adverse event. Instead, participants who reported not using any traditional medicine during pregnancy reported experiencing significantly more adverse events, mainly perineal tearing during delivery. Conclusions The practice of prenatal use of traditional medicine was significant in the study setting, with a prevalence of 52%. A variety of products were used in various dosage forms for differing indications. Nulliparity, nulligavidity and possible accessibility of these products were the factors significantly associated with prenatal use of traditional medicine. Prenatal use of traditional medicine was not significantly associated with any obstetric adverse event.

  15. Prevalence of periodontal disease among mine workers of Zonguldak, Kozlu District, Turkey: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Zengin, Büşra; İçen, Murat; Köktürk, Firüzan

    2018-03-16

    Occupational injuries cause major health problems in all nations. Coal mining is one of the largest, oldest industries in the world. However, there is relatively little available literature concerning the health status of coal miners. The purpose of this work is to assess the prevalence of periodontal disease among coal miners and provide a basis for planning and evaluating the data from community oral health services. A cross-sectional study was conducted 106 men selected based on a stratified cluster sampling procedure. The study was performed among the mine workers of Zonguldak, Kozlu District, Turkey. The questionnaire prepared by the American Academy of Periodontology risk assessment test was used for the evaluation. The data were collected byWorld Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form, and clinical examination was conducted by the method recommended by the WHO oral health surveys. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software programme. The overall prevalence of periodontal disease was found to be 96.2% and was determined by considering subjects with Community Periodontal Index scores of 1-4 as diseased and the healthy subjects comprised of a mere 3.8%. Furthermore, various disturbing or embarrassing work conditions were reported. Statistically significant differences were observed among the workers who brush their teeth daily and visit dental attendance within the last two years have better periodontal status than those of the others (p < 0.05). The present level of periodontal disease in coal mine workers is severe. Moreover, its distribution and severity are strongly influenced by host susceptibility and risk factors. The priority should be based on population strategy and primary prevention programmes to benefit the periodontal health by promoting self-care and oral hygiene.

  16. Meeting sexual partners online: associated sexual behaviour and prevalent chlamydia infection among adolescents in Norway: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravningen, Kirsten; Aicken, Catherine Rh; Schirmer, Henrik; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-03-01

    Evidence is mixed as to whether meeting sexual partners online ('internet-partners') is associated with risky sexual behaviour and/or sexually transmitted infection transmission. Accordingly, we sought to estimate the prevalence of reporting various online romantic and sexual activities among Norwegian adolescents, including internet-partners, and the reason for meeting them and to examine differences in sexual behaviour, partnership characteristics and chlamydia infection prevalence among those reporting internet-partners versus those reporting only offline partners. Population-based cross-sectional survey among sexually experienced girls and boys, 15-20 years, using electronic questionnaires and collecting urine samples for Chlamydia trachomatis PCR testing (79% provided both, n=1023). We used logistic regression to examine associations, adjusting for potentially confounding variables. Overall, 30% of both genders reported internet-partners (ever). Boys (but not girls) with internet-partners had higher chlamydia prevalence than those reporting meeting sexual partners only offline (8.1%, 95% CI 4.3% to 13.7% vs 1.6%, 0.5% to 3.7%). Two-thirds of girls and 37% of boys reported meeting their most recent internet-partner to start a romantic relationship, while the remainder did so with the specific intention of having sex. Among both genders, reporting sexual (vs romantic) reasons for meeting their most recent internet-partners was associated with reporting several risky sexual behaviours, including multiple recent sex partners (adjusted OR girls: 3.27, boys: 2.48) and three-fold higher chlamydia prevalence. This population-based study suggests that internet-partners are common among adolescents in Norway, and the reason for meeting them was more strongly associated with additionally reporting sexual risk behaviours and prevalent chlamydia infection than the internet itself as a meeting venue. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  17. Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections among children of northwest Mexico: a cross-sectional study

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    Luis Quihui-Cota

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G. intestinalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are responsible for gastrointestinal infections worldwide. Contaminated food, feces, drinking water and predictors such as poverty, cultural and behavioral aspects have been involved in their transmission. Published studies about these infections are limited in Mexico. Cananea, Sonora is located in northwest Mexico and is one of the regions with the lowest marginalization index in the Sonora state. However, its rate of gastrointestinal infections increased from 48.7/1000 in 2003 to 77.9/1000 in 2010 in the general population. It was estimated that the prevalence of giardiasis can range from 20 to 30% in the Sonoran childhood population. However, the prevalence of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are unknown in Cananea, Sonora and they are likely contributing to its gastrointestinal infections rates. Methods A total of 173 children (average age 8.8 ± 2.8 years participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements and stool analysis were performed. Socioeconomic, cultural and symptomatology information were collected. The association between the risk factors and intestinal parasitic infections was analyzed by multivariate analysis using the STATA/SE package at a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Results More than half of the children (n = 103, 60% had intestinal parasitic infections. Cryptosporidium spp. showed the highest prevalence (n = 47, 27%, which was followed by G. intestinalis (n = 40, 23%. Children with giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis had lower H/A and BMI/A Z scores than children who were free of these infections. Children with giardiasis were at higher risk (OR = 4.0; 95%CI = 1.11–13.02; p = 0.030 of reporting abdominal pain, and children who drank tap water were at higher risk (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.41–17.20; p = 0.012 of cryptosporidiosis. Conclusions This was the first epidemiological study conducted in

  18. Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections among children of northwest Mexico: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quihui-Cota, Luis; Morales-Figueroa, Gloria Guadalupe; Javalera-Duarte, Aarón; Ponce-Martínez, José Antonio; Valbuena-Gregorio, Edith; López-Mata, Marco Antonio

    2017-10-30

    G. intestinalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are responsible for gastrointestinal infections worldwide. Contaminated food, feces, drinking water and predictors such as poverty, cultural and behavioral aspects have been involved in their transmission. Published studies about these infections are limited in Mexico. Cananea, Sonora is located in northwest Mexico and is one of the regions with the lowest marginalization index in the Sonora state. However, its rate of gastrointestinal infections increased from 48.7/1000 in 2003 to 77.9/1000 in 2010 in the general population. It was estimated that the prevalence of giardiasis can range from 20 to 30% in the Sonoran childhood population. However, the prevalence of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are unknown in Cananea, Sonora and they are likely contributing to its gastrointestinal infections rates. A total of 173 children (average age 8.8 ± 2.8 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements and stool analysis were performed. Socioeconomic, cultural and symptomatology information were collected. The association between the risk factors and intestinal parasitic infections was analyzed by multivariate analysis using the STATA/SE package at a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. More than half of the children (n = 103, 60%) had intestinal parasitic infections. Cryptosporidium spp. showed the highest prevalence (n = 47, 27%), which was followed by G. intestinalis (n = 40, 23%). Children with giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis had lower H/A and BMI/A Z scores than children who were free of these infections. Children with giardiasis were at higher risk (OR = 4.0; 95%CI = 1.11-13.02; p = 0.030) of reporting abdominal pain, and children who drank tap water were at higher risk (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.41-17.20; p = 0.012) of cryptosporidiosis. This was the first epidemiological study conducted in children in the region of Cananea, Sonora in northwest Mexico. The

  19. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among nurses in Scotland: A cross-sectional study using the Scottish Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Richard G; Neall, Rosie A; Atherton, Iain M

    2016-01-01

    Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity represents a global pandemic. As the largest occupational group in international healthcare systems nurses are at the forefront of health promotion to address this pandemic. However, nurses own health behaviours are known to influence the extent to which they engage in health promotion and the public's confidence in advice offered. Estimating the prevalence of overweight and obesity among nurses is therefore important. However, to date, prevalence estimates have been based on non-representative samples and internationally no studies have compared prevalence of overweight and obesity among nurses to other healthcare professionals using representative data. To estimate overweight and obesity prevalence among nurses in Scotland, and compare to other healthcare professionals and those working in non-heath related occupations. Cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of five aggregated annual rounds (2008-2012) of the Scottish Health Survey. Scotland. 13,483 adults aged 17-65 indicating they had worked in the past 4 weeks, classified in four occupational groups: nurses (n=411), other healthcare professionals (n=320), unqualified care staff (n=685), and individuals employed in non-health related occupations (n=12,067). Prevalence of overweight and obesity defined as Body Mass Index≥25.0. Estimates of overweight and obesity prevalence in each occupational group were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A logistic regression model was then built to compare the odds of being overweight or obese with not being overweight or obese for nurses in comparison to the other occupational categories. Data were analysed using SAS 9.1.3. 69.1% (95% CI 64.6, 73.6) of Scottish nurses were overweight or obese. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in nurses than other healthcare professionals (51.3%, CI 45.8, 56.7), unqualified care staff (68.5%, CI 65.0, 72.0) and those in non-health related

  20. Assessing the Short-Term Global Health Experience: A Cross-Sectional Study of Demographics, Socioeconomic Factors, and Disease Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geen, Olivia; Pumputis, Allison; Kochi, Cristina; Costa, Andrew; Stobbe, Karl

    2017-08-01

    Interest in short-term global health experiences to underserviced populations has grown rapidly in the last few decades. However, there remains very little research on what participants can expect to encounter. At the same time, it has been suggested that in order for physicians and workers to provide safe and effective care, volunteers should have a basic understanding of local culture, health systems, epidemiology, and socioeconomic needs of the community before arriving. Our objective was to add to the limited literature on what short-term global health trips can expect to encounter through a cross-sectional study of patient demographics, socioeconomic markers, and the prevalence of diseases encountered on a short-term medical service trip to Lima, Peru. Descriptive analysis was conducted on clinic data collected from patients living in Pamplona Alta and Pamplona Baja, Lima, Peru, in July 2015. We found that volunteers encountered mainly female patients (70.8%), and that there were significant socioeconomic barriers to care including poverty, poor housing, environmental exposures, and lack of continuity of health care. Analysis of the disease prevalence found a high proportion of acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in the adult populations (18.8% and 11.4%, respectively), and a high presentation of upper respiratory tract infections (25.4%) and parasites (22.0%) in the pediatric group. These findings can be used by future short-term medical service trips to address potential gaps in care including the organization of weekend clinics to allow access to working men, and the use of patient education and nonpharmacological management of acute and chronic disease.

  1. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight among Teenage Mothers in New Mulago Hospital: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Bayo; Steven, Buyungo; Margret, Nakiwala; Ronald, Nabimba; Emmanuel, Luyinda; Tadeo, Nsubuga; Namagembe, Imelda; Kasangaki, Arabat; Cecily, Banura

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines low birth weight (LBW) as a new born having a weight of less than 2,500 g at birth. Low birth weight is one of the major determinants of perinatal survival, infant morbidity and mortality as well as the risk of developmental disabilities and illnesses in future lives. WHO estimates that about 30 million low birth weight babies are born annually (23.4% of all births) and they often face short and long term health consequences. Whereas the global prevalence of LBW has slightly declined, the rate in many developing countries is still quite high. In Uganda, low birth weight among teenage mothers is a problem. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of and identify the factors associated with low birth weight among teenage mothers in New Mulago hospital. We conducted an analytical cross sectional study among teenage mothers who delivered from new Mulago Hospital Complex labour suite from August 2013 to August 2014. Trained interviewers, administered pre-tested questionnaires to consecutive mothers to obtain information on their socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history and child factors. Odds ratios and P -values were calculated to determine the relationship between independent and dependent variables. We also used descriptive statistics for the quantitative data. A total of 357 teenage mothers were enrolled on the study. Their mean age was 18 years (Range 13-19), majority, 98.4% aged 15-19 years. The prevalence of LBW was 25.5%. Pre-term delivery (OR = 3.3032 P = 0.0001) and multiple pregnancies (OR = 0.165 P = 0.039) were associated with LBW. Malaria, young maternal age and ANC attendance were not associated with LBW. Child factors such as birth order, congenital anomalies and sex of the baby were also not associated with LBW. The prevalence of LBW is high among teenage mothers, pre-term delivery and multiple pregnancies were associated factors with LBW. Health professional's need to address teenage maternal health

  2. Prevalence and predictors of help-seeking for women exposed to spousal violence in India - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardsson, Malin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2017-11-03

    Spousal violence against women is prevalent in India (29%). Studies from various countries have shown that few women exposed to intimate partner violence or spousal violence seek help, especially in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and predictors of help-seeking among women in India who have experienced various types of spousal violence. Cross-sectional data on 19,125 married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced physical or sexual violence at the hands of their husbands were obtained from the India National Family Health Survey III 2005-2006. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Less than one fourth (23.7%) of married, separated, divorced or widowed women in India who had experienced some form of physical or sexual spousal violence had sought help, but only 1% had sought help from formal institutions. Help-seeking was most prevalent in women who had been exposed to a combination of physical, sexual and emotional abuse (48.8%) and the least prevalent in women who had experienced sexual violence only (1.5%). Experience of severe violence and violence resulting in injury were the strongest predictors of help-seeking. Having education, being Christian or an acknowledged adherent of another minority religion - mainly Buddhism and Sikhism (Islam not included), getting married after the age of 21 and living in the South region were also associated with seeking help. Women in the North and Northeast regions were less likely to seek help, as were women with children and women who thought that a husband could be justified in hitting his wife. Very few Indian women who experience spousal violence seek help. The characteristics of the violence are the strongest predictors of help-seeking, but sociodemographic factors are also influential. We recommend efforts to ensure educational attainment for girls, prevention of child marriages, and that police officers and

  3. Prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of complementary and alternative medicine among cancer patients: a cross-sectional, descriptive study.

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    Bahall, Mandreker

    2017-06-30

    Sophisticated conventional medicine (CM) has brought significant advances to cancer prevention, detection, and treatment. However, many cancer patients still turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment. This study explored the prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of CAM among cancer patients. This quantitative descriptive study was conducted between March 1, 2015, and July 31, 2015, among a cross-sectional, convenience sample of patients from the Oncology Department of San Fernando General Hospital in Trinidad and Tobago. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at the oncology clinic and treatment suite after obtaining informed consent. Data analysis included descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of CAM use among a sample of 350 cancer patients was 39.1% (39.6% for breast cancer, 44.4% for prostate cancer, 37% for ovarian cancer, and 38.7% for colon cancer patients). Herbs were the most common type of CAM used (93.4%), followed by spiritual therapy (73.7%). CAM use was more prevalent among females (68.6%), Indo-Trinidadians (63.5%), and patients aged 41-50 years (37.2%). The majority (70%-80%) rated CAM efficacy on perceived value. CAM was used mainly because of a desire to try anything that might help (67.6%), followed by it being congruent with the patients' beliefs (59.1%). Patients knew about CAM mainly through friends (69.3%) and family (69.3%). Most patients were generally satisfied (93.6%) and considered CAM helpful (89.8%), but the majority never informed their health care provider of CAM use (78.8%). Patients reported the simultaneous use of more than one type of CAM, without considering or knowing of possible side-effects. The perceived value of CAM included empowerment, control, cure, and improved quality of life. CAM use was associated with age, but no predictors of CAM use could be identified. Medicinal herbs and spiritual therapy are commonly used among cancer patients

  4. Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among Hawassa University medical students, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Melese, Biniam; Bayu, Birhanu; Wondwossen, Fikir; Tilahun, Kalkidan; Lema, Seti; Ayehu, Moges; Loha, Eskindir

    2016-11-08

    Mental distress is a mental health problem expressed with variable levels of depressive, anxiety, panic or somatic symptoms. Owing to several factors tertiary level students are among the population with higher prevalence of mental distress and an even more higher prevalence has been reported in medical students. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mental distress among medical students, and to evaluate contextually relevant associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students attending Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Sciences in 2013/2014 academic year. Stratified random sampling was implemented with each strata representing the year of study of the students. Data on mental distress was collected using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). Data was entered into and analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics 21. A cut-off point of 8 and above was used to classify students as having mental distress. Among 240 students included in the study, 72 (30%) of them were found to have mental distress. There was no significant difference in mental distress between males and females (COR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.62-2.25). On bivariate analysis, students with age less than or equal to 21 years showed higher odds of having mental distress (COR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.26-4.22), but because of having high correlation with students' year of study, age was excluded from the multivariate model. In this study being a pre-medicine student (AOR = 3.61, 95% CI: 1.45-8.97), perceiving medical school as very stressful (AOR = 3.89, 95% CI: 1.52-9.94), perceiving living environment as very crowded (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.24-4.77) and having a feeling of insecurity about one's safety (AOR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.51-5.68) had statistically significant association with mental distress. In this study one-third of medical students were found to have mental distress. Designing prevention and treatment programs to address contextually

  5. Occipito-atlanto-axial osteoarthritis: a cross sectional clinico-radiological prevalence study in high risk and general population.

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    Badve, Siddharth A; Bhojraj, Shekhar; Nene, Abhay; Raut, Abhijit; Ramakanthan, Ravi

    2010-02-15

    A cross-sectional clinico-radiologic evaluation of occipito-atlantoaxial (OC1C2) region of 2 population groups. Determine the prevalence of OC1C2 osteoarthritis in porters involved in carrying loads on the head and general male population. Describe its clinico-radiologic manifestations. In addition to age, head loading is a known cause of degeneration affecting the occipito-cervical region. The impact of head loading in the population aged between third and sixth decade is unknown. Head loading is a common custom in the developing countries. Study group (n = 107) included randomly selected male porters from railway stations who underwent computed tomography (CT) study of the OC1C2 region, plain radiographs of the cervical spine and detailed clinical examination. Control group (n = 107) included randomly selected male patients undergoing CT scan study for diseases of paranasal sinuses with coincidental screening of OC1C2 region along with clinical assessment. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15 software. Mean age for study group was 32.6 years and controls was 34.6 years (P = 0.156). In the study group, duration of occupational exposure was 10.9 (+/-8.7) years; 81.3% porters being symptomatic with an age of 33.4 (+/-9.6) years. Radiologic prevalence of OC1C2 osteoarthritis in study group was 91.6% and in control group was 6.8%; age of affected individuals was 33.4 (+/-9.3) and 47.9 (+/-8.0) years, respectively. Most common complaint was suboccipital neck pain (69.7%); while the CT finding was decreased joint space with sclerosis and irregularity of the margins (81.3%). No statistically significant association was found between presence of radiologic changes and symptoms. Age, duration of occupational exposure and its relationship with various clinico-radiologic manifestations was studied. This condition has significant prevalence in porters, beginning at an early age. Diagnosis is based on the clinico-radiologic presentation. CT is the investigation of choice

  6. Prevalence of diarrhoea and risk factors among children under five years old in Mbour, Senegal: a cross-sectional study.

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    Thiam, Sokhna; Diène, Aminata N; Fuhrimann, Samuel; Winkler, Mirko S; Sy, Ibrahima; Ndione, Jacques A; Schindler, Christian; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jürg; Faye, Ousmane; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-07-06

    Diarrhoeal diseases remain an important cause of mortality and morbidity among children, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In Senegal, diarrhoea is responsible for 15% of all deaths in children under the age of five and is the third leading cause of childhood deaths. For targeted planning and implementation of prevention strategies, a context-specific understanding of the determinants of diarrhoeal diseases is needed. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of diarrhoeal diseases in children under the age of five in Mbour, Senegal. Between February and March 2014, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in four zones of Mbour to estimate the burden of diarrhoeal diseases (i.e. diarrhoea episodes in the 2 weeks preceding the survey) and associated risk factors. The zones covered urban central, peri-central, north peripheral and south peripheral areas. Overall, 596 households were surveyed by a questionnaire, yielding information on sociodemographic, environmental and hygiene behavioural factors. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of diarrhoea. The reported prevalence of diarrhoea among children under the age of five during the 2 weeks preceding the survey was 26%. Without adjustment, the highest diarrhoea prevalence rates were observed in the peri-central (44.8%) and urban central zones (36.3%). Multivariable regression revealed significant associations between diarrhoeal diseases and unemployment of mothers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-2.23), use of open bags for storing household waste (aOR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.00-3.02), evacuation of household waste in public streets (aOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.20-3.55), no treatment of stored drinking water (aOR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.11-2.56) and use of shared toilets (aOR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.11-2.56). We found a high prevalence of diarrhoea in children under the age of five

  7. Prevalence of Untreated Surgical Conditions in Rural Rwanda: A Population-Based Cross-sectional Study in Burera District.

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    Maine, Rebecca G; Linden, Allison F; Riviello, Robert; Kamanzi, Emmanuel; Mody, Gita N; Ntakiyiruta, Georges; Kansayisa, Grace; Ntaganda, Edmond; Niyonkuru, Francine; Mubiligi, Joel M; Mpunga, Tharcisse; Meara, John G; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L

    2017-12-20

    In low- and middle-income countries, community-level surgical epidemiology is largely undefined. Accurate community-level surgical epidemiology is necessary for surgical health systems planning. To determine the prevalence of surgical conditions in Burera District, Northern Province, Rwanda. A cross-sectional study with a 2-stage cluster sample design (at village and household level) was carried out in Burera District in March and May 2012. A team of surgeons randomly sampled 30 villages with probability proportionate to village population size, then sampled 23 households within each village. All available household members were examined. The presence of 10 index surgical conditions (injuries/wounds, hernias/hydroceles, breast masses, neck masses, obstetric fistulas, undescended testes, hypospadias, hydrocephalus, cleft lip/palate, and clubfoot) was determined by physical examination. Prevalence was estimated overall and for each condition. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with surgical conditions, accounting for the complex survey design. Of the 2165 examined individuals, 1215 (56.2%) were female. The prevalence of any surgical condition among all examined individuals was 12% (95% CI, 9.2-14.9%). Half of conditions were hernias/hydroceles (49.6%), and 44% were injuries/wounds. In multivariable analysis, children 5 years or younger had twice the odds of having a surgical condition compared with married individuals 21 to 35 years of age (reference group) (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.26-4.04; P = .01). The oldest group, people older than 50 years, also had twice the odds of having a surgical condition compared with the reference group (married, aged >50 years: OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.28-4.23; P = .01; unmarried, aged >50 years: OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.02-5.52; P = .06). Unmarried individuals 21 to 35 years of age and unmarried individuals aged 36 to 50 years had higher odds of a surgical condition compared with the

  8. Sick at work: prevalence and determinants among healthcare workers, western Ethiopia: an institution based cross-sectional study.

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    Mekonnen, Tesfaye Hambisa; Tefera, Mekuriaw Alemayewu; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu

    2018-01-01

    Going to work despite feeling sick also known as sickness presenteeism is one of the emerging global occupational health challenges. Sickness presenteeism negatively affects both health of work forces and productivity of organizations in general. However, there is insufficient research exploring this situation in majority of the Sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia. Thus this study intended to investigate the prevalence and determinant factors of sickness presenteeism among health care workers, Western Ethiopia. This study used an institution based cross-sectional quantitative study design. The study period was from February to March, 2017. We employed simple random sampling method to select 360 study samples. Data collection was performed by pre-tested structured and self- administered questionnaire. We used SPSS version 20 to carry out binary logistic regression analysis. Odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals was calculated and significance of associations was determined at p -value Educational status [AOR:2.1, 95%CI: (1.17,3.90)], financial problem [AOR:1.9,95%CI:(1.07,3.46)], sickness absenteeism [AOR:2.7,95% CI:(1.50,5.02)], lack of staff replacement [AOR:2.7,95%CI:(1.50,5.02)], absence of occupational health services [AOR:3.0,95%CI:(1.34,6.70)], and pressure from supervisor [AOR:1.8,95% CI:(1.01,3.31)] were significant predictors of the dependent variable. Relatively higher proportions of workers indicated sickness presenteeism as compared to other studies. Risk factors like educational status, personal financial problem, sickness absenteeism, lack of staff replacement, absence of occupational health services, and pressure from supervisors considerably increased the likely occurrence of employees' sick attendance. It is advisable for health care managers to hire adequate health care staffs, to implement basic occupational health services and to design strategies which reduce pressure from supervisors.

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with internet addiction among medical students - A cross-sectional study in Malaysia.

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    Ching, S M; Hamidin, A; Vasudevan, R; Sazlyna, M S L; Wan Aliaa, W S; Foo, Y L; Yee, A; Hoo, F K

    2017-02-01

    Internet is important to university students, especially for medical students who use it to search for literature and relevant information. However, some of the users are experiencing a gradual loss of the ability to reduce the duration and frequency of their internet activities, despite the negative consequences. The literature on internet usage among Malaysian medical students is limited. This study aims to determine the prevalence and factors associated with internet usage among medical students in a public university in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was performed among all the medical students (Year 1-5). Students were assessed on their internet activities using the internet addiction questionnaires (IAT). A Multiple Logistic Regression was used for data analysis. The study was conducted among 426 students. The study population consisted of 156 males (36.6%) and 270 females (63.4%). The mean age was 21.6 ±1.5 years. Ethnicity distribution among the students was: Malays (55.6%), Chinese (34.7%), Indians (7.3%) and others (2.3%). According to the IAT, 36.9% of the study sample was addicted to the internet. Using the multivariate logistic regression analysis, we have found that the use of internet access for entertainment purposes (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-12.00), male students (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.01-3.21) and increasing frequency of internet usage were associated with internet addiction (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.09- 1.67). Internet addiction is a relatively frequent phenomenon among medical students. The predictors of internet addiction were male students using it for surfing and entertainment purposes.

  10. A cross-sectional study on prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in India: rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Prabu; Pattabi, Kamaraj; Vadivoo, Selvaraj; Bhome, Arvind; Brashier, Bill; Bhattacharya, Prashanta; Mehendale, Sanjay M

    2017-05-29

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common preventable and treatable chronic respiratory disease, which affects 210 million people globally. Global and national guidelines exist for the management of COPD. Although evidence-based, they are inadequate to address the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity in India. Co-existence of other chronic respiratory diseases can adversely influence the prognosis of COPD.India has a huge burden of COPD with various risk factors and comorbid conditions. However, valid prevalence estimates employing spirometry as the diagnostic tool and data on important comorbid conditions are not available. This study protocol is designed to address this knowledge gap and eventually to build a database to undertake long-term cohort studies to describe the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among COPD patients in India. The primary objective is to estimate the prevalence of COPD among adults aged ≥25 years for each gender in India. The secondary objective is to identify the risk factors for COPD and important comorbid conditions such as asthma and post-tuberculosis sequelae. It is also proposed to validate the currently available definitions for COPD diagnosis in India. A cross-sectional study will be undertaken among the populations of sub-urban areas of Chennai and Shillong cities, which represent the Southern and Northeastern regions of India. We will collect data on sociodemographic variables, economic characteristics, risk factors of COPD and comorbidities. The Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) and Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) definitions will be used for the diagnosis of COPD and asthma. Data will be analysed for estimation of the prevalence of COPD, asthma and associated factors. This study proposal was approved by the respective institutional ethics committees of participating institutions. The results will be disseminated through publications in the peer-reviewed journals and a report

  11. Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and its relationship with herpesvirus in Indian subjects with chronic periodontitis: A cross-sectional study

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    Vinayak M Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis is a periodontal pathogen that is commonly harbored in the dental plaque of humans. The aim of this study was to look into the prevalence of P. gingivalis and its association with herpesvirus in Indian subjects. This is probably the first study on the association of this bacterium with herpesvirus in Indians. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consists of 200 subjects, with 100 subjects each in the healthy group and the chronic periodontitis (CP group. Upon plaque collection, one portion of the samples was immediately plated, on culture media that is selective for P. gingivalis. Total colony-forming units (CFU/mL from each plate was recorded. The remaining plaque sample was subjected to DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed using specific primers for Cytomegalovirus (CMV and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV. The data are analyzed using the chi-square test, Spearman's rho correlation coefficient, and Mann–Whitney U test. Results: P. gingivalis was detected in 66% of the subjects with CP and in 40% in the healthy group, and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.00023. The correlation of clinical parameters with P. gingivalis showed a significant positive correlation, indicating that higher levels of clinical parameters were associated with higher CFUs of P. gingivalis in culture. The comparison of the presence of P. gingivalis between herpesvirus-negative and -positive cases showed that CMV-positive cases had significantly higher levels of this bacterium. Conclusions: The results of this study confirmed the earlier finding of P. gingivalis presence in significantly higher levels in CP subjects and in CMV-positive sites. In addition, there was a positive association of the bacterium with clinical parameters.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of Lassa seropositivity in inhabitants of the forest region of Guinea: a cross-sectional study.

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    Solen Kernéis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa. The reservoir host of the virus is a multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis. Prevalence estimates of Lassa virus antibodies in humans vary greatly between studies, and the main modes of transmission of the virus from rodents to humans remain unclear. We aimed to (i estimate the prevalence of Lassa virus-specific IgG antibodies (LV IgG in the human population of a rural area of Guinea, and (ii identify risk factors for positive LV IgG. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. In April 2000, all individuals one year of age and older living in three prefectures located in the tropical secondary forest area of Guinea (Gueckedou, Lola and Yomou were sampled using two-stage cluster sampling. For each individual identified by the sampling procedure and who agreed to participate, a standardized questionnaire was completed to collect data on personal exposure to potential risk factors for Lassa fever (mainly contact with rodents, and a blood sample was tested for LV IgG. A multiple logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors for positive LV IgG. A total of 1424 subjects were interviewed and 977 sera were tested. Prevalence of positive LV Ig was of 12.9% [10.8%-15.0%] and 10.0% [8.1%-11.9%] in rural and urban areas, respectively. Two risk factors of positive LV IgG were identified: to have, in the past twelve months, undergone an injection (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8 [1.1-3.1], or lived with someone displaying a haemorrhage (OR = 1.7 [1.1-2.9]. No factors related to contacts with rats and/or mice remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study underlines the potential importance of person-to-person transmission of Lassa fever, via close contact in the same household or nosocomial exposure.

  13. Prevalence and Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Determinants of Anemia during Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study of Pregnant Women in China

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    Xianglong Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the differences regarding anemia among pregnant women with diverse characteristics and lifestyle factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study of pregnant women was conducted between June and August 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces of Mainland China. Self-reported doctor-diagnosed anemia was used in the study. Results: We included 2345 pregnant women. Of the participants, 1755 (74.8% were pregnant women of first pregnancy (PWFP and 590 (25.2% were second pregnancy (PWSP. The mean age of the participants was 28.1 years (SD 4.1. Overall, the prevalence of anemia was 12.7% (13.4% and 10.7% among PWFP and PWSP, respectively. The prevalence for not eating breakfast was 11.0%. Compared with PWFP, PWSP was inversely associated with the risk of anemia (odds ratio (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48–0.91. Compared with those being registered in a low ranking hospital, pregnant women who were admitted to a high (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.28–0.57 or a medium ranking hospital (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37–0.92 were inversely associated with the risk of anemia. Compared with women of low income (<¥4,500, those with high income were less likely to have anemia (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50–0.94. Compared with women with non-manual jobs, women with manual jobs (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.17–2.45 and unemployed women (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04–1.93 were associated with a greater likelihood of suffering from anemia. Conclusions: Pregnant women not eating breakfast are of concern. Anemia is highly prevalent among pregnant women in China. Lower socio-economic status, manual jobs, PWFP, and those who attend a lower quality hospital have a greater likelihood of suffering from anemia. Tailored interventions are needed to address these issues.

  14. The prevalence and correlates of low sexual functioning in women on hemodialysis: A multinational, cross-sectional study.

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    Valeria Saglimbene

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction may affect 80% of women in hemodialysis. However the specific patterns and clinical correlates of sexual functioning remain poorly described. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and correlates of the individual domains of sexual functioning in women treated with hemodialysis. We recruited, into this multinational cross-sectional study, women treated with long-term hemodialysis (Collaborative Working Group on Depression and Sexual dysfunction in Hemodialysis study. Self-reported domains of sexual functioning were assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index, which is routinely administered within the network of dialysis patients followed by the working group. Lower scores represented lower sexual functioning. Socio-demographic and clinical correlates of each domain of sexual functioning were identified by stepwise multivariable linear regression. Sensitivity analyses were restricted to women who reported being sexually active. We found that of 1309 enrolled women, 659 (50.3% provided complete responses to FSFI survey questions and 232 (35% reported being sexually active. Overall, most respondents reported either no sexual activity or low sexual functioning in all measured domains (orgasm 75.1%; arousal 64.0%; lubrication 63.3%; pain 60.7%; satisfaction 60.1%; sexual desire 58.0%. Respondents who were waitlisted for a kidney transplant reported scores with higher sexual functioning, while older respondents reported scores with lower functioning. The presence of depression was associated with worse lubrication and pain scores [mean difference for depressed versus non-depressed women (95% CI -0.42 (-0.73 to -0.11, -0.53 (-0.89 to -0.16, respectively] while women who had experienced a previous cardiovascular event reported higher pain scores [-0.77 (-1.40- to -0.13]. In conclusion, women in hemodialysis reported scores consistent with marked low sexual functioning across a range of domains; the low functioning appeared

  15. The Prevalence of and Risk Factors Associated with Musculoskeletal Disorders among Sonographers in Central China: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Feng, Qingmin; Liu, Shenglin; Yang, Lei; Xie, Mingxing

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies from industrialized countries show that musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) occur commonly in sonographers. However, little is known about sonographers in China, where the awareness of ergonomics and MSD, workload, and available equipment/facilities may differ. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of MSD and associated risk factors in sonographers in central China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 381 sonographers from 14 randomly selected tertiary hospitals in Hubei province, central China. Musculoskeletal symptoms (using the Nordic Questionnaire) and risk factors (mostly derived from the Health Benefit Trust survey instrument and the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire) were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify associations between risk factors and MSD. Results The 12-month period prevalence of MSD was 98.3%, being highest in the neck (93.5%) and shoulder (92.2%), followed by the lower back (83.2%), wrist/hand, upper back, and elbow. Factors contributing to neck pain were psychological fatigue, shoulder abduction and trunk bend-and-twist posture. Height-adjustable tables and chairs were protective factors. Shoulder pain was associated with female sex, health status, mental stress, shoulder abduction, and trunk bend-and-twist posture. Height-adjustable chairs and the awareness of adjusting the workstation before scanning were protective factors. Elbow pain was associated with health status and height-adjustable tables. Wrist/hand pain was associated with female sex, bending the wrist, and working with obese patients. Upper back pain was associated with shoulder abduction, height-adjustable chairs, and device location. Lower back pain was associated with the number of scans performed per day, awkward postures, bending the trunk, twisting or bending the neck forward, and using a footrest. Conclusions This study suggests a high prevalence of MSD in sonographers in central China. Hence, it is necessary to

  16. Prevalence and determinations of physical inactivity among public hospital employees in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study.

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    Li, Xinjian; Cheng, Minna; Zhang, Hao; Ke, Ting; Chen, Yisheng

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to explore the prevalence and determinations of physical inactivity among hospital employees in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional study of 4612 employees aged 19 to 68 years was conducted through stratified cluster sampling from different classes of Shanghai hospitals in 2011. The total physical activity was evaluated using the metabolic equivalent according to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Among the participants, 38.5%, 32.3%, and 64.6% of the employees are inactive at work, commuting, and taking leisure time, respectively. Up to 41.8% of the men and 37.8% of the women (P = 0.012) are physically inactive. When the age and educational level are adjusted, male doctors and medical technicians show a higher percentage of physical inactivity than male workers in logistics (P = 0.001). Among females, employees who are working in second- and third-class hospitals show a higher proportion of physical inactivity than those who are working in community health care centers. Logistic regression analyses show that the odds ratios (ORs) of leisure-time physical inactivity associated with the intensity of physical activity at work are 2.259, 2.897, and 4.266 for men (P physical inactivity in either sex (OR = 2.116 for men and 2.173 for women, P employees, particularly doctors and medical technicians, show a higher proportion of physical inactivity than other inhabitants in Shanghai. The time and intensity of activity at work and commuting are associated with leisure-time activities.

  17. A cross-sectional study on the prevalence and associated risk factors for workplace violence against Chinese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Danyang; Zhou, Chenyu; Yang, Libin; Sun, Tao; Hao, Tianjun; Peng, Xiangwen; Gao, Lei; Liu, Wenhui; Mu, Yi; Han, Yuzhen; Fan, Lihua

    2017-06-24

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the characteristics of workplace violence that Chinese nurses at tertiary and county-level hospitals encountered in the 12 months from December 2014 to January 2016, to identify and analyse risk factors for workplace violence, and to establish the basis for future preventive strategies. A cross-sectional study. A total of 44 tertiary hospitals and 90 county-level hospitals in 16 provinces (municipalities or autonomous regions) in China. We used stratified random sampling to collect data from December 2014 to January 2016. We distributed 21 360 questionnaires, and 15 970 participants provided valid data (effective response rate=74.77%). We conducted binary logistic regression analyses on the risk factors for workplace violence among the nurses in our sample and analysed the reasons for aggression. The prevalence of workplace violence was 65.8%; of this, 64.9% was verbal violence, and physical violence and sexual harassment accounted for 11.8% and 3.9%, respectively. Frequent workplace violence occurred primarily in emergency and paediatric departments. Respondents reported that patients' relatives were the main perpetrators in tertiary and county-level hospitals. Logistic regression analysis showed that respondents' age, department, years of experience and direct contact with patients were common risk factors at different levels of hospitals. Workplace violence is frequent in China's tertiary and county-level hospitals; its occurrence is especially frequent in the emergency and paediatric departments. It is necessary to cope with workplace violence by developing effective control strategies at individual, hospital and national levels. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil, 2005 through 2009: a cross-sectional study

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    Pereira Leila MMB

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C chronic liver disease is a major cause of liver transplant in developed countries. This article reports the first nationwide population-based survey conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of HCV antibodies and associated risk factors in the urban population of Brazil. Methods The cross sectional study was conducted in all Brazilian macro-regions from 2005 to 2009, as a stratified multistage cluster sample of 19,503 inhabitants aged between 10 and 69 years, representing individuals living in all 26 State capitals and the Federal District. Hepatitis C antibodies were detected by a third-generation enzyme immunoassay. Seropositive individuals were retested by Polymerase Chain Reaction and genotyped. Adjusted prevalence was estimated by macro-regions. Potential risk factors associated with HCV infection were assessed by calculating the crude and adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI and p values. Population attributable risk was estimated for multiple factors using a case–control approach. Results The overall weighted prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies was 1.38% (95% CI: 1.12%–1.64%. Prevalence of infection increased in older groups but was similar for both sexes. The multivariate model showed the following to be predictors of HCV infection: age, injected drug use (OR = 6.65, sniffed drug use (OR = 2.59, hospitalization (OR = 1.90, groups socially deprived by the lack of sewage disposal (OR = 2.53, and injection with glass syringe (OR = 1.52, with a borderline p value. The genotypes 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, 2b and 3a were identified. The estimated population attributable risk for the ensemble of risk factors was 40%. Approximately 1.3 million individuals would be expected to be anti-HCV-positive in the country. Conclusions The large estimated absolute numbers of infected individuals reveals the burden of the disease in the near future, giving rise to costs for the health care

  19. Prevalence of prior HIV testing and associated factors among MSM in Zhejiang Province, China: a cross-sectional study

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    Runhua Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM have become one of high-risk population for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, due to their multiple sex partners and unprotected anal intercourse. Promoting HIV testing is an effective strategy for the prevention and control of HIV infection. We assessed the factors associated with a prior HIV testing history, which could provide guidance for implementation of future HIV intervention programs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three cities of Zhejiang Province, namely, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou, using respondent-driven sampling, between December 2013 and June 2014. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was employed to collect relevant information about HIV testing. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with a prior HIV testing history. Results The adjusted rate of prior HIV testing among MSM in Zhejiang Province was 55.9 %. The adjusted rates of HIV and syphilis infections among MSM in Zhejiang Province were 14.0 % and 11.4 %, respectively. A weighted multivariate analysis showed that MSM of older age were more likely to be tested, as were MSM with higher level of education, self-reported homosexuality and a higher frequency of receiving AIDS/sexually transmitted infections educational intervention in the past year. MSM with suicidal inclination and self-perceived lower possibility of HIV infection were less likely to report ever having undergone an HIV test. Conclusions The prevalence of prior HIV testing among MSM in Zhejiang Province, China is low. Effective and more frequent interventional measures should be adopted to improve risk awareness and psychosocial support for younger, less educated MSM, and to encourage more MSM to undergo HIV testing.

  20. Hazardous drinkers in Norwegian hospitals – a cross-sectional study of prevalence and drinking patterns among somatic patients

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    Kristian Oppedal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: High alcohol intake has been associated with increased risk of hospital admission, increased complication rates, and prolonged hospital stay. Thus, hospital admission may present a relevant opportunity for alcohol intervention. To understand the potential of alcohol interventions we need knowledge about patients’ drinking patterns. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the drinking patterns in a Norwegian hospital population.Methods: A multicentre cross-sectional survey was carried out at three university hospitals. Patients were asked about alcohol intake one month prior to admission/outpatient treatment. The questionnaire included weekly alcohol intake calculated by frequency X quantity as well as episodes of binge drinking (drinking more than 5 AU during a single day. AUDIT-C was used to determine the frequency of patients having a hazardous drinking pattern during the 12 months prior to hospital treatment.Results: In total we assessed 2,932 patients for eligibility. A total of 2,350 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. We included 1,522 patients (65% in the analyses. Six percent of the women and 11% of the men reported drinking more than the weekly limits of nine alcohol units (AU for women and 14 AU for men. Fourteen percent of the women and 29% of the men reported binge drinking during the last month. The frequency of women scoring more or equal to 4 points on AUDIT-C was 20%. The frequency of men scoring more or equal to 5 points was 25%.Conclusion: Hazardous drinking among Norwegian hospital patients may be more prevalent than what has been reported for the Norwegian population in general. Binge drinking is the dominant drinking pattern.

  1. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia: A community based cross-sectional study.

