Carding, Paul N; Roulstone, Sue; Northstone, Kate
There is only very limited information on the prevalence of voice disorders, particularly for the pediatric population. This study examined the prevalence of dysphonia in a large cohort of children (n = 7389) at 8 years of age. Data were collected within a large prospective epidemiological study and included a formal assessment by one of five research speech and language therapists as well as a parental report of their child's voice. Common risk factors that were also analyzed included sex, sibling numbers, asthma, regular conductive hearing loss, and frequent upper respiratory infection. The research clinicians identified a dysphonia prevalence of 6% compared with a parental report of 11%. Both measures suggested a significant risk of dysphonia for children with older siblings. Other measures were not in agreement between clinician and parental reports. The clinician judgments also suggested significant risk factors for sex (male) but not for any common respiratory or otolaryngological conditions that were analyzed. Parental report suggested significant risk factors with respect to asthma and tonsillectomy. These results are discussed in detail.
Jun Kurai; Masanari Watanabe; Hiroyuki Sano; Saeko Torai; Hirokazu Yanase; Tomoaki Funakoshi; Atsuko Fukada; Sachiko Hayakawa; Eiji Shimizu; Hiroya Kitano
Although adult asthma is attributable to occupational factors, few reports are available on asthma prevalence among health care workers in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted by postal survey using a translated version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire from April to June 2013. The analysis included 4634 nursing professionals (257 men an...
Nizar A Majeedkutty; Nor A.B. Khairulanuar
Background: Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. Subjects And Methods: A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and abov...
Molla Mesele Wassie
"Background: Nutritional status of elderly is an important determinant of their health and quality of life. Elderly people are more vulnerable for nutritional insults as compared to adults. Undernutrition among elderly people is becoming significantly high regardless of the progress on health care system. This study was aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of under nutrition among elderly people in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional st...
Zheng, Xiangbin; Lin, Min; Xie, Dong-De; Li, Jian; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Eyi, Urbano Monsuy; Monte-Nguba, Santiago-M; Ehapo, Juan Carlos Sala; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hui-Tian; Yang, Li-Ye
Malaria and HIV are two of the most severe public health problems in Africa. However, epidemiological data on Bioko Island is scarce. To investigate the prevalence of malaria and HIV infections and assess association of malaria and HIV infections and possible confounding factors, we performed a cross-sectional survey of people of malaria-endemic Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. A cross-sectional study of 1 526 subjects was carried out to determine the prevalence of malaria and HIV infection in Malabo region hospital on Bioko Island. Questionnaires were administered and venous blood samples were drawn for malaria parasites and HIV detection. The prevalence of participants infected with malaria and HIV in this area were 13.8% and 6.6% respectively. The average prevalence of co-infection for malaria and HIV was 0.92%. HIV-infection was significantly associated with the age and gender. Malaria infections were significantly associated with the age. This study showed that the prevalence of HIV and malaria on Bioko Island was higher than expected, although the co-infection prevalence of malaria and HIV was low. The results also indicated that malaria and HIV infections lead to more public health risk to youngsters and women.
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder with an average prevalence of 1% in Europe and the United States. Because of strong European ancestry in southern Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of celiac disease among autoimmune thyroiditis patients.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a public university hospital.METHODS: This cross-sectional prevalence study included autoimmune thyroiditis patients who were tested for anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies between August 2010 and July 2011.RESULTS: Fifty-three patients with autoimmune thyroiditis were included; 92.5% were women, with mean age of 49.0 ± 13.5 years. Five patients (9.3% were serologically positive for celiac disease: three of them (5.6% were reactive for anti-endomysial antibodies and two (3.7% for anti-transglutaminase. None of them exhibited anemia and one presented diarrhea. Endoscopy was performed on two patients: one with normal histology and the other with lymphocytic infiltrate and villous atrophy.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease among patients with autoimmune thyroid disease was 9.3%; one patient complained of diarrhea and none presented anemia. Among at-risk populations, like autoimmune thyroiditis patients, the presence of diarrhea or anemia should not be used as a criterion for indicating celiac disease investigation. This must be done for all autoimmune thyroiditis patients because of its high prevalence.
Jacobs, Craig L; Cassidy, J. David; Côté, Pierre;
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with injury in professional ballet and modern dancers, and assess if dancers are reporting their injuries and explore reasons for not reporting injuries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Participants...... specific characteristics included number of years in present dance company, number of years dancing professionally, number of years dancing total, and rank in the company. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported injury and Self-Estimated Functional Inability because of Pain. RESULTS: A total of 260 dancers...... participated in the study with an overall response rate of 81%. The point prevalence of self-reported injury in professional ballet and modern dancers was 54.8% (95% CI, 47.7-62.1) and 46.3% (95% CI, 35.5-57.1), respectively. Number of years dancing professionally (OR = 4.4, 95% CI, 1.6-12.3) and rank (OR = 2...
Dougados, Maxime; Soubrier, Martin; Antunez, Anna; Balint, Peter; Balsa, Alejandro; Buch, Maya H.; Casado, Gustavo; Detert, Jacqueline; El-zorkany, Bassel; Emery, Paul; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia; Harigai, Masayoshi; Luo, Shue-Fen; Kurucz, Reka; Maciel, Gabriel; Mola, Emilio Martin; Montecucco, Carlo Maurizio; McInnes, Iain; Radner, Helga; Smolen, Josef S.; Song, Yeong-Wook; Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; Winthrop, Kevin; Kay, Jonathan
Background Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of developing comorbid conditions. Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities and compare their management in RA patients from different countries worldwide. Methods Study design: international, cross-sectional.
Ben Haider, Nour Y; Ziyab, Ali H
This cross-sectional study sought to estimate the prevalence of prediabetes and assess its association with obesity among young adults in Kuwait; a country with a high prevalence of obesity and diabetes. The estimated prevalence of prediabetes was 6.3% (95% CI: 4.8-8.1) and obesity was associated with elevated prediabetes prevalence.
Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants’ dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the ‘traditional’ pattern, the ‘meat’ pattern, and the ‘snack’ pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00–2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10–4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577
MAO Yu-shan; LIU Zhi-min; CHEN Chang-xi; ZHU Zhong-wei; HONG Zhong-li
Background The prevalence and the spectrum of thyroid dysfunction in the mainland of China are not adequately understood. We performed a population-based study to determine the prevalence of major thyroid dysfunctions including overt and subclinical hyper- and hypothyroidism in a stable cohort.Methods All active and retired employees aged 20 years and older (11 067) of Sinopec Zhenhai Refining & Chemical Company in Ningbo participated in the cross-sectional survey with a questionnaire and blood samples. Results A total of 10 405 individuals attended for screening. Using biochemical definitions 95.5% were euthyroid. The prevalence of former diagnosed hyperthyroidism was 1.1% in females and 0.4% in males, hypothyroidism 1.7% and 0.3%, and thyroid surgery 1.2% and 0.3%, respectively. In both sex the prevalence increased with age. Twenty-four percent of individuals with thyroid surgery or medications had abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. In individuals without a history of thyroid disease, the prevalence of pathological TSH values in females and males were TSH ≥10 mU/L 0.60% and 0.29%; TSH 4.8-9.9 mU/L 5.71 % and 2.25%; TSH <0.3 mU/L 0.87% and 0.41 %, respectively. Overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were uncommon (0.2%, 0.3%, respectively). The prevalence of subclinical hyper- and hypothyroidism was 0.4% and 3.4%, respectively. Subclinical hypothyroidism was more common in females (male 2.4% vs. female 5.8%, P<0.001) and with increasing age (P<0.001).Conclusions The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is 4.5% in the cohort. Among individuals with thyroid medications or surgery, only 75.7% were within the normal range of TSH. These results indicate that thyroid dysfunction is common in Chinese adults.
Full Text Available Introduction: Children’s obesity is strong predictor of obesity in adulthood, which increases the incidence of related diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Fatty liver is an abnormality related to metabolic syndrome with higher prevalence in obese children according to some previous studies. This study investigates the presence of Sonographic Fatty Liver (SFL in Iranian obese children in comparison with normal and overweight children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 962 randomly selected children between the ages of 6 to 18 years. The subjects were divided into three groups of normal, overweight and obese based on body mass index (BMI. A questionnaire including demographic and anthropometrical characteristics was filled for each case. To detect the presence of SFL, all the subjects underwent assessment with ultrasonography by a radiologist who was not aware of their BMI. The incidence of SFL was determined on the basis of ultrasonographic diagnosis criteria. Results: The prevalence of SFL in obese children was 54.4% that was significantly higher than overweight (10.5% and normal children (1%. There was no significant difference in prevalence of SFL between sexes. Conclusion: The high rate of detected SFL in obese children in this study suggests that Iranian obese children are at risk of metabolic syndrome. It is therefore necessary to develop some plan to control obesity and its late complications.
Zhou, Qing; Yu, Ting; Liu, Yuan; Shi, Ruifen; Tian, Suping; Yang, Chaoxia; Gan, Huaxiu; Zhu, Yanying; Liang, Xia; Wang, Ling; Wu, Zhenhua; Huang, Jinping; Hu, Ailing
The present study aimed to ascertain the pressure ulcer prevalence in secondary and tertiary general hospitals in different areas of Guangdong Province in China and explore the possible risk factors that are related to pressure ulcers. Few multicentre studies have been conducted on pressure ulcer prevalence in Chinese hospitals. A cross-sectional study design was used. Data from a total of 25,264 patients were included in the analysis at 25 hospitals in China. The investigators were divided into two groups. The investigators in Group 1 examined the patients' skin. When a pressure ulcer was found, a pressure ulcers assessment form was completed. The investigators in group 2 provided guidance to the nurses, who assessed all patients and completed another questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyse the relationship between the possible risk factors and pressure ulcer. The overall prevalence rate of pressure ulcers in the 25 hospitals ranged from 0% to 3.49%, with a mean of 1.26%. The most common stage of the pressure ulcers was stage II (41.4%), most common anatomical locations were sacrum (39.5%) and the feet (16.4%). Braden score (ppressure ulcers from the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence rate of pressure ulcers in Chinese hospitals was lower than that reported in previous investigations. Specific characteristics of pressure ulcer patients were: low Braden score, longer expected length of stay, double incontinence, an ICU and a medical ward, hospital location in the Pearl River Delta, a university hospital, and an elderly patient. The survey could make managers know their prevalence level of pressure ulcers and provide priorities for clinical nurses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Kurai, Jun; Watanabe, Masanari; Sano, Hiroyuki; Torai, Saeko; Yanase, Hirokazu; Funakoshi, Tomoaki; Fukada, Atsuko; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Kitano, Hiroya
Although adult asthma is attributable to occupational factors, few reports are available on asthma prevalence among health care workers in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted by postal survey using a translated version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire from April to June 2013. The analysis included 4634 nursing professionals (257 men and 4377 women) and the overall response rate was 84.8%. The prevalence of current asthma and wheeze were 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 9.9%-11.7%) and 15.6% (95% CI, 14.5%-16.6%), respectively. More than one year of work experience as a nursing professional and more than one year of experience with bed-making tasks were associated with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.12-3.39) and 1.64 (95% CI, 1.15-2.23) for wheeze, respectively. Current smoking was significantly associated with the presence of wheeze, with ORs of 2.27 for men (95% CI, 1.11-4.64) and 2.01 for women (95% CI, 1.54-2.64). Among female nurses, latex allergy was associated with wheeze (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.56-2.23), as was body mass index ≥30 (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.65-4.62). This study has provided the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. Employment period, bed-making tasks, latex allergy, obesity, and smoking may be risk factors for prevalent wheeze among nursing professionals.
Full Text Available Although adult asthma is attributable to occupational factors, few reports are available on asthma prevalence among health care workers in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted by postal survey using a translated version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire from April to June 2013. The analysis included 4634 nursing professionals (257 men and 4377 women and the overall response rate was 84.8%. The prevalence of current asthma and wheeze were 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI, 9.9%–11.7% and 15.6% (95% CI, 14.5%–16.6%, respectively. More than one year of work experience as a nursing professional and more than one year of experience with bed-making tasks were associated with odds ratios (ORs of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.12–3.39 and 1.64 (95% CI, 1.15–2.23 for wheeze, respectively. Current smoking was significantly associated with the presence of wheeze, with ORs of 2.27 for men (95% CI, 1.11–4.64 and 2.01 for women (95% CI, 1.54–2.64. Among female nurses, latex allergy was associated with wheeze (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.56–2.23, as was body mass index ≥30 (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.65–4.62. This study has provided the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. Employment period, bed-making tasks, latex allergy, obesity, and smoking may be risk factors for prevalent wheeze among nursing professionals.
Nizar A Majeedkutty
Full Text Available Background: Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. Subjects And Methods: A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and above were included in the study. Out of 169 participants, 93 were females and 76 were males. The correlation of injuries to gender, age, level of experience, exercise habits, use of safety measures, and type of equestrian sport were determined. Chi-square test was performed to test for statistical significance. Results: The prevalence was high with 85.8% of the participants reporting symptoms and characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months. The most frequently perceived symptoms reported were in the upper extremities (43.4% followed by lower extremities (40.7%, head injury (8.3% and injuries of upper and lower back (3.4%. There was a higher prevalence of injury among female participants (55.03% than males (42.60%. A significant correlation was found between gender and prevalence of injuries. About 70% of the riders sustained soft tissue injuries. Fifty-five percent of the injured were involved in recreational riding. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall from a horse. Sixty percent of the injured riders did not seek medical attention after being injured, and physiotherapy consultation was even lower with 10.3%. Conclusions: The high prevalence of injuries and low rate of medical consultation emphasize the need for education programs on safety in Malaysia. Sessions should be held to improve coaching for riders and instructors, and their knowledge of the nature of the horse, mechanisms of injuries, horse handling, and riding skills to help them host safe
Full Text Available Mirna Waked1, George Khayat2, Pascale Salameh31Saint George Hospital University Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Faculty of Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Faculties of Pharmacy and Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continues to increase worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of COPD in Lebanese adults.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a multistage cluster sample from all over Lebanon. Residents aged 40 years and over were enrolled. Subjects underwent baseline spirometry and answered a questionnaire. After an albuterol + ipratropium bromide bronchodilator, a posttest was performed.Results: Of 2201 individuals, only 33.3% had never smoked. The prevalence of COPD by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5%–10.9%. According to the 5% lower limit of normal definition of COPD, the prevalence was 12.5% (95% CI: 11.2%–13.9%. A total of 20.2% were already diagnosed by a physician. No differences in symptoms across stages of COPD were found, but there was a significant trend for a higher number of visits to the emergency room and to the doctor (P < 0.001, and a higher number of hospitalizations (P < 0.001. Older individuals had an increased risk of COPD (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 1.05; so did “ever” cigarette smokers (ORa = 4.88 and water-pipe smokers (ORa = 2.53.Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study in Lebanon that determined COPD prevalence and the link with water-pipe smoking.Keywords: COPD, prevalence, water-pipe smoking
Majeedkutty, Nizar A.; Khairulanuar, Nor A.B.
BACKGROUND: Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and above were included in the study. Out of 169 participants, 93 were females and 76 were males. The correlation of injuries to gender, age, level of experience, exercise habits, use of safety measures, and type of equestrian sport were determined. Chi-square test was performed to test for statistical significance. RESULTS: The prevalence was high with 85.8% of the participants reporting symptoms and characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months. The most frequently perceived symptoms reported were in the upper extremities (43.4%) followed by lower extremities (40.7%), head injury (8.3%) and injuries of upper and lower back (3.4%). There was a higher prevalence of injury among female participants (55.03%) than males (42.60%). A significant correlation was found between gender and prevalence of injuries. About 70% of the riders sustained soft tissue injuries. Fifty-five percent of the injured were involved in recreational riding. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall from a horse. Sixty percent of the injured riders did not seek medical attention after being injured, and physiotherapy consultation was even lower with 10.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of injuries and low rate of medical consultation emphasize the need for education programs on safety in Malaysia. Sessions should be held to improve coaching for riders and instructors, and their knowledge of the nature of the horse, mechanisms of injuries, horse handling, and riding skills to help them host safe equestrian
Ambrish Sanjay Dharmadhikari
Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders. In children, it has long debilitating course and is associated with comorbidities including psychiatric comorbidity. To tackle this burden of comorbidities, we must know the extent of problem. Hence, there is a need for estimation of prevalence of psychiatry disorder in children with epilepsy. Aim: The present study was aimed at measuring the prevalence of various psychiatry disorders among children suffering from epilepsy. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional chart review. Methodology: We reviewed case record files of all patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy in the age group of 9–17 years. Chart review was done for 5 years, May 1, 2007, to April 30, 2012. A total of 718 patients record were included in the study after satisfying inclusion criteria and excluding nonepilepsy diagnosis. Statistical Analysis: Statistics was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 18.0. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the result, Chi-square and Mann–Whitney U-test used wherever applicable. Results: The prevalence of childhood psychiatric disorder among children with epilepsy found to be 31.2%. We also found that having a partial component (73.21%, n = 164 in seizure has more chances of psychopathology in comparison to generalized seizure (8.1%, n = 18. Among them, those having a partial component with generalization (66.96%, n = 150 had a greater prevalence of psychopathology. Mental retardation was most common psychiatric disorder among psychopathology followed by manic/depressive illness (unipolar followed by unspecified nonorganic psychosis. Conclusion: From our study, we demonstrate the significant mental health needs of children with epilepsy. The evident high prevalence of psychiatry disorder emphasizes the need for psychopathology assessment and treatment as a part of any comprehensive epilepsy clinic.
Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in HIV-infected patients is very limited in the Ghanaian setting and may vary across the globe by the different study populations and criteria used. Aim: We investigated the prevalence of MetS among HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART at the St. Dominic Hospital, Akwatia, Ghana. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 433 HIV-infected patients (294 on HAART and 139 HAART-naÏve from the period of February 2013 to December 2013. Information on the demographic, clinical, anthropometric characteristics were obtained and lipid profile for each patient was assessed. MetS was assessed based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III, World Health Organization (WHO and International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. Results: The prevalence of MetS was 24.5% according to WHO criteria, 48.3% by NCEP-ATP III criteria, and 42.3% by IDF criteria. In general, participants on HAART were significantly associated with higher prevalence of MetS compared to those without HAART (P < 0.05 irrespective of the criteria used. Prevalence of clustering components of MetS was significantly higher among those on HAART when risk scores of 2 and above were used compared with those not on HAART (P < 0.05. Conclusion: HAART recipient developed MetS as indicated by dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and abnormal body fat. It is incumbent on health giver to incorporate MetS assessment as a part of treatment and management plan in patients receiving HAART.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are considered a serious health problem. There are little data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Yi ethnic group in China. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiologic features of overweight/obesity among Chinese Yi nationality. Methods A cross-sectional study, including 1255 subjects aged 20-75 years, was carried out in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan province from 2007 to 2008. Overweight/overall obesity was defined by World Health Organization (WHO or the Working Group on Obesity in China. Results Overall, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.0% and 2.9%, respectively, based on the WHO definition, while it was 21.0% and 7.4%, respectively, according to the Working Group on Obesity in China, which is similar to data reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey. Urban residents had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (WHO criteria: 4.3% vs 1.7% p = 0.008; China criteria: 11.4% vs 3.7%, p p p Conclusions The prevalence of overweight/obesity in the Yi nationality is similar to that in Chinese adults 5 years ago. However, urban residents have a much higher prevalence of overweight/obesity than their rural counterparts. Lifestyle and diet patterns associated with socioeconomic status may explain the difference between urban and rural residents. The prevention of overweight/obesity among urban inhabitants deserves more attention in national health education programs.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Obesity is one of the major non - communicable diseases in recent decades leading to huge morbidity, mortality & economic losses. Obesity is perhaps the most prevalent form of malnutrition. Overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risk of global deaths. MATERIAL & METHODS : Study Design : A Cross - sectional descriptive study done in a medical college. Study Duration : February 15th to March 20th 2013 . Study Participants : Out of 400 medical students, purposively derived & randomly selected 200 students who were willing to participate and available during study period were enrolled in the study. Representation from all phases/batches o f MBBS course was ensured. Data Collection : By self - administered pre - tested & validated questionnaire. Height, Weight & Waist circumference was measured using standard instruments & procedures. Statistical analysis was done by applying proportions/percenta ges. RESULTS : Out of 200 students enrolled in the study, 43.5% were males and 56.5% were females. The overall prevalence of obesity according to BMI classification was 2.5%. The prevalence of obesity in males was 1% and 1.5% in females. The prevalence of overweight was 9%.28 (14% students were having increased waist circumference, which was more in females (8.5% when compared to males (5.5%. 60% of obese individuals & 61.1% of overweight individuals are having habit of eating heavy meals either daily or alternative days.80% of obese individuals and 50% of overweight individuals never used to do exercise . CONCLUSIONS : There is need for increasing the awareness, bringing motivation & attitudinal change even in medical students to eat balanced diet & to inc orporate physical activity in them to prevent them from suffering from the harmful effects of overweight & obesity
Viviane Gabriela Nascimento
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Brazil is undergoing a period of epidemiological transition associated with demographic and nutritional changes. The prevalence of obesity is also increasing in children and is causing numerous health problems that are becoming public health issues. The aim here was to evaluate the prevalence of overweight among children of two and three years of age. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in municipal day care centers in Taubaté, state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Weight and height measurements were made on 447 preschool children forming a probabilistic randomized sample. Their body mass index (BMI was calculated. Their nutritional status was classified using the World Health Organization reference cutoff points (2006. Their mean weight, height and BMI were compared according to their age and sex. RESULTS: The mean values for the final sample (n = 447 were as follows: mean age: 38.6 months (± 3.5 and Z scores for: weight/height (W/H: 0.50 (± 1.22; height/age: -0.03 (± 1.07; weight/age (W/A: 0.51 (± 1.23; and BMI: 0.51(± 1.23. The prevalence of overweight children (BMI > 1 z was 28.86%, while the prevalence of underweight children (BMI < -2 z was 0.89%. There were no differences in mean BMI among the two and three-year age groups (P = 0.66. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of overweight was observed in the sample of two and three-year-old children, with practically no malnutrition, thus showing that a significant nutritional transition may already be occurring, even in medium-sized cities of developing countries.
Vela, Barbara Karin; Alhessi, Alaaeldin Y; Popović, Marko; Al-Shaqra, Maryam A
The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of unrecognized dyslipidaemia and a specific correlation between lipid values and age, gender or ethnic origin in the study population. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 311 subjects who had their lipid profiles checked for the first time in a private hospital in Dubai in a six month - period. The analysis shows an increased prevalence of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) hypercholesterolemia with relatively higher Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-c) values in male subjects (p < 0.016) as well as with the Middle East ethnic origin group (p < 0.025), while desirable High Density Lipoprotein (HDL-c) was found among female subjects (p = 0). The discordance between the percentages of elevated LDL-c and Total cholesterol (T-c) signifies the role of the LDL-c/non-HDL-c as the main surrogate for dyslipidaemia as a risk for atherosclerosis, and as a primary target of therapy.
Mukattash, Tareq L; Alzoubi, Karem H; Abu El-Rub, Ejlal; Jarab, Anan S; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Khdour, Maher; Shara, Mohd; Al Hamarneh, Yazid N
It has been estimated that up to 50% of any patient population is at least partially non-adherent to their prescribed treatment. Identifying barriers to adherence is required to develop effective interventions for psychiatric patients. To explore the prevalence and factors of non-adherence among psychiatric patients present at four psychiatric clinics. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. A sample of psychiatric patients attending outpatient psychiatric clinics was enrolled between March and April 2011. A total of 243 psychiatric patients took part in this study with the majority of patients (92.5%) being prescribed more than one psychiatric disorder. The majority (64.2%) of the patients was classified as non-adherent according to the Morisky adherence questionnaire and forgetfulness was the most prevalent reason for that. Non-adherence is a common and important issue among psychiatric patients. Polypharmacy, safety concerns and lack of insight towards the prescribed treatment were reported as the main reasons of non-adherence. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Milčić, Danijela; Janković, Slavenka; Vesić, Sonja; Milinković, Mirjana; Marinković, Jelena; Ćirković, Andja; Janković, Janko
BACKGROUND Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests independent associations between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis, and to assess which factors may predict metabolic syndrome in these patients. METHODS A hospital-based, cross-sectional study with 244 psoriatic patients and 163 control subjects with skin diseases other than psoriasis was conducted at the Clinic of Dermatovenerology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, from October 2011 to October 2012. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Severity of psoriasis was measured by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index and Body Surface Area. RESULTS The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for psoriasis patients vs. non-psoriasis patients were 2.66 (95% CI, 1.58-4.42) for metabolic syndrome, 3.81 (95% CI, 2.30-6.31) for hypertension, 2.29 (95% CI, 1.39-3.78) for central obesity, 1.92 (95% CI, 1.08-3.41) for hyperglycemia, 1.87 (95% CI 1.18-2.96) for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.87-1.04) for hypertrigliceridemia. We failed to find any statistically significant association between the metabolic syndrome and clinical severity of psoriasis. Later onset and longer duration of psoriasis were predicting factors for metabolic syndrome in our patients. Study limitations: The cross-sectional design of the study does not allow us to draw directional causal inferences concerning the association between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. Factors such as diet, alcohol consumption or mental health, which have not been evaluated in this study, may be confounders in this relation. CONCLUSION A higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis than in controls, regardless of disease severity, emphasizes the need for early treatment and
Milčić, Danijela; Janković, Slavenka; Vesić, Sonja; Milinković, Mirjana; Marinković, Jelena; Ćirković, Andja; Janković, Janko
Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests independent associations between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis, and to assess which factors may predict metabolic syndrome in these patients. A hospital-based, cross-sectional study with 244 psoriatic patients and 163 control subjects with skin diseases other than psoriasis was conducted at the Clinic of Dermatovenerology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, from October 2011 to October 2012. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Severity of psoriasis was measured by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index and Body Surface Area. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for psoriasis patients vs. non-psoriasis patients were 2.66 (95% CI, 1.58-4.42) for metabolic syndrome, 3.81 (95% CI, 2.30-6.31) for hypertension, 2.29 (95% CI, 1.39-3.78) for central obesity, 1.92 (95% CI, 1.08-3.41) for hyperglycemia, 1.87 (95% CI 1.18-2.96) for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.87-1.04) for hypertrigliceridemia. We failed to find any statistically significant association between the metabolic syndrome and clinical severity of psoriasis. Later onset and longer duration of psoriasis were predicting factors for metabolic syndrome in our patients. Study limitations: The cross-sectional design of the study does not allow us to draw directional causal inferences concerning the association between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. Factors such as diet, alcohol consumption or mental health, which have not been evaluated in this study, may be confounders in this relation. A higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis than in controls, regardless of disease severity, emphasizes the need for early treatment and follow-up of all psoriatic patients
Full Text Available Benchalak Maneeton,1 Narong Maneeton,1 Jirayu Reungyos,1 Suthi Intaprasert,1 Samornsri Leelarphat,1 Sumitra Thongprasert21Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandObjective: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and examine the factors associated with major depressive disorder (MDD in lung cancer patients.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the oncology clinic of the University Hospital, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. Patients with all stages of lung cancer were included in this study. Demographic data of eligible patients were gathered. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Thai version 5.0.0 was used to identify MDD. The Thai version of the Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale was used to assess depression severity.Results: A total of 146 lung cancer patients from the outpatient clinic from July to December 2012 were approached. The 104 patients were included and analyzed in this study. Based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, 14.4% of them were defined as having MDD. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that Chalder Fatigue Scale, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Lung, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were significantly correlated with MDD in lung cancer patients.Conclusion: The results suggest that MDD is more prevalent in lung cancer patients. In addition, fatigue, poor quality of life, and sleep disturbance may increase associated MDD. Because of the small sample size, further studies should be conducted to confirm these results.Keywords: lung cancer, major depressive disorder, prevalence
Wickramasinghe, Nuwan D; Wijesinghe, Pushpa R; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Agampodi, Suneth B
Policing is regarded as a high-risk profession for the development of mental health disturbances owing to various critical incidents and potential traumatic events they encounter. Exploration of mental health problems in policing in Sri Lanka, which recently concluded a civil war expanded over three decades, is a timely, yet, a neglected issue. Hence, the present study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence and associated factors of depression among police officers in the Kandy police division, Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was conducted using a simple random sample of 750 police officers employed in the Kandy police division, Sri Lanka. A self administered questionnaire, including "Peradeniya Depression Scale" to assess depression, was used to collect data. The prevalence of depression was calculated as point prevalence with 95 % confidence intervals. Multivariable logistic regression was carried out using backward elimination method to quantify the association between depression and selected predictors identified at bivariate analysis at p Police officers were invited for the study. The response rate was 94.5 % (n = 709). The mean age of the police officers in the sample was 39.6 years (SD 9.2 years). Majority of police officers (n = 591, 83.4 %) were males. The estimated prevalence of depression in the study sample was 22.8 % (95 % CI 19.9-26.1 %). However, the adjusted prevalence of depression was 10.6 % (95 % CI 6.6-15.1 %). In the multivariable analysis, of the postulated occupational factors, satisfactory welfare facilities at work place was negatively associated with depression (adjusted OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7; p = 0.001). Satisfaction of the opportunity to serve the public (adjusted OR 0.2; 95 % CI 0.1-0.6; p = 0.003) and satisfaction related to social status gained in policing (adjusted OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.8; p = 0.04) were identified as significant occupational factors that lowered the likelihood of
Savita, J. K.; Yathindra Kumar, B. N.; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Ranjitha, J.; Pujari, Ravi Kumar
Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested. PMID:27382539
Seck, Sidy Mohamed; Guéye, Serigne; Tamba, Kéba; Ba, Issa
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are a major public health threat, particularly in developing countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, the scarcity of reliable data on NCDs in the general population makes it difficult to develop efficient prevention strategies. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of 4 cardiometabolic NCDs among 402 private-sector workers in Dakar, Senegal: high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We collected demographic, clinical, and biological data for each worker during routine occupational health visits between September 1 and November 30, 2010. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with NCDs. Among the 402 study participants, 24.1% had HBP, 9.7% had diabetes, 16.7% were obese, and 22.4% had CKD. About half of participants (48.5%) were not aware of their diseases before the screening. Univariate analysis showed that age was significantly associated with blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and renal function. After adjusting for age and sex, systolic blood pressure was correlated with renal function, and physical inactivity was significantly associated with obesity. Despite its small sample size, our study provides a perspective on the extent of cardiometabolic NCDs in Senegalese workers. Our study also suggests that targeted screening activities focusing on socio-professional groups may be helpful in the absence of national integrated prevention programs.
Houben CH; Fleischmann H; Gckel M
Objective:To assess the prevalence of malaria parasitemia in north-eastNigeria and to evaluate the measures for the prevention of malaria.Methods:A village in north-eastern Nigeria was selected for the cross sectional study at the height of the rainy season inOctober 2011.A total of550 inhabitants of a hamlet were recruited for this study.After obtaining the consent individuals received a structured interview and were tested for malaria parasites in their blood films.Recruits testing positive for malaria were given a course of artemesinin-based combination therapy(ACT).Results:A total of497 inhabitants representing approximately90 percent of the population participated: a quarter of the study group carried malaria parasites-exclusivelyPlasmodium falciparum(P. falciparum)-representing aP. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) of24.5%.Besides,53/138 in the age group of2 to <10 years old children tested positive for P. falciparum representing aPfPR2-10 value of38.4%.Malaria control measures were used in just under a third(157/497) of this cohort.Despite these measures28/157(17.8%) still tested positive for P. falciparum.Conclusions:The malaria burden is overestimated for this region in north-east Nigeria.The findings support an intermediate pattern of malaria endemicity.The30% bed nets coverage for malaria control is well below theWHO estimates for2011.
Full Text Available Introduction: It is a noted fact that dermatologic diseases have varied oral manifestations. By far, there have been inordinately few studies focusing on the prevalence of a wide spectrum of oral mucosal lesions (OML in patients with dermatologic diseases. This is significant as oral lesions may be the only or the primary feature of the skin disease, which could be neglected by dentists. This study aimed to estimate the frequency and sociobehavioral correlates of OML in skin disease patients attending outpatient′s facility of Subharti Hospital, Dermatology Clinic, Meerut, India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted in Meerut during the period from August 2013 to October 2013. A total of 500 patients (mean age 37.2 ± 14.11 years, 41.4% females completed an oral examination and a personal interview. OML were recorded using the World Health Organization criteria. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (version 15.0.1. Cross tabulation and Chi-square with Fisher′s exact test were used. Results: At least one kind of OML was registered in 11.8%, males (58.6%: 60.0% versus females (40.0%: 45.6%, P < 0.01 skin disease patients. Thus, a certain number of patients had more than one type of OML. Aphthae were the most frequently diagnosed OML (3.4%, followed in descending order by oral lichen planus (1.8% and geographic tongue (1.6%. Conclusion: OML were frequently diagnosed in skin disease patients (11.80% and varied systematically with the dermatologic disease, age, and gender. The substantial prevalence rates of OML emphasize the importance of routine examination of the oral mucosa in a dermatology clinic.
Fischer, U; Müller, M; Strobl, R; Bartoszek, G; Meyer, G; Grill, E
Joint contractures are a common problem for older, frail people, particularly in rehabilitation, nursing home and homecare settings. Joint contractures are underreported and sparsely empirically investigated despite their high prevalence. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of functional impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions of patients with joint contractures using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework. We also examined contextual factors as potential mediators for functioning and disability. Cross-sectional study- Three acute-geriatric hospitals in and around Munich (Germany). Patients aged 65 and over with confirmed joint contractures requiring rehabilitation care. The patients were asked to answer a questionnaire that comprised 124 categories of the ICF. Patients' problems in functioning were registered separately for each category. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with patients and health professionals and from patients' medical records. One hundred and fifty patients were eligible and agreed to participate. Mean age was 82.5 years (SD: 7.4), 64.8% of the patients were female. Problems in "muscle power functions" (95.9%) and "driving human-powered transportation" (89,6%) were those most frequently identified. 'Health services, systems and policies' (98,6%) was the most frequent environmental facilitator. Aged persons with joint contractures experience high levels of disability. Specifically, mobility, participation restrictions and interactions with the environment emerged as important issues of our study. Mobility and support by others were frequently mentioned as aspects relevant for persons with joint contractures. These aspects have to be considered when assessing the impact of joint contractures.
Full Text Available Background: Physical and mental comorbidity is common and has significant implications for overall health outcomes. Psoriasis, a psychocutaneous disorder, is a classic example of mental-physical comorbidity. Aims: In view of the impact of socio-cultural influences on mind-body interactions and the paucity of Indian research pertaining to psychiatric morbidity in psoriatic patients, this study was undertaken to measure the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with psoriasis, and to correlate these with severity of psoriasis and quality of life. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 consecutive patients of psoriasis, over a period of 12 months, in a tertiary care centre. The Psoriasis Area and Severity Index was used to assess severity of psoriasis. PHQ-9, GAD-7 and the Perceived Stress Scale were used to screen for depression, anxiety and perceived stress respectively. The WHOQOL-BREF was used to determine the quality of life. Statistics Analysis: All analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel software and Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results: A total of 71 (78.9% subjects had depression and 69 (76.7% had anxiety. Fifty one patients had significant stress. A significant positive correlation was established between psoriasis variables (severity and duration of psoriasis and psychological variables (depression, anxiety and stress. Severity of psoriasis had a significant negative correlation with social relationships and environmental domains of WHOQOL. Quality of life was significantly worse in patients with psoriasis with comorbid anxiety/depression. Conclusion: Patients with psoriasis have a clinically significant prevalence of depression, anxiety and perceived stress. This study highlights the complex relationship between psoriasis, psychiatric comorbidity and quality of life and the need to simultaneously consider dermatological and psychological factors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross sectional study to investigate HPV prevalence according to age and cytology. Methods Women presenting to a gynaecological outpatient clinic for a Pap smear test were included in the study (n=3177. All women had cervical cytology and HPV testing. Results Overall prevalence of any 24 HPV type analysed was 33.1% (95% CI 31.5% to 34.7% and HPV 16 and HPV 42 were the most frequent (6.7% (95% CI 5.8% to 7.6%, 6.8% (95% CI 5.9% to 7.6%, in total samples. Multiple HPV infection rate was 12.9% (95% CI 11.8% to 14.1%. High risk HPV (hrHPV types were present in 27.4% (95% CI 25.8% to 28.9% of the samples. HPV prevalence was highest among 14 to 19 y.o (46.6% (95% CI 40.7%-52.4% and second highest among 30–34 y.o. (39.7%, 95% CI 35.4%–44%. HPV 16 was highest among 20–24 (9.0% (95% CI 6.4%–11.6% and second highest among 50 to 54 y.o. (6.3% (95% CI 2.9% to 9.8%. In Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (LgSIL cytology samples, the most frequently detected hrHPV types were: 16 (14.5% (95% CI 12.1% to 16.9%, 51 (13.0% (95% CI 10.7% to 15.3% and 53 (9.1% (95% CI 7.2% to 11.1% and in High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HgSIL were: HPV 16 (37.2% (95% CI 26.5% to 47.9%, HPV 51 (17.9% (95% CI 9.4% to 26.5% and HPV 18 (12.8% (95% CI 5.4% to 20.2%. Conclusions In the population studied, HPV 16 and 51 were the most frequent detected hrHPV types. HPV positivity, hrHPV and multiple HPV types infections were higher in young women, while HPV prevalence declined with increasing age and presented two peaks a higher (14–19 y.o. and a lower one (30–34 y.o. These results may contribute to the creation of a national screening programme.
JIANG Tao; WU Nai-feng; CHEN Xiao-jun; XING Hou-xun; SU Tong-yong; WANG Zhong-cheng; TANG Gen-fu; LIN Yi; PENG Xiao-xia; ZHANG Xiao; ZHAI Xiu-wei; PENG Xiang; YANG Jin-qing; HUANG Hong-er
Background Although the first leading cause of death in China was malignant neoplasms (mortality,374.1 per 100000 person-years),the full impact of primary brain tumors (PBT) on the healthcare system is not completely described because there are a few well documented reports about the epidemiologic features of brain tumors.This study aimed to report a comprehensive assessment on the prevalence of PBT.Methods A multicenter cross-sectional study on brain tumor (MCSBT) in China was initiated in five regional centers:Daqing (northeast),Puyang (north of China),Shiyan (center of China),Ma'anshan (center of China) and Shanghai (southeast).Prevalence rate was calculated by counting the number of people living with a PBT between October 1,2005 and September 30,2006 and dividing by the total population of the five communities at January 1,2006.Estimates of prevalence were expressed as percentages and grouped according to gender and to age in fifteen-year categories.Within these strata,the rates were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (C/) using the accurate calculation of CI for Poisson distribution.A chi-square test was used to compare the various frequencies with α＜0.05.Age-standardized prevalence with the direct method was calculated with the ten-year age-specific prevalence and the age distribution of the Chinese population in 2010,obtained from Worldpopulation prospects:the 2008 revision.Results We estimated that the overall prevalence of PBT was 24.56 per 100 000 (95% CI,14.85 to 34.27),and the overall prevalence of PBT in female population (30.57 per 100 000 and its 95% CI ranged from 19.73 to 41.41 ) was higher than that in male population (18.84 per 100 000 and its 95% CI ranged from 10.33 to 27.35).However,the discrepancy between genders was not statistically significant because the 95% CI overlapped.Of 272 cases of newly diagnosed PBT,the proportion of histological subtypes by age groups,gender was statistically different (χ2=52.6510,P <0.0001).More than
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity contributes to the burden of chronic diseases and it is a public health challenge. The rate of overweight and obesity in South Africa is dramatically on the increase and disturbingly high. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of overweight and obesity among adults in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa; which information is lacking. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional survey utilised the WHO STEPwise approach in collecting data on demographic and behavioural factors from 1077 adults attending the three largest out-patient clinics in the Buffalo City Metropolitan municipality, Eastern Cape. Height and weight were measured in accordance with standard procedure. Obesity and overweight were defined according to WHO criteria. We performed bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression analyses to determine the significant predictors of obesity. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 24% and 46%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was higher among female (53.4% compared to males (27.4%. Obesity was strongly associated with pre-diabetes (250/54.7%, RR=2, 95% CI 1.6-2.6, p=0.001, diabetes (145/59.4%, RR=2.1, 95%CI 1.6-2.9, p=0.001 and hypertension (276/56.2%, RR=2.4, 95%CI 1.9-3.1, p=0.0001. In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, only age (AOR= 2.0, 95%CI= 1.3-3.0, sex (AOR= 3.8, 95%CI= 2.7-5.3, being married (AOR=2.3, 95%CI= 1.7-3.2, hypertension (AOR=2.0, 95%CI= 1.5-2.8, diabetes (AOR=1.4, 95%CI=1.0-2.0 and no cigarette smoking (AOR= 2.8, 95%CI= 1.7-4.5 were the independent and significant predictors of obesity among the participants. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of obesity was high and strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Health policies targeting obesity and cardiovascular risk factors should be prioritised by the Eastern Cape and South African government in order to mitigate the burden of non-communicable diseases.
Iijima, Hirotaka; Fukutani, Naoto; Yamamoto, Yuko; Hiraoka, Masakazu; Miyanobu, Kazuyuki; Jinnouchi, Masashi; Kaneda, Eishi; Isho, Takuya; Aoyama, Tomoki; Kuroki, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Shuichi
This cross-sectional study investigated (i) the association of varus thrust during gait with the presence of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA) in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) and (ii) patellar alignment in the knees with varus thrust. Participants from orthopedic clinics (n=171; mean age, 73.4 years; 71.9% female) diagnosed with radiographic medial knee OA (Kellgren/Lawrence [K/L] grade ≥1) were included in this study, and underwent gait observation for varus thrust assessment using 2D video analysis. A radiographic skyline view was used to assess the presence of medial PFOA using the grading system from the Osteoarthritis Research Society International Atlas. The tibiofemoral joint K/L grade, patellar alignment (i.e., lateral shift and tilting angle), and knee pain intensity were also evaluated as covariates. Thirty-two (18.7%) of 171 patients exhibited varus thrust and they presented significantly higher knee pain (46.0±3.04mm vs. 32.4±2.73mm; P=0.024), a lower patellar tilting angle (P=0.024), and a higher prevalence of PFOA compared with those without varus thrust. A logistic regression analysis with adjustment of covariates showed that varus thrust was significantly associated with higher odds of the presence of mixed and medial PFOA, and trended to significantly associate with any PFOA, including lateral PFOA. This indicates that varus thrust was associated with PFOA in a compartment-nonspecific manner in patients with medial knee OA. Varus thrust may represent a clinical disease feature of more advanced and multicompartmental disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Donne, A J; Keltie, K; Cole, H; Sims, A J; Patrick, H; Powell, S
To estimate the number of patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis currently managed in secondary and tertiary health care in the UK and the frequency of its treatment with radiofrequency cold ablation (Coblation(™) ). Cross-sectional survey of ENT consultants in the UK with validation using Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) inpatient data. Online survey. ENT consultants in the UK. Number of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis patients currently managed in acute care in the UK and frequency of use of Coblation. A total of 283 ENT consultants from 128 UK NHS healthcare trusts and health boards completed the online survey. Responses were received from 86% of surveyed organisations, and an estimated 45% of all ENT consultants in UK. The estimated number of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis patients from the cross-sectional survey was 918 (at August 2015) which included 730 patients in England. The number of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis patients in England estimated from Hospital Episode Statistics (2014/15 financial year) was up to 741. A total of 42 Coblation procedures conducted in the UK were identified from the cross-sectional survey; 36 were conducted in England compared with 34 identified from Hospital Episode Statistics. The numbers of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis patients and Coblation procedures identified in England from a cross-sectional survey and Hospital Episode Statistics were in broad agreement. Our study estimated 1.42 recurrent respiratory papillomatosis patients per 100 000 in the general UK population. We also estimated that Coblation procedures accounted for 3% of interventional treatments conducted in the UK recurrent respiratory papillomatosis population. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical Otolaryngology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction: Aortic valve sclerosisis considered as a manifestation of coronary atherosclerosis. Recent studies demonstrated an association between aortic valve sclerosis and obstructive coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluatethe correlation betweenaortic valve sclerosis andobstructive coronary artery disease and the extent of coronary artery disease in patients hospitalized for chest pain. Materials and Methods: A total of 230 consecutive patients were referred to the coronary angiography of GhaemMedical Center and were subjected to transthorasic echocardiography for screening of aortic valve sclerosis and coronary risk assessment. The diagnostic value of obstructive coronary artery disease for aortic valve sclerosis was calculated. Results: The patients with obstructive coronary artery disease had a higher prevalence of aortic valve sclerosis compared to those with no coronary artery disease (P< 0.05. Aortic valve sclerosis was an independent predictor for obstructive coronary artery disease by multivariate analysis (P< 0.05. Aortic valve sclerosis had sensitivity of 47% and specificity of 79% and positive predictor value of 92%. Conclusions: Aortic valve sclerosis was an independent predictor for obstructive coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain and was strongly interrelated with the extent of coronary artery disease in these patients.
Soudbakhsh AR, Nami MA, Hadjiabdolbaghi M, Kazemi B
Full Text Available "nBackground: Transfusion-Transmitted Virus (TTV is a nonenveloped, single-stranded and circular DNA virus belongs to circuviridae family genus Anellovirus, discovered by Nishizawa in 1997. As the usage of common syringes is the known and most common route of the virus transmission, and because of increasing population of Injection drug users (IDU we decided to study infection rate in IDU population of our Society. "nMethods: In a cross-sectional study at Infectious ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, 60 IDU patients were studied. Blood samples were dispatched to lab in citrated test tube for Genome Virus isolation operation, using boiling method, then PCR assay performed based on their available primers. Patient's information gathered by interview and questionnaire methods."n "nResults: All of our 60 patients were men and their age average was 35.30(SD±9.68 years old. 26(43.3% patients had positive TTV PCR and 24(92.30% of them had prison history. 23(88.50% of these 26 patients had positive HCV Ab, 17(65.40% had positive HIV Ab and 8(30.80% had positive HBS Ag. Of 60 study patients 48(80% had HCV Ab+, 43(71.70% HIV Ab+, 26(43% TTV PCR and 43(26.70% had HBS Ag+ Of 26 patients who had TTV, 34.60% of them had no contemporary sickness and 11.50% of them displayed clear sign of hepatitis (fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, RUQ tenderness and Icter. 34.60% of them had LFT more than Upper limit normal (45u/l. Time average of injection in 26 TTV patient was 9 years (SD±7.16 and the patient's age average was 36.35%(SD±9.2. "nConclusions: One of the most important route of TTV infection is use of common syringes, TTV infection transmission chance is less than HIV and HCV infection and is more than HBV. In regard to high prevalence of TTV infection in IDU population and because there is no comprehensive information about pathogenesis of this virus in addition to another way of transmission of the virus, the fecal-oral way, we must make
Mekonnen, Daniel; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Fantaw, Surafel; Hunegnaw, Andualem; Mihret, Adane
Introduction The overall prevalence of HBV in Ethiopia varies from 4.7-16.8% for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 70-76.38% for at least one marker positive. Patients suffering from type I Diabetes Mellitus (DM) incur high risk of infection with hepatotropic viruses because of frequent hospitalization and blood tests. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at Woldiya General Hospital using 108 consented study populations from Diabetes and 108 non diabetes control gro...
Cecchinato, Denis; Parpaiola, Andrea; Lindhe, Jan
The aim of the present cross-sectional retrospective study was to determine bone loss in a sample of subjects restored with implant-supported prostheses and the prevalence and severity of peri-implantitis in a sub-sample. A total of 139 patients who had attended a follow-up visit in 2007 were considered for inclusion. Subjects with implants that had been in function for less than 3 years or had poor quality radiographs were excluded. The final study population comprised 133 subjects with a total of 407 implants. Radiographic measurements identified subjects who had ≥1 implant site exhibiting marginal bone loss of >0.5 mm; 40 subjects met this criterion and were recalled for a clinical examination. Of the 40 subjects that were recalled for the clinical examination, 30 attended. The following parameters were recorded at mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual/palatal aspects of all implants: oral hygiene standard (plaque), bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth (PPD). The mean interval between the baseline (1-year post-loading) and the follow-up radiographs was 4.8 ± 2.3 years. In the total subject sample (133 subjects and 407 implants), the mean amount of marginal bone loss that had occurred was 0.2 ± 1.2 mm. Ninety-three subjects with 246 implant sites exhibited no bone level alteration (group A), whereas 40 subjects with 161 implant sites (group B) displayed marginal bone loss of >0.5 mm at ≥1 implant (loser site). Sixty-eight implant sites in group B exhibited bone loss of >0.5 mm. However, only 20% of subjects and 11% of sites had lost >1 mm marginal bone, and 8% of subjects and 4% of sites had lost >2 mm bone. The total amount of bone loss that had occurred in group B was (i) 0.88 ± 1.5 mm and (ii) among the loser sites 2.1 ± 1.4 mm. Thirty subjects from group B were exposed to a clinical examination; out of 37 sites with bone loss >0.5 mm in this subgroup, 29 sites had a PPD value of ≥4 mm. Marginal bone loss (>0.5 mm) at implants
Garin, Noe; Zurita, Beatriz; Velasco, Cesar; Feliu, Anna; Gutierrez, Mar; Masip, Montserrat; Mangues, M Antonia
Objectives: Drug interactions, poor adherence to medication and high-risk sexual behaviour may occur in individuals with HIV using recreational drugs. Thus, we aimed to assess the prevalence of recreational drugs use and to explore its clinical impact in HIV patients on treatment. Methods: Observational, cross sectional, study conducted in a 700 bed university hospital, Barcelona, Spain. A total of 208 adults living with HIV on treatment were included. A questionnaire was administered by ...
Cristiane Moço Canhetti Oliveira
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:There have been few studies on the risk factors for subgroups of stuttering. The aim of this study was to characterize the risk factors for developmental familial stuttering among boys who stutter and who do not stutter, such as disfluency types, associated quality and communication factors, emotional and physical stress, familial attitudes and personal reactions.DESIGN AND SETTING:Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, performed at the Fluency Studies Laboratory of the Department of Speech and Hearing Disorders of a public university.METHODS: The parents of 40 age-matched stuttering and non-stuttering boys took part in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: stuttering children (SC and non-stuttering children (NSC, with ages between 6 years 0 months and 11 years 11 months. Initially, all of the participants underwent a fluency assessment and then data were gathered using the Protocol for the Risk of Developmental Stuttering.RESULTS:There were no differences in the physical stress distribution factors and personal reactions between the groups. Inappropriate familial attitudes were presented by 95% of the SC and 30% of the NSC. Four risk factors analyzed were not shown by the NSC, namely stuttering-like disfluency, quality factors, physical stress and emotional stresses.CONCLUSIONS:The findings suggest that the presence of stuttering-like disfluency, associated quality and communication factors, emotional stress and inappropriate family attitudes are important risk factors for familial developmental stuttering among boys.
Oliveira, Cristiane Moço Canhetti; Nogueira, Paula Roberta
There have been few studies on the risk factors for subgroups of stuttering. The aim of this study was to characterize the risk factors for developmental familial stuttering among boys who stutter and who do not stutter, such as disfluency types, associated quality and communication factors, emotional and physical stress, familial attitudes and personal reactions. Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, performed at the Fluency Studies Laboratory of the Department of Speech and Hearing Disorders of a public university. The parents of 40 age-matched stuttering and non-stuttering boys took part in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: stuttering children (SC) and non-stuttering children (NSC), with ages between 6 years 0 months and 11 years 11 months. Initially, all of the participants underwent a fluency assessment and then data were gathered using the Protocol for the Risk of Developmental Stuttering. There were no differences in the physical stress distribution factors and personal reactions between the groups. Inappropriate familial attitudes were presented by 95% of the SC and 30% of the NSC. Four risk factors analyzed were not shown by the NSC, namely stuttering-like disfluency, quality factors, physical stress and emotional stresses. The findings suggest that the presence of stuttering-like disfluency, associated quality and communication factors, emotional stress and inappropriate family attitudes are important risk factors for familial developmental stuttering among boys.
Zareifar, Soheila; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Rahanjam, Najmeh; Farahmand Far, Mohammad Reza
Background: Among the many complications reported for cirrhosis, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has attracted much attention. This type of anemia, in contrast to other types of anemia, is easy to treat prophylactically, but if left untreated can lead to a poor quality of life. The aim of this study was to estimate the hemoglobin and serum iron levels among patients with liver cirrhosis for the early diagnosis of IDA and to avoid unnecessary testing and iron supplementation. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 88 children diagnosed with cirrhosis were included, and the values of hemoglobin, serum iron levels and relationship between serum iron (SI), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), prothrombine time (PT), international normalization ratio (INR), total and direct bilirubin and hepatic enzymes were estimated using paired t test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: Forty-six (52.3%) of 88 children were girls and 42 (47.7%) were boys. Forty-eight (54.5%) patients had anemia and 8 (9%) had iron deficiency anemia (5 boys, 5.6%, and 3 girls, 3.4%). No relationships were observed between iron deficiency anemia and the patient’s age or gender, whereas there was a relationship between iron deficiency and severity and duration of the disease, although the correlation was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The high frequency of iron deficiency anemia in children with cirrhosis (9%) suggests that timely screening should be used for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26261697
Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana; Rerksuppaphol, Sanguansak
Background: Metabolic syndrome in children has become the focus of many research projects in recent years. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Thai children and its correlation with overweight and obesity.
Sit, Regina W S; Tam, Wing-Hung; Chan, Dicken C C; Yip, Benjamin H K; Tam, Lucia W Y; Chow, Lyan L Y; Chung, Vincent C H; Chung, Roger Y; Wong, Samuel Y S
Wrist pain after childbirth is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Little is known about the prevalence of this musculoskeletal disorder which is important to overall maternal health. To examine the prevalence of and risk factors for de novo wrist pain in women after childbirth. A pilot cross-sectional survey. A telephone interview was conducted 2 months after childbirth among women who delivered at a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. The prevalence of de novo wrist pain was recorded; its severity was rated using the numerical rating scale and Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) with pain and functional subscale scores. In total, 259 women aged 32.8 ± 4.0 years participated; 149 women (57.5%) developed wrist pain after childbirth and 125 (84%) had persistent wrist pain 2 months postpartum. The majority had moderate (43.5%) to severe (21%) wrist pain. Bilateral involvement was common (56.8%), with most of the pain (59.3%) located on the radial side of the wrist. Primiparity was associated with wrist pain development (odds ratio 2.62, 95% confidence interval 1.33 - 5.16, P = 0.01); pain intensity was negatively correlated with the baby's birth weight (beta = -1.059, P = 0.013). Mean PRWE pain and function scores were 22.8 ± 10.3 and 15.6 ± 10.7, respectively. Cross-sectional survey is prone to volunteer bias, though recent literature indicates that the bias may not substantially affect the internal validity of the study. Wrist pain is prevalent after childbirth; future studies may consider looking into its exact pathology, long-term consequences, and overall effect on maternal health. Wrist pain, DeQuervain disease, postpartum, childbirth, mothers, prevalence, cross sectional study, survey.
Siham Al-Sinani; Sharef Waadallah Sharef; Saif Al-Yaarubi; Ibrahim Al-Zakwani; Khalid Al-Naamani; Aisha Al-Hajri; Said Al-Hasani
Objective: Published studies on the prevalence of celiac disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus from the Arab World are scant. We aim to report the prevalence of celiac disease in Omani children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.Methods: Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus were prospectively screened for celiac disease, at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman over a period of one year (June 2011 - May 2012). Serum anti tissue transglutaminase IgA, endomysial IgA antibodies and total Ig...