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    Meaza Lebso

    Full Text Available Anemia is defined as a condition in which there is less than the normal hemoglobin (Hb level in the body. During pregnancy; iron deficiency is associated with multiple adverse outcomes for both mother and infant. Most of the studies conducted in Ethiopia on anemia during pregnancy were conducted at institution level and associated factors are not well studied and documented. Independent factors like, food security status, dietary diversity and intestinal parasites infection were considered by only a few of them. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women in Lemo District, Southern Ethiopia.Community based cross- sectional study was conducted from May-June 2015. Multistage sampling was used to include 507 study participants. Anaemia was diagnosed using HemoCue HB 301 and haemoglobin concentration <11 g/dl was classified as anaemic. Stool examinations were also done. Structured questionnaire was used as a tool to collect sociodemographic characteristics, individual dietary diversity and level of household food security data. Multivariate logistic regression model was employed to determine the effect of explanatory variables like level of education, level of household food security, dietary diversity, trimester of pregnancy, family planning before pregnancy, deworming, gravidity, iron intake in current pregnancy and soil transmitted helminthes on dependent variable anemia.The prevalence of anemia was 23.2% (95% CI: 19.5%-26.9%. Factors associated with anemia were: low socio-economic status (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.11-3.69, trimester second (AOR = 3.09, 95%CI: 1.41-6.79 and third (AOR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.67-8.08, gravidity three to five (AOR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.03-3.07 and six and above (AOR = 2.59, 95%CI: 1.37-4.92, not supplemented with iron (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.02-2.91, low dietary diversity score (AOR = 3.18, 95% CI: 1.37-7.37 and hookworm infection (AOR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers of Southern Ethiopia: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Mohammedaman; Alemu, Getaneh

    2016-02-01

    Globally about one third of the total population is estimated to be infected with intestinal parasites, of which, the majority are people living in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. Cases of intestinal parasitosis are also highly abundant in Ethiopia and hence the aim of present study was to assess prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers working in Arba Minch University students' cafeteria, South Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in Arba Minch University from April to June, 2015. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data about socio-demographic characteristics and possible risk factors. Stool specimens were collected and examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, cysts and trophozoites of intestinal parasites. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 20 software. A total of 376 food handlers were enrolled in the study of which thirty one of them were not willing to participate for a stool examination. The majority of study participants were females 273 (72.6 %). About 123 (36 %) of food handlers were found to be positive for different intestinal parasites with the most abundant parasite of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 48 (14 %) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 32 (9.27 %). Finger nail status (AOR: 2.2, 95 % CI: 1.29-3.72), hand washing practice after toilet (AOR: 1.71, 95 % CI: 1.06-2.77), hand washing practice before food handling (AOR: 1.69, 95 % CI: 1.04-2.75), preparing food when suffering from diseases (AOR: 3.08, 95 % CI: 1.17-8.13), and using common knife for cutting raw flesh food and other food (AOR: 1.72, 95 % CI: 1.01-2.92) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection among the food handlers. This study revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers. Since most of the intestinal parasites are transmitted by the feco-oral route, food handlers could be an important source of

  3. Sexual violence against children in South Africa: a nationally representative cross-sectional study of prevalence and correlates

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    Catherine L Ward, ProfPhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: We aimed to complete a nationally representative study of sexual violence against children in South Africa, and its correlates, since we could identify no other such study. Methods: For this nationally representative, cross-sectional study in South Africa, households were selected by use of a multistage sampling frame, stratified by province, urban or rural setting, and race group, and schools were selected on the basis that they were closest to the area in which households were selected. Interviews and self-administered questionnaires in each location inquired into lifetime and last-year prevalence of sexual abuse, and its correlates among children aged 15–17 years, whose parents gave informed consent and they themselves gave informed assent. Findings: The final household sample was 5631 (94·6% participation rate. 9·99% (95% CI 8·65–11·47 of boys and 14·61% (95% CI 12·83–16·56 of girls reported some lifetime sexual victimisation. Physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, family violence, and other victimisations were all strongly associated with sexual victimisation. The following were associated with greater risk of sexual abuse (adjusted odds ratio [OR]; school enrolment (OR 2·12, 95% CI 1·29–3·48; rural dwelling (0·59; 0·43–0·80; having a flush toilet (1·43, 1·04–1·96; parental substance misuse (2·37, 1·67–3·36; being disabled (1·42, 1·10–1·82; female (but not male caregivers' poor knowledge of the child's whereabouts, friends, and activities (1·07, 0·75–1·53 and poor quality of the relationship with the child (ie, poor acceptance; 1·20, 0·55–2·60. The child's own substance misuse (4·72, 3·73–5·98 and high-risk sexual behaviour (3·71, 2·99–4·61 were the behaviours most frequently associated with sexual abuse, with mental health conditions found to be less prevalent than these factors but still strongly associated with sexual victimisation (post-traumatic stress

  4. Frequency of TV viewing and prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult women in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Bishwajit

    2017-01-31

    Research in developed countries has demonstrated an association of varying degrees between watching TV and the risk of being overweight and obese. However, there is no evidence of such an association in the context of the South Asian population. To investigate whether watching TV increases the risk of being overweight and obese among women in Bangladesh. Rural and urban areas in Bangladesh. Participants were 16 624 non-pregnant women aged between 15 and 49 years. The study was based on cross-sectional data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) conducted in 2014. The main outcome variables were overweight and obesity measured by body mass index. Data were analysed by using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and multivariable logistic regression models. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the sample population were, respectively, 4.5% (4.18% to 4.82%) and 20% (95% CI 19.39% to 20.61%). In the multivariable analysis, no statistically significant association was found between watching TV and being overweight. However, the odds of being obese among rural women were 63% higher (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.625, 95% CI 1.179 to 2.241) among those who watched less than once a week, and 68% (AOR 1.683, 95% CI 1.029 to 2.751) higher among women who watched TV at least once a week compared to those who did not watch TV at all. Urban women who watched TV at least once a week were 67% more likely to be obese (AOR 1.665, 95% CI 1.079 to 2.568) compared to those who did not watch at all. Prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen considerably among women aged between 15 and 49 years since the previous estimates based on BDHS data. Frequent TV watching was associated with a higher risk of being obese among adult women in rural areas. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst patients with severe mental illness in the community in Hong Kong ? a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bressington, Daniel T; Mui, Jolene; Cheung, Eric F C; Petch, Joel; Clark, Allan B; Gray, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with severe mental illness are at increased risk of developing metabolic disorders. The risk of metabolic syndrome in the Hong Kong general population is lower than that observed in western countries; however the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Hong Kong is unknown. Method: This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Hong Kong and to identify the rela...

  6. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Pathology in Patients With Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Silje F; Reims, Henrik M; Frydenlund, Didrik; Holm, Kristian; Paulsen, Vemund; Michelsen, Annika E; Jørgensen, Kristin K; Osnes, Liv T; Bratlie, Jorunn; Eide, Tor J; Dahl, Christen P; Holter, Ellen; Tronstad, Rune R; Hanevik, Kurt; Brattbakk, Hans-Richard; Kaveh, Fatemeh; Fiskerstrand, Torunn; Kran, Anne-Marte B; Ueland, Thor; Karlsen, Tom H; Aukrust, Pål; Lundin, Knut E A; Fevang, Børre

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to study the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and histopathology in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) as well as linking the findings to GI infections and markers of systemic immune activation. In this cross-sectional study, we addressed GI symptoms in 103 patients and GI histopathological findings in 53 patients who underwent upper and lower endoscopic examination. The most frequent histopathological findings were linked to GI symptoms, B-cell phenotype, and markers of systemic immune activation (soluble (s)CD14, sCD25, and sCD163). Microarray analysis compared "celiac-like disease" in CVID to celiac disease. Screening for selected bacterial and viral infections in fecal samples and gut mucosal biopsies was performed. The main findings of this study were as follows: most common GI symptoms were bloating (34%), pain (30%), and diarrhea (26%). The most frequent histopathological findings were increased intraepithelial lymphocytes in the descending part of the duodenum, i.e., "celiac-like disease" (46% of patients), decreased numbers of plasma cells in GI tract mucosa (62%), and lymphoid hyperplasia (38%), none of which were associated with GI symptoms. Reduced plasma cells in GI mucosa were associated with B-cell phenotypic characteristics of CVID, and increased serum levels of sCD14 (P=0.025), sCD25 (P=0.01), and sCD163 (P=0.04). Microarray analyses distinguished between CVID patients with "celiac-like disease" and celiac disease. Positive tests for bacterial and viral infections were scarce both in fecal samples and gut mucosal biopsies, including PCR test for norovirus in biopsy specimens (0 positive tests). In conclusion, GI pathology is common in CVID, but does not necessarily cause symptoms. However, reduced plasma cells in GI mucosa were linked to systemic immune activation, "celiac-like disease" in CVID and true celiac disease appear to be different disease entities, as assessed by gene

  7. Prevalence of factors associated with malnutrition among acute geriatric patients in Norway: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Ellisiv Lærum; Brovold, Therese; Bergland, Astrid; Bye, Asta

    2016-09-06

    Data on acute geriatric patients' nutritional status are lacking, and the associations among physical function, sarcopenia, health status and nutritional status are not sufficiently investigated in this population. The aims of this study are to investigate (1) nutritional status and sarcopenia in a group of acute geriatric patients, (2) the association between nutritional status, physical function and sarcopenia in acute geriatric patients, controlling for health status. A cross-sectional study. Two acute geriatric hospital wards in Norway. This study included 120 patients with a mean age of 82.6±8 years. The following inclusion criteria were used: age ≥65 years and admitted to an acute geriatric ward. The exclusion criteria included terminal illness, Mini-Mental State Examination Physical function was measured using the Barthel activities of daily life index and the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Sarcopenia was diagnosed using the mid-arm muscle circumference, gait speed and grip strength, in accordance with the EWGSOP algorithm. Diseases are organised by organ system classification. On the basis of the MNA classification, nearly one in two patients were at risk of malnutrition, while one in four were malnourished. Sarcopenia was present in 30% of the patients. A multivariate linear regression model was estimated and showed significant independent associations between SPPB score (β 0.64, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.90), sarcopenia (β -3.3, 95% CI -4.9 to -1.7), pulmonary disease (β -2.1, 95% CI -3.7 to -0.46), cancer (β -1.7, 95% CI -3.4 to -0.033) and nutritional status. Our study shows a high prevalence of risk of malnutrition, malnutrition and sarcopenia. Further, the results indicate that a low total SPPB score, sarcopenia, cancer and pulmonary disease are significantly associated with declines in nutritional status, as measured by the MNA, in acute geriatric patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  8. Prevalence of adherence to treatment in homebound elderly people in primary health care: a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Valladolid, Juan; Martín-Madrazo, Carmen; Salinero-Fort, Miguel A; Carrillo de-Santa Pau, Enrique; Abánades-Herranz, Juan C; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen

    2010-08-01

    Adherence to the therapeutic plan is one of the most important health issues in terms of treatment efficacy, healthcare costs and patient safety. Unfortunately, homebound elderly patients are especially vulnerable to nonadherence because they have higher morbidity rates combined with cognitive and social problems that hinder their correct use of drugs. The level of therapeutic adherence in homebound elderly people has not been adequately studied. To estimate the prevalence of therapeutic adherence, using the Morisky-Green test, in homebound elderly patients taking polypharmacy (defined as use of four or more drugs), and to study the factors associated with adherence. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicentre study. A total of 327 patients were selected by random start systematic sampling from the total number of homebound patients taking four or more drugs in Healthcare Area 4 of the Madrid Autonomous Region, Spain. Through an in-home survey of patients and their caregivers, information was gathered on sociodemographic data, co-morbidities, number of hospital admissions, responsibility for purchasing and preparation of the medication, level of cognitive impairment (Pfeiffer questionnaire), functional dependence in activities of daily living (Katz Index), knowledge of the disease (Batalla test), adherence to treatment (Morisky-Green test), visual and auditory perception, and caregiver burden (Zarit interview). Of the homebound patients, 65.7% (95% CI 60.6, 70.9) had good adherence to treatment. The variables most negatively associated with therapeutic adherence, after adjustment for age, sex, number of drugs, knowledge of the disease, and cognitive function, were a large caregiver burden (odds ratio [OR] 3.09; 95% CI 1.75, 5.48) and impaired hearing (OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.17, 3.40). There was also a trend toward a positive association between nonadherence and patients aged <85 years (OR 1.57; 95% CI 0.93, 2.65) and patients who had nine or more drug

  9. Prevalence and correlates of dizziness in community-dwelling older people: a cross sectional population based study

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    de Moraes Suzana Albuquerque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dizziness is a common complaint among older adults and has been linked to a wide range of health conditions, psychological and social characteristics in this population. However a profile of dizziness is still uncertain which hampers clinical decision-making. We therefore sought to explore the relationship between dizziness and a comprehensive range of demographic data, diseases, health and geriatric conditions, and geriatric syndromes in a representative sample of community-dwelling older people. Methods This is a cross-sectional, population-based study derived from FIBRA (Network for the Study of Frailty in Brazilian Elderly Adults, with 391 elderly adults, both men and women, aged 65 years and older. Elderly participants living at home in an urban area were enrolled through a process of random cluster sampling of census regions. The outcome variable was the self-report of dizziness in the last year. Several feelings of dizziness were investigated including vertigo, spinning, light or heavy headedness, floating, fuzziness, giddiness and instability. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and build the probability model for dizziness. Results The complaint of dizziness was reported by 45% of elderly adults, from which 71.6% were women (p=0.004. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that dizziness is associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.29–3.35, perceived fatigue (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.21-3.10, recurring falls (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.11-3.62 and excessive drowsiness (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.11–3.29. The discrimination of the final model was AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.619-0.727 (p Conclusions The prevalence of dizziness in community-dwelling elderly adults is substantial. It is associated with other common geriatric conditions usually neglected in elderly adults, such as fatigue and drowsiness, supporting its possible multifactorial manifestation. Our

  10. Sexual violence against children in South Africa: a nationally representative cross-sectional study of prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Catherine L; Artz, Lillian; Leoschut, Lezanne; Kassanjee, Reshma; Burton, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to complete a nationally representative study of sexual violence against children in South Africa, and its correlates, since we could identify no other such study. For this nationally representative, cross-sectional study in South Africa, households were selected by use of a multistage sampling frame, stratified by province, urban or rural setting, and race group, and schools were selected on the basis that they were closest to the area in which households were selected. Interviews and self-administered questionnaires in each location inquired into lifetime and last-year prevalence of sexual abuse, and its correlates among children aged 15-17 years, whose parents gave informed consent and they themselves gave informed assent. The final household sample was 5631 (94·6% participation rate). 9·99% (95% CI 8·65-11·47) of boys and 14·61% (95% CI 12·83-16·56) of girls reported some lifetime sexual victimisation. Physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, family violence, and other victimisations were all strongly associated with sexual victimisation. The following were associated with greater risk of sexual abuse (adjusted odds ratio [OR]); school enrolment (OR 2·12, 95% CI 1·29-3·48); rural dwelling (0·59; 0·43-0·80); having a flush toilet (1·43, 1·04-1·96); parental substance misuse (2·37, 1·67-3·36); being disabled (1·42, 1·10-1·82); female (but not male) caregivers' poor knowledge of the child's whereabouts, friends, and activities (1·07, 0·75-1·53) and poor quality of the relationship with the child (ie, poor acceptance; 1·20, 0·55-2·60). The child's own substance misuse (4·72, 3·73-5·98) and high-risk sexual behaviour (3·71, 2·99-4·61) were the behaviours most frequently associated with sexual abuse, with mental health conditions found to be less prevalent than these factors but still strongly associated with sexual victimisation (post-traumatic stress disorder 2·81, 1·65-4·78; depression 3·43, 2·26-5·19; anxiety 2

  11. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in Nakuru, Kenya: a cross-sectional population-based study.

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    Wanjiku Mathenge

    Full Text Available Diseases of the posterior segment of the eye, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD, have recently been recognised as the leading or second leading cause of blindness in several African countries. However, prevalence of AMD alone has not been assessed. We hypothesized that AMD is an important cause of visual impairment among elderly people in Nakuru, Kenya, and therefore sought to assess the prevalence and predictors of AMD in a diverse adult Kenyan population.In a population-based cross-sectional survey in the Nakuru District of Kenya, 100 clusters of 50 people 50 y of age or older were selected by probability-proportional-to-size sampling between 26 January 2007 and 11 November 2008. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. All participants underwent a standardised interview and comprehensive eye examination, including dilated slit lamp examination by an ophthalmologist and digital retinal photography. Images were graded for the presence and severity of AMD lesions following a modified version of the International Classification and Grading System for Age-Related Maculopathy. Comparison was made between slit lamp biomicroscopy (SLB and photographic grading. Of 4,381 participants, fundus photographs were gradable for 3,304 persons (75.4%, and SLB was completed for 4,312 (98%. Early and late AMD prevalence were 11.2% and 1.2%, respectively, among participants graded on images. Prevalence of AMD by SLB was 6.7% and 0.7% for early and late AMD, respectively. SLB underdiagnosed AMD relative to photographic grading by a factor of 1.7. After controlling for age, women had a higher prevalence of early AMD than men (odds ratio 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.9. Overall prevalence rose significantly with each decade of age. We estimate that, in Kenya, 283,900 to 362,800 people 50 y and older have early AMD and 25,200 to 50,500 have late AMD, based on population estimates in 2007.AMD is an important cause of visual

  12. Hypertension in the very old; prevalence, awareness, treatment and control: a cross-sectional population-based study in a Spanish municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado, Alba; López, Flora; Miravet, Sonia; Oriol, Pilar; Fuentes, M Isabel; Henares, Belén; Badia, Teresa; Esteve, Lluis; Peligro, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Information on hypertension in the very elderly is sparse. Until recently evidence of benefits from pharmacological treatment was inconclusive. We estimated the prevalence of hypertension in subjects aged 80 or more, the proportion of awareness, treatment and control. Explanatory variables associated with good control were also studied. Methods Cross sectional, population-based study, conducted in Martorell, an urban Spanish municipality, in 2005. By simple random sampling...

  13. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Latin America and its association with sub-clinical carotid atherosclerosis: the CARMELA cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Marta; Vinueza Raul; Boissonnet Carlos P; Silva Honorio; Champagne Beatriz; Schargrodsky Herman; Escobedo Jorge; Hernandez Rafael; Wilson Elinor

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome increases cardiovascular risk. Limited information on its prevalence in Latin America is available. The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study included assessment of metabolic syndrome in 7 urban Latin American populations. Methods CARMELA was a cross-sectional, population-based, observational study conducted in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Qu...

  14. Prevalence and correlates of medication non-adherence among kidney transplant recipients more than 6 months post-transplant: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Francis L; Chandwani, Sheenu; Kurtyka, Karen M; Zacker, Christopher; Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Demissie, Kitaw

    2013-01-01

    Background Among kidney transplant recipients, non-adherence with immunosuppressive medications frequently precedes allograft loss. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of medication non-adherence among kidney transplant recipients. Methods We performed a single-center, cross-sectional study of kidney transplant recipients who were at least 6 months post-transplant. We measured self-reported adherence using the Immunosuppressive Therapy Adherence Scale (ITAS, which is scored f...

  15. a cross-sectional analytic study 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of HIV/AIDS comprehensive correct knowledge among Sudanese university: a cross-sectional analytic study 2014. ... There are limited studies on this topic in Sudan. In this study we investigated the Comprehensive correct ...

  16. Premenstrual syndrome: Symptomatic and diagnosed prevalence, dualistic treatment approach – A cross-sectional study in Ukraine

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    Edith Meszaros Crow

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosing and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS still pose a challenge in the routine medical practice which usually focuses on single pharmacological therapy. Recent research suggests that the combination of treatments including complementary alternative medicine (CAM therapies may be more beneficial. The objective of this study was to assess the percentage of diagnosed and nondiagnosed PMS/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD based on the presence of adequate symptoms and to compare population using hormonal or pharmaceutical agents versus CAM therapies. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study targeting sample population of 160 females of potentially reproductive age done in Ukraine between May 2014 and April 2015. Results: According to declared symptoms, 29% females versus 26% previously diagnosed by a medical professional qualify for “moderate/severe PMS,” P > 0.05. In 30% persons using pharmacological agents, major side effects, namely, nausea, insomnia, headache was caused by painkillers, contraceptives, and antidepressants. Only 37.5% of study population has been using CAM therapy methods to deal with the symptoms of PMS. Of these, 22% have achieved moderate degree in relief of the symptoms long term. Conclusions: We have concluded that when dealing with the burden of PMS/PMDD, the affected treatment-seeking women should have choice and access to the variety of therapies within integrative medicine (both conventional and nonconventional.

  17. The prevalence of suicidal ideation among the elderly in China: a meta-analysis of 11 cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yonghai; Huang, Fen; Hu, Guoliang; Liu, Yun; Zheng, Ruizhi; Zhang, Qinghe; Mao, Xiangqun

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicidal ideation among Chinese elderly aged ≥ 60 years. Two reviewers independently searched the potentially relevant studies through electronic database (PubMed-Medline, Embase, Wanfang Data, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chongqing VIP) using key terms 'suicid', 'suicidal ideation' combined with 'aged', 'elderly' and 'old people'. All selected studies should meet the eligibility criteria in this study. Chi-square based Q test and I(2) statistic assessed the heterogeneity. Forest plots were used to display results graphically. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot and Begg's test. Prevalence rate was meta-analysed. In total, 11 studies were included with 11,526 subjects. The prevalence of suicidal ideation among Chinese elderly ranged from 2.2% to 21.5%. The pooled prevalence of all 11 studies was 11.5% (95% CI: 8.3%-14.8%). Subgroup analyses showed the prevalence for males was 11.0%, and for the females was 15.6%. In three subgroups for age, 60-69, 70-79 and ≥ 80, the prevalence was 9.1%, 12.1% and 18.9% respectively. A slightly higher prevalence in rural areas was calculated than in urban (14.7% vs. 11.8%). In mainland China, the prevalence was 12.6%. And in Taiwan and Hongkong, the pooled prevalence was 9.2%. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was relatively high among elderly in China, and it should attract enough attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of human papilloma virus in marginal periodontium and its association with periodontitis: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Anila; Janam, Presanthila; Babu Vijayamma, Janki Mohan

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial pathogens in dental plaque are necessary for the development of periodontitis but this etiology alone does not explain all its clinicopathologic features. Researchers have proven the role of certain viruses like herpes virus in periodontal disease which implies that other viral agents like human papilloma virus may also be involved. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the proportion of patients with human papilloma virus (HPV-16) in marginal periodontium by analyzing DNA from the gingival tissue sample and to understand its association with periodontitis. 102 systemically healthy patients between the age group of 15 and 70 years reporting to the Department of Periodontology who required surgical intervention (flap surgery for patients with periodontitis and crown lengthening for healthy patients) with internal bevel gingivectomy were selected. After scaling and root planning, gingival tissue was collected during the respective surgical procedure. DNA was isolated and amplified using specific primers for HPV-16 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified products were checked by agarose gel electrophoresis. No HPV DNA was detected in the 102 samples analyzed. Marginal periodontium does not contain HPV in this study population and hence there was no association between HPV and periodontitis.

  19. Prevalence of human papilloma virus in marginal periodontium and its association with periodontitis: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bacterial pathogens in dental plaque are necessary for the development of periodontitis but this etiology alone does not explain all its clinicopathologic features. Researchers have proven the role of certain viruses like herpes virus in periodontal disease which implies that other viral agents like human papilloma virus may also be involved. Aims: This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the proportion of patients with human papilloma virus (HPV-16 in marginal periodontium by analyzing DNA from the gingival tissue sample and to understand its association with periodontitis. Settings and Design: 102 systemically healthy patients between the age group of 15 and 70 years reporting to the Department of Periodontology who required surgical intervention (flap surgery for patients with periodontitis and crown lengthening for healthy patients with internal bevel gingivectomy were selected. Materials and Methods: After scaling and root planning, gingival tissue was collected during the respective surgical procedure. DNA was isolated and amplified using specific primers for HPV-16 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The amplified products were checked by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: No HPV DNA was detected in the 102 samples analyzed. Conclusion: Marginal periodontium does not contain HPV in this study population and hence there was no association between HPV and periodontitis.

  20. No further increase in the parent reported prevalence of allergies in Bavarian preschool children: Results from three cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alisa; Herr, Caroline; Hendrowarsito, Lana; Meyer, Nicole; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; von Mutius, Erika; Bolte, Gabriele; Colon, Diana; Kolb, Stefanie

    2016-07-01

    After three decades of an increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergies, new findings show a plateau in the prevalence of industrialized nations. The objective of this study was to determine whether there was a change in the parent reported prevalence of asthma and allergies among Bavarian preschool children since 2004. A parent questionnaire was administered as part of the Bavarian school entrance examination in three cross-sectional studies from 2004/2005, 2006/2007 and 2012/2013. The questionnaire included items on allergy testing history, identified allergens, symptoms (e.g. wheezing, itchy eyes, rash), medically diagnosed asthma, hay fever and atopic dermatitis. Logistic regression was performed to observe time patterns and adjust for risk factors. Data were available for 6350 (2004/2005), 6483 (2006/2007) and 5052 (2012/2013) individuals. Symptoms and diseases were more frequent in boys, except for allergies which affect the skin. From 2004 to 2012 the parent reported prevalence of asthma (2.6% to 2.8%), hay fever (4.7% to 4.0%) and atopic dermatitis (12.4% to 11.1%) either remained quite stable or decreased not significantly. Results from these three cross-sectional surveys of parent reports suggest that the parent reported prevalences of asthma and allergies are quite stable with small fluctuations since 2004 for Bavarian preschool children. Future research is needed to determine if this trend will continue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. The trend of pressure ulcer prevalence rates in German hospitals: results of seven cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Wilborn, Doris; Dassen, Theo; Lahmann, Nils

    2009-05-01

    Pressure ulcer prevalence rates provide useful information about the magnitude of this health problem. Only limited information on pressure ulcers in Germany was available before 2001. The purpose of this study was to compare results of seven pressure ulcer prevalence surveys which were conducted annually between 2001 and 2007 and to explore whether pressure ulcer prevalence rates decreased. The second aim was to evaluate if the measured prevalence rates of our sample could be generalised for all German hospitals. Results of seven point pressure ulcer prevalence studies conducted in 225 German hospitals were analysed. Chi-square tests, chi-square trend tests and one-way ANOVA to assess differences and trends across the years were applied. The sample was stratified according to pressure ulcer risk and speciality. Finally, study samples were compared with the potential population. In total data of 40,247 hospital patients were analysed. The overall pressure ulcer prevalence rate in German hospitals was 10.2%. Patient samples of each year were comparable regarding gender, age and pressure ulcer risk. Pressure ulcer prevalence rates decreased from 13.9% (year 2001) to 7.3% (year 2007) (pcare units remained stable. With some limitations our study results are representative for all hospitals within Germany. It is highly probable that the decrease of prevalence rates was due to an increased awareness of the pressure ulcer problem in Germany and subsequent efforts to improve pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. The quality of clinical practice regarding pressure ulcer prevention and treatment has improved. However, pressure ulcers are still relevant and require attention. In 2007, one out of 10 hospital patients who were at pressure ulcer risk had at least one pressure related skin damage.

  2. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Middle-East countries: Meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansarimoghaddam, Alireza; Adineh, Hosein Ali; Zareban, Iraj; Iranpour, Sohrab; HosseinZadeh, Ali; Kh, Framanfarma

    Metabolic syndrome is an important metabolic disorder which impose noticeable burden on health system. We aimed to review and imply the prevalence of it in Middle-East countries. present study was a systematic review to present overview about metabolic disorder in Middle East. Electronic literature search of Medline database and Google scholar were done for English-language articles without time filtering, as well as for population-based or national studies of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The fallowing search terms were used simultaneously: prevalence of " metabolic syndrome" and "national study", "prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Middle East", "prevalence of metabolic syndrome" and "name of country", "metabolic syndrome &name of country". Additionally, relevant articles in bibliography were searched. Analysis of data was carried out in STATA version 11.0. out of 456 studies in first-step searching (selecting by title) 59 studies were recruited and reviewed. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome fluctuated by country and time of study. This amount was 2.2-44% in Turkish, 16-41% in Saudi-Arabia, 14-63 in Pakistan, 26-33 in Qatar, 9-36 in Kuwait, 22-50 in Emirate, 6-42 in Iran, and up to 23 in Yemen. Pooled estimate was 25%. Attributable risk for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke was 15.87, 11.7, and 16.23, respectively. The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome is high and it is noticeable cause for stroke, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The prevalence and correlations of medical student burnout in the pre-clinical years: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurkiewicz, Rebecca; Korenstein, Deborah; Fallar, Robert; Ripp, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Burnout is a psychological syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and impaired personal accomplishment induced by repeated workplace stressors. Current research suggests that physician burnout may have its origins in medical school. The consequences of medical student burnout include both personal and professional distress, loss of empathy, and poor health. We hypothesized that burnout occurs prior to the initiation of the clinical years of medical education. This was a cross-sectional survey administered to third-year medical students at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) in New York, New York (a traditional-style medical school with a marked division between pre-clinical and clinical training occurring at the beginning of the third year). Survey included an instrument used to measure job burnout, a sleep deprivation screen, and questions related to demographic information, current rotation, psychiatric history, time spent working/studying, participation in extracurricular activities, social support network, autonomy and isolation. Of the 86 medical students who participated, 71% met criteria for burnout. Burnt out students were significantly more likely to suffer from sleep deprivation (p = 0.0359). They were also more likely to disagree with the following statements: "I have control over my daily schedule" (p = 0.0286) and "I am confident that I will have the knowledge and skills necessary to become an intern when I graduate" (p = 0.0263). Our findings show that burnout is present at the beginning of the third year of medical school, prior to the initiation of the clinical years of medical training. Medical student burnout is quite common, and early efforts should be made to empower medical students to both build the knowledge and skills necessary to become capable physicians, as well as withstand the emotional, mental, and physical challenges inherent to medical school.

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes in Qassim: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman A. Al-Mohaimeed, ABFM

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of anxiety and depression is high among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These results should alert clinicians to identify and treat anxiety and depression as part of multidisciplinary diabetes care. Larger community-based studies are needed to identify the magnitude of these problems and their related factors.

  5. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagasu, M.; Sakai, K.; Ito, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Tomita, S.; Temmyo, Y.; Ueno, M.; Miyagi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk

  6. Methodology series module 3: Cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case–control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status, the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.

  7. Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-sectional Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case-control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status) or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status), the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for VRE colonisation in a tertiary hospital in Melbourne, Australia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karki Surendra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE has been established as a significant health-care associated problem since its first isolation in Australia in 1994. In this study, we measured the point prevalence and identified risk factors associated with vanB VRE colonisation in a tertiary care hospital in Melbourne, Australia where VRE has been endemic for 15 years. Methods A hospital-wide point prevalence survey was conducted on October 13, 2008 with colonisation detected using rectal swab culture. Patient’s demographic and medical information was collected through a review of medical records. Factors associated with VRE colonisation in univariate analysis were included in multivariate logistic regression model to adjust for confounding. Results The prevalence of VRE colonisation on the day of screening was 17.5% (95% CI, 13.7 to 21.9. VRE was detected from patients in each ward with the prevalence ranging from 3% to 29%. Univariate analysis showed the use of any antibiotic, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, diarrhoea and longer length of hospital stay were associated with increased risk of VRE colonisation (p0.05. Multivariate analysis showed the exposure to meropenem (p=0.004, age (≥65 years (p=0.036 and length of stay ≥7 days (p Conclusion Our study suggests that exposure to antibiotics may have been more important than recent cross transmission for a high prevalence of vanB VRE colonisation at our hospital.

  9. Prevalence of gingivitis and calculus in 12-year-old Puerto Ricans: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Boneta, Augusto R; Ramirez, Karol; Rivas-Tumanyan, Sona; Murillo, Margarita; Toro, Milagros J

    2018-01-19

    Gingivitis is a common oral health problem. Untreated gingivitis may progress to periodontitis, a common cause of tooth loss. The prevalence of gingivitis and calculus among Puerto Rican children is unknown. Understanding this prevalence can support early public health preventative strategies. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of gingivitis and calculus among 12-year-old Puerto Ricans by health region and to explore differences in distribution by school type (proxy for socio-economic status) and gender. A probability-based sample of 113 schools was selected proportional to enrollment size and stratified by health region, school type, and gender. Two trained examiners evaluated the presence of gingivitis and both supragingival and subgingival dental calculus. Gingivitis was defined as the presence of gingival bleeding upon gentle probing (BOP) in at least one site, and the extent of the problem was classified according to the percentage of teeth whose gingiva presented BOP (limited: 25-49% of the teeth tested; extensive: >50% of teeth tested). Logistic and linear regression models, adjusted for health regions, were used to compare gingivitis and calculus prevalence and extent between genders and school types. Gingivitis was found in 80.41% of the 1586 children evaluated. Urban-public schoolchildren had a slightly higher prevalence (83.24%) compared to private (79.15%, p = 0.16); those in rural-public (77.59%) and private schools had similar prevalence (p = 0.15). Extensive gingivitis was present in 60.81% of all children. The mean percentage of sites presenting BOP (BOP%) was 17.79%. Rural and urban public schoolchildren presented significantly higher BOP% compared to children from private schools (p = 0.0005, p = 0.002, respectively). Dental calculus was detected in 61.59% of the sample, boys presenting significantly higher (p = 0.005) total and supragingival calculus. Rural-public schoolchildren had a significantly higher prevalence of

  10. Prevalence of maxillary midline papillae recession and association with interdental smile line: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsakis, Georgios A; Maragou, Theodora; Ioannou, Andreas L; Romanos, Georgios E; Hinrichs, James E

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to record the prevalence and degree of absence of the maxillary midline interdental papilla and the proportion of patients displaying the maxillary midline papilla during maximum smile among a Caucasian population. Papillary recession was found in 46.4% of study participants (n = 211), while the prevalence of visible recession among maxillary midline papilla during maximum smile was 38.4%, which was statistically significantly less than that of patients diagnosed intraorally with loss of papillary height (P line as well as age and visible papillary recession were identified for individuals over 65 years of age. The high prevalence of midline papillary recession in the maxilla found in this population suggests that loss of papillary height constitutes a substantial clinical challenge.

  11. A point prevalence cross-sectional study of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections in six Australian hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Anne; Mitchell, Brett; Beckingham, Wendy; Fasugba, Oyebola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for over 30% of healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study was to determine healthcare-associated UTI (HAUTI) and catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI) point prevalence in six Australian hospitals to inform a national point prevalence process and compare two internationally accepted HAUTI definitions. We also described the level and comprehensiveness of clinical record documentation, microbiology laboratory and coding data at identifying HAUTIs and CAUTIs. Setting Data were collected from three public and three private Australian hospitals over the first 6 months of 2013. Participants A total of 1109 patients were surveyed. Records of patients of all ages, hospitalised on the day of the point prevalence at the study sites, were eligible for inclusion. Outpatients, patients in adult mental health units, patients categorised as maintenance care type (ie, patients waiting to be transferred to a long-term care facility) and those in the emergency department during the duration of the survey were excluded. Outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the HAUTI and CAUTI point prevalence. Results Overall HAUTI and CAUTI prevalence was 1.4% (15/1109) and 0.9% (10/1109), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus and Candida species were the most common pathogens. One-quarter (26.3%) of patients had a urinary catheter and fewer than half had appropriate documentation. Eight of the 15 patients ascertained to have a HAUTI based on clinical records (6 being CAUTI) were coded by the medical records department with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for UTI diagnosis. The Health Protection Agency Surveillance definition had a positive predictive value of 91.67% (CI 64.61 to 98.51) compared against the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. Conclusions These study results provide a foundation for a national Australian point prevalence study and inform the development and

  12. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Factors in Colombian Collegiate Students: The FUPRECOL-Adults Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martínez-Torres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is one of the major public health problems worldwide. The objective of the present study is to investigate the prevalence and the associated variables of MetS in Colombian collegiate students. This cross-sectional study included a total of 890 (52% women healthy collegiate students (21.3 ± 3.2 years old. The prevalence of MetS was determined by the definition provided by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. We further examined associations between the prevalence of MetS and related factors, such as age, gender, anthropometric and body composition, weight status, and nutrition profile. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.0% (95% CI = 4.5% to 7.6%, and it was higher in men than women. The most prevalent components were low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglyceride levels, waist circumference, and blood pressure levels. The predisposing factors for having a MetS included: being male, over 23 years old, overweight or obese, and having an unhealthy waist-to-height ratio. In conclusion, the occurrence of MetS in young adults is substantial. These findings may be relevant to health promotion efforts for collegiate students in order to develop prospective studies and screening for young adults, which will aid in targeted intervention development to decrease cardiometabolic risk factors.

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Factors in Colombian Collegiate Students: The FUPRECOL-Adults Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Torres, Javier; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Prieto-Benavidez, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-02-27

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is one of the major public health problems worldwide. The objective of the present study is to investigate the prevalence and the associated variables of MetS in Colombian collegiate students. This cross-sectional study included a total of 890 (52% women) healthy collegiate students (21.3 ± 3.2 years old). The prevalence of MetS was determined by the definition provided by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). We further examined associations between the prevalence of MetS and related factors, such as age, gender, anthropometric and body composition, weight status, and nutrition profile. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.0% (95% CI = 4.5% to 7.6%), and it was higher in men than women. The most prevalent components were low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglyceride levels, waist circumference, and blood pressure levels. The predisposing factors for having a MetS included: being male, over 23 years old, overweight or obese, and having an unhealthy waist-to-height ratio. In conclusion, the occurrence of MetS in young adults is substantial. These findings may be relevant to health promotion efforts for collegiate students in order to develop prospective studies and screening for young adults, which will aid in targeted intervention development to decrease cardiometabolic risk factors.

  14. Low prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in a cross-sectional study of Danish HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Malmberg, Catarina Anna Evelina; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    . However, controversies exist on the prevalence of PAD among HIV-infected patients. In this study we aimed to measure the prevalence of PAD among HIV-infected patients and compare the ABI with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and other known CVD risk predictors. METHODS: We prospectively included HIV......BACKGROUND: Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) appear to be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a well-established screening tool for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and future cardiovascular events in the general population....... In contrast, a strong correlation was found between cIMT and traditional risk factors. Values of post-exercise ABI and cIMT were not correlated. The current ART did not influence ABI values. CONCLUSIONS: We found a low prevalence of PAD in HIV-infected patients. ABI did not correlate with CVD risk factors...

  15. Malaria prevalence, spatial clustering and risk factors in a low endemic area of Eastern Rwanda: a cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, Stephen; Kateera, Fredrick; Bizimana, Jean Pierre; Agaba, Steven; Dukuzumuremyi, Javier; Baas, Lisette; de Dieu Harelimana, Jean; Mens, Petra F.; Boer, Kimberly R.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Rwanda reported significant reductions in malaria burden following scale up of control intervention from 2005 to 2010. This study sought to; measure malaria prevalence, describe spatial malaria clustering and investigate for malaria risk factors among health-centre-presumed malaria cases and their

  16. Prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the general population of five European countries : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepgen, T. L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Coenraads, P. J.; Elsner, P.; Goncalo, M.; Svensson, A.; Naldi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. Objectives To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to

  17. Overweight and Underweight Prevalence Trends in Children from Romania - Pooled Analysis of Cross-Sectional Studies between 2006 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Barbu, Carmen Gabriela; Cinteza, Elena Eliza; Chesaru, Bianca Ioana; Gafencu, Mihai; Mocanu, Veronica; Pascanu, Ionela M; Tatar, Simona Alexandra; Balgradean, Mihaela; Dobre, Michaela; Fica, Simona Vasilica; Ichim, Gabriela Edita; Pop, Raluca; Puiu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    High-quality national representative data on obesity in Romanian children are needed to shape public health policies. To provide a unified data landscape on national prevalence, trends and other factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in Romanian children aged 6-19 years, across the last decade (2006-2015). Using a common protocol, we selected published and unpublished studies that measured Romanian children in schools between 2006 and 2015. Children's BMI was classified using the current WHO, IOTF, and CDC references. 25,060 children from 8 Romanian counties were included in the analysis. The prevalence of underweight children was 5%/4.5%/8.5% (WHO/IOTF/CDC), while the prevalence of overweight (including obese) children was 28.3%/23%/23.2% (WHO/IOTF/CDC). The prevalence of overweight children did not change significantly over the last decade (chi-square test p = 0.6). Male gender (odds ratio (OR) 1.37; 95% CI 1.29-1.45, compared to female); prepubertal age (OR = 3.86; 95% CI 3.41-4.36,compared to postpubertal age), and urban environment (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.01-1.26, compared to rural environment) had higher risk for overweight. While the prevalence of underweight children was low, almost one in four children in Romania was overweight or obese (according to WHO criteria) between 2006 and 2015. This prevalence remained relatively stable over the last decade. Male gender, prepubertal age, and urban environment, were the most relevant risk factors associated with overweight status in Romanian children. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  18. Evaluating the prevalence and opportunity for technology use in chronic kidney disease patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Ann; Gillespie, Kerri; Campbell, Katrina L; Corones-Watkins, Katina; Hayes, Bronwyn; Harvie, Barbara; Kelly, Jaimon T; Havas, Kathryn

    2018-02-02

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide and early education to improve adherence to self-management is a key strategy to slow CKD progression. The use of the internet and mobile phone technologies (mHealth) to support patients is considered an effective tool in many other chronic disease populations. While a number of mHealth platforms for CKD exist, few studies have investigated if and how this population use technology to engage in self-management. Using a cross-sectional design across five health districts in Queensland (Australia), a 38-item self-report survey was distributed to adults with CKD attending outpatient clinics or dialysis units to measure current use and type of engagement with mHealth, perceived barriers to use, and opportunities to support CKD self-management. Odds ratio (OR) were calculated to identify associations between demographic characteristic and mHealth use. Of the 708 participants surveyed, the majority had computer access (89.2%) and owned a mobile phone (83.5%). The most likely users of the internet were those aged ≤ 60 years (OR: 7.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.25-12.75, p higher levels of education (OR: 3.69, CI: 2.38-5.73, p mobile phone for complex communication were also younger (OR: 6.01, 95% CI: 3.55-10.19, p educated (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.29-3.18, p technologies most preferred for communication with their renal healthcare teams were by telephone (56.5%), internet (50%), email (48.3%) and text messages (46%). In the CKD cohort, younger patients are more likely than older patients to use mHealth intensively and interactively although all patients' technology literacy ought to be thoroughly assessed by renal teams before implementing in practice. Further research testing mHealth interventions to improve self-management in a range of patient cohorts is warranted.

  19. A Cross-sectional Study of Prevalence and Etiology of Childhood Visual Impairment in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Chee Foong; McGhee, Charles N J; Dai, Shuan

    2014-01-01

    Childhood visual impairment has significant individual and socioeconomic costs with global differences in etiology and prevalence. This study aimed to determine prevalence, etiology, and avoidable causes of childhood visual impairment in New Zealand. Retrospective data analysis from a national referral center, the Blind and Low Vision Education Network New Zealand, Auckland. The World Health Organization Program for Prevention of Blindness eye examination records for visually impaired children, 16 years or younger, registered with the Auckland Visual Resource Centre, were included. Data analyzed included demographics, etiology, visual acuity, visual fields, educational setting, and rehabilitation plan. Charts of 340 children were examined, of which 267 children (144 blind, 123 low vision) were included in the analysis, whereas the remaining 73 charts of children with no visual impairment were excluded. The calculated prevalence of blindness and low vision was 0.05% and 0.04%, respectively, in the Auckland region. Principal causes of blindness affecting 91 children (63.9%) were cerebral visual impairment in 61 children (42.4%), optic nerve atrophy in 18 children (12.5%), and retinal dystrophy in 13 children (9.0%). The main potentially avoidable causes of blindness in 27 children (19%) were neonatal trauma, asphyxia in 9 children (33%), and nonaccidental injury 6 children (22%). This first report of prevalence for childhood blindness and low vision in New Zealand is similar to data from Established Market Economy countries. The leading causes of blindness are also comparable to other high-income countries; however, proportions of avoidable causes differ significantly.

  20. Prevalence, characteristics and management of headache experienced by people with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: a cross sectional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Joanne; Wand, Benedict

    2017-08-01

    Headache is the most common type of pain reported by people with schizophrenia. This study aimed to establish prevalence, characteristics and management of these headaches. One hundred participants with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder completed a reliable and valid headache questionnaire. Two clinicians independently classified each headache as migraine, tension-type, cervicogenic or other. The 12-month prevalence of headache (57%) was higher than the general population (46%) with no evidence of a relationship between psychiatric clinical characteristics and presence of headache. Prevalence of cervicogenic (5%) and migraine (18%) was comparable to the general population. Tension-type (16%) had a lower prevalence and 19% of participants experienced other headache. No one with migraine was prescribed migraine specific medication; no one with cervicogenic and tension-type received best-practice treatment. Headache is a common complaint in people with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder with most fitting recognised diagnostic criteria for which effective interventions are available. No one in this sample was receiving best-practice care for their headache.

  1. The Prevalence of Personality Disorders among Emergency Nurses Based on MMPI-2 Questionnaire; a Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Parvin; Mirbaha, Sahar; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Meschi, Farahnaz; Baratloo, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of behavioral disorders is substantially higher in stressful working environments such as emergency departments. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of personality disorders among emergency nurses. In the present epidemiologic study, the prevalence of personality disorders among emergency nurses of three educational hospitals, Tehran, Iran, were evaluated based on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) test. After the questionnaires were filled, data were entered to a special software for MMPI-2 test and the final result was interpreted based on the opinion of a clinical psychologist. Findings were reported using descriptive statistics. 102 emergency nurses with the mean age of 30.2 ± 5.6 years were enrolled (100% female; 100% with master's degree in nursing). The mean working time and experience of studied nurses were 210.8 ± 47.9 hours/month (130-370) and 4.1 ± 3.6 years (1-20), respectively. 32 (31.4%) cases showed symptoms of personality disorders The most common personality disorder detected in this study was somatization with 8.8%, hysteria with 6.9% prevalence, and pollyannaish with 4.9%. Among the studied factors only recent history of unpleasant event has significant correlation with existence of personality disorders (p = 0.015). The present study showed that somatization, hysteria, and pollyannaish were the most common personality disorders among the emergency nurses. History of an unpleasant event in the past year was the only effective factor in existence of personality disorders in the studied nurses.

  2. The Prevalence of Personality Disorders among Emergency Nurses Based on MMPI-2 Questionnaire; a Cross-sectional Study

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    Parvin Kashani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of behavioral disorders is substantially higher in stressful working environments such as emergency departments. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of personality disorders among emergency nurses.Methods: In the present epidemiologic study, the prevalence of personality disorders among emergency nurses of three educational hospitals, Tehran, Iran, were evaluated based on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2 test. After the questionnaires were filled, data were entered to a special software for MMPI-2 test and the final result was interpreted based on the opinion of a clinical psychologist. Findings were reported using descriptive statistics.Results: 102 emergency nurses with the mean age of 30.2 ± 5.6 years were enrolled (100% female; 100% with master’s degree in nursing. The mean working time and experience of studied nurses were 210.8 ± 47.9 hours/month (130-370 and 4.1 ± 3.6 years (1-20, respectively. 32 (31.4% cases showed symptoms of personality disorders The most common personality disorder detected in this study was somatization with 8.8%, hysteria with 6.9% prevalence, and pollyannaish with 4.9%. Among the studied factors only recent history of unpleasant event has significant correlation with existence of personality disorders (p = 0.015.Conclusion: The present study showed that somatization, hysteria, and pollyannaish were the most common personality disorders among the emergency nurses. History of an unpleasant event in the past year was the only effective factor in existence of personality disorders in the studied nurses.

  3. The Prevalence of Personality Disorders among Emergency Nurses Based on MMPI-2 Questionnaire; a Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Parvin; Mirbaha, Sahar; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Meschi, Farahnaz; Baratloo, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of behavioral disorders is substantially higher in stressful working environments such as emergency departments. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of personality disorders among emergency nurses. Methods: In the present epidemiologic study, the prevalence of personality disorders among emergency nurses of three educational hospitals, Tehran, Iran, were evaluated based on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) test. After the questionnaires were filled, data were entered to a special software for MMPI-2 test and the final result was interpreted based on the opinion of a clinical psychologist. Findings were reported using descriptive statistics. Results: 102 emergency nurses with the mean age of 30.2 ± 5.6 years were enrolled (100% female; 100% with master’s degree in nursing). The mean working time and experience of studied nurses were 210.8 ± 47.9 hours/month (130-370) and 4.1 ± 3.6 years (1-20), respectively. 32 (31.4%) cases showed symptoms of personality disorders The most common personality disorder detected in this study was somatization with 8.8%, hysteria with 6.9% prevalence, and pollyannaish with 4.9%. Among the studied factors only recent history of unpleasant event has significant correlation with existence of personality disorders (p = 0.015). Conclusion: The present study showed that somatization, hysteria, and pollyannaish were the most common personality disorders among the emergency nurses. History of an unpleasant event in the past year was the only effective factor in existence of personality disorders in the studied nurses. PMID:28286824

  4. Cheese consumption and prevalence of overweight and obesity in a Basque adult population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Lertxundi, Iker; Rocandio Pablo, Ana; Arroyo-Izaga, Marta

    2014-02-01

    Studies have reported a negative association between dairy product consumption and weight status. However, not as much research has focused on cheese; therefore, the aim of this study was to study the association between cheese intake and overweight and obesity in a representative Basque adult population. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was obtained from a random sample of 1081 adults (530 males and 551 females, 17-96 years old). Cheese consumption data were expressed as g/1000 kcal/day. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in men (55.1%) than in women (35.4%) (p processed cheese demonstrated a higher prevalence of excess weight, compared with those with higher consumption. The confounding variables selected in multivariate analysis were: occupational status and age in both genders; and place of residence in men. In conclusion, negative associations were found between consumption of some types of cheese and overweight and obesity in this population.

  5. A point prevalence cross-sectional study of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections in six Australian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Anne; Mitchell, Brett; Beckingham, Wendy; Fasugba, Oyebola

    2014-07-29

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for over 30% of healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study was to determine healthcare-associated UTI (HAUTI) and catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI) point prevalence in six Australian hospitals to inform a national point prevalence process and compare two internationally accepted HAUTI definitions. We also described the level and comprehensiveness of clinical record documentation, microbiology laboratory and coding data at identifying HAUTIs and CAUTIs. Data were collected from three public and three private Australian hospitals over the first 6 months of 2013. A total of 1109 patients were surveyed. Records of patients of all ages, hospitalised on the day of the point prevalence at the study sites, were eligible for inclusion. Outpatients, patients in adult mental health units, patients categorised as maintenance care type (ie, patients waiting to be transferred to a long-term care facility) and those in the emergency department during the duration of the survey were excluded. The primary outcome measures were the HAUTI and CAUTI point prevalence. Overall HAUTI and CAUTI prevalence was 1.4% (15/1109) and 0.9% (10/1109), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus and Candida species were the most common pathogens. One-quarter (26.3%) of patients had a urinary catheter and fewer than half had appropriate documentation. Eight of the 15 patients ascertained to have a HAUTI based on clinical records (6 being CAUTI) were coded by the medical records department with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for UTI diagnosis. The Health Protection Agency Surveillance definition had a positive predictive value of 91.67% (CI 64.61 to 98.51) compared against the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. These study results provide a foundation for a national Australian point prevalence study and inform the development and implementation of targeted healthcare-associated infection surveillance more

  6. Prevalence of dental caries among school-going children in Namakkal district: A cross-sectional study

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    Ramachandran Karunakaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth among 4-6 years old school going children in the Namakkal District. Materials and Methods: The study covered a total of 850 school going children in a total of 26 schools in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. The age group selected for this study ranged from 4 to 6 years of age. Each child was examined in their respective schools by one of the four calibrated examiners and decay, missing and filled teeth (dmft index was recorded along with demographic details. This study was done in September-October 2013 in a span of 1 month duration. Results: Of 850 children examined, 560 (65.88% children had dental caries. Mean dmft score was 2.86. Prevalence of dental caries was higher in boys (69.6% than in girls (61.5%. The untreated decay teeth accounted for 92.4%. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries among 4-6 years old children is high in the Namakkal district. The need for the creation of dental awareness among children and their primary caregivers is crucial and the need for developing immediate oral health promotion strategies including an increase in school dental health programs is recommended.

  7. Prevalence and severity of dental erosion among jeep battery manufacturing workers at Metagalli, Mysore: A cross-sectional study

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    Jyothi Chavan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Majority of people employed in various industries are exposed to hazardous environment. Exposure to chemical agents in the workplace can result in adverse effects on workers. This exposure deteriorates the general and oral health of people, working in industries for long hours. Aim: The aim is to assess the prevalence and severity of dental erosion among battery manufacturing factory workers at Metagalli, Mysore, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 175 jeep battery manufacturing factory workers were enrolled and divided into study and comparison groups based on acid exposure. Demographic details of workers were recorded. Severity of dental erosion was calculated using Smith and Knight tooth wear index. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 software. Chi-square test was used to compare the categorical variables. Results: The prevalence of dental erosion among the jeep battery manufacturing factory workers was 80%. Majority of the participants in the study group had severe degree of dental erosion (scores of 3 and 4 when compared to the comparison group. Conclusion: Dental erosion was more prevalent among the jeep battery manufacturing factory workers. Study participants were the more affected group with dental erosion when compared to comparison group.

  8. Prevalence and determinants of khat (Catha edulis chewing among high school students in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Ayalu A Reda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Use of psychoactive drugs such as khat leaves (Catha edulis alter moods and emotional state and lead to adverse effects on the health and social life of users. Ethiopia is a major producer and exporter of khat in east Africa and the majority of the khat comes from the eastern part of the country, however, no studies have been conducted to investigate the habit in this area. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among high school students in Harar, eastern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted among 1,890 secondary school students in Harar town in April 2010. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing. RESULT: The overall prevalence of khat chewing among the sample was 24.2% (95% CI 22.2%-26.2%. About 28.5% of females and 71.5% of males had chewed khat. Older age (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.16-1.49, male gender (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.50-2.93, Muslim religion (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17-3.04, having friends who chewed khat (OR 7.93; 95% CI 5.40-11.64, and availability of someone with a similar habit in the family (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.07-2.11 were found to be independent predictors of chewing. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of students chew khat. The use of khat is significantly associated with age, gender, Muslim religion, peer influence and habit of family and other relatives among students. Measures such as educational campaigns need to be instituted to create awareness among school adolescents and their parents in order to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its adverse social and health consequences.

  9. Prevalence and determinants of khat (Catha edulis) chewing among high school students in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Ayalu A; Moges, Asmamaw; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Wondmagegn, Berhanu Y

    2012-01-01

    Use of psychoactive drugs such as khat leaves (Catha edulis) alter moods and emotional state and lead to adverse effects on the health and social life of users. Ethiopia is a major producer and exporter of khat in east Africa and the majority of the khat comes from the eastern part of the country, however, no studies have been conducted to investigate the habit in this area. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among high school students in Harar, eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted among 1,890 secondary school students in Harar town in April 2010. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing. The overall prevalence of khat chewing among the sample was 24.2% (95% CI 22.2%-26.2%). About 28.5% of females and 71.5% of males had chewed khat. Older age (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.16-1.49), male gender (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.50-2.93), Muslim religion (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17-3.04), having friends who chewed khat (OR 7.93; 95% CI 5.40-11.64), and availability of someone with a similar habit in the family (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.07-2.11) were found to be independent predictors of chewing. A significant proportion of students chew khat. The use of khat is significantly associated with age, gender, Muslim religion, peer influence and habit of family and other relatives among students. Measures such as educational campaigns need to be instituted to create awareness among school adolescents and their parents in order to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its adverse social and health consequences.

  10. INFLUENCE OF HOMOCYSTEINE AND VERTEBRAL FRACTURES ON PREVALENT ABDOMINAL AORTIC CALCIFICATION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN - A MULTICENTRIC CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Imad GHOZLANI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main of this study was to examine the relationship between plasma homocysteine (Hcy, asymptomatic osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA and prevalent abdominal aortic calcification (AAC in Moroccan postmenopausal women. The study cohort consisted of 188 consecutive postmenopausal women with no prior known diagnosis of osteoporosis or taking medication interfering with bone metabolism. Mean age, weight, height, body mass index and plasma homocysteine were determined. Lateral VFA images and scans of the lumbar spine and proximal femur were obtained using a Lunar Prodigy Vision densitometer (GE Healthcare Inc., Waukesha, WI. VFs were defined using a combination of Genant’s semiquantitative approach and morphometry. VFA images were also scored for prevalent AAC using a validated 24 point scale. Fifty-eight (30.9% patients had densitometric osteoporosis. VFs were identified using VFA in 76 (40.4% patients: 61 women had grade 1 VFs and 15 had grade 2 or 3 VFs. One hundred twenty nine women (68.6% did not have any detectable AAC, whereas the prevalence of significant atherosclerotic burden defined as AAC score of 5 or higher, was 13.8%. A significant positive correlation between AAC score and homocysteine was observed. Women with extended AAC, were older, had a lower weight, BMI and BMD, higher homocysteine levels and more prevalent VFs than women without extended AAC. Multiple regression analysis showed that the presence of extended AAC was significantly associated with Age and grade 2/3 VFs and not independently associated with homocysteine levels.This study did not confirm that homocysteine is important determinant of extended AAC in postmenopausal women. However, this significant atherosclerotic marker is independently associated with VFs regardless of age. 

  11. Intimate partner violence among adolescents and young women: prevalence and associated factors in nine countries: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; March, Laura; Pallitto, Christina; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2014-07-25

    Little is known about the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its associated factors among adolescents and younger women. This study analyzed data from nine countries of the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women, a population based survey conducted in ten countries between 2000 and 2004. The lifetime prevalence of IPV ranged from 19 to 66 percent among women aged 15 to 24, with most sites reporting prevalence above 50 percent. Factors significantly associated with IPV across most sites included witnessing violence against the mother, partner's heavy drinking and involvement in fights, women's experience of unwanted first sex, frequent quarrels and partner's controlling behavior. Adolescent and young women face a substantially higher risk of experiencing IPV than older women. Adolescence and early adulthood is an important period in laying the foundation for healthy and stable relationships, and women's health and well-being overall. Ensuring that adolescents and young women enjoy relationships free of violence is an important investment in their future.

  12. A cross-sectional pilot study to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome in working population of Indian men

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    Apul Goel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS in healthy Indian men employed in a hospital aged above 40 years. Materials and Methods: A general medical health check-up camp was organized for all male employees above 40 years age working in surgical departments. After clinical history and systemic inquiry, subjects were requested to fill the St. Louis University′s ADAM Questionnaire based on which the total and free-serum testosterone estimation was then done. Results: One hundred fifty seven healthy volunteers enrolled for the study (mean age 53.1 years; range 40-60. The androgen decline in the aging male (ADAM Questionnaire detected 106 men (67.5% to be symptomatic for TDS. Serum testosterone estimation in these subjects revealed 41/106 to have low free-serum testosterone levels and 32/106 to have low total-serum testosterone. In 11 and 6 cases, respectively, the serum free- and total-testosterone levels were found to be low although the subjects were asymptomatic for TDS. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptomatic biochemical hypogonadism was 26.1%. The higher prevalence of symptoms alone of TDS was unusual. It could be because of the nature of the questionnaire. Free-serum testosterone may be a better single test to diagnose symptomatic hypogonadism than total-serum testosterone.

  13. Prevalence of dental anxiety and fear among five to ten year old children: a behaviour based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, N; Chhabra, A; Walia, G

    2012-03-01

    Dental anxiety and fear pose a considerable challenge for the practice of clinical dentistry as these are problematic entities in the management of child patients and present a potential barrier to the utilization of oral health care services. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear among the 5-10 years aged Indian child population. A total of 523 children aged 5-10 years and their parents, visiting Krishna Dental College, Ghaziabad, India were finally recruited in this study. Dental Fear/anxiety distribution in the children was studied using the Indian parent's version of the Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS). Total fear scores were calculated separately for boys and girls and at different age levels. The collected data was statistically analyzed using a SPSS statistical program. The estimated prevalence of dental anxiety among 5 to 10 year old children in the study population was 6.3%. The overall median CFSS-DS score was 23 and the overall mean value of CFSS-DS score was 24. The prevalence of dental anxiety in children aged 5 years was 7.9%, 7.1% for 6 years old, 6.6% in 7 years old, 6.5% in 8 years old, 6.3% for 9 year old children and 5.8% in children aged 10 years. No statistically significant gender differences were found in the dental anxiety scores. The most fear provoking situations were the sight of injections, the drilling procedures by the dentist, touch of a stranger and noise of drilling by the dentist. The results of this study indicate the need for preventive health education and intervention programmes in India to prevent and reduce dental anxiety/fear and to promote children's oral health.

  14. Augmented Cross-Sectional Prevalence Testing for Estimating HIV Incidence

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    Wang, R.; Lagakos, S. W.

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of an HIV incidence rate based on a cross-sectional sample of individuals evaluated with both a sensitive and less-sensitive diagnostic test offers important advantages to incidence estimation based on a longitudinal cohort study. However, the reliability of the cross-sectional approach has been called into question because of two major concerns. One is the difficulty in obtaining a reliable external approximation for the mean “window period” between detectability of HIV infection ...

  15. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Psoriathic Arthritis Patients, a Cross-sectional Study on Iranian Population

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    Fatemeh Shirani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psoriasis is a T-cell mediated chronic inflammatory disorder with multiple skin, nails and joints involvement. The reported prevalence of psoriatic arthritis (PsA varies from 5 to 42 cases per 100 psoriasis patients. Insulin resistance is believed to be central to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (metS, a constellation of major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, including atherogenic dyslipidemia, truncal adiposity, hypertension and hyperglycemia. The association of psoriasis with metS and is increasingly being reported.  Although the literature relating PsA to metS is accumulating, there is still a paucity of evidence, especially from Asia. Here, we examined the prevalence of metS and its components in patients with PsA.  Methods: The study was performed among outpatients attending the specialty clinics and Rheumatology ward of an institutional tertiary referral center. A consecutive sample of 80 patients diagnosed as having psoriatic arthritis in our clinics was studied. Age, gender, body mass index, blood pressure and waist circumference, and history of smoking of patients were measured and asked at the enrolment visit. Venous samples were taken after 8 h of overnight fasting for the estimation of serum lipid profile, glucose and uric acid levels. Also an ultrasonographic examination was done for detection of NAFLD. Results: 46 patients (57.5% were male and 34 patients (42.5% were female. Mean age of the participants was 43 years (SD: 11.3. The prevalence of abnormal components of metabolic syndrome was 53.8% for BMI, 48.8% for TG level, 50% for HDL, 46.3 for LDL, 45% for Cholesterol, 23.8% for FBS, 47.5% for waist circumflex and 42.5 for uric acid. 40% of the patients had abnormal SBP and 41.2% had abnormal DBP. 30% of the participants were current smokers and 43.8 had NAFLD on ultrasonographic examination. 51.3% of patients had metabolic syndrome according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for adult

  16. High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infections: a cross-sectional study in rural areas in six departments in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbadry, Maha A; Al-Khedery, Basima; Tagliamonte, Massimiliano S; Yowell, Charles A; Raccurt, Christian P; Existe, Alexandre; Boncy, Jacques; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Beau De Rochars, Valery E M; Lemoine, Jean F; Okech, Bernard A; Dame, John B

    2015-12-21

    Public health measures are poised for transition from malaria control to malaria elimination on the island of Hispaniola. Assessment of the reservoir of asymptomatic infections from which acute malaria cases may derive is critical to plan and evaluate elimination efforts. Current field technology is ill suited for detecting sub-microscopic infections, thus highly sensitive survey methods capable of detecting virtually all infections are needed. In this study the prevalence of infection with Plasmodium falciparum was determined in patients seeking medical care primarily for non-febrile conditions in six departments in Haiti using a newly designed qRT-PCR-based assay. Three different methods of parasite detection were compared to assess their utility in approximating the prevalence of P. falciparum infections in the population: malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) designed to detect histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), thick smear microscopy, and a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay based upon the small sub-unit ribosomal RNA. The limit of detection of the qRT-PCR assay utilized was 0.0003 parasite/µL of blood. Venous blood was obtained from a total of 563 subjects from six departments in Haiti, all of whom were seeking medical attention without complaints consistent with malaria. Each subject was questioned for knowledge and behaviour using demographic and epidemiological survey to identify risk factors for disease transmission. Among the 563 samples tested, ten and 16 were found positive for malaria by RDT and microscopy, respectively. Using the qRT-PCR test to assess the infection status of these subjects, an additional 92 were identified for a total of 108. Based upon the qRT-PCR assay results, a wide variation in prevalence of infection in asymptomatic subjects was seen between geographic locations ranging from 4-41%. The prevalence of infection was highest in the Grand Anse, Nord and Sud-Est Departments, and demographic

  17. Prevalence of Smoking and Its Associated Factors Among Male College Students in Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Mohammed Al-Mohaithef

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of smoking has reduced over a period of time in the developed countries. However, the consumption of tobacco is rapidly increasing in the developing nations which further raises burden of various diseases. The prevalence of consumption of tobacco among the adolescent population is vigorously growing across the world. There are several studies in Saudi Arabia that report the smoking rate and pattern among the secondary school students, but very limited data is available about the prevalence of smoking among the college students. Therefore, the objectives of the current study are to assess the prevalence of smoking among the male college students and to evaluate the relationship between the smoking habit and socio-demographic variables. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study done in selected colleges in King Khalid University, Abha during August 2016 to December 2016. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the socio-demographic information and about smoking habit among the college students. Results: The study showed 18.7% of prevalence of smoking among the male college students with a positive association between employment and smoking habit. However, no positive association between other socio-demographic variables and smoking. Conclusion: Though the prevalence rate of smoking among the male college students is less but still there is a need to create awareness among the college students and their parents for decreasing the burden of tobacco related diseases.

  18. Prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing in a subpopulation of older European clinical trial participants: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Riordan, David; Aubert, Carole Elodie; Walsh, Kieran A; Van Dorland, Anette; Rodondi, Nicolas; Du Puy, Robert S; Poortvliet, Rosalinde K E; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Sinnott, Carol; Byrne, Stephen; Galvin, Rose; Jukema, J Wouter; Mooijaart, Simon P; Baumgartner, Christine; McCarthy, Vera; Walsh, Elaine K; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Dekkers, Olaf M; Blum, Manuel R; Kearney, Patricia M

    2018-03-22

    .02) for Dutch participants compared with Irish participants. This study has estimated and compared the prevalence and type of PIP and PPOs among this cohort of community-dwelling older people. It demonstrated a significant difference in the prevalence of PPOs between the three populations. Further research is urgently needed into the impact of system level factors as this has important implications for patient safety, healthcare provision and economic costs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Descriptive cross sectional study on prevalence, perceptions, predisposing factors and health seeking behaviour of women with stress urinary incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) leads to considerable physical and psychological morbidity. The highest prevalence reported was found in Caucasian Americans (range 23% -67%) and the lowest in Singaporean females (4.8%). The study assessed the prevalence, perceptions, predisposing factors and health seeking behaviour of women with SUI in an Asian setting which may have different sociocultural implications. Methods 400 consecutive women >20 years of age attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka, for non-urinary conditions were studied over a 3 week period using an interviewer administered questionnaire. SUI was diagnosed on clinical history alone when leakage of urine occurred either with coughing, sneezing, walking or lifting heavy objects. The severity was graded using the Finnish Gynaecological Society’s Urinary Incontinence Severity Score (UISS). Data were analysed using SPSS version 20. Odds ratios were calculated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Ninety three (23.33%) had SUI and only 12 (12.9%) had sought treatment. The prevalence among women >50 years of age was 34.71% ( n = 121) compared to 18.28% (n = 279) in those ≤50 years. 25 (26.88%) had mild SUI, 66 (70.97%) moderate and 2 (2.15%) severe as per UISS. SUI was perceived as an illness by 210 (52.5%). SUI was significantly associated with pregnancy, parity, vaginal delivery, complicated labour, diabetes mellitus, chronic cough, constipation and faecal incontinence (p < 0.05). Among those affected main reasons for not seeking medical advice included; being embarrassed (n = 27, 33.33%), not knowing that it is remediable (n = 23, 28.40%), perceiving SUI to be a normal consequence of childbirth (n = 19, 23.46%) and having to attend to needs of the family (n = 12, 14.81%). None who had been pregnant (n = 313) had received advice on postnatal pelvic floor exercises. SUI interfered with social activities (71;76.34%), sexual

  20. Descriptive cross sectional study on prevalence, perceptions, predisposing factors and health seeking behaviour of women with stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Jennifer; Kirthinanda, Dinoo S; Wijeratne, Sujani; Wickramarachchi, Thanuja K

    2014-07-02

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) leads to considerable physical and psychological morbidity. The highest prevalence reported was found in Caucasian Americans (range 23% -67%) and the lowest in Singaporean females (4.8%). The study assessed the prevalence, perceptions, predisposing factors and health seeking behaviour of women with SUI in an Asian setting which may have different sociocultural implications. 400 consecutive women >20 years of age attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka, for non-urinary conditions were studied over a 3 week period using an interviewer administered questionnaire. SUI was diagnosed on clinical history alone when leakage of urine occurred either with coughing, sneezing, walking or lifting heavy objects. The severity was graded using the Finnish Gynaecological Society's Urinary Incontinence Severity Score (UISS). Data were analysed using SPSS version 20. Odds ratios were calculated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Ninety three (23.33%) had SUI and only 12 (12.9%) had sought treatment. The prevalence among women >50 years of age was 34.71% ( n = 121) compared to 18.28% (n = 279) in those ≤50 years. 25 (26.88%) had mild SUI, 66 (70.97%) moderate and 2 (2.15%) severe as per UISS. SUI was perceived as an illness by 210 (52.5%). SUI was significantly associated with pregnancy, parity, vaginal delivery, complicated labour, diabetes mellitus, chronic cough, constipation and faecal incontinence (p < 0.05).Among those affected main reasons for not seeking medical advice included; being embarrassed (n = 27, 33.33%), not knowing that it is remediable (n = 23, 28.40%), perceiving SUI to be a normal consequence of childbirth (n = 19, 23.46%) and having to attend to needs of the family (n = 12, 14.81%). None who had been pregnant (n = 313) had received advice on postnatal pelvic floor exercises. SUI interfered with social activities (71;76.34%), sexual function (21; 22.58%) and

  1. Prevalence of severe pelvic organ prolapse in relation to job description and socioeconomic status: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Patrick J; Swift, Steven E; O'Boyle, Amy L; Valley, Michael T; Bland, Deirdre R; Kahn, Margie A; Schaffer, Joseph I

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if certain occupations or socioeconomic levels are associated with pelvic organ prolapse. Investigators at six American sites performed pelvic organ prolapse quantification examinations on women presenting for routine gynecologic care. Between September 1999 and March 2002, 1,004 patients were examined. Severe pelvic organ prolapse was defined as the leading edge being 1 cm or more beyond the hymeneal ring. The data was analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, Bonferroni test, multiple logistic regression, and descriptive statistics. The prevalence of severe pelvic organ prolapse in our group was 4.3%. Women who were laborers/factory workers had significantly more severe prolapse than the other job categories (p 30, and smoking status (all p jobs and an annual household income of Dollars 10,000 or less are associated with severe pelvic organ prolapse.

  2. The prevalence and determinants of use of vitamin D supplements among children in Alberta, Canada: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Willows, Noreen; Yuan, Yan; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-10-16

    Limited cutaneous synthesis due to low sun exposure and inadequate dietary intake makes vitamin D supplementation a necessity for many Canadian children. Identification of the factors associated with supplement use is necessary for public health awareness campaigns, but they have not been identified previously. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and the determinants of the use of vitamin D supplements among children in the province of Alberta, Canada. In 2014, a representative sample of grade five students (10-11 y) in Alberta (n = 2686) was surveyed. Data on dietary intake and use of vitamin D supplements were obtained using a modified Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency questionnaire. Mixed effect multiple logistic regression was employed to identify the key correlates of supplement use. Use of vitamin D supplements by children was 29.45 % although only 11.83 % took supplements daily. Children who resided in a metropolitan area (OR = 1.32; 95 % CI:1.06-1.65), were more physically active (2nd tertile: OR = 1.39; 95 % CI:1.09-1.78 and 3rd tertile: OR = 1.70; 95 % CI:1.33-2.16), or whose parents completed college (OR = 1.35; 95 % CI:1.05-1.74) were more likely to take vitamin D supplements. Prevalence of use was highest among those who had a high vitamin D diet and those with under/normal body weight status, although supplement use was not statistically associated with either dietary vitamin D intake or weight status. A considerable proportion of children did not take vitamin D supplements. Region of residence, physical activity level and parental education were determinants of supplement use, independent of child's gender, household income, weight status and dietary practices. We suggest prioritizing public health efforts to support strategies to make parents aware of the importance of providing the correct dose of vitamin D supplements for their children to meet dietary recommendations.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported non-communicable diseases among older Ugandans: a cross-sectional study

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    Stephen Ojiambo Wandera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited evidence about the prevalence and risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs among older Ugandans. Therefore, this article is aimed at investigating the prevalence of self-reported NCDs and their associated risk factors using a nationally representative sample. Design: We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2010 Uganda National Household Survey (UNHS using a weighted sample of 2,382 older people. Frequency distributions for descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-square tests to identify the association between self-reported NCDs and selected explanatory variables were done. Finally, multivariable complementary log–log regressions to estimate the risk factors for self-reported NCDs among older people in Uganda were done. Results: About 2 in 10 (23% older persons reported at least one NCD [including hypertension (16%, diabetes (3%, and heart disease (9%]. Among all older people, reporting NCDs was higher among those aged 60–69 and 70–79; Muslims; and Pentecostals and Seventh Day Adventists (SDAs. In addition, the likelihood of reporting NCDs was higher among older persons who depended on remittances and earned wages; owned a bicycle; were sick in the last 30 days; were disabled; and were women. Conversely, the odds of reporting NCDs were lower for those who were relatives of household heads and were poor. Conclusions: In Uganda, self-reported NCDs were associated with advanced age, being a woman, having a disability, ill health in the past 30 days, being rich, depended on remittances and earning wages, being Muslim, Pentecostal and SDAs, and household headship. The Ministry of Health should prevent and manage NCDs by creating awareness in the public and improving the supply of essential drugs for these health conditions. Finally, there is a need for specialised surveillance studies of older people to monitor the trends and patterns of NCDs over time.

  4. The Prevalence and Correlates of Eating Between Meals in a Cross-Sectional Study of a Health Oriented Adult Population

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    Nadasan Valentin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the prevalence of snacking and to explore the relationship between snacking and several demographic, anthropometric, functional and biochemical factors. Methods: The study included 756 individuals over 18 years of age from Medias, Romania. Demographics and data about snacking were collected by trained volunteers. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure were measured with standard equipment according to accepted procedures. Blood glucose and cholesterol were measured by experienced nurses using portable devices. Associations between variables were checked with the Pearson Chi-square test. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to measure the association between binary variables. Results: About half of the subjects in the studied sample reported snacking less than 2 times / week, 34.5% between 3-4 times / week and 14.8% more than 4 times / week. Statistical analysis found that snacking was associated with gender (males being less likely to snack than females, ethnicity (non-Romanians being less likely to snack than Romanian ethnics, marital status of the subjects (not married people being less likely to snack than married people , systolic blood pressure (people consuming more often snacks being less likely to have high systolic blood pressure values, and blood sugar level (people eating more frequently between meals being more likely to have higher blood glucose levels. Conclusions: Snacking was a widespread eating habit among the study participants and was significantly associated with gender, ethnicity, marital status, systolic blood pressure and blood glucose levels.

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prevalence and Correlates Pre- and Post-Bariatric Surgery: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Friedrich; Georgiadou, Ekaterini; Bartsch, Merle; Langenberg, Svenja; Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Previous research shows an association between obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study compares pre- and post-bariatric surgery patients using the internationally used Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS™) to screen for ADHD. Matched samples pre- (N = 120) and post-bariatric surgery (N = 128) were compared using self-rating instruments to assess ADHD-relevant symptomatology, depression, eating-related psychopathology, and BMI. Prevalence of probable ADHD did not differ between groups using the CAARS Index Scale T-scores; however, CAARS subscales Inattention/Memory and Self-Concept showed significantly lower scores in post-surgery patients. All CAARS subscales correlated significantly with each other, with depression and eating-related psychopathology. There was no correlation between ADHD and excess BMI loss in post-surgery patients. The findings suggest that a considerable number of patients before and after bariatric surgery screened positive for ADHD. It can be hypothesized that some core ADHD symptoms improve after surgery. Future studies are warranted to investigate the influence of ADHD on long-term surgery outcomes. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prevalence and Correlates Pre- and Post-Bariatric Surgery: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

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    Friedrich Nielsen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Previous research shows an association between obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The present study compares pre- and post-bariatric surgery patients using the internationally used Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS™ to screen for ADHD. Methods: Matched samples pre- (N = 120 and post-bariatric surgery (N = 128 were compared using self-rating instruments to assess ADHD-relevant symptomatology, depression, eating-related psychopathology, and BMI. Results: Prevalence of probable ADHD did not differ between groups using the CAARS Index Scale T-scores; however, CAARS subscales Inattention/Memory and Self-Concept showed significantly lower scores in post-surgery patients. All CAARS subscales correlated significantly with each other, with depression and eating-related psychopathology. There was no correlation between ADHD and excess BMI loss in post-surgery patients. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a considerable number of patients before and after bariatric surgery screened positive for ADHD. It can be hypothesized that some core ADHD symptoms improve after surgery. Future studies are warranted to investigate the influence of ADHD on long-term surgery outcomes.

  7. Odds Ratio or Prevalence Ratio? An Overview of Reported Statistical Methods and Appropriateness of Interpretations in Cross-sectional Studies with Dichotomous Outcomes in Veterinary Medicine

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    Brayan Alexander Fonseca Martinez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most commonly observational study designs employed in veterinary is the cross-sectional study with binary outcomes. To measure an association with exposure, the use of prevalence ratios (PR or odds ratios (OR are possible. In human epidemiology, much has been discussed about the use of the OR exclusively for case–control studies and some authors reported that there is no good justification for fitting logistic regression when the prevalence of the disease is high, in which OR overestimate the PR. Nonetheless, interpretation of OR is difficult since confusing between risk and odds can lead to incorrect quantitative interpretation of data such as “the risk is X times greater,” commonly reported in studies that use OR. The aims of this study were (1 to review articles with cross-sectional designs to assess the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association and (2 to illustrate the use of alternative statistical methods that estimate PR directly. An overview of statistical methods and its interpretation using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines was conducted and included a diverse set of peer-reviewed journals among the veterinary science field using PubMed as the search engine. From each article, the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association were registered. Additionally, four alternative models for logistic regression that estimate directly PR were tested using our own dataset from a cross-sectional study on bovine viral diarrhea virus. The initial search strategy found 62 articles, in which 6 articles were excluded and therefore 56 studies were used for the overall analysis. The review showed that independent of the level of prevalence reported, 96% of articles employed logistic regression, thus estimating the OR. Results of the multivariate models

  8. Exploring the prevalence and variance of cognitive impairment, pain, neuropsychiatric symptoms and ADL dependency among persons living in nursing homes; a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Sabine; Juthberg, Christina; Lindkvist, Marie; Wimo, Anders; Sandman, Per-Olof; Winblad, Bengt; Edvardsson, David

    2016-08-22

    Earlier studies in nursing homes show a high prevalence of cognitive impairment, dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), pain, and neuropsychiatric symptoms among residents. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of the above among residents in a nationally representative sample of Swedish nursing homes, and to investigate whether pain and neuropsychiatric symptoms differ in relation to gender, cognitive function, ADL-capacity, type of nursing-home unit and length of stay. Cross-sectional data from 188 randomly selected nursing homes were collected. A total of 4831 residents were assessed for cognitive and ADL function, pain and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the chi-square test. The results show the following: the prevalence of cognitive impairment was 67 %, 56 % of residents were ADL-dependent, 48 % exhibited pain and 92 % exhibited neuropsychiatric symptoms. The prevalence of pain did not differ significantly between male and female residents, but pain was more prevalent among cognitively impaired and ADL-dependent residents. Pain prevalence was not significantly different between residents in special care units for people with dementia (SCU) and general units, or between shorter-and longer-stay residents. Furthermore, the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms did not differ significantly between male and female residents, between ADL capacities or in relation to length of stay. However, residents with cognitive impairment and residents in SCUs had a significantly higher prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms than residents without cognitive impairment and residents in general units. The prevalence rates ascertained in this study could contribute to a greater understanding of the needs of nursing-home residents, and may provide nursing home staff and managers with trustworthy assessment scales and benchmark values for further quality assessment purposes, clinical development work and

  9. Neuropathic Pain and Psychological Morbidity in Patients with Treated Leprosy: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in Mumbai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry-Levy, Estrella; Hietaharju, Aki; Pai, Vivek; Ganapati, Ramaswamy; Rice, Andrew S. C.; Haanpää, Maija; Lockwood, Diana N. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain has been little studied in leprosy. We assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain and the validity of the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in patients with treated leprosy. The association of neuropathic pain with psychological morbidity was also evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult patients who had completed multi-drug therapy for leprosy were recruited from several Bombay Leprosy Project clinics. Clinical neurological examination, assessment of leprosy affected skin and nerves and pain evaluation were performed for all patients. Patients completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire to identify neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity. Conclusions/Significance One hundred and one patients were recruited, and 22 (21.8%) had neuropathic pain. The main sensory symptoms were numbness (86.4%), tingling (68.2%), hypoesthesia to touch (81.2%) and pinprick (72.7%). Neuropathic pain was associated with nerve enlargement and tenderness, painful skin lesions and with psychological morbidity. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92% in diagnosing neuropathic pain. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 is a simple tool for the screening of neuropathic pain in leprosy patients. Psychological morbidity was detected in 15% of the patients and 41% of the patients with neuropathic pain had psychological morbidity. PMID:21408111

  10. Prevalence and Gender-Specific Influencing Factors of Hypertension among Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Nanchang, China

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    Hui Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension has become the leading cause of death worldwide; data on hypertension among Nanchang adults are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and gender-specific influencing factors of hypertension in adults in Nanchang, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a representative sample of 2722 Chinese residents aged 18 years and above between May and September 2016, with a response rate of 92.4% (2516/2722. A stratified cluster sampling method was adopted in this study. Data on prevalence and influencing factors were obtained from a standard questionnaire and physical measurements. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to analyze the influencing factors. The age-standardized prevalence was 19.8% (18.2–21.3 (male: 19.5% (18.0–21.1; female, 20.01% (18.5–21.6. Factors positively associated with hypertension prevalence were past smoking, diabetes mellitus (DM, and overweight and obesity in both genders. Abdominal obesity and family history of cardiovascular diseases (CVD were risk factors only in males; sleeping time and consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits were related to the prevalence of hypertension only in females. These findings will form the baseline information for the development of more effective approaches to enhance current prevention and control management of hypertension.

  11. Prevalence of sunburn and sun-related behaviour in the Danish population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køster, Brian; Thorgaard, Camilla; Philip, Anja; Clemmensen, Inge H

    2010-07-01

    In Denmark, the incidence of melanoma has been increasing since the 1960s. Intermittent exposure to ultraviolet radiation and a history of sunburn and sunbed use are known risk factors. We describe the association between use of protective measures, sun-related behaviour and experience of sunburn in the Danish population three months after the start of the campaign. A population-based sample of 3,499 persons aged 15-59 years completed a questionnaire that included items on exposure to ultraviolet radiation. We examined the relations between sunburn and sun-related behaviour by logistic regression analysis. Within the previous 12 months, 35% of the study population had experienced sunburn. Sunburn became less frequent with age (odds ratio (OR) 4.44; 15-19 vs. 50-59) and skin type (OR 2.57; I vs. III). Sunburn was negatively associated with shade and clothing and positively with use of sunscreens. We found no significant difference in sunscreen use between intentional tanners who experienced sunburn and those who did not. A larger fraction of unintentional tanners with sunburn than those who were not sunburnt had used sunscreen. Sunscreen was used to prolong the time spent in the sun by 66% of sunburnt people; however, we found no association between duration of sun exposure and sunscreen use. Future campaigns to reduce the prevalence of sunburn in the Danish population must especially target young persons and intentional tanning, and they should emphasize that sunscreen cannot be used to extend the time spent in the sun and that shade and clothing provide the best protection against sunburn.

  12. Cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli on hides of market beef cows at harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L G; Stromberg, Z R; Lewis, G L; Moxley, R A; Smith, D R

    2018-03-25

    Cattle hides are an important source of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) carcass contamination at slaughter. Seven EHEC serogroups are adulterants in raw, non-intact beef: EHEC O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157. The objective of this study was to estimate the probability for hide contamination with EHEC among US market beef cows at slaughter and to test the effects of season and geographic region on prevalence of hide contamination. Hides (n = 800) of market cows were swabbed at slaughter immediately after exsanguination, prior to hide removal. Cows were sampled from two geographically distinct beef packing plants during four seasons of 2015. Cattle source was categorized by northern or southern region. Samples were tested for EHEC by a molecular screening assay. The effects of region, season and their interaction on the probability of hide contamination by each EHEC serogroup were tested in separate multilevel multivariable logistic regression models, accounting for the random effect of clustering by plant. Statistical significance was set α = .05. Of 800 total samples, at least one EHEC was detected on 630 (79%) hides. Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli O26 was detected on 129 (16%) of all hides sampled, EHEC O45 on 437 (55%), EHEC O103 on 289 (36%), EHEC O111 on 189 (24%), EHEC O121 on 140 (18%), EHEC O145 on 171 (21%) and EHEC O157 on 89 (11%). Detection of EHEC O26 and EHEC O121 was associated with season. Season and region were associated with detecting EHEC O45 and EHEC O157. Season-by-region interactions were associated with the outcome of detecting EHEC O103, EHEC O111 and EHEC O145. Season, region of origin and the interaction of these factors affect hide contamination of market beef cattle at slaughter by EHEC, and each serogroup responds to these factors uniquely. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and risk factors among schoolchildren at the University of Gondar Community School, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaw, Aschalew; Anagaw, Belay; Nigussie, Bethel; Silesh, Betrearon; Yirga, Atnad; Alem, Meseret; Endris, Mengistu; Gelaw, Baye

    2013-04-05

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their distribution is mainly associated with poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and limited access to clean water. Indeed, epidemiological information on the prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections in different localities is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren. This school-based cross-sectional study was undertaken at the University of Gondar Community School from April 2012 to June 2012. Study subjects were selected using a systematic random sampling method. Data were gathered through direct interview by using a pretested questionnaire. The collected stool specimens were examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, cysts and trophozoites of intestinal parasites using direct saline smear and formol-ether concentration methods. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 16 software. Out of 304 study subjects, 104 (34.2%) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate was 43 (32.1%) for male and 61 (35.9%) for female. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high in age group of 10-12 years compared to other age groups. The predominant intestinal parasite was Hymenolepis nana, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Ascaris lumbricoides with 42 (13.8%), 28 (9.2%), 18 (5.9%), respectively. Hand washing practice and ways of transportation were statistically associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Children in grades 1 to 3 had a higher prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection than those in grades 4 to 8 (p = 0.031). Intestinal parasites were prevalent in varying magnitude among the schoolchildren. The prevalence of infections were higher for helminths compared to protozoa. Measures including education on personal

  14. Type 2 diabetes in Vietnam: a cross-sectional, prevalence-based cost-of-illness study

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    Le NTD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nguyen Tu Dang Le, Luyen Dinh Pham, Trung Quang Vo Department of Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Background: According to the International Diabetes Federation, total global health care expenditures for diabetes tripled between 2003 and 2013 because of increases in the number of people with diabetes as well as in the average expenditures per patient. This study aims to provide accurate and timely information about the economic impacts of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Vietnam. Method: The cost-of-illness estimates followed a prospective, prevalence-based approach from the societal perspective of T2DM with 392 selected diabetic patients who received treatment from a public hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, during the 2016 fiscal year. Results: In this study, the annual cost per patient estimate was US $246.10 (95% CI 228.3, 267.2 for 392 patients, which accounted for about 12% (95% CI 11, 13 of the gross domestic product per capita in 2017. That includes US $127.30, US $34.40 and US $84.40 for direct medical costs, direct nonmedical expenditures, and indirect costs, respectively. The cost of pharmaceuticals accounted for the bulk of total expenditures in our study (27.5% of total costs and 53.2% of direct medical costs. A bootstrap analysis showed that female patients had a higher cost of treatment than men at US $48.90 (95% CI 3.1, 95.0; those who received insulin and oral antidiabetics (OAD also had a statistically significant higher cost of treatment compared to those receiving OAD, US $445.90 (95% CI 181.2, 690.6. The Gradient Boosting Regression (Ensemble method and Lasso Regression (Generalized Linear Models were determined to be the best models to predict the cost of T2DM (R2=65.3, mean square error [MSE]=0.94; and R2=64.75, MSE=0.96, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study serve as a reference for policy decision making in diabetes

  15. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and quality of root canal fillings in population of Zagreb, Croatia: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijević, Jurica; Čižmeković Dadić, Tina; Prpić Mehičić, Goranka; Anić, Ivica; Šlaj, Mladen; Jukić Krmek, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of apical periodontitis and assess the quality of endodontic fillings in the population of the city of Zagreb, Croatia. Methods A total of 1462 orthopantomograms from new patients at 6 different dental practices was analyzed during 2006 and 2007. The presence of periapical lesions was determined by using the periapical index score (PAI). The quality of endodontic fillings was assessed according to the filling length and homogeinicity. Data were analyzed using t test and ANOVA with Scheffe post-hoc test. Results There were 75.9% of participants with endodontically treated teeth and 8.5% of all teeth were endodontically treated. Only 34.2% of endodontically treated roots had adequate root canal filling length, while 36.2% of root canal fillings had homogenous appearance. From the total number of teeth with intracanal post, 17.5% had no visible root canal filling. Using PAI 3 as a threshold value for apical periodontitis, periapical lesions were detected in 8.5% of teeth. Adequate quality of root canal fillings was associated with a lower prevalence of periapical lesions. Conclusion We found a large proportion of endodontically treated teeth with apical periodontitis and a correlation between the quality of endodontic filling and the prevalence of periapical lesions. This all suggests that it is necessary to improve the quality of endodontic treatment in order to reduce the incidence and prevalence of apical periodontitis. PMID:22180266

  16. Analysis of the prevalence and causes of ultrafiltration failure during long-term peritoneal dialysis: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Watske; Schouten, Natalie; van den Berg, Nicole; Langedijk, Monique J.; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrafiltration failure (UFF) is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). It can occur at any stage of PD, but develops in time and is, therefore, especially important in long-term treatment. To investigate its prevalence and to identify possible causes, we performed a

  17. A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, Marloes; van der Goot, Jeanet A; Fijten, Helmi; van der Giessen, Joke W; Kuijt, Eric; Maassen, Catharina B M; van Roon, Annika; Wit, Ben; Koets, Ad P; Roest, Hendrik I J

    2018-01-01

    In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its

  18. A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, Marloes; Goot, van der Jeanet A.; Fijten, Helmi; Giessen, van der Joke W.; Kuijt, Eric; Maassen, Catharina B.M.; Roon, van Annika; Wit, Ben; Koets, Ad P.; Roest, Hendrik I.J.