Full Text Available To identify the relationships between ergonomic workplace practices and Musculoskeletal Disorder prevalence, a framework has been devised and the different critical factors have been found that are responsible for the prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD among Video Display Terminal (VDT workplaces. In this study an instrument to measure MSD prevalence in the computer workplaces has been designed and validated. The model being conceived for computer workplaces has to be tested and validated before it is used for analyzing the various issues relating to the MSD prevalence among VDT users. The valid responses were collected from 80 design engineers, 138 systems engineers, 108 managers and 84 data entry personnel. Therespondents are also from various age groups, income groups and qualification groups. SPSS version 15.0 was used for all statistical computations. Descriptive statistics like mean and standard deviations were computed. Pearson’s moment Correlation analysis, Simple linear regression analysis, Multiple Regression analysis, Stepwise Regression analysis were performed on variables under study. It can be seen from the results of the descriptive statistics that the level of MSD variables varies from 3.239 to 3.833 in a five point Likert’s scale and the MSD Prevalence Level found to be 2.2106 and Job Prevention is found to be 1.7222. Demographic analysis has proved that the data obtained are from the true respondents. Descriptive statistics have shown the various levels of the MSD variables under study. With this background, the model developed in the study hashypothesized that there exists significant negative correlation between the identified MSD risk factors and MSD prevalence. It is concluded that the variables Equipment Setup, Work Environment, Psychosocial Personal Aspect, Rest Break Frequency and Assumed Posture have significant negative correlation with the variableMSD Prevalence level and the variables Equipment Design
Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis, a known major public health issue for soldiers during periods of conflict, is exacerbated in the Democratic Republic of Congo due to widespread sexual violence. However, there has been no previous study to determine the extent of this problem. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of syphilis among young demobilized soldiers. Methods Screening of syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was conducted in three transit sites of soldier reintegration in 2005. The Fisher Exact probability test was used to compare results. Results The prevalence of syphilis was found to be 3.4%, with almost equal distribution in respect to sex, location. Conclusion Syphilis continues to be highly prevalent in demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo. Syphilis screening tests are recommended.
Sokratis, Sokratous; Christos, Ζilides; Despo, Panagi; Maria, Karanikola
Depressive symptoms in the young constitute a public health issue. The current study aims to estimate: (a) the frequency of depressive symptoms in a sample of final grade elementary-school children in Cyprus, (b) the association among frequency of depressive symptoms, gender and nationality and, (c) the metric properties of the Greek-Cypriot version of the children's depression inventory (CDI). A descriptive cross-sectional study with internal comparison was performed. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was assessed with the CDI, which includes 5 subscales: depressive mood, interpersonal difficulties, ineffectiveness, anhedonia and negative self-esteem. Clinical depressive symptoms were reported as CDI score ≥19. CDI was anonymously and voluntarily completed by 439 schoolchildren [mean age 12.3 (±0.51) years old] from fifteen public elementary schools (217 boys and 222 girls), yielding a response rate of 58.2%. The metric properties of the CDI were assessed in terms of internal consistency reliability and construct validity via exploratory factor analysis (rotated and unrotated principal component analysis). Descriptive and inferential statistics were explored. 10.25% of Cypriot schoolchildren reported clinical depressive symptoms (CDI score ≥19). Statistically significant differences were reported between boys and girls in all five subscales of the CDI. Girls reported higher scores in "Depressive mood", "Negative self-esteem" and "Anhedonia" subscales, while boys scored higher in "Interpersonal difficulties" and "Ineffectiveness" subscales. There were no statistically significant differences among ethnicity groups regarding the entire CDI or the subscales of it. Concerning the metric properties of the Greek-Cypriot version of the CDI, internal consistency reliability was adequate (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84). Factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in five factors explaining 42% of the variance. The Greek-Cypriot version of the CDI is a reliable
Full Text Available Objective: Published studies on the prevalence of celiac disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus from the Arab World are scant. We aim to report the prevalence of celiac disease in Omani children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.Methods: Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus were prospectively screened for celiac disease, at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman over a period of one year (June 2011 - May 2012. Serum anti tissue transglutaminase IgA, endomysial IgA antibodies and total IgA were measured for screening of celiac disease. Children with positive anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or endomysial IgA antibodies underwent endoscopy.Results: A total of 103 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus were initially included. Ten patients were lost to follow up. Ninety-three patients aged 2-17 years underwent screening for celiac disease. Sixteen patients had positive anti-tissue transglutaminase (17%. Fourteen patients underwent endoscopy with duodenal biopsies, while two were lost to follow-up. Five patients with positive anti-tissue transglutaminase had intestinal biopsy proven celiac disease. The prevalence of celiac disease is 5.5% in our cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.Conclusions: The prevalence of celiac disease in Omani children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus is similar to the World’s reported prevalence, but is less than that reported for Middle Eastern Arab children. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study on the prevalence of celiac disease in Omani children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Ben Loubir, Dalal; Serhier, Zeineb; Diouny, Samir; Battas, Omar; Agoub, Mohamed; Othmani, Mohammed Bennani
Introduction Recently, an important literature data has reported that medical students experience stress more than students in other disciplines. In contrast, there is a significant shortage of the stress impact on the academic performance. The primary purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of stress among Casablanca Medical students and to investigate if there is an association between stress and academic skills. Methods A total of 275 participants studying at Casablanca Medica...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.
Full Text Available Context: India leads the world with largest number of diabetic patients and is often referred to as the diabetes capital of the world. Diabetic dyslipidemia in India is one of the main cause for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD mortality. Although diabetes continues to be a major lifestyle condition in India, there is a lack of studies in India on whether dyslipidemia in Indian diabetics is being adequately controlled. Our study provides critical insights into the insights into proportion of diabetes patients achieving lipid goal in India. Aims: The primary objective of our study was to assess the control of dyslipidemia in the Indian diabetic population treated with lipid lowering drugs (LLDs, as per American Diabetes Association (ADA 2010 guidelines. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in a real world Indian clinical setting involving 178 sites. This is a multicenter, noninterventional, and cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 5400 adult subjects with established type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and dyslipidemia were recruited for the study. Patients in the study were on LLD at a stable dose for at least last 3 months before the designated study visit. Routine lipid profile tests were conducted for all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics was used to analyze qualitative and discrete variables. Chi-square test and t-test were conducted to assess the existence of statistically significant association between the variables. Results: A total of 5400 patients with T2DM from 178 centers across India were recruited. Out of the total population, 56.75% (N = 3065 of them were males. Primary end-point of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C level below ADA 2010 target was achieved in a total of 48.74% (N = 2632 patients. Gender was significantly associated with lipid levels and age was significantly (P < 0.05 correlated with all lipid levels. Control rates of other lipid parameters like
Patients having complete dentures with reduced vertical dimension generally do not manifest Temporomandibular Joint problems. It is not understood as to why the closure of jaws in dentulous individuals can predispose to Temporomandibular Joint problems, while the same etiology in edentulous subjects does not cause any concern. This study was planned to find out the prevalence of various Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction signs in subjects who were edentulous for a period of 6 months to 2 yea...
Mohamadian, Fathola; Hashemian, Ataollah; Bagheri, Maryam
Background Violence against women in families is the most common form of violence against them. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its effects on married women of Ilam. Methods In this descriptive-sectional research, 334 married women referred to medical health centers in Ilam were selected to participate using a random sampling method. After obtaining their consent to participate in the study, participants responded to a 46 items questionnaire and responses were analyzed using IBM SPSS for Windows ver. 20.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA). Results The majority of the participants reported experiencing domestic violence and emotional violence was more prevalent than other kinds of violence. Logistic regression analysis showed that lower education level, marriage at a younger age, shorter duration of marriage, fewer children, being a housewife, and husband's unemployment had a significant relationship with domestic violence against women. Conclusion The high prevalence of wife abuse in Ilam especially emotional violence due to lower education levels and marriage at younger age could be a serious threat for women's health as well as for other members of the family. This could be a grounding factor for other social harms such as suicide and this issue must be studied from legal, religious, and cultural standpoints. PMID:27468345
Yang, Guang; Ma, Yue; Wang, Shibin; Su, Yingying; Rao, Wenwang; Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Kou, Changgui
Prehypertension is a category between normotension and hypertension that is becoming increasingly common in China. However, limited data are available on the prevalence and correlates of prehypertension in northeastern China. A cross-sectional study using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods was performed on 17,584 participants. The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 36.0% and 30.8% in northeastern China, respectively. As age increased, the prevalence of prehypertension in males declined (p-trend hypertension (p-trend hypertension for females increased as age increased (p-trend hypertension (p-trend hypertension in an adult population of northeastern China and some correlates of prehypertension and hypertension.
Full Text Available Background Some previously published studies have suggested an inverse relationship between celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori, raising the possibility of the protective role Helicobacter pylori could have against celiac disease development. Nevertheless, this association is inconclusive. Objectives To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in celiac subjects. Methods Between January 2013 and June 2014, patients over 18 years old undergoing upper endoscopy who required both gastric and duodenal biopsies were included for analysis. Enrolled subjects were divided in two groups: those with a diagnosis of celiac disease and those without a celiac disease diagnosis. Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence was compared between groups. Among celiac patients, endoscopic markers of villous atrophy as well as histological damage severity were compared between those with and without Helicobacter pylori infection. Results Overall, 312 patients were enrolled. Seventy two of them had a diagnosis of celiac disease. Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence among celiac disease patients was 12.5%, compared to 30% in non-celiac patients [OR=0.33 (0.15-0.71]. There was not a significant difference in terms of the severity of villous atrophy in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection compared to those without it. There was a slight increase in the prevalence of endoscopic markers in those Helicobacter pylori-negative celiac subjects. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori infection seems to be less frequent in celiac patients; among those celiac subjects with concomitant Helicobacter pylori infection, histological damage degree and presence of endoscopic markers suggesting villous atrophy seem to be similar to those without Helicobacter pylori infection.
Patients having complete dentures with reduced vertical dimension generally do not manifest Temporomandibular Joint problems. It is not understood as to why the closure of jaws in dentulous individuals can predispose to Temporomandibular Joint problems, while the same etiology in edentulous subjects does not cause any concern. This study was planned to find out the prevalence of various Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction signs in subjects who were edentulous for a period of 6 months to 2 year. The various signs were obtained from a population of 100 healthy asymptomatic edentulous subjects by a questionnaire and then were clinically examined for the presence or absence of signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction. 59% of the subjects exhibited one or more signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction, 41% of the subjects did not show any signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction. 56.6% of males reported signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction when compared with females which was 62.5%. 43.3% of males did not show any signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction when compared with those of the females which was 37.5%. The number of subjects who showed two signs was 29%, subjects who had only one sign was 25%. It was found that dysfunction was prevalent among both men and women in more than half of the asymptomatic subjects examined. 59% had one or as many as three signs of Temporomandibular dysfunction. The most commonly seen Joint dysfunction was the joint sounds which was 47%
Bonaccio, Marialaura; Bonanni, Americo Ettore; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Lucia, Francesca; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia
...) with an adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and obesity prevalence. Cross-sectional study on a sample of Italian subjects enrolled in the Moli-sani Project, a population-based cohort study...
Rombaldi, Airton José; da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa; Gazalle, Fernando Kratz; Azevedo, Mario Renato; Hallal, Pedro Curi
To identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms and examine associated factors in a Southern Brazilian adult population, a cross-sectional population-based study was carried out, including 972 subjects, men and women, aged 20 to 69 years, living in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. The sampling strategy relied on the census tracts of the city as primary sampling units and households as the secondary units. The questionnaire included socio-demographic, behavioral and nutritional variables. The prevalence of sadness, anxiety, loss of energy, lack of will to do things, thinking about the past, and wishing to stay at home were 29.4%, 57.6%, 37.4%, 40.4%, 33.8%, and 54.3%, respectively. Female gender, older ages, smokers and obese individuals showed association with depressive symptoms. Population-based studies using longitudinal designs may help to clarify the relationship between biopsychosocial variables and depressive symptoms.
O'Dea, B; O'Connor, P; Lydon, S; Murphy, A W
Burnout constitutes a significant problem among physicians which impacts negatively upon both the doctor and their patients. Previous research has indicated that burnout is prevalent among primary care physicians in other European countries and North America. However, there is a paucity of research assessing burnout among Irish general practitioners and examining predictive factors. To report the findings of a survey of burnout among Irish general practitioners, and assess variables related to burnout in this population. An online, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to general practitioners working in the Republic of Ireland. In total, 683 general practitioners (27.3 % of practising Irish general practitioners) completed the survey. Of these, 52.7 % reported high levels of emotional exhaustion, 31.6 % scored high on depersonalisation and 16.3 % presented with low levels of personal accomplishment. In total, 6.6 % presented with all three symptoms, fulfilling the criteria for burnout. Emotional exhaustion was higher among this sample than that reported in European and UK studies of burnout in general practitioners. Personal accomplishment was, however, higher in this sample than in other studies. Multiple regression analyses revealed that younger age, non-principal status role, and male gender were related to increased risk of burnout symptoms. The symptoms of burnout appear prevalent among Irish general practitioners. This is likely to have a detrimental impact both upon the individual general practitioners and the patients that they serve. Research investigating the factors contributing to burnout in this population, and evaluating interventions to improve general practitioner well-being, is, therefore, essential.
Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P; Holme, I; Henriksen, B M; Petersen, L J; Backer, V
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease, where the initial symptoms are often cough as a result of excessive mucus production and dyspnea. With disease progression several other symptoms may develop, and patients with moderate to severe COPD have often multiorganic disease with severely impaired respiratory dysfunction, decreased physical activity, right ventricular failure of the heart, and a decreased quality of life. In addition osteoporosis might develop possibly due to a number of factors related to the disease. We wanted to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis in a population of patients with severe COPD as well as to correlate the use of glucocorticoid treatment to the occurrence of osteoporosis in this population. Outpatients from the respiratory unit with COPD, a history of forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) less than 1.3 L, with FEV1% pred. ranging from 17.3% to 45.3% (mean 31.4%, standard deviation (sd) 7.3%). Patients between 50 and 70 years were included. Other causes of osteoporosis were excluded before inclusion. At study entry spirometry, X-ray of the spine (to evaluate presence of vertebral fractures), and bone mineral density of lumbar spine and hip were performed. Of 181 patients invited by mail, 62 patients were included (46 females and 16 males). All had symptoms of COPD such as exertional dyspnea, productive cough, limitations in physical activity etc. The mean FEV1 was 0.90 L (sd: 0.43 L) and the mean FEV1% pred. of 32.6% (sd: 14.1%). All had sufficient daily intake of calcium and vitamin D. In 15 patients, X-ray revealed compression fractures previously not diagnosed. Bone density measurements showed osteoporosis in 22 patients and osteopenia in 16. In total, 26 of the COPD patients were osteoporotic as evaluated from both X-ray and bone density determinations. Thus 68% of the participants had osteoporosis or osteopenia, but glucocorticoid use alone could not explain the increased prevalence of osteoporosis
Lämås, Kristina; Karlsson, Stig; Nolén, Anna; Lövheim, Hugo; Sandman, Per-Olof
The current state of knowledge about the prevalence of constipation among persons living in institutional geriatric-care settings is limited. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of constipation among institutional geriatric-care residents and identify resident characteristics related to constipation. In a cross-sectional study of all the institutional geriatric-care settings in a county in northern Sweden, 2970 residents were assessed. The member of staff who knew each resident best used the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale and the resident's records of prescribed medication to monitor cognitive function, activities in daily life, behavioural and psychological symptoms, physical restraints, speech ability, nutrition and pharmacologic agents. The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board. The prevalence of constipation was 67%. The mean age was higher among those with constipation. A significantly higher proportion of the constipated had cognitive and/or physical impairments, physical restraints, impaired speech, problems with nutrition, and higher numbers of drugs for regular use. Of those with constipation, 68% were prescribed laxatives for regular use. Twenty-three per cent of the constipated residents were prescribed opioid analgesics (n = 465), and 29% (n = 134) of these were not prescribed any laxatives. Due to the cross-sectional design, the results should be interpreted with caution in terms of causal reasoning, generalisation and conclusions about risk factors. Another limitation is the use of proxy assessments of constipation. The results show that constipation is common among residents in institutional geriatric-care settings in Sweden, which is in line with previous studies from other Western countries. Despite being constipated when having prescribed opioid analgesics, a large number did not have prescribed laxatives. The results indicate the urgency of finding strategies and implementing suitable interventions to improve
Nesse, W; Hoekema, A; Stegenga, B; van der Hoeven, JH; de Bont, LGM; Roodenburg, JLN
The obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) is a sleep-related breathing disorder characterised by repetitive pharyngeal collapse. OSAHS is associated with a reduced quality of life. A high OSAHS prevalence has been reported in patients treated for head and neck cancer (HNC). The aim of
Li, Ya; Shi, Hao; Wang, Wei-Ming; Peng, Ai; Jiang, Geng-Ru; Zhang, Jin-Yuan; Ni, Zhao-Hui; He, Li-Qun; Niu, Jian-Ying; Wang, Nian-Song; Mei, Chang-Lin; Xu, Xu-Dong; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Wei-Jie; Yan, Hai-Dong; Deng, Yue-Yi; Yu, Chen; Cen, Jun; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Nan
This was the first multicenter, cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of anemia, patient awareness, and treatment status in China. Data of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD; age, 18-75 years; both out- and inpatients) from 25 hospitals in Shanghai, seeking medical treatment at the nephrology department, were collected between July 1, 2012 and August 31, 2012. The prevalence, awareness, and treatment of anemia in patients with nondialysis CKD (ND-CKD) were assessed. Anemia was defined as serum hemoglobin (Hb) levels ≤12 g/dL in women and ≤13 g/dL in men. A total of 2420 patients with ND-CKD were included. Anemia was established in 1246 (51.5%) patients: 639 (51.3%) men and 607 (48.7%) women. The prevalence of anemia increased with advancing CKD stage (χtrend = 675.14, P Anemia was more prevalent in patients with diabetic nephropathy (68.0%) than in patients with hypertensive renal damage (56.6%) or chronic glomerulonephritis (46.1%, both P anemia patients, only 7.5% received more effective and recommended intravenous supplementation. Anemia is highly prevalent in patients with ND-CKD in China, with a low target-achieving rate and poor treatment patterns. The study highlights the need to improve multiple aspects of CKD management to delay the progression of renal failure.
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Full Text Available Background: Globally, a significant hike in the prevalence of overweight and obesity has been found in almost all age groups. Aims: To determine the prevalence of obesity among adults in a rural area of Pondicherry and to study the risk predictors of obesity in the study population. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among the population of two villages of Pondicherry in 2010-12. The sampling frame comprised individuals aged above 25 years and single stage cluster random sampling was carried out. Subjects were interviewed using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using the SPSS statistical package version 16. The associations were assessed using Chi-square test and Unpaired T test. Results: The prevalence of obesity among the study participants was 27.3%. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among individuals who were socioeconomically better off, physically inactive and had a positive family history of Type-2 diabetes mellitus. Of the dietary factors, consuming aerated drink was the significant predictor of obesity. Conclusion: The study revealed that obesity is an important public health problem in the adults of rural Pondicherry. Among the modifiable factors, preference to non-vegetarian / fried food, aerated drinks, and a positive family history of Type-2 diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with the development of obesity.
Roy, Kallol; Kamath, Veena G; Kamath, Asha; Alex, Johnson; Hegde, Asha
Adolescence is a tumultuous period of hormonal and psychological transitions ranging from 10 to 19 years (WHO). This growth phase is usually accompanied by stressors. Very few studies have reported the prevalence of stress levels among adolescent boys. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and determinants of stress and its tolerance levels among high school boys. A cross sectional study design was selected for this purpose. A standardized self reported questionnaire was administered to 1153 high school boys. A score of 130 and more was used to classify the participants as stressed. The prevalence of stress and its tolerance levels was found to be 55% and 33.7%, respectively. Also correlations suggest that parental education and occupational status play a significant role in adolescent stress. Together, these findings suggest necessitating an intervention to counter the same. The proportion of stressed adolescent boys (55.5%) reported to have poor stress tolerance (41%). Studies addressing stress among high school adolescents remain unexplored. The basic determinants of stress are not researched upon these age groups. Our study reports the prevalence of stress to be 55% among high school boys. This could be the fundamental basis of designing suitable stress management programs for adolescents that could reduce their stress levels.
Kim, Yun Hwan; Park, Joong Shin; Norwitz, Errol R; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, Sun Min; Lee, Seung Mi; Park, Chan-Wook; Kim, Byoung Jae; Koo, Ja Nam; Oh, Ig Hwan; Song, Yong Sang
Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary factor in most cases of cervical cancer, but malignant transformation requires the presence of additional cofactors such as pregnancy. Little is known about the effect of pregnancy on genital HPV carriage. We therefore analyzed the prevalence and genotypic patterns of genital HPV infections in normal pregnancies. The prevalence of HPV infection was measured in 960 consecutive normal pregnant or post-partum women by HPV-DNA chip analysis of cervical swabs. Data were analyzed by trimester and adjusted for sociodemographic, reproductive and reported sexual history. The overall prevalence of HPV infection in the population was 24.3%. High-risk HPV genotypes were detected in 68.2% of infected subjects, including HPV 16 (18.7%), 39 (16.4%), 53 (10.1%), and 56 (9.4%). High-risk HPV genotypes were significantly more prevalent in the second trimester (23.8%) compared with the other periods (first trimester, 13.2%; third trimester, 17.4%; post-partum, 15.1%; P = 0.010). However, the high-risk HPV genotypes 16 or 18 were detected most frequently in the third trimester (7.2%) as compared to the other periods (first trimester, 2.9%; second trimester, 5.2%; post-partum, 2.1%; P = 0.03). After adjusting for confounding variables, overall HPV infection (odds ratio = 1.84, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.75) and high-risk HPV genotypes (odds ratio = 1.94, 95% confidence interval = 1.23-3.05) were significantly more common in the second trimester. The second trimester may be the most vulnerable period in high-risk HPV infections, which necessitates future investigations. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Full Text Available To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in rural older adults in Shandong Province, eastern China, a population-based, cross-sectional study was performed from April to July 2008. By means of cluster random sampling methods, a total of 19,583 people aged 50 years or above were randomly selected from four rural counties. Out of 19,583 people, 1,767 residents were excluded mainly because they were migrant workers when this study was performed. Finally, 17,816 (90.98% people were included as eligible subjects. They received a comprehensive eye examination and a structured questionnaire voluntarily. Patients with pterygium were defined as having pterygium at the time of survey or pterygium surgery had been performed. 1,876 people were diagnosed as pterygium, either unilateral (1,083 or bilateral (793, which is equivalent to a prevalence of 10.53% (95% CI, 10.08–10.98. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that pterygium was independently associated with older age, areas, outdoor time, educational level, and use of hat and/or sunglasses. The prevalence of pterygium increased with age and hours spent under sunshine per day. Meanwhile, the higher the educational level and the more use of hat and/or sunglasses, the lower the pterygium prevalence.
Poletti, Michele; Logi, Chiara; Lucetti, Claudio; Del Dotto, Paolo; Baldacci, Filippo; Vergallo, Andrea; Ulivi, Martina; Del Sarto, Simone; Rossi, Giuseppe; Ceravolo, Roberto; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo
The current study aimed at establishing the prevalence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and their association with demographic, drug-related, and disease-related characteristics. We performed a single-center cross-sectional study of 805 PD patients. Impulse control disorders were investigated with the Questionnaire for Impulsive Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease; also comorbid neuropsychiatric complications (dementia, delusions, visual hallucinations) were investigated with clinical interviews and ad hoc instruments (Parkinson Psychosis Questionnaire and Neuropsychiatry Inventory). Impulse control disorders were identified in 65 patients (prevalence, 8.1%), with pathological gambling and hypersexuality the most frequent. Impulse control disorders were present in 57 of 593 cognitively preserved patients (prevalence, 9.6%) and in 8 of 212 demented patients (prevalence, 3.8%). Impulse control disorders were significantly associated with dopamine agonists (odds ratio [OR], 5.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.60-12.46; P Impulse control disorders frequency was similar for pramipexole and ropinirole (16.6% vs 12.5%; OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.79-2.74; P = 0.227). Additional variables associated with ICDs were male sex and younger age. These findings suggested that dopaminergic treatments in PD are associated with increased odds of having an ICD, but also other demographic and clinical variables are associated with ICDs, suggesting the multifactorial nature of the ICD phenomenon in PD.
Walsh, Colin A; Siddins, Anne; Parkin, Katrina; Mukerjee, Chinmoy; Moore, Kate H
Older studies suggesting an association between detrusor overactivity and bacteriuria used an outdated microbiological threshold. We hypothesised that bacteriuria ≥10(3) CFU/ml would be more prevalent in women with urinary incontinence than continent controls. A prospective, cross-sectional study of prevalence of bacteriuria ≥10(3) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml on catheter specimens. Sample estimates suggested 62 women per arm would yield 80% power. Multivariate regression analysis was performed using risk factors including, age, diabetes, menopausal status, sexual activity and cystocele. Among 213 participants, bacteriuria ≥10(3) CFU/ml was more prevalent in incontinent women than continent controls (odds ratio [OR] 4.06; p = 0.036). Two thirds of bacteriuric specimens grew "low-count" bacteriuria. On multivariate analysis, only cystocele ≥ grade II was independently associated with bacteriuria (p = 0.025). On sub-analysis by diagnosis, the only significant finding was with bladder oversensitivity (OR 13.8; p = 0.0017). Bacteriuria, including "low-count" bacteriuria, is more prevalent in urinary incontinence when compared to continent female controls.
Geraldo F. Oliveira
Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight and associated factors in indigenous people of the Jaguapiru village in Central Brazil. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study between January 2009 and July 2011 in the adult native population of the Jaguapiru village, Central Brazil. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data were obtained; anthropometric measures, arterial blood pressure, and blood glucose were measured. The independent variables were tested by Poisson regression, and the interactions between them were analyzed. Results: 1,608 indigenous people (982 females, mean age 37.7 ± 15.1 years were included. The prevalence of obesity was 23.2% (95% CI 20.9-25.1%. Obesity was more prevalent among 40- to 49-year-old and overweight among 50- to 59-year-old persons. Obesity was positively associated with female sex, higher income, and hypertension. Among indigenous people, interactions were found with hypertension and sedentary lifestyle - hypertension in males and sedentary lifestyle in females. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in indigenous people of the Jaguapiru village is high. Males as well as hypertensive and higher family income individuals have higher rates. Sedentary lifestyle and hypertension leverage the rates of obesity. Prevention and adequate public health policies can be critical for the control of excess weight and its comorbidities among Brazilian indigenous people.
Enweronu-Laryea Christabel C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital malaria is defined as malaria parasitaemia in the first week of life. The reported prevalence of congenital malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is variable (0 - 46%. Even though the clinical significance of congenital malaria parasitaemia is uncertain, anti-malarial drugs are empirically prescribed for sick newborns by frontline health care workers. Data on prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk newborns will inform appropriate drug use and timely referral of sick newborns. Methods Blood samples of untreated newborns less than 1 week of age at the time of referral to Korle Bu Teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana during the peak malaria seasons (April to July of 2008 and 2010 were examined for malaria parasites by, i Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears for parasite count and species identification, ii histidine-rich protein- and lactic dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnosis tests, or iii polymerase chain reaction amplification of the merozoite surface protein 2 gene, for identification of sub-microscopic parasitaemia. Other investigations were also done as clinically indicated. Results In 2008, nine cases of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were diagnosed by microscopy in 405 (2.2% newborns. All the nine newborns had low parasite densities (≤50 per microlitre. In 2010, there was no case of parasitaemia by either microscopy or rapid diagnosis tests in 522 newborns; however, 56/467 (12% cases of P. falciparum were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion Congenital malaria is an uncommon cause of clinical illness in high-risk untreated newborns referred to a tertiary hospital in the first week of life. Empirical anti-malarial drug treatment for sick newborns without laboratory confirmation of parasitaemia is imprudent. Early referral of sick newborns to hospitals with resources and skills for appropriate care is recommended.
Oteo-Álvaro, Ángel; Ruiz-Ibán, Miguel A; Miguens, Xoan; Stern, Andrés; Villoria, Jesús; Sánchez-Magro, Isabel
The present epidemiological research evaluated the prevalence of neuropathic pain characteristics in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis (OA) and the plausibility that such neuropathic features were specific of OA. Outpatients with chronic pain associated with knee OA who attended orthopedic surgery or rehabilitation clinics were systematically screened for neuropathic pain with the Douleur Neuropathique in 4 questions (DN4) questionnaire. Data from medical files and those obtained during a single structured clinical interview were correlated with the DN4 scores. Information on potential confounders of neuropathic-like qualities of knee pain was collected to evaluate as much as possible only the symptoms attributable to OA. Of 2,776 patients recruited, 2,167 patients provided valid data from 2,992 knees. The DN4 was scored positively (≥ 4) in 1,125 patients (51.9%) and 1,459 knees (48.8%). When patients with potential confounders were excluded, the respective prevalences were 33.3% and 29.4%. Patients who scored positively in the DN4 had more severe pain, greater structural damage, and more potential confounders of neuropathic pain. Three potential confounders conveyed much of the variability explained by regression analyses. However, latent class analyses revealed that the concourse of other factors is required to explain the neuropathic pain qualities. A relevant proportion of patients with chronic pain associated with knee OA featured neuropathic pain qualities that were not explained by other conditions. The present research has provided reasonable epidemiological grounds to attempt their definite diagnosis and classification. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.
Full Text Available BackgroundMedical education is associated with various pressures andstresses which can lead to depression. This study wasundertaken to discover the prevalence of depression inmedical students and various factors contributing todepression.MethodThis is a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study. Usingstratified random sampling, 237 students were selectedaccording to year of study. Patient Health Questionnaire(PHQ-9, based on PRIME-MD Today, was used to make aprovisional diagnosis of depression.ResultsThe overall prevalence of provisionally diagnosed depressiveand major depressive disorder using PHQ-9 was 21.5% and7.6%, respectively. Year of study and academic performanceof students had a statistically significant association withdepression. Other factors, including gender, self-reported pasthistory of depression, family history of psychiatric disorders,type of social support, family structure, number of siblings andeducation of parents were not found to have any significantassociation with prevalence of depression in the study. It wasalso observed that students were reluctant to seek help fordepressive symptoms.
Full Text Available To examine prevalence of, and factors associated with, e-cigarette use among young people aged 16-17 in Ireland.In 2014, a representative sample of 821 young people aged 16-17 recruited from secondary schools completed a pen and paper survey on e-cigarette use, tobacco use, and socio-demographic items.A total of 23.8% of respondents had used e-cigarettes at least once. Dual trial of tobacco and e-cigarettes was common with 69.5% of regular smokers and 30.4% of 'ever' smokers having tried e-cigarettes and 10.6% of current smokers using e-cigarettes regularly. 4.2% of never smokers have tried e-cigarettes. Overall, current e-cigarette use (once a month or more was low (3.2%. Binary logistic regression conducted through generalized estimating equations (GEE determined that controlling for other variables, current tobacco use and 'ever' tobacco use predicted ever e-cigarette use. Gender and school-level socioeconomic status were also independent predictors of ever e-cigarette use. Gender stood as the only predictor of on-going e-cigarette use, with males being more likely to regularly use e-cigarettes at least once a month.E-cigarette use among 16-17 year olds in Ireland is of note, with nearly a quarter of students having tried them. Concurrent or experimental use of e-cigarettes and tobacco is more common than sole use, while a small number have tried e-cigarettes without having tried tobacco.
Alem, Meseret; Enawgaw, Bamlaku
Background. Anaemia is a global public health problem which has an eminence impact on pregnant mother. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of maternal anemia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2012, on 302 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at Gondar University Hospital. Interview-based questionnaire, clinical history, and laboratory tests were used to obtain data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.6%. Majority were mild type (64%) and morphologically normocytic normochromic (76%) anemia. Anemia was high at third trimester (18.9%). Low family income (AOR [95% CI] = 3.1 [1.19, 8.33]), large family size (AOR [95% CI] = 4.14 [4.13, 10.52]), hookworm infection (AOR [95% CI] = 2.72 [1.04, 7.25]), and HIV infection (AOR [95% CI] = 5.75 [2.40, 13.69]) were independent predictors of anemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia was high; mild type and normocytic normochromic anemia was dominant. Low income, large family size, hookworm infection, and HIV infection were associated with anemia. Hence, efforts should be made for early diagnosis and management of HIV and hookworm infection with special emphasis on those having low income and large family size. PMID:24669317
Masuet-Aumatell, Cristina; Ramon-Torrell, Josep Maria; Banqué-Navarro, Marta; Dávalos-Gamboa, María del Rosario; Montaño-Rodríguez, Sandra Lucía
The anthropometric status of school age children and young adolescents in Andean countries is not well known. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents in the Cochabamba region (Bolivia), and their association with different variables, as well as to determine the agreement between two classifications (BAP, IOTF) of obesity and overweight. A school-based cross-sectional survey (n=441) was carried out in 2010 in pupils, aged 5 to 16 years old, living in the Cochabamba region (Bolivia). Evaluations were based on parent-administered questionnaires and a physical examination based on anthropometric measures. Descriptive, bivariate, and concordance analyses were performed. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity were 20.9% (CI95% 17.1-24.7) and 3.2% (CI 95% 1.6-4.8) respectively, with higher incidences in younger birth cohorts from rural areas. No differences were observed according to gender, parent's educational level, nutritional patterns, or physical activity. There was a moderate agreement globally and on overweight, and excellent on obesity. This study determined that the prevalence of overweight and obese Bolivian school children is increasing, mainly in younger birth cohorts from rural areas, independently from physical activity and energy intake. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Chang, Ta Yuan; Beelen, Rob; Li, Su Fei; Chen, Tzu I.; Lin, Yen Ju; Bao, Bo Ying; Liu, Chiu Shong
Epidemiological studies have reported the association between hypertension and exposure to road traffic noise, but the association between noise frequency characteristics is not clear. This study investigated the association between exposure to different frequency components of road traffic noise an
Noll, Matias; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Vieira, Marcus Fraga
Most studies on the prevalence of back pain have evaluated it in developed countries (Human Development Index--HDI > 0.808), and their conclusions may not hold for developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of back pain in representative Brazilian athletes from public high schools. This cross-sectional study was performed during the state phase of the 2015 Jogos dos Institutos Federais (JIF), or Federal Institutes Games, in Brazil (HDI = 0.744), and it enrolled 251 athletes, 173 males and 78 females (14-20 years old). The dependent variable was back pain, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, exercise-level, anthropometric, strength, behavioral, and postural factors. The prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated using multivariable analysis according to the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). The prevalence of back pain in the three months prior to the study was 43.7% (n = 104), and 26% of the athletes reported feeling back pain only once. Multivariable analysis showed that back pain was associated with demographic (sex), psychosocial (loneliness and loss of sleep in the previous year), hereditary (ethnicity, parental back pain), strength (lumbar and hand forces), anthropometric (body mass index), behavioral (sleeping time per night, reading and studying in bed, smoking habits in the previous month), and postural (sitting posture while writing, while on a bench, and while using a computer) variables. Participants who recorded higher levels of lumbar and manual forces reported a lower prevalence of back pain (PR 1.30). In conclusion, there is no association between exercise levels and back pain but there is an association between back pain and non-exercise related variables.
Full Text Available Most studies on the prevalence of back pain have evaluated it in developed countries (Human Development Index--HDI > 0.808, and their conclusions may not hold for developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of back pain in representative Brazilian athletes from public high schools. This cross-sectional study was performed during the state phase of the 2015 Jogos dos Institutos Federais (JIF, or Federal Institutes Games, in Brazil (HDI = 0.744, and it enrolled 251 athletes, 173 males and 78 females (14-20 years old. The dependent variable was back pain, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, exercise-level, anthropometric, strength, behavioral, and postural factors. The prevalence ratio (PR was calculated using multivariable analysis according to the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05. The prevalence of back pain in the three months prior to the study was 43.7% (n = 104, and 26% of the athletes reported feeling back pain only once. Multivariable analysis showed that back pain was associated with demographic (sex, psychosocial (loneliness and loss of sleep in the previous year, hereditary (ethnicity, parental back pain, strength (lumbar and hand forces, anthropometric (body mass index, behavioral (sleeping time per night, reading and studying in bed, smoking habits in the previous month, and postural (sitting posture while writing, while on a bench, and while using a computer variables. Participants who recorded higher levels of lumbar and manual forces reported a lower prevalence of back pain (PR 1.30. In conclusion, there is no association between exercise levels and back pain but there is an association between back pain and non-exercise related variables.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study of 5,719 subjects (response rate: 81%, 982 men and 4,737 women was undertaken during September 2003 to February 2004. Results Finger deformations were found among 11.7% of the men and 35.6% of the women studied, with significant differences among sex, age and sex-age groups. For both men and women the pattern of finger deformations across the hand was similar for the right and the left hand. For women, the deformations were found in about 10% of the distal interphalangeal joints of all fingers. Based on multiple logistic regression analyses, the factors female sex, age, the number of cooked lunches per cook and cooking activities were independently associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. High prevalence odds ratios were found for those frequently carrying or using tools by hands such as delivering containers, distributing meals, preparing dishes, washing equipment, cutting and stirring foods. Conclusions Among the school lunch workers studied, women had a higher prevalence of finger deformations on all joints of both hands. Various cooking tasks were associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. The results suggest that improvements in working conditions are important for preventing work-related disorders such as finger deformations.
Cury, Patricia Ramos; Porto, Lia Pontes Arruda; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Figueiredo e Ribeiro, Livia Silva; de Aquino Xavier, Flavia Caló; Figueiredo, Andreia Leal; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, and their risk indicators in adult Kiriri Indians from Northeast Brazil. Clinical oral examination was performed on a representative sample of 223 Indians (age ≥ 19 years). A systematic evaluation of lips, labial mucosa and sulcus, commissures, buccal mucosa and sulcus, gingiva and alveolar ridge, tongue, floor of the mouth, and soft and hard palate was performed. Bivariate analysis was conducted to assess associations between mucosal conditions and age, gender, income, educational level, diabetic status, and smoking status. Mucosal lesions were found in 50 participants (22.4%). The most prevalent lesions were fistulae (6.2%) and traumatic ulcers (4.48%). Oral mucosal was associated with higher age (≥ 35 years; odds ratio [OR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.76, P = 0.03) and lower education level (<9 years; OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 0.96-4.71, P = 0.06). Mucosal conditions are prevalent in Kiriri Indians and the presence of mucosal lesions is associated with advanced age and lower education. A public health program aimed at preventing and treating mucosal lesions and targeted toward the high-risk group is vital to improve the oral health status of this population.
Conclusion: Chronic rhinosinusitis was diagnosed in more than 40% of children with dyspepsia. The odds of CRS being present in children diagnosed to have GERD increases significantly as demonstrated in this study.
Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, P.U.; Abbas, Frank; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Stijger, A.; Tromp, J.A.H.; van Dijk, J.L.; Vissink, A.
Background: Associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are most often assessed in patients with a particular cardiovascular or autoimmune disease. To prevent selection bias, this study assesses the existence of associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular
Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, P.U.; Abbas, Frank; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Stijger, A.; Tromp, J.A.H.; van Dijk, J.L.; Vissink, A.
Background: Associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are most often assessed in patients with a particular cardiovascular or autoimmune disease. To prevent selection bias, this study assesses the existence of associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular
Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Abbas, Frank; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Stijger, Astrid; Tromp, Jan A. H.; van Dijk, Johan L.; Vissink, Arjan
Background: Associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are most often assessed in patients with a particular cardiovascular or autoimmune disease. To prevent selection bias, this study assesses the existence of associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular
Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Abbas, Frank; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Stijger, Astrid; Tromp, Jan A. H.; van Dijk, Johan L.; Vissink, Arjan
Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, Peter; Holme, I
.3% to 45.3% (mean 31.4%, standard deviation (sd) 7.3%). Patients between 50 and 70 years were included. Other causes of osteoporosis were excluded before inclusion. At study entry spirometry, X-ray of the spine (to evaluate presence of vertebral fractures), and bone mineral density of lumbar spine and hip...
Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Chen, Yintao; Dong, Siyuan; Sun, Yingxian
This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients and identify contributing risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in rural areas of China, and 1,198 type 2 diabetic patients with complete data were recruited. Elevated ALT and AST levels were defined as >40 U/L. Prevalence of abnormal liver enzymes was analyzed and multivariable analysis was used to identify independent risk factors. 10.3% and 6.1% diabetic patients had elevated ALT and elevated AST, respectively. The prevalence of elevated liver enzymes was gender-related; it was 13.8% in men and 7.5% in women for elevated ALT, and 7.4% in men and 3.1% in women for elevated AST. High triglyceride was positively associated with both elevated ALT (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.08-3.01, p = 0.024) and elevated AST (OR 2.24, 95%CI 1.08-4.65, p = 0.031), while taking anti-diabetes medicine was inversely related to both elevated ALT (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.80, p = 0.005) and elevated AST (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.17-0.82, p = 0.014). The risk of elevated ALT in diabetic patients increased with the presence of obesity (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.07-6.01, p = 0.034), and was lower in women (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72, p = 0.003). Hypertension (OR 4.33, 95% CI 1.41-13.30, p = 0.011), current drinking status (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.21-6.96, p = 0.017) and national minority (OR 3.26, 95%CI 1.31-8.12, p = 0.011) were risk factors for elevated AST. A relatively high prevalence of abnormal serum liver enzymes in diabetic patients was demonstrated in China, especially in males. More attention should be paid to preventing liver injuries in diabetic patients.
Sujatha S Reddy
Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square and Fisher′s exact tests were used to assess the statistical significance. Results: Of the 901 subjects with CT habits, 55.8% revealed no clinically detectable oral mucosal changes and 44.1% showed mucosal changes of which 63.8% were males and 36.1% were females. The most common finding was chewers mucositis (59.5% followed by submucous fibrosis (22.8%, leukoplakia (8%, lichenoid reaction (6.5%, oral cancer (2.7%, and lichen planus (0.5%. Conclusion: This study provides information about different CT habits and associated mucosal lesions among this population.
Flores, Geane L; de Almeida, Adilson J; Miguel, Juliana C; Cruz, Helena M; Portilho, Moyra M; Scalioni, Letícia de P; Marques, Vanessa A; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo
(1) BACKGROUND: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2) METHODS: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+) referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3) RESULTS: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD) viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283). Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married), tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex), history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married), anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4) CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals.
Geane L. Flores
Full Text Available (1 Background: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2 Methods: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+ referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3 Results: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283. Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married, tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married, anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4 Conclusion: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals.
Minaleshewa Biruk Gebeyehu
Full Text Available Background. Dysmenorrhea is an important health problem of adolescents in school, as well as health practitioners, that badly affects the daily activities and quality of life. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dysmenorrhea and assess its management practice among University of Gondar students. Methods. A cross-sectional study was done from April 06 to May 08, 2016, on female students of University of Gondar. Descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used to describe and assess the association between different variables. Results. More than two-thirds (75.3% of the respondents were nonmedical students and the prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 77.6%. About half (50.6% of the participants reported that they have a family history of dysmenorrhea and experienced continuous type of pain (53% which lasts 1-2 days (47.8%. Abdominal spasm (70.4%, back pain (69.7% fatigue, and weakness (63.5% were the most commonly experienced dysmenorrhea symptoms. More than half (63% of the respondents had encountered social withdrawal and decrease in academic performance (51.4%. More than two-thirds (63.8% of the respondents use home remedies as a primary management option. Ibuprofen and diclofenac were the most commonly used medications to manage dysmenorrhea. Conclusions. The present study revealed that high proportion of University of Gondar female students had dysmenorrhea. Findings suggest the need for educating adolescent girls on appropriate and effective management of dysmenorrhea.
Bredesen, Ida Marie; Bjøro, Karen; Gunningberg, Lena; Hofoss, Dag
Pressure ulcers are preventable adverse events. Organizational differences may influence the quality of prevention across wards and hospitals. To investigate the prevalence of pressure ulcers, patient-related risk factors, the use of preventive measures and how much of the pressure ulcer variance is at patient, ward and hospital level. A cross-sectional study. Six of the 11 invited hospitals in South-Eastern Norway agreed to participate. Inpatients ≥18 years at 88 somatic hospital wards (N=1209). Patients in paediatric and maternity wards and day surgery patients were excluded. The methodology for pressure ulcer prevalence studies developed by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel was used, including demographic data, the Braden scale, skin assessment, the location and severity of pressure ulcers and preventive measures. Multilevel analysis was used to investigate variance across hierarchical levels. The prevalence was 18.2% for pressure ulcer category I-IV, 7.2% when category I was excluded. Among patients at risk of pressure ulcers, 44.3% had pressure redistributing support surfaces in bed and only 22.3% received planned repositioning in bed. Multilevel analysis showed that although the dominant part of the variance in the occurrence of pressure ulcers was at patient level there was also a significant amount of variance at ward level. There was, however, no significant variance at hospital level. Pressure ulcer prevalence in this Norwegian sample is similar to comparable European studies. At-risk patients were less likely to receive preventive measures than patients in earlier studies. There was significant variance in the occurrence of pressure ulcers at ward level but not at hospital level, indicating that although interventions for improvement are basically patient related, improvement of procedures and organization at ward level may also be important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liang, Yan; Leng, Rui-Xue; Pan, Hai-Feng; Ye, Dong-Qing
This study aims to estimate the prevalence of serositis and identify risk factors for serositis in a large cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on the medical records of patients hospitalized with SLE at the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University and Anhui Provincial Hospital. Patients were diagnosed with serositis when they presented with symptoms and signs of pleuritis or/and pericarditis. We explored factors associated with the generation and quantity of serositis by using binary and ordinal logistic regression analysis. Among the 1668 lupus patients, 298 have serositis. Active lupus disease, fever (≥38 °C) and high D-dimer were all significantly associated with the generation and quantity of serositis. Male gender was independent significant risk factor for pleuritis but not for pericarditis, while low complement C4 and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were risk factors for pericarditis rather than for pleuritis. The possible prevalence of serositis in patients with SLE was 17.9%. The significant associations of active lupus disease, fever (≥38 °C) and high D-dimer with serositis suggest that higher disease activity and hypercoagulability may both contribute to the generation and development of serositis in SLE. The risk factors for pleuritis and pericarditis in SLE are similar but not identical.
Chou, Li-Ping; Tsai, Chiang-Chin; Li,Chung-Yi; Hu, Susan C.
Objectives To explore the prevalence and associated factors of cardiovascular health as defined by the AHA among different job categories in health settings. Methods This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based survey. A total of 1329 medical professionals with a mean age of 38 years in a regional hospital in Taiwan were recruited. Information for seven combined indicators including blood pressure, fasting sugar, blood cholesterol, body mass index, time of physical activity, dietary pattern a...
Campbell, Jill L; Coyer, Fiona M; Osborne, Sonya R
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify the prevalence of incontinence and incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) in Australian acute care patients and to describe the products worn to manage incontinence, and those provided at the bedside for perineal skin care. Data on 376 inpatients were collected over 2 days at a major Australian teaching hospital. The mean age of the sample group was 62 years and 52% of the patients were male. The prevalence rate of incontinence was 24% (91/376). Urinary incontinence was significantly more prevalent in females (10%) than males (6%) (χ(2) = 4·458, df = 1, P = 0·035). IAD occurred in 10% (38/376) of the sample group, with 42% (38/91) of incontinent patients having IAD. Semi-formed and liquid stool were associated with IAD (χ(2) = 5·520, df = 1, P = 0·027). Clinical indication of fungal infection was present in 32% (12/38) of patients with IAD. Absorbent disposable briefs were the most common incontinence aids used (80%, 70/91), with soap/water and disposable washcloths being the clean-up products most commonly available (60%, 55/91) at the bedside. Further data are needed to validate this high prevalence. Studies that address prevention of IAD and the effectiveness of management strategies are also needed. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yu, J-X; Zhu, W-P; Ye, C-C; Xue, C-Y; Lai, S-J; Zhang, H-L; Zhang, Z-K; Geng, Q-B; Yang, W-Z; Sun, Q; Li, Z-J
Diarrhea is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and the incidence of diarrhea in the world has changed little over the past four decades. To assess the prevalence of and healthcare practices for diarrhea, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Pudong, Shanghai, China. In October 2014, a total of 5324 community residents were interviewed. Respondents were asked if they had experienced diarrhea (defined as ⩾3 passages of watery, loose, bloody, or mucoid stools within a 24-h period) in the previous month prior to the interview. The monthly prevalence of diarrhea was 4·1% (95% CI: 3·3-4·8), corresponding to an incidence rate of 0·54 episodes per person-year. The proportion of individuals with diarrhea who sought healthcare was 21·2% (95% CI: 13·4-29·0). Diarrhea continues to impose a considerable burden on the community and healthcare system in Pudong. Young age and travel were identified as predictors of increased diarrhea occurrence.
Yeong, U Y; Tan, S Y; Yap, J F; Choo, W Y
Fall is a major cause of injuries and can increase the risk of early mortality among elderly. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of falls among community-dwelling elderly in rural Malaysia and its associated factors. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey in five randomly selected districts in the state of Perak, Malaysia. A total of 250 households were randomly selected. A total of 811 individuals aged 60 years or more were recruited and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Information about socio-demographic, history of falls in the past 1 year, medical history, drug history and physical activity level were enquired. The prevalence of falls in the past 1 year among community-dwelling elderly was reported to be 4.07%. Indigenous elderly (Adjusted odd ratio, AOR = 6.06, 95% CI = 1.10-33.55, p = 0.039) and living alone (AOR = 2.60, 95% CI = 1.04-6.50, p = 0.042) were shown to be factors associated with falls. Physical activity level, number of co-morbidities and number of medications used were not associated with falls. Elderly of indigenous ethnicity and living alone are the main factors associated with falls in this population. Indigenous people may be at higher risk, which warrant further investigation with a larger sample to improve the precision of estimates.
Full Text Available Background. The biomedical care for cancer has not been complemented by psychosocial progressions in cancer care. Objectives. To find the prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients in a hospital setting. Design and Setting. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the tertiary care hospitals Shifa International Hospital Islamabad and Nuclear Medicine, Oncology, and Radiotherapy Institute [NORI]. Patients and Methods. 300 patients were interviewed from both the outpatient and inpatient department using The Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS. Main Outcome Measures. Using a score of 20 and above on the AKUADS, 146 (48.7% patients were suffering from anxiety and depression. Results. When cross tabulation was done between different factors and the cancer patients with anxiety and depression, the following factors were found out to be significant with associated p value < 0.05: education of the patient, presence of cancer in the family, the severity of pain, and the patient’s awareness of his anxiety and depression. Out of 143 (47.7% uneducated patients, 85 (59.4% were depressed, hence making it the highest educational category suffering from depression and anxiety. Conclusion. The prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients was high showing that importance should be given to screening and counseling cancer patients for anxiety and depression, to help them cope with cancer as a disease and its impact on their mental wellbeing. Limitations. The frequency of female patients in our research was higher than those of male patients.
Faheem, Muhammad; Fahim, Ammad; Innocent, Haran; Mansoor, Zainab; Rizvi, Shehrbano; Farrukh, Hizra
Background. The biomedical care for cancer has not been complemented by psychosocial progressions in cancer care. Objectives. To find the prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients in a hospital setting. Design and Setting. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the tertiary care hospitals Shifa International Hospital Islamabad and Nuclear Medicine, Oncology, and Radiotherapy Institute [NORI]. Patients and Methods. 300 patients were interviewed from both the outpatient and inpatient department using The Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS). Main Outcome Measures. Using a score of 20 and above on the AKUADS, 146 (48.7%) patients were suffering from anxiety and depression. Results. When cross tabulation was done between different factors and the cancer patients with anxiety and depression, the following factors were found out to be significant with associated p value < 0.05: education of the patient, presence of cancer in the family, the severity of pain, and the patient's awareness of his anxiety and depression. Out of 143 (47.7%) uneducated patients, 85 (59.4%) were depressed, hence making it the highest educational category suffering from depression and anxiety. Conclusion. The prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients was high showing that importance should be given to screening and counseling cancer patients for anxiety and depression, to help them cope with cancer as a disease and its impact on their mental wellbeing. Limitations. The frequency of female patients in our research was higher than those of male patients. PMID:27752508
Mohamed, Sarar; Hussein, Mohamed Diab
Nutritional status of school-aged children has an important impact on their physical and mental development. Data on anemia, thinness and wasting among school-aged Sudanese children were limited. To determine the prevalence of anemia, thinness and wasting among school-aged Sudanese children. This cross-sectional study enrolled 835 primary school children aged 6-14 years, who live in Dolgo area in the northern region of Sudan. Weight and height of each child were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. All measurements were plotted on the World Health Organization (WHO) height for age and BMI charts. Hemoglobin was also measured for all participants, and anemia was defined according to the WHO standards. Anthropometric measurements showed that 59 children (7.1%) were stunted and 193 were thin (23.1%). The prevalence of anemia was 29.7%. Stunting, thinness and anemia were significantly common in children anemia among school-aged children in a rural area in Sudan. Our findings warrant the need to implement interventions to improve nutritional status of children in Sudan. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Beh, Hooi Chin; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Teng, Cheong Lieng; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Choo, Wan Yuen
Objective To determine the prevalence of knee pain among 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia. By identifying high-risk groups, preventive measures can be targeted at these populations. Design and setting A cross-sectional survey was carried out in rural and urban areas in a state in Malaysia. Secondary schools were randomly selected and used as sampling units. Participants Adults aged ≥18 years old were invited to answer a self-administered questionnaire on pain experienced over the previous 6 months. Out of 9300 questionnaires distributed, 5206 were returned and 150 participants who did not fall into the 3 ethnic groups were excluded, yielding a total of 5056 questionnaires for analysis. 58.2% (n=2926) were women. 50% (n=2512) were Malays, 41.4% (n=2079) were Chinese and 8.6% (n=434) were Indians. Results 21.1% (n=1069) had knee pain during the previous 6 months. More Indians (31.8%) experienced knee pain compared with Malays (24.3%) and Chinese (15%) (p<0.001). The odds of Indian women reporting knee pain was twofold higher compared with Malay women. There was a rising trend in the prevalence of knee pain with increasing age (p<0.001). The association between age and knee pain appeared to be stronger in women than men. 68.1% of Indians used analgesia for knee pain while 75.4% of Malays and 52.1% of Chinese did so (p<0.001). The most common analgesic used for knee pain across all groups was topical medicated oil (43.7%). Conclusions The prevalence of knee pain in adults was more common in Indian women and older women age groups and Chinese men had the lowest prevalence of knee pain. Further studies should investigate the reasons for these differences. PMID:27909033
Chisha, Yilma; Terefe, Wondwossen; Assefa, Huruy; Lakew, Serawit
Background Currently 93 million people are estimated as living with diabetic retinopathy worldwide. The prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in developed countries have been well documented; but in Ethiopia, data on prevalence and associated factors of diabetic retinopathy is lacking. Objective To determine prevalence and factors associated with development of diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients at Arbaminch General Hospital, Ethiopia. Method Cross-sectional study design with record review of 400 diabetic patients was conducted at Arbaminch General Hospital from November to January 2015. Among 400 diabetic patients, 270 patients with baseline information and without history of hypertension at baseline were included in this study. But patients with gestational diabetes and with retinopathy at baseline were excluded from the study. Consecutive sampling technique was applied to select study participants. Data of cohorts was extracted from medical record using pre tested structured extraction check list. Data cleaning, coding, categorizing, merging and analysis carried out by STATA version 12. Descriptive statistics was done and presented accordingly. Bivariate binary logistic regression analysis was done to select potential candidates for the full model at P-value cutoff point ≤ 0.25 and multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was made to estimate the independent effect of predictors on the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy. Model diagnostic tests were done, final model fitness was checked using Hosmer and Lemeshow chi square test. Finally, statistical significance was tested at P-value 140 mmhg, duration of diabetes ≥6 years and patients with family history of diabetes were statistically and significantly related with diabetic retinopathy, special care should be given in addition to routine care. PMID:28253261
Full Text Available Aim: To study levels of physical activity and various measures of obesity and their association in an urban population. Study Design: Cross sectional. Materials and Methods: One thousand and forty-seven individuals between the ages 25-64 years systematically sampled from a community-based population database were contacted through a house-to-house survey. We adopted the WHO STEPS guidelines for conducting this study. Anthropological measures collected were height, weight, and waist and hip circumference. Results: Physical Activity (PA levels declined with age and the decline was greater among females. The Pearson′s correlation coefficient for age against PA among males was found to be negative and weak (r = -0.104 and that among females was found to be similar (r = -0.206. The prevalence of obesity was higher among females (28.8 % than among males (13.3 % and the difference was statistically significant. There was a progressive increase in abdominal obesity with age in both genders. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among individuals with low levels of PA as compared to those with high levels of PA. Conclusion: Sedentary behavior is prevalent in more than half of the current study sample. This was more so with increasing age, female gender and increasing obesity. PA is an important component on long-term weight control, and therefore adequate levels of activity should be prescribed to combat the obesity epidemic. Habitual moderate physical activity may be beneficial in preventing excess accumulation of fat.