    2018-01-01

    In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its

  19. Prevalence and resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a European cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, C.D.J. den; Bijnen, E.M.E. van; Paget, W.J.; Pringle, M.; Goossen, H.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Information on the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus resistance has mainly been obtained from invasive strains, although the commensal flora is considered an important reservoir of resistance. Within ‘The Appropriateness of prescribing antibiotics in primary health care in Europe with

  20. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Eun Young Rha

    Full Text Available We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population.This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1 lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis.Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219 and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376, respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only.Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition.

  1. The Prevalence, Attitudes, and Correlates of Waterpipe Smoking Among High School Students in Iran: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Reza; Mohammadi, Reza; Dastgiri, Saeed; Viitasara, Eija; Rahimi, Vahab Asl; Jeddi, Abolfazl; Soares, Joaquim

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the correlates of waterpipe (WP) smoking among 15-17-year-old high school students in Iran. Data were collected using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a self-administrated questionnaire distributed to a representative sample of high school students aged 15-17 in the city of Tabriz. Current WP smoking was defined as past 30-day use, and ever WP smoking was defined as at least one or two lifetime puffs. Differences in WP use, knowledge, and attitudes were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Binary logistic regression estimated the association between relevant independent variables (e.g., age) and the dependent variables (current/ever WP smoking). Of 1517 students, 21.6 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] = 19.5, 23.8) were ever WP smokers, and 9.7 % (95 % CI = 8.2, 11.2) were current WP smokers. Of current WP smokers, 40.3 % have stated that they want to stop smoking now. Moreover, 14.1 % of non-WP smokers reported that they might enjoy smoking WP. Of current WP smokers, 49.0 % have smoked at cafés. Additionally, 95.3 % of current WP smokers reported that their age did not prevent them from being served a WP. Studying in high school third grade (adjusted odds ratios (AORs) = 1.70; 95 % CI [1.10, 2.63]), experience of cigarette smoking (AORs = 1.57; 95 % CI [1.12, 2.20]), and being prepared to accept a WP offered by close friends (AORs = 3.31; 95 % CI [2.17, 5.04]) were independently associated with ever WP smoking, and accepting a WP offered by close friends (AORs = 4.36; 95 % CI [2.69, 7.07]) and gender (female) (AORs = 0.45; 95 % CI [0.30, 0.70] were independently associated with current WP smoking. Prevalence of current and ever WP smoking is high in Tabriz. There is an urgent need to design interventions in order to increase students' and their parents' awareness regarding the harmfulness of WP, and to establish legal measures to restrict adolescents

  2. Elliptical cross section fuel rod study II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, H.; Marajofsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is continued the behavior analysis and comparison between cylindrical fuel rods of circular and elliptical cross sections. Taking into account the accepted models in the literature, the fission gas swelling and release were studied. An analytical comparison between both kinds of rod reveals a sensible gas release reduction in the elliptical case, a 50% swelling reduction due to intragranular bubble coalescence mechanism and an important swelling increase due to migration bubble mechanism. From the safety operation point of view, for the same linear power, an elliptical cross section rod is favored by lower central temperatures, lower gas release rates, greater gas store in ceramic matrix and lower stored energy rates. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  3. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Latin America and its association with sub-clinical carotid atherosclerosis: the CARMELA cross sectional study

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    Torres Marta

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome increases cardiovascular risk. Limited information on its prevalence in Latin America is available. The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA study included assessment of metabolic syndrome in 7 urban Latin American populations. Methods CARMELA was a cross-sectional, population-based, observational study conducted in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III, and associated carotid atherosclerosis were investigated in 11,502 participants aged 25 to 64 years. Results Across CARMELA cities, metabolic syndrome was most prevalent in Mexico City (27% and Barquisimeto (26%, followed by Santiago (21%, Bogota (20%, Lima (18%, Buenos Aires (17%, and Quito (14%. In nondiabetic participants, prevalence was slightly lower but followed a comparable ranking. Overall, 59%, 59%, and 73% of women with high triglycerides, hypertension, or glucose abnormalities, respectively, and 64%, 48% and 71% of men with abdominal obesity, hypertension, or glucose abnormalities, respectively, had the full metabolic syndrome. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with age, markedly so in women. Mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCAIMT and prevalence of carotid plaque increased steeply with increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome components; mean CCAIMT was higher and plaque more prevalent in participants with metabolic syndrome than without. Conclusion The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components by NCEP ATP III criteria was substantial across cities, ranging from 14% to 27%. CARMELA findings, including evidence of the association of metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis, should inform appropriate clinical and public health

  4. Prevalence and impact of constipation and bowel dysfunction induced by strong opioids: a cross-sectional survey of 520 patients with cancer pain: DYONISOS study.

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    Abramowitz, L; Béziaud, N; Labreze, L; Giardina, V; Caussé, C; Chuberre, B; Allaert, F A; Perrot, S

    2013-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in patients with cancer pain according to the Knowles-Eccersley-Scott symptom score (KESS), the different symptoms of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD), and to assess the impact of OIBD on patient's quality-of-life. A cross-sectional observational study, using the KESS questionnaire and the physician's subjective assessment of constipation, and other questionnaires and questions on constipation, OIBD, and quality-of-life, carried out on 1 day at oncology day centres and hospitals. Five hundred and twenty patients were enrolled at 77 centres in France; 61.7% of patients (n = 321) showed a degree of constipation that is problematic for the patient according to KESS (between 9-39). Even more patients, 85.7% (n = 438), were considered constipated according to the physician's subjective assessment-despite laxative use (84.7% of patients). Quality-of-life was significantly reduced in constipated vs non-constipated patients for both PAC-QoL (p hospitalization (16% of patients), pain (75% of patients), and frequent changes in opioid and laxative treatment. This cross-sectional study, in a selected population of cancer patients, has measured prevalence and impact of OIBD. Further confirmation could be sought through the use of longitudinal studies, and larger populations, such as non-cancer pain patients treated with opioids. Cancer patients taking opioids for pain are very frequently constipated, even if they are prescribed laxatives. This leads to relevant impairments of quality-of-life.

  5. Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking in Male Adolescents in Northern Jordan, and the Influence of Waterpipe Use and Asthma Diagnosis: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

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    Nihaya Al-Sheyab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigates the prevalence, patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking among early adolescent males in Northern Jordan and whether asthma diagnosis affects smoking patterns. A descriptive cross sectional design was used. Males in grades 7 and 8 from four randomly selected high schools in the city of Irbid were enrolled. Data on waterpipe (WP use and cigarette smoking patterns were obtained (n = 815 using a survey in Arabic language. The overall prevalence of ever having smoked a cigarette was 35.6%, with 86.2% of this group smoking currently. Almost half of the sample reported WP use. The most common age in which adolescents started to experiment with cigarettes was 11–12 years old (49.1%, although 10 years was also common (25.3%. Significant predictors of male cigarette smoking were WP use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.99–5.76, asthma diagnosis (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.46–3.78, grade 8 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10–2.11, and having a sibling who smokes (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.53–3.24. However, this cross-sectional study cannot establish causality, thus longitudinal studies are needed. Public health programs and school-based anti-tobacco smoking interventions that target children in early years at high schools are warranted to prevent the uptake of tobacco use among this vulnerable age group. High school students with asthma should be specifically targeted.

  6. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in Filipino vs Caucasian Americans: a retrospective cross-sectional epidemiologic study of two convenience samples.

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    Sáles, Christopher S; Lee, Roland Y; Agadzi, Anthony K; Hee, Michael R; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C

    2012-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Filipino and Caucasian Americans in two clinic populations. Retrospective cross-sectional epidemiologic study of two convenience samples. Five hundred twelve Filipino and 600 Caucasian patients aged 40 years or older examined by two community-based comprehensive ophthalmology clinics during a one-year period. The prevalence of self-reported type 2 diabetes mellitus among Filipino (F) and Caucasian Americans (C) was 40.6% and 24.8%, respectively (PFilipino; 149 Caucasian), there was a statistically insignificant higher prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among Filipino diabetics compared to Caucasians (F vs C: all forms of diabetic retinopathy, 24.5% vs 16.8%, P=.08; non-proliferative retinopathy, 17.3% vs 12.8%, P=.24; proliferative retinopathy, 7.2% vs. 4.0%, P=.21). In multivariate analyses of the diabetic subpopulation, Filipino ethnicity was not a significant predictor of diabetic retinopathy. Filipino Americans may have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy than Caucasian Americans. Among those with type 2 diabetes, however, Filipino Americans were not found to be more likely to show manifestations of diabetic retinopathy than Caucasian Americans.

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with occupational burnout among HIV/AIDS healthcare workers in China: a cross-sectional study

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    Zhengxue Qiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout is a psychosomatic syndrome characterized by three dimensions (emotional exhaustion [EE], feelings of depersonalization [DP], and reduced personal accomplishment [PA]. We determined the prevalence of burnout and mental health status between HIV/AIDS healthcare workers and other healthcare workers, and determined the factors associated with burnout of HIV/AIDS healthcare workers. Methods All participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The participants were recruited from the departments of infectious diseases in four hospitals which treated HIV/AIDS. The questionnaire included demographics, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS, the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, and the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ. Results A total of 512 questionnaires were distributed; 501 questionnaires were completed and collected (the response rate was 97.9 %. After eliminating nine invalid questionnaires (1.80 %, 264 physicians and nurses caring for HIV/AIDS and 228 physicians and nurses caring for other infectious diseases provided valid responses (98.2 %. The HIV/AIDS healthcare workers’ scores on the emotional exhaustion (F = 6.350, p = 0.012 and depersonalization dimensions (F = 8.533, p = 0.004 were significantly higher than other healthcare workers. The HIV/AIDS healthcare workers had higher total scores and positive items on the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90 compared with other healthcare workers. Low job satisfaction, serious somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, poor quality of sleep, high psychoticism scores, and use of negative coping styles were frequently associated with burnout. Conclusions Burnout was shown to be highly prevalent in HIV/AIDS healthcare workers, 76.9 % of whom met the accepted criteria for burnout. In addition, compared with other healthcare workers, HIV/AIDS healthcare workers experienced lower

  8. Prevalence and its associated risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among Yadot primary school children of South Eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Tulu, Begna; Taye, Solomon; Amsalu, Eden

    2014-11-26

    Intestinal parasitic infections are posing significant morbidity worldwide. In Ethiopia, due to poor socio-economic status, intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and its associated risk factors among Yadot primary school children which is found in South-Eastern part of Ethiopia, in the district called Delo-Mena. Institution based cross-sectional study was employed from March to April 2013. In this study, a total of 340 students were selected using simple random sampling, and data on socio-demographic characteristics and factors associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites as well as stool samples were collected and processed accordingly. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16, and binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to measure the strength of association between dependent and independent variables. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 26.2%. Poly-parasitism was detected in 6.2% of the students. Consistently, students who were infected with single, double, triple and quadruple parasites were 20%, 4.7%, 1.2% and 0.3% respectively. In line with this, the most prevalent parasites were Schistosoma mansoni 12.6%, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 5%, Ascaris lumbricoides 4.7%, and Hymenolepis nana 4.4%. Regarding the risk factors for the infections, not knowing why they wash their hands before meal [(AOR=0.20, 95% CI=0.10-0.40), pintestinal parasitic infections. Intestinal parasitic infections were found to be highly prevalent among Yadot primary school children. Hence, health education, improving sanitation, provision of safe drinking water, increasing latrine use, snail control and deworming to the students are crucial.

  9. U.S. military service and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: Findings from a cross-sectional analysis of the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study, 1979-2013.

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    Janak, Jud C; Pérez, Adriana; Alamgir, Hasanat; Orman, Jean A; Cooper, Sharon P; Shuval, Kerem; DeFina, Laura; Barlow, Carolyn E; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee

    2017-02-01

    U.S. military service confers both health benefits and risks potentially associated with a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors called metabolic syndrome. However, the association between prior military service and metabolic syndrome has not sufficiently been examined. The purpose of the study was to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by prior military service status. Among 42,370 men (887 with prior military service) examined from 1979 to 2013 at the Cooper Clinic (Dallas, TX), we used a cross-sectional study design to examine the association between military service and metabolic syndrome. First, an unadjusted log binomial regression model was performed by regressing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome on prior service. This was followed by performing Kleinbaum's modeling strategy for assessing confounding. The same methodology was used to explore the association between individual metabolic syndrome risk factors and prior service. Prior military service was not significantly associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (PR=0.98, 0.89-1.07). None of the variables explored were identified as confounders. Participants with prior military service had lower prevalence of both elevated levels of triglycerides (PR=0.89, 0.80-0.99) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (PR=0.78, 0.70-0.88). They had a higher prevalence of elevated resting systolic blood pressure (PR=1.23, 1.12-1.35). However, none of these associations were significant after adjusting for identified confounders: age; cardiorespiratory fitness; and exam year. Study findings indicate that military service was not independently associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome or its components. Future research is warranted longitudinally assessing the impact of military service on long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of physical conditions and multimorbidity in a cohort of adults with intellectual disabilities with and without Down syndrome: cross-sectional study

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    Kinnear, Deborah; Morrison, Jill; Allan, Linda; Henderson, Angela; Smiley, Elita

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of multimorbidity in adults with intellectual disabilities with and without Down syndrome. Design Large, population-based cross-sectional study. Setting The geographical area of one Health Board, Scotland. Participants All adults (aged 16+ years) known to general practitioners to have intellectual disabilities and adults receiving services provided or paid by intellectual disabilities health or social work services. 1023/1562 potential participants took part (65.5%); 562 (54.9%) men and 461 (45.1%) women, aged 43.9 years (16–83 years). 186 had Down syndrome and 837 did not. Main outcome measures The prevalence of International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, physical health conditions and multimorbidity detected at a comprehensive health assessment. Results The mean number of physical health conditions/participant was 11.04, and 98.7% had multimorbidity. The most prevalent conditions are painful and/or disabling and, in some cases, life threatening. The five most prevalent were visual impairment, obesity, epilepsy, constipation and ataxic/gait disorders. The pattern of multimorbidity differs from that seen in the general population and is spread across the entire adult life course. The extent of multimorbidity in the adults with Down syndrome was similar to that of the adults without Down syndrome, while the prevalence of individual conditions differed. Conclusions This robustly designed study with a large population found an extremely high prevalence of multimorbidity in adults with intellectual disabilities across the entire adult life course. This increases complexity of medical management that secondary healthcare services and medical education are not yet geared towards, as these tend to focus on single conditions. This is in addition to complexity due to limitations in communication and understanding. As the physical conditions within their multimorbidity also differ from that seen in the older

  11. The high prevalence of impulse control behaviors in patients with early-onset Parkinson's disease: A cross-sectional multicenter study.

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    Vela, L; Martínez Castrillo, J C; García Ruiz, P; Gasca-Salas, C; Macías Macías, Y; Pérez Fernández, E; Ybot, I; Lopez Valdés, E; Kurtis, M M; Posada Rodriguez, I J; Mata, M; Ruiz Huete, C; Eimil, M; Borrue, C; Del Val, J; López-Manzanares, L; Rojo Sebastian, A; Marasescu, R

    2016-09-15

    In Parkinson's disease patients, impulse control disorders (ICDs) have been associated with younger age and early disease onset, yet the prevalence of ICDs in early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) patients has yet to be studied. Thus, we set out to compare the prevalence of impulse control behaviors (ICBs) in a cohort of EOPD patients with that in age and gender matched healthy controls (HCs), as well as to analyze the association of these symptoms with the use of dopaminergic drugs and other clinical or demographic factors. A cross-sectional, multicenter study was carried out on patients recruited from outpatient Movement Disorder Clinics, assessing ICBs using the short form of the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease (QUIP). In addition, depression and quality of life (QoL) were measured, along with other demographic and clinical variables. Of the 87 EOPD patients, 49 (58.3%) displayed an ICB, as did 28 of the 87 HCs (32.9%; p=0.001). Most of the EOPD patients that displayed an ICB (91.8%) were medicated with a dopamine agonist (DA) and accordingly, DA treatment was associated with a 7-fold increased risk of developing an ICB. Patients with ICBs had a higher depression score and a worse QoL. ICBs are much more prevalent in EOPD patients than in HCs and they are associated with DA intake, depression and a worse QoL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Primary hypertension among a population of Nigerian secondary school adolescents: Prevalence and correlation with anthropometric indices: A cross-sectional study.

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    Uwaezuoke, S N; Okoli, C V; Ubesie, A C; Ikefuna, A N

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of primary hypertension and its correlation with anthropometric indices among a population of Nigerian adolescents. A cross-sectional study of secondary school adolescents aged 10-19 years in Enugu, Nigeria, using multi-staged sampling method. Anthropometry and blood pressures were measured using standardized instruments. Data analysis was with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). A total of 2419 adolescents (mean age, 14.80 ± 2.07 years) were included in the study. Prevalence of hypertension was 10.7%. Systolic and diastolic hypertension were observed in 232 (9.6%) and 85 (3.5%) of the participants, respectively. Forty-two of the 137 obese (30.7%) compared to 158 among the 1777 (7.7%) with normal body mass index (BMI) (P hypertension. Waist circumference (r = 0.37) and BMI (r = 0.37) significantly and positively correlated with systolic hypertension. Obese and overweight adolescents had higher prevalence of primary hypertension than their counterparts with normal BMI.

  13. Prevalence of chronic spinal pain and identification of associated factors in a sample of the population of São Paulo, Brazil: cross-sectional study.

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    Depintor, Jidiene Dylese Presecatan; Bracher, Eduardo Sawaya Botelho; Cabral, Dayane Maia Costa; Eluf-Neto, José

    2016-01-01

    Chronic spinal pain, especially low-back pain and neck pain, is a leading cause of years of life with disability. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic spinal pain among individuals aged 15 years or older and to identify the factors associated with it. Cross-sectional epidemiological study on a sample of the population of the city of São Paulo. Participants were selected using random probabilistic sampling and data were collected via face-to-face interviews. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), EuroQol-5D, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Fagerström test for nicotine dependence and Brazilian economic classification criteria were used. A total of 826 participants were interviewed. The estimated prevalence of chronic spinal pain was 22% (95% confidence interval, CI: 19.3-25.0%). The factors independently associated with chronic spinal pain were: female sex, age 30 years or older, schooling level of four years or less, symptoms compatible with anxiety and high physical exertion during the main occupation. Quality of life and self-rated health scores were significantly worse among individuals with chronic spinal pain. The prevalence of chronic spinal pain in this segment of the population of São Paulo was 22.0%. The factors independently associated with chronic pain were: female sex, age 30 years or older, low education, symptoms compatible with anxiety and physical exertion during the main occupation.

  14. Cross-sectional study on the prevalence and predictors of pregnancy among women living in HIV discordant relationships in a rural Rakai cohort, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakiganda, Lydia Jacenta; Agardh, Anette; Asamoah, Benedict Oppong

    2018-04-24

    This study examines the prevalence of pregnancy in serodiscordant couples and identifies predictors associated with pregnancy in rural Rakai, Uganda. A population-based cross-sectional study that used data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS). We used data from the RCCS survey round 17 (2015-2016), which included 488 women in serodiscordant relationships. This study was conducted in Rakai district, located in south-western Uganda. Pregnancy status. Multivariable modified Poisson regression using stepwise selection was used to determine characteristics and behaviours associated with pregnancy status. The prevalence of pregnancy was 12% in women among serodiscordant couples. HIV-negative women in serodiscordant couples had a slightly higher pregnancy prevalence rate (13.6%) compared with HIV-positive women in serodiscordant couples (11%). Factors significantly associated with higher prevalence of pregnancy were; younger age 15-24 years (prevalence risk ratio (PRR)=4.04; 95% CI 1.72 to 9.50), middle age 25-34 years (PRR=2.49; 95% CI 1.05 to 5.89), Christian religion (PRR=2.26; 95% CI 1.41 to 3.63) and inconsistent condom use in the last 12 months (PRR=4.38, 95% CI 1.09 to 17.53). Neither HIV status nor HIV status disclosure was significantly associated with risk of getting pregnant. Nearly 12% of women in serodiscordant relationships were pregnant, highlighting the need for integrated services to prevent unintended pregnancies and reduce conceptional related risks for those choosing to conceive. Association with younger age and inconsistent condom use suggests a role for early and continued couple-based conception counselling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

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    Gebremariam K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kidanu Gebremariam,1 Demeke Assefa,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal3 1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, 2Reproductive Health and Health Service Management, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC among young adult (10–24 years of age females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results: This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%. The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%, had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7% study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion: Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong

  16. Prevalence, Reasons, and Perceived Effects of Khat Chewing Among Students of a College in Gondar Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teni, F S; Surur, A S; Hailemariam, A; Aye, A; Mitiku, G; Gurmu, A E; Tessema, B

    2015-01-01

    The estimate of the number of people chewing Khat globally ranges from 5 to 10 million people. Its use may result in a variety of effects due to the different compounds in it with effects on the gastro-intestinal system and nervous system being the principal ones. To assess the prevalence, factors, and effects of Khat chewing among students of a college in Gondar town, northwestern Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 15(th) to 20(th) of April 2009 on a total sample of 424 students who were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected by three of the principal investigators using a structured pretested data collection instrument and analyzed by Epi Info version 3.5.2. The lifetime and current prevalence of Khat chewing among the respondents were 42% (168/400) and 32.5% (130/400), respectively. Sex (P sleep disturbance, 82.3% (107/130) loss of appetite, and 80.8% (105/130) constipation. The prevalence of Khat chewing was fairly high among the students and the majority among them used other substances together with Khat. Spending of a significant amount of money and facing health problems were reported to be consequences of the habit. The college should take steps to make students aware of the ills of Khat chewing and associated habits.

  17. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes in adult Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

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    Khalilzadeh, Saeedhossein; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Afrand, Mohammadhosain

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) varies among ethnic groups. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) for the first time in an ethnic population, specifically Zoroastrian citizens in Yazd, Iran whose ages were 30 or older. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, participants aged≥30 years were selected using systematic random sampling. An inventory, including socio-demographic data, was completed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Also, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine (Cr), and uric acid were measured. The latest criteria established by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) were used to diagnose DM. Results: The mean age of the participants (n=403) was 56.9±12.8 years. The total prevalence of diabetes, including previously diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, IFG, and IGT was 26.1%, 18.6%, 7.5%, 34.7% and 25.8%, respectively. Participants with diabetes had higher fasting blood sugar (FBS) (PZoroastrian population of Yazd, Iran. One-third of the total cases with diabetes were undiagnosed. PMID:26052411

  18. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and related risk factors among physicians in China: a cross-sectional study.

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    Yanhong Gong

    Full Text Available Physicians' poor mental health not only hinders their professional performance and affects the quality of healthcare provided but also adversely affects patients' health outcomes. Few studies in China have evaluated the mental health of physicians. The purposes of this study are to quantify Chinese physicians' anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as evaluate associated risk factors.In our study, 2641 physicians working in public hospitals in Shenzhen in southern China were recruited and interviewed by using a structured questionnaire along with validated scales testing anxiety and depressive symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for anxiety and depressive symptoms.An estimated 25.67% of physicians had anxiety symptoms, 28.13% had depressive symptoms, and 19.01% had both anxiety and depressive symptoms. More than 10% of the participants often experienced workplace violence and 63.17% sometimes encountered it. Among our study population, anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with poor self-reported physical health, frequent workplace violence, lengthy working hours (more than 60 hours a week, frequent night shifts (twice or more per week, and lack of regular physical exercise.Our study demonstrates that anxiety and depressive symptoms are common among physicians in China, and the doctor-patient relationship issue is particularly stressful. Interventions implemented to minimize workload, improve doctor-patient relationships, and assist physicians in developing healthier lifestyles are essential to combat anxiety and depressive symptoms among physicians, which may improve their professional performance.

  19. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study

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    Shaw Souradet Y

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have demonstrated the significance of commercial sex work in the ongoing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in India. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs are thought to be an important bridging population for HIV/STIs. However, there is a lack of information on basic characteristics of sex work clients. This study sought to describe the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, as well as examine the determinants of these pathogens among a sample of clients in south India. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional biological and behavioural survey of FSW clients from six districts in Karnataka State, India. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, chlamydia (CT and gonorrhoea (NG among clients was examined. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and sex-work related characteristics related to the prevalence of each pathogen. Sampling weights and appropriate survey methods were utilized in regression models to account for complex sampling design. Results The total sample size was 2,745. The average age of clients was 30.4 (SE:0.3. Across the total sample, the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis and CT/NG was 5.6%, 28.4%, 3.6% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV/STIs varied substantially across districts, reaching statistical significance for HIV (p Conclusions This study fills in important gaps in knowledge regarding clients in southern India. The strong association between HIV and HSV-2 infections highlights the complications in designing effective prevention, intervention and management programs of this well-hidden population.

  20. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Souradet Y; Deering, Kathleen N; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Washington, Reynold; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2011-12-29

    Studies have demonstrated the significance of commercial sex work in the ongoing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in India. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are thought to be an important bridging population for HIV/STIs. However, there is a lack of information on basic characteristics of sex work clients. This study sought to describe the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, as well as examine the determinants of these pathogens among a sample of clients in south India. Data were from a cross-sectional biological and behavioural survey of FSW clients from six districts in Karnataka State, India. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhoea (NG) among clients was examined. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and sex-work related characteristics related to the prevalence of each pathogen. Sampling weights and appropriate survey methods were utilized in regression models to account for complex sampling design. The total sample size was 2,745. The average age of clients was 30.4 (SE:0.3). Across the total sample, the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis and CT/NG was 5.6%, 28.4%, 3.6% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV/STIs varied substantially across districts, reaching statistical significance for HIV (plodges were at increased risk for CT/NG (AOR: 6.3; 95%CI: 1.9-20.6, p=.03). Examining co-infections, clients with HSV-2 infections were at substantially higher risk of being HIV-positive (AOR: 10.4; 95%CI: 6.1-17.7, p<.0001). This study fills in important gaps in knowledge regarding clients in southern India. The strong association between HIV and HSV-2 infections highlights the complications in designing effective prevention, intervention and management programs of this well-hidden population.

  1. Prevalence, characteristics and correlates of enteric pathogenic protozoa in drinking water sources in Molyko and Bomaka, Cameroon: a cross-sectional study.

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    Nsoh, Fuh Anold; Wung, Buh Amos; Atashili, Julius; Benjamin, Pokam Thumamo; Marvlyn, Eba; Ivo, Keumami Katte; Nguedia, Assob Jules Clément

    2016-11-08

    Access to potable water remains a major challenge particularly in resource-limited settings. Although the potential contaminants of water are varied, enteric pathogenic protozoa are known to cause waterborne diseases greatly. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of enteric pathogenic protozoa in drinking water sources in Buea, Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was conducted using 155 water samples collected from various drinking sources (boreholes, springs, taps and wells). Each sample was subjected to physicochemical examinations (pH, turbidity, odour and sliminess) and parasitological analysis (wet mount, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain) to determine the presence of enteric pathogenic protozoa. A data collection tool was used to note characteristics of collected samples and the data was analysed using EPI-INFO Version 3.5.3. The overall prevalence of enteric pathogenic protozoa in water sources was 62.6 %. Eight species of enteric protozoa were observed with Cryptosporidium parvum being the most predominant (45.8 %). Spring water was the most contaminated source with enteric protozoa (85.7 %) while pipe borne water had all eight species of protozoa identified. A pH of 6 was the only significant factor associated with the prevalence of these pathogens in water sources. The prevalence of enteric protozoa in water sources in Molyko and Bomaka is high, spring water is the most contaminated water source and Cryptosporidium parvum is the most common protozoa contaminating water. A water pH of 6 is associated to the prevalence of protozoa. Community members need to be educated to treat water before drinking to avoid infection by enteric protozoa in water and further studies with larger samples of water need to be conducted to find other correlates of the presence of protozoa in water.

  2. Prevalence and severity of anemia and iron deficiency: cross-sectional studies in adolescent schoolgirls in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, T.; Kariuki, S. K.; Kurtis, J. D.; Oloo, A. J.; Kager, P. A.; ter Kuile, F. O.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Anemia is a major public health concern in preschool children and pregnant women in the developing world. While many studies have examined these two at-risk groups, there is a paucity of data on anemia in adolescents living in developing countries in the complex ecologic context of

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes: a cross-sectional nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2013-01-01

    The prime purpose of this study is to assess HIV/AIDS-related self-stigma and discrimination (S&D) attitudes and associated factors using multivariate analysis of data from the 2010-11 National Survey of Understanding the Root of HIV/AIDS Related Stigma and Discrimination. A national telephone survey was carried out with 2271 of the Malaysian public aged 18-60 years. The sample was contacted by random digit dialing covering the whole of Peninsular Malaysia from December 2010 to May 2011. The HIV-transmission knowledge, HIV-related self-stigma, and public stigma were investigated. Despite high level of HIV-transmission knowledge [mean (SD)=10.56 (2.42), mean score at 70th percentile] the respondents in this study had moderate levels (mean scores near midpoints) of self-stigma and public stigma attitudes. HIV-transmission knowledge score was not significantly correlated with self-stigma score, but showed a significantly small positive effect (r<0.2) for public stigma scores. Ethnicity is the strongest correlate of HIV-transmission knowledge, self-stigma, and public stigma attitudes in the multivariate analyses. Other significant correlates were age, socioeconomic group, and urban-rural setting. The root causes of HIV stigma and discriminatory attitudes were not associated with knowledge deficiency. Interventions should be oriented towards promoting de-stigmatization of HIV/AIDS, and tailored socio-culturally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of burnout in Polish anesthesiologists and anesthetist nursing professionals: A comparative non-randomized cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiołek, Aleksandra; Gil-Monte, Pedro R; Misiołek, Hanna

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the burnout levels in nurses ( N = 161) versus physicians ( N = 373). The levels of burnout were evaluated by the Polish adaptation of the Spanish Burnout Inventory (Cronbach's alpha > .70). High burnout level was found in 18.63 percent nurses and 12.06 percent anesthesiologists, and critical level in 3.74 percent nurses and 5.90 percent anesthetists. There were statistically significant differences in Burnout global score, Enthusiasm toward the job, Psychological exhaustion, and Indolence subscales between nurses and physicians. No significant differences were found between sexes in any variable.

  5. Prevalence of abortion and adverse pregnancy outcomes among working women in Korea: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulyong; Kang, Mo-Yeol; Kim, Dohyung; Park, Jaechan; Eom, Huisu; Kim, Eun-A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate incidence and distribution of major adverse reproductive health problems related to various kinds of industries in Korea and to compare risks for major reproductive outcomes to assess maternal health in working and non-working women. We requested claim data from the Korean National Health Insurance. We defined reference groups as (1) non-working women and (2) workers in the education field. Women working in each industry were compared with reference groups regarding rates of miscarriage, threatened abortion, preterm labor, and intrauterine growth restriction. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis, and age and income adjustment was performed. The percentages of all adverse obstetric outcomes were higher in working women than in non-working women. Working women had higher and statistically significant adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for miscarriage in 18 of the 21 industries. The age and income-adjusted OR for miscarriage for all working women was 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.28). Business facilities management and business support services, manufacturing, human health and social work activities, wholesale and retail trade, and professional, scientific, and technical activities were major industries with higher adjusted ORs for adverse obstetric outcomes. We confirmed that compared to non-working women, working women have a higher risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thus, adverse pregnancy outcomes such as threatened abortion, preterm labor, and intrauterine growth restriction may be associated with working status. This exploratory study identified several industries where in-depth studies are required in future to improve occupational safety in women of reproductive age.

  6. Prevalence of abortion and adverse pregnancy outcomes among working women in Korea: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulyong Park

    Full Text Available To investigate incidence and distribution of major adverse reproductive health problems related to various kinds of industries in Korea and to compare risks for major reproductive outcomes to assess maternal health in working and non-working women.We requested claim data from the Korean National Health Insurance. We defined reference groups as (1 non-working women and (2 workers in the education field. Women working in each industry were compared with reference groups regarding rates of miscarriage, threatened abortion, preterm labor, and intrauterine growth restriction. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis, and age and income adjustment was performed.The percentages of all adverse obstetric outcomes were higher in working women than in non-working women. Working women had higher and statistically significant adjusted odds ratios (ORs for miscarriage in 18 of the 21 industries. The age and income-adjusted OR for miscarriage for all working women was 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.28. Business facilities management and business support services, manufacturing, human health and social work activities, wholesale and retail trade, and professional, scientific, and technical activities were major industries with higher adjusted ORs for adverse obstetric outcomes.We confirmed that compared to non-working women, working women have a higher risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thus, adverse pregnancy outcomes such as threatened abortion, preterm labor, and intrauterine growth restriction may be associated with working status. This exploratory study identified several industries where in-depth studies are required in future to improve occupational safety in women of reproductive age.

  7. The Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Related Metabolic Comorbidities Was Associated with Age at Onset of Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xu

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been found to be highly prevalent in psoriatic patients. Adult onset psoriasis could be divided into either early or late onset psoriasis. The associations between NAFLD and related metabolic comorbidities and age at onset of psoriasis have not yet been investigated. Our study was to evaluate the associations between prevalence of NAFLD and related metabolic conditions and early, late, and childhood onset psoriasis. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Data on clinical characteristics of NAFLD and related metabolic diseases (diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia, and metabolic syndrome were collected. The prevalence of NAFLD in 439 patients (mean: 51±14 years, range: 18-85 years was 55.8%. NAFLD was frequently identified in early onset patients (74.2%, and this diagnosis was particularly common in patients currently younger than 40 (85.3%. Diabetes was the least prevalent component of metabolic syndrome in early onset patients with metabolic syndrome but the most often found component in late onset ones. Patients with childhood onset psoriasis had the lowest frequencies of all metabolic comorbidities except hyperuricemia among the three groups. In the multivariate analyses, early onset was independently and positively associated with NAFLD, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperuricemia and independently and negatively associated with diabetes among early and late onset patients. The results suggested prevalence of NAFLD and related metabolic comorbidities was associated with age at onset of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Early onset of psoriasis was independently associated with greater odds of NAFLD, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia and smaller odds of diabetes compared to late onset. Early onset patients have metabolic syndrome mainly related to lipid disorders and abnormal glucose metabolism was not often involved.

  8. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in veterinary echocardiographers: a cross-sectional study on prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kristin; King, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    Assess the relationship between work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) and performing echocardiograms (ECHOS) in veterinarians with a cardiology focus. Prospective study. A survey was submitted to the ACVIM veterinary cardiology list-serve regarding pain associated with performing ECHOS (ECHOPain). Associations of demographic and work habit variables with ECHOPain and WRMSD were evaluated with logistic regression. Respondents included 198 of 487 (41%) members, evenly divided in gender. Most (69%) were 31-50 years old. Almost all (96%) currently perform ECHOS, usually 4-5 ECHOS/week (74%), every week except vacation (93%). ECHOPain was reported by 87 people (44%), which was classified as mild/occasional in 77%, frequent/moderate in 21%, and frequent/severe in 2%. Of those with ECHOPain, 52% reported ECHOS as the sole cause, 31% reported ECHOS aggravating pain from a pre-existing problem, and 17% reported unrelated pain. The most common areas of pain were neck (54%), shoulder (52%), wrist (42%), and back (35%) with 78% reporting pain at 2 or more sites. Pain impaired job performance in 36%, required sick leave or disability in 12%, required reduction in ECHOS/day in 36%, and affected lifestyle in 22%. Ten percent of people have been diagnosed with WRMSD, of which 21% have a permanent disability. Both gender and weeks/year predicted pain with ECHOS (χ(2)(3) = 11.38, P = 0.01). The odds ratio for females versus males with ECHOPain was 2.23. ECHOPain is common (44%) in veterinary echocardiographers, is significantly associated with gender, and affects job performance for over one-third of pain sufferers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of risk factors for breast cancer in German airline cabin crew: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Mareen; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies point to an increased risk of breast cancer among female airline cabin crew. Possible causes include occupational factors (e.g. cosmic radiation exposure, chronodisruption), as well as lifestyle and reproductive factors. To investigate the frequency of various risk factors in German flight attendants which are recognised to be associated with breast cancer. 2708 current and former female cabin crew were randomly selected by a flight attendants' union and mailed a questionnaire; 1311 responded (48% response). Descriptive statistics were used to compare the distribution of breast cancer risk factors with general German population data. On average, cabin crew were 3.0 cm (95% CI 2.7-3.3) taller than the comparison group, while their body mass index was 2.5 kg/m(2) (95% CI 2.4-2.6) lower. We found less use of hormone replacement therapy, but longer average use of oral contraceptives. Nulliparity among respondents aged 45+ was 57% (95% CI 54%-60%) compared to 16%. Average age at first birth was 32.1 years (95% CI 31.7-32.4) vs. 25.5 years. The birth rate was 0.62 (95% CI 0.58-0.67), less than half the population average of 1.34. Alcohol consumption was considerably higher, whereas cabin crew tended to smoke less and performed more physical exercise. We found important differences in terms of anthropometric, gynaecological, reproductive and lifestyle factors. Some of these differences (e.g. higher nulliparity, alcohol consumption, taller size) could contribute to a higher breast cancer risk, whereas others could lead to a reduction (e.g. increased physical exercise, lower BMI, less HRT use).

  10. Awareness and prevalence of acute mountain sickness and prevalence of obstructive airflow limitation among Nepalese porters: A cross-sectional study in Khumbu Valley, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Parajuli, Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acute mountain sickness is a major public health problem in high altitudes. Similarly, anecdotal evidence suggests that there is high prevalence of tobacco smoking among this group though prevalence of obstructive airflow limitation is not known. Objectives: The main aims of the study were to measure the awareness of AMS and report the prevalence of AMS and obstructive lung diseases in high altitude Nepalese porters. Setting: This study was done with bases in Namche Bazaar (...

  11. Prevalence and management of patients using medication targeting obstructive lung disease: A cross-sectional study in primary healthcare in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Ejg Jarbøl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalent use of drugs targeting obstructive lung diseases among adults aged 50 or above in Greenland and to assess the use of spirometry testing among these medication users. Study design. Observational cross-sectional study based on reviews of electronic medical records. Methods. The study was performed in the 6 largest primary healthcare clinics in Greenland, representing approximately 67.0% of the population in Greenland. Adults aged 50 years or above, who had at least one electronically prescribed drug targeting obstructive lung diseases within a 15-month time interval, were identified. We assessed whether a spirometry test was registered in their medical records within previous 2- and 4-year periods. Results. A total of 565 persons were identified. This corresponds to a prevalent medication use of 6.1% (565/9,023 among adults aged 50 years or above. Among these medication users, 14.1% (80/565 had a spirometry test performed within 2 years. Within the 4-year period this increased to 17.9% (101/565. Conclusion. The use of medication targeting obstructive lung diseases in Greenland among adults aged 50 years or above is common. However, spirometry testing among medication users is low and interventions aiming to increase focus on spirometry testing should be integrated in the primary healthcare system.

  12. Suicidal behaviors among Moroccan school students: prevalence and association with socio-demographic characteristics and psychoactive substances use: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouq, Btissame; Bendaou, B; Elkinany, S; Rammouz, I; Aalouane, R; Lyoussi, B; Khelafa, S; Bout, A; Berhili, N; Hlal, H; Nejjari, C; El Rhazi, K

    2015-11-14

    Suicidal behavior is a major cause of injury and death worldwide, especially among adolescents and young adults. Few studies have tackled this issue in the Arab world. The present study investigated the prevalence and the risk factors of suicidal behaviors among Moroccan school students. From April 2012 to November 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the North-Centre region of Morocco among students in public secondary schools selected using stratified cluster random sampling. The data were collected via anonymous self-administered questionnaires. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used in its Moroccan Colloquial Arabic version to assess suicidality according to the DSM-IV criteria. A total of 3020 students (53 % boys) aged 11-23 years (average age = 16 ± 2.1 years) were included in the study. The prevalence of suicide ideation, suicide planning and suicide attempts during the last month were 15.7, 6.3, and 6.5 % respectively. Univariate analyses demonstrated that suicidal behaviors followed different epidemiological patterns. According to the multivariate analyses, the risk factors for all suicidal behaviors among Moroccan school students were the female gender, middle school level, urban locations, low family income, parents' divorce, tobacco consumption and psychoactive substances (alcohol and cannabis) use. The intervention of preventive programs has become an emergency to overcome the issue of suicidality in Morocco. Further researches on adolescents' suicidal behaviors are suggested to update temporal data and assess the effectiveness of potential interventions.

  13. Prevalence and determinants of burnout Syndrome and Depression among medical students at Sultan Qaboos University: A cross-sectional analytical study from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Mohammed; Al-Sinawi, Hamed; Al-Qubtan, Ali; Al-Lawati, Jaber; Al-Habsi, Assad; Al-Shuraiqi, Mohammed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Panchatcharam, Sathiya Murthi

    2017-11-08

    This study investigated the prevalence and determinants of Burnout Syndrome and Depressive Symptoms among medical students in Oman. Then, it explored whether the three-dimensional aspects of Burnout Syndrome (High Emotional Exhaustion, High Cynicism and Low Academic Efficacy) would predict the presence of Depressive Symptoms in a logistic regression model. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a random sample of medical students of Sultan Qaboos University. 662 students participated in the study with a response rate of 98%. The prevalence of Burnout Syndrome and Depressive Symptoms were; 7.4% and 24.5% respectively. Preclinical students reported high levels of both Burnout Syndrome (Odds Ratio-OR 2.83, 95% Confidence Interval CI 1.45-5.54) and Depressive Symptoms (OR 2. 72, 95% CI 1.07-6.89). The three-dimensional aspects of Burnout Syndrome(High Emotional Exhaustion, High Cynicism, low Professional efficacy) were statistically significant predictors of the presence of Depressive Symptoms; OR 3.52 (95% CI: 2.21-5.60), OR 3.33 (95% CI:2.10-5.28) and OR 2.07(95%CI:1.32-3.24) respectively. This study indicates that Burnout Syndrome and Depressive Symptoms are common among medical students, particularly in preclinical grade. Furthermore, the presence of high occupational burnout elevates the risk of depression.