Sônia Sampaio Lôpo
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:HTLV-1 infection increases susceptibility to other infections. Few studies have addressed the co-infection between HPV and HTLV-1 and the immune response involved in this interaction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical HPV infection in HTLV-1-infected women and to establish the risk factors involved in this co-infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Salvador, Brazil, between September 2005 and December 2008, involving 50 HTLV-1-infected women from the HTLV Reference Center and 40 uninfected patients from gynecological clinic, both at the Bahiana School of Medicine. HPV infection was assessed using hybrid capture. HTLV-1 proviral load was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: The mean age of HTLV-1-infected women (38 ± 10 years was similar to that of the control group (36 ± 13 years. The prevalence of HPV infection was 44% in the HTLV-1-infected group and 22.5% in uninfected women (p = 0.03. HTLV-1-infected women had lower mean age at onset of sexual life (17 ± 3 years versus 19 ± 3 years; p = 0.03 and greater number of lifetime partners compared with the control group (4 ± 3 versus 2 ± 1; p < 0.01. In the group of HTLV-1-infected patients, there was neither difference in HTLV-1 proviral load between HPV-infected women and the uninfected. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HPV infection was higher in HTLV-1-infected women. Further studies should be performed to evaluate the progression of this co-infection.
Ramos, Alexis; Sicilia, Beatriz; Vergara, Mercedes; Figuerola, Ariadna; Motos, Jaume; Sastre, Adoración; Villoria, Albert; Gomollón, Fernando
Background and aims Data on the prevalence of work disability in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are heterogeneous. As most studies have been performed in selected, often severe, IBD patients, the true prevalence of disability in the community remains controversial. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of disability and its predictive factors in a community-based IBD population. Patients and methods Patients recorded in the community-based IBD register at the Hospital Universitario de Burgos were contacted. After informed consent they completed a set of questionnaires including demographic, clinical, disability and quality of life data. The statistical study was performed using SPSS 21. Results A total of 293 patients were included – 151 Crohn's disease (CD), 142 ulcerative colitis (UC), 137 female, mean age: 45 ± 11 years, mean time since diagnosis: 10.6 ± 11 years. Twelve patients (4.1%) had a work-disability pension. In addition, 93 (32%) of all patients had an officially recognized disability degree, which was generally moderate (n = 73, 25%) or severe (N = 16, 5%). Age, time since IBD diagnosis, CD, perianal disease, incontinence, active disease, the need for anti-TNF or psychological treatment, previous surgeries and the number of diagnostic tests and medical visits in the previous year were predictors of disability. Major predictors of qualifying for a disability pension were age, IBD activity, incontinence, need for biological drugs and ostomy. Conclusion Mild to moderate work disability is frequent in IBD. However, only a minority of patients develop severe disability qualifying them for a pension. PMID:26279841
Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Okubo, H; Sasaki, S; Arakawa, M
To examine the relationship between the intake of dairy products and calcium and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Cross-sectional study. Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study (KOMCHS). A cohort of 1745 pregnant Japanese women. Dietary intake during the preceding month was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Scores of 16 or higher on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale denoted depressive symptoms. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, number of children, family structure, history of depression, family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, job type, household income, education, and body mass index. In our analyses regarding dairy products in general, adjustment was also made for fish intake; in our analysis regarding calcium, adjustment was also made for the intake of saturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid, and vitamin D. Depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Higher intake levels of yogurt and calcium were independently related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios between extreme quartiles were 0.69 (95% CI 0.48-0.99, P for trend = 0.03) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.40-0.88, P for trend = 0.006), respectively. No relationships were observed between the intake of all dairy products, milk, or cheese and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The current results suggest that a higher intake of yogurt and calcium may be associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Ayman A Al Hayek
Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of low serum testosterone (LST in men with type 2 diabetes have been reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of LST in men with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted among 1,089 men (aged 30-70 years with type 2 diabetes who consecutively attended a major diabetes center in Amman, Jordan, between August 2008 and February 2009. The patients′ demographic characteristics were collected using a prestructured questionnaire. Duration of diabetes, smoking habits, presence of retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy were collected from the medical records. All participants were asked to complete the Androgen Deficiency in Ageing Male (ADAM questionnaire. Venous blood sample was collected to test for total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin (PRL, serum lipids, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. LST was defined as TT <3 ng/ml. Results: Overall, 36.5% of patients with diabetes had TT level <3 ng/ml and 29% had symptoms of androgen deficiency. Of those with serum testosterone level <3 ng/ml, 80.2% had symptoms of androgen deficiency, 16.9% had primary hypogonadism (HG, and 83.1% had secondary HG. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between age, income, education, body mass index (BMI, smoking, duration of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and HbA1c. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated age, income, BMI, and diabetic neuropathy as the independent risk factors of LST. Conclusions: The prevalence of LST among men with type 2 diabetes is high. Age, income, BMI, and diabetic neuropathy were found to be the independent risk factors for LST.
Al Hayek, Ayman A.; Khader, Yousef S.; Jafal, Sahar; Khawaja, Nahla; Robert, Asirvatham A.; Ajlouni, Kamel
Background: A high prevalence of low serum testosterone (LST) in men with type 2 diabetes have been reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of LST in men with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted among 1,089 men (aged 30-70 years) with type 2 diabetes who consecutively attended a major diabetes center in Amman, Jordan, between August 2008 and February 2009. The patients’ demographic characteristics were collected using a prestructured questionnaire. Duration of diabetes, smoking habits, presence of retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy were collected from the medical records. All participants were asked to complete the Androgen Deficiency in Ageing Male (ADAM) questionnaire. Venous blood sample was collected to test for total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), serum lipids, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). LST was defined as TT <3 ng/ml. Results: Overall, 36.5% of patients with diabetes had TT level <3 ng/ml and 29% had symptoms of androgen deficiency. Of those with serum testosterone level <3 ng/ml, 80.2% had symptoms of androgen deficiency, 16.9% had primary hypogonadism (HG), and 83.1% had secondary HG. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between age, income, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, duration of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and HbA1c. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated age, income, BMI, and diabetic neuropathy as the independent risk factors of LST. Conclusions: The prevalence of LST among men with type 2 diabetes is high. Age, income, BMI, and diabetic neuropathy were found to be the independent risk factors for LST. PMID:24672276
Harsh Vardhan Dubey
Full Text Available Introduction: Healthy teeth are important for any section of society. Dental caries, the product of man's progress toward civilization, has a very high morbidity potential. Fluoride has been recognized as one of the most influential factor responsible for the observed decline of caries among children as well as adults of these countries. While fluoride is accepted as an effective method to prevent caries, the excessive consumption of fluoride can put teeth at risk of developing dental fluorosis. Aims and Objectives: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis among 12–15 years old government and private school children of Bharatpur city, Rajasthan. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out on total 1400 school children, out of which 700 school children were from government schools and 700 were from private schools. Simple random sampling methodology was used to select the sample. The subjects were examined for dental fluorosis according to WHO 1997 assessment form. Results: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was found higher among government school children, that is, 54.5% when compared to private school children, that is, 45.5% respectively, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The study showed the increased prevalence of dental fluorosis among government school children as compared to private school children. Dental fluorosis was found to be the major public health problem among both government and private school children of Bharatpur city which needed immediate attention. Regular dental check-ups and routine oral hygiene practice will enable them to lead a healthier life.
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Maternal Streptococcus agalactiae colonization and early-onset neonatal sepsis have aroused interest in the worldwide literature. Streptococcal neonatal disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period, especially among premature neonates. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of maternal streptococcal colonization by using combined swab cultures, compared with swab collection from a single site. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista. METHODS: Samples were obtained from 405 patients at gestational ages of 35 to 37 weeks. Swabs from the perianal (rectal region, vaginal introitus and upper lateral vaginal vault were cultured in Todd-Hewitt selective broth. Colonies suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae were subjected to the catalase and CAMP (Christie, Atkins, Munch-Petersen tests. To evaluate the positivity of combined swab cultures, Tukey's test was used for comparison of proportions. RESULTS: The prevalence of streptococcal colonization was 25.4%. Among the patients with positive cultures, 28.1% had this at only one collection site, 24.2% simultaneously at two sites and 47.5% at all three sites. Associating the swabs from two collection sites significantly increased streptococcal isolation, compared with a single swab (P < 0.05, except for perianal (rectal collection. Use of combined swabs from three collection sites showed statistically higher isolation rates. CONCLUSION: In combined swab cultures collected from three collection sites, the prevalence of maternal Streptococcus agalactiae colonization was higher than in swabs collected from a single site.
Kuria Mary W
Full Text Available Abstract Background The possibility that a significant proportion of the patients attending a general health facility may have a mental disorder means that psychiatric conditions must be recognised and managed appropriately. This study sought to determine the prevalence of common psychiatric disorders in adult (aged 18 years and over inpatients and outpatients seen in public, private and faith-based general hospitals, health centres and specialised clinics and units of general hospitals. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 10 health facilities. All the patients in psychiatric wards and clinics were excluded. Stratified and systematic sampling methods were used. Informed consent was obtained from all study participants. Data were collected over a 4-week period in November 2005 using various psychiatric instruments for adults. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS V. 11.5. Results A total of 2,770 male and female inpatients and outpatients participated in the study. In all, 42% of the subjects had symptoms of mild and severe depression. Only 114 (4.1% subjects had a file or working diagnosis of a psychiatric condition, which included bipolar mood disorder, schizophrenia, psychosis and depression. Conclusion The 4.1% clinician detection rate for mental disorders means that most psychiatric disorders in general medical facilities remain undiagnosed and thus, unmanaged. This calls for improved diagnostic practices in general medical facilities in Kenya and in other similar countries.
Nkhama, Emmy; Ndhlovu, Micky; Dvonch, J Timothy; Siziya, Seter; Voyi, Kuku
Exposure to cement dust has been associated with deleterious health effects in humans. This study investigated whether residing near a cement factory increases the risk of irritations to the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory system. A cross sectional study was conducted in Freedom Compound, a community bordering a cement factory in Chilanga, Zambia and a control community, Bauleni, located 18 km from the cement plant. A modified American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administered to 225 and 198 respondents aged 15-59 years from Freedom and Bauleni, respectively, to capture symptoms of the irritations. Respondents from Freedom Compound, were more likely to experience the irritations; adjusted ORs 2.50 (95% CI: 1.65, 3.79), 4.36 (95% CI (2.96, 6.55)) and 1.94 (95% CI (1.19, 3.18)) for eye, nose and sinus membrane irritations respectively. Cohort panel studies to determine associations of cement emissions to mucous membrane irritations and respiratory symptoms, coupled with field characterization of the exposure are needed to assess whether the excess prevalence of symptoms of mucous membrane irritations observed in Freedom compound are due to emissions from the cement factory.
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to identify the prevalence of antenatal depression and the risk factors associated with its development among Omani women. No previous studies on antenatal depression have been conducted in Oman. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out between January and November 2014 in Muscat, Oman. Pregnant Omani women ≥32 gestational weeks who were attending one of 12 local primary care health centres in Muscat for routine antenatal care were invited to participate in the study (n = 986. An Arabic version of the validated self-administered Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale questionnaire was used to measure antenatal depression. A cut-off score of ≥13 was considered to indicate probable depression. Results: A total of 959 women participated in the study (response rate: 97.3%. Of these, 233 were found to have antenatal depression (24.3%. A bivariate analysis showed that antenatal depression was associated with unplanned pregnancies (P = 0.010, marital conflict (P = 0.001 and a family history of depression (P = 0.019. The adjusted odds ratio (OR after logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that antenatal depression was significantly associated with unplanned pregnancies (OR: 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.86 and marital conflict (OR: 13.83; 95% CI: 2.99–63.93. Conclusion: The prevalence of antenatal depression among the studied Omani women was high, particularly in comparison to findings from other Arab countries. Thus, antenatal screening for depression should be considered in routine primary antenatal care. Couples should also be encouraged to seek psychological support should marital conflicts develop during pregnancy.
Dennis Rodolfo J
Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is suggested that the prevalence of asthma in developed countries may have stabilized, this is not clear in currently developing countries. Current available information for both adults and children simultaneously on the burden and impact of allergic conditions in Colombia and in many Latin American countries is limited. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence for asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR, atopic eczema (AE, and atopy in six colombian cities; to quantify costs to the patient and her/his family; and to determine levels of Immunoglobulin E (IgE in asthmatic and healthy subjects. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study in six cities during the academic year 2009–2010. We used a school-based design for subjects between 5–17 years old. We carried out a community-based strategy for subjects between 1–4 years old and adults between 18–59 years old. Serum samples for total and antigen-specific (IgE levels were collected using a population-based, nested, case–control design. Results We obtained information on 5978 subjects. The largest sample of subjects was collected in Bogotá (2392. The current prevalence of asthma symptoms was 12% (95% CI, 10.5-13.7, with 43% (95% CI, 36.3-49.2 reporting having required an emergency department visit or hospitalization in the past 12 months. Physician diagnosed asthma was 7% (95% CI, 6.1-8.0. The current prevalence of AR symptoms was 32% (95% CI, 29.5-33.9, and of AE symptoms was 14% (95% CI, 12.5-15.3. We collected blood samples from 855 subjects; 60.2% of asthmatics and 40.6% of controls could be classified as atopic. Conclusions In Colombia, symptom prevalence for asthma, AR and AE, as well as levels of atopy, are substantial. Specifically for asthma, symptom severity and absence from work or study due to symptoms are important. These primary care sensitive conditions remain an unmet public health burden in developing
Shah, Syed M.; Ali, Raghib; Loney, Tom; Aziz, Faisal; ElBarazi, Iffat; Al Dhaheri, Salma; Farooqi, M. Hamed
Background The prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the highest in United Arab Emirates (UAE), however data for the expatriate population is limited. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of T2DM amongst migrant women and test the hypothesis that acculturation (measured by years of residency) is associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Methods This was a cross-sectional study and we recruited a representative sample (n = 599, 75% participation rate) of migrant women aged 18 years and over in Al Ain, UAE. The American Diabetes Association criteria were used to diagnose T2DM. An adapted WHO STEPS questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical data. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify correlates of T2DM including length of UAE residence. Results The mean age of participants was 34.1 (± 9.5) years. Of the study participants, based on HbA1C levels, 18.6% (95% CI: 13.9–24.4) had prediabetes and 10.7% (95% CI: 7.2–15.6) had T2DM. Prevalence of prediabetes was 8.5% for Filipinos, 16.7% for Arabs and 30.3% for South Asians. Similarly the prevalence of T2DM was 1.7% for Filipinos, 12.2% for Arabs and 16.7% for South Asians. Significant correlates of overall T2DM (measured and known diabetes) included length of UAE residence for more than 10 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.74, 95% CI: 1.21–6.20), age ≥40 years (AOR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.53–7.87) and South Asian nationality (AOR 2.10, 95% CI: 0.94–4.70). Conclusion Diabetes is a significant public health problem among migrant women in the UAE, particularly for South Asians. Longer length of residence in the UAE is associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes. PMID:28099445
Wolf, Eva-Maria; Plieschnegger, Wolfgang; Geppert, Michael; Wigginghaus, Bernd; Höss, Gabriele M; Eherer, Andreas; Schneider, Nora I; Hauer, Almuthe; Rehak, Peter; Vieth, Michael; Langner, Cord
Traditionally, Helicobacter infection is considered to be the most common cause of gastritis. In the cross-sectional Central European histoGERD trial, we assessed the prevalence of different types of gastritis, correlating histological and endoscopic diagnoses. A total of 1123 individuals participated in an observational multicentre study. Endoscopists classified individuals as positive or negative for gastritis and rendered the putative cause. Pathologists evaluated biopsy specimens based upon the Updated Sydney System. Histological diagnosis of gastritis was made in 639 (56.9%) participants. In all, 210 (18.7%) individuals were diagnosed with Helicobacter gastritis, 215 (19.1%) with post Helicobacter gastritis, 234 (20.8%) with reactive gastropathy, 26 (2.3%) with autoimmune gastritis, and 6 (0.5%) with focally enhanced gastritis related to Crohn's disease. In 46 out of 639 (7.2%) individuals diagnosed with gastritis, combinations of different histological subtypes were noted the most common being reactive gastropathy and post Helicobacter gastritis. Endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis was made in 534 (47.6%) individuals. Reactive gastropathy was more common than active Helicobacter gastritis, and the majority of cases attributable to Helicobacter infection were no longer ongoing, i.e. post Helicobacter gastritis. Agreement between histological and endoscopic diagnoses was better in reactive gastropathy than in Helicobacter gastritis. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, C-J; Chen, Y-C; Sung, H-C; Hsieh, T-C; Lee, M-S; Chang, C-Y
Nursing students have particularly experienced stressful lives during nursing education. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate depressive symptoms and related factors in junior college nursing students. A total of 625 nursing students from a junior college in Taiwan were assessed by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Adolescent Depression Inventory, Situational Anxiety Scale and the Taiwanese-Chinese version of Stress in Nursing Students Scale. The results showed that (1) the prevalence of depressive symptoms among junior college nursing students was 32.6%; (2) depressive symptoms are significantly related to grade point average, interest in nursing, interest in their clinical placement, career planning after graduation, overeating as a stress-relief strategy, sleep problems, stress, and anxiety; and (3) anxiety, sleep quality, and stress are three major variables that can significantly predict depressive symptoms. Psychological factors may influence young nursing students' willingness to seek assistance from teachers. These factors should be considered when designing strategies to promote their emotional health and well-being. Nursing educators can plan appropriate strategies tailored to junior college nursing students' problems and needs, which thereby may facilitate learning experience and prevent depressive symptoms.
Full Text Available Positive psychological constructs have been given increasing attention in research on the coping resources of cancer-related distresses. However, little research is available on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in patients with hematological malignancies. The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and to explore the associations of perceived social support (PSS, hope, optimism and resilience with PTSD symptoms among Chinese patients with hematological malignancies.A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period from July 2013 through April 2014. A total of 225 inpatients with hematological malignancies, which were eligible for the study, completed the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist-Civilian Version, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Adult Hope Scale, Life Orientation Scale-Revised, and Resilience Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the correlates of PTSD symptoms.Overall, the prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 10.7%. Initially, PSS was negatively associated with PTSD symptoms (β = -0.248, P < 0.01. However, when positive psychological variables were added, optimism was negatively associated with PTSD symptoms (β = -0.452, P < 0.01, and gender had a significant effect on PTSD symptoms. Women were more vulnerable to these symptoms than men (β = 0.123, P < 0.05. When the analysis was performed separately by gender, only optimism showed a significantly negative association with PTSD symptoms in both men (β = -0.389, P < 0.01 and women (β = -0.493, P < 0.01.Some patients with hematological malignancies suffer from PTSD symptoms. The positive effects of PSS and optimism on PTSD symptoms suggest that an integrated approach to psychosocial intervention from both external and internal perspectives could have practical significance. Gender difference should be considered in developing potential interventions in reducing cancer-related PTSD symptoms.
Mureyi Dudzai D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal use of traditional medicine or complementary and alternative medicine is widespread globally despite the lack of evidence of the effectiveness of these therapeutic options. Documentation on the prevalence and patterns of this maternal practice in the Zimbabwean setting was also lacking. Methods A cross sectional survey of 248 women at selected health centres in Harare was carried out to address the need for such data using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results Fifty-two (52% (95% C.I. 44%-60% of the participants reported to have used at least one traditional medicine intervention during the third trimester of their most recent pregnancy to induce labour, avoid perineal tearing and improve the safety of their delivery process. The study found prenatal use of traditional medicine to be significantly associated with nulliparity and nulligravidity. Such practice was also significant among participants residing in a particular high density suburb located in close proximity to informal traders of traditional medicines. Prenatal traditional medicine use was not significantly linked to experiencing an obstetrics-related adverse event. Instead, participants who reported not using any traditional medicine during pregnancy reported experiencing significantly more adverse events, mainly perineal tearing during delivery. Conclusions The practice of prenatal use of traditional medicine was significant in the study setting, with a prevalence of 52%. A variety of products were used in various dosage forms for differing indications. Nulliparity, nulligavidity and possible accessibility of these products were the factors significantly associated with prenatal use of traditional medicine. Prenatal use of traditional medicine was not significantly associated with any obstetric adverse event.
Naja, Farah; Mousa, Dana; Alameddine, Mohamad; Shoaib, Hikma; Itani, Leila; Mourad, Yara
Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies due to difficulty in adhering to the therapeutic regimens and lifestyle changes necessary for disease management. Little is known about the prevalence and mode of CAM use among patients with T2DM in Lebanon. To assess the prevalence and modes of CAM use among patients with T2DM residing in Beirut, Lebanon. A cross-sectional survey of T2DM patients was conducted on patients recruited from two major referral centers in Beirut--a public hospital and a private academic medical center. In a face-to-face interview, participants completed a questionnaire comprised of three sections: socio-demographic, diabetes characteristics and types and modes of CAM use. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the prevalence and correlates of CAM use, as well as whether the use was complementary or alternative to mainstream medicine. The main outcome in this study, CAM use, was defined as using CAM at least once since diagnosis with T2DM. A total of 333 T2DM patients completed the survey (response rate: 94.6%). Prevalence of CAM use since diagnosis with the disease was 38%. After adjustment, CAM use was significantly associated with a "married" status, a longer duration of T2DM, the presence of disease complications, and a positive family history of the disease. Folk foods and herbs were the most commonly used CAM followed by natural health products. One in five patients used CAM as alternative to conventional treatment. Only 7% of CAM users disclosed the CAM use to their treating physician. Health care practitioners were the least cited (7%) as influencing the choice of CAM among users. The use of CAM therapies among T2DM patients in Lebanon is prevalent. Decision makers and care providers must fully understand the potential risks and benefits of CAM therapies to appropriately advise their patients
Full Text Available Abstract Background Eastern Ethiopia hosts a substantial number of refugees originated from Somalia. Female genital mutilation (FGM is a common practice in the area, despite the campaigns to eliminate it. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 492 respondents sampled from three refugee camps in Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence and associated factors of FGM. Data were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaires. Results Although the intention of the parents to circumcise their daughters was high (84%, 42.4% of 288 ≤12 girls were reported being undergone FGM. The prevalence increased with age, and about 52% and 95% were circumcised at the age of 7–8 and 11–12 years, respectively. Almost all operations were performed by traditional circumcisers (81% and birth attendants (18%. Clitoral cutting (64% and narrowing of the vaginal opening through stitching (36% were the two common forms of FGM reported by the respondents. Participation of the parents in anti-FGM interventions is statistically associated with lower practice and intention of the procedures. Conclusion FGM is widely practised among the Somali refugee community in Eastern Ethiopia, and there was a considerable support for the continuation of the practice particularly among women. The findings indicate a reported shift of FGM from its severe form to milder clitoral cutting. More men than women positively viewed anti-FGM interventions, and fewer men than women had the intention to let their daughters undergo FGM, indicating the need to involve men in anti-FGM activities.
Ganesan, Sudhir; Acharya, Anita Shankar; Chauhan, Ravi; Acharya, Shankar
Cross-sectional study. To evaluate the prevalence and various risk factors for low back pain (LBP) in young adults in India. LBP is an emerging problem in adolescents, with an incidence that is the highest in the third decade of life worldwide. Various risk factors such as obesity, smoking, family history, stress, and exercise have been described in the literature. This study was conducted because of paucity of data in the Indian literature. A total of 1,355 (741 males and 641 females) young Indian Administrative Service aspirants and medical postgraduate aspirants aged 18-35 years were enrolled in the study. The subjects completed a detailed, semi-structured questionnaire that gathered data regarding their sociodemographic profile and factors considered to be risk factors for LBP. Anthropometric measurements, including height and weight, were measured and body mass index was calculated. Most subjects (90.6%) were aged 20-29 years (mean, 24.49; range, 18-35 years). Results indicated that the following factors were associated with LBP in young adults: marital status, previous history of spine problems, strenuous exercise, job satisfaction, monotony, stress, daily number of studying hours, and family history of spine problems (pweightlifting, wearing heels, studying posture, and frequency and type of sports activities were not associated with LBP. The study identified various modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors that precipitated LBP in young adult Indians. Identifying these risk factors at an early stage will prevent LBP progression to a chronic disease state, thereby improving an individual's quality of life and increasing productivity.
Ching, S M; Hamidin, A; Vasudevan, R; Sazlyna, M S L; Wan Aliaa, W S; Foo, Y L; Yee, A; Hoo, F K
Internet is important to university students, especially for medical students who use it to search for literature and relevant information. However, some of the users are experiencing a gradual loss of the ability to reduce the duration and frequency of their internet activities, despite the negative consequences. The literature on internet usage among Malaysian medical students is limited. This study aims to determine the prevalence and factors associated with internet usage among medical students in a public university in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was performed among all the medical students (Year 1-5). Students were assessed on their internet activities using the internet addiction questionnaires (IAT). A Multiple Logistic Regression was used for data analysis. The study was conducted among 426 students. The study population consisted of 156 males (36.6%) and 270 females (63.4%). The mean age was 21.6 ±1.5 years. Ethnicity distribution among the students was: Malays (55.6%), Chinese (34.7%), Indians (7.3%) and others (2.3%). According to the IAT, 36.9% of the study sample was addicted to the internet. Using the multivariate logistic regression analysis, we have found that the use of internet access for entertainment purposes (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-12.00), male students (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.01-3.21) and increasing frequency of internet usage were associated with internet addiction (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.09- 1.67). Internet addiction is a relatively frequent phenomenon among medical students. The predictors of internet addiction were male students using it for surfing and entertainment purposes.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The magnitude of precancerous cervical cancer lesions as well as invasive cervical cancer is higher in HIV-infected women than non HIV-infected women. Thus, screening targeting HIV-infected women is being undertaken in developing countries, including Ethiopia. However, data on the prevalence and determinants of precancerous cervical cancer lesion among HIV-infected women in southern Ethiopia is lacking. Thus, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with precancerous cervical cancer lesion among HIV- infected women in southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013 among HIV-infected women in Southern Ethiopia. Four hundred forty eight HIV-infected women who had been screened and treated for precancerous cervical cancer lesion were included in the study. Data were collected by using structured and pretested questionnaire. Visual inspection with acetic acid was applied for screening and treatment. SPSS version 16.0 was used for data entry and analysis. Logistic regression analysis was fitted and odds ratios with 95% Confidence intervals and p-values were computed to identify factors associated with precancerous cervical cancer lesion. RESULTS: Out of 448 study participants, 99 (22.1% were found to be positive for precancerous cervical cancer. Being currently on highly active antiretroviral treatment (AOR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.35, 0.92, history of sexually transmitted disease (AOR=2.30, 95%CI: 1.23, 4.29 and having only one lifetime sexual partner (AOR=0.33, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.56 were factors associated with precancerous cervical cancer lesion. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of precancerous cervical cancer lesion among HIV-infected women in southern Ethiopia was found to be high. Intervention to access all HIV-infected women like scaling up the limited services and awareness creation should be undertaken. Measures aimed at preventing the acquisition and
Vinayak M Joshi
Full Text Available Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis is a periodontal pathogen that is commonly harbored in the dental plaque of humans. The aim of this study was to look into the prevalence of P. gingivalis and its association with herpesvirus in Indian subjects. This is probably the first study on the association of this bacterium with herpesvirus in Indians. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consists of 200 subjects, with 100 subjects each in the healthy group and the chronic periodontitis (CP group. Upon plaque collection, one portion of the samples was immediately plated, on culture media that is selective for P. gingivalis. Total colony-forming units (CFU/mL from each plate was recorded. The remaining plaque sample was subjected to DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed using specific primers for Cytomegalovirus (CMV and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV. The data are analyzed using the chi-square test, Spearman's rho correlation coefficient, and Mann–Whitney U test. Results: P. gingivalis was detected in 66% of the subjects with CP and in 40% in the healthy group, and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.00023. The correlation of clinical parameters with P. gingivalis showed a significant positive correlation, indicating that higher levels of clinical parameters were associated with higher CFUs of P. gingivalis in culture. The comparison of the presence of P. gingivalis between herpesvirus-negative and -positive cases showed that CMV-positive cases had significantly higher levels of this bacterium. Conclusions: The results of this study confirmed the earlier finding of P. gingivalis presence in significantly higher levels in CP subjects and in CMV-positive sites. In addition, there was a positive association of the bacterium with clinical parameters.
Jacobsen, Ellisiv Lærum; Brovold, Therese; Bergland, Astrid; Bye, Asta
Objectives Data on acute geriatric patients' nutritional status are lacking, and the associations among physical function, sarcopenia, health status and nutritional status are not sufficiently investigated in this population. The aims of this study are to investigate (1) nutritional status and sarcopenia in a group of acute geriatric patients, (2) the association between nutritional status, physical function and sarcopenia in acute geriatric patients, controlling for health status. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Two acute geriatric hospital wards in Norway. Participants This study included 120 patients with a mean age of 82.6±8 years. The following inclusion criteria were used: age ≥65 years and admitted to an acute geriatric ward. The exclusion criteria included terminal illness, Mini-Mental State Examination Sarcopenia was diagnosed using the mid-arm muscle circumference, gait speed and grip strength, in accordance with the EWGSOP algorithm. Diseases are organised by organ system classification. Results On the basis of the MNA classification, nearly one in two patients were at risk of malnutrition, while one in four were malnourished. Sarcopenia was present in 30% of the patients. A multivariate linear regression model was estimated and showed significant independent associations between SPPB score (β 0.64, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.90), sarcopenia (β −3.3, 95% CI −4.9 to −1.7), pulmonary disease (β −2.1, 95% CI −3.7 to −0.46), cancer (β −1.7, 95% CI −3.4 to −0.033) and nutritional status. Conclusions Our study shows a high prevalence of risk of malnutrition, malnutrition and sarcopenia. Further, the results indicate that a low total SPPB score, sarcopenia, cancer and pulmonary disease are significantly associated with declines in nutritional status, as measured by the MNA, in acute geriatric patients. PMID:27601491
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa. The reservoir host of the virus is a multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis. Prevalence estimates of Lassa virus antibodies in humans vary greatly between studies, and the main modes of transmission of the virus from rodents to humans remain unclear. We aimed to (i estimate the prevalence of Lassa virus-specific IgG antibodies (LV IgG in the human population of a rural area of Guinea, and (ii identify risk factors for positive LV IgG. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. In April 2000, all individuals one year of age and older living in three prefectures located in the tropical secondary forest area of Guinea (Gueckedou, Lola and Yomou were sampled using two-stage cluster sampling. For each individual identified by the sampling procedure and who agreed to participate, a standardized questionnaire was completed to collect data on personal exposure to potential risk factors for Lassa fever (mainly contact with rodents, and a blood sample was tested for LV IgG. A multiple logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors for positive LV IgG. A total of 1424 subjects were interviewed and 977 sera were tested. Prevalence of positive LV Ig was of 12.9% [10.8%-15.0%] and 10.0% [8.1%-11.9%] in rural and urban areas, respectively. Two risk factors of positive LV IgG were identified: to have, in the past twelve months, undergone an injection (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8 [1.1-3.1], or lived with someone displaying a haemorrhage (OR = 1.7 [1.1-2.9]. No factors related to contacts with rats and/or mice remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study underlines the potential importance of person-to-person transmission of Lassa fever, via close contact in the same household or nosocomial exposure.
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the differences regarding anemia among pregnant women with diverse characteristics and lifestyle factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study of pregnant women was conducted between June and August 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces of Mainland China. Self-reported doctor-diagnosed anemia was used in the study. Results: We included 2345 pregnant women. Of the participants, 1755 (74.8% were pregnant women of first pregnancy (PWFP and 590 (25.2% were second pregnancy (PWSP. The mean age of the participants was 28.1 years (SD 4.1. Overall, the prevalence of anemia was 12.7% (13.4% and 10.7% among PWFP and PWSP, respectively. The prevalence for not eating breakfast was 11.0%. Compared with PWFP, PWSP was inversely associated with the risk of anemia (odds ratio (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48–0.91. Compared with those being registered in a low ranking hospital, pregnant women who were admitted to a high (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.28–0.57 or a medium ranking hospital (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37–0.92 were inversely associated with the risk of anemia. Compared with women of low income (<¥4,500, those with high income were less likely to have anemia (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50–0.94. Compared with women with non-manual jobs, women with manual jobs (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.17–2.45 and unemployed women (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04–1.93 were associated with a greater likelihood of suffering from anemia. Conclusions: Pregnant women not eating breakfast are of concern. Anemia is highly prevalent among pregnant women in China. Lower socio-economic status, manual jobs, PWFP, and those who attend a lower quality hospital have a greater likelihood of suffering from anemia. Tailored interventions are needed to address these issues.
Serbülent G(o)khan Beyaz; Jalan (S)erbet(c)igil Erg(o)nen(c); Tolga Erg(o)nen(c); (O)zlem Uysal S(o)nmez; (U)nal Erkorkmaz; Fatih Altintoprak
Background: Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is defined as a chronic (continuing for 3 or more months) neuropathic pain affecting the axilla, medial arm, breast, and chest wall after breast cancer surgery.The prevalence of PMPS has been reported to range from 20％ to 68％.In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of PMPS among mastectomy patients, the severity of neuropathic pain in these patients, risk factors that contribute to pain becoming chronic, and the effect of PMPS on life quality.Methods: This cross-sectional study was approved by the Sakarya University, Medical Faculty Ethical Council and included 146 patients ranging in age from 18 to 85 years who visited the pain clinic, general surgery clinic, and oncology clinic and had breast surgery between 2012 and 2014.Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they met PMPS criteria: pain at axilla, arm, shoulder, chest wall, scar tissue, or breast at least 3 months after breast surgery.All patients gave informed consent prior to entry into the study.Patient medical records were collected, and pain and quality of life were evaluated by the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, a short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), douleur neuropathique-4 (DN-4), and SF-36.Results: Patient mean age was 55.2 ± 11.8 years (33.0-83.0 years).PMPS prevalence was 36％.Mean scores on the VAS, SF-MPQ, and DN-4 in PMPS patients were 1.76 ± 2.38 (0-10), 1.73 ± 1.54 (0-5), and 1.64 ± 2.31 (0-8), respectively.Of these patients, 31 (23.7％) had neuropathic pain characteristics, and 12 (9.2％) had phantom pain according to the DN-4 survey.Patients who had modified radical mastectomy were significantly more likely to develop PMPS than patients who had breast-protective surgery (P =0.028).Only 2 (2.4％) of PMPS patients had received proper treatment (anticonvulsants or opioids).Conclusions: PMPS seriously impacts patients' emotional situation, daily activities, and social relationships and
Serbülent Gökhan Beyaz
Full Text Available Background: Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS is defined as a chronic (continuing for 3 or more months neuropathic pain affecting the axilla, medial arm, breast, and chest wall after breast cancer surgery. The prevalence of PMPS has been reported to range from 20% to 68%. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of PMPS among mastectomy patients, the severity of neuropathic pain in these patients, risk factors that contribute to pain becoming chronic, and the effect of PMPS on life quality. Methods: This cross-sectional study was approved by the Sakarya University, Medical Faculty Ethical Council and included 146 patients ranging in age from 18 to 85 years who visited the pain clinic, general surgery clinic, and oncology clinic and had breast surgery between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they met PMPS criteria: pain at axilla, arm, shoulder, chest wall, scar tissue, or breast at least 3 months after breast surgery. All patients gave informed consent prior to entry into the study. Patient medical records were collected, and pain and quality of life were evaluated by the visual analog scale (VAS for pain, a short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ, douleur neuropathique-4 (DN-4, and SF-36. Results: Patient mean age was 55.2 ± 11.8 years (33.0-83.0 years. PMPS prevalence was 36%. Mean scores on the VAS, SF-MPQ, and DN-4 in PMPS patients were 1.76 ± 2.38 (0-10, 1.73 ± 1.54 (0-5, and 1.64 ± 2.31 (0-8, respectively. Of these patients, 31 (23.7% had neuropathic pain characteristics, and 12 (9.2% had phantom pain according to the DN-4 survey. Patients who had modified radical mastectomy were significantly more likely to develop PMPS than patients who had breast-protective surgery (P = 0.028. Only 2 (2.4% of PMPS patients had received proper treatment (anticonvulsants or opioids. Conclusions: PMPS seriously impacts patients′ emotional situation, daily activities, and social
Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Ergönenç, Jalan Şerbetçigil; Ergönenç, Tolga; Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Altintoprak, Fatih
Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is defined as a chronic (continuing for 3 or more months) neuropathic pain affecting the axilla, medial arm, breast, and chest wall after breast cancer surgery. The prevalence of PMPS has been reported to range from 20% to 68%. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of PMPS among mastectomy patients, the severity of neuropathic pain in these patients, risk factors that contribute to pain becoming chronic, and the effect of PMPS on life quality. This cross-sectional study was approved by the Sakarya University, Medical Faculty Ethical Council and included 146 patients ranging in age from 18 to 85 years who visited the pain clinic, general surgery clinic, and oncology clinic and had breast surgery between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they met PMPS criteria: pain at axilla, arm, shoulder, chest wall, scar tissue, or breast at least 3 months after breast surgery. All patients gave informed consent prior to entry into the study. Patient medical records were collected, and pain and quality of life were evaluated by the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, a short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), douleur neuropathique-4 (DN-4), and SF-36. Patient mean age was 55.2 ± 11.8 years (33.0-83.0 years). PMPS prevalence was 36%. Mean scores on the VAS, SF-MPQ, and DN-4 in PMPS patients were 1.76 ± 2.38 (0-10), 1.73 ± 1.54 (0-5), and 1.64 ± 2.31 (0-8), respectively. Of these patients, 31 (23.7%) had neuropathic pain characteristics, and 12 (9.2%) had phantom pain according to the DN-4 survey. Patients who had modified radical mastectomy were significantly more likely to develop PMPS than patients who had breast-protective surgery (P = 0.028). Only 2 (2.4%) of PMPS patients had received proper treatment (anticonvulsants or opioids). PMPS seriously impacts patients' emotional situation, daily activities, and social relationships and is a major economic burden for health
Barbosa Filho Valter
Full Text Available Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9 and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0. Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class
Feng, Qingmin; Liu, Shenglin; Yang, Lei; Xie, Mingxing
Objective Studies from industrialized countries show that musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) occur commonly in sonographers. However, little is known about sonographers in China, where the awareness of ergonomics and MSD, workload, and available equipment/facilities may differ. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of MSD and associated risk factors in sonographers in central China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 381 sonographers from 14 randomly selected tertiary hospitals in Hubei province, central China. Musculoskeletal symptoms (using the Nordic Questionnaire) and risk factors (mostly derived from the Health Benefit Trust survey instrument and the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire) were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify associations between risk factors and MSD. Results The 12-month period prevalence of MSD was 98.3%, being highest in the neck (93.5%) and shoulder (92.2%), followed by the lower back (83.2%), wrist/hand, upper back, and elbow. Factors contributing to neck pain were psychological fatigue, shoulder abduction and trunk bend-and-twist posture. Height-adjustable tables and chairs were protective factors. Shoulder pain was associated with female sex, health status, mental stress, shoulder abduction, and trunk bend-and-twist posture. Height-adjustable chairs and the awareness of adjusting the workstation before scanning were protective factors. Elbow pain was associated with health status and height-adjustable tables. Wrist/hand pain was associated with female sex, bending the wrist, and working with obese patients. Upper back pain was associated with shoulder abduction, height-adjustable chairs, and device location. Lower back pain was associated with the number of scans performed per day, awkward postures, bending the trunk, twisting or bending the neck forward, and using a footrest. Conclusions This study suggests a high prevalence of MSD in sonographers in central China. Hence, it is necessary to
Exposure to cement dust has been associated with deleterious health effects in humans. This study investigated whether residing near a cement factory increases the risk of irritations to the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory system. A cross sectional study was conducted in Freedom Compound, a community bordering a cement factory in Chilanga, Zambia and a control community, Bauleni, located 18 km from the cement plant. A modified American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administe...
Han, Jae-Ik; Yang, Cheol-Ho; Park, Hee-Myung
This study investigated colonization and association of staphylococci between healthy dogs and their owners. In a cross-sectional study, nasal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated staphylococci were determined for 119 dogs and 107 owners. Relatedness of the Staphylococcus isolates in dogs and their owners was investigated using antibiograms, toxin profiles, and genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence type, and spa typing. Risk factors for carriage of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in dogs were also evaluated. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 65 (60.7%) owners and 44 (37.0%) dogs. The following species were isolated, listed in order of decreasing frequency: S. epidermidis, S. pseudintermedius, S. aureus, S. scheiferi subsp. coagulans, S. haemolyticus, S. sciuri, S. saprophyticus and S. warneri. S. pseudintermedius (65.9%) was the major isolate in dogs while S. epidermidis (81.5%) was the major type in owners. Among the isolates, 71.6% were methicillin resistant (MR) and 95.4% of the isolates demonstrated multi-drug resistance regardless of the origin. Only one dog-owner pair shared the same Staphylococcus spp. (S. pseudintermedius); however, the organisms were of different PFGE subtypes and exhibited different antibiotic resistance and toxin profiles while both isolates displayed same sequence type (ST365). While the dog-origin isolate showed spa type t02, the owner-origin isolate was negative to PCRs targeting spa gene sequence. Risk factor analysis showed that the presence of cohabitant animals was correlated with the nasal carriage of MR staphylococci in dogs. The cumulative data indicated that animal- and owner-origin staphylococci have various subtypes with high prevalence of MR; however, the bacteria are not shared between healthy dogs and their owners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pereira Leila MMB
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C chronic liver disease is a major cause of liver transplant in developed countries. This article reports the first nationwide population-based survey conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of HCV antibodies and associated risk factors in the urban population of Brazil. Methods The cross sectional study was conducted in all Brazilian macro-regions from 2005 to 2009, as a stratified multistage cluster sample of 19,503 inhabitants aged between 10 and 69 years, representing individuals living in all 26 State capitals and the Federal District. Hepatitis C antibodies were detected by a third-generation enzyme immunoassay. Seropositive individuals were retested by Polymerase Chain Reaction and genotyped. Adjusted prevalence was estimated by macro-regions. Potential risk factors associated with HCV infection were assessed by calculating the crude and adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI and p values. Population attributable risk was estimated for multiple factors using a case–control approach. Results The overall weighted prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies was 1.38% (95% CI: 1.12%–1.64%. Prevalence of infection increased in older groups but was similar for both sexes. The multivariate model showed the following to be predictors of HCV infection: age, injected drug use (OR = 6.65, sniffed drug use (OR = 2.59, hospitalization (OR = 1.90, groups socially deprived by the lack of sewage disposal (OR = 2.53, and injection with glass syringe (OR = 1.52, with a borderline p value. The genotypes 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, 2b and 3a were identified. The estimated population attributable risk for the ensemble of risk factors was 40%. Approximately 1.3 million individuals would be expected to be anti-HCV-positive in the country. Conclusions The large estimated absolute numbers of infected individuals reveals the burden of the disease in the near future, giving rise to costs for the health care
Anila Jacob; Presanthila Janam; Janki Mohan Babu Vijayamma
Context: Bacterial pathogens in dental plaque are necessary for the development of periodontitis but this etiology alone does not explain all its clinicopathologic features. Researchers have proven the role of certain viruses like herpes virus in periodontal disease which implies that other viral agents like human papilloma virus may also be involved. Aims: This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the proportion of patients with human papilloma virus (HPV-16) in marginal periodon...
Østerås, Berit; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika
Long-term musculoskeletal pain and negative stress are health risks with adverse long-term health effects, and these health risks seem to increase among young people. The mechanisms behind this are unclear. There is a need for a better understanding of perceived stress and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents, in order to improve health promotion and treatment approaches in this group. Objectives were to evaluate the current prevalence of perceived stress and musculoskeletal pain in 15 and 16 year olds, to explore stress-pain associations and the probability that perceived stress (PSQ) was related to the reporting of pain and variations in pain, and to investigate possible differences in stress between different types of musculoskeletal pain in the adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Elementary schools participated. The outcomes were stress (Perceived stress questionnaire; PSQ) and musculoskeletal pain (pain/no pain, pain sites, pain duration and pain intensity (Visual analogue scale; VAS). Fifty-one point two percent (N = 422) reported pain, of which 70.8 % reported long-term pain. Some more girls (57.9 %) reported pain. 22.0 % of the study population reported moderate to severe stress (PSQ ≥ 0.45), of which 79.6 % were bothered by pain (Pearson Chi-square 38.47, p ≤ .001). All stress and pain variables were significantly associated (p stress (PSQ) (r = 0.40). Perceived stress (PSQ) was associated with the reporting of pain among the adolescents (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.68) and could explain some of the variation in pain intensity (VAS; β = 0.15, p stress (PSQ) between different types of musculoskeletal pain. There was high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, long-term pain and moderate to severe stress (PSQ ≥ 0.45) in this study sample. Perceived stress (PSQ) was related to the reporting of musculoskeletal pain among the adolescents and could explain some of the variation in pain intensity (VAS) and number of pain
Zurita, Beatriz; Velasco, Cesar; Feliu, Anna; Gutierrez, Mar; Masip, Montserrat; Mangues, M Antonia
Objectives Drug interactions, poor adherence to medication and high-risk sexual behaviour may occur in individuals with HIV using recreational drugs. Thus, we aimed to assess the prevalence of recreational drugs use and to explore its clinical impact in HIV patients on treatment. Methods Observational, cross sectional, study conducted in a 700 bed university hospital, Barcelona, Spain. A total of 208 adults living with HIV on treatment were included. A questionnaire was administered by clinical pharmacists, including evaluation of sociodemographic variables, past 12-month drug consumption, adherence to antiretrovirals (Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire) and high-risk sexual behaviour (condomless sex/multiple partners). Additional data were obtained from clinical records. Recreational drug-antiretroviral interactions were checked in reference databases. Prevalence was calculated for 5% precision and 95% CI. Crude and adjusted binary logistic regressions were performed to identify associations between recreational drug use and adherence problems, and between recreational drug use and high-risk sexual behaviour. Results From the overall sample, 92 participants (44.2%) consumed recreational drugs over the past 1 year. Of these, 44 (48.8%) had used different types of recreational drugs in this period. We detected 11 recreational substances, including sildenafil and nitrites. The most consumed drugs were: cannabis (68.5%), cocaine (45.5%), nitrites (31.5%), sildenafil (28.3) and ecstasy (19.6%). Relevant interactions occurred in 46 (50%) of the individuals consuming drugs. Recreational drug consumption was found to be related to adherence problems with antiretrovirals (OR: 2.51 (95% CI 1.32 to 4.77) p=0.005) and high-risk sexual behaviour (OR: 2.81 (95% CI 1.47 to 5.39) p=0.002). Conclusions Recreational drugs are frequently used by HIV patients on treatment. Classical drugs and new substances consumed in sexual context are usual. Recreational drug
Khan Rumana J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of hypertension is increasing in much of the South Asian region, including Nepal. This paper reports the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension and pre-hypertension among adult women in a rural community of Nepal. Methods Cross-sectional data on socioeconomic status (SES, lifestyle factors and blood pressure (BP were collected from a cohort of 15,934 women in rural Nepal in 2006–08. Among a subsample (n = 1679, anthropometry and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk were measured. Results The mean age of women was 34.2 years (range 16.4-71.2 years. More than three percent (3.3% had hypertension and 14.4% had pre-hypertension. In an adjusted analysis, lower SES, especially lower household farm assets and storage of food for long term consumption, was associated with increased odds of hypertension (OR = 1.14 for mid-level SES and OR = 1.40 for low SES; p for trend Conclusions Although the prevalence of hypertension was low in this cohort, it was more prevalent among the poorer women and was strongly associated with other cardiovascular risks. These associations at a relatively young age may confer greater risk for cardiovascular disease among women in later life, indicating the need for interventions to reduce the progression from pre-hypertension to hypertension.
Paarup Helene M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal symptoms are common in the neck, back, and upper limbs amongst musicians. Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders have been found to range from 32% to 87% with a tendency for female musicians to have more problems than males. Studies of musculoskeletal problems in instrumentalists have generally involved pre-professional musicians or populations comprising musicians of different levels. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the prevalence, duration and consequences of musculoskeletal symptoms in professional symphony orchestra musicians. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study. The study population comprised of 441 musicians from six Danish symphony orchestras; 342 (78% completed the questionnaire. Results During the last year 97% of the women and 83% of the men experienced symptoms in at least one of nine anatomic regions (neck, upper and lower back, shoulders, elbows, and hands and wrists. 86% of the women and 67% of the men experienced symptoms for more than seven days, while 63% of the women and 49% of the men had symptoms for more than 30 days. Woodwind players had a lower risk for musculoskeletal symptoms and a lower risk for the consequences. Among consequences were changed way of playing, reported by 73% of the musicians, difficulty in daily activities at home, reported by 55%, and difficulty in sleeping, reported by 49%. Their health behaviour included taking paracetamol as the most used analgesic, while physiotherapists and general practitioners were reported as the most consulted health care professionals concerning musculoskeletal problems. Results regarding symptoms in six anatomic regions were compared to results for a sample of the general Danish workforce. Symptoms were more frequent in musicians and lasted longer than in the general workforce. This applied to both genders. Conclusions Within the last year most symphony orchestra musicians experienced musculoskeletal
de Moraes Suzana Albuquerque
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dizziness is a common complaint among older adults and has been linked to a wide range of health conditions, psychological and social characteristics in this population. However a profile of dizziness is still uncertain which hampers clinical decision-making. We therefore sought to explore the relationship between dizziness and a comprehensive range of demographic data, diseases, health and geriatric conditions, and geriatric syndromes in a representative sample of community-dwelling older people. Methods This is a cross-sectional, population-based study derived from FIBRA (Network for the Study of Frailty in Brazilian Elderly Adults, with 391 elderly adults, both men and women, aged 65 years and older. Elderly participants living at home in an urban area were enrolled through a process of random cluster sampling of census regions. The outcome variable was the self-report of dizziness in the last year. Several feelings of dizziness were investigated including vertigo, spinning, light or heavy headedness, floating, fuzziness, giddiness and instability. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and build the probability model for dizziness. Results The complaint of dizziness was reported by 45% of elderly adults, from which 71.6% were women (p=0.004. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that dizziness is associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.29–3.35, perceived fatigue (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.21-3.10, recurring falls (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.11-3.62 and excessive drowsiness (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.11–3.29. The discrimination of the final model was AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.619-0.727 (p Conclusions The prevalence of dizziness in community-dwelling elderly adults is substantial. It is associated with other common geriatric conditions usually neglected in elderly adults, such as fatigue and drowsiness, supporting its possible multifactorial manifestation. Our
Torres Marta; Vinueza Raul; Boissonnet Carlos P; Silva Honorio; Champagne Beatriz; Schargrodsky Herman; Escobedo Jorge; Hernandez Rafael; Wilson Elinor
Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome increases cardiovascular risk. Limited information on its prevalence in Latin America is available. The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study included assessment of metabolic syndrome in 7 urban Latin American populations. Methods CARMELA was a cross-sectional, population-based, observational study conducted in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Qu...
Torres Marta; Vinueza Raul; Boissonnet Carlos P; Silva Honorio; Champagne Beatriz; Schargrodsky Herman; Escobedo Jorge; Hernandez Rafael; Wilson Elinor
Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome increases cardiovascular risk. Limited information on its prevalence in Latin America is available. The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study included assessment of metabolic syndrome in 7 urban Latin American populations. Methods CARMELA was a cross-sectional, population-based, observational study conducted in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Qu...
Ahmed, F; Irving, W L; Anwar, M; Myles, P; Neal, K R
We studied a cross-sectional sample of the population of Kech, a small rural town in Pakistan to determine the prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis C infection. The prevalence of hepatitis C was 110 out of 2000 persons (5·5%, 95% confidence interval 4·5-6·5). Higher rates were identified in males. Independent risk factors identified were age ≥75 years, being a healthcare worker, and injecting drug use. There was a high prevalence of many potential routes of transmission of bloodborne viruses and most people reported at least one potential risk factor.
Musallam, I I; Abo-Shehada, M; Omar, M; Guitian, J
Brucellosis is considered endemic in many Middle Eastern countries including Jordan. To determine the frequency, risk factors and spatial distribution of ruminant brucellosis in Jordan, a nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted. Small ruminant flocks (n=333) and cattle herds (n=204) were randomly selected, and their disease status was ascertained by testing individual serum samples using the Rose Bengal Test and a competitive ELISA (sheep and goats) and milk samples using an indirect ELISA (cattle). Information on putative risk factors was collected using standardized questionnaires. A logistic model with a binomial outcome was built to identify risk factors for being seropositive. The estimated true seroprevalence values were 18.1% (95% CI: 11-25.3) (cattle-only herds), 22.2% (95% CI: 16.5-28.8) (sheep flocks), 45.4% (95% CI: 30.3-61.6) (goat herds), 70.4% (95% CI: 55.5-84.9) (mixed sheep-goat flocks), 34.3% (95% CI: 28.4, 40.4) (all small ruminant flocks) and 38.5% (95% CI: 24.3-51.8) (mixed herds of cattle and small ruminants). Only 1.5% of small ruminant flocks were vaccinated. The seroprevalence was higher in northern areas, where livestock density is also higher. The logistic model fitted the data well and had a very high predictive ability. In the small ruminant model, five variables were significantly associated with a higher odds of seropositivity: lending/borrowing rams (OR=8.9, 95% CI: 3.0-26.1), feeding aborted material to dogs (OR=8.0, 95% CI: 3.5-18.1) the presence of goats (OR=6.9, 95% CI: 3.1-15.4), introducing new animals to the flock (OR=5.8, 95% CI: 2.5-13.6), and a large flock size (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.6). Conversely, separating newly introduced animals (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.47), separating animals that had aborted (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.08-0.46) and using disinfectants to clean pens (OR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.83) were significantly associated with a lower odds of being seropositive. The main risk factor for cattle herds being
Background: The Internet is a widely used tool known to foster addictive behavior, and Internet addiction threatens to develop into a major public health issue in the near future in a rapidly developing country like India. Objective: This cross-sectional study intends to estimate prevalence, understand patterns, and evaluate risk factors for Internet addiction among college students in the city of Bengaluru, India. Materials and Methods: Out of a total of 554 data samples from eight colleges ...
Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were a...
Baran Serdar Kizilyildiz; Bülent Sönmez; Kamuran Karaman; Burhan Beger; Adnan Mercen; Süleyman Alioğlu; Yaşar Cesur
Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and ot...
Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; SÖNMEZ Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; CESUR, Yasar
Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and ot...
Edith Meszaros Crow
Full Text Available Background: Diagnosing and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS still pose a challenge in the routine medical practice which usually focuses on single pharmacological therapy. Recent research suggests that the combination of treatments including complementary alternative medicine (CAM therapies may be more beneficial. The objective of this study was to assess the percentage of diagnosed and nondiagnosed PMS/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD based on the presence of adequate symptoms and to compare population using hormonal or pharmaceutical agents versus CAM therapies. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study targeting sample population of 160 females of potentially reproductive age done in Ukraine between May 2014 and April 2015. Results: According to declared symptoms, 29% females versus 26% previously diagnosed by a medical professional qualify for “moderate/severe PMS,” P > 0.05. In 30% persons using pharmacological agents, major side effects, namely, nausea, insomnia, headache was caused by painkillers, contraceptives, and antidepressants. Only 37.5% of study population has been using CAM therapy methods to deal with the symptoms of PMS. Of these, 22% have achieved moderate degree in relief of the symptoms long term. Conclusions: We have concluded that when dealing with the burden of PMS/PMDD, the affected treatment-seeking women should have choice and access to the variety of therapies within integrative medicine (both conventional and nonconventional.
Full Text Available Context: Bacterial pathogens in dental plaque are necessary for the development of periodontitis but this etiology alone does not explain all its clinicopathologic features. Researchers have proven the role of certain viruses like herpes virus in periodontal disease which implies that other viral agents like human papilloma virus may also be involved. Aims: This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the proportion of patients with human papilloma virus (HPV-16 in marginal periodontium by analyzing DNA from the gingival tissue sample and to understand its association with periodontitis. Settings and Design: 102 systemically healthy patients between the age group of 15 and 70 years reporting to the Department of Periodontology who required surgical intervention (flap surgery for patients with periodontitis and crown lengthening for healthy patients with internal bevel gingivectomy were selected. Materials and Methods: After scaling and root planning, gingival tissue was collected during the respective surgical procedure. DNA was isolated and amplified using specific primers for HPV-16 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The amplified products were checked by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: No HPV DNA was detected in the 102 samples analyzed. Conclusion: Marginal periodontium does not contain HPV in this study population and hence there was no association between HPV and periodontitis.