  14. Prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the Turkish general population: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Zeynel

    2012-08-01

    We aimed to establish the prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease in the Turkish general population using the Turkish version of the gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire. A total of 8143 volunteers (mean age: 38.5 (13.3) years; 52.3% males) were included in this cross-sectional questionnaire study conducted via face-to-face administration of the questionnaire forms including items on sociodemographic features, past history of gastric disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, the influence of reflux symptoms on patients' lives, physician visits, diagnostic tests, and reflux medications. A past history of gastric symptoms was reported in half of the population. More female participants (p<0.001) had a past history of gastric symptoms that yielded a previous diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease in 19.1% of the population. The likelihood of gastroesophageal reflux disease was low in the majority (75.3%) of the subjects evaluated. Gastroesophageal reflux disease with an inconveniencing or disrupting impact on the patient's life was present in 17.9% and 6.8% of the population. Total gastroesophageal reflux disease-questionnaire scores and reflux prevalence were higher in older age groups (p<0.001). Females were more likely to have gastroesophageal reflux disease prevalence based on reflux symptoms. The impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on sleep and psychological/emotional well-being was more pronounced in older and female patients, whereas the impact on eating/drinking behaviors and physical-social activities was more marked among females independent of their age (p<0.001). Reflux prevalence was higher in subjects from East Anatolia, Central Anatolia, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions of Turkey (p<0.001 for each). Prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease are compatible with the profile of the disease in the other Western populations, with a predilection for females and

  15. ‘It feels like being trapped in an abusive relationship’: bullying prevalence and consequences in the New Zealand senior medical workforce: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Christopher M A; McKee, Martin; Barclay, Murray

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To estimate prevalence of and factors contributing to bullying among senior doctors and dentists in New Zealand’s public health system, to ascertain rates of reporting bullying behaviour, perceived barriers to reporting and the effects of bullying professionally and personally. Design Cross-sectional, mixed methods study. Setting New Zealand. Participants Members of the Association of Salaried Medical Specialists (40.8% response rate). Main outcome measures Prevalence of bullying was measured using the Negative Acts Questionnaire (revised) (NAQ-r). Workplace demands and level of peer and managerial support were measured with the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Analysis tool. Categories of perpetrators for self-reported and witnessed bullying and barriers to reporting bullying were obtained and qualitative data detailing the consequence of bullying were analysed thematically. Results The overall prevalence of bullying, measured by the NAQ-r, was 38% (at least one negative act on a weekly or daily basis), 37.2% self-reported and 67.5% witnessed. There were significant differences in rates of bullying by specialty (P=0.001) with emergency medicine reporting the highest bullying prevalence (47.9%). The most commonly cited perpetrators were other senior medical or dental specialists. 69.6% declined to report their bullying. Bullying across all measures was significantly associated with increasing work demands and lower peer and managerial support (P=0.001). Consequences of bullying were wide ranging, affecting workplace environments, personal well-being and subjective quality of patient care. Conclusions Bullying is prevalent in New Zealand’s senior medical workforce and is associated with high workloads and low peer and managerial support. These findings help identify conditions and pressures that may encourage bullying and highlight the significant risk of bullying for individuals and their patients. PMID:29555792

  16. 'It feels like being trapped in an abusive relationship': bullying prevalence and consequences in the New Zealand senior medical workforce: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Charlotte N L; Frampton, Christopher M A; McKee, Martin; Barclay, Murray

    2018-03-19

    To estimate prevalence of and factors contributing to bullying among senior doctors and dentists in New Zealand's public health system, to ascertain rates of reporting bullying behaviour, perceived barriers to reporting and the effects of bullying professionally and personally. Cross-sectional, mixed methods study. New Zealand. Members of the Association of Salaried Medical Specialists (40.8% response rate). Prevalence of bullying was measured using the Negative Acts Questionnaire (revised) (NAQ-r). Workplace demands and level of peer and managerial support were measured with the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Analysis tool. Categories of perpetrators for self-reported and witnessed bullying and barriers to reporting bullying were obtained and qualitative data detailing the consequence of bullying were analysed thematically. The overall prevalence of bullying, measured by the NAQ-r, was 38% (at least one negative act on a weekly or daily basis), 37.2% self-reported and 67.5% witnessed. There were significant differences in rates of bullying by specialty (P=0.001) with emergency medicine reporting the highest bullying prevalence (47.9%). The most commonly cited perpetrators were other senior medical or dental specialists. 69.6% declined to report their bullying. Bullying across all measures was significantly associated with increasing work demands and lower peer and managerial support (P=0.001). Consequences of bullying were wide ranging, affecting workplace environments, personal well-being and subjective quality of patient care. Bullying is prevalent in New Zealand's senior medical workforce and is associated with high workloads and low peer and managerial support. These findings help identify conditions and pressures that may encourage bullying and highlight the significant risk of bullying for individuals and their patients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved

  17. Prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use among type 2 diabetic patients in Teaching Hospital in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Tegegn, Henok Getachew; Ali, Dawit Simegnew; Netere, Adeladlew Kassie; Lemlemu, Eskedar; Erku, Daniel Asfaw

    2018-03-09

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients are increasingly using herbal remedies due to the fact that sticking to the therapeutic regimens is becoming awkward. However, studies towards herbal medicine use by diabetic patients is scarce in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use with different sociodemographic variables among type 2 diabetes patients visiting the diabetic follow-up clinic of University of Gondar comprehensive specialized hospital (UOGCSH), Ethiopia. A hospital-based cross sectional study was employed on 387 T2DM patients visiting the diabetes illness follow-up care clinic of UOGCSH from October 1 to November 30, 2016. An interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding the demographic and disease characteristics as well as herbal medicine use was completed by the study subjects. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate logistic regression statistics were performed to determine prevalence and come up with correlates of herbal medicine use. From 387 participants, 62% were reported to be herbal medicine users. The most prevalent herbal preparations used were Garlic (Allium sativum L.) (41.7%), Giesilla (Caylusea abyssinica (fresen.) (39.6%), Tinjute (Otostegia integrifolia Benth) (27.2%), and Kosso (Hagenia abyssinicaa) (26.9%). Most of herbal medicine users (87.1%) didn't consult their physicians about their herbal medicine use. Families and friends (51.9%) were the frontline sources of information about herbal medicine followed by other DM patients who used herbal medicines (28.9%). The present study revealed a high rate of herbal medicine use along with a very low rate use disclosure to the health care professionals. Higher educational status, a family history of DM, duration of T2DM and presence of DM complications were identified to be strong predictors of herbal medicine use. From the stand point of high prevalence and low disclosure rate, it is imperative for health

  18. [Prevalence and factors associated with violence suffered by incarcerated women for drug trafficking in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Valquíria Pereira; da Silva, Maria Arleide; Noronha Neto, Carlos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Chaves, Cynthia Vasconcelos; Bello, Rodrigo Pereira

    2014-07-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the violence suffered by women accused of drug trafficking in the 24 months prior to incarceration in the Women's Penal Colony in the State of Pernambuco. A cross-sectional study including 290 women aged 18 and above, with up to twelve months imprisonment, was performed for the data collection period. A questionnaire was applied to research the socioeconomic and demographic variables and the characteristics of violence and drug trafficking. All of the participants signed a consent form. The association between variables and intensity of exposure and response were determined by the chi-square test and the values (p drugs and 67.5% participated by performing some role in drug trafficking. A high prevalence of some form of violence suffered were observed in the population studied and the partner was the most frequent perpetrator (44.1%), calling for the authorities to pay greater attention in the actions of prevention of such violence.

  19. A cross sectional study of prevalence, risk factors, population attributable fractions and pathology for foot and limb lesions in preweaning piglets on commercial farms in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossent Pete

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a cross sectional study of 88 indoor and outdoor English pig farms, the prevalence of foot and limb lesions in 2843 preweaning piglets aged 1–4 weeks from 304 litters was recorded. The environmental risks for the prevalence of lesions and population attributable fractions were calculated. The risks for lesions in piglets were compared with those for limb and body lesions in their mothers. A small number of piglets with each type of lesion were examined post mortem to elucidate the pathology of the clinical lesions observed. Results The prevalence of sole bruising, sole erosion, skin abrasion and swollen joints or claws in 2843 piglets was 49.4% (1404, 15.5% (441, 43.6% (1240 and 4.7% (143 respectively. The prevalence of all foot and limb lesions was higher in indoor housed piglets than in outdoor housed piglets. The prevalence of sole bruising (OR 0.3 and skin abrasion (OR 0.6 decreased with each week of age from 1–4 weeks, but there was no significant association between piglet age and the prevalence of sole erosion or swollen joints and claws. There was an increased prevalence of sole bruising (OR 3.0 and swollen joints or claws (OR 3.0 and a decreased prevalence of skin abrasion (OR 0.3, piglets ≤ 1-week old, in piglets housed on slatted floors, compared with those on solid concrete floors with bedding. There was an increased risk of sole erosion associated with piglets housed on partly slatted floors with no bedding (OR 2.4 and partly slatted floors with small amounts of bedding (OR 2.9 compared with piglets housed on solid concrete floors with bedding in all areas of the pen. Post mortem examination of feet with lesions indicated that internal pathological changes were frequently more severe than the degree of external damage suggested. Conclusion Piglets housed outdoors had a very low prevalence of foot and limb injuries. Indoors, no one floor type was ideal to minimise all piglet foot and limb injuries and the

  20. Prevalence of dental anomalies in deciduous dentition and its association with succedaneous dentition: A cross-sectional study of 4180 South Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpa, G; Gokhale, Niraj; Mallineni, Sreekanth Kumar; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dental anomalies in primary dentition of Indian population. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4180 children in the age of 2-6 years. Anomalies were classified based on Kreiborg criteria. The term "double tooth" was used to avoid misinterpretation between gemination. and fusion. Patients having radiographs were also examined for associated dental anomalies in permanent dentition. The occurrence and gender prevalence were evaluated using descriptive statistics. About 95. (2.27%) children exhibited at least one dental anomaly. Thirty.seven children showed 51 missing teeth. (0.88%), mostly in lower right incisors with a statistically significant difference between arches. (P = 0.0056) Nine children. (0.21%) had supernumerary teeth commonly in the right maxilla. Two cases of oligodontia. (0.04%) and talon cusps. (0.04%) and one case of triple tooth. (0.02%) were observed. Forty children. (0.95%) had 43 double teeth mostly in the right mandible with a statistically significant difference between the arches. (P = 0.0105). No significant difference was observed based on gender and arch, but they were statistically significant between the right and left sides. (P = 0.018). Among the children with radiographs available, 45% showed anomalies in the succedaneous dentition. The prevalence rates of children with double tooth, hypodontia, and hyperdontia in our study are 0.95%, 0.88%, and 0.21%, respectively. The overall prevalence rate of anomalies among boys was higher than girls.

  1. Prevalence and associated risk factors of dyslexic children in a middle-sized city of China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhao; Zou, Li; Zhang, Jiajia; Mo, Shengnan; Shao, Shanshan; Zhong, Rong; Ke, Juntao; Lu, Xuzai; Miao, Xiaoping; Song, Ranran

    2013-01-01

    There are many discussions about dyslexia based on studies conducted in western countries, and some risk factors to dyslexia, such as gender and home literacy environment, have been widely accepted based on these studies. However, to our knowledge, there are few studies focusing on the risk factors of dyslexia in China. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of dyslexia and its potential risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qianjiang, a city in Hubei province, China. Two stages sampling strategy was applied to randomly selected 5 districts and 9 primary schools in Qianjiang. In total, 6,350 students participated in this study and there were 5,063 valid student questionnaires obtained for the final analyses. Additional questionnaires (such as Dyslexia Checklist for Chinese Children and Pupil Rating Scale) were used to identify dyslexic children. The chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were employed to reveal the potential risk factors to dyslexia. Our study revealed that the prevalence of dyslexia was 3.9% in Qianjiang city, which is a middle-sized city in China. Among dyslexic children, the gender ratio (boys to girls) was nearly 3∶1. According to the P-value in the multivariate logistic regression, the gender (Pdyslexia. The prevalence rate of dyslexic children in middle-sized cities is 3.9%. The potential risk factors of dyslexic children revealed in this study will have a great impact on detecting and treating dyslexic children in China as early as possible, although more studies are still needed to further investigate the risk factors of dyslexic children in China.

  2. Prevalence and factors related to dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar town, Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study.

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    Dawani, Narendar; Nisar, Nighat; Khan, Nazeer; Syed, Shahbano; Tanweer, Navara

    2012-12-27

    Dental caries is highly prevalent and a significant public health problem among children throughout the world. Epidemiological data regarding prevalence of dental caries amongst Pakistani pre-school children is very limited. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar Town, Karachi, Pakistan and the factors related to caries. A cross-sectional study of 1000 preschool children was conducted in Saddar town, Karachi. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select the sample. At first stage, eight clusters were selected randomly from total 11 clusters. In second stage, from the eight selected clusters, preschools were identified and children between 3- to 6-years age group were assessed for dental caries. Caries prevalence was 51% with a mean dmft score being 2.08 (±2.97) of which decayed teeth constituted 1.95. The mean dmft of males was 2.3 (±3.08) and of females was 1.90 (±2.90). The mean dmft of 3, 4, 5 and 6-year olds was 1.65, 2.11, 2.16 and 3.11 respectively. A significant association was found between dental caries and following variables: age group of 4-years (p-value dental plaque (p-value dental caries coupled with a high prevalence of unmet dental treatment needs. Association between caries experience and age of child, consumption of non-sweetened milk, dental plaque and poor oral hygiene had been established.

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with a higher risk of neck and back pain among permanent wheelchair users: a cross-sectional study.

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    Kovacs, Francisco M; Seco, Jesús; Royuela, Ana; Barriga, Andrés; Zamora, Javier

    2018-04-01

    Cross-sectional study. To determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, spinal pain among wheelchair users. Four Spanish hospitals specialized in providing care for wheelchair users. Persons who had used a wheelchair for a median (IRQ) of 10 (5;19) years, 27% of them due to reasons other than spinal cord injury, were recruited consecutively (n = 750). Data on 43 demographic, psychosocial, ergonomic, and clinical variables were collected, and analyzed. Main outcome measures were: point prevalence of neck (NP), thoracic (TP), low back pain (LBP), and pain at any spinal level (PASL); and factors associated with them. Point prevalence was 56% for NP, 54% for TP, 45% for LBP, and 76% for PSAL. PASL was associated with a lower quality of life (OR (95% CI) 0.91 (0.86; 0.97)). Multivariable regression models showed that the main factors associated with significant pain (≥1.5 VAS points) were: (a) For NP: cervical spinal injury and wheelchair seat cushion thickness, (b) For TP: thoracic spinal injury and sagittal index, (c) For LBP: thoracic or lumbar spinal injury, with some sensitivity remaining, (d) For PASL: being female, living alone, and using a non-power wheelchair. Discrimination (AUC) of these models ranged between 0.638 and 0.818. p-values in the Hosmer-Lemeshow test ranged between 0.420 and 0.701. Prevalence of spinal pain among wheelchair users is high. It is associated with a lower quality of life. Future studies should assess whether using a power wheelchair affects PASL, and if the thickness of seat cushion affects NP. Spanish Back Pain Research Network.

  4. Prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus infection in healthy women is related to sexual behaviours and educational level: a cross-sectional study.

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    Tay, Sun Kuie; Oon, Lynette Lin Ean

    2014-12-01

    This study reports the prevalence and risk factors of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in healthy women in Singapore. Demography, education, sexual and reproductive history and cigarette smoking habits were obtained from a cross-sectional population of healthy women and girls aged above 12 years of age. Cervical or vaginal cytology samples were investigated for 37 known anogenital HPV subtypes using the linear array PCR method. Chi square statistics were used to test for associations of individual epidemiological factors with HPV infection. Independent risk factors were identified with binomial logistic regression analysis. Of 891 subjects, the prevalence of HPV infection was 9.31% (83/891 women) for any-type HPV and 5.05% (46/891 women) for the high-risk HPV (hrHPV). Of 30 HPV subtypes detected, the most prevalent genotypes in descending order of frequency were subtypes 51, 16, 52, 58 and 66 for hrHPV and subtypes 62, 61, 84, 72 and 53 for the low-risk HPV. This frequency distribution of HPV subtypes was different from reports from other countries within Asia. Forty-six virgins studied tested negative for HPV infection. Significant independent risk factors for any-type HPV infection were multiple sexual partners (adjusted OR 1.4) and low (≤6 years) educational level (adjusted OR 4.0). The distribution of HPV subtypes in healthy women varies between different countries within Asia. In Singapore, the prevalence of HPV infection was 9.31% and was related to penetrative sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners and low educational level. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Prevalence, source and severity of work-related injuries among "foreign" construction workers in a large Malaysian organisation: a cross-sectional study.

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    Zerguine, Haroun; Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri Mohd; Jalaludin, Juliana

    2018-02-02

    Malaysian construction sector is regarded as critical in the field of health because of the high rates of accidents and fatalities. This research aimed to determine the prevalence, sources and severity of injuries and its association with commitment to safety among foreign construction workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 323 foreign construction workers from six construction projects of a large organization in Malaysia, using a simple random sampling method. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire to assess work-related injuries and safety commitment. The collected data was analysed by SPSS 22.0 using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. The prevalence of work-related injuries in a one year period was 22.6%, where most of the injuries were of moderate severity (39.7%) and falls from heights represented the main source (31.5%). The majority of the foreign construction workers had perceived between moderate and high safety commitment, which was significantly associated with work-related injuries. The results also showed a significant association of work-related injuries with the company\\'s interest in Safety and Health, Safety and Health training, and safety equipment. Thus, the implementation of new procedures and providing relevant trainings and safety equipment; will lead to a decrease in injury rates in construction sites.

  6. Prevalence of undiagnosed asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated risk factors during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study at two tertiary centres in Cairo, Egypt.

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    Abdel-Aziz Elzayat, Mohamed; Barnett-Vanes, Ashton; Dabour, Mohamed Farag Elmorsy; Cheng, Feng

    2017-03-21

    The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) during pregnancy is poorly understood in Egypt-a country with a high birth rate. To determine the prevalence of ASB among pregnant women booking at El Hussein and Sayed Galal Hospitals in Al-Azhar University in Egypt; and to observe the relationship between ASB prevalence and risk factors such as socioeconomic level and personal hygiene. Obstetrics and gynaecology clinics of 2 university hospitals in the capital of Egypt. Both hospitals are teaching and referral hospitals receiving referrals from across over the country. They operate specialist antenatal clinics 6 days per week. A cross-sectional study combining the use of questionnaires and laboratory analysis was conducted in 171 pregnant women with no signs or symptoms of urinary tract infection (1 case was excluded). Samples of clean catch midstream urine were collected and cultured using quantitative urine culture and antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed. Of 171 pregnant women, 1 case was excluded; 17 cases (10%, 95% CI 5.93% to 15.53%) were positive for ASB. There was a statistically significant relation between the direction of washing genitals and sexual activity per week-and ASB. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated bacteria followed by Klebsiella . Nitrofurantoin showed 100% sensitivity, while 88% of the isolates were resistant to cephalexin. The prevalence of ASB seen in pregnant women in 2 tertiary hospitals in Egypt was 10%. E. coli and Klebsiella are the common organisms isolated. The direction of washing genitals and sexual activity significantly influences the risk of ASB. Pregnant women should be screened early for ASB during pregnancy; appropriate treatment should be given for positive cases according to antibiotic sensitivity screening. Cephalexin is likely to be of limited use in this management. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence: a cross-sectional study

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    Shi, Lei; Wang, Lingling; Jia, Xiaoli; Li, Zhe; Mu, Huitong; Liu, Xin; Peng, Boshi; Li, Anqi; Fan, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychological maladjustment to undergoing a traumatic event. Our aim was to measure the prevalence of PTSD among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence‚ and explore the associations of their demographic characteristics, social support, personality traits‚ and coping styles with their PTSD symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Workplace Violence Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale and Trait Coping Style Questionnaire. We used convenience sampling method to collect data from March 2015 to September 2016. Healthcare workers (n=2706) from 39 public hospitals located in Heilongjiang, Hebei and Beijing provinces of China completed the questionnaires (effective response rate=84.25%). Results Overall, the prevalence of physical violence in the previous 12 months was 13.60% (n=2706). The prevalence of PTSD among the healthcare workers who experienced physical violence was 28.0% (n=368). Most of the victims of physical violence (50.80%) did not exhibit PTSD symptoms based on their PCL-C scores, and 47.0% did not manifest the diagnostic criteria for PTSD after experiencing physical violence. The level of PTSD symptoms was negatively correlated with their scores on the SSRS (r=−0.188, pviolence contributes to the current prevalence of PTSD. The positive effects of social support on PTSD symptoms suggest that it has practical implications for interventions to promote psychological health. The healthcare workers’ coping styles influenced the development of PTSD symptoms. Therefore, adopting effective coping styles and receiving social support have potential roles in the recovery from trauma after experiencing physical violence. PMID:28765135

  8. Prevalence of hypertension and hypertension control rates among elderly adults during the cold season in rural Northeast China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Nobuo; Zhang, Xiumin; Chiang, Chifa; Liu, Hongjian; Li, Jinghua; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2018-05-01

    Objective: The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing in China, together with economic development and social changes. The prevalence of risk factors for NCDs, such as overweight/obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, is reported to be high even among poor residents of rural areas. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of hypertension among elderly adults in rural Northeast China and the proportion with controlled hypertension among those on antihypertensive medication (hypertension control rate). We also aimed to examine the association of hypertension control with health facilities that provide treatment. Methods: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in six rural villages of Northeast China from February to early March, 2012. We interviewed 1593 adults aged 50-69 years and measured their blood pressure. We examined the differences in mean blood pressure between participants who obtained antihypertensive medication from village clinics and those who obtained medication from other sources, using analysis of covariance adjusted for several covariates. Results: The prevalence of hypertension among participants was as high as 63.3%, but the hypertension control rate was only 8.4%. Most villagers (98.1%) were not registered in the chronic disease treatment scheme of the public rural health insurance. The mean systolic blood pressure, adjusted for the covariates, of participants who obtained antihypertensive medication from village clinics was significantly lower than that of participants who obtained medication from township hospitals (by 16.5 mmHg) or from private pharmacies (by 7.3 mmHg). Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension was high and the hypertension control rate low among elderly villagers during the cold season. As treatment at village clinics, which villagers can access during the cold season seems to be more effective than self-medication or treatment at distant hospitals, improving the quality of treatment

  9. Prevalence of anaemia and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals in Uganda: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obai, Gerald; Odongo, Pancras; Wanyama, Ronald

    2016-04-11

    Anaemia is a public health problem affecting over 1.62 billion people globally. It affects all age groups of people and is particularly more prevalent in pregnant women. Africa carries a high burden of anaemia; in Uganda 24 % of women of child bearing age have anaemia. Pregnant women living in poverty are at greater risk of developing iron deficiency anaemia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the associated risk factors in pregnant women attending antenatal care at Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals in Northern and Western Uganda respectively. We conducted a cross sectional study in Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals from July to October 2012. Our study participants were pregnant women attending antenatal care. Socio-demographic data were collected using structured questionnaires and blood samples were collected for haemoglobin estimation. Haemoglobin concentration was determined using an automated analyzer closed mode of blood sampling. Data were analysed using Stata version 12. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association, with 95% confidence interval; and independent risk factors for anaemia were investigated using logistic regression analyses. Ethical approval was obtained from Gulu University Research Ethics Committee and written informed consent was obtained from each study participant. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 22.1%; higher in Gulu (32.9%) than in Hoima (12.1%), p prevalence of mild anaemia was 23%, moderate anaemia was 9%, and severe anaemia was 0.8%, while in Hoima, the prevalence of mild anaemia was 9%, moderate anaemia was 2.5%, and severe anaemia was 0.5%. Independent risk factors for anaemia were: being a housewife [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.05-2.68]; and being a resident in Gulu (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.41-5.58). The prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women in Gulu is higher than in Hoima. Amongst pregnancy women, being a housewife is an independent risk factor for anaemia

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for microalbuminuria in a cross-sectional study of type-2 diabetic patients in Indonesia : a subset of DEMAND study

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    Sidartawan Soegondo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims Microalbuminuria (MA is a strong predictor of diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type-2 DM. The present study aimed to gather information on the prevalence and risk factors for MA in Indonesian patients with type-2 DM.Methods The DEMAND study was an international open cross-sectional 1-day survey on microalbuminuria prevalence and its risk factors in type-2 diabetic patients. This study reports the results of the Indonesian survey which was performed in primary care practice in Indonesia from June to December 2003. Normotensive or hypertensive adult patients of both genders with type-2 DM without known proteinuria and/or kidney disease were recruited into the study. Patients with known pregnancy, having menstruation or acute fever were excluded. A single urinary albumin/creatinine test was carried out in all patients.Results A total of 770 patients were eligible for analysis. Approximately 80% of the patients had micro-/ macroalbuminuria, while renal insufficiency was detected in about 36% of the 433 patients with available data. Target HbA1c (< 7% was reached by only 40% of the 118 patients who had HbA1c values. Most antidiabetic treatment prescribed was oral (82%, while insulin was used by only 14% of patients. Goal BP (< 130/80 mm Hg was achieved in only 9% of patients. The frequency of patients receiving antihypertensives was 52%, statins 18%, and aspirin 26%. The most frequently used antihypertensives were RAS blockers (45%, while diuretics were used in 7 % of the patients. The family history of DM was found in 43% of patients, the history of retinopathy in 16%, diabetic foot 9%, and history of smoking in 20% of patients.Conclusion These data reveal that Indonesia has one of the highest frequencies of silent diabetic kidney disease seen in any national group in the global DEMAND Study. Early detection, monitoring of vascular complications, and more aggressive multifactorial treatment aiming

  11. Prevalence of malnutrition among older people in medical and surgical wards in hospital and quality of nutritional care: A multicenter, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Loris; Terzoni, Stefano; Lusignani, Maura; Negri, Marina; Froldi, Marco; Destrebecq, Anne

    2017-12-01

    To determine and compare the prevalence of malnutrition in medical and surgical hospital units; to assess quality of nutritional care and patients' perception about quality of food and nutritional care. Hospital malnutrition in older people leads to increased mortality, length of stay, risk of infections and pressure ulcers. Several studies show that malnutrition is often caused by hospitalisation and related to poor nutritional care. Few studies report data on surgical older patients. A cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted in 12 hospitals in northern Italy. Malnutrition prevalence was determined according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment full-version. Head nurses were interviewed in 80 units, through a validated questionnaire regarding quality of nutritional care. Semi-structured interviews were administered to a sample of patients, to investigate their perception about quality of food and nutritional care. Two hundred twenty-eight patients of 1,066 were malnourished (21.4%). Medical patients were at higher risk, so were women, patients aged 85 or more, with impaired autonomy, pressure ulcers or taking more than three drugs. The lack of personnel impacts on quality of care: in 55% of the units, no nutritional screening is performed; nutritional history is investigated in 48% only. No protocols for nutritional problems exist in 70% of the wards; hardly ever the intake is measured. Patients are mostly satisfied, even though they report that food has no taste and is not well presented. They remark the need for more personnel. Prevalence was high, as found in other studies. Medical patients were at higher risk. Nutritional care was inadequate, and often no measures were adopted to prevent malnutrition. Staffing should be increased during meals. These findings will provide indications on the strategies needed to overcome such barriers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

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    Aguiar Pedro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4 in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8 in females (p Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change.

  13. The prevalence and correlates of severe social withdrawal (hikikomori) in Hong Kong: A cross-sectional telephone-based survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W C; Li, Tim M H; Chan, Melissa; Law, Y W; Chau, Michael; Cheng, Cecilia; Fu, K W; Bacon-Shone, John; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-06-01

    Severe social withdrawal behaviors among young people have been a subject of public and clinical concerns. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of social withdrawal behaviors among young people aged 12-29 years in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional telephone-based survey was conducted with 1,010 young individuals. Social withdrawal behaviors were measured with the proposed research diagnostic criteria for hikikomori and were categorized according to the (a) international proposed duration criterion (more than 6 months), (b) local proposed criterion (less than 6 months) and (c) with withdrawal behaviors but self-perceived as non-problematic. The correlates of social withdrawal among the three groups were examined using multinomial and ordinal logistic regression analyses. The prevalence rates of more than 6 months, less than 6 months and self-perceived non-problematic social withdrawal were 1.9%, 2.5% and 2.6%, respectively. In terms of the correlates, the internationally and locally defined socially withdrawn youths are similar, while the self-perceived non-problematic group is comparable to the comparison group. The study finds that the prevalence of severe social withdrawal in Hong Kong is comparable to that in Japan. Both groups with withdrawal behaviors for more or less than 6 months share similar characteristics and are related to other contemporary youth issues, for example, compensated dating and self-injury behavior. The self-perceived non-problematic group appears to be a distinct group and the withdrawal behaviors of its members may be discretionary. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of obesity and other risk factors for type 2 diabetes among school children in Trinidad, West Indies.

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    Batson, Yvonne Ann; Teelucksingh, Surujpal; Maharaj, Rohan G; Cockburn, Brian N

    2014-08-01

    Our previous work has shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus is a problem in the school-aged population of Trinidad, West Indies. The current study evaluated the prevalence in this population of selected risk factors for diabetes, viz: obesity, family history of diabetes and acanthosis nigricans. To assess the prevalence of the following risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in school children in Trinidad: obesity, family history of diabetes in first- or second-degree relatives and the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN). A cross-sectional survey was performed among school children aged 7-18 years from September 2009 to June 2010. A convenience sample was selected from a random sample of 32 schools drawn from all educational districts. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to record family history, gender and ethnicity. AN was assessed and scored clinically at the neck and obesity was measured by anthropometry and bio-impedance. There were 2130 participants in the study. Fifteen per cent were obese and 17% were overweight. Primary school children had a higher prevalence of obesity (22·9% vs 11·0%) and overweight (20·0% vs 15·6%) than secondary school children (Pobesity as measured by BMI for age (35·8 vs 29·4%, P18% of all school children have a degree of AN greater than grade 2, which clinically is readily recognisable. Females displayed this physical sign more commonly than males (Pdiabetes in first- and second-degrees relatives were 11·0% and 1·1%, respectively. Forty-three per cent had one risk factor for diabetes, 23·1% had two and 2·9% had three. Risk factors for T2DM are very common among school children in Trinidad. More than 40% had at least one risk factor. Strategies aimed at reducing risk factors for T2DM, especially obesity, among Trinidadian school children are urgently warranted.

  15. Prevalence of chronic spinal pain and identification of associated factors in a sample of the population of São Paulo, Brazil: cross-sectional study

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    Jidiene Dylese Presecatan Depintor

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic spinal pain, especially low-back pain and neck pain, is a leading cause of years of life with disability. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic spinal pain among individuals aged 15 years or older and to identify the factors associated with it. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional epidemiological study on a sample of the population of the city of São Paulo. METHOD: Participants were selected using random probabilistic sampling and data were collected via face-to-face interviews. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, EuroQol-5D, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Fagerström test for nicotine dependence and Brazilian economic classification criteria were used. RESULTS: A total of 826 participants were interviewed. The estimated prevalence of chronic spinal pain was 22% (95% confidence interval, CI: 19.3-25.0%. The factors independently associated with chronic spinal pain were: female sex, age 30 years or older, schooling level of four years or less, symptoms compatible with anxiety and high physical exertion during the main occupation. Quality of life and self-rated health scores were significantly worse among individuals with chronic spinal pain. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of chronic spinal pain in this segment of the population of São Paulo was 22.0%. The factors independently associated with chronic pain were: female sex, age 30 years or older, low education, symptoms compatible with anxiety and physical exertion during the main occupation.

  16. Dental anomalies: prevalence and associations between them in a large sample of non-orthodontic subjects, a cross-sectional study.

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    Laganà, G; Venza, N; Borzabadi-Farahani, A; Fabi, F; Danesi, C; Cozza, P

    2017-03-11

    To analyze the prevalence and associations between dental anomalies detectable on panoramic radiographs in a sample of non-orthodontic growing subjects. For this cross-sectional study, digital panoramic radiographs of 5005 subjects were initially screened from a single radiographic center in Rome. Inclusion criteria were: subjects who were aged 8-12 years, Caucasian, and had good diagnostic quality radiographs. Syndromic subjects, those with craniofacial malformation, or orthodontic patients were excluded and this led to a sample of 4706 subjects [mean (SD) age = 9.6 (1.2) years, 2366 males and 2340 females]. Sample was subsequently divided into four subgroups (8, 9, 10, and 11-12 year-old groups). Two operators examined panoramic radiographs to observe the presence of common dental anomalies. The prevalence and associations between dental anomalies were also investigated. The overall prevalence of dental anomalies was 20.9%. Approximately, 17.9% showed only one anomaly, 2.7% two anomalies, while only 0.3% had more than two anomalies. The most frequent anomalies were the displacement of maxillary canine (7.5%), hypodontia (7.1%), impacted teeth (3.9%), tooth ankylosis (2.8%), and tooth transposition (1.4%). The lower right second premolar was the most frequent missing teeth; 3.7% had only one tooth agenesis, and 0.08% had six or more missing tooth (Oligodontia). Mesiodens was the most common type of supernumerary tooth (0.66%). Two subjects had taurodontic tooth (0.04%). Tooth transpositions and displacement of maxillary canine were seen in 1.4 and 7.5%, retrospectively (approximately 69 and 58% were in the 8 and 9 year-old groups, retrospectively). Significant associations were detected between the different dental anomalies (P dental anomalies and provide further evidences to support common etiological factors.

  17. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated factors among adults in Southern Brazil: a population-based cross-sectional study

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    Halal Camila S

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection is associated with several upper gastrointestinal disorders. Local data on the epidemiology of the infection are scarce in Brazil. The purpose of this study is to measure the prevalence rate and to explore the associated factors among the adult population living in Pelotas, a southern Brazilin city. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Through a multi-stage sampling method all individuals 20 years and over living at the selected households at the urban area of the city were interviewed regarding past and current socio-economic indicators; demographic characteristics; nutritional and behavioural habits; and history of upper gastrointestinal symptoms.Hp infection was ascertained through the 13C-UBT. Due to the high prevalence, data were analysed through robust Poisson regression. All analyses took into account the family clustering of the data. Results Among 563 eligible individuals, 363 agreed to perform the 13C-UBT (refusal rate of 35.5%. Refusals were associated with female sex, consumption of mate drinking, and presence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection was 63.4% (95%CI 59.3%–69.3%. In crude analyses, prevalence was associated with increasing age, non-white skin colour, lower current family income, lower education level, higher size of the family, low socio-economic conditions in childhood, higher number of siblings and attendance to day-care centres in childhood, and presence of dyspeptic symptoms. In adjusted analysis the level of education of the father was inversely associated with the infection, whereas number of siblings and attendance to day-care centre in childhood were directly associated with it. Non-white skin colour remained significantly associated with increased prevalence even after allowing for past and current socio-economic characteristics, age and sex. Compared to non-symptomatic individuals, those

  18. MRSA Carriage in Community Outpatients: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in a High-Density Livestock Farming Area along the Dutch-German Border.

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    John Paget

    Full Text Available MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived in a high-density livestock farming area along the Dutch-German border.Cross-sectional prevalence study carried out between November 2011 and June 2012. Nasal swabs and questionnaires were collected in patients (>4 years who had used antibiotics in the previous three months from twelve Dutch General Practitioners (GPs, seven German GPs and two German outpatient urologists. To assess nasal carriage, swabs were analyzed using selective MRSA agars after broth enrichment. MRSA positive samples were spa typed.Data were collected from 513 GP outpatients in the Netherlands, 261 GP outpatients in Germany and 200 urologist outpatients in Germany. The overall prevalence of MRSA carriage was 0.8%, 1.1% and 2.0%, respectively. In the GP outpatient populations, the prevalence was similar in both countries (0.8% and 1.1%, respectively, p = 0.879, all spa types were indicative for livestock-associated MRSA (4xt011 in the Netherlands; 2xt034 and t011 in Germany and being a farmer, living on or near (<5km to a farm were associated with MRSA carriage. In the urologist outpatient population, the prevalence was higher (2.0%, all spa types were indicative for healthcare-associated MRSA (t068, t032, t003, t10231 and being a farmer, living on or near to a farm were factors not associated with MRSA carriage.The prevalence of MRSA carriage in these community outpatient populations along the Dutch-German border was low. There were striking similarities in livestock-associated MRSA carriage and clonal spread in the outpatient populations seeing their GP in both countries. In contrast, urologist outpatients in Germany were colonized with spa types indicative of healthcare-associated MRSA.

  19. Prevalence of childhood and early adolescence mental disorders among children attending primary health care centers in Mosul, Iraq: a cross-sectional study

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    Al-Jawadi Asma A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adolescents are more vulnerable to the affects of war and violence than adults. At the time of initiation of this study, nothing was known about the prevalence of childhood and early adolescence mental disorders. The aim of the present study is to measure the point prevalence of mental disorders among children of 1–15 years age in the city of Mosul, Iraq. Methods A cross-sectional study design was adopted. Four primary health care centers were chosen consecutively as a study setting. The subjects of the present study were mothers who came to the primary health care center for vaccination of their children. The chosen mothers were included by systematic sampling randomization. All children (aged 1–15 that each mother had were considered in the interview and examination. Results Out of 3079 children assessed, 1152 have childhood mental disorders, giving a point prevalence of 37.4%, with a male to female ratio of to 1.22:1. The top 10 disorders among the examined children are post-traumatic stress disorder (10.5%, enuresis (6%, separation anxiety disorder (4.3%, specific phobia (3.3% stuttering and refusal to attend school (3.2% each, learning and conduct disorders (2.5% each, stereotypic movement (2.3% and feeding disorder in infancy or early childhood (2.0%. Overall, the highest prevalence of mental disorders was among children 10–15 years old (49.2% while the lowest was among 1–5 year olds (29.1%. Boys are more affected than girls (40.2% and 33.2%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mental disorders are a common condition highly prevalent amongst the children and early adolescents in Mosul. Data from the present study mirrors the size of the problem in local community. Several points deserve attention, the most important of which include giving care at the community level, educating the public on mental health, involving communities and families, monitoring community mental health indicators, and

  20. Prevalence and predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms among Chinese and Malawian children: a cross-cultural comparative cross-sectional study.

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    Zgambo, Maggie; Kalembo, Fatch Welcome; Wang, Honghong; He, Guoping; Chen, Sanmei

    2014-08-14

    Multicultural comparative studies have recently increased scientific knowledge base regarding the mental health of diverse populations. This cross-cultural study was cross-sectionally designed to assess differences in the prevalence and predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms between Chinese and Malawian children. A total of 478 children (237 Chinese and 241 Malawians) were randomly recruited in the study. The participants completed a Children Depression Inventory in the dimensions of Negative Mood, Interpersonal Problems, Ineffectiveness, Anhedonia, and Negative Self- Esteem. They further provided demographic and family structure information. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression. The prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms was 16% and 12.4% for Chinese and Malawian study participants, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that fighting among siblings (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.1, 95% CI, 3.5-5.9), fighting among children and parents (aOR = 7.7, 95% CI, 4.6-9.8) and living with father only (aOR = 4.1, 95% CI, 3.4-6.7) were significant predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms among Chinese study participants. On the other hand, clinically significant depressive symptoms were predicted by employment status of a mom only among Malawian study participants (aOR = 3.0, 95% CI, 2.3-5.9). We conclude that diverse cultures affect children's mental health differently and this cluster of children has a noticeable amount of depressive symptoms that in the least requires further diagnosis and preventive measures.

  1. A Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Ill Effects of Internet Addiction Among Medical Students in Northeastern India.

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    Nath, Kamal; Naskar, Subrata; Victor, Robin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate Internet addiction among medical students in northeastern India and gain detailed knowledge about the prevalence, risk factors, and ill effects commonly associated with the disorder. The cross-sectional study sample comprised 188 medical students from Silchar Medical College and Hospital (Silchar, Assam, India). Students completed a sociodemographic form and an Internet use questionnaire, both created for this study, and the Young's 20-Item Internet Addiction Test after they received brief instructions. Data were collected during a10-day period in June 2015. Of the 188 medical students, 46.8% were at increased risk of Internet addiction. Those who were found to be at increased risk had longer years of Internet exposure (P = .046) and always online status (P = .033). Also, among this group, the men were more prone to develop an online relationship. Excessive Internet usage also led to poor performance in college (P Internet addiction include withdrawal from real-life relationships, deterioration in academic activities, and a depressed and nervous mood. Internet use for nonacademic purposes is increasing among students, thus there is an immediate need for strict supervision and monitoring at the institutional level. The possibility of becoming addicted to the Internet should be emphasized to students and their parents through awareness campaigns so that interventions and restrictions can be implemented at the individual and family levels.

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among private kindergarten school children in Bahirdar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: cross-sectional study.

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    Tadesse, Yoseph; Derso, Terefe; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2017-01-04

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, most nutrition efforts have concentrated on under-nutrition in children. However, national surveys rarely report the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Likewise, in Ethiopia there is growing recognition of the emergence of a "double-burden" of malnutrition, with under and over nutrition occurring simultaneously among children, especially allied with improvements in socio-economic conditions. Hence, the study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among private kindergarten school children aged 3-6 years in Bahirdar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A school-based cross sectional study was conducted in Bahirdar Town, northwest Ethiopia from August to September, 2015. Anthropometric measurements such as weight and height were taken from 462 private Kindergarten preschool children aged 3-6 years; socio-economic and demographic factors and feeding practices were collected by interviewing the, mothers or caregivers of the children. The z-score values for BMI-for-age of children were generated using Emergency Nutrition Assessment (ENA) for Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief Transitions (SMART) 2011. Binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with overweight and obesity in children. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to show the strength of association. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6.9% [95% CI 2.4, 11.4]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 4.1 and 2.8%, respectively. The odds of overweight and obesity was higher among children with high dietary diversity score (DDS) [AOR = 5.12, 95% CI 1.42, 18.47], family size of less than five [AOR = 4.76, 95% CI 1.84, 12.31] and a family having a private car [AOR = 3.43, 95% CI 1.02, 11.49]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among private kindergarten preschool children in the study area was high. Interventions on improving feeding

  3. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dental patients with tobacco smoking, chewing, and mixed habits: A cross-sectional study in South India

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    Prashant B Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions are associated with the habit of smoking and chewing tobacco, and many of these carry a potential risk for the development of cancer. There have been no studies that report the prevalence of habits and associated oral changes in the population in Dharwad region, of Karnataka, south India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at SDM Dental College (Dharwad, Karnataka. A total of 2400 subjects (1200 subjects with and 1200 subjects without habits attending the dental hospital were interviewed and examined by trained professionals to assess any oral mucosal changes. Results: Oral mucosal lesions were found in 322 (26.8% subjects who had tobacco smoking and chewing habits as compared to 34 (2.8% subjects without those habits. Oral leukoplakia (8.2% and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF (7.1% were the prevalent oral mucosal lesions found in subjects who had those habits, while the other lesions (1.7% namely; oral candidiasis, median rhomboid glossitis, recurrent apthous ulcer, frictional keratosis, and oral lichen planus (0.9% were frequently reported among individuals without those habits. The odds of developing oral lesions in subjects with tobacco habits was nearly 11.92 times that of abstainers (odds ratio, OR = 11.92, 95% confidence intervals, CI = 10.61-14.59%. Conclusion: The study showed that the risk of the development of oral lesions associated with tobacco smoking, chewing, or both is quite high. Males who had one or more of these habits showed more frequent oral changes than females. The study reinforces the association of OSF with gutkha and areca nut chewing, and leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral cancer with tobacco smoking, chewing, or mixed habits.