Full Text Available Torsten Roed,1 Ulrik Sloth Kristoffersen,2 Andreas Knudsen,1,2 Niels Wiinberg,3 Anne-Mette Lebech,1 Thomas Almdal,4 Reimar W Thomsen,5 Andreas Kjær,2 Nina Weis1,61Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 2Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET and Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Physiology, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Steno Diabetes Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 6Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkObjective: Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem and has been associated with coronary artery disease. Our aim was to examine the prevalence of coronary artery disease risk markers including endothelial biomarkers in patients with chronic hepatitis C and matched comparisons without manifest cardiovascular disease or diabetes in a cross-sectional design.Methods: Sixty patients with chronic hepatitis C (mean age 51 years were recruited from the Department of Infectious Diseases at Copenhagen University Hospital, and compared with 60 age-matched non-hepatitis C virus-infected individuals from a general population survey. We examined traditional coronary artery disease risk factors, metabolic syndrome, carotid intima media thickness, and a range of endothelial biomarkers.Results: Patients with chronic hepatitis C had more hypertension (40% versus 25%, prevalence ratio [PR] 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9–2.7 and smoked more (53% versus 38%, PR 1.4; 95% CI 0.9–2.1. The two groups had similar body mass index (mean 25.0 versus 25.7 kg/m2, whereas those with chronic hepatitis C had less dyslipidemia (including significantly lower low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, higher glycosylated hemoglobin level (mean 6.2 versus 5
Vecchio, M.; Palmer, S.; Berardis, G. de; Craig, J.; Johnson, D.; Pellegrini, F.; Nicolucci, A.; Sciancalepore, M.; Saglimbene, V.; Gargano, L.; Bonifati, C.; Ruospo, M.; Navaneethan, S.D.; Montinaro, V.; Stroumza, P.; Zsom, M.; Torok, M.; Celia, E.; Gelfman, R.; Bednarek-Skublewska, A.; Dulawa, J.; Graziano, G.; Lucisano, G.; Gentile, G.; Ferrari, J.N.; Santoro, A.; Zucchelli, A.; Triolo, G.; Maffei, S.; Hegbrant, J.; Wollheim, C.; Cosmo, S. de; Manfreda, V.M.; Strippoli, G.F.; Steiner, K.
BACKGROUND: Factors associated with erectile dysfunction in men on haemodialysis are incompletely identified due to suboptimal existing studies. We determined the prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction and identified combinations of clinical characteristics associated with a higher risk
Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Hasanzadeh, Ali; Mashrouteh, Mahdieh
Background Atherosclerotic disorders, hypertension and lipid profile alterations are of a lower prevalence in patients with minor beta thalassemia. On the other hand, nowadays, metabolic syndrome is considered as one of the major risk factors of developing cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with minor beta thalassemia. Methods In this case-control study, body length, weight and waist circumference, ...
Otero-López, José Manuel; Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz
Background Compulsive buying has become a serious problem affecting a growing number of people in contemporary consumer societies. Nevertheless, research examining its prevalence in representative samples from the general population is still scarce and mainly focused on the exploration of sociodemographic factors, neglecting other aspects like psychological distress and coping styles. Therefore, this study intends to contribute to the cumulative knowledge by assessing compulsive buying preval...
Young-Hyeon Bae; Joon-Shik Shin; Jinho Lee; Me-riong Kim; Ki Byung Park; Jae-Heung Cho; In-Hyuk Ha
Background Hypertension and musculoskeletal disorders are highly prevalent in adult populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between hypertension and prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and osteoarthritis in Koreans. Methods A total 17,128 participants (age ≥20 years) who answered low back pain and osteoarthritis items in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2009) were analyzed. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regres...
Setia, Maninder Singh
Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case-control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status) or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status), the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.
Abdulrahman A. Al-Mohaimeed, ABFM
Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of anxiety and depression is high among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These results should alert clinicians to identify and treat anxiety and depression as part of multidisciplinary diabetes care. Larger community-based studies are needed to identify the magnitude of these problems and their related factors.
Nagasu, M.; Sakai, K.; Ito, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Tomita, S.; Temmyo, Y.; Ueno, M.; Miyagi, S.
Background: Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk fac
Nagasu, M.; Sakai, K.; Ito, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Tomita, S.; Temmyo, Y.; Ueno, M.; Miyagi, S.
Background: Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk
Al-Hussaini Abdulrahman; Sulaiman Nimer; Al-Zahrani Musa; Alenizi Ahmed; El Haj Imad
Abstract Background There is lack of data on prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Arabs in the Middle East. The present investigation aims to study the prevalence rate and clinical characteristics of CD among Saudi children with T1D using a combination of the most sensitive and specific screening serologic tests (anti- tissue transglutaminase antibodies IgA [anti-TTG] and ednomyseal antibodies [EMA]) and to determine the lower cut-off value of anti- anti...
da Silva Cardoso, Juliana Rosa; Blanes, Leila; Augusto Calil, Jose; Ferreira Chacon, Julieta Maria; Masako Ferreira, Lydia
Technological advances in recent decades have extended survival time of critically ill hospitalized patients but their unstable physiological state and limited mobility increase their risk for pressure ulcers. On two different days (June 16 and October 20, 2004), pressure ulcer prevalence in patients hospitalized at the São Paulo Hospital, Brazil was assessed. On study day 1, 43 of the 376 inpatients (prevalence, 11.4%) and on study day 2, 35 of 340 inpatients (prevalence, 10.3%) had pressure ulcers. No significant differences in patient or ulcer characteristics between the two study days were observed. Ulcer prevalence was highest among patients in the intensive care unit (average 32.7%). Most patients had one ulcer (61.5%), classified as Stage II (47%), located in the sacral area (47%), and were considered at high risk according to their Braden Scale scores (60% had a score ≤ 11). The results obtained were not unexpected and confirmed the need to improve quality of care by establishing pressure ulcer prevention protocols. Additional studies to optimize prevention efforts and improve the existing evidence-base are necessary, especially in patient care units with high pressure ulcer rates.
Diepgen, T. L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Coenraads, P. J.; Elsner, P.; Goncalo, M.; Svensson, A.; Naldi, L.
Background Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. Objectives To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to
Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is one of the major public health problems worldwide. The objective of the present study is to investigate the prevalence and the associated variables of MetS in Colombian collegiate students. This cross-sectional study included a total of 890 (52% women healthy collegiate students (21.3 ± 3.2 years old. The prevalence of MetS was determined by the definition provided by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. We further examined associations between the prevalence of MetS and related factors, such as age, gender, anthropometric and body composition, weight status, and nutrition profile. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.0% (95% CI = 4.5% to 7.6%, and it was higher in men than women. The most prevalent components were low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglyceride levels, waist circumference, and blood pressure levels. The predisposing factors for having a MetS included: being male, over 23 years old, overweight or obese, and having an unhealthy waist-to-height ratio. In conclusion, the occurrence of MetS in young adults is substantial. These findings may be relevant to health promotion efforts for collegiate students in order to develop prospective studies and screening for young adults, which will aid in targeted intervention development to decrease cardiometabolic risk factors.
Martínez-Torres, Javier; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Prieto-Benavidez, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is one of the major public health problems worldwide. The objective of the present study is to investigate the prevalence and the associated variables of MetS in Colombian collegiate students. This cross-sectional study included a total of 890 (52% women) healthy collegiate students (21.3 ± 3.2 years old). The prevalence of MetS was determined by the definition provided by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). We further examined associations between the prevalence of MetS and related factors, such as age, gender, anthropometric and body composition, weight status, and nutrition profile. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.0% (95% CI = 4.5% to 7.6%), and it was higher in men than women. The most prevalent components were low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglyceride levels, waist circumference, and blood pressure levels. The predisposing factors for having a MetS included: being male, over 23 years old, overweight or obese, and having an unhealthy waist-to-height ratio. In conclusion, the occurrence of MetS in young adults is substantial. These findings may be relevant to health promotion efforts for collegiate students in order to develop prospective studies and screening for young adults, which will aid in targeted intervention development to decrease cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:28264459
Ravikumar V Baradol
Full Text Available Introduction: Childhood obesity& hypertension are global health problems as they caused increase in morbidity & mortality. Objective: To find out the prevalence of obesity, overweight in school going children and adolescents of north Karnataka. Also to study obesity related morbidities like Prehypertension and Hypertension and associated risk factors for sustained hypertension. Materials and Methods: Total 2800 children in age group from 10-16 years from 3 schools of Urban and rural region of Bijapur district were screened. Weight, height, BMI and Blood pressure were recorded. These values were compared with WHO child growth standards. Children then classified as overweight (OW and obesity (OB. Blood pressure values were compared with reference charts given by American heart association guidelinesand grouped as prehypertensive (PHTN and Hypertension (HTN. Results: This study revealed that 3.6% rural school children were overweight (OW in age group of 13 years, 1.4% children were obese (OB in age group of 15 years. In urban school children, 3.3% OB in age group of 12 years and 11.1% OW in age group of 10 years. In Rural school children, prevalence of systolic HTN was 21% in OW children and 25% in OB children. Among urban schoolchildren prevalence of systolic PHTN was 5.1% among OW and in OB group it was 16.6%. Conclusions: This study revealed that prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in overweight and obese compared to children with Normal BMI. Also the prevalence of overweight and obesity is more in urban school children than rural children population. We need further large scale studies to study obesity and associated morbidities like hypertension school children and adolescents.
Anuradha, Br; Laxmi, G Sri; Sudhakar, P; Malik, Vn; Reddy, K Amarendher; Reddy, S Nagalaxmi; Prasanna, A Lakshmi
To assess the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 13- to 15-year-old school children in Panyam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 school children and were examined for dental fluorosis and dental caries. This study shows that male students have a decrease in DMFT (Decayed, missing, filled, teeth) index and increase in Dean's index when compared with females. Among students with 13 to 15 years of age, 13-year-old student has increase in DMFT score when compared with other age groups and 14-year-old students has increase in Dean's score when compared with other age group students. The prevalence of dental caries decreased with the increase of fluorosis among the students examined. Patients with dental fluorosis show a decreased prevalence of dental caries.
Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of behavioral disorders is substantially higher in stressful working environments such as emergency departments. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of personality disorders among emergency nurses.Methods: In the present epidemiologic study, the prevalence of personality disorders among emergency nurses of three educational hospitals, Tehran, Iran, were evaluated based on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2 test. After the questionnaires were filled, data were entered to a special software for MMPI-2 test and the final result was interpreted based on the opinion of a clinical psychologist. Findings were reported using descriptive statistics.Results: 102 emergency nurses with the mean age of 30.2 ± 5.6 years were enrolled (100% female; 100% with master’s degree in nursing. The mean working time and experience of studied nurses were 210.8 ± 47.9 hours/month (130-370 and 4.1 ± 3.6 years (1-20, respectively. 32 (31.4% cases showed symptoms of personality disorders The most common personality disorder detected in this study was somatization with 8.8%, hysteria with 6.9% prevalence, and pollyannaish with 4.9%. Among the studied factors only recent history of unpleasant event has significant correlation with existence of personality disorders (p = 0.015.Conclusion: The present study showed that somatization, hysteria, and pollyannaish were the most common personality disorders among the emergency nurses. History of an unpleasant event in the past year was the only effective factor in existence of personality disorders in the studied nurses.
Kashani, Parvin; Mirbaha, Sahar; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Meschi, Farahnaz; Baratloo, Alireza
The prevalence of behavioral disorders is substantially higher in stressful working environments such as emergency departments. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of personality disorders among emergency nurses. In the present epidemiologic study, the prevalence of personality disorders among emergency nurses of three educational hospitals, Tehran, Iran, were evaluated based on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) test. After the questionnaires were filled, data were entered to a special software for MMPI-2 test and the final result was interpreted based on the opinion of a clinical psychologist. Findings were reported using descriptive statistics. 102 emergency nurses with the mean age of 30.2 ± 5.6 years were enrolled (100% female; 100% with master's degree in nursing). The mean working time and experience of studied nurses were 210.8 ± 47.9 hours/month (130-370) and 4.1 ± 3.6 years (1-20), respectively. 32 (31.4%) cases showed symptoms of personality disorders The most common personality disorder detected in this study was somatization with 8.8%, hysteria with 6.9% prevalence, and pollyannaish with 4.9%. Among the studied factors only recent history of unpleasant event has significant correlation with existence of personality disorders (p = 0.015). The present study showed that somatization, hysteria, and pollyannaish were the most common personality disorders among the emergency nurses. History of an unpleasant event in the past year was the only effective factor in existence of personality disorders in the studied nurses.
Bonaccio, Marialaura; Bonanni, Americo Ettore; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Lucia, Francesca; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia
To examine cross-sectional associations of socioeconomic status (ie, income and education) with an adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and obesity prevalence. Cross-sectional study on a sample of Italian subjects enrolled in the Moli-sani Project, a population-based cohort study. The Italian EPIC food frequency questionnaire was used to determine food intake. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) was appraised according to both the Mediterranean score elaborated by Trichopoulou (MDS) and the novel Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI) and to the a posteriori scores derived from principal component analysis. Four income categories were identified. Molise region, Italy. 13 262 subjects (mean age 53±11, 50% men) out of 24 318 citizens (age ≥35) randomly enrolled in the Moli-sani Project. Dietary patterns and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Household higher income were significantly associated with greater adherence to an MD (padherence to an MD clearly increased according to income levels. People having the highest income had 54% (95% CI 21% to 97%, MDS) or 72% (95% CI 34% to 121%, IMI) higher probability to stick to an MD-like eating pattern than those in the lowest-income group. Obesity prevalence was higher in the lowest-income group (36%) in comparison with the highest-income category (20%, padherence to MD-like eating patterns and a lower prevalence of obesity.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth among 4-6 years old school going children in the Namakkal District. Materials and Methods: The study covered a total of 850 school going children in a total of 26 schools in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. The age group selected for this study ranged from 4 to 6 years of age. Each child was examined in their respective schools by one of the four calibrated examiners and decay, missing and filled teeth (dmft index was recorded along with demographic details. This study was done in September-October 2013 in a span of 1 month duration. Results: Of 850 children examined, 560 (65.88% children had dental caries. Mean dmft score was 2.86. Prevalence of dental caries was higher in boys (69.6% than in girls (61.5%. The untreated decay teeth accounted for 92.4%. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries among 4-6 years old children is high in the Namakkal district. The need for the creation of dental awareness among children and their primary caregivers is crucial and the need for developing immediate oral health promotion strategies including an increase in school dental health programs is recommended.
Ravikumar V Baradol; SV Patil; Anand Ranagol
Introduction: Childhood obesity& hypertension are global health problems as they caused increase in morbidity & mortality. Objective: To find out the prevalence of obesity, overweight in school going children and adolescents of north Karnataka. Also to study obesity related morbidities like Prehypertension and Hypertension and associated risk factors for sustained hypertension. Materials and Methods: Total 2800 children in age group from 10-16 years from 3 schools of Urban and rural region of...
Bae, Jung Min; Ha, Beomman; Lee, Hongsun; Park, Chang Keun; Kim, Hyun Joon; Park, Young Min
This study was conducted to clarify the prevalence of common skin diseases and their associated factors among military personnel in Korea. Four dermatologists visited adjacent military units and examined soldiers. A structured questionnaire that included questions about known skin diseases, demographic information, and questions for the Perceived Stress Index was completed for each participant. The soldiers that had been diagnosed with a skin disease answered one additional questionnaire (Ski...
Ayalu A Reda
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Use of psychoactive drugs such as khat leaves (Catha edulis alter moods and emotional state and lead to adverse effects on the health and social life of users. Ethiopia is a major producer and exporter of khat in east Africa and the majority of the khat comes from the eastern part of the country, however, no studies have been conducted to investigate the habit in this area. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among high school students in Harar, eastern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted among 1,890 secondary school students in Harar town in April 2010. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing. RESULT: The overall prevalence of khat chewing among the sample was 24.2% (95% CI 22.2%-26.2%. About 28.5% of females and 71.5% of males had chewed khat. Older age (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.16-1.49, male gender (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.50-2.93, Muslim religion (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17-3.04, having friends who chewed khat (OR 7.93; 95% CI 5.40-11.64, and availability of someone with a similar habit in the family (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.07-2.11 were found to be independent predictors of chewing. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of students chew khat. The use of khat is significantly associated with age, gender, Muslim religion, peer influence and habit of family and other relatives among students. Measures such as educational campaigns need to be instituted to create awareness among school adolescents and their parents in order to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its adverse social and health consequences.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND The population of elderly persons in India is the second largest in the world and is steadily growing. Although alcohol and tobacco problems are often under reported, their use remains common among older persons. Cessation of their use can reduce the incidence of cardio-vascular, pulmonary or malignant diseases, and prevent substance-induced problems.1 OBJECTIVES The study was conducted to assess the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco usage in the elderly in few villages of Bangalore Urban District. METHODS A Study was conducted over the period of 2 months in the calendar year 2014 on a sample of 295 people belonging to 14 villages under two sub centers. Data was collected using pretested structured questionnaires (CAGE, SMAST-G, AUDIT and Fagerstroms. The collected data was analysed. Our inclusion criteria >60 years, exclusion criteria were elders with cognitive defects and sensorineural deafness and bed ridden patients. RESULTS Among 295 subjects, 28.84 % of them used alcohol, 6.5% of females used alcohol. 15.5% of males of 33.3% of females out of them were found to be dependent on alcohol. 47.13% of males used tobacco and 47.11% of females used tobacco or tobacco products. Reasons for usage were to forget their problems or losses or due to loneliness. Many of them skipped meals, had tremors or sustained injuries to themselves or others because of their drinking. CONCLUSION Prevalence of alcohol use was 18.3% and that of alcohol dependence 15.5%. Prevalence of tobacco usage was 47.11%, prevalence of high dependency tobacco was 22%.
Knudsen, Andreas; Malmberg, Catarina Anna Evelina; Kjær, Andreas
. However, controversies exist on the prevalence of PAD among HIV-infected patients. In this study we aimed to measure the prevalence of PAD among HIV-infected patients and compare the ABI with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and other known CVD risk predictors. METHODS: We prospectively included HIV...... patients included (mean age 52 years, 75% male, 94% receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), 33% active smokers), 1 had a pre-exercise ABI ≤ 0.9 and in addition 3 patients had a post-exercise ABI ≤ 0.9. We found a poor correlation between ABI and traditional CVD risk factors other than body mass index....... In contrast, a strong correlation was found between cIMT and traditional risk factors. Values of post-exercise ABI and cIMT were not correlated. The current ART did not influence ABI values. CONCLUSIONS: We found a low prevalence of PAD in HIV-infected patients. ABI did not correlate with CVD risk factors...
Full Text Available Introduction: Psoriasis is a T-cell mediated chronic inflammatory disorder with multiple skin, nails and joints involvement. The reported prevalence of psoriatic arthritis (PsA varies from 5 to 42 cases per 100 psoriasis patients. Insulin resistance is believed to be central to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (metS, a constellation of major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, including atherogenic dyslipidemia, truncal adiposity, hypertension and hyperglycemia. The association of psoriasis with metS and is increasingly being reported. Although the literature relating PsA to metS is accumulating, there is still a paucity of evidence, especially from Asia. Here, we examined the prevalence of metS and its components in patients with PsA. Methods: The study was performed among outpatients attending the specialty clinics and Rheumatology ward of an institutional tertiary referral center. A consecutive sample of 80 patients diagnosed as having psoriatic arthritis in our clinics was studied. Age, gender, body mass index, blood pressure and waist circumference, and history of smoking of patients were measured and asked at the enrolment visit. Venous samples were taken after 8 h of overnight fasting for the estimation of serum lipid profile, glucose and uric acid levels. Also an ultrasonographic examination was done for detection of NAFLD. Results: 46 patients (57.5% were male and 34 patients (42.5% were female. Mean age of the participants was 43 years (SD: 11.3. The prevalence of abnormal components of metabolic syndrome was 53.8% for BMI, 48.8% for TG level, 50% for HDL, 46.3 for LDL, 45% for Cholesterol, 23.8% for FBS, 47.5% for waist circumflex and 42.5 for uric acid. 40% of the patients had abnormal SBP and 41.2% had abnormal DBP. 30% of the participants were current smokers and 43.8 had NAFLD on ultrasonographic examination. 51.3% of patients had metabolic syndrome according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for adult
Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and its association with stress, has not been studied among university students in Pakistan. We investigated the prevalence and the pattern of anxiety related IBS symptoms among medical students of Karachi. Findings An observational case–control study was carried out at three medical colleges of Karachi, Pakistan. Random sampling was done on 360 medical students. Data was collected using validated tools “Rome III Criteria” and “Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire”. Participants with IBS were diagnosed on the criteria having experienced abdominal discomfort at least 2–3 days/month associated with high level of anxiety. The apparent prevalence of IBS was found to be 28.3%, with a predominance of 87 (85.29% females (85.29% over males (14.71%. The psychological symptoms of anxiety were encountered in 57 (55.8% participants with IBS, among which males were 15.7% and females 84.2% respectively. Conclusion Students who more frequently suffer with mental stress and anxiety are more associated with IBS.
Otero-López, José Manuel; Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz
Compulsive buying has become a serious problem affecting a growing number of people in contemporary consumer societies. Nevertheless, research examining its prevalence in representative samples from the general population is still scarce and mainly focused on the exploration of sociodemographic factors, neglecting other aspects like psychological distress and coping styles. Therefore, this study intends to contribute to the cumulative knowledge by assessing compulsive buying prevalence in a representative sample from the general population in the region of Galicia, in Spain. Sociodemographic determinants, psychological symptoms, and coping strategies are also analyzed to clarify their role in this phenomenon. A random routes procedure was employed in the recruitment of the sample which was comprised of 2159 participants who were classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared regarding sociodemographic determinants, symptoms, and coping strategies through chi-square tests or analyses of variance. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants might play a part in the make up of a risk profile for compulsive buying. Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying was 7.1%. Compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers differed significantly in sex and age, with women and younger people showing a higher propensity for this phenomenon. Individuals with compulsive buying presented significantly higher scores on all the psychological symptoms considered. They also employed passive-avoidance coping strategies much more frequently and active strategies of problem solving and cognitive restructuring much less frequently. The logistic regression analysis results confirmed that being female, experiencing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and obsession-compulsion, and employing the passive-avoidance coping strategies of problem avoidance, wishful thinking, and self-criticism, all constituted
Gillman, C E; KilBride, A L; Ossent, P; Green, L E
We carried out a cross-sectional study during 2003 and 2004 to establish the prevalence and risk factors associated with floor type for commonly observed foot lesions in pigs aged 6, 8 and 14 weeks. The overall prevalence of foot lesions was 39.6% in 2283 pigs from 90 representative pig farms in England. The most prevalent lesions were heel/sole bruising (7.1%), heel/sole erosion (10.8%), heel flaps (8.4%) and toe erosion (11.6%). Pigs were kept on either solid (41%), partly slatted (28%) or fully slatted (31%) floors. Of the 104 pens with a solid floor, 26% of pens were outside with straw bedding on a soil base, 33% were indoors with deep bedding on solid concrete, 25% were partly deeply bedded on solid concrete and 16% were sparsely bedded on solid concrete. Only six of the pens with partly slatted floors were bedded. Multilevel logistic-regression models were built using data from 100 farms to examine the risks for individual foot lesions with prevalences >5%. The prevalence of toe erosions was positively associated with deep bedding, whereas deep bedding and soil floors were negatively associated with the prevalence of heel/sole erosions. Heel flaps and heel/sole bruising were both associated with slatted floors, possibly indicating a common aetiology. The greatest reduction in prevalence of all these lesions, from AFp calculations, would be achieved by moving pigs from slatted floors onto solid floors.
Bae, Jung Min; Ha, Beomman; Lee, Hongsun; Park, Chang Keun; Kim, Hyun Joon; Park, Young Min
This study was conducted to clarify the prevalence of common skin diseases and their associated factors among military personnel in Korea. Four dermatologists visited adjacent military units and examined soldiers. A structured questionnaire that included questions about known skin diseases, demographic information, and questions for the Perceived Stress Index was completed for each participant. The soldiers that had been diagnosed with a skin disease answered one additional questionnaire (Skindex-29) which assess the influence of an individual's skin disease on daily life. Of 1,321 soldiers examined, 798 (60.4%) had one or more skin diseases. The three most common skin problems were acne (35.6%), tinea pedis (15.2%) and atopic dermatitis (5.1%). The diseases closely related to the period of military service were acne, tinea pedis, viral warts and corns. The diseases related to the amount of stress were atopic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and acne. The most troublesome skin diseases were atopic dermatitis, tinea cruris, and seborrheic dermatitis. These results demonstrated that the prevalence of skin disease among military personnel in Korea is very high, and that some of the skin disorders may have a significant influence on their daily lives.
Lie, Arve; Skogstad, Marit; Johnsen, Torstein Seip; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the most reported occupational diseases internationally. The occurrence of audiometric notches is emphasized in both American and European guidelines for the diagnosis of NIHL. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of notched audiograms among railway personnel with and without noise exposure to better assess the usefulness of such notches in the diagnosis of NIHL. The most recent audiogram from 1994 to 2011 of a total of 12,055 railway workers, age 20 to 65 years, was obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the Norwegian State Railways (NSB). The prevalences of three types of notched audiograms, Coles notch, notch index, and 4 kHz notch, were computed, in relation to age, sex, and occupational noise exposure. Coles notch in either ear was found in 63% of the male railway maintenance workers, exposed to noise levels of 75 to 90 dB(A), compared with 53% of the non-noise exposed (railway personnel. The usefulness of audiometric notches in the diagnosis of NIHL is therefore limited.
DiBello, Julia R; Ioannou, Chris; Rees, Jonathan; Challacombe, Ben; Maskell, Joe; Choudhury, Nurul; Kastner, Christof; Kirby, Mike
To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the components of metabolic syndrome in men aged ≥50 years with and without clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This was a cross-sectional study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Men were selected from the CPRD who were aged ≥50 years and still registered as of 31 December 2011. Cohort 1 included men with clinical BPH, and cohort 2 men without clinical BPH who were matched 1:1 to those in cohort 1 by general practice, year of birth and previous years of available history (1-metabolic syndrome and its components (for men alive and still registered in the CRPD as of 31 December 2011) was calculated using all available history (lifetime prevalence) and medical history from 2010 and 2011 (current prevalence). Crude odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and the occurrence of the components of metabolic syndrome were calculated by comparing men with and without BPH. A total of 26.5% of men with clinical BPH had metabolic syndrome compared with 20.9% of matched controls without clinical BPH (absolute difference 5.6%; P metabolic syndrome than matched controls without clinical BPH. Significantly greater proportions of men with clinical BPH also had each component of metabolic syndrome compared with matched controls without clinical BPH. The presence of clinical BPH was associated with a 37% increased odds of having metabolic syndrome (for both lifetime prevalence and current prevalence) compared with matched controls without clinical BPH. There is a significant cross-sectional association between clinical BPH and metabolic syndrome in the UK primary care population. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kottayi, Soni; Bhat, Sham S; Hegde, K Sundeep; Peedikayil, Faizal C; Chandru, T P; Anil, Sukumaran
Overweight and obesity are growing health-related problems worldwide, and it is currently the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess the association between overweight and dental caries among 12- to 15-year-old schoolchildren in Mangaluru district, Karnataka, India. Data were obtained from 2000 school-going children aged 12 to 15 years. The children were categorized as overweight and normal-weight group by assessing the body mass index (BMI). Body mass index was categorized using the classification system given by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and obtained in units of kg/m(2). The dental caries was assessed by detection and was performed according to decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index. Of the 2000 children examined, the mean BMI recorded was 26.87 ± 2.26 for the overweight children and 20.82 ± 1.48 for the normal-weight children. Even though the DMFT (3.90 ± 2.95) in the overweight children was slightly higher than the control group (3.36 ± 2.73), it was not statistically significant. Within the confines of the present study, it can be concluded that there is no significant association between overweight and dental caries among the schoolchildren of Mangaluru district in Karnataka. Longitudinal studies are necessary to substantiate the possible relationships between dental caries and overweight in children. Knowledge of these relationships could lead to preventive health measures designed to reduce the prevalence of both obesity and dental caries.
Woodman, Patrick J; Swift, Steven E; O'Boyle, Amy L; Valley, Michael T; Bland, Deirdre R; Kahn, Margie A; Schaffer, Joseph I
The aim of this study was to determine if certain occupations or socioeconomic levels are associated with pelvic organ prolapse. Investigators at six American sites performed pelvic organ prolapse quantification examinations on women presenting for routine gynecologic care. Between September 1999 and March 2002, 1,004 patients were examined. Severe pelvic organ prolapse was defined as the leading edge being 1 cm or more beyond the hymeneal ring. The data was analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, Bonferroni test, multiple logistic regression, and descriptive statistics. The prevalence of severe pelvic organ prolapse in our group was 4.3%. Women who were laborers/factory workers had significantly more severe prolapse than the other job categories (p 30, and smoking status (all p jobs and an annual household income of Dollars 10,000 or less are associated with severe pelvic organ prolapse.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is lack of data on prevalence of celiac disease (CD in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D in Arabs in the Middle East. The present investigation aims to study the prevalence rate and clinical characteristics of CD among Saudi children with T1D using a combination of the most sensitive and specific screening serologic tests (anti- tissue transglutaminase antibodies IgA [anti-TTG] and ednomyseal antibodies [EMA] and to determine the lower cut-off value of anti- anti-TTG level that best predicts CD in children with T1D. Methods Children with T1D following in diabetic clinic have been prospectively screened for presence of CD, over a two-year period (2008–2010, by doing anti-TTG, EMA, and total IgA. Children with positive anti-TTG titres (>50 U/ml and/or EMA and children with persistently low positive anti-TTG titres (two readings 20–50 U/ml; within 6 months intervals had upper endoscopy and 6 duodenal biopsies. Results One hundred and six children with T1D have been screened for CD: age ranged between 8 months to 15.5 years (62 females. Nineteen children had positive anti-TTG and/or EMA, however only 12 children had biopsy proven CD (11.3%. Five of 12 had gastrointestinal symptoms (42%. Children with T1D and CD had significantly lower serum iron than children with T1D alone (8.5 μgm/L Vs 12.5 μgm/L; P = 0.014. The sensitivity and specificity of anti-TTG were 91.6% and 93.6%, with a positive and negative predictive value of 64.7% and 98.8%, respectively. Receiver operated characteristics analysis for the best cut-off value of anti-TTG level for diagnosis of CD was 63 units (sensitivity 100% and specificity 98.8%. Conclusion CD is highly prevalent among Saudi children with T1D. Anti-TTG titres more than 3 times the upper limit of normal has very high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of CD in T1D children.
Stephen Ojiambo Wandera
Full Text Available Background: There is limited evidence about the prevalence and risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs among older Ugandans. Therefore, this article is aimed at investigating the prevalence of self-reported NCDs and their associated risk factors using a nationally representative sample. Design: We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2010 Uganda National Household Survey (UNHS using a weighted sample of 2,382 older people. Frequency distributions for descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-square tests to identify the association between self-reported NCDs and selected explanatory variables were done. Finally, multivariable complementary log–log regressions to estimate the risk factors for self-reported NCDs among older people in Uganda were done. Results: About 2 in 10 (23% older persons reported at least one NCD [including hypertension (16%, diabetes (3%, and heart disease (9%]. Among all older people, reporting NCDs was higher among those aged 60–69 and 70–79; Muslims; and Pentecostals and Seventh Day Adventists (SDAs. In addition, the likelihood of reporting NCDs was higher among older persons who depended on remittances and earned wages; owned a bicycle; were sick in the last 30 days; were disabled; and were women. Conversely, the odds of reporting NCDs were lower for those who were relatives of household heads and were poor. Conclusions: In Uganda, self-reported NCDs were associated with advanced age, being a woman, having a disability, ill health in the past 30 days, being rich, depended on remittances and earning wages, being Muslim, Pentecostal and SDAs, and household headship. The Ministry of Health should prevent and manage NCDs by creating awareness in the public and improving the supply of essential drugs for these health conditions. Finally, there is a need for specialised surveillance studies of older people to monitor the trends and patterns of NCDs over time.
Moreland, Julia; French, Tara L; Cumming, Grant P
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the prevalence of snacking and to explore the relationship between snacking and several demographic, anthropometric, functional and biochemical factors. Methods: The study included 756 individuals over 18 years of age from Medias, Romania. Demographics and data about snacking were collected by trained volunteers. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure were measured with standard equipment according to accepted procedures. Blood glucose and cholesterol were measured by experienced nurses using portable devices. Associations between variables were checked with the Pearson Chi-square test. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to measure the association between binary variables. Results: About half of the subjects in the studied sample reported snacking less than 2 times / week, 34.5% between 3-4 times / week and 14.8% more than 4 times / week. Statistical analysis found that snacking was associated with gender (males being less likely to snack than females, ethnicity (non-Romanians being less likely to snack than Romanian ethnics, marital status of the subjects (not married people being less likely to snack than married people , systolic blood pressure (people consuming more often snacks being less likely to have high systolic blood pressure values, and blood sugar level (people eating more frequently between meals being more likely to have higher blood glucose levels. Conclusions: Snacking was a widespread eating habit among the study participants and was significantly associated with gender, ethnicity, marital status, systolic blood pressure and blood glucose levels.
Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Bhat, Gulzar Ahmad; Wani, Ishfaq Ahmad; Rashid, Aafia; Zargar, Showkat Ali; Charoo, Bashir Ahmad; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Mudassar, Syed
Obesity among children and adolescents is a growing public health problem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and metabolic consequences of obesity among schoolchildren from Kashmir, India. The study subjects (n=2024) included 870 boys and 1154 girls, aged between 6 and 18 years. Data were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaires. Information was obtained about different lifestyles, anthropometric parameters and dietary habits. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) percentile as per the guidelines of Centers for Disease Control, 2000. For the evaluation of different clinical parameters, blood samples were collected from the subjects in the fasting state at 8 to 9 am after an overnight (10-12 h) fast. The highest representation of subjects was from fee-paying private schools. Out of the total subjects, 6.69% were overweight and 4.64% were obese. The hip circumference, abdominal circumference, BMI, blood pressure (BP), use of ready-made foods as well as the clinical parameters like glucose, phosphorous, cholesterol and triglycerides were found significantly higher among girls than boys (pobese (5.63%). Rural dwelling subjects (4.22%) exhibited a lower percentage of obesity than urban population (5.00%). The difference in obesity among the different age groups was found statistically significant (pobesity among children was high in our population.
Full Text Available Objective: Previous research shows an association between obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The present study compares pre- and post-bariatric surgery patients using the internationally used Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS™ to screen for ADHD. Methods: Matched samples pre- (N = 120 and post-bariatric surgery (N = 128 were compared using self-rating instruments to assess ADHD-relevant symptomatology, depression, eating-related psychopathology, and BMI. Results: Prevalence of probable ADHD did not differ between groups using the CAARS Index Scale T-scores; however, CAARS subscales Inattention/Memory and Self-Concept showed significantly lower scores in post-surgery patients. All CAARS subscales correlated significantly with each other, with depression and eating-related psychopathology. There was no correlation between ADHD and excess BMI loss in post-surgery patients. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a considerable number of patients before and after bariatric surgery screened positive for ADHD. It can be hypothesized that some core ADHD symptoms improve after surgery. Future studies are warranted to investigate the influence of ADHD on long-term surgery outcomes.
Peters, L.B.; Lindeboom, J.A.; Elst, M.E.; Wesselink, P.R.
We aimed to compare an Amsterdam subpopulation's current prevalence of root canal fillings and associated periapical radiolucencies with a similar patient sample from 1988. An Amsterdam subpopulation was evaluated for missing teeth, restorations, quality of endodontic treatment, and periapical
Zhang, Yongxing; Deng, Guoying; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhou, Qian; Gao, Xiang; Di, Liqing; Che, Qianzi; Du, Xiaoyu; Cai, Yun; Han, Xuedong; Zhao, Qinghua
... (headache, abdominal pain, neck and shoulder pain (NSP), and low back pain (LBP)) and to explore the relationship between the prevalence of chronic pain and self-reported academic pressure in high school students in Shanghai, China...
Mekonnen, Getachew; Enquselassie, Fikre; Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Semahegn, Agumasie
In Ethiopia, knowledge of contraceptive methods is high though there is low contraceptive prevalence rate. This study was aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Jinka town, southern Ethiopia. Community based cross sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence and factors affecting long acting and permanent methods of contraceptives utilization from March to April 2008. Eight hundred child bearing age women were participated in the quantitative study and 32 purposively selected focus group discussants were participated in the qualitative study. Face to face interview was used for data collection. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13.0 statistical software. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were computed to analyze the data. The prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive method was 7.3%. Three fourth (76.1%) of the women have ever heard about implants and implant 28 (50%) were the most widely used method. Almost two third of women had intention to use long acting and permanent methods. Knowledge of contraceptive and age of women have significant association with the use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods. The overall prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive method was low. Knowledge of contraceptive and age of women have significant association with use of long acting and permanent contraceptive. Extensive health information should be provided.
Bjereld, Y; Daneback, K; Petzold, M
Bullying among children is a problem with severe consequences for the victim. The present study examined parent-reported bullying victimization among children in the Nordic countries at two points in time, 1996 and 2011, and studied differences in prevalence of bullying victimization between immigrant and native children. Data came from the parent-reported NordChild, carried out in the Nordic countries in 1996 and 2011. NordChild is a serial cross-sectional comparative study. A total of 7107 children aged 7-13 were included in the analyses. The prevalence of bullying victimization in the total Nordic countries was lower in 2011 (19.2%) than 1996 (21.7%). Difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was found both between native and immigrant children, and between countries. The largest difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was measured in Sweden 2011, where 8.6% of the native children were bullied, to be compared with the 27.8% of the immigrant children. Immigrant children had higher odds to be bullied than native children in Norway, Sweden and in the total Nordic countries at both measurements, also when adjusted for potentially confounding factors. The higher prevalence of bullying victimization among immigrant children should be taken into consideration in the design and development of preventive work against bullying. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chalissery, Vemina P.; Marwah, Nikhil; Jafer, Mohammed; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Bhatt, Tanmay; Anil, Sukumaran
Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers. PMID:27195225
Full Text Available BACK GROUND : Diabetic foot ulcers are common and estimated to affect 15% of all diabetics. In India it is estimated that approximately 40 , 000 legs are being amputated every year of which 75% are potentially preventable. METHODOLOGY : To determine the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers and the type of ulcers amongst the diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients a prospective study was carried out d uring the period January 2013 to December 2014 in the department of General medicine , Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences and Medical college , Kadapa , A.P. RESULTS : Diabetic foot ulcers were found in 14% diabetes mellitus patients. Neuropathic type of foot ulcer was present in 48.62% of patients (60.5% in male and 18.5% in female. Ischemic type of foot ulcer was present in 18.26% of patients (39.5% in male and in 14.06% females. Neuro - ischemic type of foot ulcer was present in 33.12% of patients (2 1% in males and 46.44% in females. CONCLUSION : Neuropathy occurred most frequently either singly or with peripheral vascular disease. General awareness about the disease , early diagnosis and proper management will prevent this dreaded complication.
Lasry-Levy, Estrella; Hietaharju, Aki; Pai, Vivek; Ganapati, Ramaswamy; Rice, Andrew S. C.; Haanpää, Maija; Lockwood, Diana N. J.
Background Neuropathic pain has been little studied in leprosy. We assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain and the validity of the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in patients with treated leprosy. The association of neuropathic pain with psychological morbidity was also evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult patients who had completed multi-drug therapy for leprosy were recruited from several Bombay Leprosy Project clinics. Clinical neurological examination, assessment of leprosy affected skin and nerves and pain evaluation were performed for all patients. Patients completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire to identify neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity. Conclusions/Significance One hundred and one patients were recruited, and 22 (21.8%) had neuropathic pain. The main sensory symptoms were numbness (86.4%), tingling (68.2%), hypoesthesia to touch (81.2%) and pinprick (72.7%). Neuropathic pain was associated with nerve enlargement and tenderness, painful skin lesions and with psychological morbidity. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92% in diagnosing neuropathic pain. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 is a simple tool for the screening of neuropathic pain in leprosy patients. Psychological morbidity was detected in 15% of the patients and 41% of the patients with neuropathic pain had psychological morbidity. PMID:21408111
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain has been little studied in leprosy. We assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain and the validity of the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in patients with treated leprosy. The association of neuropathic pain with psychological morbidity was also evaluated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult patients who had completed multi-drug therapy for leprosy were recruited from several Bombay Leprosy Project clinics. Clinical neurological examination, assessment of leprosy affected skin and nerves and pain evaluation were performed for all patients. Patients completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire to identify neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: One hundred and one patients were recruited, and 22 (21.8% had neuropathic pain. The main sensory symptoms were numbness (86.4%, tingling (68.2%, hypoesthesia to touch (81.2% and pinprick (72.7%. Neuropathic pain was associated with nerve enlargement and tenderness, painful skin lesions and with psychological morbidity. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92% in diagnosing neuropathic pain. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 is a simple tool for the screening of neuropathic pain in leprosy patients. Psychological morbidity was detected in 15% of the patients and 41% of the patients with neuropathic pain had psychological morbidity.
Full Text Available Purpose. This study examined the association between the severity of visual field defects and the prevalence of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study. Japanese patients who have had driver’s licence between 40 and 85 years of age were screened for eligibility. Participants answered a questionnaire about MVCs experienced during the previous 5 years. Subjects with POAG were classified as having mild, moderate, or severe visual field defect. We evaluated associations between the severity of POAG and the prevalence of MVCs by logistic regression models. Results. The prevalence of MVCs was significantly associated with the severity of POAG categorized by worse eye MD (control: 30/187 = 16.0%; mild POAG: 17/92 = 18.5%; moderate POAG: 14/60 = 23.3%; severe POAG: 14/47 = 29.8%; P=0.025, Cochran-Armitage trend test. Compared to the control group, the adjusted OR for MVC prevalence in subjects with mild, moderate, or severe POAG in the worse eye was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.55 to 2.10, 1.44 (95% CI: 0.68 to 3.08, and 2.28 (95% CI: 1.07 to 4.88. Conclusions. There is a significant association between the severity of glaucoma in the worse eye MD and the prevalence of MVCs.
Yuki, Kenya; Asaoka, Ryo; Kouyama, Keisuke; Abe, Takayuki; Tanabe, Sachiko; Ozawa, Yoko; Shiba, Daisuke
Purpose. This study examined the association between the severity of visual field defects and the prevalence of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. This is a cross-sectional study. Japanese patients who have had driver's licence between 40 and 85 years of age were screened for eligibility. Participants answered a questionnaire about MVCs experienced during the previous 5 years. Subjects with POAG were classified as having mild, moderate, or severe visual field defect. We evaluated associations between the severity of POAG and the prevalence of MVCs by logistic regression models. Results. The prevalence of MVCs was significantly associated with the severity of POAG categorized by worse eye MD (control: 30/187 = 16.0%; mild POAG: 17/92 = 18.5%; moderate POAG: 14/60 = 23.3%; severe POAG: 14/47 = 29.8%; P = 0.025, Cochran-Armitage trend test). Compared to the control group, the adjusted OR for MVC prevalence in subjects with mild, moderate, or severe POAG in the worse eye was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.55 to 2.10), 1.44 (95% CI: 0.68 to 3.08), and 2.28 (95% CI: 1.07 to 4.88). Conclusions. There is a significant association between the severity of glaucoma in the worse eye MD and the prevalence of MVCs. PMID:25922759
Pedro Paulo V P Diniz
Full Text Available Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1∶64. Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%. Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40% of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ≥1∶256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii.
Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Morton, Bridget A; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A; Gavidia, Cesar M; Gilman, Robert H; Angulo, Noelia P; Brenner, Elliott C; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B
Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1∶64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ≥1∶256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii.
Anil Chankaramangalam Mathew
Full Text Available Low back pain is a major public health problem all over the world. It is generally assumed that overweight, height and low back pain are related. However, the scientific evidence to support this relationship is not fully conclusive. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of low back pain and its association with height, fat distribution, reproductive history and socioeconomic influence. A representative sample of 401 men and 403 women aged 20 years and above were selected and studied. It is found that 28.4% and 52.9% respectively were having low back pain. Height and fat distribution were found to have no association with low back pain. Both men and women, whose household were in the lower socio economic status reported more back pain (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR for men 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.02, 2.55 and AOR for women 1.57, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.34. Men with lower educational qualification reported more back pain (AOR 1.89, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.31. In women, those who have undergone caesarean section (AOR 1.661, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.72 and sterilization (AOR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.44 were found to be a positively associated with low back pain. The only socioeconomic link with back pain among women seemed to be manual occupation (AOR 3.33, 95% CI: 1.49, 7.4. The finding confirms the higher burden of back pain on the socially disadvantaged, but cannot yet be explained by known risk factors.
Roed, Torsten; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Knudsen, Andreas
-infected individuals from a general population survey. We examined traditional coronary artery disease risk factors, metabolic syndrome, carotid intima media thickness, and a range of endothelial biomarkers. RESULTS: Patients with chronic hepatitis C had more hypertension (40% versus 25%, prevalence ratio [PR] 1.6; 95....../high-density lipoprotein ratio), higher glycosylated hemoglobin level (mean 6.2 versus 5.7, difference of means 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.8), and a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (28% versus 18%, PR 1.6; 95% CI 0.8-3.0). Increased carotid intima media thickness above the standard 75th percentile was seen more frequently...
Conclusion: There is growing evidence of increased prevalence of hypothyroidism in dialysis-independent CKD patients. A number of findings such as lower serum albumin, serum calcium, and hemoglobin levels and higher intact parathyroid hormone levels are seen in this group. Specific treatment can help improve these. Hence, there is a need to formulate guidelines to screen this population for hypothyroidism.
Anand M Dixit, Pankaj K Jain, Renu Agarwal, Sandip Gupta, Sushil K Shukla, Vidya Rani
Conclusion: Prevalence is quite higher. Awareness regarding ill effect on health is poor. False perception of well-being among users is higher. Those who want to quit tobacco are not able to get proper assistance. Poor and illit-erate individuals living in rural area are at the maximum risk of using tobacco."
Jackson, Yves; Sebo, Paul; Aeby, Gaelle; Bovier, Patrick; Ninet, Beatrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; Sudre, Philippe; Haller, Dagmar; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans
Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CTI) is the most frequent sexually transmitted infection in western countries. Its prevalence in undocumented immigrants, a rapidly growing vulnerable population, remains unknown. We aimed to document the prevalence of CTI and associated factors at the primary health care level. This cross-sectional study included all undocumented immigrants attending a health care facility in Geneva, Switzerland. Participants completed a questionnaire and were tested for CTI by PCR assay. Three-hundred thirteen undocumented immigrants (68.4% female, mean age 32.4 (SD 8) years) agreed to participate. CTI prevalence was 5.8% (95% CI 3.3-8.4). Factors associated with higher prevalence were age ≤25 (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.3-12.2) and having had two or more sexual partners during the precedent year (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.5-13.7). Prevalence and associated factors for infection in this vulnerable population were comparable with other populations in Western countries. Our findings support the importance of facilitating access to existing screening opportunities in particular to individuals at higher risk.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding of the transmission dynamics of tuberculosis (TB in high TB and HIV prevalent settings is required in order to develop effective intervention strategies for TB control. However, there are little data assessing incidence of TB infection in adolescents in these settings. Methods We performed a tuberculin skin test (TST and HIV survey among secondary school learners in a high HIV and TB prevalence community. TST responses to purified protein derivative RT23 were read after 3 days. HIV-infection was assessed using Orasure® collection device and ELISA testing. The results of the HIV-uninfected participants were combined with those from previous surveys among primary school learners in the same community, and force of TB infection was calculated by age. Results The age of 820 secondary school participants ranged from 13 to 22 years. 159 participants had participated in the primary school surveys. At a 10 mm cut-off, prevalence of TB infection among HIV-uninfected and first time participants, was 54% (n = 334/620. HIV prevalence was 5% (n = 40/816. HIV infection was not significantly associated with TST positivity (p = 0.07. In the combined survey dataset, TB prevalence was 45% (n = 645/1451, and was associated with increasing age and male gender. Force of infection increased with age, from 3% to 7.3% in adolescents ≥20 years of age. Conclusions We show a high force of infection among adolescents, positively associated with increasing age. We postulate this is due to increased social contact with infectious TB cases. Control of the TB epidemic in this setting will require reducing the force of infection.
Escobedo, Jorge; Schargrodsky, Herman; Champagne, Beatriz; Silva, Honorio; Boissonnet, Carlos P; Vinueza, Raul; Torres, Marta; Hernandez, Rafael; Wilson, Elinor
Background Metabolic syndrome increases cardiovascular risk. Limited information on its prevalence in Latin America is available. The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study included assessment of metabolic syndrome in 7 urban Latin American populations. Methods CARMELA was a cross-sectional, population-based, observational study conducted in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), and associated carotid atherosclerosis were investigated in 11,502 participants aged 25 to 64 years. Results Across CARMELA cities, metabolic syndrome was most prevalent in Mexico City (27%) and Barquisimeto (26%), followed by Santiago (21%), Bogota (20%), Lima (18%), Buenos Aires (17%), and Quito (14%). In nondiabetic participants, prevalence was slightly lower but followed a comparable ranking. Overall, 59%, 59%, and 73% of women with high triglycerides, hypertension, or glucose abnormalities, respectively, and 64%, 48% and 71% of men with abdominal obesity, hypertension, or glucose abnormalities, respectively, had the full metabolic syndrome. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with age, markedly so in women. Mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCAIMT) and prevalence of carotid plaque increased steeply with increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome components; mean CCAIMT was higher and plaque more prevalent in participants with metabolic syndrome than without. Conclusion The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components by NCEP ATP III criteria was substantial across cities, ranging from 14% to 27%. CARMELA findings, including evidence of the association of metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis, should inform appropriate clinical and public health interventions. PMID
Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome increases cardiovascular risk. Limited information on its prevalence in Latin America is available. The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA study included assessment of metabolic syndrome in 7 urban Latin American populations. Methods CARMELA was a cross-sectional, population-based, observational study conducted in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III, and associated carotid atherosclerosis were investigated in 11,502 participants aged 25 to 64 years. Results Across CARMELA cities, metabolic syndrome was most prevalent in Mexico City (27% and Barquisimeto (26%, followed by Santiago (21%, Bogota (20%, Lima (18%, Buenos Aires (17%, and Quito (14%. In nondiabetic participants, prevalence was slightly lower but followed a comparable ranking. Overall, 59%, 59%, and 73% of women with high triglycerides, hypertension, or glucose abnormalities, respectively, and 64%, 48% and 71% of men with abdominal obesity, hypertension, or glucose abnormalities, respectively, had the full metabolic syndrome. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with age, markedly so in women. Mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCAIMT and prevalence of carotid plaque increased steeply with increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome components; mean CCAIMT was higher and plaque more prevalent in participants with metabolic syndrome than without. Conclusion The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components by NCEP ATP III criteria was substantial across cities, ranging from 14% to 27%. CARMELA findings, including evidence of the association of metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis, should inform appropriate clinical and public health
Conclusions: High prevalence of obesity and overweight in school children indicate an urgent need to increase awareness via education and motivation of all stakeholders. This will go a long way in preventing childhood obesity and thus ultimately stemming the rising tide of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and cardio vascular disease in India. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3599-3603
Østerås, Berit; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika
Background Long-term musculoskeletal pain and negative stress are health risks with adverse long-term health effects, and these health risks seem to increase among young people. The mechanisms behind this are unclear. There is a need for a better understanding of perceived stress and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents, in order to improve health promotion and treatment approaches in this group. Methods Objectives were to evaluate the current prevalence of perceived stress and musculoskele...
Liu, Gang; Zong, Geng; Doty, Richard L; Sun, Qi
To estimate the prevalence of, and explore potential risk factors for, taste and smell dysfunction in the general population of the USA. A cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2013-2014). A total of 3519 men and women aged 40 years and older who participated in NHANES 2013-2014. Using the NHANES Pocket Smell Test, smell impairment was defined as failing to correctly identify 6 or more of the 8 odours. Taste impairment was defined as failing to correctly identify quinine or sodium chloride. The estimated prevalence was 13.5% for smell impairment, 17.3% for taste impairment and 2.2% for taste and smell impairment. For smell, but not taste, prevalence estimates increased with age and were higher in men and ethnic minorities. In backward stepwise logistic regression, low educational attainment, low family income and a history of asthma or cancer were independently associated with a higher prevalence of smell impairment, whereas light-to-moderate alcohol consumption (1-3 drinks/day) was associated with a lower prevalence of this condition. After multivariate adjustment, being non-Hispanic Black Americans, consuming ≥4 drinks of alcohol per day and having a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were independently associated with a higher prevalence of taste impairment. Based on a nationally representative multistage probability survey among the US population aged 40 years and older, smell and taste dysfunction affected ∼20.5 million (13.5%) and 26.3 million (17.3%) individuals, respectively. Age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, family income, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and history of asthma or cancer were significant risk factors for smell dysfunction, whereas only ethnicity, heavy alcohol consumption and CVD history were associated with a higher prevalence of taste dysfunction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use
Cabrera-León, Andrés; Rueda, María; Cantero-Braojos, Miguel
Objectives To calculate the prevalence of disabling chronic pain (DCP) and to offer a more representative and accurate estimation by applying different calibration techniques. Settings 2011 Andalusian Health Survey, a cross-sectional population survey based on face-to-face home interviews. Participants 6507 people aged 16 years or older and living in Andalusia, Spain. Outcomes Design weights, linear calibration based on marginals and on crossings, and model-assisted calibration were used to estimate the prevalence and variance of DCP, for the whole sample and for the domains of sex and age groups (16–44; 45–64; +65). Results Calibration variables were sex, age groups and educational level. In the whole sample, DCP prevalence calibration reduced by more than 5.2% and 8.2% the estimated prevalences and variances, respectively, obtained with the design weights. Regarding the domains, prevalence reductions are from 33% to 1%, and variance reductions are from 0.2% to 1%. Model-assisted calibration is the best technique to estimate DCP prevalence for the whole population and crossing calibration for their domains, although with almost no differences compared to marginal calibration. Conclusions The validity and accuracy of estimations of DCP prevalence are improved by calibration adjustments. Model-assisted calibrated prevalence of DCP is 10.78% for the whole population, being at least 2-fold higher in women in all age groups. The results and methodology developed could be useful in clinical and population-based studies on chronic pain and disability. PMID:28137930
Samper Ots, Pilar Ma; Muñoz García, Julia Luisa; Ríos Kavadoy, Yesika; Couselo Paniagua, Ma Luz; Villafranca Iturre, Elena; Rodríguez Liñán, Milagrosa; Pérez Casas, Ana María; Soria, Rodrigo Muelas; Martínez, Blanca Ludeña; Torrecilla, José López; Giner, Manuel Casaña; Laborda, Almudena Zapatero; García-Salazar, Ma Magdalena Márquez
Aim To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and osteoporosis in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) treated with radical radiotherapy (RT) with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Background Worldwide, the prevalence of MetS is estimated to range from 20% to 25% of the adult population. However, prevalence rates are much higher in PCa patients (pts) who undergo ADT. Materials and methods Multicentre cross-sectional study of 270 pts in Spain with PCa. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on the duration of ADT (6, 12–18, ≥24 months) and compared to a control group without ADT. MetS was defined according to NCEP ATP III criteria. Osteoporosis was assessed by DEXA. Results A total of 270 pts, treated from November 2011 to October 2012, were included. Of these, 122 pts (47%) fulfilled the criteria for MetS. The median age of this group was significantly higher (71.3 vs. 69.38 years, p = 0.028). MetS prevalence was 50% in the control group. In pts who received ADT, prevalence was 44.8% after 6 months of ADT, 45.3% after 12–18 months, and 50% after ≥24 months (pns). Most pts (168/270; 62%) underwent DEXA. Of those tested, 78 (46.4%) had osteopenia and only 11 (6.5%) had osteoporosis. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS in pts with PCa treated with radical RT was higher (47%) than in the general population. However, there were no significant differences in the duration of ADT administration. The prevalence of osteoporosis was low. These findings suggest that the prevalence of MetS in PCa patients may be higher than previously reported. PMID:26549995
Nielen Markus MJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is accumulating evidence for an increased cardiovascular burden in inflammatory arthritis, but the true magnitude of this cardiovascular burden is still debated. We sought to determine the prevalence rate of non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD in inflammatory arthritis, diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis (non-systemic inflammatory comparator compared to controls, in primary care. Methods Data on CVD morbidity (ICPC codes K75 (myocardial infarction, K89 (transient ischemic attack, and/or K90 (stroke/cerebrovascular accident from patients with inflammatory arthritis (n = 1,518, diabetes mellitus (n = 11,959, osteoarthritis (n = 4,040 and controls (n = 158,439 were used from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH, a large nationally representative primary care based cohort. Data were analyzed using multi-level logistic regression analyses and corrected for age, gender, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Results CVD prevalence rates were significantly higher in inflammatory arthritis, diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis compared with controls. These results attenuated - especially in diabetes mellitus - but remained statistically significant after adjustment for age, gender, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia for inflammatory arthritis (OR = 1.5 (1.2-1.9 and diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.3 (1.2-1.4. The association between osteoarthritis and CVD reversed after adjustment (OR = 0.8 (0.7-1.0. Conclusions These results confirm an increased prevalence rate of CVD in inflammatory arthritis to levels resembling diabetes mellitus. By contrast, lack of excess CVD in osteoarthritis further suggests that the systemic inflammatory load is critical to the CVD burden in inflammatory arthritis.
Piyusha Mahashabde, Vinod K Arora, Shireen Sharma, Ahmed Shahjada, H M Dabhi
Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnancy accounts for one fifth of maternal death worldwide. The association between anaemia and adverse pregnancy outcome, higher incidence of preterm & low birth weight deliveries has been demonstrated. However, nutritional anaemia in pregnancy remains one of the India’s major public health problems, despite of the fact that this problem is largely preventable. Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women and to determine association of anaemia and socio-demographic factors. Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who came to outpatient unit of obstetrics and gynecology department during March- May 2013 by using pre-designed, pretested structured schedule. Written consent was taken. Hemoglobin estimation was done by Sahli’s method and anaemia was graded according to WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS Version 20. Result: - Overall prevalence of anaemia among the pregnant women was found to be 63%.It was seen that 23% of women were illiterate and 58.7% of them belong to upper lower class. Factors such as level of education of women, occupation, age at first pregnancy and consumption of Iron Folic Acid were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anae-mia in pregnancy. Conclusion: - A very high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy needs mandatory regular supply of IFA tablets to adolescent and pregnant women along with correction of other nutritional deficiencies and timely intervention for reducing the burden of related diseases.
Wang, Cheng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Han, Hepeng; Shi, Yuxia; Yu, Guangqian; Sun, Dianjun
Objective To assess the effects of provided fluoride-safe drinking-water for the prevention and control of endemic fluorosis in China. Design A national cross-sectional study in China. Setting In 1985, randomly selected villages in 27 provinces (or cities and municipalities) in 5 geographic areas all over China. Participants Involved 81 786 children aged from 8 to 12 and 594 698 adults aged over 16. Main outcome measure The prevalence of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis, the fluoride concentrations in the drinking-water in study villages and in the urine of subjects. Results The study showed that in the villages where the drinking-water fluoride concentrations were higher than the government standard of 1.2 mg/l, but no fluoride-safe drinking-water supply scheme was provided (FNB areas), the prevalence rate and index of dental fluorosis in children, and prevalence rate of clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were all significantly higher than those in the historical endemic fluorosis villages after the fluoride-safe drinking-water were provided (FSB areas). Additionally, the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis as well as clinical skeletal fluorosis, and the concentration of fluoride in urine were found increased with the increase of fluoride concentration in drinking-water, with significant positive correlations in the FNB areas. While, the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis in different age groups and their degrees of prevalence were significantly lower in the FSB areas than those in the FNB areas. Conclusions The provision of fluoride-safe drinking-water supply schemes had significant effects on the prevention and control of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. The study also indicated that the dental and skeletal fluorosis is still prevailing in the high-fluoride drinking-water areas in China. PMID:23015601
Ratnakaran, B; Prabhakaran, A; Karunakaran, V
Background and Rationale: Residents work in emotionally demanding environments with multiple stressors. The risk for burnout is high in them and it has significant negative consequences for their career. Burnout is also associated with consequences in terms of physical and mental health including insomnia, cardiovascular disease, depression and suicidal ideation. Thus, the study aimed to study the prevalence of burn out and its correlates among interns and residents at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Settings and Design: Cross Sectional Study at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Methods: It was a cross Sectional study of 558 interns and residents of Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Data was collected which included the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory [CBI] which assesses burnout in the dimensions of Personal burnout, Work burnout and Patient related burnout, with a cut off score of 50 for each dimension. Age, sex, year of study, department the resident belonged to, or an intern, junior resident or a super speciality senior resident (resident doing super speciality course after their post graduate masters degree) were the correlates assessed. Statistical analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: More than one third of the participants were found to have burnout in one or another dimension of the CBI. Burnout was found to be the highest among the interns in the domains of personal burnout (64.05 %) and patient related burnout (68.62 %) and in junior residents for work related burnout (40%). Super specialty senior residents had the least prevalence of burnout in all three dimensions. Among the residents, Non Medical/Non Surgical residents had the least prevalence of burnout in all three dimensions, whereas surgical speciality residents had the highest of personal burnout (57.92 %) and Medical speciality residents had the highest patient related burnout (27.13%). Both medical and
Janak, Jud C; Pérez, Adriana; Alamgir, Hasanat; Orman, Jean A; Cooper, Sharon P; Shuval, Kerem; DeFina, Laura; Barlow, Carolyn E; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee
U.S. military service confers both health benefits and risks potentially associated with a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors called metabolic syndrome. However, the association between prior military service and metabolic syndrome has not sufficiently been examined. The purpose of the study was to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by prior military service status. Among 42,370 men (887 with prior military service) examined from 1979 to 2013 at the Cooper Clinic (Dallas, TX), we used a cross-sectional study design to examine the association between military service and metabolic syndrome. First, an unadjusted log binomial regression model was performed by regressing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome on prior service. This was followed by performing Kleinbaum's modeling strategy for assessing confounding. The same methodology was used to explore the association between individual metabolic syndrome risk factors and prior service. Prior military service was not significantly associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (PR=0.98, 0.89-1.07). None of the variables explored were identified as confounders. Participants with prior military service had lower prevalence of both elevated levels of triglycerides (PR=0.89, 0.80-0.99) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (PR=0.78, 0.70-0.88). They had a higher prevalence of elevated resting systolic blood pressure (PR=1.23, 1.12-1.35). However, none of these associations were significant after adjusting for identified confounders: age; cardiorespiratory fitness; and exam year. Study findings indicate that military service was not independently associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome or its components. Future research is warranted longitudinally assessing the impact of military service on long-term outcomes.
Ramharter, M; Harrison, N; Bühler, T; Herold, B; Lagler, H; Lötsch, F; Mombo-Ngoma, G; Müller, C; Adegnika, A A; Kremsner, P G; Makristathis, A
Tropheryma whipplei is the causative agent of Whipple's disease and has been detected in stools of asymptomatic carriers. Colonization has been associated with precarious hygienic conditions. There is a lack of knowledge about the epidemiology and transmission characteristics on a population level, so the aim of this study was to determine the overall and age-specific prevalence of T. whipplei and to identify risk factors for colonization. This molecular epidemiological survey was designed as a cross-sectional study in a rural community in Central African Gabon and inhabitants of the entire community were invited to participate. Overall prevalence assessed by real-time PCR and sequencing was 19.6% (95% CI 16-23.2%, n=91) in 465 stool samples provided by the study participants. Younger age groups showed a significantly higher prevalence of T. whipplei colonization ranging from 40.0% (95% CI 27.8-52.2) among the 0-4 year olds to 36.4% (95% CI 26.1-46.6) among children aged 5-10 years. Prevalence decreased in older age groups (p<0.001) from 12.6% (95% CI 5.8-19.4%; 11-20 years) to 9.7% (95% CI 5.7-13.6) among those older than 20. Risk factor analysis revealed young age, male sex, and number of people sharing a bed as factors associated with an increased risk for T. whipplei carriage. These results demonstrate that T. whipplei carriage is highly prevalent in this part of Africa. The high prevalence in early life and the analysis of risk factors suggest that transmission may peak during childhood facilitated through close person-to-person contacts.
Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Richardson, Julie; Pelaez-Ballestas, Ingris; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Lavis, John N; Wilson, Michael G; Wilkins, Seanne
This study aims to evaluate the impact of arthritis on the physical function of people living in a Maya-Yucateco rural community and to assess the association of known modifiable risk factors with the prevalence of overall arthritis and its main types (osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis). Using a cross-sectional, community-based census design, data collected from the adult population (≥18 years) of the Municipality of Chankom, Yucatán, México, were analyzed (n = 1523). Participants' physical function was assessed using a culturized version of the health assessment questionnaire disability index. Social, physical, and behavioral factors linked to overall arthritis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis, were assessed through the "Community-Oriented-Program-for-the-Control-of-Rheumatic-Diseases [COPCORD]" questionnaire. A physiatrist and a rheumatologist confirmed all osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis cases using the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Arthritis was confirmed in 169 cases (22 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 19-25) of those assessed for musculoskeletal symptoms (n = 779): osteoarthritis = 144, rheumatoid arthritis = 17, and non-specific arthritis = 8. Arthritis was associated with a higher prevalence of disability after controlling for age, gender, and number of comorbidities (odds ratio = 4.0, 95 % CI 3.0-6.0). Higher level of wealth was associated with lower arthritis prevalence (odds ratio = 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Higher body mass index was associated with higher hip and/or knee osteoarthritis prevalence (odds ratio = 1.1, 95 % CI 1.03-1.1). Arthritis is highly associated with disability in the Mayan people living in Chankom. The prevalence of arthritis in Chankom is associated with social factors, such as people's level of wealth, while the prevalence of low-extremity osteoarthritis is associated with people's body mass index.
Dong, Yuan; Qiu, Chao; Xia, Xueshan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jianqing
To assess the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and to investigate their mutual influences on infection status among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive injection drug users (IDUs). A cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV infected IDUs in Dali, China. The participants were tested for serological markers of HBV and HCV infection, alanine transaminase (ALT) activity and CD4(+) T cell count. HCV genotype was determined by sequencing. Of 529 patients, 498 (94.1 %) HIV infected IDUs agreed to participate. The overall prevalence of HCV infection (anti-HCV antibody positive) and spontaneous HCV clearance were 90.8 % (452/498) and 21.5 % (97/452), respectively. Of 411 subjects who had not received HBV vaccine, 296 (72.0 %) were positive for antibody against HBV core antigen (HBcAb), while 274 (66.7 %) were positive for both HCV antibody and HBcAb. HBV antigens were detected in 52 of the HBV-infected subjects (17.6 %). HCV clearance was associated with HBV antigenemia (p = 0.0002) and higher CD4(+) T cell count (p = 0.0294). Resolved HBV infection was associated with HCV genotype 3 (p = 0.0365). HBV and HCV infection are highly prevalent and mutually influence infection status in HIV-1 infected IDUs in Dali, China.
Khalilzadeh, Saeedhossein; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Afrand, Mohammadhosain
Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) varies among ethnic groups. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) for the first time in an ethnic population, specifically Zoroastrian citizens in Yazd, Iran whose ages were 30 or older. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, participants aged≥30 years were selected using systematic random sampling. An inventory, including socio-demographic data, was completed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Also, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine (Cr), and uric acid were measured. The latest criteria established by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) were used to diagnose DM. Results: The mean age of the participants (n=403) was 56.9±12.8 years. The total prevalence of diabetes, including previously diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, IFG, and IGT was 26.1%, 18.6%, 7.5%, 34.7% and 25.8%, respectively. Participants with diabetes had higher fasting blood sugar (FBS) (PZoroastrian population of Yazd, Iran. One-third of the total cases with diabetes were undiagnosed. PMID:26052411
Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD risk factors are increasingin developing counties. Previous studies have shown a high prevalence of CADrisk factors in Iran but Geographical prevalence is not uniform. The presentstudy was performed to determine the prevalence of CAD risk factors among Yazdurban population. Method: This cross- sectional study performed in 2004, comprised atotal 2000 Yazd citizens (1000 males, and the corresponding data were recordedin questionnaires carrying 500 items.Results: About 85% of Yazd citizens had at least one and 61.1% had atleast two coronary artery diseases. The following data in brackets refer to themales and females respectively. The present study showed obesity in 16.38% ofYazd citizens (9.2 and 24.2%. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia 12.1%(10.6 and 13.8%, dyslipidemia 58.5% (59% and 57.6%, high blood pressure 25.6%(27.5% and 23.5%, diabetes mellitus 11% (10.48% and 11.5%, impaired glucosetolerance test 8.5% (7.9% and 9.1% and cigarette smoking 13.12% (24.45% and0.5%. Also 43.3% of men and 62.05% of women had excess weight. The prevalenceof hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertention(HTN, and abdominal obesity increased significantly with age (P< 0.005. Theprevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, hypercholesterolemia and DM weresignificantly higher in women. Conclusion: Yazd did not carry the highest levels of risk factors inIran, but the present study showed excess weight, dislipidemia and HTN were themost prevalent risk factors found in this region. Thus it is recommended toconsider the preventive and therapeutic measures as the major hygienicpriorities in this area.
Nsoh, Fuh Anold; Wung, Buh Amos; Atashili, Julius; Benjamin, Pokam Thumamo; Marvlyn, Eba; Ivo, Keumami Katte; Nguedia, Assob Jules Clément
Access to potable water remains a major challenge particularly in resource-limited settings. Although the potential contaminants of water are varied, enteric pathogenic protozoa are known to cause waterborne diseases greatly. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of enteric pathogenic protozoa in drinking water sources in Buea, Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was conducted using 155 water samples collected from various drinking sources (boreholes, springs, taps and wells). Each sample was subjected to physicochemical examinations (pH, turbidity, odour and sliminess) and parasitological analysis (wet mount, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain) to determine the presence of enteric pathogenic protozoa. A data collection tool was used to note characteristics of collected samples and the data was analysed using EPI-INFO Version 3.5.3. The overall prevalence of enteric pathogenic protozoa in water sources was 62.6 %. Eight species of enteric protozoa were observed with Cryptosporidium parvum being the most predominant (45.8 %). Spring water was the most contaminated source with enteric protozoa (85.7 %) while pipe borne water had all eight species of protozoa identified. A pH of 6 was the only significant factor associated with the prevalence of these pathogens in water sources. The prevalence of enteric protozoa in water sources in Molyko and Bomaka is high, spring water is the most contaminated water source and Cryptosporidium parvum is the most common protozoa contaminating water. A water pH of 6 is associated to the prevalence of protozoa. Community members need to be educated to treat water before drinking to avoid infection by enteric protozoa in water and further studies with larger samples of water need to be conducted to find other correlates of the presence of protozoa in water.
Shaw Souradet Y
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have demonstrated the significance of commercial sex work in the ongoing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in India. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs are thought to be an important bridging population for HIV/STIs. However, there is a lack of information on basic characteristics of sex work clients. This study sought to describe the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, as well as examine the determinants of these pathogens among a sample of clients in south India. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional biological and behavioural survey of FSW clients from six districts in Karnataka State, India. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, chlamydia (CT and gonorrhoea (NG among clients was examined. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and sex-work related characteristics related to the prevalence of each pathogen. Sampling weights and appropriate survey methods were utilized in regression models to account for complex sampling design. Results The total sample size was 2,745. The average age of clients was 30.4 (SE:0.3. Across the total sample, the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis and CT/NG was 5.6%, 28.4%, 3.6% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV/STIs varied substantially across districts, reaching statistical significance for HIV (p Conclusions This study fills in important gaps in knowledge regarding clients in southern India. The strong association between HIV and HSV-2 infections highlights the complications in designing effective prevention, intervention and management programs of this well-hidden population.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dermatological diseases vary widely as a result of geographic location climate socioeconomic status and personal habits and internal factors such as age gender and heredity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the main causes for outpatient visits in dermatology outpatient clinic in RIMS Kadapa. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The outpatient clinic records of the department of dermatology RIMS Kadapa, dated between 1 st March 2014 t o 1 st March 2015 were retrospectively assessed. Patients were grouped according to age, gender, and clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 8,545 new patients with 9,416 skin problems were included in the study. The study group was 52.3% female and 47.7% m ale. The age range was between 1 and 99 years. The most commonly encountered diseases were: contact dermatitis (11.7% of patients, scabies (8.9%, fungal infections (8.9%, urticaria (6.0%, acne (4.4% each. CONCLUSION: It appears that certain skin disea ses contact dermatitis, scabies, fungal infections, urticaria, and acne causes serious health problems. P ublic health policies should be implemented in order to manage these problems rationally.
Paarup, Helene M.; Baelum, Jesper; Holm, Jonas W
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal symptoms are common in the neck, back, and upper limbs amongst musicians. Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders have been found to range from 32% to 87% with a tendency for female musicians to have more problems than males. Studies of musculoskeletal...... longer than in the general workforce. This applied to both genders. CONCLUSIONS: Within the last year most symphony orchestra musicians experienced musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck, back or upper extremities. The symptoms impacted on their level of function in and outside work and were reflected...
Misiołek, Aleksandra; Gil-Monte, Pedro R; Misiołek, Hanna
The purpose of the study was to assess the burnout levels in nurses (N = 161) versus physicians (N = 373). The levels of burnout were evaluated by the Polish adaptation of the Spanish Burnout Inventory (Cronbach's alpha > .70). High burnout level was found in 18.63 percent nurses and 12.06 percent anesthesiologists, and critical level in 3.74 percent nurses and 5.90 percent anesthetists. There were statistically significant differences in Burnout global score, Enthusiasm toward the job, Psychological exhaustion, and Indolence subscales between nurses and physicians. No significant differences were found between sexes in any variable.
Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years obesity has become very common health concern worldwide. Much debate has been generated regarding the increasing incidence of obesity among children and adolescents with respect to their long term health benefits. Obesity has always been associated with what we eat and how we eat. Thus, the objective of our present study was to determine the relationship between eating speed and obesity among medical students of Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal, India. We also aimed at finding out the factors that affect the eating speed of a person. Methods: A survey was conducted for the first year medical students of MMMC, Manipal campus. The participants consisted of 506 students aged 18-24 years. The survey included a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included a diet history items that required recall of dietary habits over 2 months. Weight and height of the participants were taken in order to calculate Body mass index (BMI, which was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. Comparison between the speed of eating and the BMI values were obtained for analysis. Results: Our results showed that the majority of the obese subjects are linked to very fast eating rate which is less than 15 minutes. It is made up of 65% of the total number of subjects in obese category. Conclusion: Our study, found a positive correlation between the eating rates and BMI in students between the age group 18-24. This shows that the rate of eating can be a causative factor for obesity.
Winter, Mareen; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo
Many epidemiological studies point to an increased risk of breast cancer among female airline cabin crew. Possible causes include occupational factors (e.g. cosmic radiation exposure, chronodisruption), as well as lifestyle and reproductive factors. To investigate the frequency of various risk factors in German flight attendants which are recognised to be associated with breast cancer. 2708 current and former female cabin crew were randomly selected by a flight attendants' union and mailed a questionnaire; 1311 responded (48% response). Descriptive statistics were used to compare the distribution of breast cancer risk factors with general German population data. On average, cabin crew were 3.0 cm (95% CI 2.7-3.3) taller than the comparison group, while their body mass index was 2.5 kg/m(2) (95% CI 2.4-2.6) lower. We found less use of hormone replacement therapy, but longer average use of oral contraceptives. Nulliparity among respondents aged 45+ was 57% (95% CI 54%-60%) compared to 16%. Average age at first birth was 32.1 years (95% CI 31.7-32.4) vs. 25.5 years. The birth rate was 0.62 (95% CI 0.58-0.67), less than half the population average of 1.34. Alcohol consumption was considerably higher, whereas cabin crew tended to smoke less and performed more physical exercise. We found important differences in terms of anthropometric, gynaecological, reproductive and lifestyle factors. Some of these differences (e.g. higher nulliparity, alcohol consumption, taller size) could contribute to a higher breast cancer risk, whereas others could lead to a reduction (e.g. increased physical exercise, lower BMI, less HRT use).
Macías-García, Fernando; Llovo-Taboada, José; Díaz-López, Mario; Bastón-Rey, Iria; Domínguez-Muñoz, Juan Enrique
The rate of H. pylori resistance to different antibiotics is increasing and determines the selection of eradication therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance patterns of H. pylori strains in our area. Biopsies from gastric corpus for microbiological culture and antibiotic resistance were obtained in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspepsia. Selective Agar Pylori for isolation of the bacteria and Agar Mueller-Hinton supplemented with blood to test the sensitivity to antibiotics were used. Presence of H. pylori was confirmed using direct observation with phase-contrast microscopy and/or smears stained with acridine orange. In vitro bacterial susceptibility to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, rifampicin, tetracycline, metronidazole, and levofloxacin was tested using diffusion MIC test strips. Minimum inhibitory concentration values were determined based on the 6th version of the EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) Clinical Breakpoint (2016). Two hundred and seventeen patients were included (58.1% female, median age 64 years, range 25-92). H. pylori was identified in 108 patients (49.8%); culture and antibiogram were completed in 77 of them (71.3% of H. pylori-positive patients). The resistance rates were as follows: levofloxacin 38.7%, rifampicin 33.3%, metronidazole 27% and clarithromycin 22.4%. No case of amoxicillin or tetracycline resistance was identified. Dual clarithromycin-metronidazole resistance was observed in 10% of strains, whereas multiple drug-resistant was observed in 14.2%. Resistance rate of H. pylori to antibiotics is high in the northwest of Spain. The high resistance to levofloxacin and clarithromycin advises against their wide empirical use of these antibiotics in eradication regimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood is the most vulnerable phase in the life of human being, nutritional inadequacies will result in the hampering of the development of the body. If this nutritional inadequacy is continued for a long period of time it results into malnourishment. So the current study was undertaken to know the prevalence of malnutrition in under five children in urban field practice area. METHODS: The present study was a cross sectional study conducted in urban field practice area Rajapur which include 759 children whom 450 males and 309 females. Anthropometric data was collected from the study population and analysis was done according to IAP Classification. RESULTS: The percentage of underweight among under five children according IAP classification was 37.94%. Agewise distribution of malnourishment was found to be more 25% in 1 - 2 years. Males were more malnourished 51.04% than females. CONCLUSION: Malnourishment was more prevalent in 1 - 2 years and 2 - 3 years and in the SES IV followed by III. Mothers should be taught regarding the treatment of the common ailments in the house such as diarrhea using homemade ORS and to monitor the growth of their children by regular weighting and noting on the WHO growth charts, so that the growth faltering can be diagnosed at an earlier stage and the necessary timely interventions can be taken.
Dorte Ejg Jarbøl
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalent use of drugs targeting obstructive lung diseases among adults aged 50 or above in Greenland and to assess the use of spirometry testing among these medication users. Study design. Observational cross-sectional study based on reviews of electronic medical records. Methods. The study was performed in the 6 largest primary healthcare clinics in Greenland, representing approximately 67.0% of the population in Greenland. Adults aged 50 years or above, who had at least one electronically prescribed drug targeting obstructive lung diseases within a 15-month time interval, were identified. We assessed whether a spirometry test was registered in their medical records within previous 2- and 4-year periods. Results. A total of 565 persons were identified. This corresponds to a prevalent medication use of 6.1% (565/9,023 among adults aged 50 years or above. Among these medication users, 14.1% (80/565 had a spirometry test performed within 2 years. Within the 4-year period this increased to 17.9% (101/565. Conclusion. The use of medication targeting obstructive lung diseases in Greenland among adults aged 50 years or above is common. However, spirometry testing among medication users is low and interventions aiming to increase focus on spirometry testing should be integrated in the primary healthcare system.
Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Poustchi, Hossein; Kamangar, Farin; Golozar, Asieh; Etemadi, Arash; Khademi, Hooman; Freedman, Neal D; Merat, Shahin; Garg, Vaani; Fuster, Valentin; Wakefield, Jon; Dawsey, Sanford M; Pharoah, Paul; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C; Malekzadeh, Reza; Boffetta, Paolo
Water-pipe and smokeless tobacco use have been associated with several adverse health outcomes. However, little information is available on the association between water-pipe use and heart disease (HD). Therefore, we investigated the association of smoking water-pipe and chewing nass (a mixture of tobacco, lime and ash) with prevalent HD. Cross-sectional study. Baseline data (collected in 2004-2008) from a prospective population-based study in Golestan Province, Iran. 50 045 residents of Golestan (40-75 years old; 42.4% men). ORs and 95% CIs from multivariate logistic regression models for the association of water-pipe and nass use with HD prevalence. A total of 3051 (6.1%) participants reported a history of HD, and 525 (1.1%) and 3726 (7.5%) reported ever water-pipe or nass use, respectively. Heavy water-pipe smoking was significantly associated with HD prevalence (highest level of cumulative use vs never use, OR=3.75; 95% CI 1.52 to 9.22; p for trend=0.04). This association persisted when using different cut-off points, when restricting HD to those taking nitrate compound medications, and among never cigarette smokers. There was no significant association between nass use and HD prevalence (highest category of use vs never use, OR=0.91; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.20). Our study suggests a significant association between HD and heavy water-pipe smoking. Although the existing evidence suggesting similar biological consequences of water-pipe and cigarette smoking make this association plausible, results of our study were based on a modest number of water-pipe users and need to be replicated in further studies.
Mahteme Haile Workneh
Full Text Available The association between diabetes mellitus (DM and tuberculosis (TB is re-emerging worldwide. Recently, the prevalence of DM is increasing in resource poor countries where TB is of high burden. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and analyze associated factors of TB and DM comorbidity in South-Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia.This was a facility based cross-sectional study. All newly diagnosed TB patients attending selected health facilities in the study area were consecutively screened for DM. DM was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, lifestyles and clinical data. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with TB and DM comorbidity.Among a total of 1314 patients who participated in the study, the prevalence of DM was estimated at 109 (8.3%. Being female [odds ratio (OR 1.70; 95% confidence interval (CI (1.10-2.62], patients age [41-64 years (OR 3.35; 95% CI (2.01-5.57, 65-89 years (OR 3.18; 95% CI (1.52-6.64], being a pulmonary TB case [(OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.09-2.63] and having a family history of DM [(OR 4.54; 95% CI (2.36-8.73] were associated factors identified with TB and DM comorbidity.The prevalence of DM among TB patients in South-Eastern Amahra Region is high. Routine screening of TB patients for DM is recommended in the study area.
Ferreira, Valquíria Pereira; da Silva, Maria Arleide; Noronha Neto, Carlos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Chaves, Cynthia Vasconcelos; Bello, Rodrigo Pereira
The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the violence suffered by women accused of drug trafficking in the 24 months prior to incarceration in the Women's Penal Colony in the State of Pernambuco. A cross-sectional study including 290 women aged 18 and above, with up to twelve months imprisonment, was performed for the data collection period. A questionnaire was applied to research the socioeconomic and demographic variables and the characteristics of violence and drug trafficking. All of the participants signed a consent form. The association between variables and intensity of exposure and response were determined by the chi-square test and the values (p white, 85.8% unmarried with children, 83.3% had low education and 72.6% had income below the minimum wage. Furthermore, 56.9% were users of illicit drugs and 67.5% participated by performing some role in drug trafficking. A high prevalence of some form of violence suffered were observed in the population studied and the partner was the most frequent perpetrator (44.1%), calling for the authorities to pay greater attention in the actions of prevention of such violence.
Govind S Bhogale
Full Text Available Context: The prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in general hospital range from 20% to 60%. Presence of psychiatric morbidity compounds the disability and suffering in medical patients. There is a limited literature on the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in patients admitted in the intensive care units (ICUs. Aims: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and nature of comorbid psychiatric illness in the cases referred from ICUs. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: This study included all the consecutive patients referred from different ICUs to psychiatry department for consultation during the four-year period from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2003, assessment was done by psychiatrist and diagnosis was made using ICD-10. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics. Results: There were 309 (1.97% referrals from ICUs to psychiatry department during the period of study. Among the referred patients, diagnosis of organic mental disorders was the commonest psychiatric diagnosis present in 104 (33.65% patients followed by suicidal attempt in 101 (32.69%; anxiety disorders in 40 (12.94%; depressive disorders in 21 (6.8%; Psychotic illness in 10 (3.24%; other psychiatric illnesses in 28 (9.06%; and nil psychiatric illness in 5 (1.62% patients. Conclusion: Prevalence of psychiatric referrals from ICUs was low. This could be due to stigma and lack of awareness among physicians. There is increased need for recognition and treatment of comorbid psychiatric illness by the treating physicians which may help to decrease morbidity and overall cost of the treatment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In a cross sectional study of 88 indoor and outdoor English pig farms, the prevalence of foot and limb lesions in 2843 preweaning piglets aged 1–4 weeks from 304 litters was recorded. The environmental risks for the prevalence of lesions and population attributable fractions were calculated. The risks for lesions in piglets were compared with those for limb and body lesions in their mothers. A small number of piglets with each type of lesion were examined post mortem to elucidate the pathology of the clinical lesions observed. Results The prevalence of sole bruising, sole erosion, skin abrasion and swollen joints or claws in 2843 piglets was 49.4% (1404, 15.5% (441, 43.6% (1240 and 4.7% (143 respectively. The prevalence of all foot and limb lesions was higher in indoor housed piglets than in outdoor housed piglets. The prevalence of sole bruising (OR 0.3 and skin abrasion (OR 0.6 decreased with each week of age from 1–4 weeks, but there was no significant association between piglet age and the prevalence of sole erosion or swollen joints and claws. There was an increased prevalence of sole bruising (OR 3.0 and swollen joints or claws (OR 3.0 and a decreased prevalence of skin abrasion (OR 0.3, piglets ≤ 1-week old, in piglets housed on slatted floors, compared with those on solid concrete floors with bedding. There was an increased risk of sole erosion associated with piglets housed on partly slatted floors with no bedding (OR 2.4 and partly slatted floors with small amounts of bedding (OR 2.9 compared with piglets housed on solid concrete floors with bedding in all areas of the pen. Post mortem examination of feet with lesions indicated that internal pathological changes were frequently more severe than the degree of external damage suggested. Conclusion Piglets housed outdoors had a very low prevalence of foot and limb injuries. Indoors, no one floor type was ideal to minimise all piglet foot and limb injuries and the
RODRIGO NOBRE DE NOVAIS
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to determine the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome (BS for surgeons working in referral hospital for trauma in Maceio and to evaluate the possible correlation between BS and weekly workload. Methods: cross-sectional study with 43 on-call surgeons at Professor Osvaldo Brandão Vilela General State Hospital, Maceió, between July and December, 2015. A self-administered form was used to evaluate BS through the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and socio-demographic characteristics among participants. Spearman's S test was used to compare BS and weekly workload. Significant level was 5%. Results: among the surgeons studied, 95.35% were male and the mean age was 43.9 ± 8.95 years. The mean weekly workload on call in trauma was 33.90 ± 16.82 hours. The frequency of high scores in at least one of the three dimensions of MBI was 46.5%. Professional achievement was correlated with weekly workload (P = 0.020. Conclusion: the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome among on-call surgeons in referral hospital for trauma was 46.5%. In this sample there was correlation between weekly workload and the Burnout Syndrome.
Full Text Available Background - Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus are among the principal causes of severe liver disease. There is limited data of epidemiology of Hepatitis B in community, more so in rural population. Objective - To find the prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection in community and study the risk factors for their transmission. Methods - This was a community based cross sectional study. A total of 1833 randomly selected subjects from a rural area were interviewed for risk factors for transmission and tested for markers of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection. All the positive card tests were confirmed by ELISA. Results - Out of 2400 subjects, rate for participation was 76.38%. None of the subjects was positive for anti hepatitis C virus antibody. Point prevalence for HBsAg positivity was 0.92. Being healthcare worker and having tattoo were significantly associated with HBsAg positive results. Nose and ear piercing was reported by almost. History of blood or blood product transfusion, I/V drug abuse, multiple sexual partners, unsafe Injections, hemodialysis and any h/o surgery was not associated with HBsAg positivity. Conclusion - Health care workers are at high risk for transmission of hepatitis B. Educating common people regarding mode of transmission of Hepatitis B and C will help to reduce their transmission.
Full Text Available Abstract: Tobacco use is one of the behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate smoking prevalence in chronically ill residents and their smoking behavior in western rural China, to identify factors associated with success in quitting smoking, and to provide appropriate intervention strategies for tobacco control. Cross-sectional survey data from patients with chronic diseases from rural western China were analyzed. Among the 906 chronically ill patients, the current smoking prevalence was 26.2%. About 64.3% of smokers with chronic diseases attempted to quit smoking, 21.0% of which successfully quitted. The odds ratio (OR of smokers with only one chronic disease to quit smoking successfully was higher than that of those who have other diseases (OR = 2.037, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.060-3.912; p < 0.05. The smokers who were always restricted to smoking in public places were more likely to quit smoking successfully than those who were free to smoke (OR = 2.188, 95% CI = 1.116–4.291; p < 0.05. This study suggests that health literacy, comorbidity of diseases, and psychological counseling should be considered when developing targeted tobacco prevention strategies. Strengthening tobacco control measures in public places such as rural medical institutions will be effective.
Perera Priyantha J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries among young children are a global problem. Scant attention is paid towards primary teeth, leading to high prevalence of dental caries. There are only few studies done in Sri Lanka, addressing oral hygiene among preschool children. Scientific evidence is in need to persuade authorities to establish a programme promoting oral hygiene among preschool children. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Ragama Medical officer of Health area. Consecutive children between 2 – 5 years of age, attending child welfare clinics were recruited for the study. Practices related to dental hygiene and socio-economic characteristics were obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Mouth was examined for evidence of dental caries. Data collection and examination were done by two doctors who were trained for this purpose. The data were analysed using SSPS version 16. Results Total of 410 children were included. None had a routine visits to a dentist. Practices related to tooth brushing were satisfactory. Prevalence of dental caries gradually increased with age to reach 68.8% by 5 years. Mean total decayed-extracted-filled (deft score for the whole sample was 1.41 and Significant caries index (SIC was 4.09. Decayed tooth were the main contributor for the deft score and Care index was only 1.55. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of caries than boys. Conclusions Dental care provided for Sri Lankan preschool children appears to be unsatisfactory as prevalence of dental caries among this cohort of preschool children was very high. There is an urgent need to improve dental care facilities for Sri Lankan preschool children.
Rocha Dyhanne C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The repetitive strain injury syndrome (RSI is a worldwide occupational health problem affecting all types of economic activities. We investigated the prevalence and some risk factors for RSI and related conditions, namely 'symptoms of upper limbs' and 'RSI-like condition'. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with 395 bank workers in Recife, Northeast Brazil. Symptoms of upper limbs and 'RSI-like condition' were assessed by a simple questionnaire, which was used to screen probable cases of RSI. The diagnosis of RSI was confirmed by clinical examination. The associations of potential risk factors and the outcomes were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results We found prevalence rates of 56% for symptoms of the upper limbs and 30% for 'RSI-like condition'. The estimated prevalence of clinically confirmed cases of RSI was 22%. Female sex and occupation (as cashier or clerk increased the risk of all conditions, but the associations were stronger for cases of RSI than for less specific diagnoses of 'RSI-like condition' and symptoms of upper limbs. Age was inversely related to the risk of symptoms of upper limbs but not to 'RSI-like' or RSI. Conclusion The variation in the magnitude of risk according to the outcome assessed suggests that previous studies using different definitions may not be immediately comparable. We propose the use of a simple instrument to screen cases of RSI in population based studies, which still needs to be validated in other populations. The high prevalence of RSI and related conditions in this population suggests the need for urgent interventions to tackle the problem, which could be directed to individuals at higher risk and to changes in the work organization and environment of the general population.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are many discussions about dyslexia based on studies conducted in western countries, and some risk factors to dyslexia, such as gender and home literacy environment, have been widely accepted based on these studies. However, to our knowledge, there are few studies focusing on the risk factors of dyslexia in China. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of dyslexia and its potential risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qianjiang, a city in Hubei province, China. Two stages sampling strategy was applied to randomly selected 5 districts and 9 primary schools in Qianjiang. In total, 6,350 students participated in this study and there were 5,063 valid student questionnaires obtained for the final analyses. Additional questionnaires (such as Dyslexia Checklist for Chinese Children and Pupil Rating Scale were used to identify dyslexic children. The chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were employed to reveal the potential risk factors to dyslexia. RESULTS: Our study revealed that the prevalence of dyslexia was 3.9% in Qianjiang city, which is a middle-sized city in China. Among dyslexic children, the gender ratio (boys to girls was nearly 3∶1. According to the P-value in the multivariate logistic regression, the gender (P<0.01, mother's education level (P<0.01, and learning habits (P<0.01 (active learning, scheduled reading time were associated with dyslexia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate of dyslexic children in middle-sized cities is 3.9%. The potential risk factors of dyslexic children revealed in this study will have a great impact on detecting and treating dyslexic children in China as early as possible, although more studies are still needed to further investigate the risk factors of dyslexic children in China.
Tay, Sun Kuie; Oon, Lynette Lin Ean
This study reports the prevalence and risk factors of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in healthy women in Singapore. Demography, education, sexual and reproductive history and cigarette smoking habits were obtained from a cross-sectional population of healthy women and girls aged above 12 years of age. Cervical or vaginal cytology samples were investigated for 37 known anogenital HPV subtypes using the linear array PCR method. Chi square statistics were used to test for associations of individual epidemiological factors with HPV infection. Independent risk factors were identified with binomial logistic regression analysis. Of 891 subjects, the prevalence of HPV infection was 9.31% (83/891 women) for any-type HPV and 5.05% (46/891 women) for the high-risk HPV (hrHPV). Of 30 HPV subtypes detected, the most prevalent genotypes in descending order of frequency were subtypes 51, 16, 52, 58 and 66 for hrHPV and subtypes 62, 61, 84, 72 and 53 for the low-risk HPV. This frequency distribution of HPV subtypes was different from reports from other countries within Asia. Forty-six virgins studied tested negative for HPV infection. Significant independent risk factors for any-type HPV infection were multiple sexual partners (adjusted OR 1.4) and low (≤6 years) educational level (adjusted OR 4.0). The distribution of HPV subtypes in healthy women varies between different countries within Asia. In Singapore, the prevalence of HPV infection was 9.31% and was related to penetrative sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners and low educational level.
Dawani, Narendar; Nisar, Nighat; Khan, Nazeer; Syed, Shahbano; Tanweer, Navara
Dental caries is highly prevalent and a significant public health problem among children throughout the world. Epidemiological data regarding prevalence of dental caries amongst Pakistani pre-school children is very limited. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar Town, Karachi, Pakistan and the factors related to caries. A cross-sectional study of 1000 preschool children was conducted in Saddar town, Karachi. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select the sample. At first stage, eight clusters were selected randomly from total 11 clusters. In second stage, from the eight selected clusters, preschools were identified and children between 3- to 6-years age group were assessed for dental caries. Caries prevalence was 51% with a mean dmft score being 2.08 (±2.97) of which decayed teeth constituted 1.95. The mean dmft of males was 2.3 (±3.08) and of females was 1.90 (±2.90). The mean dmft of 3, 4, 5 and 6-year olds was 1.65, 2.11, 2.16 and 3.11 respectively. A significant association was found between dental caries and following variables: age group of 4-years (p-value dental plaque (p-value dental caries coupled with a high prevalence of unmet dental treatment needs. Association between caries experience and age of child, consumption of non-sweetened milk, dental plaque and poor oral hygiene had been established.
Gillman, C E; Kilbride, A L; Ossent, P; Green, L E
A cross-sectional study of 93 farms in England was carried out to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors for bursitis. A total of 6250 pigs aged 6-22 weeks were examined for presence and severity of bursitis. Details of pen construction, pen quality and farm management were recorded including floor type, presence of bedding, condition of the floor and floor materials. The prevalence of bursitis was 41.2% and increased with each week of age (OR 1.1). Two-level logistic regression models were developed with the outcome as the proportion of pigs affected with bursitis in a pen. Pigs kept on soil floors with straw bedding were used as the reference level. In comparison with these soil floors, bursitis increased on concrete floors where the bedding was deep throughout (OR 4.6), deep in part (OR 3.7), and sparse throughout (OR 9.0), part slatted floors (OR 8.0), and fully slatted floors (OR 18.8). Slip or skid marks in the dunging area (OR 1.5), pigs observed slipping during the examination of the pen (OR 1.3) and wet floors (OR 3.6) were also associated with an increased risk of bursitis. The results indicate that bursitis is a common condition of growing pigs and that the associated risk factors for bursitis were a lack of bedding in the lying area, presence of voids and pen conditions which increased the likelihood of injury.
Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar
Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.
Baran Serdar Kizilyildiz
Full Text Available Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition- associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤−2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤−2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1- 2 years. We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.
Cerezo-Téllez, Ester; Torres-Lacomba, María; Mayoral-Del Moral, Orlando; Sánchez-Sánchez, Beatriz; Dommerholt, Jan; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Carlos
Chronic non-specific neck pain is a frequent complaint. It is a recognized medical and socioeconomic problem and a frequent cause of job absenteeism. In recent years, case reports about myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) are emerging among patients suffering from pain. MPS is a regional pain syndrome characterized by myofascial trigger points (MTrP) in palpable taut bands of skeletal muscle that refer pain to a distance, and that can cause distant motor and autonomic effects. To assess the prevalence of active and latent MTrPs in subjects suffering from chronic non-specific neck pain. A population-based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out from January 2012 to December 2014. Three primary healthcare centers in Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain). Two hundred and twenty-four participants diagnosed by their family doctor with chronic non-specific neck pain. Participants were examined by a physical therapist to determine the presence of MPS. Pain descriptions from the subjects and pain body diagrams guided the physical examination. The subjects were not given any information concerning MPS or other muscle pain syndromes. All participants presented with MPS. MTrPs of the trapezius muscles were the most prevalent, in 93.75% of the participants. The most prevalent active MTrPs were located right (82.1%) and left (79%) in the nearly-horizontal fibers of the upper trapezius muscle. Furthermore, active MTrPs in the levator scapulae, multifidi, and splenius cervicis muscles reached a prevalence of 82.14%, 77.68%, and 62.5%, respectively. MPS is a common source of pain in subjects presenting chronic non-specific neck pain. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Kaabi, Yousuf; Al-Farsi, Yousuf; White, Gillian; Al-Maniri, Abdullah; Al-Sinawi, Hamed; Al-Adawi, Samir
Objective To evaluate perceptions of being mistreated during internship among first year Oman Medical Specialty Board residents. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Training centres for Oman Medical Specialty Board. Participants First year medical residents following completion of internship during the study period 2009–2010. Method A cross-sectional survey of first year medical residents. Results Of 58 residents (response rate 84%), 96.6% perceived that mistreatment exists. Among different types of mistreatment reported, verbal and academic abuses were the most common (87.9%), followed by sexual harassment (24.1%), then physical abuse (22.4%). Forty-four (75.9%) residents had advised at least one of their relatives not to join medical school. Conclusions Mistreatment of medical interns is an ethical issue challenging the quality of clinical training. Further research is needed to understand factors influencing mistreatment and to draw guidelines to limit such problems. PMID:23396558
Khalaf, Atika; Westergren, Albert; Berggren, Vanja; Ekblom, Örjan; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M
Research about the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity in the Saudi Arabian female population is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the dietary habits and the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity and associated factors among female university students. A cross-sectional study. A university centre for female students in south-western Saudi Arabia. The study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who self-reported their physical activities, nutritional habits and socio-economic factors. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with the students' BMI, dietary variables, underweight and overweight/obesity. The majority of the university females were normal weight (56.9%), but a high prevalence of underweight (19.2%) and overweight/obesity (23.8%) occurred. Social factors significantly associated with BMI were the presence of obese parents and siblings as well as physical activity levels, marital status, number of sisters, father's level of education and more frequent intake of French fries/potato chips (>3 times/week). Several variables were found to correlate with dietary habits, underweight and overweight/obesity. Of special interest is the association between the number of siblings and the participants' BMI and dietary intake in both negative and positive ways. The findings of this research have implications for health promotion and prevention of malnutrition among college-aged females. Health-care providers and policy makers need to involve the whole family when promoting females' physical activity. The study serves as an evidence-based background for planning and implementation of interventions targeting improvement of highly educated populations' nutritional habits.
Full Text Available Aims Microalbuminuria (MA is a strong predictor of diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type-2 DM. The present study aimed to gather information on the prevalence and risk factors for MA in Indonesian patients with type-2 DM.Methods The DEMAND study was an international open cross-sectional 1-day survey on microalbuminuria prevalence and its risk factors in type-2 diabetic patients. This study reports the results of the Indonesian survey which was performed in primary care practice in Indonesia from June to December 2003. Normotensive or hypertensive adult patients of both genders with type-2 DM without known proteinuria and/or kidney disease were recruited into the study. Patients with known pregnancy, having menstruation or acute fever were excluded. A single urinary albumin/creatinine test was carried out in all patients.Results A total of 770 patients were eligible for analysis. Approximately 80% of the patients had micro-/ macroalbuminuria, while renal insufficiency was detected in about 36% of the 433 patients with available data. Target HbA1c (< 7% was reached by only 40% of the 118 patients who had HbA1c values. Most antidiabetic treatment prescribed was oral (82%, while insulin was used by only 14% of patients. Goal BP (< 130/80 mm Hg was achieved in only 9% of patients. The frequency of patients receiving antihypertensives was 52%, statins 18%, and aspirin 26%. The most frequently used antihypertensives were RAS blockers (45%, while diuretics were used in 7 % of the patients. The family history of DM was found in 43% of patients, the history of retinopathy in 16%, diabetic foot 9%, and history of smoking in 20% of patients.Conclusion These data reveal that Indonesia has one of the highest frequencies of silent diabetic kidney disease seen in any national group in the global DEMAND Study. Early detection, monitoring of vascular complications, and more aggressive multifactorial treatment aiming
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is described by the American Medical Association as "a pattern of coercive behaviors that may include repeated battering and injury, psychological abuse, sexual assault, progressive social isolation, deprivation, and intimidation." The long-term consequences of IPV include health risks, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and staggering economic costs for health care of victims. Intimate partner violence is often underreported among women who seek medical attention. The current study seeks to address the issue of possible underreporting of IPV in orthopaedic fracture clinics by establishing prevalence rates of IPV among women seeking treatment for musculoskeletal injuries. Methods/Design We propose a cross-sectional multicenter study wherein 3,600 women will complete a self-reported written questionnaire across clinical sites in North America, Europe, and Australia. Recruitment of participants will take place at orthopaedic fracture clinics at each clinical site. The questionnaire will contain a validated set of questions used to screen for IPV, as well as questions that pertain to the participant's demographic, injury characteristics, and experiences with health care utilization. Female patients presenting to the orthopaedic fracture clinics will complete two validated self-reported written questionnaires (Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS to determine the prevalence of IPV in the past 12 months and in their lifetime. The two questionnaires were designed for rapid assessment of IPV status in emergency departments, family practice, and women's health clinics that we believe are similar to our intended setting of an orthopaedic clinic. Discussion If the prevalence of IPV among women attending orthopaedic clinics is greater than the current perceptions of orthopaedic surgeons, this study will serve to advocate for the continued education of medical
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4 in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8 in females (p Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change.
Obai, Gerald; Odongo, Pancras; Wanyama, Ronald
Anaemia is a public health problem affecting over 1.62 billion people globally. It affects all age groups of people and is particularly more prevalent in pregnant women. Africa carries a high burden of anaemia; in Uganda 24 % of women of child bearing age have anaemia. Pregnant women living in poverty are at greater risk of developing iron deficiency anaemia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the associated risk factors in pregnant women attending antenatal care at Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals in Northern and Western Uganda respectively. We conducted a cross sectional study in Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals from July to October 2012. Our study participants were pregnant women attending antenatal care. Socio-demographic data were collected using structured questionnaires and blood samples were collected for haemoglobin estimation. Haemoglobin concentration was determined using an automated analyzer closed mode of blood sampling. Data were analysed using Stata version 12. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association, with 95% confidence interval; and independent risk factors for anaemia were investigated using logistic regression analyses. Ethical approval was obtained from Gulu University Research Ethics Committee and written informed consent was obtained from each study participant. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 22.1%; higher in Gulu (32.9%) than in Hoima (12.1%), p anaemia was 23%, moderate anaemia was 9%, and severe anaemia was 0.8%, while in Hoima, the prevalence of mild anaemia was 9%, moderate anaemia was 2.5%, and severe anaemia was 0.5%. Independent risk factors for anaemia were: being a housewife [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.05-2.68]; and being a resident in Gulu (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.41-5.58). The prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women in Gulu is higher than in Hoima. Amongst pregnancy women, being a housewife is an independent risk factor for anaemia. Greater efforts are
Eide, Helene K; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Sortland, Kjersti; Halvorsen, Kristin; Almendingen, Kari
There is a lack of accurate prevalence data on undernutrition and the risk of undernutrition among the hospitalised elderly in Europe and Norway. We aimed at estimating the prevalence of nutritional risk by using stratified sampling along with adequate power calculations. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the period 2011 to 2013 at a university hospital in Norway. Second-year nursing students in acute care clinical studies in twenty hospital wards screened non-demented elderly patients for nutritional risk, by employing the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS2002) form. In total, 508 patients (48·8 % women and 51·2 % men) with a mean age of 79·6 (sd 6·4) years were screened by the students. Mean BMI was 24·9 (sd 4·9) kg/m(2), and the patients had been hospitalised for on average 5·3 (sd 6·3) d. WHO's BMI cut-off values identified 6·5 % as underweight, 48·0 % of normal weight and 45·5 % as overweight. Patients nutritionally at risk had been in hospital longer and had lower average weight and BMI compared with those not at risk (all P nutritional risk was estimated to be 45·4 (95 % CI 41·7 %, 49·0) %, ranging between 20·0 and 65·0 % on different hospital wards. The present results show that the prevalence of nutritional risk among elderly patients without dementia is high, suggesting that a large proportion of the hospitalised elderly are in need of nutritional treatment.
Batson, Yvonne Ann; Teelucksingh, Surujpal; Maharaj, Rohan G; Cockburn, Brian N
Our previous work has shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus is a problem in the school-aged population of Trinidad, West Indies. The current study evaluated the prevalence in this population of selected risk factors for diabetes, viz: obesity, family history of diabetes and acanthosis nigricans. To assess the prevalence of the following risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in school children in Trinidad: obesity, family history of diabetes in first- or second-degree relatives and the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN). A cross-sectional survey was performed among school children aged 7-18 years from September 2009 to June 2010. A convenience sample was selected from a random sample of 32 schools drawn from all educational districts. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to record family history, gender and ethnicity. AN was assessed and scored clinically at the neck and obesity was measured by anthropometry and bio-impedance. There were 2130 participants in the study. Fifteen per cent were obese and 17% were overweight. Primary school children had a higher prevalence of obesity (22·9% vs 11·0%) and overweight (20·0% vs 15·6%) than secondary school children (Pobesity as measured by BMI for age (35·8 vs 29·4%, Pchildren have a degree of AN greater than grade 2, which clinically is readily recognisable. Females displayed this physical sign more commonly than males (Pchildren in Trinidad. More than 40% had at least one risk factor. Strategies aimed at reducing risk factors for T2DM, especially obesity, among Trinidadian school children are urgently warranted.
Laganà, G; Venza, N; Borzabadi-Farahani, A; Fabi, F; Danesi, C; Cozza, P
To analyze the prevalence and associations between dental anomalies detectable on panoramic radiographs in a sample of non-orthodontic growing subjects. For this cross-sectional study, digital panoramic radiographs of 5005 subjects were initially screened from a single radiographic center in Rome. Inclusion criteria were: subjects who were aged 8-12 years, Caucasian, and had good diagnostic quality radiographs. Syndromic subjects, those with craniofacial malformation, or orthodontic patients were excluded and this led to a sample of 4706 subjects [mean (SD) age = 9.6 (1.2) years, 2366 males and 2340 females]. Sample was subsequently divided into four subgroups (8, 9, 10, and 11-12 year-old groups). Two operators examined panoramic radiographs to observe the presence of common dental anomalies. The prevalence and associations between dental anomalies were also investigated. The overall prevalence of dental anomalies was 20.9%. Approximately, 17.9% showed only one anomaly, 2.7% two anomalies, while only 0.3% had more than two anomalies. The most frequent anomalies were the displacement of maxillary canine (7.5%), hypodontia (7.1%), impacted teeth (3.9%), tooth ankylosis (2.8%), and tooth transposition (1.4%). The lower right second premolar was the most frequent missing teeth; 3.7% had only one tooth agenesis, and 0.08% had six or more missing tooth (Oligodontia). Mesiodens was the most common type of supernumerary tooth (0.66%). Two subjects had taurodontic tooth (0.04%). Tooth transpositions and displacement of maxillary canine were seen in 1.4 and 7.5%, retrospectively (approximately 69 and 58% were in the 8 and 9 year-old groups, retrospectively). Significant associations were detected between the different dental anomalies (P < .05). The results of our study revealed significant associations among different dental anomalies and provide further evidences to support common etiological factors.