  4. The prevalence and related factors of restless leg syndrome in the community dwelling elderly; in Kayseri, Turkey: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Elif Deniz; Gocer, Semsinur; Mucuk, Salime; Ozturk, Ahmet; Akin, Sibel; Arguvanli, Sibel; Mazicioglu, Mumtaz M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and related factors of restless leg syndrome (RLS) in the community-dwelling elderly living in Kayseri. This is a cross-sectional population based study in 960 community-dwelling elderly living in an urban area. We sampled 1/100 of elderly people aged 60 years and older. The diagnosis of RLS was made according to the criteria of the International RLS Study Group. The demographic data were collected by face-to-face interviews. Additionally, the Mini-Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale and anthropometric measurements were used. Logistic regression analyses were performed to define risk factors for RLS. We excluded elderly people with cognitive impairment (295). One hundred and five (15.8%) of the remaining 665 elderly subjects met the criteria to diagnose RLS. There was female predominance (3/1). Gender, length of education, employment status, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, depressive mood, high body mass index, and high waist circumferences, sleep quality, sleep duration, and difficulty in falling asleep in the first 30min were all detected as risk factors for RLS. However in logistic regression analysis, being a housewife, sleeping less than 6h a day and having diabetes was found as significantly related risk factors for RLS. This is the first epidemiologic study of RLS conducted in the Turkish community-dwelling elderly in an urban area. RLS is a common but underestimated disease in the elderly. Although RLS is prevalent we found very few risk factors for RLS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and treatment of atherogenic dyslipidemia in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Europe: EURIKA, a cross-sectional observational study.

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    Halcox, Julian P; Banegas, José R; Roy, Carine; Dallongeville, Jean; De Backer, Guy; Guallar, Eliseo; Perk, Joep; Hajage, David; Henriksson, Karin M; Borghi, Claudio

    2017-06-17

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes, yet markers of this condition are often ignored in clinical practice. Here, we address a clear evidence gap by assessing the prevalence and treatment of two markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia: elevated triglyceride levels and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This cross-sectional observational study assessed the prevalence of two atherogenic dyslipidemia markers, high triglyceride levels and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, in the study population from the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Usual Daily Practice (EURIKA; N = 7641; of whom 51.6% were female and 95.6% were White/Caucasian). The EURIKA population included European patients, aged at least 50 years with at least one cardiovascular risk factor but no history of cardiovascular disease. Over 20% of patients from the EURIKA population have either triglyceride or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels characteristic of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Furthermore, the proportions of patients with one of these markers were higher in subpopulations with type 2 diabetes mellitus or those already calculated to be at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Approximately 55% of the EURIKA population who have markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia are not receiving lipid-lowering therapy. A considerable proportion of patients with at least one major cardiovascular risk factor in the primary cardiovascular disease prevention setting have markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia. The majority of these patients are not receiving optimal treatment, as specified in international guidelines, and thus their risk of developing cardiovascular disease is possibly underestimated. The present study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT00882336).

  6. Residential greenness and prevalence of major depressive disorders: a cross-sectional, observational, associational study of 94 879 adult UK Biobank participants

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    Chinmoy Sarkar, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Increased urbanisation and the associated reduced contact of individuals with natural environments have led to a rise in mental disorders, including depression. Residential greenness, a fundamental component of urban design, has been shown to reduce the public health burden of mental disorders. The present study investigates the association between residential green exposure and prevalence of major depressive disorders using a large and diverse cross-sectional dataset from the UK Biobank. Methods: In this cross-sectional, observational, associational study, we used baseline data from the UK Biobank cohort of participants aged 37–73 years from across the UK. Environmental exposure data were derived from a modelled and linked built environment database. Residential greenness was assessed with a 0·5 m resolution Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, which is derived from spectral reflectance measurements in remotely sensed colour infrared data and measured within geocoded dwelling catchments. Other environment metrics included street-level movement density, terrain, and fine particulate exposures. A series of logistic models examined associations between residential greenness and odds of major depressive disorder after adjusting for activity-influencing environments and individual covariates. Findings: Of 122 993 participants with data on major depressive disorder, the study analytical sample comprised 94 879 (77·1% participants recruited across ten UK Biobank assessment centres between April 29, 2009, and Oct 1, 2010. A protective effect of greenness on depression was consistently observed, with 4·0% lower odds of major depressive disorder per interquartile increment in Normalised Difference Vegetation Index greenness (odds ratio 0·960, 95% CI 0·93–0·99; p=0·0044. Interaction analyses indicated that the beneficial effects of greenness were more pronounced among women, participants younger than 60 years, and

  7. Prevalence of food neophobia in pre-school children from southern Poland and its association with eating habits, dietary intake and anthropometric parameters: a cross-sectional study.

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    Kozioł-Kozakowska, Agnieszka; Piórecka, Beata; Schlegel-Zawadzka, Małgorzata

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of food neophobia in pre-school children and its association with eating habits, dietary intake and anthropometric parameters. Cross-sectional survey performed in 2012-2013. The Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS) adapted by Wardle, Carnell and Cooke was used to assess the level of food neophobia. Dietary intake was measured using an FFQ and dietary records from three days. Anthropometric measurements were taken to determine children's nutritional status and BMI was computed based on Polish growth charts. Wilcoxon's rank test and Pearson's rank-correlation coefficient were applied to compare the level of food neophobia and frequency of consumption of food products and nutrient intakes. Kindergartens in southern Poland located in or near Cracow. Three hundred and twenty-five pre-school children and their parents. Low neophobia was observed in 12·3 % and high neophobia in 10·8 % of the children examined. Children with a high level of neophobia were significantly less likely (Pfood neophobia were observed. High levels of neophobia are associated with diet variation and may enhance the risk of nutritional deficiencies in children.

  8. Urban-rural differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among 25-74 year-old adults of the Yangon Region, Myanmar: two cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Wai Phyo; Htet, Aung Soe; Bjertness, Espen; Stigum, Hein; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline Råberg

    2018-03-30

    To investigate the association between urban-rural location and the occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the Yangon Region, and to estimate the proportion of urban and rural participants already diagnosed with DM, and of those, the proportion under treatment and under control. Two cross-sectional studies, using the WHO STEPs methodology. The Yangon Region of Myanmar, urban and rural areas. Men and women, aged 25-74 years, included during the study period from September-November 2013 (urban) and 2014 (rural areas) (n=1372). Institutionalised people, physically and mentally ill person, monks and nuns were excluded. The age-standardised prevalence of DM was 12.1% in urban and 7.1% in rural areas (p=0.039). In urban areas, the prevalence of DM was lowest in the highest educational groups (prural areas, those who were physically inactive had a low intake of fruit and vegetable and were overweight/obese had a higher DM prevalence than others. In a logistic regression, the OR for DM in rural compared with urban areas was 0.38 (0.22, 0.65), adjusted for sociodemographic variables and behavioural risk factors. In urban areas, 43.1% of participants had the experience of receiving blood glucose measurements by a doctor or health worker, and 61.5% of all cases of DM were already diagnosed, 78.7% were under treatment and 45.8% were under control. The corresponding proportions in rural areas were 26.4%, 52.4%, 78.1% and 32.0%, respectively. The prevalence of DM in the Yangon Region was high, and significantly higher in urban than in rural areas. More health services are needed to serve this population with a large proportion of undiagnosed diabetes. Preventive measures to halt and reduce the prevalence of DM are urgently needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisoners in Mexico City Comparing Prevalence of Transmissible Infections and Chronic Diseases with That in the General Population.

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    Sergio Bautista-Arredondo

    Full Text Available To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy.A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010. Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral.76.8% (15,517/20,196 of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914 of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found.The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected

  10. Prevalence of comorbidity in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes and its association with elevated HbA1c: A cross-sectional study in Croatia.

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    Bralić Lang, Valerija; Bergman Marković, Biserka

    2016-01-01

    To the authors' knowledge, there are few valid data that describe the prevalence of comorbidity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients seen in family practice. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of comorbidities and their association with elevated (≥ 7.0%) haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) using a large sample of T2DM patients from primary care practices. A cross-sectional study in which multivariate logistic regression was applied to explore the association of comorbidities with elevated HbA1c. Primary care practices in Croatia. Altogether, 10 264 patients with diabetes in 449 practices. Comorbidities and elevated HbA1c. In total 7979 (77.7%) participants had comorbidity. The mean number of comorbidities was 1.6 (SD 1.28). Diseases of the circulatory system were the most common (7157, 69.7%), followed by endocrine and metabolic diseases (3093, 30.1%), and diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (1437, 14.0%). After adjustment for age and sex, the number of comorbidities was significantly associated with HbA1c. The higher the number of comorbidities, the lower the HbA1c. The prevalence of physicians' inertia was statistically significantly and negatively associated with the number of comorbidities (Mann-Whitney U test, Z = -12.34; p < 0.001; r = -0.12). There is a high prevalence of comorbidity among T2DM patients in primary care. A negative association of number of comorbidities and HbA1c is probably moderated by physicians' inertia in treatment of T2DM strictly according to guidelines. There is a high prevalence of comorbidity among T2DM patients in primary care. Patients with breast cancer, obese patients, and those with dyslipidaemia and ischaemic heart disease were more likely to have increased HbA1c. The higher the number of comorbidities, the lower the HbA1c.

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisoners in Mexico City Comparing Prevalence of Transmissible Infections and Chronic Diseases with That in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; González, Andrea; Servan-Mori, Edson; Beynon, Fenella; Juarez-Figueroa, Luis; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Gras, Nathalie; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Volkow, Patricia; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2015-01-01

    To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy. A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010). Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral. 76.8% (15,517/20,196) of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914) of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women) demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found. The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected will also

  12. High prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasites among elementary school children in Southwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jejaw, Ayalew; Zemene, Endalew; Alemu, Yayehirad; Mengistie, Zemenu

    2015-07-02

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) pose significant public health challenges in school children in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites among elementary school children in Mizan-Aman town, southwest Ethiopia. Institution-based cross-sectional study involving 460 elementary school children in Mizan-Aman Town was conducted from May to June 2013. The school children were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data on demography and predisposing factors of IPIs were collected using pretested questionnaire. Moreover, single stool specimen was examined microscopically after wet mount and formol-ether sedimentation concentration procedures. Infection intensity of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) was estimated using Kato-Katz egg counting method. Age of the children ranged from 5 to 17 years. Overall, 76.7% (95%CI: 72.8-80.6) of the children harbored at least one species of intestinal parasite. Eight species of intestinal parasites were detected with S. mansoni (44.8%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (28.7%) being predominant. Helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa were detected in 73.9 and 7.8% of the children, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, age between 5 and 9 years (AOR, 2.6, 95%CI, 1.552-4.298), male gender (AOR, 2.1, 95%CI, 1.222-3.526), attending public school (AOR, 0.1, 95%CI, 0.060-0.256), using river/well water (AOR, 2.4, 95%CI, 0.912-6.191), irregular washing of hands before meal (AOR, 0.5, 95%CI, 0.254-0.865), consuming street food (AOR, 2.3, 95%CI, 1.341-3.813) and raw vegetables (AOR, 2.7, 95%CI, 1.594-4.540) were significantly associated with IPIs in the study participants. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among the school children was high. Deworming of the school children and continuous follow up is required.

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases in indigenous Maya-Yucateco people: a cross-sectional community-based study.

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    Peláez-Ballestas, I; Alvarez-Nemegyei, J; Loyola-Sánchez, A; Escudero, M L

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases in indigenous Maya-Yucateco communities using Community-Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) methodology. The study population comprised subjects aged ≥18 years from 11 communities in the municipality of Chankom, Yucatan. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed, and a census was used. Subjects positive for musculoskeletal (MSK) pain were examined by trained physicians. A total of 1523 community members were interviewed. The mean age was 45.2 years (standard deviation (SD) 17.9), and 917 (60.2 %) were women. Overall, 592 individuals (38.8 %; 95 % CI 36.3-41.3 %) had experienced MSK pain in the last 7 days. The pain intensity was reported as "strong" to "severe" in 43.4 %. The diagnoses were rheumatic regional pain syndromes in 165 (10.8 %; 95 % CI 9.4-12.5), low back pain in 153 (10.0 %; 95 % CI 8.5-11.6), osteoarthritis in 144 (9.4 %; 95 % CI 8.0-11.0), fibromyalgia in 35 (2.2 %; 95 % CI 1.6-3.1), rheumatoid arthritis in 17 (1.1 %; 95 % CI 0.6-1.7), undifferentiated arthritis in 8 (0.5 %; 95 % CI 0.2-0.8), and gout in 1 (0.06 %; 95 % CI 0.001-0.3). Older age, being female, disability, and physically demanding work were associated with a greater likelihood of having a rheumatic disease. In conclusion, MSK pain and rheumatic diseases were highly prevalent. The high impact of rheumatic diseases on daily activities in this indigenous population suggests the need to organize culturally-sensitive community interventions for the prevention of disabilities caused by MSK disorders and diseases.

  14. Prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among people working with sound systems and general population in Brazil: A cross-sectional study

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    Trevisani Virgínia FM

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Music is ever present in our daily lives, establishing a link between humans and the arts through the senses and pleasure. Sound technicians are the link between musicians and audiences or consumers. Recently, general concern has arisen regarding occurrences of hearing loss induced by noise from excessively amplified sound-producing activities within leisure and professional environments. Sound technicians' activities expose them to the risk of hearing loss, and consequently put at risk their quality of life, the quality of the musical product and consumers' hearing. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among sound technicians in Brazil and compare this with a control group without occupational noise exposure. Methods This was a cross-sectional study comparing 177 participants in two groups: 82 sound technicians and 95 controls (non-sound technicians. A questionnaire on music listening habits and associated complaints was applied, and data were gathered regarding the professionals' numbers of working hours per day and both groups' hearing complaint and presence of tinnitus. The participants' ear canals were visually inspected using an otoscope. Hearing assessments were performed (tonal and speech audiometry using a portable digital AD 229 E audiometer funded by FAPESP. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the sound technicians and controls regarding age and gender. Thus, the study sample was homogenous and would be unlikely to lead to bias in the results. A statistically significant difference in hearing loss was observed between the groups: 50% among the sound technicians and 10.5% among the controls. The difference could be addressed to high sound levels. Conclusion The sound technicians presented a higher prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure than did the general population, although

  15. Socio-demographic caracteristics and prevalence of risk factors in a hypertensive and diabetics population: a cross-sectional study in primary health care in Brazil

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    Julio Baldisserotto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and their related morbidity and mortality, are currently the most common public health problems and also a higher burden of disease in Brazil. They represent a real challenge for primary health care. This study describes the methodology and baseline data of an adult population with hypertension and diabetes attending in primary health care. Methods It is a cross sectional study which presents data from a longitudinal research. 3784 adults were randomly selected from the registry of a health service in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The eligibility criteria were: confirmed diagnosis of hypertension and/or diabetes, consulted at least once in the prior 3 years and 18 years of age or older. Home data collection consisted of a questionnaire with information on demographic, medical history, life style and socio-economic factors. Results A total of 2482 users were interviewed (response rate of 71 %. The median age was 64 (IQR = 55.7 and the majority were women (68 %, and married (52 %. Whereas 66.5 % (CI 95 % 64.5-68.3 of the sample had only hypertension, 6.5 % (CI 95 % 5.5-7.5 had diabetes and 27.1 % (CI 95 % 25.3-28.8 had both diseases. The prevalence of diseases increased with age and with fewer years of study (p < 0.05. Subjects with both diseases had significantly more associated comorbidities. Conclusions Hypertension and diabetes are more prevalent in older individuals, especially women, and less educated people. People suffering with both chronic conditions simultaneously are more likely to have additional comorbidities.

  16. Socio-demographic caracteristics and prevalence of risk factors in a hypertensive and diabetics population: a cross-sectional study in primary health care in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldisserotto, Julio; Kopittke, Luciane; Nedel, Fulvio Borges; Takeda, Silvia Pasa; Mendonça, Claunara Schilling; Sirena, Sérgio Antonio; Diercks, Margarita Silva; de Lima, Lena Azeredo; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-07-15

    Systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and their related morbidity and mortality, are currently the most common public health problems and also a higher burden of disease in Brazil. They represent a real challenge for primary health care. This study describes the methodology and baseline data of an adult population with hypertension and diabetes attending in primary health care. It is a cross sectional study which presents data from a longitudinal research. 3784 adults were randomly selected from the registry of a health service in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The eligibility criteria were: confirmed diagnosis of hypertension and/or diabetes, consulted at least once in the prior 3 years and 18 years of age or older. Home data collection consisted of a questionnaire with information on demographic, medical history, life style and socio-economic factors. A total of 2482 users were interviewed (response rate of 71 %). The median age was 64 (IQR = 55.7) and the majority were women (68 %), and married (52 %). Whereas 66.5 % (CI 95 % 64.5-68.3) of the sample had only hypertension, 6.5 % (CI 95 % 5.5-7.5) had diabetes and 27.1 % (CI 95 % 25.3-28.8) had both diseases. The prevalence of diseases increased with age and with fewer years of study (p < 0.05). Subjects with both diseases had significantly more associated comorbidities. Hypertension and diabetes are more prevalent in older individuals, especially women, and less educated people. People suffering with both chronic conditions simultaneously are more likely to have additional comorbidities.

  17. Prevalence of stunting and its associated factors among children 6-59 months of age in Libo-Kemekem district, Northwest Ethiopia; A community based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberselassie, Selamawit Bekele; Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu; Mutuku, Shadrack Mulinge; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2018-01-01

    Children in developing countries are highly vulnerable to impaired physical growth because of poor dietary intake, lack of appropriate care, and repeated infections. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of stunting and associated factors among children 6-59 months of age in Libo-kemekem district, northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted in Libo-Kemekem from October 15 to December 15, 2015. The multistage sampling technique was employed to select 1,320 children aged 6-59months. Data were collected by trained community health extension workers under regular supervision. Data were entered into EPI-Info version 3.5.1, and height for age was converted to Z-score with ENA-SMART software. Data were then exported to SPSS version 20 for descriptive and binary logistic regression analysees. The significance of associations was determined at p<0.05. Out of 1287 children included in the analysis, 49.4% (95% CI: 46.7%-52.3%) were found to be stunted. In the multivariate analysis, increased child age [AOR = 6.31, 95%CI: (3.65, 10.91)], family size of six and above [AOR = 1.77, 95%CI: (1.35, 2.32)] were positively associated with stunting, while, fathers with secondary school education [AOR = 0.50, 95%CI: (0.30, 0.81)], farmers as household heads [AOR = 0.56, 95%CI: (0.38, 0.84)] and self-employed parents as household head [AOR = 0.45, 95% CI: (0.28, 0.72)] were found to be preventive factors. The prevalence of stunting was high in the study area. We found that stunting was significantly correlated with child age, occupational status of household head, family size, and fathers' education. Therefore, intervention focusing on supporting housewives, family planning, and education on child feeding and nutrition should be implemented.

  18. Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and Other Intestinal Parasite Infections in School Children in a Rural Area of Angola: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alegría, María Luisa Aznar Ruiz; Colmenares, Karen; Espasa, Mateu; Amor, Arancha; Lopez, Isabel; Nindia, Arlette; Kanjala, Joaquina; Guilherme, Domingas; Sulleiro, Elena; Barriga, Begoña; Gil, Eva; Salvador, Fernando; Bocanegra, Cristina; López, Teresa; Moreno, Milagros; Molina, Israel

    2017-10-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. stercoralis and other intestinal parasites and identify the risk factors for infection with S. stercoralis in a rural area of Angola. A cross-sectional study was conducted in school-age children (SAC) in Cubal, Angola. A questionnaire collecting clinical and epidemiological variables was used, and two stool samples were collected. A concentration technique (Ritchie) and a technique for detection of larvae migration (Baermann) were performed. Of 230 SAC, 56.1% were female and the mean age was 9.3 years (SD 2.45). Severe malnutrition, according to body mass index (BMI)-for-age, was observed in 20.4% of the SAC, and anemia was found in 59.6%. Strongyloides stercoralis was observed in 28 of the 230 (12.8%) SAC. Eggs of other helminths were observed in 51 (22.2%) students: Hymenolepis spp. in 27 students (11.7%), hookworm in 14 (6.1%), Schistosoma haematobium in four (1.7%), Enterobius vermicularis in four (1.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides in three (1.3%), Taenia spp. in two (0.9%), and Fasciola hepatica in one (0.4%). Protozoa were observed in 17 (7.4%) students. Detection of S. stercoralis was higher using the Baermann technique versus using formol-ether (11.3 vs. 3%). Overall prevalence of S. stercoralis in the school population of 16 studied schools in the municipal area of Cubal was greater than 10%. This fact must be considered when designing deworming mass campaigns. The use of specific tests in larvae detection is needed to avoid overlooking this parasite.

  19. Prevalence of thrombocytopenia before and after initiation of HAART among HIV infected patients at black lion specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeamanuel, Gashaw Garedew; Wondimu, Diresibachew Haile

    2018-01-01

    Hematological abnormalities are common in HIV positive patients. Of these, thrombocytopenia is a known complication which has been associated with a variety of bleeding disorders. However, its magnitude and related factors have not been well-characterized in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of thrombocytopenia before and after initiation of HAART among HIV positive patients attending Black Lion Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from February to April 2017 in Black Lion Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 176 patients on HAART were selected using simple random sampling techniques. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the study patients were collected using structured questionnaire. Measurements of platelet counts and CD4 + T cell counts were made using Sysmex XT 2000i hematology analyzer and BD FACS Count CD4 analyzer, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data (Paired T- test and binary logistic regression) was done using SPSS version 20. P -value  18 years old) were enrolled in this study and had a mean age of 40.08 ± 9.38 years. There was significant increase in the mean values of platelet counts (218.44 ± 106.6 × 10 3 /μl vs 273.65 ± 83.8 × 10 3 /μl, p  < 0.001) after six months of HAART initiation compared to the baseline. Prevalence of thrombocytopenia before and after HAART initiation was 25 and 5.7% respectively. HIV patients whose CD4 counts < 200 Cells/μl were more likely to have thrombocytopenia than HIV patients whose CD4 count ≥350 Cells/μl. However, it was not statistically associated with prevalence of thrombocytopenia. This study has shown that the prevalence of thrombocytopenia after HAART initiation was decreased significantly. Based on our results, a number of study participants still had thrombocytopenia after initiation of HAART

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Preschool Overweight and Obesity Amidst the Nutrition Transition: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study in Lebanon

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    Lara Nasreddine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence linking early life adiposity to disease risk later in life. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among preschoolers in Lebanon. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 2–5 years old children (n = 525. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data were obtained. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was estimated at 6.5% and 2.7%, respectively. Based on stepwise logistic regression for the prediction of overweight and obesity (combined, the variance accounted for by the first block (socioeconomic, parental characteristics was 11.9%, with higher father’s education (OR = 5.31, 95% CI: 1.04–27.26 and the presence of household helper (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.05–4.56 being significant predictors. The second block of variables (eating habits significantly improved the prediction of overweight/obesity to reach 21%, with eating in front of the television (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02–1.13 and satiety responsiveness (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70–0.99 being significantly associated with overweight/obesity. In the third block, fat intake remained a significant predictor of overweight/obesity (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.13–4.75. This study identified specific risk factors for preschool overweight/obesity in Lebanon and characterized children from high socioeconomic backgrounds as important target groups for preventive interventions. These findings may be of significance to other middle-income countries in similar stages of nutrition transition.

  1. Prevalence and compensation of academic leaders, professors, and trustees on publicly traded US healthcare company boards of directors: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Timothy S; Good, Chester B; Gellad, Walid F

    2015-09-29

    To identify the prevalence, characteristics, and compensation of members of the boards of directors of healthcare industry companies who hold academic appointments as leaders, professors, or trustees. Cross sectional study. US healthcare companies publicly traded on the NASDAQ or New York Stock Exchange in 2013. 3434 directors of pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical equipment and supply, and healthcare provider companies. Prevalence, annual compensation, and beneficial stock ownership of directors with affiliations as leaders, professors, or trustees of academic medical and research institutions. 446 healthcare companies met the study search criteria, of which 442 (99%) had publicly accessible disclosures on boards of directors. 180 companies (41%) had one or more academically affiliated directors. Directors were affiliated with 85 geographically diverse non-profit academic institutions, including 19 of the top 20 National Institute of Health funded medical schools and all of the 17 US News honor roll hospitals. Overall, these 279 academically affiliated directors included 73 leaders, 121 professors, and 85 trustees. Leaders included 17 chief executive officers and 11 vice presidents or executive officers of health systems and hospitals; 15 university presidents, provosts, and chancellors; and eight medical school deans or presidents. The total annual compensation to academically affiliated directors for their services to companies was $54,995,786 (£35,836,000; €49,185,900) (median individual compensation $193,000) and directors beneficially owned 59,831,477 shares of company stock (median 50,699 shares). A substantial number and diversity of academic leaders, professors, and trustees hold directorships at US healthcare companies, with compensation often approaching or surpassing common academic clinical salaries. Dual obligations to for profit company shareholders and non-profit clinical and educational institutions pose considerable personal, financial, and

  2. Prevalence and correlates of medication non-adherence among kidney transplant recipients more than 6 months post-transplant: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Francis L; Chandwani, Sheenu; Kurtyka, Karen M; Zacker, Christopher; Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Demissie, Kitaw

    2013-12-01

    Among kidney transplant recipients, non-adherence with immunosuppressive medications frequently precedes allograft loss. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of medication non-adherence among kidney transplant recipients. We performed a single-center, cross-sectional study of kidney transplant recipients who were at least 6 months post-transplant. We measured self-reported adherence using the Immunosuppressive Therapy Adherence Scale (ITAS, which is scored from 0 to 12, where higher scores indicate increased adherence) and barriers to adherence using the Immunosuppressive Therapy Barriers Scale (ITBS). We also used validated scales to measure perceived stress, health literacy, anxiety, depression, and interpersonal support. The 252 patients included in the study were 59.9% male, 27.0% Black, and at a median of 2.9 years post-transplant (interquartile range [IQR] 1.4-5.8). On the ITAS, 59.1% scored a perfect 12, 26.6% scored 10-11, and 14.3% scored 0-9. In univariate models, non-adherence (defined as ITAS score ≤9) was significantly associated with increased scores on scales for perceived stress (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.25) and depression (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.28), and with more self-reported barriers to adherence on the ITBS (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22). After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, stress and depression were not associated with non-adherence. Higher scores on the ITBS (corresponding to more self-described barriers to adherence) were associated with lower scores on the ITAS (P adherence. Among prevalent kidney transplant recipients, a minority is non-adherent. Practical barriers to adherence may serve as promising targets for future interventions.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of medication non-adherence among kidney transplant recipients more than 6 months post-transplant: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Among kidney transplant recipients, non-adherence with immunosuppressive medications frequently precedes allograft loss. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of medication non-adherence among kidney transplant recipients. Methods We performed a single-center, cross-sectional study of kidney transplant recipients who were at least 6 months post-transplant. We measured self-reported adherence using the Immunosuppressive Therapy Adherence Scale (ITAS, which is scored from 0 to 12, where higher scores indicate increased adherence) and barriers to adherence using the Immunosuppressive Therapy Barriers Scale (ITBS). We also used validated scales to measure perceived stress, health literacy, anxiety, depression, and interpersonal support. Results The 252 patients included in the study were 59.9% male, 27.0% Black, and at a median of 2.9 years post-transplant (interquartile range [IQR] 1.4-5.8). On the ITAS, 59.1% scored a perfect 12, 26.6% scored 10–11, and 14.3% scored 0–9. In univariate models, non-adherence (defined as ITAS score ≤9) was significantly associated with increased scores on scales for perceived stress (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.25) and depression (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.28), and with more self-reported barriers to adherence on the ITBS (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22). After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, stress and depression were not associated with non-adherence. Higher scores on the ITBS (corresponding to more self-described barriers to adherence) were associated with lower scores on the ITAS (P adherence. Conclusions Among prevalent kidney transplant recipients, a minority is non-adherent. Practical barriers to adherence may serve as promising targets for future interventions. PMID:24289809

  4. Factors Influencing the Prevalence of Mental Health Problems among Malay Elderly Residing in a Rural Community: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Manaf, M Rizal; Mustafa, Madihah; Abdul Rahman, Mohd Rizam; Yusof, Khairul Hazdi; Abd Aziz, Noor Azah

    2016-01-01

    Mental health problems are common in old age, but frequently remain undetected and untreated. Mental health problems in the elderly are the result of a complex interaction of social, psychological and biological factors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and emotional stress) and their associated factors among the Malay elderly in a rural community of Perak, Malaysia. It was a cross-sectional study. The Malay elderly aged 60 years and above were selected through convenient sampling to give a total of 230 respondents. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Bivariate analyses were performed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between the factors and each of the mental health statuses assessed. The results showed that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among the elderly respondents was 27.8%, 22.6%, and 8.7%, respectively. The significant factors for depression were single elderly (Adjusted OR = 3.27, 95%CI 1.66, 6.44), living with family (Adjusted OR = 4.98, 95%CI 2.05, 12.10), and poor general health status (Adjusted OR = 2.28, 95%CI 1.20, 4.36). Living with family was the only significant factor for anxiety (Adjusted OR = 2.68, 95%CI 1.09, 6.57). There was no significant factor for stress. Depression and anxiety among the Malay elderly in the rural community were very worrying. More equity in health should be created or strengthened in order to intensify the opportunity to identify, diagnose, and treat those with mental health problems. Living arrangement in the rural community was an important factor that had influenced depression and anxiety. Therefore, further research is recommended for more comprehensive information, as a result of which appropriate intervention can be made.

  5. A cross-sectional study to estimate prevalence of periodontal disease in a population of dogs (Canis familiaris) in commercial breeding facilities in Indiana and Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L; Bauer, Amy E; Croney, Candace C

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were: 1) to estimate the prevalence and characterize the severity of periodontal disease in a population of dogs housed in commercial breeding facilities; 2) to characterize PD preventive care utilized by facility owners; and 3) to assess inter-rater reliability of a visual scoring assessment tool. Adult dogs (N = 445) representing 42 breeds at 24 CB facilities in Indiana and Illinois were assessed. Periodontal disease was scored visually using the American Veterinary Dental Collage 0-IV scale. Inter-rater reliability was assessed on 198 dogs and facility owners were asked to provide information about the preventive care utilized. The overall prevalence of periodontal disease (Grades I-IV) was 86.3% (95% CI: 82.9, 89.3). An ordered logistic regression analysis found age (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.24, 1.54; Pperiodontal disease increased with increasing age. Additionally, a trend toward decreasing risk with increasing weight was also found, although it was not statistically significant. The trends identified agree with studies that have evaluated periodontal disease in the companion dog population and do not support the assumption that the dental health of dogs in commercial breeding facilities is worse than that of the population as a whole. Although there were few cases of severe periodontal disease and all facilities employed some type of preventive care in this sample, the large number of dogs with some degree of disease (Grades I-IV) suggests that further investigation of preventive care is warranted.

  6. Prevalence of malaria and anaemia among HIV infected pregnant women receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in Tanzania: a cross sectional study in Kinondoni Municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyanga, Vicent P; Minzi, Omary; Ngasala, Billy

    2014-04-24

    HIV-infected pregnant women are particularly more susceptible to the deleterious effects of malaria infection particularly anaemia. In order to prevent opportunistic infections and malaria, a policy of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis without the standard Suphadoxine-Pyrimethamine intermittent preventive treatment (SP-IPT) was introduced to all HIV infected pregnant women in the year 2011. However, there is limited information about the effectiveness of this policy. This was a cross sectional study conducted among HIV-infected pregnant women receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in eight public health facilities in Kinondoni Municipality from February to April 2013. Blood was tested for malaria infection and anaemia (haemoglobin anaemia. Pearson chi-square test, Fischer's exact test and multivariate logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis. This study enrolled 420 HIV infected pregnant women. The prevalence of malaria infection was 4.5%, while that of anaemia was 54%. The proportion of subjects with poor adherence to co-trimoxazole was 50.5%. As compared to HIV infected pregnant women with good adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, the poor adherents were more likely to have a malaria infection (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR = 6.81, 95% CI = 1.35-34.43, P = 0.02) or anaemia (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.03-2.98, P = 0.039). Other risk factors associated with anaemia were advanced WHO clinical stages, current malaria infection and history of episodes of malaria illness during the index pregnancy. The prevalence of malaria was low; however, a significant proportion of subjects had anaemia. Good adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was associated with reduction of both malaria infection and anaemia among HIV infected pregnant women.

  7. Severe MUPS in a sick-listed population: a cross-sectional study on prevalence, recognition, psychiatric co-morbidity and impairment

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    Koopmans Petra C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS have a high prevalence in the general population and are associated with psychiatric morbidity. There are indications that MUPS are an important determinant of frequent and long-term disability. The primary objective was to assess the prevalence of MUPS in sick-listed-employees and its associations with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment. Secondary objectives were to investigate the classification of the occupational health physicians (OHPs, their opinions about the causes as well as the attributions of the employee. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 489 sick-listed employees from 5 OHP group practices, MUPS, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ, the Whitely Index (WI, the Four- Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36. We used a cut off score of 15 on the PHQ for the categorisation of severe MUPS. The opinions of the OHPs were evaluated by means of a separate questionnaire with regard to the presence of employees physical symptoms, and the symptoms attributions, and the diagnoses of the OHPs. Results Severe MUPS had a prevalence of 15.1% in this population of sick-listed employees. These employees had 4-6 times more depressive and anxiety disorders, and were more impaired. Female gender and PHQ-9 scores were determinants of severe MUPS. Most of the time the OHPs diagnosed employees with severe MUPS as having a mental disorder. The employees attributed their physical symptoms in 66% to mental or to both mental and physical causes. Conclusion The prevalence of severe MUPS is higher in long-term sick-listed employees than in the non-sick- listed working population and at least equals the prevalence in the general practice population. Severe MUPS are associated with

  8. Prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients attending in hospitals of central and northwestern zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Awole; Gerensea, Hadgu; Tarko, Shambel; Zenebe, Yosef; Mezemir, Rahel

    2017-03-15

    The prevalence of erectile dysfunction among diabetic men varies between 35-90%. Although erectile dysfunction is widespread among men with diabetes, the condition often remains undiagnosed and demands appropriate assessment and prompt treatment. Erectile dysfunction can affect all aspects of a patient's life including physical, emotional, social, sexual, and relationships. The main aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinants of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients attending hospitals in the Central and Northwest zone of Tigray, Ethiopia. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted on 249 male diabetic patients attending five hospitals in the Central and Northwestern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia using systematic random sampling. The data was collected from January 1 - February 30, 2016 and was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Correlation and multivariate logistic regression was employed to test associations between independent and outcome variables. The mean age of study participants was 43.39 years and the mean duration of diabetes diagnosis was 6.22 years. The overall prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 69.9%, with 32.9% suffering from mild, 31.7% moderate, and 5.2% severe erectile dysfunction. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that erective dysfunction was significantly predicted by old age (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] =15.013, CI:3.212-70.166), longer duration of diabetes (AOR = 3.77, CI:1.291-11.051), and lower monthly income (AOR = 0.285, CI:0.132-0.615). No association was found with body mass index, co-morbidity, glycemic control, and alcohol consumption. The prevalence of erective dysfunction in this study population was very high. Age, income, and duration of diabetes were the independent predictors of erectile dysfunction. Nearly all of the patients in the sample (97%) had not been screened or treated for erectile dysfunction. Assessment and management of erectile dysfunction in the

  9. Prevalence of asthma-triggering drug use in adults and its impact on asthma control: A cross-sectional study – Saudi (Jeddah

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    Moufag Mohammed Saeed Tayeb

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background The use of asthma-triggering drugs (ATDs is a major factor in poor asthma control (PAC, which can be either uncontrolled or partially controlled. ATDs include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, β-blockers, aspirin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Aims To measure the prevalence of ATD use in adult asthmatics and their control levels. Methods This is a one-year cross-sectional study (starting March 2016. A sample of 173 adult asthmatics (mean age: 44±16 years was enrolled from five primary care centres in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia. Asthmatics were clinically diagnosed according to the British Thoracic Society’s asthma guidelines. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was excluded by reversibility (i.e., symptom improvement after using asthma drugs. The four questions about asthma control from the Global Initiative for Asthma’s 2016 guidelines were translated to Arabic, photos and names of ATDs available in local pharmacies were collected, and a questionnaire was drafted. The questionnaire was presented to adult asthmatics by medical students during a personal interview. Data were statistically analysed using SPSS. Results Fifty percent of the adult asthmatics who used ATDs had badly controlled asthma: 31 per cent uncontrolled and 19 per cent partially controlled. Of the patients who took ATDs, 97 per cent had used several ATDs for extended periods of time without any warnings from health professionals. In order of prevalence, aspirin, ACE inhibitors, other NSAIDs, and β-blockers were the most common ATDs used. Conclusion ATDs are a major cause of PAC. ATD use is extensive and often goes unnoticed. The present findings highlight the low awareness of health professionals about the undesirable effects of ATDs on asthma control. This problem needs to be resolved by regular and continuous asthma health educational courses. During clinic visits, health professionals should inquire about ATD use

  10. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis Among 6–12-Year-Old School Children of Mahabubnagar District, Telangana State, India − A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Kola S Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Telangana state in southern India has many areas which have high–low fluoride levels in drinking water, and Mahabubnagar district is one among them, where people are affected with dental and skeletal fluorosis, with the majority belonging to low socio-economic status. Aims: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis in school going children of Mahabubnagar district and also to assess fluoride levels in drinking water from different areas of Mahabubnagar district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2000 children in the age group 6–12 years in different areas of Mahabubnagar district. Dental fluorosis status was assessed by using Modified Dean’s Fluorosis Index. Alizarin visual method was used to estimate fluoride levels in water. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Dental fluorosis in primary and permanent dentition was 15 and 70.3%, respectively. In the northern part of Mahabubnagar district, primary dentition was more affected by fluorosis whereas in southern part, the permanent dentition was more affected. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition was more in 6–7-year-old children (35.5%, and in permanent dentition, it was more in 9–10-year-old children (70%. The fluoride level in drinking water was more in Kosghi, Kalwakurthy (2.0 ppm. Conclusion: Dental fluorosis was more in 10-year-old and less in 6-year-old children. It was more in eastern and northern zones of Mahabubnagar district and less in local villages of Mahabubnagar.

  11. A cross-sectional study on the prevalence and risk factors for foot and limb lesions in piglets on commercial farms in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Amy Jean; Boyle, L. A.; Kilbride, A. L. (Amy L.); Green, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 68 integrated Irish pig farms was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for foot and limb lesions in 2948 piglets from 272 litters. One litter was selected per age category; 3–7 days, 8–14 days, 15–21 days and 22–28 days per farm. All piglets were examined for sole bruising, sole erosion, coronary band injuries, limb abrasions, alopecia, swollen limbs and swollen feet and scored from 0 to 3 based on relative size. Environmental parameters were reco...

  12. Prevalence and correlates of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Wang, Lingling; Jia, Xiaoli; Li, Zhe; Mu, Huitong; Liu, Xin; Peng, Boshi; Li, Anqi; Fan, Lihua

    2017-08-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychological maladjustment to undergoing a traumatic event. Our aim was to measure the prevalence of PTSD among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence' and explore the associations of their demographic characteristics, social support, personality traits' and coping styles with their PTSD symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Workplace Violence Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale and Trait Coping Style Questionnaire. We used convenience sampling method to collect data from March 2015 to September 2016. Healthcare workers (n=2706) from 39 public hospitals located in Heilongjiang, Hebei and Beijing provinces of China completed the questionnaires (effective response rate=84.25%). Overall, the prevalence of physical violence in the previous 12 months was 13.60% (n=2706). The prevalence of PTSD among the healthcare workers who experienced physical violence was 28.0% (n=368). Most of the victims of physical violence (50.80%) did not exhibit PTSD symptoms based on their PCL-C scores, and 47.0% did not manifest the diagnostic criteria for PTSD after experiencing physical violence. The level of PTSD symptoms was negatively correlated with their scores on the SSRS (r=-0.188, pPTSD symptoms (β=-0.376, p=0.001). However, the effect of positive coping was not significant in men. The results suggest that the aftermath of physical violence contributes to the current prevalence of PTSD. The positive effects of social support on PTSD symptoms suggest that it has practical implications for interventions to promote psychological health. The healthcare workers' coping styles influenced the development of PTSD symptoms. Therefore, adopting effective coping styles and receiving social support have potential roles in the recovery from trauma after experiencing physical

  13. Female medical leadership: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaerner, K J; Aasland, O G; Botten, G S

    1999-01-09

    To assess the relation between male and female medical leadership. Cross sectional study on predictive factors for female medical leadership with data on sex, age, specialty, and occupational status of Norwegian physicians. Oslo, Norway. 13 844 non-retired Norwegian physicians. Medical leaders, defined as physicians holding a leading position in hospital medicine, public health, academic medicine, or private health care. 14.6% (95% confidence interval 14.0% to 15.4%) of the men were leaders compared with 5.1% (4.4% to 5.9%) of the women. Adjusted for age men had a higher estimated probability of leadership in all categories of age and job, the highest being in academic medicine with 0.57 (0.42 to 0.72) for men aged over 54 years compared with 0.39 (0.21 to 0.63) for women in the same category. Among female hospital physicians there was a positive relation between the proportion of women in their specialty and the probability of leadership. Women do not reach senior positions as easily as men. Medical specialties with high proportions of women have more female leaders.

  14. Factors associated with hepatitis C prevalence differ by the stage of liver fibrosis: A cross-sectional study in the general population in Poland, 2012-2016.

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    Magdalena Rosińska

    Full Text Available There is a considerable burden of hepatitis C in Europe related to the lack of prompt diagnosis. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and related risk factors of HCV infections by the stages of liver fibrosis, using non-invasive methods, to understand testing needs in Poland.A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012-2016 adopting a stratified random sampling of primary health care units followed by systematic sampling of patients within each unit. Study participants filled a questionnaire and donated blood for laboratory HCV testing. Additionally, the results of liver function tests and platelet count were collected to calculate APRI and FIB-4 scores. Cases were classified according to the level of fibrosis: 'significant fibrosis' (APRI≥0.7 or FIB4≥1.45 and 'no significant fibrosis' (APRI<0.7 and FIB4<1.45.Of 21 875 study participants, 102 were HCV-RNA positive. Prevalence of HCV infections and significant fibrosis was estimated at 0.47% (95% CI 0.38% - 0.57% and 0.12% (0.08% - 0.17%, respectively. Cases with significant fibrosis accounted for 51.6% (33.4%-69.9% in men and 34.4% (17.3%-51.4% in women. There was no correlation between the HCV prevalence and age. Blood transfusion prior to 1992 strongly predicted significant fibrosis as did the history of injecting drug use (IDU and ever having an HCV-infected sexual partner in men and caesarean sections in women. Factors associated with HCV infection without significant fibrosis were tattooing in men and younger age in women. We acknowledge limited possibility to study the associations between IDU and ever having HCV-infected sexual partner, given small sample sizes for these exposures.As no clear birth cohort affected by HCV could be identified, risk factor-based screening in the general population should be considered, taking into account the association between the increased risk of liver fibrosis and the history of transfusion prior to 1992 and caesarean sections.

  15. Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among undergraduate students of University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institutional based study.

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    Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Azale Bisetegn, Telake; Berhe Gebremariam, Resom

    2015-01-01

    Mental health problems affect society as a whole and no group is immune to mental disorders; however, students have significantly high level of mental distress than their community peers. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of mental distress among undergraduate students of University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based cross sectional study was conducted among 836 students from April 9-11/2014. Stratified multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were collected using pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with mental distress among students. An adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Prevalence of mental distress among students was found to be 40.9%. Female sex (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.17-2.30), lack of interest towards their field of study (AOR = 2.28; 95% CI 1.49-3.50), not having close friends (AOR = 1.48; 95% CI 1.03-2.14), never attend religious programs (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.02-2.46), conflict with friends (AOR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.41-2.65), having financial distress (AOR1.49 = 95% CI 1.05, 2.10), family history of mental illness (AOR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.31-3.45), Ever use of Khat (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.12-2.59), lower grade than anticipated(AOR = 2.07; 95% CI 1.51-2.83), lack of vacation or break (AOR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.06-2.02), and low social support(AOR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.58-4.22) were significantly associated with mental distress. The overall prevalence of mental distress among students was found to be high. Therefore, it is recommended that mental distress needs due attention and remedial action from policy makers, college officials, non-governmental organizations, parents, students and other concerned bodies.