Shi, Lei; Wang, Lingling; Jia, Xiaoli; Li, Zhe; Mu, Huitong; Liu, Xin; Peng, Boshi; Li, Anqi; Fan, Lihua
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychological maladjustment to undergoing a traumatic event. Our aim was to measure the prevalence of PTSD among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence' and explore the associations of their demographic characteristics, social support, personality traits' and coping styles with their PTSD symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Workplace Violence Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale and Trait Coping Style Questionnaire. We used convenience sampling method to collect data from March 2015 to September 2016. Healthcare workers (n=2706) from 39 public hospitals located in Heilongjiang, Hebei and Beijing provinces of China completed the questionnaires (effective response rate=84.25%). Overall, the prevalence of physical violence in the previous 12 months was 13.60% (n=2706). The prevalence of PTSD among the healthcare workers who experienced physical violence was 28.0% (n=368). Most of the victims of physical violence (50.80%) did not exhibit PTSD symptoms based on their PCL-C scores, and 47.0% did not manifest the diagnostic criteria for PTSD after experiencing physical violence. The level of PTSD symptoms was negatively correlated with their scores on the SSRS (r=-0.188, pworkers' coping styles influenced the development of PTSD symptoms. Therefore, adopting effective coping styles and receiving social support have potential roles in the recovery from trauma after experiencing physical violence. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived in a high-density livestock farming area along the Dutch-German border.Cross-sectional prevalence study carried out between November 2011 and June 2012. Nasal swabs and questionnaires were collected in patients (>4 years who had used antibiotics in the previous three months from twelve Dutch General Practitioners (GPs, seven German GPs and two German outpatient urologists. To assess nasal carriage, swabs were analyzed using selective MRSA agars after broth enrichment. MRSA positive samples were spa typed.Data were collected from 513 GP outpatients in the Netherlands, 261 GP outpatients in Germany and 200 urologist outpatients in Germany. The overall prevalence of MRSA carriage was 0.8%, 1.1% and 2.0%, respectively. In the GP outpatient populations, the prevalence was similar in both countries (0.8% and 1.1%, respectively, p = 0.879, all spa types were indicative for livestock-associated MRSA (4xt011 in the Netherlands; 2xt034 and t011 in Germany and being a farmer, living on or near (<5km to a farm were associated with MRSA carriage. In the urologist outpatient population, the prevalence was higher (2.0%, all spa types were indicative for healthcare-associated MRSA (t068, t032, t003, t10231 and being a farmer, living on or near to a farm were factors not associated with MRSA carriage.The prevalence of MRSA carriage in these community outpatient populations along the Dutch-German border was low. There were striking similarities in livestock-associated MRSA carriage and clonal spread in the outpatient populations seeing their GP in both countries. In contrast, urologist outpatients in Germany were colonized with spa types indicative of healthcare-associated MRSA.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe malnutrition in childhood associated with HIV infection presents a serious humanitarian and public health challenge in Southern Africa. The aim of this study was to collect country wide data on HIV infection patterns in severely malnourished children to guide the development of integrated care in a resource limited setting. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in 12 representative rural and urban Nutrition Rehabilitation Units (NRUs, from each of Malawi's 3 regions. All children and their caretakers admitted to each NRU over a two week period were offered HIV counselling and testing. Testing was carried out using two different rapid antibody tests, with PCR testing for discordant results. Children under 15 months were excluded, to avoid difficulties with interpretation of false positive rapid test results. The survey was conducted once in the dry/post-harvest season, and repeated in the rainy/hungry season. Results 570 children were eligible for study inclusion. Acceptability and uptake of HIV testing was high: 523(91.7% of carers consented for their children to take part; 368(70.6% themselves accepted testing. Overall HIV prevalence amongst children tested was 21.6%(95% confidence intervals, 18.2–25.5%. There was wide variation between individual NRUs: 2.0–50.0%. Geographical prevalence variations were significant between the three regions (p HIV prevalence was significantly higher in urban areas, 32.9%(95%CI 26.8–39.4% than in rural 13.2%(95%CI 9.5–17.6%(p NRU HIV prevalence rates were lower in the rainy/hungry season 18.4%(95%CI 14.7–22.7% than in the dry/post-harvest season 30.9%(95%CI 23.2–39.4% (p Conclusion There is a high prevalence of HIV infection in severely malnourished Malawian children attending NRUs with children in urban areas most likely to be infected. Testing for HIV is accepted by their carers in both urban and rural areas. NRUs could act as entry points to HIV treatment and
Bosman, Philippe; Stassijns, Jorgen; Nackers, Fabienne; Canier, Lydie; Kim, Nimol; Khim, Saorin; Alipon, Sweet C; Chuor Char, Meng; Chea, Nguon; Dysoley, Lek; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Etienne, William; De Smet, Martin; Ménard, Didier; Kindermans, Jean-Marie
Intensified efforts are urgently needed to contain and eliminate artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong subregion. Médecins Sans Frontières plans to support the Ministry of Health in eliminating P. falciparum in an area with artemisinin resistance in the north-east of Cambodia. As a first step, the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and the presence of mutations associated with artemisinin resistance were evaluated in two districts of Preah Vihear Province. A cross-sectional population-based study using a two-stage cluster sampling was conducted in the rural districts of Chhaeb and Chey Saen, from September to October 2013. In each district, 30 clusters of 10 households were randomly selected. In total, blood samples were collected for 1,275 participants in Chhaeb and 1,224 in Chey Saen. Prevalence of Plasmodium spp. was assessed by PCR on dried blood spots. Plasmodium falciparum positive samples were screened for mutations in the K13-propeller domain gene (PF3D7_1343700). The prevalence of Plasmodium spp. was estimated at 1.49% (95% CI 0.71-3.11%) in Chhaeb and 2.61% (95% CI 1.45-4.66%) in Chey Saen. Twenty-seven samples were positive for P. falciparum, giving a prevalence of 0.16% (95% CI 0.04-0.65) in Chhaeb and 2.04% (95% CI 1.04-3.99%) in Chey Saen. Only 4.0% of the participants testing positive presented with fever or history of fever. K13-propeller domain mutant type alleles (C580Y and Y493H) were found, only in Chey Saen district, in seven out of 11 P. falciparum positive samples with enough genetic material to allow testing. The overall prevalence of P. falciparum was low in both districts but parasites presenting mutations in the K13-propeller domain gene, strongly associated with artemisinin-resistance, are circulating in Chey Saen.The prevalence might be underestimated because of the absentees - mainly forest workers - and the workers of private companies who were not included in the study. These results confirm the need to
Al-Jawadi Asma A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adolescents are more vulnerable to the affects of war and violence than adults. At the time of initiation of this study, nothing was known about the prevalence of childhood and early adolescence mental disorders. The aim of the present study is to measure the point prevalence of mental disorders among children of 1–15 years age in the city of Mosul, Iraq. Methods A cross-sectional study design was adopted. Four primary health care centers were chosen consecutively as a study setting. The subjects of the present study were mothers who came to the primary health care center for vaccination of their children. The chosen mothers were included by systematic sampling randomization. All children (aged 1–15 that each mother had were considered in the interview and examination. Results Out of 3079 children assessed, 1152 have childhood mental disorders, giving a point prevalence of 37.4%, with a male to female ratio of to 1.22:1. The top 10 disorders among the examined children are post-traumatic stress disorder (10.5%, enuresis (6%, separation anxiety disorder (4.3%, specific phobia (3.3% stuttering and refusal to attend school (3.2% each, learning and conduct disorders (2.5% each, stereotypic movement (2.3% and feeding disorder in infancy or early childhood (2.0%. Overall, the highest prevalence of mental disorders was among children 10–15 years old (49.2% while the lowest was among 1–5 year olds (29.1%. Boys are more affected than girls (40.2% and 33.2%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mental disorders are a common condition highly prevalent amongst the children and early adolescents in Mosul. Data from the present study mirrors the size of the problem in local community. Several points deserve attention, the most important of which include giving care at the community level, educating the public on mental health, involving communities and families, monitoring community mental health indicators, and
Nath, Kamal; Naskar, Subrata; Victor, Robin
To evaluate Internet addiction among medical students in northeastern India and gain detailed knowledge about the prevalence, risk factors, and ill effects commonly associated with the disorder. The cross-sectional study sample comprised 188 medical students from Silchar Medical College and Hospital (Silchar, Assam, India). Students completed a sociodemographic form and an Internet use questionnaire, both created for this study, and the Young's 20-Item Internet Addiction Test after they received brief instructions. Data were collected during a10-day period in June 2015. Of the 188 medical students, 46.8% were at increased risk of Internet addiction. Those who were found to be at increased risk had longer years of Internet exposure (P = .046) and always online status (P = .033). Also, among this group, the men were more prone to develop an online relationship. Excessive Internet usage also led to poor performance in college (P Internet addiction include withdrawal from real-life relationships, deterioration in academic activities, and a depressed and nervous mood. Internet use for nonacademic purposes is increasing among students, thus there is an immediate need for strict supervision and monitoring at the institutional level. The possibility of becoming addicted to the Internet should be emphasized to students and their parents through awareness campaigns so that interventions and restrictions can be implemented at the individual and family levels.
Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Inoue, Yuichi; Matsui, Kentaro; Nishida, Shingo; Hayashida, Kenichi; Usui, Akira; Ueki, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Masaki; Murata, Momoyo; Numao, Ayaka; Watanabe, Yuji; Suzuki, Shiho; Hirata, Koichi
Because the prevalence and characteristics of primary headache have yet to be thoroughly studied in patients with hypersomnia disorders, including narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia, we examined these parameters in the Japanese population. In a multicentre cross-sectional survey, among 576 consecutive outpatients with sleep disorders, 68 narcolepsy patients and 35 idiopathic hypersomnia patients were included. Additionally, 61 healthy control subjects participated. Semi-structured headache questionnaires were administered to all participants. The patients with narcolepsy (52.9%) and idiopathic hypersomnia (77.1%) more frequently experienced headache than the healthy controls (24.6%; pnarcolepsy patients, the idiopathic hypersomnia patients and the control subjects, respectively. Those who experienced migraine more frequently experienced excessive daytime sleepiness, defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of ≥10, than those who did not experience headache among the patients with narcolepsy (93.8% vs. 65.6%, p = 0.040) and idiopathic hypersomnia (86.7% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.026). Dream-enacting behaviour (DEB), as evaluated by the rapid eye movement sleep disorders questionnaire, was more frequently observed in the narcolepsy patients than in the idiopathic hypersomnia patients and the control subjects. An increased DEB frequency was observed in the narcolepsy patients with migraines compared to those without headache. Migraines were frequently observed in patients with narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. DEB is a characteristic of narcolepsy patients. Further studies are required to assess the factors that contribute to migraines in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia patients.
Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Moreira, Natália Boneti; de Oliveira, Valdomiro; Mazzardo, Oldemar; de Campos, Wagner
This study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of meeting the current physical activity for health (PAfH) guidelines, proposed by the World Health Organization in 2010, in community-dwelling older women from Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed with 1806 women (aged 60.0-92.7 years) who were randomly selected from eighteen care centers. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to determine the weekly time spent in physical activities, and this variable was categorized into three categories (0high blood pressure (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.09-1.62) were more likely to meet the current PAfH guidelines than their peers with primary incomplete education, negative self-rated health, and normal blood pressure. Increasing age was inversely associated with meeting the PAfH guidelines (odds ranging: 0.77-0.48). These results highlighted the elderly population subgroups, in a developing country, that needspecific guidelinesfor inclusion inhealth programs andmotivation toparticipate in physical activities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hering, Johanna; Hille, Katja; Frömke, Cornelia; von Münchhausen, Christiane; Hartmann, Maria; Schneider, Bettina; Friese, Anika; Roesler, Uwe; Merle, Roswitha; Kreienbrock, Lothar
A cross-sectional study concerning farm prevalence and risk factors for the count of cefotaxime resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) (CREC) positive samples per sampling group on German fattening pig farms was performed in 2011 and 2012. Altogether 48 farms in four agricultural regions in the whole of Germany were investigated. Faecal samples, boot swabs and dust samples from two sampling groups per farm were taken and supplemental data were collected using a questionnaire. On 85% of the farms, at least one sample contained cefotaxime resistant E. coli colonies. Positive samples were more frequent in faeces (61%) and boot swabs (54%) than in dust samples (11%). Relevant variables from the questionnaire were analysed in a univariable mixed effect Poisson regression model. Variables that were related to the number (risk) of positive samples per sampling group with a p-value German fattening pig farms. In addition the explorative approach of the present study suggests an influence of management strategies on the occurrence of cefotaxime resistant E. coli.
Dykens, J Andrew; Linn, Annē M; Irwin, Tracy; Peters, Karen E; Pyra, Maria; Traoré, Fatoumata; Touré Diarra, Mariama; Hasnain, Memoona; Wallner, Katie; Linn, Patrick; Ndiaye, Youssoupha
Background Senegal ranks 15th in the world in incidence of cervical cancer, the number one cause of cancer mortality among women in this country. The estimated participation rate for cervical cancer screening throughout Senegal is very low (6.9% of women 18–69 years old), especially in rural areas and among older age groups (only 1.9% of women above the age of 40 years). There are no reliable estimates of the prevalence of cervical dysplasia or risk factors for cervical dysplasia specific to rural Senegal. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of cervical dysplasia in a rural region using visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) and to assess risk factors for cervical cancer control. Patients and methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in which we randomly selected 38 villages across the Kédougou region using a three-stage clustering process. Between October 2013 and March 2014, we collected VIA screening results for women aged 30–50 years and cervical cancer risk factors linked to the screening result. Results We screened 509 women; 5.6% of the estimated target population (9,041) in the region. The point prevalence of cervical dysplasia (positive VIA test) was 2.10% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99–3.21). Moreover, 287 women completed the cervical cancer risk factor survey (56.4% response rate) and only 38% stated awareness of cervical cancer; 75.9% of the screened women were less than 40 years of age. Conclusion The overall prevalence of dysplasia in this sample was lower than anticipated. Despite both overall awareness and screening uptake being less than expected, our study highlights the need to address challenges in future prevalence estimates. Principally, we identified that the highest-risk women are the ones least likely to seek screening services, thus illustrating a need to fully understand demand-side barriers to accessing health services in this population. Targeted efforts to educate and motivate older
Tadesse, Yoseph; Derso, Terefe; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Wassie, Molla Mesele
In Sub-Saharan Africa, most nutrition efforts have concentrated on under-nutrition in children. However, national surveys rarely report the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Likewise, in Ethiopia there is growing recognition of the emergence of a "double-burden" of malnutrition, with under and over nutrition occurring simultaneously among children, especially allied with improvements in socio-economic conditions. Hence, the study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among private kindergarten school children aged 3-6 years in Bahirdar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A school-based cross sectional study was conducted in Bahirdar Town, northwest Ethiopia from August to September, 2015. Anthropometric measurements such as weight and height were taken from 462 private Kindergarten preschool children aged 3-6 years; socio-economic and demographic factors and feeding practices were collected by interviewing the, mothers or caregivers of the children. The z-score values for BMI-for-age of children were generated using Emergency Nutrition Assessment (ENA) for Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief Transitions (SMART) 2011. Binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with overweight and obesity in children. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to show the strength of association. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6.9% [95% CI 2.4, 11.4]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 4.1 and 2.8%, respectively. The odds of overweight and obesity was higher among children with high dietary diversity score (DDS) [AOR = 5.12, 95% CI 1.42, 18.47], family size of less than five [AOR = 4.76, 95% CI 1.84, 12.31] and a family having a private car [AOR = 3.43, 95% CI 1.02, 11.49]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among private kindergarten preschool children in the study area was high. Interventions on improving feeding
Meme, Nkatha; Amwayi, Samuel; Nganga, Ziporrah; Buregyeya, Esther
Hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are two common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) that are closely linked: one cannot be properly managed without attention to the other. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetic and pre-diabetic states that is abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) and factors associated with it among hypertensive patients in Kiambu Hospital, Kenya. We conducted a cross-sectional study from February 2014 to April 2014. Hypertensive patients aged ≥ 18 attending the out-patient medical clinic were included in the study. Pregnant and known diabetic patients were excluded. Data was collected on socio-demographics, behavior, and anthropometrics. Diabetes status was based on a Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1C) classification of ≥ 6.5% for diabetes, 6.0-6.4% for pre-diabetes and ≤ 6.0% for normal. AGR was the dependable variable and included two diabetic categories; diabetes and pre-diabetes. We enrolled 334 patients into the study: the mean age was 59 years (Standard deviation = 14.3). Of these patients 254 (76%) were women. Thirty two percent (107/334; 32%) were found to have AGR, with 14% (46) having un-diagnosed DM and 18%(61) with pre-diabetes. Factors associated with AGR were age ≥ 45 (OR = 3.23; 95% CI 1.37 ≥ 7.62), basal metabolic index (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m(2) (OR = 3.13; 95% CI 1.53 - 6.41), low formal education (primary/none)(OR= 2; 95%CI 1.08 - 3.56) and family history of DM (OR = 2.19; 95%CI 1.16 - 4.15). There was a high prevalence of undiagnosed AGR among hypertensive patients. This highlights the need to regularly screen for AGR among hypertensive patients as recommended by WHO.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Football (soccer is endorsed as a health-promoting physical activity worldwide. When football programs are introduced as part of general health promotion programs, equal access and limitation of pre-participation disparities with regard to injury risk are important. The aim of this study was to explore if disparity with regard to parents' educational level, player body mass index (BMI, and self-reported health are determinants of football injury in community-based football programs, separately or in interaction with age or gender. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four community football clubs with 1230 youth players agreed to participate in the cross-sectional study during the 2006 season. The study constructs (parents' educational level, player BMI, and self-reported health were operationalized into questionnaire items. The 1-year prevalence of football injury was defined as the primary outcome measure. Data were collected via a postal survey and analyzed using a series of hierarchical statistical computations investigating associations with the primary outcome measure and interactions between the study variables. The survey was returned by 827 (67.2% youth players. The 1-year injury prevalence increased with age. For youths with parents with higher formal education, boys reported more injuries and girls reported fewer injuries than expected; for youths with lower educated parents there was a tendency towards the opposite pattern. Youths reporting injuries had higher standardized BMI compared with youths not reporting injuries. Children not reporting full health were slightly overrepresented among those reporting injuries and underrepresented for those reporting no injury. CONCLUSION: Pre-participation disparities in terms of parents' educational level, through interaction with gender, BMI, and self-reported general health are associated with increased injury risk in community-based youth football. When introduced as a general health
Prashant B Patil
Full Text Available Background: A variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions are associated with the habit of smoking and chewing tobacco, and many of these carry a potential risk for the development of cancer. There have been no studies that report the prevalence of habits and associated oral changes in the population in Dharwad region, of Karnataka, south India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at SDM Dental College (Dharwad, Karnataka. A total of 2400 subjects (1200 subjects with and 1200 subjects without habits attending the dental hospital were interviewed and examined by trained professionals to assess any oral mucosal changes. Results: Oral mucosal lesions were found in 322 (26.8% subjects who had tobacco smoking and chewing habits as compared to 34 (2.8% subjects without those habits. Oral leukoplakia (8.2% and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF (7.1% were the prevalent oral mucosal lesions found in subjects who had those habits, while the other lesions (1.7% namely; oral candidiasis, median rhomboid glossitis, recurrent apthous ulcer, frictional keratosis, and oral lichen planus (0.9% were frequently reported among individuals without those habits. The odds of developing oral lesions in subjects with tobacco habits was nearly 11.92 times that of abstainers (odds ratio, OR = 11.92, 95% confidence intervals, CI = 10.61-14.59%. Conclusion: The study showed that the risk of the development of oral lesions associated with tobacco smoking, chewing, or both is quite high. Males who had one or more of these habits showed more frequent oral changes than females. The study reinforces the association of OSF with gutkha and areca nut chewing, and leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral cancer with tobacco smoking, chewing, or mixed habits.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and incidence of dementia are low in Nigeria, but high among African-Americans. In these populations there is a high frequency of the risk-conferring APOE-e4 allele, but the risk ratio is less than in Europeans. In an admixed population of older Cubans we explored the effects of ethnic identity and genetic admixture on APOE genotype, its association with dementia, and dementia prevalence. Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 2928 residents aged 65 and over, with a nested case-control study of individual admixture. Dementia diagnosis was established using 10/66 Dementia and DSM-IV criteria. APOE genotype was determined in 2520 participants, and genetic admixture in 235 dementia cases and 349 controls. Results Mean African admixture proportions were 5.8% for 'white', 28.6% for 'mixed' and 49.6% for 'black' ethnic identities. All three groups were substantially admixed with considerable overlap. African admixture was linearly related to number of APOE-e4 alleles. One or more APOE-e4 alleles was associated with dementia in 'white' and 'black' but not 'mixed' groups but neither this, nor the interaction between APOE-e4 and African admixture (PR 0.52, 95% CI 0.13-2.08 were statistically significant. Neither ethnic identity nor African admixture was associated with dementia prevalence when assessed separately. However, considering their joint effects African versus European admixture was independently associated with a higher prevalence, and 'mixed' or 'black' identity with a lower prevalence of dementia. Conclusions APOE genotype is strongly associated with ancestry. Larger studies are needed to confirm whether the concentration of the high-risk allele in those with African ancestry is offset by an attenuation of its effect. Counter to our hypothesis, African admixture may be associated with higher risk of dementia. Although strongly correlated, effects of admixture and ethnic identity should be
Full Text Available To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy.A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010. Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral.76.8% (15,517/20,196 of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914 of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found.The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected
Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; González, Andrea; Servan-Mori, Edson; Beynon, Fenella; Juarez-Figueroa, Luis; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Gras, Nathalie; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Volkow, Patricia; Bertozzi, Stefano M
To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy. A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010). Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral. 76.8% (15,517/20,196) of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914) of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women) demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found. The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected will also
Asefa, Nigus Gebremedhin; Ingale, Lalit; Shumey, Ashenafi; Yang, Hannah
The 2013 World Health Organization Status Report on Road Safety estimated that approximately 1.24 million deaths occur annually due to road traffic crashes with most of the burden falling on low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this research is to study the prevalence of road traffic crashes in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia and to identify risk factors with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies. This study used a cross-sectional design to measure the prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crashes among 4-wheeled minibus (n = 130) and 3-wheeled Bajaj (n = 582) taxi drivers in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between risk factors and drivers' involvement in a road traffic crash within the 3 years prior to the survey. Among the 712 taxi drivers, 26.4% (n = 188) of them reported involvement in a road traffic crash within the past 3 years. Drivers who listened to mass media had decreased likelihood of road traffic crash involvement (AOR = 0.51, 0.33-0.78), while speedy driving (AOR = 4.57, 3.05-7.44), receipt of a prior traffic punishment (AOR = 4.57, 2.67-7.85), and driving a mechanically faulty taxi (AOR = 4.91, 2.81-8.61) were strongly associated with road traffic crash involvement. Receiving mobile phone calls while driving (AOR = 1.91, 1.24-2.92) and history of alcohol use (AOR = 1.51, 1.00-2.28) were also associated with higher odds of road traffic crash involvement. The results of this study show that taxi drivers in Mekelle habitually place themselves at increased risk of road traffic crashes by violating traffic laws, especially related to speedy driving, mobile phone use, and taxi maintenance. This research can be used to support re-evaluation of the type, severity, and enforcement of traffic violation penalties.
Peláez-Ballestas, I; Alvarez-Nemegyei, J; Loyola-Sánchez, A; Escudero, M L
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases in indigenous Maya-Yucateco communities using Community-Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) methodology. The study population comprised subjects aged ≥18 years from 11 communities in the municipality of Chankom, Yucatan. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed, and a census was used. Subjects positive for musculoskeletal (MSK) pain were examined by trained physicians. A total of 1523 community members were interviewed. The mean age was 45.2 years (standard deviation (SD) 17.9), and 917 (60.2 %) were women. Overall, 592 individuals (38.8 %; 95 % CI 36.3-41.3 %) had experienced MSK pain in the last 7 days. The pain intensity was reported as "strong" to "severe" in 43.4 %. The diagnoses were rheumatic regional pain syndromes in 165 (10.8 %; 95 % CI 9.4-12.5), low back pain in 153 (10.0 %; 95 % CI 8.5-11.6), osteoarthritis in 144 (9.4 %; 95 % CI 8.0-11.0), fibromyalgia in 35 (2.2 %; 95 % CI 1.6-3.1), rheumatoid arthritis in 17 (1.1 %; 95 % CI 0.6-1.7), undifferentiated arthritis in 8 (0.5 %; 95 % CI 0.2-0.8), and gout in 1 (0.06 %; 95 % CI 0.001-0.3). Older age, being female, disability, and physically demanding work were associated with a greater likelihood of having a rheumatic disease. In conclusion, MSK pain and rheumatic diseases were highly prevalent. The high impact of rheumatic diseases on daily activities in this indigenous population suggests the need to organize culturally-sensitive community interventions for the prevention of disabilities caused by MSK disorders and diseases.
Zhang, Xu-Dong; Myers, Sierra; Yang, Hong-Juan; Li, Yun; Li, Ji-Hong; Luo, Wei; Luchters, Stanley
Objectives Despite the vast quantity of research among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs) to address concerns regarding HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk, there is a paucity of research on issues of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and the missed opportunity for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) promotion among young FSWs. Our research aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of SGBV among Chinese adolescent FSWs, and to explore SRH service utilisation. Design and methods A cross-sectional study using a one-stage cluster sampling method was employed. A semistructured questionnaire was administered by trained peer educators or health workers. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine individual and structural correlates of SGBV. Setting and participants Between July and September 2012, 310 adolescent women aged 15–20 years, and who self-reported having received money or gifts in exchange for sex in the past 6 months were recruited and completed their interview in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. Results Findings confirm the high prevalence of SGBV against adolescent FSWs in China, with 38% (118/310) of participants affected in the past year. Moreover, our study demonstrated the low uptake of public health services and high rates of prior unwanted pregnancy (52%; 61/118), abortion (53%; 63/118) and self-reported STI symptoms (84%; 99/118) in participants who were exposed to SGBV. Forced sexual debut was reported by nearly a quarter of FSWs (23%; 70/310) and was independently associated with having had a drug-using intimate partner and younger age (abortion. When controlling for potential confounders, having experienced SGBV was associated with frequent alcohol use, having self-reported symptoms of STI, having an intimate partner and having an intimate partner with illicit drug use. Conclusions This study calls for effective and integrated interventions addressing adolescent FSWs' vulnerability to SGBV and broader SRH
Trevisani Virgínia FM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Music is ever present in our daily lives, establishing a link between humans and the arts through the senses and pleasure. Sound technicians are the link between musicians and audiences or consumers. Recently, general concern has arisen regarding occurrences of hearing loss induced by noise from excessively amplified sound-producing activities within leisure and professional environments. Sound technicians' activities expose them to the risk of hearing loss, and consequently put at risk their quality of life, the quality of the musical product and consumers' hearing. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among sound technicians in Brazil and compare this with a control group without occupational noise exposure. Methods This was a cross-sectional study comparing 177 participants in two groups: 82 sound technicians and 95 controls (non-sound technicians. A questionnaire on music listening habits and associated complaints was applied, and data were gathered regarding the professionals' numbers of working hours per day and both groups' hearing complaint and presence of tinnitus. The participants' ear canals were visually inspected using an otoscope. Hearing assessments were performed (tonal and speech audiometry using a portable digital AD 229 E audiometer funded by FAPESP. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the sound technicians and controls regarding age and gender. Thus, the study sample was homogenous and would be unlikely to lead to bias in the results. A statistically significant difference in hearing loss was observed between the groups: 50% among the sound technicians and 10.5% among the controls. The difference could be addressed to high sound levels. Conclusion The sound technicians presented a higher prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure than did the general population, although
El Dib, Regina P; Silva, Edina M K; Morais, José F; Trevisani, Virgínia F M
Music is ever present in our daily lives, establishing a link between humans and the arts through the senses and pleasure. Sound technicians are the link between musicians and audiences or consumers. Recently, general concern has arisen regarding occurrences of hearing loss induced by noise from excessively amplified sound-producing activities within leisure and professional environments. Sound technicians' activities expose them to the risk of hearing loss, and consequently put at risk their quality of life, the quality of the musical product and consumers' hearing. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among sound technicians in Brazil and compare this with a control group without occupational noise exposure. This was a cross-sectional study comparing 177 participants in two groups: 82 sound technicians and 95 controls (non-sound technicians). A questionnaire on music listening habits and associated complaints was applied, and data were gathered regarding the professionals' numbers of working hours per day and both groups' hearing complaint and presence of tinnitus. The participants' ear canals were visually inspected using an otoscope. Hearing assessments were performed (tonal and speech audiometry) using a portable digital AD 229 E audiometer funded by FAPESP. There was no statistically significant difference between the sound technicians and controls regarding age and gender. Thus, the study sample was homogenous and would be unlikely to lead to bias in the results. A statistically significant difference in hearing loss was observed between the groups: 50% among the sound technicians and 10.5% among the controls. The difference could be addressed to high sound levels. The sound technicians presented a higher prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure than did the general population, although the possibility of residual confounding due to unmeasured factors
Full Text Available There is increasing evidence linking early life adiposity to disease risk later in life. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among preschoolers in Lebanon. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 2–5 years old children (n = 525. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data were obtained. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was estimated at 6.5% and 2.7%, respectively. Based on stepwise logistic regression for the prediction of overweight and obesity (combined, the variance accounted for by the first block (socioeconomic, parental characteristics was 11.9%, with higher father’s education (OR = 5.31, 95% CI: 1.04–27.26 and the presence of household helper (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.05–4.56 being significant predictors. The second block of variables (eating habits significantly improved the prediction of overweight/obesity to reach 21%, with eating in front of the television (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02–1.13 and satiety responsiveness (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70–0.99 being significantly associated with overweight/obesity. In the third block, fat intake remained a significant predictor of overweight/obesity (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.13–4.75. This study identified specific risk factors for preschool overweight/obesity in Lebanon and characterized children from high socioeconomic backgrounds as important target groups for preventive interventions. These findings may be of significance to other middle-income countries in similar stages of nutrition transition.
Nasreddine, Lara; Hwalla, Nahla; Saliba, Angie; Akl, Christelle; Naja, Farah
There is increasing evidence linking early life adiposity to disease risk later in life. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among preschoolers in Lebanon. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 2–5 years old children (n = 525). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data were obtained. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was estimated at 6.5% and 2.7%, respectively. Based on stepwise logistic regression for the prediction of overweight and obesity (combined), the variance accounted for by the first block (socioeconomic, parental characteristics) was 11.9%, with higher father’s education (OR = 5.31, 95% CI: 1.04–27.26) and the presence of household helper (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.05–4.56) being significant predictors. The second block of variables (eating habits) significantly improved the prediction of overweight/obesity to reach 21%, with eating in front of the television (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02–1.13) and satiety responsiveness (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70–0.99) being significantly associated with overweight/obesity. In the third block, fat intake remained a significant predictor of overweight/obesity (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.13–4.75). This study identified specific risk factors for preschool overweight/obesity in Lebanon and characterized children from high socioeconomic backgrounds as important target groups for preventive interventions. These findings may be of significance to other middle-income countries in similar stages of nutrition transition. PMID:28287459
Full Text Available Because the prevalence and characteristics of primary headache have yet to be thoroughly studied in patients with hypersomnia disorders, including narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia, we examined these parameters in the Japanese population.In a multicentre cross-sectional survey, among 576 consecutive outpatients with sleep disorders, 68 narcolepsy patients and 35 idiopathic hypersomnia patients were included. Additionally, 61 healthy control subjects participated. Semi-structured headache questionnaires were administered to all participants.The patients with narcolepsy (52.9% and idiopathic hypersomnia (77.1% more frequently experienced headache than the healthy controls (24.6%; p<0.0001. The prevalence rates were 23.5%, 41.2% and 4.9% for migraine (p<0.0001 and 16.2%, 23.5% and 14.8% (p = 0.58 for tension-type headache among the narcolepsy patients, the idiopathic hypersomnia patients and the control subjects, respectively. Those who experienced migraine more frequently experienced excessive daytime sleepiness, defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of ≥10, than those who did not experience headache among the patients with narcolepsy (93.8% vs. 65.6%, p = 0.040 and idiopathic hypersomnia (86.7% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.026. Dream-enacting behaviour (DEB, as evaluated by the rapid eye movement sleep disorders questionnaire, was more frequently observed in the narcolepsy patients than in the idiopathic hypersomnia patients and the control subjects. An increased DEB frequency was observed in the narcolepsy patients with migraines compared to those without headache.Migraines were frequently observed in patients with narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. DEB is a characteristic of narcolepsy patients. Further studies are required to assess the factors that contribute to migraines in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia patients.
Manyanga, Vicent P; Minzi, Omary; Ngasala, Billy
HIV-infected pregnant women are particularly more susceptible to the deleterious effects of malaria infection particularly anaemia. In order to prevent opportunistic infections and malaria, a policy of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis without the standard Suphadoxine-Pyrimethamine intermittent preventive treatment (SP-IPT) was introduced to all HIV infected pregnant women in the year 2011. However, there is limited information about the effectiveness of this policy. This was a cross sectional study conducted among HIV-infected pregnant women receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in eight public health facilities in Kinondoni Municipality from February to April 2013. Blood was tested for malaria infection and anaemia (haemoglobin anaemia. Pearson chi-square test, Fischer's exact test and multivariate logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis. This study enrolled 420 HIV infected pregnant women. The prevalence of malaria infection was 4.5%, while that of anaemia was 54%. The proportion of subjects with poor adherence to co-trimoxazole was 50.5%. As compared to HIV infected pregnant women with good adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, the poor adherents were more likely to have a malaria infection (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR = 6.81, 95% CI = 1.35-34.43, P = 0.02) or anaemia (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.03-2.98, P = 0.039). Other risk factors associated with anaemia were advanced WHO clinical stages, current malaria infection and history of episodes of malaria illness during the index pregnancy. The prevalence of malaria was low; however, a significant proportion of subjects had anaemia. Good adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was associated with reduction of both malaria infection and anaemia among HIV infected pregnant women.
Nasreddine, Lara; Hwalla, Nahla; Saliba, Angie; Akl, Christelle; Naja, Farah
There is increasing evidence linking early life adiposity to disease risk later in life. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among preschoolers in Lebanon. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 2-5 years old children (n = 525). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data were obtained. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was estimated at 6.5% and 2.7%, respectively. Based on stepwise logistic regression for the prediction of overweight and obesity (combined), the variance accounted for by the first block (socioeconomic, parental characteristics) was 11.9%, with higher father's education (OR = 5.31, 95% CI: 1.04-27.26) and the presence of household helper (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.05-4.56) being significant predictors. The second block of variables (eating habits) significantly improved the prediction of overweight/obesity to reach 21%, with eating in front of the television (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02-1.13) and satiety responsiveness (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.99) being significantly associated with overweight/obesity. In the third block, fat intake remained a significant predictor of overweight/obesity (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.13-4.75). This study identified specific risk factors for preschool overweight/obesity in Lebanon and characterized children from high socioeconomic backgrounds as important target groups for preventive interventions. These findings may be of significance to other middle-income countries in similar stages of nutrition transition.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are both important public health problems in South Africa (SA. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs, high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV, HPV viral load and HPV genotypes in HIV positive women initiating anti-retroviral (ARV therapy. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted at an anti-retroviral (ARV treatment clinic in Cape Town, SA in 2007. Cervical specimens were taken for cytological analysis and HPV testing. The Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 test was used to detect HR-HPV. Relative light units (RLU were used as a measure of HPV viral load. HPV types were determined using the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping test. Crude associations with abnormal cytology were tested and multiple logistic regression was used to determine independent risk factors for abnormal cytology. Results The median age of the 109 participants was 31 years, the median CD4 count was 125/mm3, 66.3% had an abnormal Pap smear, the HR-HPV prevalence was 78.9% (Digene, the median HPV viral load was 181.1 RLU (HC2 positive samples only and 78.4% had multiple genotypes. Among women with abnormal smears the most prevalent HR-HPV types were HPV types 16, 58 and 51, all with a prevalence of 28.5%. On univariate analysis HR-HPV, multiple HPV types and HPV viral load were significantly associated with the presence of low and high-grade SILs (LSIL/HSIL. The multivariate logistic regression showed that HPV viral load was associated with an increased odds of LSIL/HSIL, odds ratio of 10.7 (95% CI 2.0 – 57.7 for those that were HC2 positive and had a viral load of ≤ 181.1 RLU (the median HPV viral load, and 33.8 (95% CI 6.4 – 178.9 for those that were HC2 positive with a HPV viral load > 181.1 RLU. Conclusion Women initiating ARVs have a high prevalence of abnormal Pap smears and HR-HPV. Our results underscore the need
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current knowledge about elder mistreatment is mainly derived from studies done in Western countries, which indicate that this problem is related to risk factors such as a shared living situation, social isolation, disease burden, and caregiver strain. We know little about prevalence and risk factors for elder mistreatment and mistreatment subtypes in rural China where the elder population is the most vulnerable. METHODS: In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among older adults aged 60 or older in three rural communities in Macheng, a city in Hubei province, China. Of 2245 people initially identified, 2039 were available for interview and this was completed in 2000. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data regarding mistreatment and covariates. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to elder mistreatment and subtypes of mistreatment. RESULTS: Elder mistreatment was reported by 36.2% (95% CI: 34.1%-38.3% of the participants. Prevalence rates of psychological mistreatment, caregiver neglect, physical mistreatment, and financial mistreatment were 27.3% (95% CI: 25.3%-29.2%, 15.8% (95% CI: 14.2%-17.4%, 4.9% (95% CI: 3.9%-5.8% and 2.0% (95% CI: 1.3%-2.6%, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that depression, being widowed/divorced/single/separated, having a physical disability, having a labor intensive job, depending solely on self-made income, and living alone were risk factors for elder mistreatment. Different types of elder mistreatment were associated with different risk factors, and depression was the consistent risk factor for the three most common mistreatment subtypes. CONCLUSION: Older adults in rural China self-report a higher rate of mistreatment than their counterparts in Western countries. Depression is a main risk factor associated with most subtypes of mistreatment. Our findings suggest that prevention and management of elder mistreatment is a
Kola S Reddy
Full Text Available Introduction: Telangana state in southern India has many areas which have high–low fluoride levels in drinking water, and Mahabubnagar district is one among them, where people are affected with dental and skeletal fluorosis, with the majority belonging to low socio-economic status. Aims: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis in school going children of Mahabubnagar district and also to assess fluoride levels in drinking water from different areas of Mahabubnagar district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2000 children in the age group 6–12 years in different areas of Mahabubnagar district. Dental fluorosis status was assessed by using Modified Dean’s Fluorosis Index. Alizarin visual method was used to estimate fluoride levels in water. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Dental fluorosis in primary and permanent dentition was 15 and 70.3%, respectively. In the northern part of Mahabubnagar district, primary dentition was more affected by fluorosis whereas in southern part, the permanent dentition was more affected. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition was more in 6–7-year-old children (35.5%, and in permanent dentition, it was more in 9–10-year-old children (70%. The fluoride level in drinking water was more in Kosghi, Kalwakurthy (2.0 ppm. Conclusion: Dental fluorosis was more in 10-year-old and less in 6-year-old children. It was more in eastern and northern zones of Mahabubnagar district and less in local villages of Mahabubnagar.
Screening for colorectal cancer and advanced colorectal neoplasia in kidney transplant recipients: cross sectional prevalence and diagnostic accuracy study of faecal immunochemical testing for haemoglobin and colonoscopy.
Collins, Michael G; Teo, Edward; Cole, Stephen R; Chan, Choy-Yoke; McDonald, Stephen P; Russ, Graeme R; Young, Graeme P; Bampton, Peter A; Coates, P Toby
To investigate whether screening kidney transplant recipients aged over 50 years for colorectal cancer with a faecal immunochemical test for haemoglobin might be justified, by determining the prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasia and evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of faecal haemoglobin testing compared with colonoscopy in a population of kidney transplant recipients at otherwise average risk. Cross sectional prevalence and diagnostic accuracy study with index test of faecal haemoglobin and reference standard of colonoscopy. Outpatient clinics in metropolitan and regional hospitals in South Australia. 229 kidney transplant recipients aged 50 years and over, who were at least 6 months (mean 9.0 (SD 8.4) years) post-transplant and otherwise at average risk of colorectal cancer, completed the study between June 2008 and October 2011. Faecal immunochemical testing (Enterix Insure) for human haemoglobin, followed by colonoscopy with histological evaluation of retrieved samples. Prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasia, defined as an adenoma at least 10 mm in diameter, villous features, high grade dysplasia, or colorectal cancer; sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of faecal haemoglobin testing for advanced neoplasia compared with colonoscopy. Advanced colorectal neoplasia was found in 29 (13%, 95% confidence interval 9% to 18%) participants, including 2% (n=4) with high grade dysplasia and 2% (n=5) with colorectal cancer. Faecal testing for haemoglobin was positive in 12% (n=28); sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for advanced neoplasia were 31.0% (15.3% to 50.8%), 90.5% (85.6% to 94.2%), 32.1% (15.9% to 52.4%), and 90.1% (85.1% to 93.8%). Colonoscopy was well tolerated, with no significant adverse outcomes. To identify one case of advanced neoplasia, 8 (6 to 12) colonoscopies were needed. Kidney transplant recipients aged over 50 years have a high prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasia. Faecal haemoglobin
Ghobadzadeh, Maryam; Demerath, Ellen W; Tura, Yisehak
The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hypertension, glucose and blood lipid abnormalities among a community of Ethiopian immigrants in Minnesota. This cross-sectional study used data from the parish nursing program 2007-2012. A total of 673 encounters were included in this study. Various dependent variables including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), blood glucose (BG), and serum lipids were examined. High blood pressure was defined as a mean SBP equal to or higher than 140 mm/Hg and/or DBP equal to or higher than 90 mmHg. Elevated fasting glucose defined as levels equal to or higher than 126 mg/dL. High level of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were defined as ≥240, ≥200, ≥160 and ≤40 mg/dL, respectively. General linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship of participants' age and gender, to the continuously distributed response variables, which included systolic and DBP, BG, TC, TG, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. This is a nonrandom sample of adult Ethiopian church members who were invited to participate in a parish nurse cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor screening program. Participants in this sample were 43 % male and 57 % female. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 30.1 % with a cut off mark of 140/90 mm/Hg. The prevalence of hypertension was 33 and 24 % among men than among women, respectively (p 240 mg/dL) were observed in 15 % of the women and 10 % of the men (p = 0.2). Higher SBP and DBP were significantly higher in male participants than their female counterparts (p 0.05). This opportunity sample suggests high prevalence of CVD risk factors in a community of Ethiopian-American adults, and a pressing need for more comprehensive and systematic assessment of chronic disease health needs in this growing community.
Solé, Dirceu; Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Rosario, Nelson; Aguirre, Viviana; Chong, Herberto; Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Szulman, Gabriela; Niederbacher, Jurg; Arruda-Chavez, Erika; Toledo, Eliana; Sánchez, Lillian; Pinchak, Catalina
Purpose This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of recurrent wheezing (RW) defined as ≥3 episodes of wheezing, risk factors, and treatments prescribed during the first year of life in Latin American infants. Methods In this international, cross-sectional, and community-based study, parents of 12,405 infants from 11 centers in 6 South American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Uruguay) completed a questionnaire about wheezing and associated risk/protective factors, asthma medications, and the frequency of and indications for the prescription of antibiotics and paracetamol during the first year of life. Results The prevalence of RW was 16.6% (95% CI 16.0-17.3); of the 12,405 infants, 72.7% (95% CI 70.7-74.6) visited the Emergency Department for wheezing, and 29.7% (27.7-31.7) was admitted. Regarding treatment, 49.1% of RW infants received inhaled corticosteroids, 55.7% oral corticosteroids, 26.3% antileukotrienes, 22.9% antibiotics ≥4 times mainly for common colds, wheezing, and pharyngitis, and 57.5% paracetamol ≥4 times. Tobacco smoking during pregnancy, household income per month <1,000 USD, history of parental asthma, male gender, and nursery school attendance were significant risk factors for higher prevalence and severity of RW, whereas breast-feeding for at least 3 months was a significant protective factor. Pneumonia and admissions for pneumonia were significantly higher in infants with RW as compared to the whole sample (3.5-fold and 3.7-fold, respectively). Conclusions RW affects 1.6 out of 10 infants during the first year of life, with a high prevalence of severe episodes, frequent visits to the Emergency Department, and frequent admissions for wheezing. Besides the elevated prescription of asthma medications, there is an excessive use of antibiotics and paracetamol in infants with RW and also in the whole sample, which is mainly related to common colds. PMID:26540498
Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of liver disease in patients admitted to emergency rooms is largely unknown. The current study aimed to measure the prevalence of viral hepatitis B and C infection and pathological laboratory values of liver disease in such a population, and to study factors associated with these measurements. Methods Cross-sectional study in patients admitted to the emergency room of a university hospital. No formal exclusion criteria. Determination of anti-HBs, anti-HCV, transferrin saturation, alanine aminotransferase, and obtaining answers from a study-specific questionnaire. Results The study included 5'036 patients, representing a 14.9% sample of the target population during the study period. Prevalence of anti-HBc and anti-HCV was 6.7% (95%CI 6.0% to 7.4% and 2.7% (2.3% to 3.2%, respectively. Factors independently associated with positive anti-HBc were intravenous drug abuse (OR 18.3; 11.3 to 29.7, foreign country of birth (3.4; 2.6 to 4.4, non-white ethnicity (2.7; 1.9 to 3.8 and age ≥60 (2.0; 1.5 to 2.8. Positive anti-HCV was associated with intravenous drug abuse (78.9; 43.4 to 143.6, blood transfusion (1.7; 1.1 to 2.8 and abdominal pain (2.7; 1.5 to 4.8. 75% of all participants were not vaccinated against hepatitis B or did not know their vaccination status. Among anti-HCV positive patients only 49% knew about their infection and 51% reported regular alcohol consumption. Transferrin saturation was elevated in 3.3% and was associated with fatigue (prevalence ratio 1.9; 1.2 to 2.8. Conclusion Emergency rooms should be considered as targets for public health programs that encourage vaccination, patient education and screening of high-risk patients for liver disease with subsequent referral for treatment if indicated.
Eltayeb, Mohammed Saeed Elsamani; Elsaeed, Awad Eseed; Mohamedani, Ahmed Abdalla; Assayed, Abbas Abdalrahman
Introduction This is a cross sectional descriptive community-based study. The aim was to assess the prevalence of anaemia among quranic schoolchildren in khalawi Wad EL Magboul village, rural Rufaa, Gezira State, central Sudan. Methods A sample of 180 male participants were included in the study. Informed consent was obtained. Venous blood samples were obtained to measure the hematological parameters and blood films for malaria parasites. Urine and stool analyses were also done. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results The mean age of participants was 12.31 years (SD +/- 2.26). The mean Hb value was 11.75g/dl and it was statistically significant correlation when compared with the mean Hb reference value (13.5g/dl) P value 0,000 (95% CI). Regarding period of stay in the khalwa up to the time of the study, 88 (49.28%) for one year, 54 (30.24%) for 2 years, 22 (12.32%) for 3 years and 16 (8.96%) for more than 3 years. About 77 students (42.78%) were pale on clinical examination. The Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH) mean value was 25.58 pg ( 3.55). Many conditions known to be associated with anemia were found; 49 students (27.2%) had a positive blood films for falciparum malaria, 14 students (7.8%) were found to have haematuria and ova of S. haematobium, In169 students (93.4%) stool examination was negative , while 11 students (6.6%) had intestinal worms (Enterobius vermicularis). Conclusion Majority of the study participants had iron deficiency anaemia, followed by haemolytic, macrocytic and sickle cell anaemia. This might have negative health and educational implications. PMID:27800099
Eltayeb, Mohammed Saeed Elsamani; Elsaeed, Awad Eseed; Mohamedani, Ahmed Abdalla; Assayed, Abbas Abdalrahman
This is a cross sectional descriptive community-based study. The aim was to assess the prevalence of anaemia among quranic schoolchildren in khalawi Wad EL Magboul village, rural Rufaa, Gezira State, central Sudan. A sample of 180 male participants were included in the study. Informed consent was obtained. Venous blood samples were obtained to measure the hematological parameters and blood films for malaria parasites. Urine and stool analyses were also done. Data were analyzed using SPSS. The mean age of participants was 12.31 years (SD +/- 2.26). The mean Hb value was 11.75g/dl and it was statistically significant correlation when compared with the mean Hb reference value (13.5g/dl) P value 0,000 (95% CI). Regarding period of stay in the khalwa up to the time of the study, 88 (49.28%) for one year, 54 (30.24%) for 2 years, 22 (12.32%) for 3 years and 16 (8.96%) for more than 3 years. About 77 students (42.78%) were pale on clinical examination. The Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH) mean value was 25.58 pg ( 3.55). Many conditions known to be associated with anemia were found; 49 students (27.2%) had a positive blood films for falciparum malaria, 14 students (7.8%) were found to have haematuria and ova of S. haematobium, In169 students (93.4%) stool examination was negative , while 11 students (6.6%) had intestinal worms (Enterobius vermicularis). Majority of the study participants had iron deficiency anaemia, followed by haemolytic, macrocytic and sickle cell anaemia. This might have negative health and educational implications.
Maksimovic Milos Z
Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS has been related to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Different criteria for diagnosis of MetS have been recommended, but there is no agreement about which criteria are best to use. The aim of the present study was to investigate agreement between the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, American Heart Association (NHLBI/AHA and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definitions of MetS in patients with symptomatic carotid disease and to compare the frequency of cardiovascular risk factor in patients with MetS diagnosed by these two sets of criteria. Methods The study was a cross-sectional one involving 644 consecutive patients with verified carotid disease who referred to the Vascular Surgery Clinic Dedinje in Belgrade during the period April 2006 - November 2007. Anthropometric parameters blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipoproteins were measured using standard procedures. Results MetS was present in 67.9% of participants, according to IDF criteria, and in 64.9% of participants, according to the NHLBI/AHA criteria. A total of 119 patients were categorized differently by the two definitions. Out of all participants 10.7% had MetS by IDF criteria only and 7.8% of patients had MetS by NHLBI/AHA criteria only. The overall agreement of IDF and NHLBI/AHA criteria was 81.5% (Kappa 0.59, p Conclusion The MetS prevalence in patients with symptomatic carotid disease was high regardless of criteria used for its diagnosis. Since some patients with known cardiovascular risk factors were lost by the use of IDF criteria it seems that NHLBI/AHA definition is more suitable for diagnosis of MetS. Large follow-up studies are needed to test prognostic value of these definitions.
Full Text Available Clinical development of vaginally applied products aimed at reducing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, has highlighted the need for a better characterisation of the vaginal environment. We set out to characterise the vaginal environment in women in different settings in sub-Saharan Africa.A longitudinal study was conducted in Kenya, Rwanda and South-Africa. Women were recruited into pre-defined study groups including adult, non-pregnant, HIV-negative women; pregnant women; adolescent girls; HIV-negative women engaging in vaginal practices; female sex workers; and HIV-positive women. Consenting women were interviewed and underwent a pelvic exam. Samples of vaginal fluid and a blood sample were taken and tested for bacterial vaginosis (BV, HIV and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs. This paper presents the cross-sectional analyses of BV Nugent scores and RTI prevalence and correlates at the screening and the enrolment visit.At the screening visit 38% of women had BV defined as a Nugent score of 7-10, and 64% had more than one RTI (N. gonorrhoea, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis and/or Candida. At screening the likelihood of BV was lower in women using progestin-only contraception and higher in women with more than one RTI. At enrolment, BV scores were significantly associated with the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA in the vaginal fluid and with being a self-acknowledged sex worker. Further, sex workers were more likely to have incident BV by Nugent score at enrolment.Our study confirmed some of the correlates of BV that have been previously reported but the most salient finding was the association between BV and the presence of PSA in the vaginal fluid which is suggestive of recent unprotected sexual intercourse.
Beyene, Getenet; Tasew, Haimanot
Diarrheal disease continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries including Ethiopia. Globally, intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species remain major contributors to acute enteric infections. The study was aimed at determining the frequency of intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species identified from diarrheic children at Jimma Health Centre, Jimma south west Ethiopia. A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted from March to November 2012. A structured questionnaire was used for collection of data on socio- demographic characteristics. Parasite and bacteria identification as well as susceptibility testing was done using standard parasitological and bacteriological procedures. A total of 260 diarrheal children were included in the study. A total of 129 (49.6%) samples were positive for intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species. Of these, 107 (41.1%), 6 (2.3%) and 16 (6.2%) samples were positive for intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species respectively. The dominant isolated parasite was G. lamblia with prevalence of 13.5% followed by A. lumbricoides (11.5%). The least identified parasites were Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia species accounting 0.4% each. Multiple parasitic infections were observed in 19 (7.3%) patients. Shigella species showed hundred percent resistances to ampicillin, amoxacillin, and cotrimoxazole. All Salmonella isolates were resistant against amoxicillin. All Shigella and Salmonella species were susceptible to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and gentamycin. The presence of reasonably high amount of intestinal parasite and Salmonella and Shigella species that are drug resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs is a treat to the children and community at large. Therefore, measures including health education, improvement of safe water supply, sanitation facilities and continuous monitoring of microbiological and antimicrobial
Lee, Whan Hee; Choo, Jee-Young; Son, Ji-Young; Kim, Ho
Air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological association between the yearly concentration of air pollution and regional prevalence of cardiovascular disease in South Korea. In this cross-sectional study, data regarding the regional prevalence of cardiovascular disease (i.e., hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, and angina) and health behaviors were obtained from the Korean Community Health Survey conducted in 108 communities of South Korea in 2008-2010. Data on carbon monoxide (CO; ppb), nitrogen dioxide (NO2; ppb), and particulate matter up to 10μm in size (PM10; μg/m(3)) were collected from the National Institute of Environmental Research. We used a distributed lag model with generalized estimating equations to represent the corrected lag-response and correlation among repeated observations. Cumulative odds ratios of hypertension, hypertension in those aged >30years, stroke, and angina with an increase of 10μg/m(3) in PM10 were 1.042 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.009, 1.077), 1.044 (CI: 1.009, 1.079), 1.044 (CI: 0.979, 1.114), and 0.977 (CI: 0.901, 1.059), respectively; a 10ppb increase in NO2 was associated with an odds ratio of 1.077 (CI: 1.044, 1.112), 1.08 (CI: 1.043, 1.118), 1.073 (CI: 0.994, 1.157), and 1.047 (CI: 0.968, 1.134), respectively. A 10ppb increase in CO was associated with an odds ratio of 1.123 (CI: 0.963, 1.31), 1.129 (CI: 0.963, 1.387), and 1.336 (CI: 0.9887, 2.011) for hypertension, hypertension in patients >30years, and stroke >50, respectively. We found suggestive evidence of an association between the long-term exposure (i.e., delayed for 5years) to air pollutants (i.e., PM10, NO2, and CO) and the regional prevalence of chronic cardiovascular disease (i.e., hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, and angina) in 108 communities in South Korea.
Hua-Yu Zhang; Dong Liu; Hao Tang; Shi-Jin Sun; Shan-Mu Ai; Wen-Qun Yang; Dong-Po Jiang
Purpose: To investigate the prevalence and diagnosis rate of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) in a mixed-population intensive care unit (ICU), and to investigate the knowledge of ICU staff regarding the guidelines published by the World Society of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS) in 2013.Methods: A one-day cross-sectional study based on the WSACS 2013 guidelines was conducted in the general ICU of a tertiary teaching hospital in Chongqing, China.The included patients were divided into intravesical pressure (IVP) measured group and IVP unmeasured group.The epidemiologic data were recorded, and potential IAH risk factors (RFs) were collected based on the guidelines.IVP measurements were conducted by investigators every 4 h and the result was compared to that measured by the ICU staff to evaluate the diagnosis rate.Besides, a questionnaire was used to investigate the understanding of the guidelines among ICU staff.Results: Thirty-two patients were included, 14 in the IVP measured group and 18 in the IVP unmeasured group.The prevalence of IAH during the survey was 15.63％ (5/32), 35.71％ (5/14) in IVP measured group.Only one case of IAH had been diagnosed by the ICU physician and the diagnosis rate was as low as 20.00％.Logistic regression analysis showed that sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was an independent RF for IAH (OR: 1.532, 95％ CI: 1.029-2.282, p =0.036.Fourteen doctors and 5 nurses were investigated and the response rate was 67.86％.The average scores of the doctors and nurses were 27.14 ± 20.16 and 16.00 ± 8.94 respectively.None of them had studied the WSACS 2013 guidelines thoroughly.Conclusion: Patients with a higher SOFA score has a higher incidence of IAH.The IAH prevalence in 14 ICU patients with indwelling catheter was 35.71％.Strengthening the wide and rational use of WSACS guideline is important to improve the diagnosis of IAH.
Lechner, Anna; Lahmann, Nils; Neumann, Konrad; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan
Pressure ulcers are a serious health problem in medical and nursing care. Therefore, effective prevention is crucial. Major pressure ulcer risk factors have been identified but the particular role of dry skin (xerosis cutis) is unclear. To investigate possible associations between dry skin and pressure ulcers focusing on the sacrum/trochanter and at heel/ankle skin areas. Two multicenter cross-sectional studies. In 2014 and 2015 thirty nursing homes and thirteen hospitals in Germany participated. In total 3837 participants were included. Mean age was 76.1 (SD 15.5) years. Skin assessments and data collection were performed by trained nurses based on a standardized data collection form. Descriptive comparisons and multilevel logistic regressions predicting pressure ulcers at sacrum/trochanter and ankle/heel were conducted. The prevalence of skin dryness at the trunk was significantly higher for subjects with pressure ulcers category 2+ at the sacral area compared to without (39.0% vs. 24.4%, p=0.010). Adjusted to demographic variables, mobility and type of institution dry skin at the trunk was no longer associated with pressure ulceration (OR 1.11 (95% CI 0.62-2.00)). 71.9% of patients with heel/ankle pressure ulcers category 2+ were affected by dry skin at legs or feet, compared to 42.8% of subjects without pressure ulcers (ppressure ulcer development. Skin dryness may be less important for sacral pressure ulcers. Therefore, the variable skin status should be better defined in future studies and pressure ulcer risk models. Results further support differences in pressure ulcer aetiologies between anatomical locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: The Internet is a widely used tool known to foster addictive behavior, and Internet addiction threatens to develop into a major public health issue in the near future in a rapidly developing country like India. Objective: This cross-sectional study intends to estimate prevalence, understand patterns, and evaluate risk factors for Internet addiction among college students in the city of Bengaluru, India. Materials and Methods: Out of a total of 554 data samples from eight colleges selected through multistage cluster sampling, 515 samples were analyzed. Young′s 20-item Internet Addiction Test (IAT, an inventory including demographic factors and patterns of internet use, was administered. Results: This study of college students aged 16-26 years (mean ± SD 19.2 ± 2.4 years, with marginally high female representation (56%, identified 34% [95% confidence interval (CI 29.91-38.09%] and 8% (95%, CI 5.97-10.63% as students with mild and moderate Internet addiction respectively. Binary logistic regression found Internet addiction to be associated with male gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 1.69, 95% CI, 1.081- 2.65, P = 0.021], continuous availability online (AOR 1.724, 95% CI, 1.018-2.923, P = 0.042, using the Internet less for coursework/assignments (AOR 0.415, 95% CI, 0.263-0.655, P < 0.001, making new friendships online (AOR 1.721, 95% CI, 1.785-2.849, P = 0.034, getting into relationships online (AOR 2.283, 95% CI, 1.424-3.663, P = 0.001. Conclusion: The results highlight the vulnerability of college students to Internet addiction. The findings provide explanations on the addictive behavior of the internet users, support the inclusion of "Internet Addiction" in the DSM-VI, and open up new paths for further research.
Elkamil Areej I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation is a serious complication among children with cerebral palsy (CP. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of hip dislocation among children with CP in an area providing regular care with an area providing hip surveillance services. Methods This is a cross-sectional study in seven Norwegian counties providing regular care and one Swedish healthcare region where a hip surveillance programme was introduced in 1994. Data were provided by the Norwegian Cerebral Palsy Register and the CP Register in Southern Sweden. Children born 1996 - 2003 with moderate to severe CP, defined as Gross Motor Classification System (GMFCS levels III - V, were included. In all, 119 Norwegian and 136 Swedish children fulfilled the criteria. In Norway, data on hip operations and radiographs of the hips were collected from medical records, while these data are collected routinely in the Swedish register. The hip migration percentage was measured on the recent radiographs. Hip dislocation was defined as a migration percent of 100%. Results The proportion of children at GMFCS levels III - V was 34% in the Norwegian and 38% in the Swedish population. In the Norwegian population, hip dislocation was diagnosed in 18 children (15.1%; CI: 9.8 - 22.6 compared with only one child (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.01 - 4.0 in Southern Sweden (p = Conclusions The surveillance programme reduced the number of hip dislocations and the proportion of children undergoing hip surgery was lower. However, with the surveillance programme the first operation was performed at a younger age. Our results strongly support the effectiveness of a specifically designed follow-up programme for the prevention of hip dislocation in children with CP.
Ahmed, Magdy R; Shaaban, Mohamed M; Sedik, Wael F; Mohamed, Tamer Y
To evaluate the female sexual dysfunction in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This cross-sectional study was carried out at Suez Canal University Hospitals from the start of February 2015 to the end of May 2016 among 189 married premenopausal women attending endocrinology and diabetology outpatient clinic for regular follow-up; 25 of whom refused to participate and 18 more were excluded due to incomplete data sets resulting in a final sample of 146 diabetic females. Ninety healthy women were recruited from the administrative staff at the hospital as a control group. Sexual dysfunction was assessed using female sexual function index (FSFI), a validated 19-item, self-administered, screening questionnaire comprising the six major sexual domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain. Responses to each question were reported and scored on 0-5 scale with 0 representing no sexual activity and 5 suggestive of normal sexual activity. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction was significantly higher in both type 1 and 2 DM groups (44 and 25%, respectively) than in the control group (9%). FSFI mean total score was significantly lower in type 1 DM (21.1 ± 3.9) than type 2 DM (26.4 ± 4.2) and both were significantly lower than the control group (31.5 ± 5.8). With regard to FSFI domains, mean values for desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain were significantly lower in both type 1 and type 2 DM groups when compared with the controls. FSD is a significant health problem among premenopausal diabetic Egyptian women. Type 1 DM women were more affected than type 2 DM that in turn was more affected than healthy control females.
Kemmerling, K; Müller, U; Mielenz, M; Sauerwein, H
The prevalence of Chlamydophila spp. was determined in a cross-sectional study carried out in 2007 using 100 randomly selected dairy herds in the western part of Germany. Ten dairy cows per herd were sampled in herds with fewer than 100 cows; in bigger herds, 10% of the cows were sampled. For the detection of Chlamydophila spp., vaginal swabs from early lactating dairy cows were analyzed using an established highly sensitive genus-specific real-time PCR. In consideration of the discontinuous shedding of the pathogen, a herd was classified as positive if at least 1 animal per herd tested positive for Chlamydophila spp. By use of these methods and definitions, 61% of the dairy herds and 13.5% of the cows were detected as PCR-positive for Chlamydophila spp., which is indicative for ongoing infections. To compare herd health and herd performance between herds testing positive or negative and to identify risk factors for the presence of Chlamydophila spp., a questionnaire was designed to evaluate farm characteristics and management practices. In addition, the performance recordings of the state dairy recording organization were used for these purposes. Milk yield, number of lactations, and calving to first-service interval were lower in herds testing positive for Chlamydophila spp. compared with negative herds. For all these variables, there was no interaction between Chlamydophila status and lactation number. Replacement of animals from outside sources, use of breeding bulls, lack of separate calving pens, and low scores for cleanliness of beddings, walkways, and cows were identified as the main risk factors for Chlamydophila spp.
Full Text Available Background. Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world’s population. Anemia is a global public health problem occurring at all stages of the life cycle but the burden of the problem is higher in pregnant women particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in north western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 714 pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in health facilities found in the study area from April to May 2014. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 20.0 statistical software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with anemia among the study participants. All tests were two-sided and p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL among the pregnant women was 36.1% (95% CI = 32.7%–39.7% of which 58.5% were mildly, 35.7% moderately, and 5.8% severely anemic. In pregnant women, rural residence (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.01–3.04, no education/being illiterate (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.03–2.37, absence of iron supplementation during pregnancy (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.92–5.37, and meal frequency of less than two times per day (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.06–4.91 were the independent predictors for increased anemia among the pregnant women. Conclusions. Anemia was found to be moderate public health problem in the study area. Residence, educational status, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and meal frequency per day were statistically associated with anemia among the pregnant women. Awareness creation and nutrition education on the importance of taking iron
So, Ryuhei; Makino, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Masaki; Hirota, Tomoya; Ohcho, Kozo; Ikeda, Shin; Tsubouchi, Shouko; Inagaki, Masatoshi
Extant literature suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are risk factors for internet addiction (IA). The present cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of IA among 132 adolescents with ASD and/or ADHD in a Japanese psychiatric clinic using Young's Internet Addiction Test. The…
Full Text Available Background. Trachoma is the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. Once an epidemic in most parts of the world, it has largely now disappeared from developed countries. However, it continues to be endemic in many developing countries like Ethiopia. Even if several studies were conducted in different parts of Ethiopia, most of them did not show the independent predictors for rural and urban children separately. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma in urban and rural children. Methods. Community based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Dera woreda. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 671 children of one up to nine years of age. Data were collected by face to face interview and observation using a structured and pretested questionnaire. Binary Logistic Regression Model was fitted to consider adding independent predictors of outcome. Results. Out of 671 children, 20 (9.3% of urban and 85 (18.6% of rural children were positive for active trachoma. Having discharge on eye (AOR = 6.9, 95% CI: 1.79–27.89, presence of liquid waste around the main house (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI: 1.94–16.18, and living in households without latrine (AOR = 4.39, 95% CI: 1.39–13.89 were significantly associated with active trachoma of urban children. Rural children who had discharge on their eye (AOR = 5.86, 95% CI: 2.78–12.33, those who had unclean face (AOR = 4.68, 95% CI: 2.24–9.81, and those living in households with feces around their main houses (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.04–3.62 were significantly associated with active trachoma. Conclusion. The result showed that the prevalence of active trachoma in urban areas of the district was below WHO threshold of 10% to determine trachoma as public health problem. However, in rural areas of the district it is far from elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. Thus, in order to improve awareness of the community
Hargreaves, Sally; Seedat, Farah; Car, Josip; Escombe, Rod; Hasan, Samia; Eliahoo, Joseph; Friedland, Jon S
Rising rates of infectious diseases in international migrants has reignited the debate around screening. There have been calls to strengthen primary-care-based programmes, focusing on latent TB. We did a cross-sectional study of new migrants to test an innovative one-stop blood test approach to detect multiple infections at one appointment (HIV, latent tuberculosis, and hepatitis B/C) on registration with a General Practitioner (GP) in primary care. The study was done across two GP practices attached to hospital Accident and Emergency Departments (A&E) in a high migrant area of London for 6 months. Inclusion criteria were foreign-born individuals from a high TB prevalence country (>40 cases per 100,000) who have lived in the UK ≤ 10 years, and were over 18 years of age. All new migrants who attended a New Patient Health Check were screened for eligibility and offered the blood test. We followed routine care pathways for follow-up. There were 1235 new registrations in 6 months. 453 attended their New Patient Health Check, of which 47 (10.4%) were identified as new migrants (age 32.11 years [range 18-72]; 22 different nationalities; time in UK 2.28 years [0-10]). 36 (76.6%) participated in the study. The intervention only increased the prevalence of diagnosed latent TB (18.18% [95% CI 6.98-35.46]; 181.8 cases per 1000). Ultimately 0 (0%) of 6 patients with latent TB went on to complete treatment (3 did not attend referral). No cases of HIV or hepatitis B/C were found. Foreign-born patients were under-represented at these practices in relation to 2011 Census data (Chi-square test -0.111 [95% CI -0.125 to -0.097]; p < 0.001). The one-stop approach was feasible in this context and acceptability was high. However, the number of presenting migrants was surprisingly low, reflecting the barriers to care that this group face on arrival, and none ultimately received treatment. The ongoing UK debate around immigration checks and charging in primary care for new
Full Text Available J Andrew Dykens,1–4 Annē M Linn,5,6 Tracy Irwin,7 Karen E Peters,8 Maria Pyra,8 Fatoumata Traoré,9 Mariama Touré Diarra,9,☪ Memoona Hasnain,1,10 Katie Wallner,11 Patrick Linn,11 Youssoupha Ndiaye12 1Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, 2Center for Global Health, 3Institute for Health Research and Policy, 4Cancer Center, Hospital and Health Sciences System, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA; 5Master’s International Graduate School Program, Peace Corps, Dakar, Senegal; 6Rutgers School of Nursing, Newark, NJ, 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 8School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA; 9Regional Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, Kédougou, Senegal; 10Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 11Peace Corps, Dakar, 12Regional Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, Sédhiou, Senegal ☪Mariama Touré Diarra passed away on March 21, 2015 Background: Senegal ranks 15th in the world in incidence of cervical cancer, the number one cause of cancer mortality among women in this country. The estimated participation rate for cervical cancer screening throughout Senegal is very low (6.9% of women 18–69 years old, especially in rural areas and among older age groups (only 1.9% of women above the age of 40 years. There are no reliable estimates of the prevalence of cervical dysplasia or risk factors for cervical dysplasia specific to rural Senegal. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of cervical dysplasia in a rural region using visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA and to assess risk factors for cervical cancer control. Patients and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in which we randomly selected 38 villages across the Kédougou region using a three-stage clustering process. Between October 2013 and March 2014, we collected VIA screening results for women aged 30–50 years and
Santos Betânia R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a multitude of disorders including diabetes, defective insulin secretion as well as rickets and poor bone health. Vitamin D is also a concern during childhood and adolescence and has been reported in girls from South Brazil. We determined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in girls from South Brazil and investigated whether the genotypic distribution of the BsmI, ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms of the VDR gene and their haplotypes were associated with vitamin D levels. Methods Cross-sectional study including 234 apparently healthy girls aged 7 to 18 years. Height and weight were measured for calculation of body mass index (BMI percentiles for age. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] were assessed. Participants were genotyped for ApaI (rs7975232, TaqI (rs731236, and BsmI (rs1544410 SNPs. Results The median and interquartile range (25-75% of BMI percentile was 62.0 (33.3 – 84.9. The frequency of overweight/obesity was 24.9%. Circulating levels of 25(OHD (≥ 30 ng/mL were adequate in 9.4%; insufficient in 54.3% (20–29 ng/mL; and deficient in 36.3% (vs. GA + AA, two-tailed Student’s t-test p vs. GT + TT, two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.031 and TaqI (TT vs. TC + CC, two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.005 SNPs and the GGT haplotype (two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.036 were significantly associated with lower 25(OHD levels. Conclusions 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were highly prevalent in this sample. The BsmI, ApaI and TaqI wild variants of the VDR gene, as well as the GGT haplotype, were associated with lower vitamin D levels, suggesting that VDR gene polymorphisms could be linked to higher susceptibility to vitamin D deficiency in a sub-population of children and adolescents.
Yang, Shigui; Ding, Cheng; Cui, Yuanxia; Wu, Jie; Yu, Chengbo; Chen, Ping; Xu, Kaijin; Deng, Min; Li, Yiping; Liu, Juanjuan; Yin, Pei; Ren, Wen; Qiu, Yan; Cao, Qing; Zhou, Yuqing; Yao, Jun; Ruan, Bing; Ren, Jingjing; Li, Lanjuan
Objectives To reveal the prevalence and associated influencing factors of hepatitis B among a rural residential population in Zhejiang, China, in order to help develop specific control strategies. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among a rural residential population in Zhejiang, China. Stratified multistage cluster sampling was utilised in five districts; a structured questionnaire was used to collect the information such as age, gender, education, occupation, living status, and other health related information of the participants by trained local staff; and the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection status of the participants was determined by the chemiluminescence immunoassay test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to evaluate the influencing factors of HBV infection. The odds ratio of each related factor was assessed with or without adjustment separately. Results The mean age of the 16 601 participants (7881 males and 8720 females) who completed the survey was 40.28±19.47 years. The positive rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was 4.04% (95% CI 3.74% to 4.35%), and 3.85% when standardised by age and gender. Univariate analysis showed that age, educational level, occupation, living status, history of hepatitis B examinations, history of blood transfusion, vaccination, family history, coastal living, and district were the potential influencing factors. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that occupation, living status, history of hepatitis B examinations, vaccination and district were the influencing factors. Undertaking a service-based tertiary industry job (ORa 1.19, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.51) and non-single living (ORa 2.84, 95% CI 2.17 to 3.70) might be risk factors, while vaccination (ORa 0.43, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.53) and history of hepatitis B examinations (ORa 0.71, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.03) were potential protective factors. Conclusions The prevalence of hepatitis B is at an intermediate epidemic level in a rural residential
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although coronary revascularisation by coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is well documented, scientific knowledge on disability pension (DP at the time of revascularisation is lacking. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of all-cause and diagnosis-specific DP at the time of a first coronary revascularisation, accounting for socio-demographic and medical factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study using Swedish registers was conducted including all 65,676 patients (80% men who when aged 30-63 years, within 1994-2006, had a first CABG (n = 22,959 or PCI (n = 42,717 and did not have old-age pension. Associations between socio-demographic and medical factors and the probability of DP were estimated by odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI using logistic regression analyses. FINDINGS: The prevalence of DP at time of revascularisation was 24%, mainly due to musculoskeletal diagnoses. Sixty-two percent had had DP for at least four years before the revascularisation. In the multivariable analyses, DP was more common in women (OR: 2.40; 95% CI: 2.29-2.50, older patients (50-63 years; especially men aged 60-63 years with CABG (OR: 4.91; 95% CI: 4.27-5.66, lower educational level; especially men with PCI (OR: 2.96; 95% CI: 2.69-3.26, patients born outside Sweden; especially men with PCI (OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.96-2.27, and in women with an indication of other diagnoses than acute coronary syndrome (ACS or stable angina pectoris for PCI (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.31-2.24. CONCLUSION: About a quarter had DP at the time of revascularisation, often due to musculoskeletal diagnoses. More than half had had DP for at least four years before the intervention. DP was associated with female gender, older age, lower educational level, and being born outside Sweden.
Novais, Rodrigo Nobre DE; Rocha, Louise Matos; Eloi, Raissa Jardelino; Santos, Luciano Menezes Dos; Ribeiro, Marina Viegas Moura Rezende; Ramos, Fernando Wagner DA Silva; Lima, Fernando José Camello DE; Sousa-Rodrigues, Célio Fernando DE; Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó
to determine the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome (BS) for surgeons working in referral hospital for trauma in Maceio and to evaluate the possible correlation between BS and weekly workload. cross-sectional study with 43 on-call surgeons at Professor Osvaldo Brandão Vilela General State Hospital, Maceió, between July and December, 2015. A self-administered form was used to evaluate BS through the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and socio-demographic characteristics among participants. Spearman's S test was used to compare BS and weekly workload. Significant level was 5%. among the surgeons studied, 95.35% were male and the mean age was 43.9 ± 8.95 years. The mean weekly workload on call in trauma was 33.90 ± 16.82 hours. The frequency of high scores in at least one of the three dimensions of MBI was 46.5%. Professional achievement was correlated with weekly workload (P = 0.020). the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome among on-call surgeons in referral hospital for trauma was 46.5%. In this sample there was correlation between weekly workload and the Burnout Syndrome. determinar a prevalência da Síndrome de Burnout (SB) em médicos cirurgiões que trabalham em hospital de referência para o trauma em Maceió e avaliar a possível correlação entre SB e a carga horária semanal de trabalho. estudo transversal com 43 cirurgiões de plantão do Hospital Geral do Estado Professor Osvaldo Brandão Vilela, Maceió, entre julho e dezembro de 2015. Um formulário autoadministrado foi utilizado para avaliar SB por meio do Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) e as características sociodemográficas entre os participantes. Foi utilizado o teste de Spearman S para comparar SB e carga horária semanal. O nível de significância foi 5%. entre os cirurgiões estudados, 95,35% eram do sexo masculino e a média de idade foi 43,9±8,95 anos. A média da carga horária semanal de plantão no trauma foi 33,90±16,82 horas. A frequência de pontuações elevadas em pelo menos uma das tr
Haftu Berhe* and Alemayehu Bayray
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression and associated factors among people attending ART clinics in Tigray, Ethiopia. Method: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on patients attending ART clinics for persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA at Adigrat, Mekelle and Maichew Hospitals in Tigray region. Sample size was calculated using Epi info statcalc and 269 PLWHA were included in the study. The patients were interviewed by psychiatric nurses using the 21 item Hamilton’s depression scale Questionnaire. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 19.0. Levels of depression were calculated among various subgroups of patients, according to the Hamilton’s depression scale questionnaire. The possible associations of the presence and severity of depression with socio-demographic variables was explored using appropriate parametric and non-parametric tests. Specifically, the odds square and logistic regression was used in the exploration of associations; ethical clearance was obtained from Mekelle University College of health sciences. Result: Out of 269 total participants, 142(52% were females, 213 (79.2% were from urban area and 56(20.8 were from rural. One hundred nine (40% of the study subjects’ age range was 35-44 and 129 (48% were married. Orthodox religion constituted 80% followed by Muslim (11.5% and Catholic (0.4%. Sixty (22.3% were unemployed and majority, 229(85.2% had a minimum of primary education. Among 269 participants 43.9 % were depressed. Depression was associated with urban dwellers, with lower socio-economic class, unemployed and government employees, with OR of 3.19(1.5, 6.65, 4.43(1.35, 14.58, 2.74(1.34, 5.57, and 3.56(1.73, 7.30 respectively.Conclusion: In summary, the magnitude of depression in PLWHA on ART was found to be high and was positively associated with urban dwellers, with lower socio-economic class, unemployed, and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies witnessed that prenatal zinc deficiency (ZD predisposes to diverse pregnancy complications. However, scientific evidences on the determinants of prenatal ZD are scanty and inconclusive. The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of prenatal ZD in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Sidama zone in January and February 2011. Randomly selected 700 pregnant women were included in the study. Data on potential determinants of ZD were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Serum zinc concentration was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Statistical analysis was done using logistic regression and linear regression. Results The mean serum zinc concentration was 52.4 (+/-9.9 μg/dl (95% CI: 51.6-53.1 μg/dl. About 53.0% (95% CI: 49.3-56.7% of the subjects were zinc deficient. The majority of the explained variability of serum zinc was due to dietary factors like household food insecurity level, dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods. The risk of ZD was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.02-2.67 times higher among women from maize staple diet category compared to Enset staple diet category. Compared to pregnant women aged 15-24 years, those aged 25-34 and 35-49 years had 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04-2.34 and 2.18 (95% CI: 1.25-3.63 times higher risk of ZD, respectively. Women devoid of self income had 1.74 (95% CI: 1.11-2.74 time increased risk than their counterparts. Maternal education was positively associated to zinc status. Grand multiparas were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.09-3.23 times more likely to be zinc deficient than nulliparas. Frequency of coffee intake was negatively association to serum zinc level. Positive association was noted between serum zinc and hemoglobin concentrations. Altitude, history of iron supplementation, maternal workload, physical access to health service, antenatal care and nutrition education were
Prevalence of herbal medicine use and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at public health facilities in Hossana Town, Southern Ethiopia: facility based cross sectional study.
Laelago, Tariku; Yohannes, Tadele; Lemango, Fiseha
The use of herbal medicine has been on increase in many developing and industrialized countries. More pregnant women use herbal remedies to treat pregnancy related problems due to cost-effectiveness of therapy and easy access of these products. We sought to assess the prevalence of herbal medicine use and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of public health facilities. Facility based cross sectional study was conducted among 363 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics from May to June 2015 at public health facilities in Hossana town, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia. Pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data from each study subject. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was used to see significance of association between the outcome and independent variables. Odds ratios at 95 % CI were computed to measure the strength of the association between the outcome and the independent variables. P-value ginger (55.8 %), garlic (69.8 %), eucalyptus (11.6 %), tenaadam (rutachalenssis) (26.4 %), damakesse (ocimumlamiifolium) (22.8 %), feto (3.5 %) and omore (3.1 %). Being students (AOR: (5.68, 95 % CI: (1.53, 21.13), second trimester of pregnancy (AOR: 0.22, 95 % CI: (0.08, 0.76), sufficient knowledge on herbal medicine (AOR: 0.37, 95 % CI: (0.19, 0.79), no formal education (AOR: 4.41, 95 % CI: (1.11, 17.56), primary education (AOR: 4.15, 95 % CI: (1.51, 11.45) and secondary education (AOR: 2.55, 95 % CI: (1.08,6.03) were significantly associated with herbal medicine use. The findings of this study showed that herbal medicine use during pregnancy is a common experience. Commonly used herbal medicines during current pregnancy were garlic, ginger, tenaadam, damakasse and eucalyptus. Educational status, occupation, knowledge on herbal medicine and second trimester of pregnancy were the major factors affecting use of herbal medicine. Health education about the effects of herbal medicine on pregnancy should be given
Background University students face multiple stressors such as academic overload, constant pressure to succeed, competition with peers as well as concerns about the future. Stress should not be considered on its own, but should be associated with potential risk behaviors leading to onset of substance use and related problems heightened during the university period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of main substance use and behavioral addictions among students in higher education in France and to examine the relationship with perceived stress. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by university student volunteers from Upper Normandy (France) either by anonymous online questionnaire or by paper questionnaire. Data collected included socio-economic characteristics, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis) and hazardous behaviors: alcohol abuse problems, smoking, consumption of cannabis, eating disorders, and cyber addiction. Results A total of 1876 students were included. Mean PSS score was 15.9 (standard deviation = 7.2). Highly stressed students (4th quartile) were compared with lesser stressed students (1st quartile). A positive relation was observed between female gender, regular smokers, alcohol abuse problems, risk of cyberaddiction and especially eating disorders (AOR = 5.45, 95% CI = 3.42-8.69), and increasing PSS score. PSS score however, was not significantly related to the curriculum, regular alcohol use, drunkenness or binge drinking even after additional controlling for use of other substances. We found a significant negative association between stress and practice of sport: students with the most physical activity were less likely to report perceived stress (4th quartile: AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.39-0.80). Conclusions This cross-sectional study among university students in France revealed that perceived stress was associated not only with known risks such as
Tavolacci, Marie Pierre; Ladner, Joel; Grigioni, Sebastien; Richard, Laure; Villet, Herve; Dechelotte, Pierre
University students face multiple stressors such as academic overload, constant pressure to succeed, competition with peers as well as concerns about the future. Stress should not be considered on its own, but should be associated with potential risk behaviors leading to onset of substance use and related problems heightened during the university period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of main substance use and behavioral addictions among students in higher education in France and to examine the relationship with perceived stress. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by university student volunteers from Upper Normandy (France) either by anonymous online questionnaire or by paper questionnaire. Data collected included socio-economic characteristics, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis) and hazardous behaviors: alcohol abuse problems, smoking, consumption of cannabis, eating disorders, and cyber addiction. A total of 1876 students were included. Mean PSS score was 15.9 (standard deviation = 7.2). Highly stressed students (4th quartile) were compared with lesser stressed students (1st quartile). A positive relation was observed between female gender, regular smokers, alcohol abuse problems, risk of cyberaddiction and especially eating disorders (AOR = 5.45, 95% CI = 3.42-8.69), and increasing PSS score. PSS score however, was not significantly related to the curriculum, regular alcohol use, drunkenness or binge drinking even after additional controlling for use of other substances. We found a significant negative association between stress and practice of sport: students with the most physical activity were less likely to report perceived stress (4th quartile: AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.39-0.80). This cross-sectional study among university students in France revealed that perceived stress was associated not only with known risks such as alcohol misuse, but also with new risks
Full Text Available One million neonates die each year in low- and middle-income countries because of neonatal sepsis; group B Streptococcus (GBS and Escherichia coli are the leading causes. In sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological data on vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage, a prerequisite for GBS and E. coli neonatal sepsis, respectively, are scarce but necessary to design and implement prevention strategies. Therefore, we assessed vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage rates and risk factors and the GBS serotype distribution in three sub-Saharan countries.A total of 430 women from Kenya, Rwanda and South Africa were studied cross-sectionally. Vaginal carriage of GBS and E. coli, and GBS serotype were assessed using molecular techniques. Risk factors for carriage were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis.Vaginal carriage rates in reference groups from Kenya and South Africa were 20.2% (95% CI, 13.7-28.7% and 23.1% (95% CI, 16.2-31.9%, respectively for GBS; and 25.0% (95% CI, 17.8-33.9% and 27.1% (95% CI, 19.6-36.2%, respectively for E. coli. GBS serotypes Ia (36.8%, V (26.3% and III (14.0% were most prevalent. Factors independently associated with GBS and E. coli carriage were Candida albicans, an intermediate vaginal microbiome, bacterial vaginosis, recent vaginal intercourse, vaginal washing, cervical ectopy and working as a sex worker. GBS and E. coli carriage were positively associated.Reduced vaginal GBS carriage rates might be accomplished by advocating behavioral changes such as abstinence from sexual intercourse and by avoidance of vaginal washing during late pregnancy. It might be advisable to explore the inclusion of vaginal carriage of C. albicans, GBS, E. coli and of the presence of cervical ectopy in a risk- and/or screening-based administration of antibiotic prophylaxis. Current phase II GBS vaccines (a trivalent vaccine targeting serotypes Ia, Ib, and III, and a conjugate vaccine targeting serotype III would not protect the majority of
Almeida, Gilmara Celli Maia; dos Santos, Marquiony Marques; Lima, Nara Grazieli Martins; Cidral, Thiago André; Melo, Maria Celeste Nunes; Lima, Kenio Costa
Infections by Staphylococcus spp. are often associated with wounds, especially in hospitalized patients. Wounds may be the source of bacteria causing cross-contamination, and are a risk factor for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of wound colonization by Staphylococcus spp., especially S. aureus and MRSA, in hospitalized patients, and to identify the factors associated with such colonization. This cross-sectional study enrolled patients with wounds who were hospitalized in a remote and underdeveloped inland region of northeastern Brazil with extreme poverty. Samples were collected using sterile swabs with 0.85% saline solution, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., S. aureus, and MRSA were identified using standard laboratory procedures. Data regarding the sociodemographic characteristics, antibiotic use, and comorbidities of the patients were collected using the medical records and a questionnaire. A total of 125 wounds were analyzed. The patients had a mean age of 63.88 years and a mean 3.84 years of school education. Eighty-one wounds (64.80%) were colonized by Staphylococcus spp. Twenty-five wounds (20%) were colonized by S. aureus, 32% of which were colonized by MRSA. Wound colonization by Staphylococcus spp. was associated with pneumonia or other respiratory disease (p = 0.03). Wound colonization by S. aureus was associated with nasal colonization by S. aureus (p 65 years (p = 0.05). Among patients with wound colonization by MRSA, 37.50% had a history of prior antibiotic use, 75% had two or more comorbidities, 25% had cancer or diabetes, 50% had cardiovascular disease, and 50% died. Wounds can be the source of Staphylococcus spp. infection, and high proportions of wounds are colonized by S. aureus and MRSA. Nasal colonization by S. aureus may be a source for wound colonization by S. aureus, illustrating the importance of preventing cross-contamination in hospital
Zeng, Ziqian; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Yanping; Ma, Xi; Zhu, Jun
To measure folic acid awareness and intake rates among women of childbearing age in certain areas of China with a high prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD). A cross-sectional survey was carried out utilising a nineteen-item questionnaire enquiring into individual women's knowledge of, attitude towards and practice of folic acid supplementation. A total of 293 low-income counties in six provinces of China. Women aged 19-44 years from six provinces with a high prevalence of NTD recruited from June to August 2008. Among 33 025 participants, 57 % had heard of folic acid but only 15 % knew all of the core information. The intake rate was 12 %; only 8 % took the recommended dose and only 4 % of non-pregnant women took folic acid. Some women did not take folic acid because they did not know that they should take it (49 %) or they had misconceptions about it (24 %). According to logistic regression analysis, rural residence was a risk factor for folic acid awareness. Ethnicity, educational level, average annual income per person and pregnancy were the influencing factors of folic acid awareness and folic acid intake. Although more than half of the respondents had heard of folic acid, the intake rate was still very low in areas with a high prevalence of NTD. Thus, more efforts are needed to increase folic acid awareness and intake among women of reproductive age in these areas.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptococcal infection is a common opportunistic infection among severely immunosuppressed HIV patients and is associated with high mortality. Positive cryptococcal antigenemia is an independent predictor of cryptococcal meningitis and death in patients with severe immunosuppression. We evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with cryptococcal antigenemia among patients with CD4 counts of 100 cells/mm3 or less in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Screening of a targeted group of HIV patients may enable early detection of cryptococcal infection and intervention before initiating antiretroviral therapy. Factors associated with cryptococcal antigenemia may be used subsequently in resource-limited settings in screening for cryptococcal infection, and this data may also inform policy for HIV care. Methods In this cross-sectional study, HIV-infected patients aged 18 years and older with CD4 counts of up to 100 cells/mm3 were enrolled between December 2009 and March 2010. Data on socio-demographics, physical examinations and laboratory tests were collected. Factors associated with cryptococcal antigenemia were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Results We enrolled 367 participants and the median CD4 count was 23 (IQR 9-51 cells/mm3. Sixty-nine (19% of the 367 participants had cryptococcal antigenemia. Twenty-four patients (6.5% had cryptococcal meningitis on cerebrospinal fluid analysis and three had isolated cryptococcal antigenemia. Factors associated with cryptococcal antigenemia included: low body mass index of 15.4 kg/m2 or less (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-1.0, a CD4+ T cell count of less than 50 cells/mm3 (AOR = 2.7; 95% CI1.2-6.1, neck pain (AOR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.2-4.6, recent diagnosis of HIV infection (AOR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.6, and meningeal signs (AOR = 7.9; 95% CI 2.9-22.1. However, at sub-analysis of asymptomatic patients, absence of neck pain (AOR = 0.5, photophobia (AOR = 0.5 and
Kristin L Dunkle
Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male-male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus.In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18-49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6% of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1% provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2% also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92 of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164 reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51 reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79 of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26 reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26 also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male-male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26-12.3, and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.90. Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24-7.80. Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non
Full Text Available Background: Chronic diseases are increasingly becoming a health burden in terms of both morbidity and mortality in low and middle-income countries (LMICs. The role of body mass index (BMI especially overweight and obesity in the prevalence of multimorbidity, the occurrence of two or more chronic conditions, is understudied in LMICs where two thirds of the world’s obese individuals reside. We estimated the association between BMI and prevalence of chronic non communicable disease multimorbidity in six LMICs. Methods: Cross-sectional data of total of 40,166 participants from China (n = 13,970, India (10,915, Mexico (2,4 26, Russia (3,892, South Africa (4,000 and Ghana (4,971, aged 18 years and above included in the WHO Study on Global Ageing and adult health (SAGE, 2007–2010 were analyzed. Multimorbidity was measured as the simultaneous presence of two or more of the nine chronic conditions including angina pectoris, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, depression, and vision impairment. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to test for associations between overweight/obesity and prevalence of non communicable multimorbidity after adjusting for age, sex, rural/urban residence, education, marital status, occupation, household wealth, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, fruits and vegetable intake and health insurance status. Data were analyzed country wise as well as pooled together to give overall LMIC estimates. Results: The mean BMI was 24.4[±7.3SD] in the pooled countries, being as low as 20.8[±8.0 SD] in India to 23.4[±6.3 SD] in Ghana, 23.9[±4.9 SD] in China, 28.4[±5.4 SD] in Mexico, 28.6[±6.3 SD] in Russia, to as high as 30.5[±12.0 SD] in South Africa. The prevalence of overweight was 13% and obesity was 24% in the pooled sample. The prevalence of non communicable disease multimorbidity was 23% in the pooled sample of six countries–the highest being in Russia (50
Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, epidemiological, multi-center, study is enrolling T2DM patients of either gender aged 30 years or above. This study aimed to enroll a total of 3000 T2DM patients at 30 participating hospitals/clinics across India and the data from a planned interim analysis of 1500 patients are presented here. The primary endpoint of the study is to estimate proportion of T2DM patients with CKD (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 or albumin creatinine ratio [ACR] ≥30 mg/g or ≥3 mg/mmol or both. Routine treatment, as administered by the treating physician, was continued without any study specific intervention. Patients′ data pertaining to demographic characteristics, medical history, current medication and physical examination were recorded. The blood/plasma and urine samples, were collected for estimation of hemoglobin A1c, microalbuminuria, serum creatinine, urine creatinine, and routine urine analysis. ACR was calculated from urine creatinine and albumin while GFR was estimated by using a modification of diet in the renal disease equation. Results: Study recruited 1500 patients from 18 centers across India. The study population included 840 (56.05% males. Mean age, body mass index and systolic blood pressure were 55.1 years, 27.4 kg/m 2 and 134.5 mmHg respectively. The mean duration of diabetes was 102.2 months. History of co-morbid diseases such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, microvascular complications and macrovascular complications was present in 657 (43.8%, 655 (43.7%, 268 (17.9% and 104 (6.93%, respectively. This interim analysis revealed that about 46% of the T2DM patients had CKD (urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR ≥30 mg/g and/or estimated GFR [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . The renal dysfunction as per e
Mamuya, S.H.D.; Bratveit, M.; Mashalla, Y.; Moen, B.E. [University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway). Center for International Health
This study assesses the associations between exposure to dust and quartz and respiratory symptoms among coal mine workers in a manually operated coal mine in Tanzania, focusing on development workers, as they have the highest exposure to coal dust. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 production workers from a coal mine. Interviews were performed using modified standardized questionnaires to elicit information on occupational history, demographics, smoking habits and acute and chronic respiratory symptoms. The relationships between current dust exposure as well as cumulative respirable dust and quartz and symptoms were studied by group comparisons as well as logistic regression. The development workers in a coal mine had more acute and chronic respiratory symptoms than the mine and the other production workers. In addition, there was an association between high cumulative coal dust and respiratory symptoms.
Puzovic, Vladimir; Rotim, Kresimir; Jurisic, Vladimir; Samardzic, Miroslav; Zivkovic, Bojana; Savic, Andrija; Rasulic, Lukas
The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of spine and feet deformities among children who are regularly involved in basketball trainings, as well as finding differences in the prevalence of those deformities between children of different gender and age. The study included a total of 64 children, of which 43 were boys and 21 were girls, ages 10-12. All subjects have been regularly participating in basketball trainings for at least one year. Postural disorder is defined as an irregularity in posture of the spine and feet, and it is assessed by visual methods from the front, side and rear side of the body. The prevalence of spinal deformities in our group was 53.13%. The boys had a significantly higher prevalence than girls, 65.1% compared to 28.57% (p=0.006). There was no significant difference in prevalence of spine deformities between children of different ages. The prevalence of feet deformities was 64.06%. There was a statistically significant difference between the sexes, where boys had a significantly greater prevalence of the feet deformities than girls, 83.7% compared to 23.81% (p=0.001). Flat feet were the most common in 10 year old children (85.71%). In conclusion, it can be said that despite regular participation in basketball training, subjects in this study have high prevalence of deformities; especially boys who stand out with the high prevalence of flat feet.
de Lacy, Elen; Fletcher, Adam; Hewitt, Gillian; Murphy, Simon; Moore, Graham
Objectives To examine the prevalence and frequency of electronic (e)-cigarette use among young people in Wales, associations with socio-demographic characteristics, smoking and other substances and the sequencing of e-cigarette and tobacco use. Design A cross-sectional survey of school students in Wales undertaken in 2015. Setting 87 secondary schools in Wales. Participants Students aged 11–16 (n=32 479). Results Overall, students were nearly twice as likely to report ever using e-cigarettes (18.5%) as smoking tobacco (10.5%). Use of e-cigarettes at least weekly was 2.7% in the whole sample, rising to 5.7% among those aged 15–16. Almost half (41.8%) of daily smokers reported being regular e-cigarette users. Regular e-cigarette use was more prevalent among current cannabis users (relative risk ratio (RRR)=41.82; 95% CI 33.48 to 52.25)), binge drinkers (RRR=47.88; 95% CI 35.77 to 64.11), users of mephedrone (RRR=32.38; 95% CI 23.05 to 45.52) and laughing gas users (RRR=3.71; 95% CI 3.04 to 4.51). Multivariate analysis combining demographics and smoking status showed that only gender (being male) and tobacco use independently predicted regular use of e-cigarettes (pcigarettes (n=877), the vast majority reported that they tried tobacco before using an e-cigarette (n=727; 82.9%). Conclusions Since 2013, youth experimentation with e-cigarettes has grown rapidly in Wales and is now almost twice as common as experimentation with tobacco. Regular use has almost doubled, and is increasing among never and non-smokers. These data suggest that e-cigarette use among youth is an emerging public health issue, even though there remains no evidence that it represents a new pathway into smoking. Mixed methods longitudinal research is needed to explore why young people use e-cigarettes, and to develop interventions to prevent further increases in use. PMID:28159848
Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has been shown to improve survival of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection and to reduce HIV-1 transmission. Therefore, the Chinese central government initiated a national program to provide ART free of charge to HIV-1 patients. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Jiangsu province to determine the level of drug resistance (DR in HIV-1 infected patients and the correlates of DR in virological failures in 2012. Approximately 10.4% of the HIV-1 patients in the study experienced virological failure after one year of ART and were divided into drug sensitive and drug resistant groups based on genotype determination. The viral loads (VLs in the drug resistant group were significantly lower than the drug sensitive group. There were two independent predictors of virological failure: male gender and increasing duration of treatment. The primary mutations observed in the study were against nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs which were M184V (79.45% and K103N (33.70% in nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs. The overall rate of DR in Jiangsu province is still relatively low among treated patients. However, close monitoring of drug resistance in male patients in the early stages of treatment is vital to maintaining and increasing the benefits of HIV ART achieved to date.
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the prevalence and presentation of developmental defects of the enamel (DDE in the mixed and permanent dentition of healthy school children residing in hills. Materials and Methods: A total of 1188 healthy school children were examined using modified DDE criteria for recording enamel defects. Results: The overall prevalence of DDE of any type was (51.3% in both mixed and permanent dentition. Diffuse opacity was (25.3% the most common defect and demarcated opacity was (23.1% and whereas, enamel hypoplasia was the least prevalent defect with prevalence of (2.9%. Conclusion: The study population showed a high prevalence of DDE in primary as well as in the permanent dentition, reflecting the current increasing trend of this condition, which should be considered as a significant public health problem.
Gong, Yanhong; Han, Tieguang; Yin, Xiaoxv; Yang, Guoan; Zhuang, Runsen; Chen, Yuqi; Lu, Zuxun
Poor mental health among nurses not only hinders professional performance but also affects the quality of healthcare provided. To improve the prevention and management of depression among nurses in mainland China, we investigated the association between working conditions and depressive symptoms using a cross-sectional study with a sample of 3474 nurses with more than 1 year of work experience in public hospitals in Shenzhen in southern China. Participants completed a structured questionnaire and a validated measure of depressive symptoms. Multivariable linear mixed models were used to identify work-related risk factors for depressive symptoms scores. An estimated 38% of nurses had depressive symptoms. More than 10% of the nurses often experienced workplace violence, and 64.22% encountered it occasionally. Depressive symptoms were associated with frequent workplace violence, long working hours (more than 45 hours per week), frequent night shifts (two or more per week), and specific departments. These findings indicate that interventions to minimize workload and improve nurse–patient relationships are essential to combat depressive symptoms among nurses. Additionally, in the prevention and management of depression among nurses, we must consider inter-department differences. PMID:25427988
Etsay Hailu Gebremariam
Full Text Available Background. Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV/AIDS continues to be an underrecognized risk for suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, and completion of suicide. Suicidal ideation and attempt in HIV/AIDS is not only a predictor of future attempted suicide and completed suicide. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-positive patients attending HIV care at Zewditu Memorial Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 423 participants from April to May 2014. Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to collect data. Multivariable logistic regression was computed to assess factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempt. Result. Suicidal ideation and suicidal attempt were found to be 22.5% and 13.9%, respectively. WHO clinical stage of HIV, not being on HAART, depression, family history of suicidal attempt, and perceived stigma were associated with suicidal ideation. WHO clinical stage, being female, not being on HAART, use of substance, and depression were associated with suicidal attempt. Conclusion. Early diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic infections, depression, and early initiation of ART need to be encouraged in HIV-positive adults. Furthermore, counseling on substance use and its consequences and early identification of HIV-positive people with family history of suicidal ideation have to be considered.
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of impaired glucose regulation (IGR in the population of Tongzhou, China, and to provide scientific basis for preventive interventions. In the study, the overall age-standardized prevalence of IGR (16.0% in Tongzhou residents was higher than that in the national population (15.0%. There was no significant geographic difference in prevalence of IGR between urban and rural males. Older age, elevated blood pressure, high serum lipids, overweight, and central obesity were significantly associated with increased risk of IGR.
MA Xiao-Guang; SUN Wei-Guo; CHENG Yah-Song
Accurate expression for photoabsorption (photoionization) cross sections of high density system proposed recently is used to study the photoionization of solid gold. The results show that the present theoretical photoionization cross sections have good agreement both in structure and in magnitude with the experimental results of gold crystal.The studies also indicate that both the real part ε'and the imaginary part ε" of the complex dielectric constant ε,and the dielectric influence function of a nonideal system have rich structures in low energy side with a range about 50 eV, and suggest that the influence of particle interactions of surrounding particles with the photoionized particle on the photoionization cross sections can be easily investigated using the dielectric influence function. The electron overlap effects are suggested to be implemented in the future studies to improve the accuracy of theoretical photoionization cross sections of a solid system.
Sudhir Kumar Gupta
Full Text Available Research question: What is the knowledge, attitude and practice towards HIV/AIDS in a general population? Objectives: (1 To assess the knowledge about mode of transmission, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. (2 To study the socio demographic pattern, myths and misconceptions. Study design: Community based cross sectional study. Setting: Chunampett Village, Tamilnadu. Duration: March to May 2007. Participants: 845 both males and females above the age of 18 years interviewed at home. Results: Population surveyed was 845, comprising of 482 (57.04% males and 363 (42.96% females. Most of them were Hindus (96.10%. Main occupation was agriculture (39.41% among males and house wives (33.73% among females. 40.35% respondents belonged to low socioeconomic status. Illiteracy rate was high especially among females (43%.Source of information about HIV/AIDS was mass media in about 85% of the population. Majority of individuals (58.5% were not aware that the disease was contagious. An overwhelming majority (98.59% were aware about the mode of transmission of HIV/AIDS through sexual route. However about 20% had myths regarding transmission of disease. 65% knew that HIV/AIDS is preventable, yet only 4% used condoms. A vast majority (60-65% were not aware that treatment and PEP were available free of cost in government hospitals. A majority of about 54.22% were of the opinion that the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS should not be kept confidential. Conclusion: The awareness about HIV / AIDS is high among the study population but the implementation of preventive measures is low. The knowledge about availability of prophylactic and therapeutic measures against HIV / AIDS in Govt. hospitals is also low.
Marcelo Palmeira Rodrigues
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Different functional respiratory alterations have been described in acromegaly, but their relationship with pulmonary tissue abnormalities is unknown. The objective of this study was to observe possible changes in lung structure and explain their relationship with gas exchange abnormalities. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study with a control group, conducted at a university hospital. METHODS: The study included 36 patients with acromegaly and 24 controls who were all assessed through high-resolution computed tomography of the thorax (CT. Arterial blood gas, effort oximetry and serum growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1 were also assessed in the patients with acromegaly. RESULTS: The abnormalities found in the CT scan were not statistically different between the acromegaly and control groups: mild cylindrical bronchiectasis (P = 0.59, linear opacity (P = 0.29, nodular opacity (P = 0.28, increased attenuation (frosted glass; P = 0.48 and decreased attenuation (emphysema; P = 0.32. Radiographic abnormalities were not associated with serum GH and IGF-1. Hypoxemia was present in seven patients; however, in six of them, the hypoxemia could be explained by underlying clinical conditions other than acromegaly: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in two, obesity in two, bronchial infection in one and asthma in one. CONCLUSION: No changes in lung structure were detected through thorax tomography in comparison with the control subjects. The functional respiratory alterations found were largely explained by alternative diagnoses or had subclinical manifestations, without any plausible relationship with lung structural factors.
Kuo, Chin-Chi; Yeh, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Bradley; Tsai, Ching-Wei; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Chiu-Ching
The use of metformin in chronic kidney disease (CKD) population has been intensely debated with conflicting evidence. Large population studies are needed to inform risk assessment and therapeutic decision-making. We evaluated the associations among metformin, metabolic acidosis, and CKD in a 10-year nationally representative noninstitutionalized civilian population in the United States.In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2279 diabetic adults aged 20 years or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003 to 2012 were included and had measurements of serum bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, and chloride. The exposure was metformin use. The outcome was subclinical and severe metabolic acidosis defined by serum bicarbonate 16mEq/L and by serum bicarbonate 60 mL/min/1.73 m was also observed. In multiple linear regression analysis, metformin was significantly associated with decreased serum bicarbonate levels (β = -0.45, 95% CI: -0.73, -0.17) and increased serum anion gap levels (β = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.61). The adjusted odds ratio of subclinical high anion gap and severe metabolic acidosis for metformin users was 1.68 (95% CI: 1.11, 2.55) and 1.31 (0.49, 3.47), respectively. The association between metformin and serum bicarbonate was significantly modified by CKD status. No interaction was found between metformin and CKD stages for serum anion gap and acidosis.Metformin is associated with subclinical metabolic acidosis but not with severe metabolic acidosis. The propensity of serum bicarbonate-lowering effect was intensified in advanced CKD; however, such tendency was not associated with the risk of clinically defined acidosis. Our findings highlight a potential of cautious expansion of metformin use among CKD-3b patients with diabetes meriting further investigations.
Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar; Das, Hiranya Kumar; Adhikari, Prabha; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Saboo, Banshi; Kumar, Ajay; Bhansali, Anil; John, Mary; Luaia, Rosang; Reang, Taranga; Ningombam, Somorjit; Jampa, Lobsang; Budnah, Richard O; Elangovan, Nirmal; Subashini, Radhakrishnan; Venkatesan, Ulagamathesan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Das, Ashok Kumar; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Ali, Mohammed K; Pandey, Arvind; Dhaliwal, Rupinder Singh; Kaur, Tanvir; Swaminathan, Soumya; Mohan, Viswanathan
Previous studies have not adequately captured the heterogeneous nature of the diabetes epidemic in India. The aim of the ongoing national Indian Council of Medical Research-INdia DIABetes study is to estimate the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in India by estimating the prevalence by state. We used a stratified multistage design to obtain a community-based sample of 57 117 individuals aged 20 years or older. The sample population represented 14 of India's 28 states (eight from the mainland and six from the northeast of the country) and one union territory. States were sampled in a phased manner: phase I included Tamil Nadu, Chandigarh, Jharkhand, and Maharashtra, sampled between Nov 17, 2008, and April 16, 2010; phase II included Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Punjab, sampled between Sept 24, 2012, and July 26, 2013; and the northeastern phase included Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur, and Meghalaya, with sampling done between Jan 5, 2012, and July 3, 2015. Capillary oral glucose tolerance tests were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes in accordance with WHO criteria. Our methods did not allow us to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes in different states was assessed in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals and the per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) of each state. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to examine the association of various factors with the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes. The overall prevalence of diabetes in all 15 states of India was 7·3% (95% CI 7·0-7·5). The prevalence of diabetes varied from 4·3% in Bihar (95% CI 3·7-5·0) to 10·0% (8·7-11·2) in Punjab and was higher in urban areas (11·2%, 10·6-11·8) than in rural areas (5·2%, 4·9-5·4; p<0·0001) and higher in mainland states (8·3%, 7·9-8·7) than in the northeast (5·9%, 5·5-6·2; p<0·0001). Overall, 1862 (47·3%) of 3938 individuals
Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Roos, Ewa M.; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard
Daily pain and multi-site pain are both associated with reduction in work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults. However, no population-based studies have yet investigated the prevalence of daily and multi-site pain among adolescents and how these are associated with res......Daily pain and multi-site pain are both associated with reduction in work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults. However, no population-based studies have yet investigated the prevalence of daily and multi-site pain among adolescents and how these are associated...
Gupta, Rajiv Kumar; Langer, Bhavna; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Kumari, Rashmi; Jan, Reyaz; Rani, Renu
Iodine deficiency disorder remains one of the major public health problems, despite it being easily preventable. Initially thought as the disorder of Himalayan goiter belt, the disorder has been found to have a pan-India presence. The study was planned with the aim to assess the prevalence of goiter among 6-12 years school-going children and to identify levels of iodine in salt consumed at the household level in the study area. The study was conducted among 3955 school-going (2162 children from Rajouri and 1793 children from Poonch) children age 6-12 years in Rajouri and Poonch districts of Jammu Province. The children were examined clinically to detect and grade the goiter. Salt samples were collected from subsample (n = 400) to estimate iodine content in the salt. The prevalence of goiter in the study population was found to be 18.87% and 9.70% in Rajouri and Poonch districts, respectively. Goiter prevalence was higher in 9-12 years age group as compared to 6-9 years age group and the difference in goiter prevalence in males of these two age groups was statistically significant (P = 0.02). Estimation of iodine content of the salt samples revealed that all of them (100%) had adequate iodine content. Despite the implementation of Universal Iodization Program and adequate content of iodine in salt consumed by the families, the goiter prevalence in both the districts is high. The future research should focus on identifying the reasons for this high prevalence.
Rajiv Kumar Gupta
Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine deficiency disorder remains one of the major public health problems, despite it being easily preventable. Initially thought as the disorder of Himalayan goiter belt, the disorder has been found to have a pan-India presence. The study was planned with the aim to assess the prevalence of goiter among 6–12 years school-going children and to identify levels of iodine in salt consumed at the household level in the study area. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 3955 school-going (2162 children from Rajouri and 1793 children from Poonch children age 6–12 years in Rajouri and Poonch districts of Jammu Province. The children were examined clinically to detect and grade the goiter. Salt samples were collected from subsample (n = 400 to estimate iodine content in the salt. Results: The prevalence of goiter in the study population was found to be 18.87% and 9.70% in Rajouri and Poonch districts, respectively. Goiter prevalence was higher in 9–12 years age group as compared to 6–9 years age group and the difference in goiter prevalence in males of these two age groups was statistically significant (P = 0.02. Estimation of iodine content of the salt samples revealed that all of them (100% had adequate iodine content. Conclusion: Despite the implementation of Universal Iodization Program and adequate content of iodine in salt consumed by the families, the goiter prevalence in both the districts is high. The future research should focus on identifying the reasons for this high prevalence.
Paget, J.; Aangenend, H.; Kuhn, M.; Hautvast, J.; Oorschot, D. van; Loohuis, A.; Velden, K. van der; Friedrich, A.W.; Voss, A.; Kock, R.
OBJECTIVES: MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived
Paget, J.; Aangenend, H.; Kühn, M.; Hautvast, J.; Oorschot, D. van; Olde Loohuis, A.; Velden, K. van der; Friedrich, A.W.; Voss, A.; Köck, R.
Objectives MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three mon
Ausserhofer, D.; Zander, B.; Busse, R.; Schubert, M.; Geest, S. de; Rafferty, A.M.; Ball, J.; Scott, A.; Kinnunen, J.; Heinen, M.M.; Sjetne, I.S.; Moreno-Casbas, T.; Kozka, M.; Lindqvist, R.; Diomidous, M.; Bruyneel, L.; Sermeus, W.; Aiken, L.H.; Schwendimann, R.
BACKGROUND: Little is known of the extent to which nursing-care tasks are left undone as an international phenomenon. AIM: The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and patterns of nursing care left undone across European hospitals and explore its associations with nurse-related
Bo Langhoff Hønge
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV may lead to accelerated hepatic disease progression with higher rates of liver cirrhosis and liver-related mortality compared with HBV mono-infection. Co or super-infection with hepatitis Delta virus (HDV may worsen the liver disease and complicate treatment possibilities. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we included HIV-infected individuals who had a routine blood analysis performed at an HIV clinic in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau between the 28th of April and 30th of September 2011. All patients were interviewed, had a clinical exam performed and had a blood sample stored. The patients' samples were tested for HBV and HDV serology, and HBV/HDV viral loads were analyzed using in-house real-time PCR methods. RESULTS: In total, 576 patients (417 HIV-1, 104 HIV-2 and 55 HIV-1/2 were included in this study. Ninety-four (16.3% patients were HBsAg positive of whom 16 (17.0% were HBeAg positive. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, CD4 cell count <200 cells/µl and animist religion were significantly associated with HBsAg positivity. Due to scarcity of available plasma, virological analyses were not performed for eight patients. HBV DNA was detected in 42 of 86 samples (48.8% positive for HBsAg and genotyping was performed in 26 patients; 25 of whom had genotype E and one genotype D. Among 9 patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART, one patient had the [L180M, M204V] mutation associated with lamivudine resistance. Among the HBsAg positive patients 25.0% were also positive for anti-HDV and 4/9 (44.4% had detectable HDV RNA. CONCLUSION: HBV and HDV were frequent co-infections among HIV positive patients in Guinea-Bissau and chronic infection was associated with severe immunosuppression. Lamivudine was widely used among HBsAg positive patients with the risk of developing resistant HBV.
Daamen Mariëlle AMJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart failure is likely to be particularly prevalent in the nursing home population, but reliable data about the prevalence of heart failure in nursing homes are lacking. Therefore the aims of this study are to investigate (a the prevalence and management of heart failure in nursing home residents and (b the relation between heart failure and care dependency as well as heart failure and quality of life in nursing home residents. Methods/design Nursing home residents in the southern part of the Netherlands, aged over 65 years and receiving long-term somatic or psychogeriatric care will be included in the study. A panel of two cardiologists and a geriatrician will diagnose heart failure based on data collected from actual clinical examinations (including history, physical examination, ECG, cardiac markers and echocardiography, patient records and questionnaires. Care dependency will be measured using the Care Dependency Scale. To measure the quality of life of the participating residents, the Qualidem will be used for psychogeriatric residents and the SF-12 and VAS for somatic residents. Conclusion The study will provide an insight into the actual prevalence and management of heart failure in nursing home residents as well as their quality of life and care dependency. Trial registration Dutch trial register NTR2663
The cooccurrence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome potentiates the cardiovascular risk associated with each of the conditions; therefore characterizing metabolic syndrome among people with type 2 diabetes is beneficial for the purpose of cardiovascular disease prevention. This study aims at evaluating the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among 162 patients with type 2 diabetes attending the diabetic clinic of the Ho Municipal Hospital, Ghana. Data obtained included anthropometric indices, blood pressure, serum lipids, glucose, and sociodemographics and clinical information. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the study population was 43.83%, 63.58%, and 69.14% using the NCEP-ATP III, the WHO, and the IDF criteria, respectively. The most predominant component among the study population was high blood pressure using the NCEP-ATP III (108 (66.67%)) and WHO (102 (62.96)) criteria and abdominal obesity (112 (69.14%)) for IDF criteria. High blood pressure was the most prevalent component among the males while abdominal obesity was the principal component among the females. In this population with type 2 diabetes, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome exists. Gender vulnerability to metabolic syndrome and multiple cluster components were skewed towards the female subpopulation with type 2 diabetes. PMID:28293668
Full Text Available The cooccurrence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome potentiates the cardiovascular risk associated with each of the conditions; therefore characterizing metabolic syndrome among people with type 2 diabetes is beneficial for the purpose of cardiovascular disease prevention. This study aims at evaluating the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among 162 patients with type 2 diabetes attending the diabetic clinic of the Ho Municipal Hospital, Ghana. Data obtained included anthropometric indices, blood pressure, serum lipids, glucose, and sociodemographics and clinical information. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the study population was 43.83%, 63.58%, and 69.14% using the NCEP-ATP III, the WHO, and the IDF criteria, respectively. The most predominant component among the study population was high blood pressure using the NCEP-ATP III (108 (66.67% and WHO (102 (62.96 criteria and abdominal obesity (112 (69.14% for IDF criteria. High blood pressure was the most prevalent component among the males while abdominal obesity was the principal component among the females. In this population with type 2 diabetes, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome exists. Gender vulnerability to metabolic syndrome and multiple cluster components were skewed towards the female subpopulation with type 2 diabetes.