  16. Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among undergraduate students of University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institutional based study.

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    Berihun Assefa Dachew

    Full Text Available Mental health problems affect society as a whole and no group is immune to mental disorders; however, students have significantly high level of mental distress than their community peers.The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of mental distress among undergraduate students of University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.Institution based cross sectional study was conducted among 836 students from April 9-11/2014. Stratified multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were collected using pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with mental distress among students. An adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance.Prevalence of mental distress among students was found to be 40.9%. Female sex (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.17-2.30, lack of interest towards their field of study (AOR = 2.28; 95% CI 1.49-3.50, not having close friends (AOR = 1.48; 95% CI 1.03-2.14, never attend religious programs (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.02-2.46, conflict with friends (AOR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.41-2.65, having financial distress (AOR1.49 = 95% CI 1.05, 2.10, family history of mental illness (AOR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.31-3.45, Ever use of Khat (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.12-2.59, lower grade than anticipated(AOR = 2.07; 95% CI 1.51-2.83, lack of vacation or break (AOR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.06-2.02, and low social support(AOR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.58-4.22 were significantly associated with mental distress.The overall prevalence of mental distress among students was found to be high. Therefore, it is recommended that mental distress needs due attention and remedial action from policy makers, college officials, non-governmental organizations, parents, students and other concerned bodies.

  17. Prevalence, impacts and medical managements of premenstrual syndrome among female students: cross-sectional study in College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, northern Ethiopia.

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    Tolossa, Fikru Wakjira; Bekele, Mebratu Legesse

    2014-03-29

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is used to describe physical, cognitive, affective, and behavioral symptoms that occur cyclically during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and resolve quickly at or within a few days of the onset of menstruation. The primary aim of the study was to assess the prevalence, impacts and medical managements of PMS on female medical students of Mekelle University College of Health Sciences. A cross-sectional study was conducted among systematically selected female students of Mekelle University College of Health Sciences, Mekelle town, northern Ethiopia from March to April 2013. A structured and pretested self-administered questionnaire was employed for data collection. The collected data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL (SPSS version 16). The criteria proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV TR) were used to diagnose PMS. From the total population size of 608; a sample size of 258 was drawn. Age of the study participants ranged from 18 to 25 years, with mean age of 20.86 ± 1.913 years. Among the participants, 144(83.2%) have had at least one PM symptoms with their menstrual period. The prevalence of PMS according to DSM-IV was 37.0%. About 49(28.3%) reported frequent class missing, 17(9.8%) exam missing, 14(8.1%) low grade scoring and 3(1.7%) of them reported withdrawal from their learning associated with their PMS. Only 83(48.0%) participants sought medical treatment for their PMS. The treatment modalities used were pain killers, 63(36.4%), hot drinks like coffee and tea, 13(7.5%), and massage therapy and exercise, 7(4.0%). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed average length of one cycle of menstruation (COR = 0.20(0.070-0.569) and academic performance impairment (AOR = 0.345(0.183-0.653) were significantly associated with the diagnosis of PMS and use of PMS treatments respectively. Our

  18. Inner-city green space and its association with body mass index and prevalent type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study in an urban German city.

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    Müller, Grit; Harhoff, Roland; Rahe, Corinna; Berger, Klaus

    2018-01-21

    The accessibility of green space is an important aspect of the urban residential environment and has been found to be beneficial for health and well-being. This study investigates the association between different indicators of green space and the outcomes body mass index (BMI) and prevalent type 2 diabetes in an urban population. Population-based cross-sectional study. Dortmund, a city located in the industrial Ruhr area in Western Germany. 1312 participants aged 25-74 years from the Dortmund Health Study. The participants' addresses were geocoded and shapefiles of statistical districts, road network and land use, as well as data on neighbourhood characteristics were obtained at baseline. Three indicators of green space were constructed using geographical information systems: proportion of green space, recreation location quotient (RLQ) weighted by population and distance to the next park or forest. Multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses on the association of green space with BMI and type 2 diabetes were performed, adjusted by individual-level characteristics and neighbourhood unemployment rate. The multilevel regression analyses showed no association between green space and BMI. In contrast, the three indicators of green space were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes. Residents of neighbourhoods with a low RLQ had a 2.44 (95% CI 1.01 to 5.93) times higher odds to have type 2 diabetes compared with residents of high RLQ neighbourhoods. Likewise, residing more than 0.8 km away from the nearest park or forest increased the odds of type 2 diabetes (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.77). This study indicates that green space and its spatial accessibility might play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Further research is needed to clarify this association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: a cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban.

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    Ravara, Sofia B; Calheiros, Jose M; Aguiar, Pedro; Barata, Luis Taborda

    2011-09-23

    Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC) attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR) was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4) in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8) in females (p smoking bans, even among smokers, despite the fact that 70.3% of the smokers smoked on the premises and 76% of staff reported being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS). In addition 42.8% reported that SHS was unpleasant and 28.3% admitted complaining. MLR showed that smoking behaviour was the most important predictor of TC attitudes. Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial

  20. High prevalence of HIV and syphilis and associated factors among low-fee female sex workers in mainland China: a cross-sectional study.

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    Zhou, Chu; Rou, Keming; Dong, Willa M; Wang, Yu; Dong, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao; Chen, Xi; Jia, Manhong; Liu, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Yanling; Li, Youfang; Wu, Zunyou

    2014-04-26

    The prevalence of HIV and syphilis among middle and high-fee female sex workers (FSWs) has been widely reported but little is known among low-fee FSWs. This study aims to determine the prevalence and associated factors of HIV and syphilis among low-fee FSWs in China. A cross-sectional study design was used. A convenience sample of low-fee FSWs was recruited from venues by outreach workers in 12 cities. Structured questionnaire interviews and blood sampling for HIV and syphilis were carried out. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used for assessing potential associated factors. This study enrolled 781 low-fee FSWs. There were 37 (4.7%) HIV positive participants and 117 (15.0%) participants were infected with syphilis. Final multivariate analysis identified five factors associated with HIV infection: older age (OR:2.6, 95% CI:1.1-6.1), local household registration (OR:3.3, 95% CI:1.5-6.9), employed in Yunnan province (OR:2.7, 95% CI:1.1-6.7), soliciting in self-rented rooms and "market day" buildings (OR:3.9, 95% CI:1.5-10.0), injection drug use in the past 6 months (OR:13.5, 95% CI:4.5-40.1); and four factors associated with syphilis infection: older age (OR:1.8, 95% CI:1.2-2.9), employed in Yunnan province (OR:2.1, 95% CI:1.2-3.6), soliciting in self-rented rooms and "market day" buildings (OR:2.3, 95% CI:1.4-3.7) , and no consistent condom use with clients in the past 30 days (OR:1.6, 95% CI:1.0-2.6). A high prevalence of HIV and syphilis were found among low-fee FSWs. Those soliciting in self-rented rooms and "market day" buildings with the lowest income, and injection drug users (IDUs) in this population should take priority in further intervention strategies.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Bacterial Vaginosis in Different Sub-Populations of Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Jespers, Vicky; Crucitti, Tania; Menten, Joris; Verhelst, Rita; Mwaura, Mary; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ndayisaba, Gilles F.; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Verstraelen, Hans; Hardy, Liselotte; Buvé, Anne; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical development of vaginally applied products aimed at reducing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, has highlighted the need for a better characterisation of the vaginal environment. We set out to characterise the vaginal environment in women in different settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted in Kenya, Rwanda and South-Africa. Women were recruited into pre-defined study groups including adult, non-pregnant, HIV-negative women; pregnant women; adolescent girls; HIV-negative women engaging in vaginal practices; female sex workers; and HIV-positive women. Consenting women were interviewed and underwent a pelvic exam. Samples of vaginal fluid and a blood sample were taken and tested for bacterial vaginosis (BV), HIV and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs). This paper presents the cross-sectional analyses of BV Nugent scores and RTI prevalence and correlates at the screening and the enrolment visit. Results At the screening visit 38% of women had BV defined as a Nugent score of 7–10, and 64% had more than one RTI (N. gonorrhoea, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis) and/or Candida. At screening the likelihood of BV was lower in women using progestin-only contraception and higher in women with more than one RTI. At enrolment, BV scores were significantly associated with the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the vaginal fluid and with being a self-acknowledged sex worker. Further, sex workers were more likely to have incident BV by Nugent score at enrolment. Conclusions Our study confirmed some of the correlates of BV that have been previously reported but the most salient finding was the association between BV and the presence of PSA in the vaginal fluid which is suggestive of recent unprotected sexual intercourse. PMID:25289640

  2. Prevalence and correlates of bacterial vaginosis in different sub-populations of women in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study.

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    Vicky Jespers

    Full Text Available Clinical development of vaginally applied products aimed at reducing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, has highlighted the need for a better characterisation of the vaginal environment. We set out to characterise the vaginal environment in women in different settings in sub-Saharan Africa.A longitudinal study was conducted in Kenya, Rwanda and South-Africa. Women were recruited into pre-defined study groups including adult, non-pregnant, HIV-negative women; pregnant women; adolescent girls; HIV-negative women engaging in vaginal practices; female sex workers; and HIV-positive women. Consenting women were interviewed and underwent a pelvic exam. Samples of vaginal fluid and a blood sample were taken and tested for bacterial vaginosis (BV, HIV and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs. This paper presents the cross-sectional analyses of BV Nugent scores and RTI prevalence and correlates at the screening and the enrolment visit.At the screening visit 38% of women had BV defined as a Nugent score of 7-10, and 64% had more than one RTI (N. gonorrhoea, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis and/or Candida. At screening the likelihood of BV was lower in women using progestin-only contraception and higher in women with more than one RTI. At enrolment, BV scores were significantly associated with the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA in the vaginal fluid and with being a self-acknowledged sex worker. Further, sex workers were more likely to have incident BV by Nugent score at enrolment.Our study confirmed some of the correlates of BV that have been previously reported but the most salient finding was the association between BV and the presence of PSA in the vaginal fluid which is suggestive of recent unprotected sexual intercourse.

  3. Dry skin and pressure ulcer risk: A multi-center cross-sectional prevalence study in German hospitals and nursing homes.

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    Lechner, Anna; Lahmann, Nils; Neumann, Konrad; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Pressure ulcers are a serious health problem in medical and nursing care. Therefore, effective prevention is crucial. Major pressure ulcer risk factors have been identified but the particular role of dry skin (xerosis cutis) is unclear. To investigate possible associations between dry skin and pressure ulcers focusing on the sacrum/trochanter and at heel/ankle skin areas. Two multicenter cross-sectional studies. In 2014 and 2015 thirty nursing homes and thirteen hospitals in Germany participated. In total 3837 participants were included. Mean age was 76.1 (SD 15.5) years. Skin assessments and data collection were performed by trained nurses based on a standardized data collection form. Descriptive comparisons and multilevel logistic regressions predicting pressure ulcers at sacrum/trochanter and ankle/heel were conducted. The prevalence of skin dryness at the trunk was significantly higher for subjects with pressure ulcers category 2+ at the sacral area compared to without (39.0% vs. 24.4%, p=0.010). Adjusted to demographic variables, mobility and type of institution dry skin at the trunk was no longer associated with pressure ulceration (OR 1.11 (95% CI 0.62-2.00)). 71.9% of patients with heel/ankle pressure ulcers category 2+ were affected by dry skin at legs or feet, compared to 42.8% of subjects without pressure ulcers (pStudy results indicate that dry skin at the feet may be considered as a risk factor for heel pressure ulcer development. Skin dryness may be less important for sacral pressure ulcers. Therefore, the variable skin status should be better defined in future studies and pressure ulcer risk models. Results further support differences in pressure ulcer aetiologies between anatomical locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with carotid disease according to NHLBI/AHA and IDF criteria: a cross-sectional study

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    Maksimovic Milos Z

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS has been related to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Different criteria for diagnosis of MetS have been recommended, but there is no agreement about which criteria are best to use. The aim of the present study was to investigate agreement between the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, American Heart Association (NHLBI/AHA and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definitions of MetS in patients with symptomatic carotid disease and to compare the frequency of cardiovascular risk factor in patients with MetS diagnosed by these two sets of criteria. Methods The study was a cross-sectional one involving 644 consecutive patients with verified carotid disease who referred to the Vascular Surgery Clinic Dedinje in Belgrade during the period April 2006 - November 2007. Anthropometric parameters blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipoproteins were measured using standard procedures. Results MetS was present in 67.9% of participants, according to IDF criteria, and in 64.9% of participants, according to the NHLBI/AHA criteria. A total of 119 patients were categorized differently by the two definitions. Out of all participants 10.7% had MetS by IDF criteria only and 7.8% of patients had MetS by NHLBI/AHA criteria only. The overall agreement of IDF and NHLBI/AHA criteria was 81.5% (Kappa 0.59, p Conclusion The MetS prevalence in patients with symptomatic carotid disease was high regardless of criteria used for its diagnosis. Since some patients with known cardiovascular risk factors were lost by the use of IDF criteria it seems that NHLBI/AHA definition is more suitable for diagnosis of MetS. Large follow-up studies are needed to test prognostic value of these definitions.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species among diarrheal children in Jimma health center, Jimma southwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

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    Beyene, Getenet; Tasew, Haimanot

    2014-02-05

    Diarrheal disease continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries including Ethiopia. Globally, intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species remain major contributors to acute enteric infections. The study was aimed at determining the frequency of intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species identified from diarrheic children at Jimma Health Centre, Jimma south west Ethiopia. A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted from March to November 2012. A structured questionnaire was used for collection of data on socio- demographic characteristics. Parasite and bacteria identification as well as susceptibility testing was done using standard parasitological and bacteriological procedures. A total of 260 diarrheal children were included in the study. A total of 129 (49.6%) samples were positive for intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species. Of these, 107 (41.1%), 6 (2.3%) and 16 (6.2%) samples were positive for intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species respectively. The dominant isolated parasite was G. lamblia with prevalence of 13.5% followed by A. lumbricoides (11.5%). The least identified parasites were Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia species accounting 0.4% each. Multiple parasitic infections were observed in 19 (7.3%) patients. Shigella species showed hundred percent resistances to ampicillin, amoxacillin, and cotrimoxazole. All Salmonella isolates were resistant against amoxicillin. All Shigella and Salmonella species were susceptible to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and gentamycin. The presence of reasonably high amount of intestinal parasite and Salmonella and Shigella species that are drug resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs is a treat to the children and community at large. Therefore, measures including health education, improvement of safe water supply, sanitation facilities and continuous monitoring of microbiological and antimicrobial

  6. Prevalence and determinants of differences in cystatin C and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate in community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional study.

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    Legrand, Helen; Werner, Karin; Christensson, Anders; Pihlsgård, Mats; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2017-12-04

    Differences in cystatin C and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) can lead to clinical uncertainty. Existing eGFR equations perform poorly in a subset of individuals. This study aims to describe the prevalence of differences between cystatin C-based (eGFR cys ) and creatinine-based (eGFR creat ) eGFR in older adults and to explore which subsets of individuals may be most affected by differing estimations. In this cross-sectional study, participants from a cohort of community-dwelling older adults were examined at a baseline visit in 2001-2004 as part of the larger "Good Aging in Skåne" study. Exposure variables were obtained from questionnaires, interviews, examinations, and medical records. Blood samples were taken during the baseline visit, cryopreserved, and analyzed at a later time for biomarkers. The CKD-EPI equations were used to estimate GFR. Initial descriptive analyses were performed on 2931 individuals. A total of 2532 participants were included in the final multiple linear regression. Nearly two-thirds of participants had eGFR differences exceeding 10%, with nearly 20 % of participants having eGFR differences exceeding 30%. Smoking, age, body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (CRP), glucocorticoid use, and mean eGFR were correlated with differences between eGFR creat and eGFR cys . Differences between eGFR creat and eGFR cys are common and often of large magnitude in this community-dwelling population of older adults. The finding of multiple non-GFR determinants correlated to differences in GFR estimations can help direct future research to improve eGFR equations for subgroups prone to conflicting GFR estimations or to guide choice of biomarker for GFR estimation in these subgroups.

  7. Hepatitis B virus infection in Chinese patients with hepatitis C virus infection: prevalence, clinical characteristics, viral interactions and host genotypes: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

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    Yan, Li-Bo; Rao, Hui-Ying; Ma, Yuan-Ji; Bai, Lang; Chen, En-Qiang; Du, Ling-Yao; Yang, Rui-Feng; Wei, Lai; Tang, Hong

    2016-10-12

    Little is known about hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in China. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, viral interactions and host genotypes of HBV/HCV dual infection compared with HCV monoinfection. A cross-sectional study. China. 997 patients with HCV from 28 university-affiliated hospitals in China were enrolled in this research. Patients were divided into two subgroups. The prevalence of HBV infection in patients with HCV was 4.11% (41/997). The age-specific prevalence of HBsAg was 0.70%, 3.97% and 5.85% in groups aged 18-30, 30-50 and >50 years old (p=0.057), respectively. Patients with HBV/HCV dual infection and patients with HCV monoinfection had similar HCV viral loads (5.80±0.89 vs 5.83±1.00 log10 IU/mL, p=0.904). The dominant HCV genotype was 1b in both groups (53.65% vs 56.90%, p=0.493). The protective C allele in IL-28B (rs12979860) was also the dominant allele type in both patient groups (85.36% vs 83.99%, p=0.814). Patients with HBV/HCV dual infection had a higher ratio of liver cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation than patients with HCV monoinfection (39.02% vs 17.69%, p=0.001; 31.70% vs 12.13%, p=0.001). The HBV burden was moderate in HCV-infected patients in China. Liver cirrhosis was more common in patients with HBV/HCV dual infection, suggesting the need for closer monitoring of dual-infected individuals. NCT01293279; Post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Work hours, sleep sufficiency, and prevalence of depression among full-time employees: a community-based cross-sectional study.

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    Nakata, Akinori

    2011-05-01

    Depression due to long work hours and sleep deprivation is a major occupational health concern. The extent to which work hours and sleep are associated with depression was investigated in employees of small- and medium-scale businesses in the Japanese city of Yashio, Saitama, and in the Ohta ward of Tokyo, a suburb of Tokyo, controlling for various potential confounders. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2,643 full-time employees (1,928 men and 715 women), aged 18-79 years (mean = 45 years), in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses were surveyed from August 2002 to December 2002 using a self-administered questionnaire evaluating work hours, sleep status, and covariates including sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, biological factors, medication usage, and occupational factors. Depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Prevalence of depression by work hours, sleep status, and covariates was analyzed by χ² test. Risk of depression by work hours, sleep status, and both combined was estimated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Participants working > 10 hours per day, sleeping hours per day, and reporting insufficient sleep were, respectively, 37%, 43%, and 97% more likely to be depressed than those working 6 to 8 hours per day, sleeping 6 to hours per day, and reporting sufficient sleep (P working > 10 hours per day or > 8 to 10 hours per day with hours per day of sleep showed a 41%-169% higher prevalence of depression versus those working 6 to 8 hours per day with 6+ hours per day of sleep (P work-hour categories (6 to 8, > 8 to 10, and > 10 hours per day) showed a 62%-179% increase in the prevalence of depression versus those working 6 to 8 hours per day and reporting sufficient sleep (P work-hour category with 6+ hours of sleep or with subjective sufficient sleep. Depression associated with long work hours is primarily a result of sleep deprivation. Greater attention should be

  9. Prevalence of pain and relative diagnostic performance of screening tools for neuropathic pain in cancer patients: A cross-sectional study.

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    Pérez, C; Sánchez-Martínez, N; Ballesteros, A; Blanco, T; Collazo, A; González, F; Villoria, J

    2015-07-01

    Neuropathic pain can be overlooked in cancer patients. The advent of screening tools can help in recognizing it. However, little is known about their relative diagnostic performance and factors that affect it. This study evaluated the prevalence of neuropathic pain using several diagnostic strategies in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Patients attending the Oncology Unit of the investigators' site to continue their chemotherapy schedule were systematically screened for this cross-sectional study. Before starting chemotherapy drugs, pain specialists made a clinical diagnosis of neuropathic pain (either disease related, treatment related or comorbid) and medical oncologists administered three validated screening tools. Their relative diagnostic performance and the impact of some pain features on it were analysed using multivariate statistical methods. From a total of 358 patients, 194 (54.2%) suffered from pain and 73 (20.4%) had a clinical diagnosis of pure neuropathic or mixed pain. Among the screening tools, the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) was more specific (93.4%), although less sensitive (68.1%) than the Douleur Neuropathique in 4 Questions (DN4) (sensitivity: 87.5%, specificity: 88.4%). Interestingly, the specificities of these two instruments did not differ in patients with mild pain, while the DN4 remained to be more sensitive than the LANSS regardless of pain severity. Neuropathic pain is common in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The DN4 might be of great help for the early detection of patients at risk because of incipient chemotherapy-related neuropathies and the LANSS to rule out neuropathic pain in patients with complex pain conditions. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Pain published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  10. Prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy among pregnant woman attending ANC at Gelemso General Hospital, Oromiya Region, East Ethiopia: a facility based cross-sectional study.

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    Mohammed, Faiza; Musa, Abdulbasit; Amano, Abdella

    2016-08-17

    Unintended pregnancy is among the major public health problems that predispose women to maternal death and illness mainly through unsafe abortion and poor maternity care. The level of unintended pregnancy is high in developing countries. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and the associated factors among pregnant woman attending antenatal care at Gelemso General Hospital, East Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 10 to April 13, 2015 among women who had attended antenatal care at Gelemso General Hospital. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 413 participants. Data were collected via face-to-face interview using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were made to check the associations among the variables and to control the confounding factors. Out of the 413 pregnancies, 112 (27.1 %) were unintended of which 90(21.9 %) were mistimed, and 22(5.2 %) were unwanted. Multivariate analysis revealed that single, divorced/widowed marital statuses, having more than 2 children, and having no awareness of contraception were significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Over a quarter of women had an unintended pregnancy, a rate which is lower than previously reported. Designing and implementing strategies that address contraceptive needs of unmarried, divorced and widowed women, creating awareness of contraceptives at community level and reinforcing postnatal contraceptive counseling to all mothers giving birth at health institution is recommended to reduce the rate of the unintended pregnancy among parous women.

  11. Prevalence and potential risk factors for the occurrence of cefotaxime resistant Escherichia coli in German fattening pig farms--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Johanna; Hille, Katja; Frömke, Cornelia; von Münchhausen, Christiane; Hartmann, Maria; Schneider, Bettina; Friese, Anika; Roesler, Uwe; Merle, Roswitha; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2014-09-01

    A cross-sectional study concerning farm prevalence and risk factors for the count of cefotaxime resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) (CREC) positive samples per sampling group on German fattening pig farms was performed in 2011 and 2012. Altogether 48 farms in four agricultural regions in the whole of Germany were investigated. Faecal samples, boot swabs and dust samples from two sampling groups per farm were taken and supplemental data were collected using a questionnaire. On 85% of the farms, at least one sample contained cefotaxime resistant E. coli colonies. Positive samples were more frequent in faeces (61%) and boot swabs (54%) than in dust samples (11%). Relevant variables from the questionnaire were analysed in a univariable mixed effect Poisson regression model. Variables that were related to the number (risk) of positive samples per sampling group with a p-value risk for positive samples involved farm management and hygienic aspects. Farms that had a separate pen for diseased pigs had a 2.8 higher mean count of positive samples (95%-CI [1.71; 4.58], p=0.001) than farms without an extra pen. The mean count was increased on farms with under-floor exhaust ventilation compared to farms with over floor ventilation (2.22 [1.43; 3.46], p=0.001) and more positive samples were observed on farms that controlled flies with toxin compared to farms that did not (1.86 [1.24; 2.78], p=0.003). It can be concluded, that CREC are wide spread on German fattening pig farms. In addition the explorative approach of the present study suggests an influence of management strategies on the occurrence of cefotaxime resistant E. coli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Postnatal depressive symptoms amongst women in Central Vietnam: a cross-sectional study investigating prevalence and associations with social, cultural and infant factors.

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    Murray, Linda; Dunne, Michael P; Van Vo, Thang; Anh, Phuong Nguyen Thi; Khawaja, Nigar G; Cao, Thanh Ngoc

    2015-09-30

    This study investigated the prevalence and socio-cultural correlates of postnatal mood disturbance amongst women 18-45 years old in Central Vietnam. Son preference and traditional confinement practices were explored as well as factors such as poverty, parity, family and intimate partner relationships and infant health. A cross-sectional study was conducted in twelve randomly selected Commune Health Centres from urban and rural districts of Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam. Mother-infant dyads one to six months postpartum were invited to participate. Questionnaires from 431 mothers (urban n = 216; rural n = 215) assessed demographic and family characteristics, traditional confinement practices, son preference, infant health and social capital. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and WHO5 Wellbeing Index indicated depressive symptoms and emotional wellbeing. Data were analysed using general linear models. Using an EPDS cut-off of 12/13, 18.1% (n = 78, 95% CI 14.6-22.1) of women had depressive symptoms (20.4% urban; 15.8% rural). Contrary to predictions, infant gender and traditional confinement were unrelated to depressive symptoms. Poverty, food insecurity, being frightened of family members, and intimate partner violence increased both depressive symptoms and lowered wellbeing. The first model accounted for 30.2% of the variance in EPDS score and found being frightened of one's husband, husband's unemployment, breastfeeding difficulties, infant diarrhoea, and cognitive social capital were associated with higher EPDS scores. The second model had accounted for 22% of the variance in WHO5 score. Living in Hue city, low education, poor maternal competence and a negative family response to the baby lowered maternal wellbeing. Traditional confinement practices and son preference were not linked to depressive symptoms among mothers, but were correlates of family relationships and wellbeing. Poverty, food insecurity, violence, infant ill health, and

  13. Prevalence of hip dislocation among children with cerebral palsy in regions with and without a surveillance programme: a cross sectional study in Sweden and Norway

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    Elkamil Areej I

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation is a serious complication among children with cerebral palsy (CP. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of hip dislocation among children with CP in an area providing regular care with an area providing hip surveillance services. Methods This is a cross-sectional study in seven Norwegian counties providing regular care and one Swedish healthcare region where a hip surveillance programme was introduced in 1994. Data were provided by the Norwegian Cerebral Palsy Register and the CP Register in Southern Sweden. Children born 1996 - 2003 with moderate to severe CP, defined as Gross Motor Classification System (GMFCS levels III - V, were included. In all, 119 Norwegian and 136 Swedish children fulfilled the criteria. In Norway, data on hip operations and radiographs of the hips were collected from medical records, while these data are collected routinely in the Swedish register. The hip migration percentage was measured on the recent radiographs. Hip dislocation was defined as a migration percent of 100%. Results The proportion of children at GMFCS levels III - V was 34% in the Norwegian and 38% in the Swedish population. In the Norwegian population, hip dislocation was diagnosed in 18 children (15.1%; CI: 9.8 - 22.6 compared with only one child (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.01 - 4.0 in Southern Sweden (p = Conclusions The surveillance programme reduced the number of hip dislocations and the proportion of children undergoing hip surgery was lower. However, with the surveillance programme the first operation was performed at a younger age. Our results strongly support the effectiveness of a specifically designed follow-up programme for the prevention of hip dislocation in children with CP.

  14. Trouble sleeping inside: a cross-sectional study of the prevalence and associated risk factors of insomnia in adult prison populations in England.

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    Dewa, Lindsay H; Hassan, Lamiece; Shaw, Jenny J; Senior, Jane

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of insomnia and identify associated demographic, clinical and forensic risk factors in adult prisoners in England. A cross-sectional study of 237 prisoners aged 18-72 years, across two male prisons and one female prison in North England. We used the Sleep Condition Indicator to measure probable DSM-V insomnia disorder (ID) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to examine sleep quality. Multiple demographic, sleep, clinical and forensic self-reported measures were recorded to identify any associations with insomnia. Overall, the prevalence of possible DSM-V ID was 61.6% (95% CI, 55.5%-67.8%). Subjective poor sleep quality was reported by 88.2% (95% CI, 84.1%-92.3%). Seven in ten (70.6%) female prisoners had possible DSM-V ID (95% CI, 64.8%-76.4%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusting for gender and age, indicated odds of having possible ID in prison were increased for the following factors: history of physical ill-health (OR = 3.62, 95% CI, 1.31-9.98); suicidality (OR = 2.79, 95% CI, 1.01.7.66), previously asked for help for insomnia (OR = 2.58, 95% CI, 1.21-5.47), depression (OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.31-3.24), greater endorsement of dysfunctional beliefs about sleep (OR = 1.50, 95% CI, 1.21-1.87), poor sleep hygiene (OR = 1.11, 95% CI, 1.04-1.19), and problematic prison environment (eg, noise, light or temperature) (OR = 1.07, 95% CI, 1.02-1.12). For the first time we have established the prevalence and associated factors of insomnia in a large sample of adult English prisoners. ID and poor sleep quality are common, especially in female prisoners. These findings emphasize/amplify the need for dedicated treatment pathways to improve screening, assessment and treatment of insomnia in prison. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Violence against women by male partners and against children within the family: prevalence, associated factors, and intergenerational transmission in Romania, a cross-sectional study.

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    Rada, Cornelia

    2014-02-07

    Domestic violence is a public health problem with negative consequences. We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence between parents and by parents against children, types of intimate partner violence against women, the intergenerational transmission of violence, and to identify a profile of beliefs and judgements regarding violent behaviour. The data used for this article were sourced from three cross-sectional studies performed in Romania in 2009-2011. We sampled 869 respondents (male and female) with a homogenous distribution between environment, gender, educational level, and age group (18 to 75). From a 96-item questionnaire regarding family and reproductive health, this article refers to four items: (1) feelings relating to the family in which they were raised; (2) whether they witnessed violence between parents or were victims of violence by parents or other family members during childhood or the teenage years; (3) opinions relating to 10 statements on violence from Maudsley Violence Questionnaire; (4) the manifestation of psychological, emotional, and sexual abuse from the partner in the family of procreation (FOP). The data were analysed by Pearson chi-square tests and latent class analysis. During childhood, 35% of respondents witnessed parental violence and 53.7% were victims of family violence. Psychological abuse by men against women was the most common type of violence reported in the FOP (45.1%). Violence in childhood and adolescence correlated with the perception of the family of origin as a hostile environment and of violence against women as a corrective measure, and that insults, swearing, and humiliation by their partner within the FOP is acceptable (p violence or were victims of violence during childhood (p violence as a form of discipline or instruction of children and women remains a significant problem, with a higher rate of intimate partner violence than in other developed countries. Furthermore, implementing intervention

  16. Violence against women by male partners and against children within the family: prevalence, associated factors, and intergenerational transmission in Romania, a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic violence is a public health problem with negative consequences. We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence between parents and by parents against children, types of intimate partner violence against women, the intergenerational transmission of violence, and to identify a profile of beliefs and judgements regarding violent behaviour. Methods The data used for this article were sourced from three cross-sectional studies performed in Romania in 2009–2011. We sampled 869 respondents (male and female) with a homogenous distribution between environment, gender, educational level, and age group (18 to 75). From a 96-item questionnaire regarding family and reproductive health, this article refers to four items: (1) feelings relating to the family in which they were raised; (2) whether they witnessed violence between parents or were victims of violence by parents or other family members during childhood or the teenage years; (3) opinions relating to 10 statements on violence from Maudsley Violence Questionnaire; (4) the manifestation of psychological, emotional, and sexual abuse from the partner in the family of procreation (FOP). The data were analysed by Pearson chi-square tests and latent class analysis. Results During childhood, 35% of respondents witnessed parental violence and 53.7% were victims of family violence. Psychological abuse by men against women was the most common type of violence reported in the FOP (45.1%). Violence in childhood and adolescence correlated with the perception of the family of origin as a hostile environment and of violence against women as a corrective measure, and that insults, swearing, and humiliation by their partner within the FOP is acceptable (p violence or were victims of violence during childhood (p violence as a form of discipline or instruction of children and women remains a significant problem, with a higher rate of intimate partner violence than in other developed countries. Furthermore

  17. Prevalence and differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus regarding female sexual dysfunction: a cross-sectional Egyptian study.

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    Ahmed, Magdy R; Shaaban, Mohamed M; Sedik, Wael F; Mohamed, Tamer Y

    2017-04-24

    To evaluate the female sexual dysfunction in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This cross-sectional study was carried out at Suez Canal University Hospitals from the start of February 2015 to the end of May 2016 among 189 married premenopausal women attending endocrinology and diabetology outpatient clinic for regular follow-up; 25 of whom refused to participate and 18 more were excluded due to incomplete data sets resulting in a final sample of 146 diabetic females. Ninety healthy women were recruited from the administrative staff at the hospital as a control group. Sexual dysfunction was assessed using female sexual function index (FSFI), a validated 19-item, self-administered, screening questionnaire comprising the six major sexual domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain. Responses to each question were reported and scored on 0-5 scale with 0 representing no sexual activity and 5 suggestive of normal sexual activity. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction was significantly higher in both type 1 and 2 DM groups (44 and 25%, respectively) than in the control group (9%). FSFI mean total score was significantly lower in type 1 DM (21.1 ± 3.9) than type 2 DM (26.4 ± 4.2) and both were significantly lower than the control group (31.5 ± 5.8). With regard to FSFI domains, mean values for desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain were significantly lower in both type 1 and type 2 DM groups when compared with the controls. FSD is a significant health problem among premenopausal diabetic Egyptian women. Type 1 DM women were more affected than type 2 DM that in turn was more affected than healthy control females.

  18. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in North Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Abel Gebre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world’s population. Anemia is a global public health problem occurring at all stages of the life cycle but the burden of the problem is higher in pregnant women particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in north western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 714 pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in health facilities found in the study area from April to May 2014. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 20.0 statistical software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with anemia among the study participants. All tests were two-sided and p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL among the pregnant women was 36.1% (95% CI = 32.7%–39.7% of which 58.5% were mildly, 35.7% moderately, and 5.8% severely anemic. In pregnant women, rural residence (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.01–3.04, no education/being illiterate (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.03–2.37, absence of iron supplementation during pregnancy (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.92–5.37, and meal frequency of less than two times per day (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.06–4.91 were the independent predictors for increased anemia among the pregnant women. Conclusions. Anemia was found to be moderate public health problem in the study area. Residence, educational status, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and meal frequency per day were statistically associated with anemia among the pregnant women. Awareness creation and nutrition education on the importance of taking iron

  19. Prevalence of "HIV/AIDS related" parental death and its association with sexual behavior of secondary school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Takele; Ali, Ahmed; Worku, Alemayehu

    2014-10-30

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a global crisis that represents a serious health threat, particularly among younger people. Various studies show that both orphan and non-orphan adolescents and youths experience vulnerability to HIV. Nevertheless, the findings hitherto are mixed and inconclusive. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the prevalence of parental death and its association with multiple sexual partners among secondary school students for evidence based interventions. A cross-sectional study was conducted among secondary school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A multistage sampling technique was used to select a representative sample of 2,169 school youths. Sexual health behavior related data were collected using self-administered questionnaire. Binary logistic regression was employed to examine the relation between parental death and multiple sexual partners. Among the 2,169 eligible study participants 1948 (90%) completed the self-administered questionnaires. Of those 1,182(60.7%) were females. The overall prevalence of parental death was 347(17.8%.) with 95% CI (16.2%, 19.6%). The HIV/AIDS proportionate mortality ratio was 28% (97/347).A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high HIV/AIDS related knowledge (AOR = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.84), positive attitude towards HIV prevention methods (AOR = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-0.97), being tested for HIV (AOR = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.31-0.87) and chewing Khat (AOR = 2.59; 95% CI,1.28-5.26)] were significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners among secondary school youths. Significant proportion of secondary school youths had lost at least one parent due to various causes. High knowledge of HIV/AIDS, positive attitude towards 'ABC' rules for HIV prevention, being tested for HIV and chewing khat are more likely to be factors associated with multiple sexual partnership among secondary school students in Addis Ababa.Therefore, the school based interventions

  20. [Prevalence of hypertension and assessment of its impact on self-rated health in rural populations: a cross-sectional study in northern Senegal].

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    Seck, S M; Diop-Dia, A; Dia, D Gueye; Gueye, L

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is a growing public health problem, and its impact on the overall health of patients in Africa is not well known. The objective of this study was to determine its prevalence and its influence on self-rated health among people living in rural areas of Senegal. This cross-sectional study was conducted over a two-week period in the rural communities of Labgar and Lougré Thiolly, located in the central northern region of Senegal, in an agricultural area. Randomly recruited volunteers were questioned during direct individual interviews about socio-demographic (age, sex, marital status, education, occupation) and lifestyle data (smoking or alcohol, physical activity). Clinical data (medical history, weight, height, blood pressure, course of treatment) were also collected. Self-rated health (SRH) was assessed by asking if they felt their health was bad or good. We included 627 patients with a mean age of 40.93 ± 17.2 years (range: 15-100 years), 59.9% of them women. Illiteracy and overweight were more common among women than among men, and smoking and alcohol consumption more frequent in men. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 23.4% and did not differ significantly between men (24.9%) and women (22.4%)(P = 0.50). Self-rated health was similar in men and women (with respectively 66.9% and 72.9% reporting good health, P = 0.10). On univariate analysis, the factors associated with perceived health status were age (OR = 1.34, P = 0.04), smoking (OR = 2.16, P = 0.03), educational level (OR = 1.21, P = 0.04), and the presence of hypertension (OR = 0.63, P = 0.05). The multivariate regression analysis showed that among women, advanced age (≥50 years) and hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) were associated with poorer perceived health, whereas for men, only smoking was significantly correlated with poor health status (OR = 0.41, P = 0.01). This study shows that hypertension is common in this rural area of Senegal and is significantly

  1. The Prevalence of Internet Addiction among a Japanese Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic Sample with Autism Spectrum Disorder And/or Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Ryuhei; Makino, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Masaki; Hirota, Tomoya; Ohcho, Kozo; Ikeda, Shin; Tsubouchi, Shouko; Inagaki, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Extant literature suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are risk factors for internet addiction (IA). The present cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of IA among 132 adolescents with ASD and/or ADHD in a Japanese psychiatric clinic using Young's Internet Addiction Test. The…

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Mekelle town, northern Ethiopia, 2014: a cross sectional study.

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    Nigus Gebremedhin Asefa

    Full Text Available The 2013 World Health Organization Status Report on Road Safety estimated that approximately 1.24 million deaths occur annually due to road traffic crashes with most of the burden falling on low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this research is to study the prevalence of road traffic crashes in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia and to identify risk factors with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies.This study used a cross-sectional design to measure the prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crashes among 4-wheeled minibus (n = 130 and 3-wheeled Bajaj (n = 582 taxi drivers in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between risk factors and drivers' involvement in a road traffic crash within the 3 years prior to the survey.Among the 712 taxi drivers, 26.4% (n = 188 of them reported involvement in a road traffic crash within the past 3 years. Drivers who listened to mass media had decreased likelihood of road traffic crash involvement (AOR = 0.51, 0.33-0.78, while speedy driving (AOR = 4.57, 3.05-7.44, receipt of a prior traffic punishment (AOR = 4.57, 2.67-7.85, and driving a mechanically faulty taxi (AOR = 4.91, 2.81-8.61 were strongly associated with road traffic crash involvement. Receiving mobile phone calls while driving (AOR = 1.91, 1.24-2.92 and history of alcohol use (AOR = 1.51, 1.00-2.28 were also associated with higher odds of road traffic crash involvement.The results of this study show that taxi drivers in Mekelle habitually place themselves at increased risk of road traffic crashes by violating traffic laws, especially related to speedy driving, mobile phone use, and taxi maintenance. This research can be used to support re-evaluation of the type, severity, and enforcement of traffic violation penalties.

  3. Prevalence of Active Trachoma and Its Associated Factors among Rural and Urban Children in Dera Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

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    Metadel Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Trachoma is the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. Once an epidemic in most parts of the world, it has largely now disappeared from developed countries. However, it continues to be endemic in many developing countries like Ethiopia. Even if several studies were conducted in different parts of Ethiopia, most of them did not show the independent predictors for rural and urban children separately. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma in urban and rural children. Methods. Community based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Dera woreda. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 671 children of one up to nine years of age. Data were collected by face to face interview and observation using a structured and pretested questionnaire. Binary Logistic Regression Model was fitted to consider adding independent predictors of outcome. Results. Out of 671 children, 20 (9.3% of urban and 85 (18.6% of rural children were positive for active trachoma. Having discharge on eye (AOR = 6.9, 95% CI: 1.79–27.89, presence of liquid waste around the main house (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI: 1.94–16.18, and living in households without latrine (AOR = 4.39, 95% CI: 1.39–13.89 were significantly associated with active trachoma of urban children. Rural children who had discharge on their eye (AOR = 5.86, 95% CI: 2.78–12.33, those who had unclean face (AOR = 4.68, 95% CI: 2.24–9.81, and those living in households with feces around their main houses (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.04–3.62 were significantly associated with active trachoma. Conclusion. The result showed that the prevalence of active trachoma in urban areas of the district was below WHO threshold of 10% to determine trachoma as public health problem. However, in rural areas of the district it is far from elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. Thus, in order to improve awareness of the community

  4. Tuberculosis infection among homeless persons and caregivers in a high-tuberculosis-prevalence area in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Takatorige, Toshio; Hirayama, Yukio; Nakata, Nobuaki; Harihara, Shigeyoshi; Shimouchi, Akira; Fujita, Koshiro; Yoshida, Hiroko; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nagai, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Takashima, Tetsuya; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2011-01-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem. The Airin district of Osaka City has a large population of homeless persons and caregivers and is estimated to be the largest TB-endemic area in the intermediate-prevalence country, Japan. However, there have been few studies of homeless persons and caregivers. The objective of this study is to detect active TB and to assess the prevalence and risk factors for latent TB infection among homeless persons and caregivers. We conducted a cross-sectional study for screening TB infection (active and latent TB infections) using questionnaire, chest X-ray (CXR), newly available assay for latent TB infection (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube; QFT) and clinical evaluation by physicians at the Osaka Socio-Medical Center Hospital between July 2007 and March 2008. Homeless persons and caregivers, aged 30-74 years old, who had not received CXR examination within one year, were recruited. As for risk factors of latent TB infection, the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for QFT-positivity were calculated using logistic regression model. Complete responses were available from 436 individuals (263 homeless persons and 173 caregivers). Four active TB cases (1.5%) among homeless persons were found, while there were no cases among caregivers. Out of these four, three had positive QFT results. One hundred and thirty-three (50.6%) homeless persons and 42 (24.3%) caregivers had positive QFT results. In multivariate analysis, QFT-positivity was independently associated with a long time spent in the Airin district: ≥10 years versus homeless (OR = 2.53; 95% CI, 1.39-4.61) and for caregivers (OR = 2.32; 95% CI, 1.05-5.13), and the past exposure to TB patients for caregivers (OR = 3.21; 95% CI, 1.30-7.91) but not for homeless persons (OR = 1.51; 95% CI, 0.71-3.21). Although no active TB was found for caregivers, one-quarter of them had latent TB infection. In addition to homeless persons, caregivers need examinations for

  5. Period prevalence, risk factors and consequent injuries of falling among the Saudi elderly living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Almegbel, Faisal Yousef; Alotaibi, Ibrahim Muthyib; Alhusain, Faisal Ahmed; Masuadi, Emad M; Al Sulami, Salma Lafyan; Aloushan, Amairah Fahad; Almuqbil, Bashayer Ibrahim

    2018-01-10

    Approximately 28% to 35% of people aged 65 and over fall each year. The consequent injuries of falls are considered a major public health problem. Falls account for more than half of injury-related hospitalisations among old people. The aim of this study was to measure a 1-year period prevalence of falling among old people in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, this study described the most common risk factors and consequent injuries of falls. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Riyadh, using a convenient sampling. The targeted population were Saudi citizens who were 60 years or above. Over a 6-month period, 1182 individuals were sampled (545 men and 637 women). The 1-year prevalence of falling among old Saudis (>=60 years) was 49.9%. Our results show that 74% of the participants who experienced falls had postfall injuries. Old participants who were uneducated and those with middle school certification were associated with falls (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.72; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.56, aOR 1.81; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.85, respectively). Those who live in rented houses had a higher risk of falls. Interestingly, having a caregiver was significantly associated with more falls (aOR 1.39; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.79). However, not using any medications was significantly related to fewer falls. In addition, old individuals using walking aids were more likely to fall than those who did not. Participants who mentioned 'not having stressors were associated with less frequent falls (aOR 0.62; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.97). Cerebrovascular accidents were strongly associated with falls with an estimated OR of 2.75 (95% CI 1.18 to 6.43). Moreover, osteoporosis, poor vision and back pain were found to be predictors for falls among the elderly. 49.9% of elderly Saudis had experienced one or more falls during a 12-month period. Several preventable risk factors could be addressed by routine geriatric assessment. Research on the impact of these risk factors is needed. © Article author(s) (or their

  6. Neonatal mortality and prevalence of practices for newborn care in a squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study.

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    Afsheen Ayaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the past two decades there has been a sustained decline in child and infant mortality, however neonatal mortality has remained relatively unchanged. Almost all neonatal deaths (99% occur in developing countries, where the majority are delivered at homes. Evidence suggests that these deaths could be prevented by simple, inexpensive practices and interventions during the pregnancy, delivery and postnatal period. In Pakistan over the last decade extensive efforts have been made by the international donors and government to implement these practices. However, limited attempts have been made to explore if these efforts have made a difference at the grass root level. This study assessed the burden of neonatal mortality and prevalence of practices for newborn care in a squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A community based cross-sectional study was performed. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered to 565 women who had recently delivered. Information was collected on neonatal morbidity, mortality and practices of women regarding care during pregnancy, child birth and for newborn, till 28th day of birth. Although 70% of women mentioned receiving antenatal care by a skilled provider, only 54.5% had four or more visits. Tetanus toxoid was received by 79% of women while only 56% delivered at a health care facility by a skilled attendant. Newborn care practices like bathing the baby immediately after birth (56%, giving pre-lacteals (79.5%, late initiation of breast feeding (80.3%, application of substances on umbilical cord (58% and body massage (89% were common. Most neonates (81.1% received BCG injection and polio drops after birth. Neonatal mortality rate was 27/1000 live births with the majority of deaths occurring during the first three days of life. CONCLUSION: Even after years of efforts by government and nongovernmental sector to reduce newborn morbidity and mortality, inadequate

  7. Factors Influencing the Prevalence of Mental Health Problems among Malay Elderly Residing in a Rural Community: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    M Rizal Abdul Manaf

    Full Text Available Mental health problems are common in old age, but frequently remain undetected and untreated. Mental health problems in the elderly are the result of a complex interaction of social, psychological and biological factors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and emotional stress and their associated factors among the Malay elderly in a rural community of Perak, Malaysia.It was a cross-sectional study. The Malay elderly aged 60 years and above were selected through convenient sampling to give a total of 230 respondents. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21 was used to assess the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Bivariate analyses were performed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between the factors and each of the mental health statuses assessed.The results showed that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among the elderly respondents was 27.8%, 22.6%, and 8.7%, respectively. The significant factors for depression were single elderly (Adjusted OR = 3.27, 95%CI 1.66, 6.44, living with family (Adjusted OR = 4.98, 95%CI 2.05, 12.10, and poor general health status (Adjusted OR = 2.28, 95%CI 1.20, 4.36. Living with family was the only significant factor for anxiety (Adjusted OR = 2.68, 95%CI 1.09, 6.57. There was no significant factor for stress.Depression and anxiety among the Malay elderly in the rural community were very worrying. More equity in health should be created or strengthened in order to intensify the opportunity to identify, diagnose, and treat those with mental health problems. Living arrangement in the rural community was an important factor that had influenced depression and anxiety. Therefore, further research is recommended for more comprehensive information, as a result of which appropriate intervention can be made.

  8. A cross-sectional study to estimate prevalence of periodontal disease in a population of dogs (Canis familiaris in commercial breeding facilities in Indiana and Illinois.

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    Judith L Stella

    Full Text Available The objectives of this cross-sectional study were: 1 to estimate the prevalence and characterize the severity of periodontal disease in a population of dogs housed in commercial breeding facilities; 2 to characterize PD preventive care utilized by facility owners; and 3 to assess inter-rater reliability of a visual scoring assessment tool. Adult dogs (N = 445 representing 42 breeds at 24 CB facilities in Indiana and Illinois were assessed. Periodontal disease was scored visually using the American Veterinary Dental Collage 0-IV scale. Inter-rater reliability was assessed on 198 dogs and facility owners were asked to provide information about the preventive care utilized. The overall prevalence of periodontal disease (Grades I-IV was 86.3% (95% CI: 82.9, 89.3. An ordered logistic regression analysis found age (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.24, 1.54; P<0.0001, facility (OR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.09, 1.18; P<0.0001, sex (OR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.12, 2.65; P = 0.013, and non-professional dental scaling (OR = 2.82; 95% CI 1.34, 5.91; P = 0.006 to be statistically significant. Inter-rater reliability analysis found agreement to be 86.2%, with a weighted kappa of 0.4731 (95% CI 0.3847, 0.5615 indicating moderate agreement. Risk of periodontal disease increased with increasing age. Additionally, a trend toward decreasing risk with increasing weight was also found, although it was not statistically significant. The trends identified agree with studies that have evaluated periodontal disease in the companion dog population and do not support the assumption that the dental health of dogs in commercial breeding facilities is worse than that of the population as a whole. Although there were few cases of severe periodontal disease and all facilities employed some type of preventive care in this sample, the large number of dogs with some degree of disease (Grades I-IV suggests that further investigation of preventive care is warranted.

  9. A cross-sectional study in Morocco

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Morocco, there are no studies that focused on the hypertension and its associated risk factors through patients with type 2 diabetes. Different findings show that the frequency of type 2 diabetes has risen rapidly in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its ...

  10. Implementing visual cervical cancer screening in Senegal: a cross-sectional study of risk factors and prevalence highlighting service utilization barriers

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    Dykens JA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available J Andrew Dykens,1–4 Annē M Linn,5,6 Tracy Irwin,7 Karen E Peters,8 Maria Pyra,8 Fatoumata Traoré,9 Mariama Touré Diarra,9,☪ Memoona Hasnain,1,10 Katie Wallner,11 Patrick Linn,11 Youssoupha Ndiaye12 1Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, 2Center for Global Health, 3Institute for Health Research and Policy, 4Cancer Center, Hospital and Health Sciences System, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA; 5Master’s International Graduate School Program, Peace Corps, Dakar, Senegal; 6Rutgers School of Nursing, Newark, NJ, 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 8School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA; 9Regional Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, Kédougou, Senegal; 10Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 11Peace Corps, Dakar, 12Regional Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, Sédhiou, Senegal ☪Mariama Touré Diarra passed away on March 21, 2015 Background: Senegal ranks 15th in the world in incidence of cervical cancer, the number one cause of cancer mortality among women in this country. The estimated participation rate for cervical cancer screening throughout Senegal is very low (6.9% of women 18–69 years old, especially in rural areas and among older age groups (only 1.9% of women above the age of 40 years. There are no reliable estimates of the prevalence of cervical dysplasia or risk factors for cervical dysplasia specific to rural Senegal. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of cervical dysplasia in a rural region using visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA and to assess risk factors for cervical cancer control. Patients and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in which we randomly selected 38 villages across the Kédougou region using a three-stage clustering process. Between October 2013 and March 2014, we collected VIA screening results for women aged 30–50 years and

  11. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional study in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Rawal, Lal B; Niessen, Louis W

    2015-10-01

    Depression is a common feature in patients with type 2 diabetes and often remains undetected and untreated, causing increased morbidity and mortality. We explored the prevalence of co-morbid depression and its associated factors, including major life-events among patients with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 515 patients with type 2 diabetes between September 2013 and July 2014 in a tertiary hospital in Dhaka city. We assessed depression using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) with predefined cut-off scores of 5, 10, 15 and 20 to indicate minimal, mild, moderate, moderately-severe, and severe depression. Associations between depression and its associated factors were explored using univariate and multivariate regression. Overall, 61.9% participants had depressive symptoms, and the prevalence was higher among females (70.9%) compared to males (50.6%). One-third (35.7%) of participants had mild depression and 36.2% had moderate to severe depression. In the multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with depression were: age≤60 years (OR: 2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.6; p≤0.006), female gender (OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.3-3.0; p≤0.002), those having 1-3 complications (OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.2-4.3; p=0.010), experienced loss of business or crop failure (OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.6; p=0.006), major family conflicts (OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.4-3.5; p≤0.001), separation or deaths of family members or divorce (OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.4-3.5; p≤0.001), and those who experienced unavailability of food or medicines (OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.0-4.5; p=0.038). Patients with diabetes, especially females, those having other complications, and major life-events should routinely be screened for symptoms of depression with adequate management of these conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Vitamin D deficiency in girls from South Brazil: a cross-sectional study on prevalence and association with vitamin D receptor gene variants

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    Santos Betânia R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a multitude of disorders including diabetes, defective insulin secretion as well as rickets and poor bone health. Vitamin D is also a concern during childhood and adolescence and has been reported in girls from South Brazil. We determined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in girls from South Brazil and investigated whether the genotypic distribution of the BsmI, ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms of the VDR gene and their haplotypes were associated with vitamin D levels. Methods Cross-sectional study including 234 apparently healthy girls aged 7 to 18 years. Height and weight were measured for calculation of body mass index (BMI percentiles for age. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] were assessed. Participants were genotyped for ApaI (rs7975232, TaqI (rs731236, and BsmI (rs1544410 SNPs. Results The median and interquartile range (25-75% of BMI percentile was 62.0 (33.3 – 84.9. The frequency of overweight/obesity was 24.9%. Circulating levels of 25(OHD (≥ 30 ng/mL were adequate in 9.4%; insufficient in 54.3% (20–29 ng/mL; and deficient in 36.3% (vs. GA + AA, two-tailed Student’s t-test p vs. GT + TT, two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.031 and TaqI (TT vs. TC + CC, two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.005 SNPs and the GGT haplotype (two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.036 were significantly associated with lower 25(OHD levels. Conclusions 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were highly prevalent in this sample. The BsmI, ApaI and TaqI wild variants of the VDR gene, as well as the GGT haplotype, were associated with lower vitamin D levels, suggesting that VDR gene polymorphisms could be linked to higher susceptibility to vitamin D deficiency in a sub-population of children and adolescents.

  13. Workplace violence against nurses--prevalence and association with hospital organizational characteristics and health-promotion efforts: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ching-Yao; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chien, Li-Yin; Huang, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of workplace violence and explore the role of hospital organizational characteristics and health promotion efforts in reducing hospital violence among nurses in Taiwan. Cross-sectional survey. One hundred hospitals across Taiwan. The final sample in our study comprised responses from 26,979 nurses. The data were obtained from a nationwide hospital survey, Physical and Mental Health and Safety Needs in Full-Time Health Care Staff, which was developed and conducted by the Bureau of Health Promotion, Taiwan, in 2011. The main dependent variable was whether nurses had experienced violence within the past year. Physical violence, threatened or intimidated personal safety, verbal violence or sexual harassment were all included. Of the 26,979 nurses, 13,392 nurses (49.6%) had experienced at least one episode of any type of violence in the past year; 5150 nurses (19.1%) had been exposed to physical violence, and 12,491 nurses (46.3%) had been exposed to non-physical violence. The prevalence of having experienced any violence varied widely and ranged from the highest (55.5%) in an emergency room or intensive care unit to the lowest (28.3%) among those aged 55-65 years. After adjusting for other characteristics, younger nurses were significantly more likely to be exposed to any violent threat. Nurses working in public hospitals had a significantly higher risk of workplace violence than those working in private hospitals. Significant variations were also observed among work units. Although nurses working in a certified health promoting hospital (HPH) did not have a lower risk of workplace violence, those working in an outstanding HPH had a significantly lower risk of workplace violence. A similar pattern was observed for non-physical violence. Workplace violence is a major challenge to workplace safety for nurses in hospitals. This large scale nurse survey identified individual, work and hospital characteristics associated with workplace violence

  14. Calibrated prevalence of infertility in 30- to 49-year-old women according to different approaches: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-León, A; Lopez-Villaverde, V; Rueda, M; Moya-Garrido, M N

    2015-11-01

    How does the estimated prevalence of infertility among 30- to 49-year-old women vary when using different approaches to its measurement? The prevalence of women with difficulties in conceiving differed widely according to the measurement approach adopted. Establishing the true magnitude of infertility as a public health problem is challenging, given that it is not categorized as a disability or chronic condition and may be largely unreported. The time required to conceive is an increasingly frequent concern among couples of reproductive age. Population-based studies do not consider multiple approaches to infertility measurement in the same sample. A face-to-face cross-sectional population-based survey of 443 women aged between 30 and 49 years residing in Huelva, southern Spain, was carried out. The sample size estimation was based on an assumed prevalence of infertility of 19%, a sampling error of ±4.84 percentage points, a design effect of 1.8 and a 95% confidence level. The information was collected in 2011. Self-reported information was gathered on socio-demographic data, pregnancy history, time required to become pregnant and perception of difficulties in becoming pregnant. Eight approaches to the estimation of infertility prevalence were considered: diagnosed infertility, subjective infertility, 1-year infertility, primary infertility, secondary infertility and subfertility based on the time taken to conceive (6, 12 or 24 months). Calibration estimators (indirect estimation techniques) were used to extrapolate the infertility prevalences to the whole of Spain. The response rate was 61.05%. Among 30- to 49-year-old Spanish women, 1.26% had a clinical diagnosis of infertility, 17.58% did not achieve pregnancy in 1 year (1-year infertility), 8.22% perceived difficulties in procreation (subjective infertility), 6.12% had not succeeded in having biological children (primary infertility) and 11.33% had not been able to have another biological child (secondary

  15. High prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers in the development section of a manually operated coal mine in a developing country: A cross sectional study

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    Bråtveit Magne

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies of miners have been carried out in African countries; most are from South Africa, where the working conditions are assumed to be better than in the rest of Africa. Several studies have focused on respiratory disorders among miners, but development workers responsible for creating underground road ways have not been studied explicitly. This is the first study assessing the associations between exposure to dust and quartz and respiratory symptoms among coal mine workers in a manually operated coal mine in Tanzania, focusing on development workers, as they have the highest exposure to coal dust. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 production workers from a coal mine. Interviews were performed using modified standardized questionnaires to elicit information on occupational history, demographics, smoking habits and acute and chronic respiratory symptoms. The relationships between current dust exposure as well as cumulative respirable dust and quartz and symptoms were studied by group comparisons as well as logistic regression. Results Workers from the development group had the highest dust exposure, with arithmetic mean of 10.3 mg/m3 for current respirable dust and 1.268 mg/m3 for quartz. Analogous exposure results for mine workers were 0.66 mg/m3 and 0.03 mg/m3, respectively; and for other development workers were 0.88 mg/m3 and 0.10 mg/m3, respectively. The workers from the development section had significantly higher prevalence of the acute symptoms of dry cough (45.7%, breathlessness (34.8% and blocked nose (23.9%. In addition, development workers had significantly more chronic symptoms of breathlessness (17.0% than the mine workers (6.4% and the other production workers (2.4%. The highest decile of cumulative exposure to respirable dust was significantly associated with cough (OR = 2.91, 95% CI 1.06, 7.97 as were cumulative exposure to quartz and cough (OR = 2.87, CI 1.05, 7.88, compared with

  16. Burnout Syndrome prevalence of on-call surgeons in a trauma reference hospital and its correlation with weekly workload: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Rodrigo Nobre DE; Rocha, Louise Matos; Eloi, Raissa Jardelino; Santos, Luciano Menezes Dos; Ribeiro, Marina Viegas Moura Rezende; Ramos, Fernando Wagner DA Silva; Lima, Fernando José Camello DE; Sousa-Rodrigues, Célio Fernando DE; Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó

    2016-01-01

    to determine the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome (BS) for surgeons working in referral hospital for trauma in Maceio and to evaluate the possible correlation between BS and weekly workload. cross-sectional study with 43 on-call surgeons at Professor Osvaldo Brandão Vilela General State Hospital, Maceió, between July and December, 2015. A self-administered form was used to evaluate BS through the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and socio-demographic characteristics among participants. Spearman's S test was used to compare BS and weekly workload. Significant level was 5%. among the surgeons studied, 95.35% were male and the mean age was 43.9 ± 8.95 years. The mean weekly workload on call in trauma was 33.90 ± 16.82 hours. The frequency of high scores in at least one of the three dimensions of MBI was 46.5%. Professional achievement was correlated with weekly workload (P = 0.020). the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome among on-call surgeons in referral hospital for trauma was 46.5%. In this sample there was correlation between weekly workload and the Burnout Syndrome. determinar a prevalência da Síndrome de Burnout (SB) em médicos cirurgiões que trabalham em hospital de referência para o trauma em Maceió e avaliar a possível correlação entre SB e a carga horária semanal de trabalho. estudo transversal com 43 cirurgiões de plantão do Hospital Geral do Estado Professor Osvaldo Brandão Vilela, Maceió, entre julho e dezembro de 2015. Um formulário autoadministrado foi utilizado para avaliar SB por meio do Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) e as características sociodemográficas entre os participantes. Foi utilizado o teste de Spearman S para comparar SB e carga horária semanal. O nível de significância foi 5%. entre os cirurgiões estudados, 95,35% eram do sexo masculino e a média de idade foi 43,9±8,95 anos. A média da carga horária semanal de plantão no trauma foi 33,90±16,82 horas. A frequência de pontuações elevadas em pelo menos uma das tr

  17. Prevalence of prenatal zinc deficiency and its association with socio-demographic, dietary and health care related factors in Rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

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    Gebremedhin Samson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies witnessed that prenatal zinc deficiency (ZD predisposes to diverse pregnancy complications. However, scientific evidences on the determinants of prenatal ZD are scanty and inconclusive. The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of prenatal ZD in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Sidama zone in January and February 2011. Randomly selected 700 pregnant women were included in the study. Data on potential determinants of ZD were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Serum zinc concentration was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Statistical analysis was done using logistic regression and linear regression. Results The mean serum zinc concentration was 52.4 (+/-9.9 μg/dl (95% CI: 51.6-53.1 μg/dl. About 53.0% (95% CI: 49.3-56.7% of the subjects were zinc deficient. The majority of the explained variability of serum zinc was due to dietary factors like household food insecurity level, dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods. The risk of ZD was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.02-2.67 times higher among women from maize staple diet category compared to Enset staple diet category. Compared to pregnant women aged 15-24 years, those aged 25-34 and 35-49 years had 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04-2.34 and 2.18 (95% CI: 1.25-3.63 times higher risk of ZD, respectively. Women devoid of self income had 1.74 (95% CI: 1.11-2.74 time increased risk than their counterparts. Maternal education was positively associated to zinc status. Grand multiparas were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.09-3.23 times more likely to be zinc deficient than nulliparas. Frequency of coffee intake was negatively association to serum zinc level. Positive association was noted between serum zinc and hemoglobin concentrations. Altitude, history of iron supplementation, maternal workload, physical access to health service, antenatal care and nutrition education were

  18. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among school children in Gondar town public primary schools, northwest Ethiopia: A school-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getaneh, Zegeye; Enawgaw, Bamlaku; Engidaye, Getabalew; Seyoum, Masresha; Berhane, Muruts; Abebe, Zegeye; Asrie, Fikir; Melku, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    Anemia is a global public health problem affecting 305 million school children (SC) worldwide. It has deleterious effects in SC, including lower school achievement due to impaired cognitive development and physical growth, fatigue and poor attention span, and increased morbidity because of reduced resistance to infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anemia among SC attending public primary schools in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia. A school-based cross sectional study was conducted on a total of 523 SC aged from 6-14 years old. Multi-stage sampling followed by systematic random sampling techniques were employed to select study participants. Data on socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics, and dietary status of children were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview of children's caregivers. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined by using HemoCue 301+analyser. Stool and blood samples were collected in the school premises, and examined for intestinal and hemoparasites, respectively. Data were entered into Epi Info version 3.5.3 and transferred to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models were fitted to identify associated factors of anemia. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Of the total SC participated in the study, 269 (51.4%) were males. The median (inter quartile range (IQR)) age was 12 (10-13) years, and 332 (63.5%) of them were in the age group 11-14 years. About 81 (15.5%; 95%CI: 12.4%, 18.7%) of them were anemic: 56 (69.1%) and 25 (38.9%) of them were mildly and moderately anemic, respectively. Low maternal education (AOR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.11, 4.78), stunting (AOR = 2.22; 95%CI: 1.30, 3.80), severe food insecurity (AOR = 5.11; 95%CI: 1.53, 17.13), and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) infection (AOR = 7.13; 95%CI: 3.16, 16.86) were

  19. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors among school children in Gondar town public primary schools, northwest Ethiopia: A school-based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zegeye Getaneh

    Full Text Available Anemia is a global public health problem affecting 305 million school children (SC worldwide. It has deleterious effects in SC, including lower school achievement due to impaired cognitive development and physical growth, fatigue and poor attention span, and increased morbidity because of reduced resistance to infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anemia among SC attending public primary schools in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia.A school-based cross sectional study was conducted on a total of 523 SC aged from 6-14 years old. Multi-stage sampling followed by systematic random sampling techniques were employed to select study participants. Data on socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics, and dietary status of children were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview of children's caregivers. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Hemoglobin (Hb concentration was determined by using HemoCue 301+analyser. Stool and blood samples were collected in the school premises, and examined for intestinal and hemoparasites, respectively. Data were entered into Epi Info version 3.5.3 and transferred to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models were fitted to identify associated factors of anemia. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Of the total SC participated in the study, 269 (51.4% were males. The median (inter quartile range (IQR age was 12 (10-13 years, and 332 (63.5% of them were in the age group 11-14 years. About 81 (15.5%; 95%CI: 12.4%, 18.7% of them were anemic: 56 (69.1% and 25 (38.9% of them were mildly and moderately anemic, respectively. Low maternal education (AOR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.11, 4.78, stunting (AOR = 2.22; 95%CI: 1.30, 3.80, severe food insecurity (AOR = 5.11; 95%CI: 1.53, 17.13, and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH infection (AOR = 7.13; 95%CI: 3.16, 16

  20. Prevalence of herbal medicine use and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at public health facilities in Hossana Town, Southern Ethiopia: facility based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laelago, Tariku; Yohannes, Tadele; Lemango, Fiseha

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal medicine has been on increase in many developing and industrialized countries. More pregnant women use herbal remedies to treat pregnancy related problems due to cost-effectiveness of therapy and easy access of these products. We sought to assess the prevalence of herbal medicine use and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of public health facilities. Facility based cross sectional study was conducted among 363 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics from May to June 2015 at public health facilities in Hossana town, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia. Pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data from each study subject. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was used to see significance of association between the outcome and independent variables. Odds ratios at 95 % CI were computed to measure the strength of the association between the outcome and the independent variables. P-value herbal medicine during current pregnancy . The herbal medicines commonly taken during current pregnancy were ginger (55.8 %), garlic (69.8 %), eucalyptus (11.6 %), tenaadam (rutachalenssis) (26.4 %), damakesse (ocimumlamiifolium) (22.8 %), feto (3.5 %) and omore (3.1 %). Being students (AOR: (5.68, 95 % CI: (1.53, 21.13), second trimester of pregnancy (AOR: 0.22, 95 % CI: (0.08, 0.76), sufficient knowledge on herbal medicine (AOR: 0.37, 95 % CI: (0.19, 0.79), no formal education (AOR: 4.41, 95 % CI: (1.11, 17.56), primary education (AOR: 4.15, 95 % CI: (1.51, 11.45) and secondary education (AOR: 2.55, 95 % CI: (1.08,6.03) were significantly associated with herbal medicine use. The findings of this study showed that herbal medicine use during pregnancy is a common experience. Commonly used herbal medicines during current pregnancy were garlic, ginger, tenaadam, damakasse and eucalyptus. Educational status, occupation, knowledge on herbal medicine and second trimester of pregnancy were the major factors

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Testing among Young People Enrolled in Non-Formal Education Centers in Urban Chiang Mai, Thailand: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Patou Masika Musumari

    Full Text Available HIV testing is the gateway to HIV prevention, treatment, and care. Despite the established vulnerability of young Thai people to HIV infection, studies examining the prevalence and correlates of HIV testing among the general population of Thai youth are still very limited. This study investigates socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with HIV testing among young Thai people enrolled in Non-formal Education Centers (NFEC in urban Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand.This was a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among young unmarried Thai youth--between the ages of 15 and 24--who were enrolled in NFEC in urban Chiang Mai. Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify correlates of "ever tested for HIV" among the sexually active participants.Of the 295 sexually active participants, 27.3% reported "ever tested for HIV;" 65.4% "did not consistently use condom;" and 61.7% "had at least 2 lifetime partners." We found that "self-efficacy" (AOR, 4.92; CI, 1.22-19.73; "perception that it is easy to find a location nearby to test for HIV" (AOR, 4.67; CI, 1.21-18.06; "having at least 2 lifetime sexual partners" (AOR, 2.05; CI, 1.09-3.85; and "ever been pregnant or made someone pregnant" (AOR, 4.06; CI, 2.69-9.15; were associated with increased odds of having ever been tested. On the other hand, "fear of HIV test results" (AOR, 0.21; CI, 0.08-0.57 was associated with lower odds of ever having been tested for HIV.The main finding is that a substantially high proportion of Thai youth is engaged in risky sexual behaviors--yet reports low rates of ever having been tested for HIV. This highlights an urgent need to develop appropriate interventions--based on the identified correlates of HIV testing. There is also an urgent need to enhance HIV testing and to promote safer sexual behaviors among young Thai people--particularly those who are out-of-school.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Testing among Young People Enrolled in Non-Formal Education Centers in Urban Chiang Mai, Thailand: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumari, Patou Masika; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Yungyuankul, Sawang; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2016-01-01

    HIV testing is the gateway to HIV prevention, treatment, and care. Despite the established vulnerability of young Thai people to HIV infection, studies examining the prevalence and correlates of HIV testing among the general population of Thai youth are still very limited. This study investigates socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with HIV testing among young Thai people enrolled in Non-formal Education Centers (NFEC) in urban Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. This was a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among young unmarried Thai youth--between the ages of 15 and 24--who were enrolled in NFEC in urban Chiang Mai. Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify correlates of "ever tested for HIV" among the sexually active participants. Of the 295 sexually active participants, 27.3% reported "ever tested for HIV;" 65.4% "did not consistently use condom;" and 61.7% "had at least 2 lifetime partners." We found that "self-efficacy" (AOR, 4.92; CI, 1.22-19.73); "perception that it is easy to find a location nearby to test for HIV" (AOR, 4.67; CI, 1.21-18.06); "having at least 2 lifetime sexual partners" (AOR, 2.05; CI, 1.09-3.85); and "ever been pregnant or made someone pregnant" (AOR, 4.06; CI, 2.69-9.15); were associated with increased odds of having ever been tested. On the other hand, "fear of HIV test results" (AOR, 0.21; CI, 0.08-0.57) was associated with lower odds of ever having been tested for HIV. The main finding is that a substantially high proportion of Thai youth is engaged in risky sexual behaviors--yet reports low rates of ever having been tested for HIV. This highlights an urgent need to develop appropriate interventions--based on the identified correlates of HIV testing. There is also an urgent need to enhance HIV testing and to promote safer sexual behaviors among young Thai people--particularly those who are out-of-school.

  3. Prevalence and association of perceived stress, substance use and behavioral addictions: a cross-sectional study among university students in France, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavolacci, Marie Pierre; Ladner, Joel; Grigioni, Sebastien; Richard, Laure; Villet, Herve; Dechelotte, Pierre

    2013-08-06

    University students face multiple stressors such as academic overload, constant pressure to succeed, competition with peers as well as concerns about the future. Stress should not be considered on its own, but should be associated with potential risk behaviors leading to onset of substance use and related problems heightened during the university period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of main substance use and behavioral addictions among students in higher education in France and to examine the relationship with perceived stress. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by university student volunteers from Upper Normandy (France) either by anonymous online questionnaire or by paper questionnaire. Data collected included socio-economic characteristics, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis) and hazardous behaviors: alcohol abuse problems, smoking, consumption of cannabis, eating disorders, and cyber addiction. A total of 1876 students were included. Mean PSS score was 15.9 (standard deviation = 7.2). Highly stressed students (4th quartile) were compared with lesser stressed students (1st quartile). A positive relation was observed between female gender, regular smokers, alcohol abuse problems, risk of cyberaddiction and especially eating disorders (AOR = 5.45, 95% CI = 3.42-8.69), and increasing PSS score. PSS score however, was not significantly related to the curriculum, regular alcohol use, drunkenness or binge drinking even after additional controlling for use of other substances. We found a significant negative association between stress and practice of sport: students with the most physical activity were less likely to report perceived stress (4th quartile: AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.39-0.80). This cross-sectional study among university students in France revealed that perceived stress was associated not only with known risks such as alcohol misuse, but also with new risks

  4. "Are Thai children and youth sufficiently active? prevalence and correlates of physical activity from a nationally representative cross-sectional study".

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    Amornsriwatanakul, Areekul; Lester, Leanne; Bull, Fiona C; Rosenberg, Michael

    2017-05-30

    Children and youth gain multiple health benefits from regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, in Thailand there is limited national data on children and youth's PA behaviors and recent reports suggest that Thai children and youth have low levels of PA. Furthermore, there is almost no data on the factors associated with inactivity to support the development of a Thai National PA Plan. The purpose of this paper is to investigate Thai children and youth's participation in PA and its correlates across sociodemographic characteristics and different PA domains. This study applied a cross-sectional study design with a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. A national representative sample of 13,255 children and youth aged 6-17 years were used for data analysis. A previously validated questionnaire was used to assess PA prevalence. Logistic regression was conducted to examine the relationships of socio-demographic factors, and participation in different PA domains with overall PA. Only 23.4% of Thai children and youth met recommended levels of PA and there were large gender and regional differences. PA levels generally declined with age, although the level observed in the 10-13 year group was slightly higher than other year groups. A majority of children and youth engaged in a large number of different activities across PA domains. Sex, age, BMI, geographical regions, organized sports, participation in sport and recreational activities were significant predictors of meeting the global PA guidelines, whereas participation in physical education, active transport, and the number of screen time activities had no association. Girls were less likely to achieve sufficient PA levels (OR = 0.49, 95%CI; 0.45-0.54, p Thai children and youth is low, despite the high levels of engagement in a large number of PA. The results indicate that policy and interventions aimed at increasing PA are needed with special attention required to address specific groups less

  5. A Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study of Vaginal Carriage of Group B Streptococci (GBS and Escherichia coli in Resource-Poor Settings: Prevalences and Risk Factors.

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    Piet Cools

    Full Text Available One million neonates die each year in low- and middle-income countries because of neonatal sepsis; group B Streptococcus (GBS and Escherichia coli are the leading causes. In sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological data on vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage, a prerequisite for GBS and E. coli neonatal sepsis, respectively, are scarce but necessary to design and implement prevention strategies. Therefore, we assessed vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage rates and risk factors and the GBS serotype distribution in three sub-Saharan countries.A total of 430 women from Kenya, Rwanda and South Africa were studied cross-sectionally. Vaginal carriage of GBS and E. coli, and GBS serotype were assessed using molecular techniques. Risk factors for carriage were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis.Vaginal carriage rates in reference groups from Kenya and South Africa were 20.2% (95% CI, 13.7-28.7% and 23.1% (95% CI, 16.2-31.9%, respectively for GBS; and 25.0% (95% CI, 17.8-33.9% and 27.1% (95% CI, 19.6-36.2%, respectively for E. coli. GBS serotypes Ia (36.8%, V (26.3% and III (14.0% were most prevalent. Factors independently associated with GBS and E. coli carriage were Candida albicans, an intermediate vaginal microbiome, bacterial vaginosis, recent vaginal intercourse, vaginal washing, cervical ectopy and working as a sex worker. GBS and E. coli carriage were positively associated.Reduced vaginal GBS carriage rates might be accomplished by advocating behavioral changes such as abstinence from sexual intercourse and by avoidance of vaginal washing during late pregnancy. It might be advisable to explore the inclusion of vaginal carriage of C. albicans, GBS, E. coli and of the presence of cervical ectopy in a risk- and/or screening-based administration of antibiotic prophylaxis. Current phase II GBS vaccines (a trivalent vaccine targeting serotypes Ia, Ib, and III, and a conjugate vaccine targeting serotype III would not protect the majority of

  6. Prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, and cascade of care in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional, population-based study in rural and urban Malawi.

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    Price, Alison J; Crampin, Amelia C; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Kayuni-Chihana, Ndoliwe; Musicha, Crispin; Tafatatha, Terence; Branson, Keith; Lawlor, Debbie A; Mwaiyeghele, Elenaus; Nkhwazi, Lawrence; Smeeth, Liam; Pearce, Neil; Munthali, Elizabeth; Mwagomba, Beatrice M; Mwansambo, Charles; Glynn, Judith R; Jaffar, Shabbar; Nyirenda, Moffat

    2018-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is in rapid demographic transition, and non-communicable diseases are increasingly important causes of morbidity and mortality. We investigated the burden of diabetes, overweight and obesity, hypertension, and multimorbidity, their treatment, and their associations with lifestyle and other factors in Malawi, a very poor country with a predominantly rural-but rapidly growing urban-population, to identify high-risk populations and inform appropriate interventions. In this cross-sectional, population-based study, we enrolled all adults (≥18 years) residing in two defined geographical areas within Karonga District and Lilongwe city. All adults self-defining as usually resident in the study areas were eligible, and recruited at household level. Participants were interviewed, had anthropometry and blood pressure measured, and had fasting blood samples collected. The study outcomes were prevalence estimates and risk ratios for diabetes (defined as fasting blood glucose of at least 7·0 mmol/L or self-report of a previous diagnosis of diabetes), hypertension (systolic blood pressure of at least 140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure of at least 90 mm Hg, or self-report of current antihypertensive medication), overweight (BMI of 25·0-29·9 kg/m 2 ) and obesity (BMI of 30·0 kg/m 2 or more), and multimorbidity (two or more of the above conditions) by location-specific (urban vs rural), age-specific, and sex-specific groups, calculated using negative binomial regression. We used χ 2 likelihood ratio tests to assess heterogeneity by age, location, and sex. Between May 16, 2013, and Feb 8, 2016, we enrolled 15 013 (62%) of 24 367 eligible urban adults in Lilongwe and 13 878 (88%) of 15 806 eligible rural adults in Karonga District. Overweight and obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were highly prevalent, more so in urban residents, the less poor, and better educated than in rural, the poorest, and least educated participants. 18% of urban men (961 of

  7. Prevalence of consensual male-male sex and sexual violence, and associations with HIV in South Africa: a population-based cross-sectional study.

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    Kristin L Dunkle

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male-male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus.In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18-49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6% of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1% provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2% also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92 of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164 reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51 reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79 of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26 reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26 also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male-male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26-12.3, and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.90. Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24-7.80. Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non

  8. Prevalence of Consensual Male–Male Sex and Sexual Violence, and Associations with HIV in South Africa: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Dunkle, Kristin L.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Murdock, Daniel W.; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM) is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male–male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration) in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus. Methods and Findings In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18–49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6%) of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1%) provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2%) also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92) of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164) reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51) reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79) of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26) reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26) also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male–male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26–12.3), and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22–7.90). Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24–7.80). Men who had raped a man

  9. Risk factors and disease prevalence in 3331 personal check-ups performed in preventive medicine between 2006 and 2011. cross-sectional and follow-up study.

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    Keipes, M; Bellucci, A; Hansen, E

    2012-01-01

    The present data results from a retrospective analysis of 3331 check-ups made in the preventive medicine department of the "ZithaKlinik", named "ZithaGesondheetsZentrum". These check-ups are done for the employee's of several firm's and institutions. According to gender and age, several tests and examinations are performed and the results are given to the person's general practitioner or another doctor of his choice. We will present a global synthesis of all the results but also a follow-up study of persons having performed 2 check-ups or more over a 5-year period. In the cross-sectional part, the analysis is done on 3331 individual check-ups (1447 woman, 1884 men). The average age is 50.3 years +/- 11.4. In the follow-up study, 478 persons (191 women, 287 men) had at least 2 (maximum 5) check-ups in the 5-year period of our observation. Initial age was 54.1 +/- 10.9 years for woman and 51.4 +/- 11.4 for men, respectively 56.4 +/- 10.9 and 53.7+/- 11.2 at their last check-up. An alarming number of persons present with a weight or obesity problem (according to age ranging from 22.0% overweight and 7.3% obese from 18-29 years, respectively 37.5% and 11.3% from 30-49 years, finally 44.0% and 20.6% in the range 50-69 years). Associated risk factors and pathologies (Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, NASH, diabetes type 2 and complete metabolic syndromes) are extremely frequent and getting more so with growing age. Furthermore, physical activity is insufficient in grossly 2/3 of the studied population. The only positive point is a tendency of decreasing tobacco use in all age groups. The follow-up study is frustrating because most of the examined criteria get worse in-between check-ups instead of getting better with changes in lifestyle in an informed population. Asymptomatic diseases or risk factors for non-communicable diseases are extremely frequent in the population examined. The follow-up data shows that huge parts of this group are not sufficiently conscientious of their

  10. Differential prevalence and associations of overweight and obesity by gender and population group among school learners in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

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    Negash, Sarah; Agyemang, Charles; Matsha, Tandi E; Peer, Nasheeta; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Kengne, Andre P

    2017-01-01

    Factors influencing the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity among children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa remain unclear. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity and effects on cardio-metabolic profile in school learners in the Western Cape, South Africa. Cross-sectional data were collected from 7 to 18-year-old South African school learners attending 14 schools, randomly selected from 107 government schools in the areas. The learners were selected through stratified random sampling techniques. Logistic regressions were used to assess the determinants of overweight/obesity and its association with cardio-metabolic profile. Among the 1559 participants, the overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 22.9%. Being a girl (Odds ratio 2.51, 95% CI: 1.92-3.29), or Black African (1.35, 1.04-.75) was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese. The identified health consequences among the overweight/obese learners differed between the ethnic groups. Overweight/obese coloured (mixed ancestry) learners were more likely to have hypertension (3.27, 1.18-9.08), hypertriglyceridemia (1.94, 0.99-3.78) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (3.65, 2.33-5.72), overweight/obese Black African learners had higher odds for hypertension (3.62, 1.31-10.04) and low HDL-C (1.56, 1.01-2.40) and overweight/obese White learners were prone to low HDL-C (5.04, 1.35-18.80). Overweight/obesity is highly prevalent among school learners in Western Cape (South Africa), with being female or Black African increasing the odds. That overweight/obesity is also associated with adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile aggravates the problem and suggests worse cardiovascular outcomes in South African young adults in the future.

  11. High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Peruvian adolescents living in a peri-urban shantytown: a cross-sectional study.

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    Abbs, Elizabeth S; Viñoles, José; Alarcón, Jorge O; Johnson, Heather M; Zunt, Joseph R

    2017-05-22

    Adults of the peri-urban Peruvian shantytown of Lomas de Zapallal have a high prevalence of risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD)-likely due to behavioral choices established during childhood and adolescence. To guide the development of community-based risk reduction programs, we assessed the prevalence of risk factors for developing CVD among adolescents. We collected cross sectional data from adolescents of Peruvian peri-urban shantytown to evaluate four domains of CVD risk factors: (1) clinical (blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and blood lipids), (2) anthropometric (height, weight, and waist circumference), (3) behavioral (physical activity, diet, and substance abuse), and (4) psychosocial (mental health and violence). We enrolled 275 adolescents (56.4% female, mean age 14 years). Prevalence of overweight or obese status was 27.8%. High blood pressure was more common in males (37.4%) than females (20.5%) (p = 0.002). Total cholesterol was elevated (>170 mg/dL) in nearly half (45.5%) of the adolescents, and 71% had impaired fasting blood glucose (>100 mg/dL). Females were less likely to exercise daily (95.4%) than males (84.2%) (p = 0.002) but reported higher rates of depression (66.4%), anhedonia (67.6%), and self-harm behavior (37.9%) (all p < 0.01). Adolescents living in the peri-urban population of Puente Piedra had high prevalence of risk factors for future development of CVD; preventative efforts focused on improving nutrition, increasing physical inactivity, and addressing mental health conditions could reduce such risk factors.

  12. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of lower limb atherosclerotic lesions in newly diagnosed patients with ketosis-onset diabetes: a cross-sectional study

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    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical features of atherosclerotic lesions in ketosis-onset diabetes are largely absent. We aimed to compare the characteristics of lower limb atherosclerotic lesions among type 1, ketosis-onset and non-ketotic type 2 diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in newly diagnosed Chinese patients with diabetes, including 53 type 1 diabetics with positive islet-associated autoantibodies, 208 ketosis-onset diabetics without islet-associated autoantibodies, and 215 non-ketotic type 2 diabetics. Sixty-two subjects without diabetes were used as control. Femoral intima-media thickness (FIMT), lower limb atherosclerotic plaque and stenosis were evaluated and compared among the four groups based on ultrasonography. The risk factors associated with lower limb atherosclerotic plaque were evaluated via binary logistic regression in patients with diabetes. Results After adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence of lower limb plaque in the patients with ketosis-onset diabetes (47.6%) was significantly higher than in the control subjects (25.8%, p = 0.013), and showed a higher trend compared with the patients with type 1 diabetes (39.6%, p = 0.072), but no difference was observed in comparison to the patients with non-ketotic type 2 diabetes (62.3%, p = 0.859). The mean FIMT in the ketosis-onset diabetics (0.73 ± 0.17 mm) was markedly greater than that in the control subjects (0.69 ± 0.13 mm, p = 0.045) after controlling for age and sex, but no significant differences were found between the ketosis-onset diabetics and the type 1 diabetics (0.71 ± 0.16 mm, p = 0.373), and the non-ketotic type 2 diabetics (0.80 ± 0.22 mm, p = 0.280), respectively. Age and FIMT were independent risk factors for the presence of lower limb plaque in both the ketosis-onset and non-ketotic type 2 diabetic patients, while sex and age in the type 1 diabetic patients. Conclusions The prevalence and risk of lower limb

  13. An observational, cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes patients in India (START -India

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    M Prasannakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, epidemiological, multi-center, study is enrolling T2DM patients of either gender aged 30 years or above. This study aimed to enroll a total of 3000 T2DM patients at 30 participating hospitals/clinics across India and the data from a planned interim analysis of 1500 patients are presented here. The primary endpoint of the study is to estimate proportion of T2DM patients with CKD (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 or albumin creatinine ratio [ACR] ≥30 mg/g or ≥3 mg/mmol or both. Routine treatment, as administered by the treating physician, was continued without any study specific intervention. Patients′ data pertaining to demographic characteristics, medical history, current medication and physical examination were recorded. The blood/plasma and urine samples, were collected for estimation of hemoglobin A1c, microalbuminuria, serum creatinine, urine creatinine, and routine urine analysis. ACR was calculated from urine creatinine and albumin while GFR was estimated by using a modification of diet in the renal disease equation. Results: Study recruited 1500 patients from 18 centers across India. The study population included 840 (56.05% males. Mean age, body mass index and systolic blood pressure were 55.1 years, 27.4 kg/m 2 and 134.5 mmHg respectively. The mean duration of diabetes was 102.2 months. History of co-morbid diseases such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, microvascular compli