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco is a leading risk factor for different types of diseases globally. Tobacco smoking by women is culturally unacceptable in India, but still women smoke tobacco at various times of their life. Aims: The aim was to estimate the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among women and to study the associated sociodemographic factors. Settings And Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted among women aged 30 years or over in an urban resettlement colony for the migrant population at Chandigarh, India. Methodology: The study included women used tobacco products on one or more days within the past 30 days. Through systematic random sampling, 262 women were studied. As a part of the study 144 bidi smoking women were interviewed using detailed semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics and hypothesis testing with Chi-squared test and logistic regression were done using SPSS 16.0 version. Results: Overall, the prevalence of tobacco use was 29.4% and that of bidi, zarda and hookah were 19.8%, 8.8%, and 2.7%, respectively. Around 6.2% women used tobacco during pregnancy. Teenage was the most common age of initiation of bidi smoking. Logistic regression analysis showed that the prevalence of tobacco use was high among Hindu unemployed women with no formal education belonged to scheduled caste, and those having grandchildren. Conclusions: This study highlighted high rates of tobacco use and explored both individual and family factors related to tobacco use among women. Affordable, culturally acceptable, sustainable and gender-sensitive individual and community-specific interventions will reduce the prevalence and effects of tobacco use.
AbstractBackgroundCervical squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) are more frequent in HIV-positive women overall. However the appropriate age at which to begin and end cervical cancer screening for early detection of lesions in HIV-positive women is not clear. We assessed the age-specific prevalence of any SIL and SIL requiring colposcopy in HIV-positive women in Cameroon.MethodsWe enrolled, interviewed and conducted conventional cervical cytology in 282 women, aged 19--68 years, initiating antiretroviral therapy in three clinics in Cameroon. In bivariable analyses, the crude relationship between age and the presence of lesions was assessed using locally weighted regression (LOWESS) methods. In multivariate analyses, generalized linear models with prevalence as the outcome, an identity link and a binomial distribution, were used to estimate prevalence differences. Bias analyses were conducted to assess the potential effect of inaccuracies in cytology.ResultsSIL were detected in 43.5% of the 276 women with satisfactory samples, 17.8% of whom had ASC-H\\/HSIL. On average, women aged 26 to 59 tended to have a slightly higher prevalence of any SIL than other women (Prevalence difference PD: 6.5%; 95%CI: -11.4, 24.4%). This PD was a function of CD4 count (heterogeneity test p-value =0.09): amongst patients with CD4 counts less than 200cells\\/uL, the prevalence was higher in patients aged 26--59, while there was essentially no difference amongst women with CD4 counts greater than 200 cells\\/uL. ASC-H\\/HSIL were present in women as young as 19 and as old as 62. Overall the prevalence of ASC-H\\/HSIL increased by 0.7% (95%CI: -3.8%, 5.1%) per decade increase in age.ConclusionBoth severe and less severe lesions were prevalent at all ages suggesting little utility of age-targeted screening among HIV-positive women. Nevertheless, the long-term evolution of these lesions needs to be assessed in prospective studies.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in cattle has been reported previously, however information on veal calves is limited. This study describes the prevalence and molecular characteristics of E. coli with non-wild type susceptibility to cefotaxime in veal calves at slaughter. METHODS: Faecal samples from 100 herds, 10 individual animals per herd, were screened for E. coli with non-wild type susceptibility for cefotaxime. Molecular characterization of ESBL/AmpC genes and plasmids was performed on one isolate per herd by microarray, PCR and sequence analysis. RESULTS: 66% of the herds were positive for E. coli with non-wild type susceptibility for cefotaxime. Within-herd prevalence varied from zero to 90%. 83% of E. coli producing ESBL/AmpC carried bla(CTX-M genes, of which bla(CTX-M-1, bla(CTX-M-14 and bla(CTX-M-15 were most prevalent. The dominant plasmids were IncI1 and IncF-type plasmids. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high prevalence of various bla(CTX-M producing E. coli was found in veal calves at slaughter. The genes were mainly located on IncI1 and IncF plasmids.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Literature abounds on the prevalent nature of Self Reported Musculoskeletal Symptoms (SRMS among computer users, but studies that actually compared this with non computer users are meagre thereby reducing the strength of the evidence. This study compared the prevalence of SRMS between computer and non computer users and assessed the risk factors associated with SRMS. Methods A total of 472 participants comprising equal numbers of age and sex matched computer and non computer users were assessed for the presence of SRMS. Information concerning musculoskeletal symptoms and discomforts from the neck, shoulders, upper back, elbows, wrists/hands, low back, hips/thighs, knees and ankles/feet were obtained using the Standardized Nordic questionnaire. Results The prevalence of SRMS was significantly higher in the computer users than the non computer users both over the past 7 days (χ2 = 39.11, p = 0.001 and during the past 12 month durations (χ2 = 53.56, p = 0.001. The odds of reporting musculoskeletal symptoms was least for participants above the age of 40 years (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.31-0.64 over the past 7 days and OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47-0.77 during the past 12 months and also reduced in female participants. Increasing daily hours and accumulated years of computer use and tasks of data processing and designs/graphics significantly (p Conclusion The prevalence of SRMS was significantly higher in the computer users than the non computer users and younger age, being male, working longer hours daily, increasing years of computer use, data entry tasks and computer designs/graphics were the significant risk factors for reporting musculoskeletal symptoms among the computer users. Computer use may explain the increase in prevalence of SRMS among the computer users.
Mayowa Morakinyo O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use during adolescence and young adulthood remains a prominent public health problem. Despite growing problems of global alcohol abuse, accurate information on the prevalence and pattern of use in Nigeria remain sparse. This study examines the prevalence and perceived health effects of alcohol use among undergraduate students in Owerri, Nigeria. Method The prevalence and perceived health effects of alcohol was estimated for 482 male undergraduates of four higher institutions in Owerri, South-East Nigeria between October 2008 and March 2009. Information was obtained using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Result The mean age of the students was 24.7 years. Majority of the respondents confirmed they were current users of alcohol given a prevalence of 78.4%, with twenty-seven percent of them being heavy drinkers (≥4 drinks per day. Reasons given by respondents for alcohol drinking include: makes them feel high (24.4%; makes them belong to the group of "most happening guys" on campus (6.6%; makes them feel relaxed (52.6% while (16.4% drinks it because their best friends do. Perceived health impacts of alcohol use among current users include: it enhances pleasure during moment of sex (51.1%, causes drowsiness and weakness (63.8%, may precipitate defective memory and impaired perception (64.3% and serves as risk factor for most chronic diseases (68.5%. Conclusion High prevalence of alcohol use was established among study groups. Evaluation of full-scale community-level intervention, including community mobilisation and media advocacy aimed at supporting changes in policies on drinking, access and sales of alcohol to young people, could be helpful in reducing the trend.
Solis Soto, María Teresa; Patiño, Armando; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja
Asthma and allergies are world-wide common chronic diseases among children and young people. Little information is available about the prevalence of these diseases in rural areas of Latin America. This study assesses the prevalence of symptoms of asthma and allergies among children in urban and rural areas at Oropeza Province in Bolivia. The Spanish version of the ISAAC standardized questionnaire and the ISAAC video questionnaire were implemented to 2584 children attending the fifth elementary grade in 36 schools in Oropeza province (response 91%). Lifetime, 12 months and severity prevalence were determined for asthma, rhinitis and eczema symptoms. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated adjusting for age using generalized linear mixed-effects models. Median age of children was 11 years, 74.8% attended public schools, and 52.1% were female. While children attending urban schools had lower prevalence of self-reported wheeze in the written questionnaire (adjusted OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-1.9), they were more likely than children attending rural schools to report wheeze in the video questionnaire (aOR 2.1; 95% CI 1.0-2.6). They also reported more frequently severe rhinoconjunctivitis (aOR 2.8; 95% CI 1.2-6.6) and severe eczema symptoms (aOR 3.3; 95% CI 1.0-11.0). Overall in accordance with the hygiene hypothesis, children living in urban areas of Bolivia seem to have a higher prevalence of symptoms of asthma and allergies compared to children living in the country side. In order to develop primary prevention strategies, environmental factors need to be identified in future studies.
Merel M Tielemans
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last decades important risk factors for gastrointestinal symptoms have shifted, which may have changed its population prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the current prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms, appraise associated factors and assess health-related quality of life in the general population. METHODS: A total of 51,869 questionnaires were sent to a representative sample of the Dutch adult general population in December 2008. Demographic characteristics, gastrointestinal symptoms, health-related quality of life, medication use and co-morbidity were reported. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine factors associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 18,317 questionnaires were returned, and 16,758 were eligible for analysis. Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms was 26%. Most frequent symptoms were bloating (63%, borborygmi (60% and flatulence (71%. Female gender (adjusted OR (aOR 1.59, 95% CI 1.43-1.77, asthma/COPD (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.21-1.79, use of paracetamol (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.20-1.47, antidepressants (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.22-2.00 and acid-suppressive medication were independently associated with presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Age over 65 years (aOR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65-0.87, and use of statins (aOR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61-0.93 were associated with a lower prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Respondents with gastrointestinal symptoms had a lower mean health-related quality of life of 0.81 (SD = 0.21 compared to 0.92 (SD = 0.14 for persons without gastrointestinal symptoms (P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in the Dutch community is high and associated with decreased health-related quality of life.
Getasew Legas Molla
Full Text Available Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of depression was 17.5%, where 10.7% of patients were with mild depression, 4.2% were with moderate depression, 1.9% were with moderately severe depression, and 0.6% had severe depression. Being female, age of 55 years and above, poor social support, having a comorbidity medical illness, current tobacco smoking, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. The prevalence of depression in Ethiopia is as common as the other lower and middle income countries. Female gender, being currently not married, poor social support, low wealth index, tobacco smoking, older age, having comorbid illness, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. So, depression is a significant public health problem that requires a great emphasis and some factors like smoking habit are modifiable.
Osada S.A. Suraweera
Results: Out of the 204 children 65 (31.9% were positive for E. vermicularis eggs. Children aged 1-3 years showed the highest prevalence rate (37.5%. The risk factors significantly associated with E. vermicularis infection were, a lack of parental knowledge about pinworm infection (p0.05. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of enterobiasis in children in Hantana Tea Estate indicating a high level of transmission. A lack of parental knowledge and poor personal hygiene were significantly associated with the transmission of E. vermicularis. Furthermore, the present study recommends mass medication of residents and their contacts to reduce the transmission of pin worm infection could be suggested. Further, it seems that singledose treatment may not be effective against enterobiasis. Therefore, treatment should be repeated 2 to 3 times at 3 weeks intervals. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1994-1999
Clarke Megan A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer, caused by persistent infection with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HR-HPV, is particularly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa and is associated with a high mortality rate. Some studies in West Africa, including our own, have found unusually high HR-HPV across all ages with a slight peak in older women. This increased prevalence at older ages may complicate screen-and-treat programs, which are implemented in regions where HPV prevalence declines with age and typically target women between 30-49 years. A better understanding of the determinants of high HR-HPV prevalence at older ages is needed. The goal of this study is to explore risk factors for HR-HPV prevalence by age among women in our population-based study in Irun, a rural town in southwestern Nigeria. Methods 1,420 women were administered a clinic-based questionnaire regarding sexual and reproductive behavior, marital status (including co-wives, and malaria exposure. Logistic regression compared questionnaire responses and PCR positivity for a set of 13 carcinogenic HR-HPV types. Results were stratified by age (15-29, 30-45, 46-55, and 56+ years. Results Birth control use and age at first pregnancy were associated with HR-HPV (p-value = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively. Early age at sexual debut and multiple sex partners were risks for HR-HPV, but did not reach significance (p-value = 0.1 and 0.07, respectively. Neither self-reported malaria nor presence of co-wives in the household was associated with HR-HPV (p-value = 0.85 and 0.24, respectively. In age sub-categories, early age at sexual debut was a significant risk factor for HR-HPV among women 35-45 years (p-value = 0.02. Early age at first pregnancy remained a significant risk factor for women aged 56+ years (p-value = 0.04. Greater than 2 sex partners and use of birth control were associated (though not significantly with HR-HPV in women aged 30-45 (p-value = 0.08, respectively. Conclusions In this
International audience; BACKGROUND: University students face multiple stressors such as academic overload, constant pressure to succeed, competition with peers as well as concerns about the future. Stress should not be considered on its own, but should be associated with potential risk behaviors leading to onset of substance use and related problems heightened during the university period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of main substance use and behavioral addictions am...
Tadesse, Yoseph; Derso, Terefe; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Wassie, Molla Mesele
Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, most nutrition efforts have concentrated on under-nutrition in children. However, national surveys rarely report the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Likewise, in Ethiopia there is growing recognition of the emergence of a “double-burden” of malnutrition, with under and over nutrition occurring simultaneously among children, especially allied with improvements in socio-economic conditions. Hence, the study aimed to assess the prevalen...
Sivakumar C. P
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Childhood obesity is emerging as a serious public health problem among low and middle-income countries. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood. They are more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. So early intervention is very important. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in an urban area of Kottayam district in Kerala. The schools were stratified as Government, Aided and Unaided Schools. Cluster sampling technique was adopted and data was collected after informed consent using pre-tested semistructured questionnaire and analysed in SPSS vs 16. RESULTS The prevalence of obesity as per the present study was 5.1% and the prevalence of overweight was 10.8%. The Demographic and Social factors associated with Childhood obesity were Age, Birth order, Socioeconomic status and Family history of diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSION This study concludes that the prevalence of obesity and overweight are increasing in urban area. Lifestyle transition and economic improvement have contributed to the problem of adolescent obesity.
Prevalência e fatores associados a sintomas depressivos em adultos do sul do Brasil: estudo transversal de base populacional Prevalence of depressive symptons and associated factors among southern Brazilian adults: cross-sectional population-based study
Airton José Rombaldi
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar a prevalência de sintomas depressivos e examinar fatores associados em uma população adulta do sul do Brasil, foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional, incluindo 972 indivíduos, de ambos os sexos, idade entre 20 e 69 anos, moradores na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. A seleção amostral teve os setores censitários do município como unidades amostrais primárias e os domicílios como unidades secundárias. O questionário incluiu variáveis socioeconômicas, comportamentais e nutricionais. As prevalências dos sintomas depressivos tristeza, ansiedade, falta de energia, falta de disposição, pensar no passado e preferir ficar em casa, na população de Pelotas, foram, respectivamente, de 29,4%, 57,6%, 37,4%, 40,4%, 33,8% e 54,3%. Concluiu-se que as prevalências de sintomas depressivos foram elevadas e os indivíduos do sexo feminino, idade avançada, fumantes e obesos mostraram-se associadas à maioria dos desfechos. A depressão é um importante problema de saúde publica e o conhecimento de como a sintomatologia depressiva se distribui na população e os fatores associados à sua presença podem ajudar no melhor entendimento da fenomenologia dos transtornos depressivos e a traçar estratégias de prevenção e intervenção.To identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms and examine associated factors in a Southern Brazilian adult population, a cross-sectional population-based study was carried out, including 972 subjects, men and women, aged 20 to 69 years, living in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. The sampling strategy relied on the census tracts of the city as primary sampling units and households as the secondary units. The questionnaire included socio-demographic, behavioral and nutritional variables. The prevalence of sadness, anxiety, loss of energy, lack of will to do things, thinking about the past, and wishing to stay at home were 29.4%, 57
Full Text Available Background: It is axiomatic that Pediatric dental anomalies and enamel hypoplasia (E.H are routinely encountered in primary dentition and early detection and prudent management of the condition facilitates normal occlusal development. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of various dental anomalies and enamel hypoplasia in preschool children between two to six years of age. Materials & Method: A total of 1898 children, between two to six years were randomly selected and screened for dental anomalies and enamel hypoplasia The chi square test was used to analyze the data statistically. Results: The overall prevalence rate of dental anomalies and enamel hypoplasia in this study was 0.63% and 8.95% respectively. Double teeth were the most frequently reported dental anomaly while supernumerary teeth were least reported. None of them reported with hypodontia.
Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Minnella, Salvatore; Negrini, Stefano
To compare the prevalence of spinal deformities and low back pain (LBP) in adolescent competitive swimmers and normal controls. This was a cross-sectional study with convenience sample of 112 adolescent competitive swimmers (62 females) compared with 217 students (106 females) of the same age (12.5 years). We designed a questionnaire to collect data on LBP and measured the angle of trunk rotation with a Bunnell scoliometer to screen for scoliosis, along with the plumbline distances for kyphosis and lordosis. Clinical cutoffs defined in the literature for detection of spinal deformities were applied. Analyses were performed using the t test and χ(2) test, and ORs and 95% CIs were calculated. Swimming was found to increase the risk of trunk asymmetries (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.08-3.20). Swimming also increased the risk of hyperkyphosis (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.35-3.77) and hyperlordosis (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.06-4.73), and increased LBP in females by 2.1-fold (95% CI, 1.08-4.06). Swimming is associated with an increased risk of trunk asymmetries and hyperkyphosis. Although swimming has been considered a complete sport and a treatment option for scoliosis, our data contradict that approach, and also show a higher prevalence of LBP in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fortes, Isabela S; Paula, Cristiane S; Oliveira, Melaine C; Bordin, Isabel A; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Rohde, Luis A
Little is known about specific learning disorder (SLD) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and even less from representative school samples in small size cities outside huge urban centers. Few studies addressed the new DSM-5 criteria for SLDs. We investigated the prevalence of DSM-5 SLDs, their comorbidities and correlates in school samples of students from the second to sixth grades living in median cities from four different geographic regions in Brazil. A national test for academic performance covering reading, writing and mathematical abilities was applied. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the K-SADS-PL applied to the primary caregiver. A total of 1618 children and adolescents were included in the study. The following prevalence rates of SLDs were found: 7.6% for global impairment, 5.4% for writing, 6.0% for arithmetic, and 7.5% for reading impairment. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was the only comorbidity significantly associated with SLD with global impairment (p = 0.031). Anxiety disorders and ADHD were associated with SLD with arithmetic impairment. Significant differences were detected in prevalence rates among cities, and several socio-demographic correlates (age, gender, IQ, and socioeconomic status) were significantly associated with SLD with global impairment in our sample. Careful validation and normatization of instruments to assess academic performance is a major problem in LMICs. As expected, we found a significant heterogeneity in prevalence rates of SLD according to geographic regions considering that Brazil is a country with a robust diversity. SLD with global and arithmetic impairment was significantly associated with psychiatric comorbidities.
Rajiv Kumar Gupta; Bhavna Langer; Sunil Kumar Raina; Rashmi Kumari; Reyaz Jan; Renu Rani
Introduction: Iodine deficiency disorder remains one of the major public health problems, despite it being easily preventable. Initially thought as the disorder of Himalayan goiter belt, the disorder has been found to have a pan-India presence. The study was planned with the aim to assess the prevalence of goiter among 6?12 years school-going children and to identify levels of iodine in salt consumed at the household level in the study area. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted amon...
Full Text Available We aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with positive anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV antibodies among patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD in three centers in Aden, Yemen. The data from 219 patients and their records over the period between 2000-2013, was extracted and analyzed. The mean ± SD age of the patients was 47.08 ± 13.9 years; 74.4% of them were married and 14.6% were employed. The prevalence of validated anti-HCV-positive cases was 40.2% (95%CI 33.64%-46.73%. The mean ± SD duration on HD of all the patients was 35.09 ± 38 months. On bivariate analysis, the duration on HD and attending more than one center for HD associated significantly with anti-HCV positivity (P <0.05. On multivariate fully adjusted Poisson regression modelling, controlled for age, Patients attending more than one center and those who underwent HD for longer durations were more likely to be positive for anti- HCV antibodies [P = 0.004, adjusted prevalence rate ratio (APRR = 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.22-2.88; P = 0.0005, APRR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02. In this study sample, the prevalence of HCV was significant. Patients attending more than one center and those who underwent HD for longer durations were found to be more likely to contract HCV. Enhancing existing infection control measures and allocating more resources to HD centers therefore warrants consideration.
Ruitenburg Martijn M
Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the prevalence of common mental disorders among Dutch hospital physicians and investigated whether the presence of a mental disorder was associated with insufficient self-reported work ability. Methods A questionnaire was sent to all (n = 958 hospital physicians of one academic medical center, using validated scales to assess burnout, work-related fatigue, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety and depression. Furthermore, respondents were asked to rate their current work ability against the work ability in their own best period (adapted version of the first WAI item. The prevalence of each common mental disorder was calculated. In addition, odds ratios of reporting insufficient work ability for subjects with high complaint scores compared to physicians with low complaint scores were calculated for each mental disorder. Results The response rate was 51%, and 423 questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The mental disorder prevalence rates were as follows: work-related fatigue 42%, depression 29%, anxiety 24%, posttraumatic stress complaints 15%, stress complaints 15% and burnout 6%. The mean score for self-reported work ability was 8.1 (range 0–10, and 4% of respondents rated their own work ability as insufficient. Physicians with high mental health complaints were 3.5- for fatigue, 5.6- for PTSD, 7.1- for anxiety, 9.5- for burnout, 10.8- for depression and 13.6-fold for stress more likely to report their work ability as insufficient. Conclusions The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians varied from 6% for burnout to 42% for work-related fatigue. Those physicians with high complaints had significantly 4- to 14 times increased odds of reporting their own work ability as insufficient. This work suggests that to ensure future workers health and patients safety occupational health services should plan appropriate intervention strategies.
Gillman Claire E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lesions on sows' limbs and bodies are an abnormality that might impact on their welfare. The prevalence of and risks for limb and body lesions on lactating sows on commercial English pig farms were investigated using direct observation of the sows and their housing. Results The prevalence of lesions on the limbs and body were 93% (260/279 and 20% (57/288 respectively. The prevalence of limb and body lesions was significantly lower in outdoor-housed sows compared with indoor-housed sows. Indoor-housed sows had an increased risk of wounds (OR 6.8, calluses (OR 8.8 and capped hock (OR 3.8 on their limbs when housed on fully slatted floors compared with solid concrete floors. In addition, there was an increased risk of bursitis (OR 2.7, capped hock (OR 2.3 and shoulder lesions (OR 4.8 in sows that were unwilling to rise to their feet. There was a decreased risk of shoulder lesions (OR 0.3 and lesions elsewhere on the body (OR 0.2 in sows with more than 20 cm between their tail and the back of the crate compared with sows with less than 10 cm. Conclusion The sample of outdoor housed sows in this study had the lowest prevalence of limb and body lesions. In lactating sows housed indoors there was a general trend for an increased risk of limb and body lesions in sows housed on slatted floors compared with those housed on solid concrete floors with bedding. Sows that were less responsive to human presence and sows that had the least space to move within their crates had an additional increased risk of lesions.
Hu, Meiqin; Wan, Yi; Yu, Lifen; Yuan, Jing; Ma, Yonghong; Hou, Bin; Jiang, Xun; Shang, Lei
To investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, and the associated risk factors among adults in Xi'an, China.From October to December 2013, participants in Xi'an, China were recruited for the study by using a multiple-stage sampling method. A self-developed questionnaire with an additional health examination was used to collect data on the history of hypertension diagnosis and antihypertensive medication. The status on prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were analyzed and related risk factors were identified by using logistic regression analysis.A total of 8193 participants were included with an overall prevalence of hypertension of 20.4%. Among the hypertensive participants, 63.7% were aware of their conditions, 47.3% took antihypertensive medication, and 17.8% had their blood pressure (BP) controlled within 140/90 mm Hg. More complications and less frequent BP measurements were associated with hypertension. Older participants, non-drinkers, and those with more complications and more frequent BP measurements were more aware of their hypertension. Being older, living in an urban area, and having more frequent BP measurements were all factors for better treatment. Participants who were women, living in an urban area, with a higher educational level and who were not obese were more likely to have their hypertension controlled.The prevalence of hypertension among adults in Xi'an is high with suboptimal low awareness, treatment, and control rates. Further comprehensive integrated strategies based on these risk factors should be taken into account in order to improve the prevention, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Self-medication can be defined as obtaining and consuming drugs without the advice of a physician. There is a lot of public and professional concern about the irrational use of drugs in Self Medication. Even if self-medication helps in reducing the burden on the health care system to a certain extent, it can lead to severe problems like antimicrobial resistance and addictions. This study will provide useful insight on the reasons for which patients resort to this practice and might help the policy makers and regulatory authorities to streamline the process of drug regulations and safety issues of over-the-counter drugs. This study also focuses on the attitude of people, who follow the practice of self-medication. Self-medication in modern pharmaceuticals seems to be a field in which information is scarce and to the best of our knowledge there is limited research conducted to reveal the extent of this problem in our community. OBJECTIVE To find out the prevalence of self-medication among housewives and to study the associated factors in rural areas of Ernakulum district. METHODOLOGY The rural areas selected for the study was the field areas of MOSC Medical College, Kolencherry; 163 subjects were studied (With P=71% from a study conducted on self-medication practices in coastal regions of South India. 1 . Cluster sampling was used to select subjects and data was collected using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire from those who signed the informed written consent. Data was entered using EPI INFO software and analysis was done using appropriate statistical tools. (Prevalence, probabilities, confidence limits were calculated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of self-medication among housewives was 57.67% and included analgesics (81.9%, antacids (31.91% and antibiotics were only used by 4.26%.
Murshid, Sakhr A.; Al-Labani, Mohammed A.; Aldhorae, Khalid A.; Rodis, Omar M. M.
Objectives: The premature loss of primary teeth is a potential risk factor for poor arch length development. Adequate arch length is important to the progression of the permanent teeth. Poor arch length can lead to crowding, ectopic eruption, or impaction of these teeth. This study is designed to assess the prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth in the 5-10-year-old age group. Materials and Methods: The study group included 185 children, that is, 91 boys and 94 girls. The dental examin...
Stich Heribert L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Even minor abnormalities of early child development may have dramatic long term consequences. Accurate prevalence rates for a range of developmental impairments have been difficult to establish. Since related studies have used different methodological approaches, direct comparisons of the prevalence of developmental delays are difficult. The understanding of the key factors affecting child development, especially in preschool aged children remains limited. We used data from school entry examinations in Bavaria to measure the prevalence of developmental impairments in pre-school children beginning primary school in 1997–2009. Methods The developmental impairments of all school beginners in the district of Dingolfing- Landau, Bavaria were assessed using modified “Bavarian School Entry Model” examination from 1997 to 2009 (N=13,182. The children were assessed for motor, cognitive, language and psychosocial impairments using a standardised medical protocol. Prevalence rates of impairments in twelve domains of development were estimated. Using uni- and multivariable logistic regression models, association between selected factors and development delays were assessed. Results The highest prevalence existed for impairments of pronunciation (13.8% followed by fine motor impairments (12.2%, and impairments of memory and concentration (11.3% and the lowest for impairments of rhythm of speech (3.1%. Younger children displayed more developmental delays. Male gender was strongly associated with all developmental impairments (highest risk for fine motor impairments = OR 3.22, 95% confidence interval 2.86-3.63. Preschool children with siblings (vs. children without any siblings were at higher risk of having impairments in pronunciation (OR 1.31, 1.14-1.50. The influence of the non-German nationality was strong, with a maximum risk increase for the subareas of grammar and psychosocial development. Although children with non
Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla
Stroke is a major chronic disease and a common cause of adult disability and mortality. Although there are many known risk factors for stroke, lower income is not one that is often discussed. To determine the unadjusted and adjusted association of income distribution on the prevalence of stroke in Saskatchewan, Canada. Information was collected from the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada for 2000-2008. In total, 178 variables were analysed for their association with stroke. Prior to statistical adjustment, stroke was seven times more common for lower income residents than higher income residents. After statistical adjustment, only four covariates were independently associated with stroke prevalence, including having high blood pressure (odds ratio (OR) = 2.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.12-3.24), having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.88-3.29), being a daily smoker (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.16-1.58) and being physically inactive (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.13-1.43). After statistical adjustment, there were five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure prevalence, including having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.41-1.63). After statistical adjustment, there were five covariates independently associated with daily smoking prevalence, including having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.25-1.33). Knowledge of disparities in the prevalence, severity, disability and mortality of stroke is critically important to medical and public health professionals. Our study found that income distribution was strongly associated with stroke, its main disease intermediary - high blood pressure - and its main risk factor - smoking. As such, income is an important variable worthy of public debate as a modifiable risk factor for stroke.
Stich, Heribert L; Baune, Bernhard Th; Caniato, Riccardo N; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Krämer, Alexander
Even minor abnormalities of early child development may have dramatic long term consequences. Accurate prevalence rates for a range of developmental impairments have been difficult to establish. Since related studies have used different methodological approaches, direct comparisons of the prevalence of developmental delays are difficult. The understanding of the key factors affecting child development, especially in preschool aged children remains limited. We used data from school entry examinations in Bavaria to measure the prevalence of developmental impairments in pre-school children beginning primary school in 1997-2009. The developmental impairments of all school beginners in the district of Dingolfing-Landau, Bavaria were assessed using modified "Bavarian School Entry Model" examination from 1997 to 2009 (N=13,182). The children were assessed for motor, cognitive, language and psychosocial impairments using a standardised medical protocol. Prevalence rates of impairments in twelve domains of development were estimated. Using uni- and multivariable logistic regression models, association between selected factors and development delays were assessed. The highest prevalence existed for impairments of pronunciation (13.8%) followed by fine motor impairments (12.2%), and impairments of memory and concentration (11.3%) and the lowest for impairments of rhythm of speech (3.1%). Younger children displayed more developmental delays. Male gender was strongly associated with all developmental impairments (highest risk for fine motor impairments = OR 3.22, 95% confidence interval 2.86-3.63). Preschool children with siblings (vs. children without any siblings) were at higher risk of having impairments in pronunciation (OR 1.31, 1.14-1.50). The influence of the non-German nationality was strong, with a maximum risk increase for the subareas of grammar and psychosocial development. Although children with non-German nationality had a reduced risk of disorders for the rhythm
Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose of studying hepatitis B virus (HBV at St. Paul Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 24 January 2007 to 15 February 2007. Among these sera, the first 330 consecutive sera, 165 from each HIV sero-group, were selected and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was assessed against socio-demographic characteristics, HIV and HBV serostatus and HBV-related risk factors. The overall sero-prevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study subjects was 90.0%. Toxoplasma infection was observed with respective prevalence of 93.3% and 86.7% among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people. Though Toxoplasma infection seems to be influenced by age, gender and HIV serostatus, only HBV serostatus was significantly associated (OR 2.71, CI 1.12 to 6.57 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection is high and similar by HIV status. Educating people to prevent acquisition of new Toxoplasma infection and minimizing the risk of disease manifestations among HIV-Toxoplasma co-infected individuals is important.
Bang, Ulrich Christian; Semb, Synne; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge
admitted to our department of gastroenterology. The concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D2+D3) was defined as insufficient when less than 50 nmol/L, deficient when less than 25 nmol/L, and severely deficient when less than 12.5 nmol/L. We included 146 patients with a mean age of 55 years (range, 16......Patients with gastrointestinal disease may be in particular risk of hypovitaminosis D because of reduced intestinal uptake or metabolism in the liver. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in several groups of patients with various gastroenterologic...
Abrha, Tesfalem; Girma, Yonas; Haile, Kebede; Hailu, Mezgebe; Hailemariam, Mengistu
Background Vitamin A Deficiency is a common form of micronutrient deficiency, globally affecting 33.3 % of preschool-age children. An estimated of 44.4 % of preschool children in Africa were at risk for vitamin A deficiency. In Ethiopia, vitamin A deficiency leads to 80,000 deaths a year and affects 61 % of preschool children. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors with the night blindness, Bitot’s spot and vitamin A intake among preschool children in r...
Goh, Mi-Seon; Hong, Eun-Jin; Chang, Moontaek
Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and risk indicators of peri-implantitis in Korean patients with history of periodontal disease. Methods A total of 444 patients with 1,485 implants were selected from patients who had been treated at the Department of Periodontology, Chonbuk National University Dental Hospital between July 2014 and June 2015. A group with a history of peri-implantitis (HP) (370 patients with 1,189 implants) and a group with a current peri-implantitis...
Tahiraj, Enver; Cubela, Mladen; Ostojic, Ljerka; Rodek, Jelena; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Lesnik, Blaz
Adolescence is considered to be the most important period for the prevention of substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of SUM and to establish potentially important factors associated with SUM in Kosovar adolescents. Multi-stage simple random sampling was used to select participants. At the end of their high school education, 980 adolescents (623 females) ages 17 to 19 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption (measured by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-AUDIT), and illegal drug use (dependent variables), as well as socio-demographic, scholastic, familial, and sports-related factors (independent variables), were assessed. Boys smoke cigarettes more often than girls with daily-smoking prevalence of 16% among boys and 9% among girls (OR = 1.85, 95% = CI 1.25-2.75). The prevalence of harmful drinking (i.e., AUDIT scores of >10) is found to be alarming (41% and 37% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.87-1.48), while 17% of boys and 9% of girls used illegal drugs (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35-2.95). The behavioral grade (observed as: excellent-average-poor) is the factor that was most significantly correlated with SUM both in boys and girls, with lower behavioral grades among those adolescents who consume substances. In girls, lower maternal education levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of SUM, whereas sports achievement was negatively associated with risky drinking. In boys, sports achievement decreased the likelihood of daily smoking. Information on the factors associated with SUM should be disseminated among sports and school authorities.
Solomon, Marc M; Nureña, César R; Tanur, Judith M; Montoya, Orlando; Grant, Robert M; McConnell, J Jeff
Introduction Few studies have characterised the degree of engagement in transactional sex among men and trans-gender women who have sex with men and explored its association with sexually transmitted infections and human immunodeficiency virus in Ecuador. Method We screened 642 men who have sex with men and transgender women for a pre-exposure prophylaxis clinical trial (iPrEx) in Guayaquil, Ecuador, 2007–2009. We analysed the association of degree of engagement in transactional sex and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus using chi-square and analysis of variance tests. Results Although just 6.2% of those who screened self-identified as sex workers, 52.1% reported having engaged in transactional sex. Compared to those who had never been paid for sex, those who had been paid were more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection (56.6% vs. 45.0%, p =0.007) and trended towards a higher human immunodeficiency virus prevalence (16.6% vs. 10.4%, p =0.082) at screening. Transgender women compared to other men who have sex with men were more likely to have sexually transmitted infections diagnosed at screening (75.6% vs. 50.0%, p =0.001). Discussion Transactional sex is practiced widely but occasionally among the men who have sex with men and trans-gender women in Guayaquil who screened for the iPrEx study; however, engaging in transactional sex may not lead to a sex worker self-identification. Both transactional sex and being a transgender woman are associated with sexually transmitted infections prevalence. PMID:25520017
Full Text Available Adolescence is considered to be the most important period for the prevention of substance use and misuse (SUM. The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of SUM and to establish potentially important factors associated with SUM in Kosovar adolescents. Multi-stage simple random sampling was used to select participants. At the end of their high school education, 980 adolescents (623 females ages 17 to 19 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption (measured by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test–AUDIT, and illegal drug use (dependent variables, as well as socio-demographic, scholastic, familial, and sports-related factors (independent variables, were assessed. Boys smoke cigarettes more often than girls with daily-smoking prevalence of 16% among boys and 9% among girls (OR = 1.85, 95% = CI 1.25–2.75. The prevalence of harmful drinking (i.e., AUDIT scores of >10 is found to be alarming (41% and 37% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.87–1.48, while 17% of boys and 9% of girls used illegal drugs (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35–2.95. The behavioral grade (observed as: excellent–average-poor is the factor that was most significantly correlated with SUM both in boys and girls, with lower behavioral grades among those adolescents who consume substances. In girls, lower maternal education levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of SUM, whereas sports achievement was negatively associated with risky drinking. In boys, sports achievement decreased the likelihood of daily smoking. Information on the factors associated with SUM should be disseminated among sports and school authorities.
Xue, Yong; Lee, Eva; Ning, Ke; Zheng, Yingdong; Ma, Defu; Gao, Hongchong; Yang, Baoru; Bai, Ying; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei
Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eating behaviour regarding dietary variety and nutrient intake of children. However, the association between picky eating and growth of children is still a topic of debate. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and to identify possible associations with the growth of school-age children in China. In this survey, 793 healthy children aged 7-12 years were recruited from nine cities and rural areas in China using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data collected included socio-demographic information and parents' perceptions of picky eating using a structured questionnaire, nutrient intake using 24-hour dietary recall, weight and height using body measurements, and intelligence using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Blood samples were collected and analysed for minerals. The prevalence of picky eating reported by parents was 59.3% in children. Compared with non-picky eaters, picky eaters had a lower dietary intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, most vitamins and minerals, and lower levels of magnesium, iron, and copper in the blood (p intelligence test (95% CI: 0.809, 4.643; p = 0.006) when adjusted for children's birth weight and food allergy, mothers' education, and family income. Picky eating behaviour towards meat, eggs and vegetables showed negative associations with growth. Picky eating behaviour is prevalent in school-age children in China and may have a negative effect on growth. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Rooney, A L; Limon, G; Vides, H; Cortez, A; Guitian, J
Llamas (Lama glama) are intermediate hosts of the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis spp. This parasite is described as causing economic losses in the production of llama meat in South America. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence, identify risk factors and explore spatial patterns of Sarcocystis in llamas in an area of the Bolivian High Plateau including estimating financial losses due to carcass downgrades as a result of the presence of Sarcocystis cysts. Information was collected from a local abattoir between 2006 and 2011 on 1196 llamas. Sarcocystis status was determined at meat inspection where any carcasses with one or more visible cysts were deemed Sarcocystis positive. A high prevalence was found, estimated to vary between 23.4% (95% CI 16.6-30.1) in 2007 and 50.3% (95% CI 44.4-56.3) in 2011. Period prevalence between 2006 and 2011 was estimated at 34.1% (95% CI 31.4-36.8). Age, sex and type (analogous to breed) were identified as risk factors for Sarcocystis using a mixed-effects logistic regression model adjusting for clustering by community and owner. Llamas over 4.5 years of age had an increased odds of being Sarcocystis positive (OR 19.31, 95% CI 9.10-40.98) as well as females (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.13-2.68) and long haired type llamas (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.26-2.87). An interaction between age and sex was detected indicating that the increased odds of disease from the youngest age group to the 2.5-4.5 years group was much more pronounced in females than in males. Spatial patterns of Sarcocystis were explored at district level by means of Standardised Morbidity Ratios and some spatial heterogeneity was revealed. Estimates of financial loss due to the disease were calculated using the difference in price paid for Sarcocystis positive and negative meat. Loss due to Sarcocystis varied per year but could be up to 20% of the annual income generated through the abattoir by sale of meat. Overall this study shows a high prevalence of Sarcocystis in the study
Full Text Available Abstract Background Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has been used to name a range of chronic conditions characterized by extreme fatigue and other disabling symptoms. Attempts to estimate the burden of disease have been limited by selection bias, and by lack of diagnostic biomarkers and of agreed reproducible case definitions. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of ME/CFS in three regions in England, and discussed the implications of frequency statistics and the use of different case definitions for health and social care planning and for research. Methods We compared the clinical presentation, prevalence and incidence of ME/CFS based on a sample of 143,000 individuals aged 18 to 64 years, covered by primary care services in three regions of England. Case ascertainment involved: 1 electronic search for chronic fatigue cases; 2 direct questioning of general practitioners (GPs on cases not previously identified by the search; and 3 clinical review of identified cases according to CDC-1994, Canadian and Epidemiological Case (ECD Definitions. This enabled the identification of cases with high validity. Results The estimated minimum prevalence rate of ME/CFS was 0.2% for cases meeting any of the study case definitions, 0.19% for the CDC-1994 definition, 0.11% for the Canadian definition and 0.03% for the ECD. The overall estimated minimal yearly incidence was 0.015%. The highest rates were found in London and the lowest in East Yorkshire. All but one of the cases conforming to the Canadian criteria also met the CDC-1994 criteria, however presented higher prevalence and severity of symptoms. Conclusions ME/CFS is not uncommon in England and represents a significant burden to patients and society. The number of people with chronic fatigue who do not meet specific criteria for ME/CFS is higher still. Both groups have high levels of need for service provision, including health and social
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that air pollution from traffic has adverse long-term effects on chronic respiratory disease in children, but there are few studies and more inconclusive results in adults. We examined associations between residential traffic and asthma and COPD in adults in southern Sweden. A postal questionnaire in 2000 (n = 9319, 18–77 years provided disease status, and self-reported exposure to traffic. A Geographical Information System (GIS was used to link geocoded residential addresses to a Swedish road database and an emission database for NOx. Results Living within 100 m of a road with >10 cars/minute (compared with having no heavy road within this distance was associated with prevalence of asthma diagnosis (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.04–1.89, and COPD diagnosis (OR = 1.64, 95%CI = 1.11–2.4, as well as asthma and chronic bronchitis symptoms. Self-reported traffic exposure was associated with asthma diagnosis and COPD diagnosis, and with asthma symptoms. Annual average NOx was associated with COPD diagnosis and symptoms of asthma and chronic bronchitis. Conclusion Living close to traffic was associated with prevalence of asthma diagnosis, COPD diagnosis, and symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. This indicates that traffic-related air pollution has both long-term and short-term effects on chronic respiratory disease in adults, even in a region with overall low levels of air pollution.
Murshid, Sakhr A.; Al-Labani, Mohammed A.; Aldhorae, Khalid A.; Rodis, Omar M. M.
Objectives: The premature loss of primary teeth is a potential risk factor for poor arch length development. Adequate arch length is important to the progression of the permanent teeth. Poor arch length can lead to crowding, ectopic eruption, or impaction of these teeth. This study is designed to assess the prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth in the 5-10-year-old age group. Materials and Methods: The study group included 185 children, that is, 91 boys and 94 girls. The dental examination was conducted by an experienced examiner under sufficient artificial light. Data including patient age and missing teeth were collected. Descriptive statistics were applied for data analysis, and from the results, Chi-square tests were used at a level of significance of 5% (P space problems associated with the early loss of primary teeth would help in reducing malocclusion problems. PMID:27652244
Kidest Getu Melese
Full Text Available Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all. Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general.
Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun
Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.
Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby; Brauer, Charlotte; Breinegaard, Nina;
Objective:This study investigated whether Danish construction workers had an increased prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or affected lung function and if the prevalence differed between types of jobs within construction. Methods:A cross-sectional study of 899 Danish male ...
Ngom, Papa Ibrahima; Diagne, Falou; Samba Diouf, Joseph; Ndiaye, Allé; Hennequin, Martine
Sucking behaviours have been described in the literature under two facets i.e. nutritive and non nutritive. Nutritive sucking refers to breast feeding, bottle feeding or a combination of both. Non nutritive sucking habits are mentioned when children suck their thumb or another finger(s), a pacifier or any other object. Non nutritive sucking habits (NNSH) are suspected to potentially induce dentoalveolar anomalies and thus may constitute a public dental health problem. Anthropological and historical data suggest that non nutritive sucking habits are associated with modern pattern of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with NNSH in Senegalese children 5/6 years old. Data of this study were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by the investigators to mothers or caregivers of 443 children (231 boys and 212 girls) aged 5/6 years. Three types of data were collected: data on the social background of the children including place of residence (urban, suburban and rural) and the mother's occupation (workers, employee, executive, housewife), data regarding former and present sucking habits and information on the feeding pattern of the children when they were infants (breast feeding, bottle feeding or a combination of both). The results indicated a prevalence rate of 16.50% and 17.20% respectively for digit and pacifier sucking in this population. Also, a significant association was found between children's non nutritive sucking habits in one hand and the mothers' occupation and feeding pattern on the other hand. Breast fed children are less prone to develop a non nutritive sucking habit than bottle fed children. Longitudinal studies are necessary to verify the nature of these associations. The identification of factors associated with non nutritive sucking habits would permit to develop and target recommendations for the prevention of such habits.
Mata, Fernando; Johnson, Claire; Bishop, Charlotte
Bit and bridle accessories improperly fitted in ridden horses can cause oral trauma such as bone spurs, commissure ulceration, and tongue lacerations. This study was used to identify, grade, and compare the types of oral traumas commonly found within polo ponies and race horses. Injuries were assessed visually and by palpation on the tongue, lips' commissures, and interdental space. A total of 50 polo ponies and 50 race horses were sampled in the South of England. A Poisson model was successfully fitted to the data (p horses with snaffle bits were predisposed to significantly higher severities and prevalence of oral trauma than were polo ponies in gag bits. Only polo ponies were observed with tongue trauma. Race horses had higher severities of injuries in the commissures and bone spurs. Positive correlations were found between age and/or time in sport and induced biting injuries. Polo ponies had been playing longer before the occurrence of injuries.
Bao, Yijun; Li, Lizhuo; Guan, Yanlei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yan; Wang, Pengfei; Huang, Xiaolong; Tao, Shanwei; Wang, Yunjie
Anxiety and depression have been identified as common psychological distresses faced by the majority of patients with cancer. However, no studies have investigated the relationship between positive psychological variables (hope, optimism and general self-efficacy) and anxiety and depression among patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in China. Our hypothesis is that the patients with higher levels of hope, optimism or general self-efficacy have lower levels of anxiety and depression when encountered by stressful life events such as CNS tumors. Questionnaires, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Herth Hope Index, the Life Orientation Scale-Revised and the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and demographic and clinical records were used to collect information about patients with CNS tumors in Liaoning Province, China. The study included 222 patients (effective response rate: 66.1%). Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations among hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and anxiety/depression. Prevalence of anxiety and depression were 42.8 and 32.4%, respectively, among patients with CNS tumors. Hope and optimism both were negatively associated with anxiety and together accounted for 21.4% of variance in anxiety. Similarly, hope and optimism both were negatively associated with depression and accounted for 32.4% of variance in depression. The high prevalence of anxiety and depression among patients with CNS tumors should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings. To help reduce anxiety and depression, health care professionals should develop interventions to promote hope and optimism based on patients' specific needs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Peters, Claudia; Dulon, Madeleine; Kleinmüller, Olaf; Nienhaus, Albert; Schablon, Anja
Introduction The increase of multidrug-resistant organisms in hospitals causes problems in nursing homes. Staff in geriatric nursing homes are at greater risk of MRSA colonisation. The aim of the study was to describe the occupational exposure to MRSA among health personnel in geriatric nursing. Methods A point prevalence survey was conducted among health personnel and residents of geriatric nursing homes within the greater Hamburg district. Nasal swabs and, where relevant, wound swabs were collected for the screening survey. Risk factors for MRSA colonisation were identified by means of a questionnaire and using the files held on the residents. Where tests on nursing staff were positive, a control swab was taken; when the results were confirmed positive, decolonisation was performed. The responsible general practitioners were notified of positive MRSA findings among residents. A molecular biological examination of the MRSA samples was performed. Results A total of 19 institutions participated in the study. Nasal swabs were taken from 759 nursing staff and 422 residents. Prevalence of MRSA was 1.6% among staff and 5.5% among residents. MRSA colonisation among health personnel indicated a correlation with male gender (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.4–14.1). Among the residents, chronic skin diseases (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.0–10.3) and indwelling devices (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2–8.1) were identified as risk factors. No link between MRSA in residents and in health personnel could be established. Conclusion The number of MRSA colonisations among nursing staff and residents of geriatric nursing homes in Hamburg was rather low at 1.6% and 5.5% respectively and equates to the results of other surveys in non-outbreak scenarios. PMID:28068356
Heijer, C.D.J. den; Bijnen, E.M.E. van; Paget, W.J.; Pringle, M.; Goossen, H.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Stobberingh, E.E.
Background: Information about the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus resistance to antimicrobial drugs has mainly been obtained from invasive strains, although the commensal microbiota is thought to be an important reservoir of resistance. We aimed to compare the prevalence of nasal S aureus carria
Heijer, C.D. den; Bijnen, E.M. van; Paget, W.J.; Pringle, M.; Goossens, H.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Stobberingh, E.E.
BACKGROUND: Information about the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus resistance to antimicrobial drugs has mainly been obtained from invasive strains, although the commensal microbiota is thought to be an important reservoir of resistance. We aimed to compare the prevalence of nasal S aureus carria
Hoedeman, R.; Krol, B.; Blankenstein, N.; Koopmans, P.C.; Groothoff, J.W.
Background: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) have a high prevalence in the general population and are associated with psychiatric morbidity. There are indications that MUPS are an important determinant of frequent and long-term disability. The primary objective was to assess the preval
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of developing metabolic abnormalities. Method A prospective study focusing on metabolic disturbances in patients with schizophrenia, including an oral glucose tolerance test, is currently ongoing at our University Hospital and affiliate services. The prevalence of metabolic abnormalities at baseline was assessed in a cohort of 415 patients with schizophrenia. The sample was divided into 4 groups according to duration of illness: first-episode patients (20 years. Results Metabolic abnormalities were already present in first-episode patients, and considerably increased with increasing duration of illness. When compared to the general population matched for age and gender, much higher rates of the metabolic syndrome (MetS and diabetes were observed for patients with schizophrenia. For MetS, the increase over time was similar to that of the general population. In contrast, the difference in the prevalence of diabetes in patients with schizophrenia and the general population dramatically and linearly increased from 1.6% in the 15–25 age-band to 19.2% in the 55–65 age-band. Conclusion Thus, the current data suggest that on the one hand metabolic abnormalities are an inherent part of schizophrenic illness, as they are already present in first-episode patients. On the other hand, however, our results suggest a direct effect of the illness and/or antipsychotic medication on their occurence. The data underscore the need for screening for metabolic abnormalities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, already starting from the onset of the illness.
Yuriy Ivanovich Suntsov
Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM among the population of Moscow Region, as well as the actual prevalence of diabetes complications in individuals already diagnosed with DM.Materials and Methods. 2403 inhabitants of Stupinksy and Domodedovsky areas aged 30 to 70 years were selected by means of random sampling for the estimation of T2DM prevalence. Another 600 individuals inhabiting Pushkinsky and Serpukhovsky areas were randomly selected for the estimation of the prevalence of DM complications (including patients with T2DM. Clinical screening was performed by the mobile diagnostic team.Results. HbA1c level was tested in all participants. The cut-off point for the diagnosis of DM was set for HbA1c>6.5% according to the WHO guidelines (2011. 204 individuals (8.49% met this criterion and were selected for further evaluation by OGTT with the following results: 28.04% were positive for glycemic disorders, including T2DM (8.53%, IGT (17.07%, IFG (2.44%. The highest prevalence of T2DM was found in the elder group (60–70 years old. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was estimated at 26.06%, being 2 times higher among T2DM patients than previously calculated for Moscow Region by the Russian State Diabetes Register (13.2%. The microalbuminuria stage of diabetic nephropathy was diagnosed in 46.1% of diabetes patients, being 5 times more prevalent than previously estimated for Moscow Region by the Russian State Diabetes Register (5.84%.Conclusion. The actual prevalence of T2DM in Moscow Region is markedly higher than the registered. The prevalence of diabetes complications is also significantly underestimated. Most patients do not achieve HbA1c targets (<6.5%.
Zaffina, S; Camisa, V; Monducci, Elena; Vinci, Maria Rosaria; Vicari, S; Bergamaschi, A
Several studies have shown a higher risk of psychological problems in health care workers exposed to serious occupational stressors. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and possible risk factors in a sample of 32 workers who were at the same time rescuers and victims of a fire that broke out in the neonatal intensive care unit of a large paediatric hospital. Immediately and six months after the event, the subjects underwent a study protocol aimed at the diagnostic assessment of PTSD, investigated via the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Out of the 30 subjects examined (two were missing), six showed the diagnostic criteria for a current PTSD. Risk factors for PTSD onset were a prior psychiatric disorder, the level of involvement in the fire disaster and the presence of phobias in the days immediately after the event. Gender and level of education approached statistical significance. The high prevalence of PTSD found in this sample was due to the fact that the risk of death or serious injury involved infants.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of disability is more severe among children in low income countries. Moreover, the number of children with disabilities (CWDs in sub-Saharan Africa is predicted to increase with reduction in child mortality. Although the issue on CWDs is important in sub-Saharan Africa, there are few researches on risk factors of disabilities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors of neurological impairment (NI among children in western Kenya. Methods The present study was conducted in Mbita district (which has high HIV infectious prevalence, Kenya from April 2009 to December 2010. The study consisted of two phases. In phase 1, the Ten Question Questionnaire (TQQ was administered to all 6362 caregivers of children aged 6–9 years. In phase two, all 413 children with TQQ positive and a similar number of controls (n=420 which were randomly selected from children with TQQ negative were examined for physical and cognitive status. In addition, a structured questionnaire was also conducted to their caregivers. Results The prevalence was estimated to be 29/1000. Among the types of impairments, cognitive impairment was the most common (24/1000, followed by physical impairment (5/1000. In multivariate analysis, having more than five children [adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.85; 95%IC: 1.25 – 6.49; p=0.013], maternal age older than 35 years old [AOR: 2.31; 95%IC: 1.05 – 5.07; p=0.036] were significant factors associated with NI. In addition, monthly income under 3000 ksh [AOR: 2.79; 95%IC: 1.28 – 6.08; p=0.010] and no maternal tetanus shot during antenatal care [AOR: 5.17; 95%IC: 1.56 – 17.14; p=0.007] were also significantly related with having moderate/severe neurological impairment. Conclusion It was indicated that increasing coverage of antenatal care including maternal tetanus shot and education of how to take care of neonatal children to prevent neurological impairment are important.
Conclusion: Prevalence and symptom characteristics of KDS were found to increase consistently with increasing age and deteriorating health status. Kidney deficiency may be an important mechanism of aging in the subhealthy and chronic disease states.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is complicated by the presence of comorbidities. The objective of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence of comorbidity in COPD using nationally-representative data. Methods This study draws from a multi-year analytic sample of 14,828 subjects aged 45+, including 995 with COPD, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999–2008. COPD was defined by self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis or emphysema; patients who reported a diagnosis of asthma were excluded. Using population weights, we estimated the age-and-gender-stratified prevalence of 22 comorbid conditions that may influence COPD and its treatment. Results Subjects 45+ with physician-diagnosed COPD were more likely than subjects without physician-diagnosed COPD to have coexisting arthritis (54.6% vs. 36.9%, depression (20.6% vs. 12.5%, osteoporosis (16.9% vs. 8.5%, cancer (16.5% vs. 9.9%, coronary heart disease (12.7% vs. 6.1%, congestive heart failure (12.1% vs. 3.9%, and stroke (8.9% vs. 4.6%. Subjects with COPD were also more likely to report mobility difficulty (55.6% vs. 32.5%, use of >4 prescription medications (51.8% vs. 32.1, dizziness/balance problems (41.1% vs. 23.8%, urinary incontinence (34.9% vs. 27.3%, memory problems (18.5% vs. 8.8%, low glomerular filtration rate (16.2% vs. 10.5%, and visual impairment (14.0% vs. 9.6%. All reported comparisons have p Conclusions Our study indicates that COPD management may need to take into account a complex spectrum of comorbidities. This work identifies which conditions are most common in a nationally-representative set of COPD patients (physician-diagnosed, a necessary step for setting research priorities and developing clinical practice guidelines that address COPD within the context of comorbidity.
Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Irshad, Mohammad; Al Zunitan, Mohammed A; Al Sulihem, Ali A; Al Dehaim, Muhammed A; Al Esefir, Waleed A; Al Rabiah, Abdulaziz M; Kameshki, Rashid N;